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Sample records for mono lake resulted

  1. Mono Lake Excursion Reviewed

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    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.

    2007-05-01

    The Mono Lake Excursion as recorded in the Mono Basin, CA, has an older part that is about negative 30 degrees inclination and about 300 degrees declination during low relative field intensity. Those paleomagnetic directions are closely followed by greater than 80 degrees positive inclination and east declination of about 100 degrees during higher relative field intensity. A path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) for the older part followed from old to young forms a large clockwise loop that reaches 35 degrees N latitude and is centered at about 35 degrees E longitude. That loop is followed by a smaller one that is counterclockwise and centered at about 70 degrees N latitude and 270 degrees E longitude (Denham & Cox, 1971; Denham, 1974; Liddicoat & Coe, 1979). The Mono Lake Excursion outside the Mono Basin in western North America is recorded as nearly the full excursion at Summer Lake, OR (Negrini et al., 1984), and as the younger portion of steep positive inclination/east declination in the Lahontan Basin, NV. The overall relative field intensity during the Mono Lake Excursion in the Lahontan Basin mirrors very closely the relative field intensity in the Mono Basin (Liddicoat, 1992, 1996; Coe & Liddicoat, 1994). Using 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dates (Kent et al., 2002) and paleoclimate and relative paleointensity records (Zimmerman et al., 2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion in the Mono Basin, it has been proposed that the Mono Lake Excursion might be older than originally believed and instead be the Laschamp Excursion at about 40,000 yrs B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004). On the contrary, we favor a younger age for the Mono Lake Excursion, about 32,000 yrs B.P., using the relative paleointensity in the Mono Basin and Lahontan Basin and 14C dates from the Lahontan Basin (Benson et al., 2002). The age of about 32,000 yrs B.P. is also in accord with the age (32,000- 34,000 yrs B.P.) reported by Channell (2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion at ODP Site 919 in the Irminger Basin

  2. Dust Generation Resulting from Desiccation of Playa Systems: Studies on Mono and Owens Lakes, California

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    Gill, Thomas Edward

    1995-01-01

    Playas, evaporites, and aeolian sediments frequently are linked components within the Earth system. Anthropogenic water diversions from terminal lakes form playas that release fugitive dust. These actions, documented worldwide, simulate aeolian processes activated during palaeoclimatic pluvial/interpluvial transitions, and have significant environmental impacts. Pluvial lakes Russell and Owens in North America's Great Basin preceded historic Mono and Owens Lakes, now desiccated by water diversions into dust-generating, evaporite -encrusted playas. Geochemical and hydrologic cycles acting on the Owens (Dry) Lake playa form three distinct crust types each year. Although initial dust production results from deflation of surface efflorescences after the playa dries, most aerosols are created by saltation abrasion of salt/silt/clay crusts at crust/ sand sheet contacts. The warm-season, clastic "cemented" crust is slowest to degrade into dust. If the playa surface is stabilized by an unbroken, non-efflorescent crust, dust formation is discouraged. When Mono Lake's surFace elevation does not exceed 1951 meters (6400 feet), similar processes will also generate dust from its saline lower playa. Six factors--related to wind, topography, groundwater, and sediments--control dust formation at both playas. These factors were combined into a statistical model relating suspended dust concentrations to playa/lake morphometry. The model shows the extent and severity of Mono Lake dust storms expands significantly below the surface level 6376 feet (1943.5 meters). X-ray diffraction analysis of Mono Basin soils, playa sediments, and aerosols demonstrates geochemical cycling of materials through land, air and water during Mono Lake's 1982 low stand. Soils and clastic playa sediments contain silicate minerals and tephra. Saline groundwater deposited calcite, halite, thenardite, gaylussite, burkeite and glauberite onto the lower playa. Aerosols contained silicate minerals (especially

  3. Was Mono Lake a 14C dump?

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    Maggs, William Ward

    This is a scientific story without an explanation, called a “mystery” and an “enigma” in articles by the people who discovered it. Confounded by evidence they cannot explain by natural processes, these scientists implicate human beings.One month ago in Eos, (June 7, 1988, p. 633), Wallace Broecker and Scott Stine reported abnormally high levels of radiogenic 14C in California's Mono Lake, now a National Historic Site. The only logical explanation, they proposed, is that someone secretly dumped a total of about 20 curies of 14C into the lake in two doses, sometime between 1952 and 1958 and again between 1966 and 1977. Broecker and Stine, geologists at Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory in Palisades, N.Y., called on readers for information on the source of the 14C.

  4. Crustal structure between Lake Mead, Nevada, and Mono Lake, California

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    Johnson, Lane R.

    1964-01-01

    Interpretation of a reversed seismic-refraction profile between Lake Mead, Nevada, and Mono Lake, California, indicates velocities of 6.15 km/sec for the upper layer of the crust, 7.10 km/sec for an intermediate layer, and 7.80 km/sec for the uppermost mantle. Phases interpreted to be reflections from the top of the intermediate layer and the Mohorovicic discontinuity were used with the refraction data to calculate depths. The depth to the Moho increases from about 30 km near Lake Mead to about 40 km near Mono Lake. Variations in arrival times provide evidence for fairly sharp flexures in the Moho. Offsets in the Moho of 4 km at one point and 2 1/2 km at another correspond to large faults at the surface, and it is suggested that fracture zones in the upper crust may displace the Moho and extend into the upper mantle. The phase P appears to be an extension of the reflection from the top of the intermediate layer beyond the critical angle. Bouguer gravity, computed for the seismic model of the crust, is in good agreement with the measured Bouguer gravity. Thus a model of the crustal structure is presented which is consistent with three semi-independent sources of geophysical data: seismic-refraction, seismic-reflection, and gravity.

  5. Age of the Mono Lake excursion and associated tephra

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    Benson, L.; Liddicoat, J.; Smoot, J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Negrini, R.; Lund, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Mono Lake excursion (MLE) is an important time marker that has been found in lake and marine sediments across much of the Northern Hemisphere. Dating of this event at its type locality, the Mono Basin of California, has yielded controversial results with the most recent effort concluding that the MLE may actually be the Laschamp excursion (Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 197 (2002) 151). We show that a volcanic tephra (Ash #15) that occurs near the midpoint of the MLE has a date (not corrected for reservoir effect) of 28,620 ?? 300 14C yr BP (??? 32,400 GISP2 yr BP) in the Pyramid Lake Basin of Nevada. Given the location of Ash #15 and the duration of the MLE in the Mono Basin, the event occurred between 31,500 and 33,300 GISP2 yr BP, an age range consistent with the position and age of the uppermost of two paleointensity minima in the NAPIS-75 stack that has been associated with the MLE (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009). The lower paleointensity minimum in the NAPIS-75 stack is considered to be the Laschamp excursion (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009).

  6. Mafic replenishment of multiple felsic reservoirs at the Mono domes and Mono Lake islands, California

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    Bray, Brandon; Stix, John; Cousens, Brian

    2017-07-01

    The Mono Basin has been the site of frequent volcanic activity over the past 60,000 years, including the emplacement of the Mono domes and Mono Lake islands. The Mono Basin lavas are the youngest and most poorly understood products of the Long Valley Volcanic Field. We have undertaken a study of Mono Basin volcanism encompassing whole-rock major and trace element, Sr, Nd, Pb, and O isotopic, and electron microprobe glass, plagioclase, and amphibole analyses. Variations in major and trace elements suggest that fractional crystallization of feldspar (Sr, K2O), apatite (P2O5), titanomagnetite (V), zircon (Zr), and allanite (La, Ce) has influenced the evolution of the Mono Basin lavas. Field observations, petrography, and chemistry together demonstrate that injection of more mafic magma is a common process throughout the Mono Basin. Mafic enclaves of the Mono domes are stretched and rounded, with chilled margins between enclave and host rhyolite. Thin sections reveal millimeter-scale inclusions of rhyolite in the enclaves and vice versa along the host-enclave border. Paoha Island dacite has glass with 67-72 wt% SiO2 and contains microscopic clots of more mafic glasses, with SiO2 contents as low as 64 wt%. Isotopically, the June Lake and Black Point basalts and the Mono dome enclaves represent the least evolved material in the Long Valley Volcanic Field, with 87Sr/86Sri 0.5126. The silicic Mono Lake lavas and Mono dome rhyolites display a significant crustal component, with 87Sr/86Sri >0.7058 and 143Nd/144Nd 19 and δ18O >+6.5‰. The Mono Lake lavas generally are younger and less evolved than the Mono domes, with enrichment in trace elements including Ba and Sr accompanied by lower 143Nd/144Nd and higher 206Pb/204Pb. This implies that the Mono domes and the Mono Lake lavas are derived from different magma batches, if not from separate magma chambers. There is no systematic relationship between the degree of chemical evolution and the lava ages, indicating that several

  7. Mono Lake Analog Mars Sample Return Expedition for AMASE

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    Conrad, P. G.; Steele, A.; Younse, P.; DiCicco, M.; Morgan, A. R.; Backes, P.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Marquardt, D.; Amundsen, H. E. F.

    2011-01-01

    We explored the performance of one robotic prototype for sample acquisition and caching of martian materials that has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for potential use in the proposed MAX-C Mars Sample Return architecture in an environment, rich in chemical diversity with a variety of mineralogical textures. Mono Lake State Tufa Reserve in Mono County, CA possesses a variety of minerals including a variety of evaporites, volcanic glass and lava, and sand and mudstones. The lake itself is an interesting chemical system: the water is highly alkaline (pH is approximately 10) and contains concentrations of Cl, K, B, with lesser amounts of S Ca Mg, F, As, Li, I and Wand generally enriched HREEs. There are also traces of radioactive elements U, Th, Pl.

  8. Assessing Ecological Impact Assessment: Lessons from Mono Lake, California.

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    Wiens, John A; Patten, Duncan T; Botkin, Daniel B

    1993-11-01

    Because of its high salinity and alkalinity, Mono Lake, in eastern California (USA), is a relatively simple ecosystem. It has become the focus of an environmental controversy over the effects of 50 yr of diversions of water from tributary streams to supply water to Los Angeles. Diversions lowered the lake level, increased the salinity, changed the availability of aquatic habitats, and altered the configuration of the shoreline and of islands that support breeding colonies of gulls. We consider (1) how two independent panels of experts synthesized scientific information on the lake ecosystem to assess the environmental consequences of these changes, and (2) how the findings of these groups influenced policy decisions and how well subsequent changes in the lake matched expectations. Despite differences in composition and approach, the two panels reached generally similar conclusions. These conclusions have been a major component of legal activities and the development of management plans for the lake and basin ecosystem. Both panels concluded that, because of the simplicity of the lake ecosystem, ecological consequences of changes in lake level and salinity associated with continuing diversions were likely to be unusually clear-cut. At certain lake levels these changes would be expected to alter algal and invertebrate populations and the populations of aquatic birds that feed upon them or to disrupt breeding activities in gull colonies. Projections about when critical lake levels might be reached, however, have not been met. This is largely because stream flows into the lake have been altered from recent historic patterns by the cessation of water diversions due to governmental and legal actions (prompted in part by the panels' findings) and by a prolonged drought. These events illustrate the difficulty of projecting a timetable for environmental changes, even in simple and well-studied ecosystems.

  9. First survey of fungi in hypersaline soil and water of Mono Lake area (California).

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    Steiman, Régine; Ford, Larry; Ducros, Véronique; Lafond, Jean-Luc; Guiraud, Pascale

    2004-01-01

    Mono Lake is a closed lake located in central California, east of the Sierra Nevada mountains. It contains dissolved carbonates, sulfates and chlorides at high concentrations. Due to its high salinity, Mono Lake was sometimes compared to the Dead Sea. However, it appears that Mono Lake water and vicinity abound with life. In this work, the fungal flora living in this extreme ecosystem was studied for the first time. Soil, tufa, water and sediment samples were also analyzed for their mineral and salt composition. Results showed that water was particularly rich in sodium, potassium, phosphorus and boron. Soil and sediments contained very high levels of calcium and magnesium, but also barium, boron and strontium. Sodium, phosphorus and iron levels varied in a large extent from one to another sample. Neutral to very alkaline pH were recorded. Water samples were found sterile in the conditions chosen for fungi isolation, while sediment, soil and tufa samples led to the isolation of a total of 67 fungal species (from 23 samples), belonging to various taxonomic groups. From our results no clear effects of the chemical parameters of the samples were observed on fungal life apart from the pH. The methods chosen did not allow the isolation of extremely halotolerant species. We isolated in this work a series of ubiquitous species, suggesting that a selection of resistant and/or adaptable strains of some common species could have occurred. Depending on the medium and the temperature of isolation, it can be hypothesized that some species were present as dormant structures, while some others, isolated at pH 8 on a medium enriched in Na and Ca, could be in a growing form adapted to alkaline and saline conditions. This work contributes to a better knowledge of the mycobiota present in the Mono Lake's ecosystem.

  10. Magnetic and gravity studies of Mono Lake, east-central, California

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    Athens, Noah D.; Ponce, David A.; Jayko, Angela S.; Miller, Matt; McEvoy, Bobby; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Wilkinson, Stuart K.; McClain, James S.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Denton, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    From August 26 to September 5, 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected more than 600 line-kilometers of shipborne magnetic data on Mono Lake, 20 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data on Paoha Island, 50 gravity stations on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples on Paoha and Negit Islands, in east-central California. Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake to study regional crustal structures and to aid in understanding the geologic framework, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Furthermore, shipborne magnetic data illuminate local structures in the upper crust beneath Mono Lake where geologic exposure is absent. Magnetic and gravity methods, which sense contrasting physical properties of the subsurface, are ideal for studying Mono Lake. Exposed rock units surrounding Mono Lake consist mainly of Quaternary alluvium, lacustrine sediment, aeolian deposits, basalt, and Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks (Bailey, 1989). At Black Point, on the northwest shore of Mono Lake, there is a mafic cinder cone that was produced by a subaqueous eruption around 13.3 ka. Within Mono Lake there are several small dacite cinder cones and flows, forming Negit Island and part of Paoha Island, which also host deposits of Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The typical density and magnetic properties of young volcanic rocks contrast with those of the lacustrine sediment, enabling us to map their subsurface extent.

  11. Mono Lake Excursion as a Chronologic Marker in the U.S. Great Basin

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    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.; Knott, J. R.

    2008-05-01

    excursion lower in the core at ~ 40,000 yrs B.P. that he identifies as the LE, and by Lund et al. (2005, 2006) from a study of sediments recovered during the ODP. The paths of VGPs for the North Atlantic Ocean and the younger half of the excursion in the Mono Basin are similar in that they have a counterclockwise loop and are close to each other in the mid-Northern Hemisphere, and are different from the VGP path for the LE that is a large clockwise loop in the Southern Hemisphere (Channell, 2006; Lund et al., 2005, 2006). Our presentation will include the results of paleomagnetic research and new 14C dating at Searles Lake, CA, in the southern Great Basin where a record of paleomagnetic field behavior and paleoclimate are preserved in exposed and cored sediments (Liddicoat, 1976, Liddicoat et al., 1980; Smith et al., 1983) that span the proposed ages of the MLE and LE.

  12. Possible recording of the Mono Lake Excursion in cored sediment from Clear Lake, California

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    Liddicoat, Joseph; Verosub, Kenneth

    2010-05-01

    We report the possible recording of the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) in cored sediment from Clear Lake, CA. The locality (39.0˚N, 237.3˚E) is about 120 km north of San Francisco, CA, and 320 km northwest of the Mono Basin, CA, where the MLE first was discovered in North America (Denham and Cox, 1971). The field behaviour at Clear Lake that might be the MLE is recorded in clay and peaty clay about 50 cm below the top of the lowermost 80-cm core slug of a 21.6-m core. The coring was done by the wire-line method (Sims and Rymer, 1975) and the samples (rectangular solids 21 mm on a side and 15 mm high) were measured in a cryogenic magnetometer after demagnetization in an alternating field to 35 milliTesla (Verosub, 1977). The continuously-spaced samples record negative inclination of nearly 20˚ and northerly declination when unnormalized relative field intensity was reduced by an order of magnitude from the mean value. Those palaeomagnetic directions are followed immediately by positive inclination to about 50˚ and easterly declination of about 60˚ when the field intensity is at a relative high. That pattern of behaviour is recorded at three localities (Wilson Creek, Mill Creek, and Warm Springs) in the Mono Basin at the MLE (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Liddicoat, 1992). A path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) at Clear Lake form a clockwise-trending loop that is centered at 65˚N, 20˚E in the hemisphere away from the locality. The VGP that is farthest from the North Geographic Pole is at 29.3˚N, 337.1˚E, which is close to the path formed by the VGPs in the older portion of the MLE (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Liddicoat, 1992). The age of the sediment recording the anomalous palaeomagnetic directions in Clear Lake is about 30,000 years B.P. (Verosub, 1977). That age was determined from six (uncalibrated) radiocarbon dates, three of which are from near the base of the core (Sims and Rymer, 1975) where there are the anomalous palaeomagnetic directions, and linear

  13. Primary studies of trace quantities of green vegetation in Mono Lake area using 1990 AVIRIS data

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    Chen, Zhi-Kang; Elvidge, Chris D.; Groeneveld, David P.

    1992-01-01

    Our primary results in Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve indicate that high spectral resolution Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data may provide a substantial advantage in vegetation, based on the chlorophyll red edge feature from 700-780 nm. The chlorophyll red edge was detected for green vegetation cover as low as 4.8 percent. The objective of our studies in Mono Lake area is to continue the experiments performed in Jasper Ridge and to examine the persistence of red edge feature of trace quantities of green vegetation for different plant communities with non-uniform soil backgrounds.

  14. Organic geochemistry and brine composition in Great Salt, Mono, and Walker Lakes

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    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Orem, William H.; Eugster, Hans P.

    1989-11-01

    Samples of Recent sediments, representing up to 1000 years of accumulation, were collected from three closed basin lakes (Mono Lake, CA, Walker Lake, NV, and Great Salt Lake, UT) to assess the effects of brine composition on the accumulation of total organic carbon, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon, humic acid structure and diagenesis, and trace metal complexation. The Great Salt Lake water column is a stratified Na-Mg-Cl-SO 4 brine with low alkalinity. Algal debris is entrained in the high density (1.132-1.190 g/cc) bottom brines, and in this region maximum organic matter decomposition occurs by anaerobic processes, with sulfate ion as the terminal electron acceptor. Organic matter, below 5 cm of the sediment-water interface, degrades at a very slow rate in spite of very high pore-fluid sulfate levels. The organic carbon concentration stabilizes at 1.1 wt%. Mono Lake is an alkaline (Na-CO 3-Cl-SO 4) system. The water column is stratified, but the bottom brines are of lower density relative to the Great Salt Lake, and sedimentation of algal debris is rapid. Depletion of pore-fluid sulfate, near l m of core, results in a much higher accumulation of organic carbon, approximately 6 wt%. Walker Lake is also an alkaline system. The water column is not stratified, and decomposition of organic matter occurs by aerobic processes at the sediment-water interface and by anaerobic processes below. Total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in Walker Lake sediments vary with location and depth due to changes in input and pore-fluid sulfate concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies ( 13C) of humic substances and dissolved organic carbon provide information on the source of the Recent sedimentary organic carbon (aquatic vs. terrestrial), its relative state of decomposition, and its chemical structure. The spectra suggest an algal origin with little terrestrial signature at all three lakes. This is indicated by the ratio of aliphatic to

  15. Mono Lake Excursion in Cored Sediment from the Eastern Tyrrhenian Sea

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    Liddicoat, Joseph; Iorio, Marina; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Incoronato, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    A search for the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions in cored marine and lacustrine sediment younger than 50,000 years resulted in the discovery of both excursions in the Greenland Sea (73.3˚ N, 351.0˚ E, Nowaczyk and Antanow, 1997), in the North Atlantic Ocean (62.7˚ N, 222.5˚ E, Channell, 2006), in Pyramid Lake in the Lahontan Basin, NV, USA (40.1˚ N, 240.2˚ E, Benson et al., 2008), and in the Black Sea (43.2˚ N, 36.5˚ E, Nowaczyk et al., 2012). The inclination, declination, and relative field intensity during the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) in the Black Sea sediment matches well the behaviour of the excursion in the Mono Basin, CA, in that a reduction in inclination during westerly declination is soon followed by steep positive inclination when declination is easterly, and relative field intensity increases after a low at the commencement of the excursion (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). A large clockwise loop of Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) at the Black Sea when followed from old to young patterns very well the VGP loop formed by the older portion of the MLE in the Mono Basin (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). We also searched for the MLE in cored sediment from the eastern Tyrrhenian Sea (40.1˚ N, 14.7˚ E) where the age of the sediment is believed to be about 32,000 years when comparing the susceptibility in the core with the susceptibility in a nearby one that is dated by palaeomagnetic secular variation records, Carbon-14, and numerous tephra layers in the Tyrrhenian Sea sediment (Iorio et al., 2011). In the Tyrrhenian Sea core, called C1067, closely spaced samples demagnetized in an alternating field to100 mT record a shallowing of positive inclination to 48˚ that is followed by steep positive inclination of 82˚ when declination moves rapidly to the southeast. The old to young path of the VGPs in C1067 forms a narrow counter-clockwise loop that reaches 30.3˚ N, 30.8˚ E and that is centered at about 55˚ N, 15˚ E. Although descending to a latitude that is

  16. High resolution seismic reflection profiles of Holocene volcanic and tectonic features, Mono Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayko, A. S.; Hart, P. E.; Bursik, M. I.; McClain, J. S.; Moore, J. C.; Boyle, M.; Childs, J. R.; Novick, M.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.; Roeske, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Inyo-Mono Craters of Long Valley and Mono Basin, California are the youngest eruptive vents of the Great Basin, USA and the second youngest in California. They are one of two seismically active volcanic centers with geothermal power production in the Walker Lane, western Great Basin, the other being the Coso Volcanic Field to the south. High resolution seismic reflection data collected from the northern tip of the Mono Craters eruptive centers in Mono Lake delinates two structural zones proximal to the active volcanic centers in Mono Lake. A growth structure drapped by ~30 m or more of bedded sediment shows increasing deformation and offset of clastic deposits on the northwest margin of the basin. Coherent thin-bedded stratigraphic sections with strong reflectors to 30-100m depth are preserved on the western and northern margins of the basin. The southern and southeastern areas of the lake are generally seismically opaque, due to extensive ash and tephra deposits as well as widespread methane. Thin pockets of well-bedded, poorly consolidated sediment of probable Holocene and last glacial age are present within intrabasin depressions providing some local age constraints on surfaces adjacent to volcanic vents and volcanically modified features.

  17. Review of the recording and age of the Mono Lake Excursion

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    Coe, R.; Liddicoat, J.

    2009-04-01

    Among the brief departures from gradual, long-term behaviour of the palaeomagnetic field in the Brunhes Normal Chron that reached opposite polarity or have a Virtual Geomagnetic Pole deep in the southern hemisphere, the first to be reported is the Laschamp Excursion (LE) in volcanic rocks in the Massif Central in France (Bonhommet and Zahringer, 1969). They originally believed it occurred between about 9,000 to 20,000 years before present, but it is now assigned an age of about 40,000 years B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004). Denham and Cox (1971) unsuccessfully sought the LE in exposed lake sediments that seemed to span that interval in the Mono Basin in the western Great Basin of the U.S., but instead encountered anomalous field behaviour that is called the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE)(Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). As a tribute to Norbert Bonhommet, who assisted us in our initial field work in the Mono Basin and shared a long-standing interest in the LE and MLE, we will review the palaeomagnetic behaviour and age of the MLE in the Mono Basin and elsewhere, for which there are nearly 20 reports of its occurrence globally, and evaluate the recent suggestion that the excursion at Mono Lake and the LE are the same.

  18. Correlation of Late-Pleistocene Lake-Level Oscillations in Mono Lake, California, with North Atlantic Climate Events

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    Benson, L.V.; Lund, S.P.; Burdett, J.W.; Kashgarian, Michaele; Rose, T.P.; Smoot, J.P.; Schwartz, M.

    1998-01-01

    Oxygen-18 (18O) values of sediment from the Wilson Creek Formation, Mono Basin, California, indicate three scales of temporal variation (Dansgaard-Oeschger, Heinrich, and Milankovitch) in the hydrologic balance of Mono Lake between 35,400 and 12,900 14C yr B.P. During this interval, Mono Lake experienced four lowstands each lasting from 1000 to 2000 yr. The youngest low-stand, which occurred between 15,500 and 14,000 14C yr B.P., was nearly synchronous with a desiccation of Owens Lake, California. Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) data indicate that three of four persistent lowstands occurred at the same times as Heinrich events H1, H2, and H4. 18O data indicate the two highest lake levels occurred ???18,000 and ???13,100 14C yr B.P., corresponding to passages of the mean position of the polar jet stream over the Mono Basin. Extremely low values of total inorganic carbon between 26,000 and 14,000 14C yr B.P. indicate glacial activity, corresponding to a time when summer insolation was much reduced. ?? 1998 University of Washington.

  19. Paleomagnetic Excursion Recorded in Exposed Lacustrine Sediments on Paoha Island in Mono Lake, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) in the Wilson Creek Formation that was deposited in Pleistocene Lake Russell in the Mono Basin, CA, has been known for nearly 50 years. The research began in the late 1960s during a search for the Laschamp Excursion (LE) believed then to have occurred between about 20,000 and 9,000 years ago (Bonhommet and Zahringer, 1969). Although that investigation was unsuccessful in locating the LE in the eroded bank of Wilson Creek on the northwest side of Mono Lake, which is the remnant of Lake Russell, anomalous field behavior was documented that is the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE)(Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). We did a PSV investigation of a portion of the Wilson Creek Formation where it is exposed on Paoha Island in the center of Mono Lake. Using volcanic ash layers from the nearby Mono Craters as stratigraphc marker beds and the tephrochronology of Lajoie (1993), we located anomalous field behavior that is similar to the field behavior during the MLE with some exceptions. One is the onset of negative inclination 45 cm beneath a 7-cm rhyolitic ash bed. That position is four times lower in the formation than negative inclination beneath Ash 15 that is midway in the MLE at three localities in the basin - Wilson Creek, Mill Creek, and Warm Springs (Liddicoat, 1992). Declination, inclination, and relative field intensity (RFI) where we sampled on Paoha Island are different enough from the paleomagnetic field behavior during the MLE that the possibility exists that a second excursion is recorded in the Wilson Creek Formation. We will present the paleomagnetic directions and RFI that are recorded on Paoha Island for that field behavior.

  20. Arsenite as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis: Description of three strains of Ectothiorhodospria from Mono Lake, California, and Big Soda Lake, Nevada

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    McCann, Shelley; Boren, Alison; Hernandez-Maldonado, Jaime; Stoneburner, Brendon; Saltikov, Chad W; Stolz, John F.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2017-01-01

    Three novel strains of photosynthetic bacteria from the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae were isolated from soda lakes of the Great Basin Desert, USA by employing arsenite (As(III)) as the sole electron donor in the enrichment/isolation process. Strain PHS-1 was previously isolated from a hot spring in Mono Lake, while strain MLW-1 was obtained from Mono Lake sediment, and strain BSL-9 was isolated from Big Soda Lake. Strains PHS-1, MLW-1, and BSL-9 were all capable of As(III)-dependent growth via anoxygenic photosynthesis and contained homologs of arxA, but displayed different phenotypes. Comparisons were made with three related species: Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii DSM 2111, Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii DSM 243T, and Halorhodospira halophila DSM 244. All three type cultures oxidized arsenite to arsenate but did not grow with As(III) as the sole electron donor. DNA–DNA hybridization indicated that strain PHS-1 belongs to the same species as Ect. shaposhnikovii DSM 2111 (81.1% sequence similarity), distinct from Ect. shaposhnikovii DSM 243T (58.1% sequence similarity). These results suggest that the capacity for light-driven As(III) oxidation is a common phenomenon among purple photosynthetic bacteria in soda lakes. However, the use of As(III) as a sole electron donor to sustain growth via anoxygenic photosynthesis is confined to novel isolates that were screened for by this selective cultivation criterion.

  1. A New 62-sample Record of the Mono Lake Excursion Waveform from the Depocenter Sediments of Summer Lake, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, R. M.; McCuan, D. T.; Horton, R. A.; Verosub, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    A new core from Summer Lake, Oregon provides the primary datset for a composite, 62-sample record of the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) waveform. The magnetograms and virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) are consistent with those associated with the MLE record from Mono Lake (e.g., Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). The added detail from this new record firmly establishes three distinct VGP clusters centered first on easternmost Asia/Siberia, then on Europe, and, finally, on North America. The jumps between clusters involve typically one sample, which represents only a few decades of time. The excursion is bracketed by tephra of known age (the Mount St. Helens Cy 46.0 ± 6 ka and the Wono 27.3 ± 0.3 14C kyr B.P.) and the age of the excursion is ~28 14C kyr B.P based on an average of five radiocarbon ages from below, within and above the excursion interval. A second waveform that exhibits shallowing inclinations and easterly declination swings upsection is truncated by a prominent unconformity. These PSV features and the associated RPI leading up to this unconformity correlate with those of the onset of the Laschamp Excursion (Lund et al., 2005). Both radiocarbon and PSV correlations support missing sediment from the Summer Lake record between 42.5 and 38 GISP2 ka. This sediment hiatus correlates to unconformities or lowstands in other Great Basin lakes suggesting a Heinrich 4-induced drought that affected much of western North America.

  2. Identification and dating of the Mono Lake excursion in lava flows from the Canary islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillou, Hervé; Laj, Carlo; Carracedo, Juan-Carlos; Kissel, Catherine; Nomade, Sebastien; Perez-Torrado, Francisco; Wandres, Camille

    2010-05-01

    The Mono Lake geomagnetic excursion was defined from the study of lacustrine sections from Western North America [Denham, 1974; Liddicoat et al., 1979]. The proposed age for this excursion reported in the literature changed in time since the first observation and a debate was even very recently opened about the reliability of the dating at the original section at Wilson Creek. In ice cores, a peak in the production of cosmogenic isotopes is clearly observed about 7 ka after the peak associated to the Laschamp excursion. This younger peak, attributed to the Mono Lake occurs between the millennial climatic cycles 7 and 6 (Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles), around 34 kyr in the most recent Greenland ice age model. In addition, in other places, this excursion is described by an intensity low with only very rarely an associated directional shift, questioning the global character of this excursion. We present a coupled paleomagnetic and dating investigation conducted on four different lavas from the island of Tenerife (Spain) on the basis of preliminary K/Ar dating. From a paleomagnetic point of view, one of these sites is characterized by a direction largely deviated from the one calculated on the basis of an axial geocentric dipole field. The paleointensity values, determined using Thellier and Thellier method and the PICRIT03 set of criteria, is very low, about 8 µT. Two other sites are slightly deviated from the GAD value, in particular with lower inclinations. Paleointensity determinations from these lavas do not yet have a statistical significance and need to be completed but the first results indicate a value around 20 µT. Finally, the last site has a direction consistent with the GAD values and no reliable paleointensity determinations could be obtained so far. The preliminary K/Ar dating are now completed by Ar/Ar dating and their combination yield an average age of about 32 ka ± 2 ka for the four outcrops, not statistically distinguishable one from another. This

  3. Scenario earthquake hazards for the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Branum, David M.; Wills, Chris J.; Hill, David P.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) multi-hazards project in the Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area, the California Geological Survey (CGS) developed several earthquake scenarios and evaluated potential seismic hazards, including ground shaking, surface fault rupture, liquefaction, and landslide hazards associated with these earthquake scenarios. The results of these analyses can be useful in estimating the extent of potential damage and economic losses because of potential earthquakes and in preparing emergency response plans. The Long Valley Caldera-Mono Lake area has numerous active faults. Five of these faults or fault zones are considered capable of producing magnitude ≥6.7 earthquakes according to the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2) developed by the 2007 Working Group of California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) and the USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping (NSHM) Program. These five faults are the Fish Slough, Hartley Springs, Hilton Creek, Mono Lake, and Round Valley Faults. CGS developed earthquake scenarios for these five faults in the study area and for the White Mountains Fault to the east of the study area. Earthquake scenarios are intended to depict the potential consequences of significant earthquakes. They are not necessarily the largest or most damaging earthquakes possible. Earthquake scenarios are both large enough and likely enough that emergency planners should consider them in regional emergency response plans. Earthquake scenarios presented here are based on fault geometry and activity data developed by the WGCEP, and are consistent with the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps (NSHM).For the Hilton Creek Fault, two alternative scenarios were developed in addition to the NSHM scenario to account for different opinions in how far north the fault extends into the Long Valley Caldera. For each scenario, ground motions were calculated using the current standard practice

  4. Organic osmolytes in aerobic bacteria from Mono Lake, an alkaline, moderately hypersaline environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciulla, R.A.; Roberts, M.F. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Diaz, M.R.; Taylor, B.F. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The identity and concentrations of intracellular organic solutes were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for two strains of aerobic, gram-negative bacteria isolated from Mono Lake, California, an alkaline, moderately hypersaline lake. Ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid) was the major endogenous solute in both organisms. Concentrations of ectoine varied with external NaCl levels in strain ML-D but not in strain ML-G, where the level was high but invariant from 1.5 to 3.0 M NaCl. Hydroxyectoine also occurred in strain ML-D, especially at elevated NaCl concentrations (2.5 and 3.0 M), but at levels lower than those of ectoine. Exogenous organic solutes that might occur in Mono Lake were examined for their effects on the de novo synthesis of ectoine. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) (0.1 or 1 mM) did not significantly lower ectoine levels in either isolate, and only strain ML-G showed any capacity for DMSP accumulation. With nitrogen limitation, however, DMSP (0.1 mM) substituted for ectoine in strain ML-G showed any capacity for DMSP accumulation. With nitrogen limitation, however, DMSP (0.1 mM) substituted for ectoine in strain ML-G and became the main organic solute. Glycine betaine (GB) was more effective than DMSP in affecting ectoine levels, principally in strain ML-D. Strain ML-D accumulated GB to 50 or 67% of its organic solute pool at 2.5 M NaCl, at an external level of 0.1 or 1 mM GB, respectively. Strain ML-D also accumulated arsenobetaine. The methylated zwitterionic compounds, probably metabolic products of phytoplankton (DMSP and GB) or brine shrimps (arsenobetaine) in Mono Lake, may function as osmolytes for indigenous bacteria when present at high concentrations or under conditions of nitrogen limitation or salt stress. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Exploration Of Mono Lake With An ROV: a prototype experiment for the MAPS AUV program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Barch, D.; Farmer, J.; Flagg, M.; Healy, T.; Tengdin, T.; Thomas, H.; Schwer, K.; Stakes, D.

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes a field experiment to explore Mono Lake using the Telepresence Controlled Remotely Operated Vehicle (TROV). This experiment was a prototype study demonstrating the science capabilities defined for a new AUV planned for development by a consortium project called MAPS. The goal of the experiment was to study mineralization processes associated with thermal and non-thermal spring inflow into Mono Lake, a hypersaline, alkaline lake in eastern California located in a volcanically active area. TROV is a tethered ROV, which can be controlled using a virtual reality-based user interface. TROV's video capabilities included a matched pair of stereo video cameras on a rapid pan and tilt platform and a single fixed downward pointing camera. Additional capabilities included high resolution 750 kHz pencil beam SONAR and 1 MHz scanning SONAR for navigating in the murky water, instruments for measuring water column properties (C,T,D, pH), a syringe water sample, and a three function manipulator arm used to collect mineral samples and place them in a sample box mounted on the vehicle. TROV was navigated using a DiveTracker acoustic navigation system. TROV was deployed from the deck of a houseboat anchored above the field sites with control and data recording equipment also onboard. The boat's location was continuously recorded using differential GPS system during 10 days of field operations. TROV had a total of 38 hours of bottom time. We studied 4 sites including (1) a broad, gently sloping, ooze-covered mound SE of Paoha island with copious methane gas seeps, (2) shallow, tufa-coated pinnacles of volcanic origin associated with islets NE of Paoha Island, (3) subaqueous thermal springs located along the SE shore of Paoha Island, and (4) a deep area (~50m) E of Paoha Island.

  6. Characterization of microbial arsenate reduction in the anoxic bottom waters of Mono Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, S.E.; Lucas, F.; Hollibaugh, J.T.; Oremland, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    Dissimilatory reduction of arsenate (DAsR) occurs in the arsenic-rich, anoxic water column of Mono Lake, California, yet the microorganisms responsible for this observed in situ activity have not been identified. To gain insight as to which microorganisms mediate this phenomenon, as well as to some of the biogeochemical constraints on this activity, we conducted incubations of arsenate-enriched bottom water coupled with inhibition/amendment studies and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) characterization techniques. DAsR was totally inhibited by filter-sterilization and by nitrate, partially inhibited (~50%) by selenate, but only slightly (~25%) inhibited by oxyanions that block sulfate-reduction (molybdate and tungstate). The apparent inhibition by nitrate, however, was not due to action as a preferred electron acceptor to arsenate. Rather, nitrate addition caused a rapid, microbial re-oxidation of arsenite to arsenate, which gave the overall appearance of no arsenate loss. A similar microbial oxidation of As(III) was also found with Fe(III), a fact that has implications for the recycling of As(V) in Mono Lake's anoxic bottom waters. DAsR could be slightly (10%) stimulated by substrate amendments of lactate, succinate, malate, or glucose, but not by acetate, suggesting that the DAsR microflora is not electron donor limited. DGGE analysis of amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments from incubated arsenate-enriched bottom waters revealed the presence of two bands that were not present in controls without added arsenate. The resolved sequences of these excised bands indicated the presence of members of the epsilon (Sulfurospirillum) and delta (Desulfovibrio) subgroups of the Proteobacteria, both of which have representative species that are capable of anaerobic growth using arsenate as their electron acceptor.

  7. A full-vector paleomagnetic secular variation record (PSV) from Pyramid Lake (Nevada) from 47-17 ka: Evidence for the successive Mono Lake and Laschamp Excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, S.; Benson, L.; Negrini, R.; Liddicoat, J.; Mensing, S.

    2017-01-01

    We have carried out a paleomagnetic study of late-Pleistocene Pyramid Lake core PLC08-1 (1680 cm). Our goals were to develop a full-vector paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) record for the core, establish a paleomagnetic chronostratigraphy for the lake based on correlation of the PSV record to other dated PSV records in the region, compare that chronostratigraphy with previously developed radiocarbon and ash chronologies, and search for evidence of the Mono Lake Excursion and Laschamp Excursion. We have recovered a full-vector PSV record (inclination, declination, relative paleointensity) for the interval 47 ka to 17 ka. Twenty radiocarbon dates and four dated ashes provided a chronostratigraphic framework for this record. We have also used the link between our PSV and other dated PSV records to develop an independent PSV chronostratigraphy for the core. The PSV chronostratigraphy is not significantly different from that estimated by the radiocarbon and ash chronologies. We note the existence of two intervals of anomalous paleomagnetic directions. The younger interval, centered at 34.1 ± 0.4 ka, has the characteristic vector component features of the Mono Lake Excursion. The older interval, centered at 40.9 ± 0.5 ka, has the characteristic paleomagnetic signature of the Laschamp Excursion. This is the first time both intervals of excursional behavior have been found in the same sediment record from the western USA. Our new PSV record also corroborates previous estimates of the Mono Lake Excursion directional field behavior (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979) and age (Benson et al., 2003).

  8. Dating Lake Tahoe (CA/NV) and Mono Lake (CA) sediment using palaeomagnetic secular variation as a chronology for late Pleistocene palaeoclimate in the U.S. Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    In 1976, six meters of graded and varved sediment were recovered in three piston cores from Lake Tahoe, CA/NV, and used for palaeomagnetic and sedimentologic investigations (Palmer et al., 1979; Denham, 1981). The long-term changes (secular variation) in the Lake Tahoe palaeomagnetic record were compared to secular variation in exposed lacustrine sediment of the Wilson Creek Formation (Lajoie, 1993) in the Mono Basin, CA, (Denham and Cox, 1971), 100 km away. During the more than 30 years since the coring was done in Lake Tahoe, the record of palaeomagnetic secular variation in the Mono Basin and elsewhere in the Great Basin has been refined (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Lund et al., 1988, Liddicoat and Coe, 1997; Liddicoat and Coe, 1998; Benson et al., 1998; Negrini and Davis, 1992; Kent et al., 2002; Zimmerman et al., 2006) to allow a reexamination of the palaeomagnetic directions and environmental magnetic record in the Lake Tahoe cores and the age of those sediments. Inferences are also possible about the sedimentological importance during the recording of the palaeomagnetic field at Lake Tahoe and possibly in the Mono Basin, and the age of the Lake Tahoe sediment recovered, which postdates the Mono Lake Excursion. The age of the Mono Lake Excursion and Wilson Creek Formation is relevant to investigations of Late Pleistocene palaeoclimate reconstructions for the U.S. Great Basin (Zimmerman et al., 2006).

  9. The Mono Lake geomagnetic excursion recorded in loess: Its application as time marker and implications for its geomagnetic nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, U.; Hark, M.; Zeeden, C.; Reddersen, B.; Zöller, L.; Fuchs, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the youngest and worldwide documented geomagnetic excursions in the Brunhes Chron is the Mono Lake excursion (MLE). It has been detected in marine and terrestrial sedimentary archives as well as in lavas. Recent age determinations and age estimates for the MLE centre around an age interval of approximately 31 - 34 ka. Likewise the Laschamp excursion the MLE goes along with a distinct peak in cosmogenic radionuclides in ice cores and sedimentary archives. It provides therefore an additional geomagnetic time marker for various geoarchives to synchronise different climate archives. Here we report on a detailed record of the MLE from a loess site at Krems, Lower Austria. The site is situated on the southern slope of the Wachtberg hill in the vicinity of the old city centre of Krems. The archive comprises Middle to Upper Würmian (Late Pleistocene) loess in which an Upper Palaeolithic (Early Gravettian) cultural layer is embedded. The most spectacular finds are a double infant burial found in 2005 and a single burial discovered in 2006 (Einwögerer et al., 2006). Generally, archaeological findings show an extraordinarily good preservation due to embedding in rapidly sedimented loess (Händel et al., 2008). The about 10 m thick loess pile consists of calcareous sandy, coarse silt which is rich in mica indicating local sources. It is well stratified with brownish horizons representing embryonic soils pointing to incipient pedogenesis. Some of the pedo-horizons show occasionally indications of minor erosion and bedding-parallel sediment transport, but no linear erosional features. Pale greyish horizons are the result of partial gleying under permafrost conditions. No strong pedogenesis including decalcification and clay formation is present. The cultural layer is still covered by more than 5 m of loess, and dated by radiocarbon to ~27 ka 14C BP (Einwögerer et al., 2006). Below this layer up to 2.5 m of loess resting on Lower Pleistocene fluvial gravels are

  10. Influence of long-range atmospheric transportation (LRAT) on mono-to octa-chlorinated PCDD/Fs levels and distributions in soil around Qinghai Lake, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2016-01-01

    Long-range atmospheric transportation (LRAT) of persistent organic pollutants followed by their deposition in cold, arid regions is of wide concern. This problem occurs at Qinghai Lake in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, a sparsely populated area with extreme weather conditions and little current...... or historical anthropogenic pollution. The concentrations and distribution patterns of the mono-to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) congeners in surface soil samples collected from around Qinghai Lake were quantified. Concentration differences between low-(mono-to tri-) chlorinated...

  11. What's Mono?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... es mono? Have you ever heard of the "kissing disease"? If you said that it's mono, you' ... But you don't get mono only from kissing. Infectious mononucleosis, called mono for short, is caused ...

  12. The Laschamp-Mono lake geomagnetic events and the extinction of Neanderthal: a causal link or a coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Valladas, Hélène

    2010-12-01

    The causes of Neanderthal extinction and the transition with the modern man in Europe and Near East remain largely uncertain. The two main factors currently proposed are the arrival of a modern human competitor and/or the aptitude of the Neanderthals to survive rapidly changing climatic conditions. None of these hypotheses is fully satisfactory because the Neanderthals experienced other large climatic changes and the duration of overlap of the two populations remains largely unknown and even uncertain. No special attention has been given to the geomagnetic excursions of Laschamp and Mono Lake which are synchroneous with the extinction and were the most dramatic events encountered by the Neanderthals over the past 250 thousand years of their existence. During this period the geomagnetic field strength was considerably reduced and the shielding efficiency of the magnetosphere lowered, leaving energetic particles reach latitudes as low as 30°. The enhanced flux of high-energy protons (linked to solar activity) into the atmosphere yielded significant ozone depletion down to latitudes of 40-45°. A direct consequence was an increase of the UV-B radiations at the surface which might have reached at least 15-20% in Europe with significant impacts on health of human populations. We suggest that these conditions, added to some other factors, contributed to the demise of Neanderthal population.

  13. Desulfonatronum paiuteum sp. nov.: A New Alkaliphilic, Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium, Isolated from Soda Mono Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Whitman, William; Cleland, David; Krader, Paul; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A novel alkaliphilic, sulfate reducing bacterium strain MLF1(sup T) was isolated from sediments of soda Mono Lake, California. Gram-negative vibrion cells, motile by singular polar flagellum, with sizes 0.5 - 0.6x 1.2 - 2.0 micron occurred singly, in pairs or short spirilla. Growth was observed over the temperature range of +15 C to +48 C (optimum +37 C), NaCl concentration range is greater than 1 - 7 %, wt/vol (optimum 3 %, wt/vol) and pH range 7.8 - 10.5 (optimum pH 9.0 - 9.4). The novel isolate is strictly alkaliphilic, requires high carbonate concentration in medium, obligately anaerobic and catalase negative. As electron donors strain MLF1(sup T) uses hydrogen, formate, ethanol. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate (but not sulfur or nitrate) can be used as electron acceptors. The sole end product of growth on formate was H2S. Strain MLF1(sup T) is resistant to kanamycin and gentamycin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Na2MoO4 inhibits growth of strain MLF1(sup T). The sum of G+C in DNA is 63.1 mol% (by HPLC method). On the basis of physiological and molecular properties, the isolate was considered as novel species of genus Desulfonatronum; and the name Desulfonatronum paiuteum sp. nov., is proposed (type strain MLF1(sup T) = ATCC BAA-395(sup T) = DSMZ 14708(sup T).

  14. Anaerobic oxidation of arsenite in Mono Lake water and by a facultative, arsenite-oxidizing chemoautotroph, strain MLHE-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R.S.; Hoeft, S.E.; Santini, J.M.; Bano, N.; Hollibaugh, R.A.; Hollibaugh, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Arsenite [As(III)]-enriched anoxic bottom water from Mono Lake, California, produced arsenate [As(V)] during incubation with either nitrate or nitrite. No such oxidation occurred in killed controls or in live samples incubated without added nitrate or nitrite. A small amount of biological As(III) oxidation was observed in samples amended with Fe(III) chelated with nitrolotriacetic acid, although some chemical oxidation was also evident in killed controls. A pure culture, strain MLHE-1, that was capable of growth with As(III) as its electron donor and nitrate as its electron acceptor was isolated in a defined mineral salts medium. Cells were also able to grow in nitrate-mineral salts medium by using H2 or sulfide as their electron donor in lieu of As(III). Arsenite-grown cells demonstrated dark 14CO2 fixation, and PCR was used to indicate the presence of a gene encoding ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Strain MLHE-1 is a facultative chemoautotroph, able to grow with these inorganic electron donors and nitrate as its electron acceptor, but heterotrophic growth on acetate was also observed under both aerobic and anaerobic (nitrate) conditions. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S ribosomal DNA sequence placed strain MLHE-1 within the haloalkaliphilic Ectothiorhodospira of the ??-Proteobacteria. Arsenite oxidation has never been reported for any members of this subgroup of the Proteobacteria.

  15. A Eukaryotic green alga, Picocystis, dominates Mono Lake, California in an algal bloom - Hints at cryptic oxygen cycle in euxinic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tookmanian, E. M.; Bauer, K. W.; Thompson, K.; Waldeck, A.; Berelson, W.; Stevenson, B. S.; Stamps, B. W.; Johnson, H.; Sessions, A. L.; Miller, L. G.; Oremland, R. S.; Rosen, M. R.; Corsetti, F. A.; Spear, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Mono Lake is a closed-basin stratified soda lake (pH = 9.8; salinity = 60 g/L) that supports high rates of primary productivity (annual average of 100 mmol C m-2 d-1), and is dominated by a eukaryotic alga, Picocystis strain ML. To further investigate the unique biology of the lake, we sampled the water column during an algal bloom when productivity was on the order of 1500 mmol C m-2 d-1 at 2 m depth. Picocystis was abundant at all depths in SSU rRNA gene sequencing libraries. Interestingly, the relative abundance of Picocystis was greatest at 20 m depth. This part of the water column was well below the oxycline (12 m) and detectable photosynthetically active radiation (5 m). Sulfide concentrations from previous work increased just below 20 m to millimolar concentrations; however, analysis of metatranscriptomic data indicated that genes involved in both photosystem I and II were expressed at 25 m. This suggests that photosynthesis was active despite euxinic waters and light conditions below our detectable limit. Metagenomes and metatranscriptomes at 20 and 25 m depth also revealed an abundance of sulfide oxidizing genes (soxA and soxB). These metabolisms are often mixotrophic, using oxygen as their electron acceptor, presenting further support for photosynthetic oxygen production at depth. We suggest that Picocystis may be producing oxygen through photosynthesis in the euxinic bottom waters of Mono Lake. The oxygen produced would be extremely transient, consumed in either abiotic or microbially-mediated oxidation of sulfide, or both. This potential cryptic oxygen cycle in the euxinic bottom waters of Mono Lake could explain the fate of large sulfide fluxes from sediments, as well as offer an opportunity to explore the biogeochemistry of this site to inform how we approach the rise of oxygen and early evolution of life.

  16. Tindallia californiensis sp. nov., a new anaerobic, haloalkaliphilic, spore-forming acetogen isolated from Mono Lake in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, E. V.; Hoover, R. B.; Bej, A. K.; Marsic, D.; Detkova, E. N.; Whitman, W. B.; Krader, P.

    2003-01-01

    A novel extremely haloalkaliphilic, strictly anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium strain APO was isolated from sediments of the athalassic, meromictic, alkaline Mono Lake in California. The Gram-positive, spore-forming, slightly curved rods with sizes 0.55- 0.7x1.7-3.0 microns were motile by a single laterally attached flagellum. Strain APO was mesophilic (range 10-48 C, optimum of 37 C); halophilic (NaCl range 1-20% (w/v) with optimum of 3-5% (w/v), and alkaliphilic (pH range 8.0-10.5, optimum 9.5). The novel isolate required sodium ions in the medium. Strain APO was an organotroph with a fermentative type of metabolism and used the substrates peptone, bacto-tryptone, casamino acid, yeast extract, L-serine, L-lysine, L-histidine, L-arginine, and pyruvate. The new isolate performed the Stickland reaction with the following amino acid pairs: proline + alanine, glycine + alanine, and tryptophan + valine. The main end product of growth was acetate. High activity of CO dehydrogenase and hydrogenase indicated the presence of a homoacetogenic, non-cycling acetyl-coA pathway. Strain APO was resistant to kanamycin but sensitive to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and gentamycin. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 44.4 mol% (by HPLC method). The sequence of the 16s rRNA gene of strain APO possessed 98.2% similarity with the sequence from Tindullia magadiensis Z-7934, but the DNA-DNA hybridization value between these organisms was only 55%. On the basis of these physiological and molecular properties, strain APO is proposed to be a novel species of the genus Tindallia with the name Tindallia californiensis sp. nov., (type strain APO = ATCC BAA-393 - DSM 14871).

  17. Benchmarking of the mono-energetic transport coefficients-results from the International Collaboration on Neoclassical Transport in Stellarators (ICNTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidler, C. D. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Allmaier, K. [Insitut fur Theoretische Physik, Association EURATOM, Graz, Austria; Isaev, Maxim Yu [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia; Kasilov, K. [Insitute of Plasma Physics, NSC-KhIPT, Kharkov, Ukraine; Kernbichler, W. [Insitut fur Theoretische Physik, Association EURATOM, Graz, Austria; Leitold, G. [Insitut fur Theoretische Physik, Association EURATOM, Graz, Austria; Maassberg, H. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Mikkelsen, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Schmidt, M. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Tribaidos, V. [Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Wakasa, A. [Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

    2011-01-01

    Numerical results for the three mono-energetic transport coefficients required for a complete neoclassical description of stellarator plasmas have been benchmarked within an international collaboration. These transport coefficients are flux-surface-averaged moments of solutions to the linearized drift kinetic equation which have been determined using field-line-integration techniques, Monte Carlo simulations, a variational method employing Fourier-Legendre test functions and a finite-difference scheme. The benchmarking has been successfully carried out for past, present and future devices which represent different optimization strategies within the extensive configuration space available to stellarators. A qualitative comparison of the results with theoretical expectations for simple model fields is provided. The behaviour of the results for the mono-energetic radial and parallel transport coefficients can be largely understood from such theoretical considerations but the mono-energetic bootstrap current coefficient exhibits characteristics which have not been predicted.

  18. Enrichment and isolation of Bacillus beveridgei sp. nov., a facultative anaerobic haloalkaliphile from Mono Lake, California, that respires oxyanions of tellurium, selenium, and arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baesman, S.M.; Stolz, J.F.; Kulp, T.R.; Oremland, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Mono Lake sediment slurries incubated with lactate and tellurite [Te(IV)] turned progressively black with time because of the precipitation of elemental tellurium [Te(0)]. An enrichment culture was established from these slurries that demonstrated Te(IV)-dependent growth. The enrichment was purified by picking isolated black colonies from lactate/Te(IV) agar plates, followed by repeated streaking and picking. The isolate, strain MLTeJB, grew in aqueous Te(IV)-medium if provided with a small amount of sterile solid phase material (e.g., agar plug; glass beads). Strain MLTeJB grew at high concentrations of Te(IV) (~8 mM) by oxidizing lactate to acetate plus formate, while reducing Te(IV) to Te(0). Other electron acceptors that were found to sustain growth were tellurate, selenate, selenite, arsenate, nitrate, nitrite, fumarate and oxygen. Notably, growth on arsenate, nitrate, nitrite and fumarate did not result in the accumulation of formate, implying that in these cases lactate was oxidized to acetate plus CO2. Strain MLTeJB is a low G + C Gram positive motile rod with pH, sodium, and temperature growth optima at 8.5-9.0, 0.5-1.5 M, and 40??C, respectively. The epithet Bacillus beveridgei strain MLTeJBT is proposed. ?? 2009 Springer.

  19. Mono Lake or Laschamp geomagnetic event recorded from lava flows in Amsterdam Island (southeastern Indian Ocean)

    CERN Document Server

    Carvallo, C; Ruffet, G; Henry, B I; Poidras, T; Carvallo, Claire; Camps, Pierre; Ruffet, Gilles; Henry, Bernard; Proxy, Thierry Poidras

    2003-01-01

    We report a survey carried out on basalt flows from Amsterdam Island in order to check the presence of intermediate directions interpreted to belong to a geomagnetic field excursion within the Brunhes epoch, completing this paleomagnetic record with paleointensity determinations and radiometric dating. The directional results corroborate the findings by Watkins and Nougier (1973) : normal polarity is found for two units and an intermediate direction, with associated VGPs close to the equator, for the other two units. A notable result is that these volcanic rocks are well suited for absolute paleointensity determinations. Fifty percent of the samples yields reliable intensity values with high quality factors. An original element of this study is that we made use of the PTRM-tail test of Shcherbakova et al. (2000) to help in the interpretation of the paleointensity measurements. Doing thus, only the high temperature intervals, beyond 400 degres C, were retained to obtain the most reliable estimate of the streng...

  20. Seismic Investigations of Lake Ladoga (Russia) -First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastel, S.; Wagner, B.; Melles, M.; Fedorov, G.

    2013-12-01

    A new joint German-Russian project aims at investigating the climatic and environmental history during Late Quaternary times along a more than 6000 km long longitudinal transect crossing northern Eurasia. For this purpose shallow and deep seismic surveys shall be carried out (from west to east) on the lakes Ladoga, Shuchye, Levinson-Lessing, Taymyr, and Emanda. Sediment cores will be taken based on the results of the seismic campaigns. The well-studied Lake El gygytgyn represents the eastern-most location of the transect and will act as reference site. In a first phase, we will investigate Lake Ladoga, which is located about 50 km east of St Petersburg. Lake Ladoga is the largest lake in Europe and covers an area of almost 18.000 km2. The modern sedimentation as well as the late glacial and Holocene history of the lake was studied in detail by the Russian Academy of Sciences Limnological Institute in St. Petersburg. The older lake history is only known from a transect drilled in the southern lake in the 1930ies. The cores of up to about 40 m length were only briefly described and are not existing any more. The results from these cores, known from unpublished reports only, show the existence of presumably marine Eemian sediments, representing the time when Ladoga Lake was part of a precursor of the Baltic Sea, which had a connection via Ladoga and Onega Lakes to the White Sea and further to the Arctic Ocean. A seismic survey using a Mini-GI-Gun and a 32-channel seismic streamer will be carried out in late August/early September 2013 in order to investigate the sedimentary and tectonic history of Lake Ladoga. The data will also be used to evaluate the potential of Lake Ladoga for a deep drilling campaign. First results of the seismic survey will be presented in the frame of this presentation.

  1. Final Results From the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2012, the physical and biogeochemical properties of ~60 lakes in northern Alaska have been investigated under CALON, a project to document landscape-scale variability of Arctic lakes in permafrost terrain. The network has ten nodes along two latitudinal transects extending inland 200 km from the Arctic Ocean. A meteorological station is deployed at each node and six representative lakes instrumented and continuously monitored, with winter and summer visits for synoptic assessment of lake conditions. Over the 4-year period, winter and summer climatology varied to create a rich range of lake responses over a short period. For example, winter 2012-13 was very cold with a thin snowpack producing thick ice across the region. Subsequent years had relatively warm winters, yet regionally variable snow resulted in differing gradients of ice thickness. Ice-out timing was unusually late in 2014 and unusually early in 2015. Lakes are typically well-mixed and largely isothermal, with minor thermal stratification occurring in deeper lakes during calm, sunny periods in summer. Lake water temperature records and morphometric data were used to estimate the ground thermal condition beneath 28 lakes. Application of a thermal equilibrium steady-state model suggests a talik penetrating the permafrost under many larger lakes, but lake geochemical data do not indicate a significant contribution of subpermafrost groundwater. Biogeochemical data reveal distinct spatial and seasonal variability in chlorophyll biomass, chromophoric dissolved organic carbon (CDOM), and major cations/anions. Generally, waters sampled beneath ice in April had distinctly higher concentrations of inorganic solutes and methane compared with August. Chlorophyll concentrations and CDOM absorption were higher in April, suggesting significant biological/biogeochemical activity under lake ice. Lakes are a positive source of methane in summer, and some also emit nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. As part of the

  2. The limnology of L Lake: Results of the L-Lake monitoring program, 1986--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A.

    1991-12-15

    L Lake was constructed in 1985 on the upper regions of Steel Creek, SRS to mitigate the heated effluents from L Reactor. In addition to the NPDES permit specifications (Outfall L-007) for the L-Reactor outfall, DOE-SR executed an agreement with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), that thermal effluents from L-Reactor will not substantially alter ecosystem components in the approximate lower half of L Lake. This region should be inhabited by Balanced (Indigenous) Biological Communities (BBCs) in accordance with Section 316(a) of the Pollution Control (Clean Water) Act (Public Law 92-500). In response to this requirement the Environmental Sciences Section/Ecology Group initiated a comprehensive biomonitoring program which documented the development of BBCs in L Lake from January 1986 through December 1989. This report summarizes the principal results of the program with regards to BBC compliance issues and community succession in L Lake. The results are divided into six sections: water quality, macronutrients, and phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, and community succession. One of the prime goals of the program was to detect potential reactor impacts on L Lake.

  3. The limnology of L Lake: Results of the L-Lake monitoring program, 1986--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A.

    1991-12-15

    L Lake was constructed in 1985 on the upper regions of Steel Creek, SRS to mitigate the heated effluents from L Reactor. In addition to the NPDES permit specifications (Outfall L-007) for the L-Reactor outfall, DOE-SR executed an agreement with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), that thermal effluents from L-Reactor will not substantially alter ecosystem components in the approximate lower half of L Lake. This region should be inhabited by Balanced (Indigenous) Biological Communities (BBCs) in accordance with Section 316(a) of the Pollution Control (Clean Water) Act (Public Law 92-500). In response to this requirement the Environmental Sciences Section/Ecology Group initiated a comprehensive biomonitoring program which documented the development of BBCs in L Lake from January 1986 through December 1989. This report summarizes the principal results of the program with regards to BBC compliance issues and community succession in L Lake. The results are divided into six sections: water quality, macronutrients, and phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, and community succession. One of the prime goals of the program was to detect potential reactor impacts on L Lake.

  4. Results from a geophysical investigation of Lake Superior's ring structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattrus, N. J.; Gustafson, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ring shaped depressions are widely developed on the lake floor of Lake Superior. They have not been widely reported elsewhere. The rings are typically between 200 and 300 m across and up to 5 m deep. The width of the depression ranges between 10 to 30 m. They often occur in closely spaced groups or networks but can also occur as isolated features. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the formation of these features; they include syneresis of the fine-grained lake floor sediments, polygonal faulting and dewatering of the lake floor sediments. High resolution bathymetric surveying with a multibeam sonar has revealed that they are comprised of pockmarks arranged in irregular polygonal patterns. Sidescan sonar images of the pockmarks often exhibit increased backscatter about the pock which could be interpreted as evidence of a lag-surface. High-resolution CHIRP sub-bottom profiling across the pocks occasionally reveal chimney-like structures below the lake floor pock. This evidence suggests that the rings were produced by the expulsion of fluid from the lake floor. This appears to have been a basin-wide event. The timing, duration and origin of this are not well known. Neither is the structure of the subsurface plumbing below these features. Here we present results from a geophysical survey conducted in northwestern Lake Superior off the western coast of Isle Royale where both isolated and grouped lake floor rings are well developed. The objectives of the survey were to define the geometry of the sub-surface plumbing below the rings and to possibly gain some insight into how these systems develop. The data collected included two high-resolution pseudo-3D single-channel seismic reflection datasets, one acquired with a small airgun and a second acquired with a CHIRP profiler. Multibeam and sidescan sonar data were also acquired as part of the survey. A 9 m piston core was collected in close proximity to a ring feature. This is used to determine the physical

  5. Tindallia Californiensis sp. nov.: A New Halo-Alkaliphilic Primary Anaerobe, Isolated from Meromictic soda Mono Lake in California and the Correction of Diagnosis for Genus Tindallia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena; Marsic, Damien; Hoover, Richard B.; Kevbrin, Vadim; Whitman, William B.; Krader, Paul; Cleland, Dave; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A novel extremely halo-alkaliphilic, bacterium strain APO (sup T) was isolated from sediments of the athalassic, meromictic, soda Mono Lake in California. Gram positive, spore-forming, slightly curved rods with sizes 0.6-0.7x 2.5-4.0 micrometers which occur singly, in pairs or short curved chains. Cells, are motile by singular subcentral flagellum. Strain APO (sup T) is mesophilic: growth was observed over the temperature range of +10 C to +48 C (optimum +37 C), NaCl concentration range 1-20 %, wt/vol (optimum 3-5%, wt/vol) and pH range 8.0-11.0 (optimum pH 9.5). The novel isolate is strictly halo-alkaliphilic, requires sodium chloride in medium, obligately anaerobic and catalase-negative. Strain APO (sup T) is organo-heterotroph with fermentative type of metabolism, and uses as substrates: peptone, badotryptone, casamino acids, yeast extract, L-serine, L-lysine, L-histidine, L-arginine, and pyruvate. The main end products of growth on peptone medium were: lactate, acetate, propionate, and ethanol. Strain APO (sup T) is resistant to kanamycin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and gentamycin. The sum of G+C in DNA is 44.4 mol% (by HPLC method). On the bait of physiological and molecular properties, the isolate was considered as novel species of genus Tindallia; and the name Tindallia californiensis sp. nov., is proposed for new isolate (type strain APO (sup T) - ATCC BAA_393(sup T) = DSMZ 14871 (sup T)).

  6. Tindallia Californiensis sp. nov.: A New Halo-Alkaliphilic Primary Anaerobe, Isolated from Meromictic soda Mono Lake in California and the Correction of Diagnosis for Genus Tindallia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena; Marsic, Damien; Hoover, Richard B.; Kevbrin, Vadim; Whitman, William B.; Krader, Paul; Cleland, Dave; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A novel extremely halo-alkaliphilic, bacterium strain APO (sup T) was isolated from sediments of the athalassic, meromictic, soda Mono Lake in California. Gram positive, spore-forming, slightly curved rods with sizes 0.6-0.7x 2.5-4.0 micrometers which occur singly, in pairs or short curved chains. Cells, are motile by singular subcentral flagellum. Strain APO (sup T) is mesophilic: growth was observed over the temperature range of +10 C to +48 C (optimum +37 C), NaCl concentration range 1-20 %, wt/vol (optimum 3-5%, wt/vol) and pH range 8.0-11.0 (optimum pH 9.5). The novel isolate is strictly halo-alkaliphilic, requires sodium chloride in medium, obligately anaerobic and catalase-negative. Strain APO (sup T) is organo-heterotroph with fermentative type of metabolism, and uses as substrates: peptone, badotryptone, casamino acids, yeast extract, L-serine, L-lysine, L-histidine, L-arginine, and pyruvate. The main end products of growth on peptone medium were: lactate, acetate, propionate, and ethanol. Strain APO (sup T) is resistant to kanamycin, but sensitive to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and gentamycin. The sum of G+C in DNA is 44.4 mol% (by HPLC method). On the bait of physiological and molecular properties, the isolate was considered as novel species of genus Tindallia; and the name Tindallia californiensis sp. nov., is proposed for new isolate (type strain APO (sup T) - ATCC BAA_393(sup T) = DSMZ 14871 (sup T)).

  7. Radiotherapy plus concomitant adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma: Japanese mono-institutional results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Oike

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility and survival benefits of combined treatment with radiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ, which has been covered by the national health insurance in Japanese patients with glioblastoma since September 2006. Between September 2006 and December 2011, 47 patients with newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed glioblastoma received radiotherapy for 60 Gy in 30 fractions. Among them, 45 patients (TMZ group received concomitant TMZ (75 mg/m(2/day, every day and adjuvant TMZ (200 mg/m(2/day, 5 days during each 28-days. All 36 of the glioblastoma patients receiving radiotherapy between January 1988 and August 2006 were analyzed as historical controls (control group. All patients were followed for at least 1 year or until they died. The median survival was 15.8 months in the TMZ group and 12.0 months in the control group after a median follow-up of 14.0 months. The hazard ratio for death in the TMZ group relative to the control group was 0.52 (P<0.01; the 2-year survival rate was 27.7% in the TMZ group and 14.6% in the control group. Hematologic toxicity of grade 3 and higher was observed in 20.4% in the TMZ group. Multivariate analysis showed that extent of surgery had the strongest impact on survival (P<0.01, while the use of TMZ had the second largest impact on survival (P = 0.035. The results indicate that combined treatment with radiotherapy and TMZ has a significant survival benefit for Japanese patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma with slightly higher toxicities than previously reported.

  8. Leflunomide monotherapy in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: Results of the Russian national Arava mono study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimma Mikhailovna Balabanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA is usually started using one of the synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. The choice of these drugs is very limited and leflunomide (LEF is one of the most promising agents. The present study assessed the results of using the standard LEF regimen for patients with early RA in the everyday clinical practice of Russian health care facilities. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled the patients followed up in 20 medical centers of the Russian Federation in May 2008 to January 2010. The RA patients who met the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR classification criteria, had a less than 2-year history of the disease, and had not received LEF before were included. All the patients were above 18 years of age and they signed an informed consent form. The physicians were recommended to give the drug in a dose of 100 mg/day for the first 3 days, then 20 mg/day continuously. If adverse reactions occurred, the dose might be reduced to 10 mg/day. The patients were examined before and 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks after LEF therapy. The efficiency of the treatment was evaluated by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR classification criteria using DAS 28 scores, by the ACR criteria, and functional changes using HAQ scores and quality of life using the EQ-5D questionnaire. Results. The study included 484 patients with RA. Its diagnosis corresponded to the 1987 ACR criteria. There were 80 men and 404 women in this group. The patients’ mean age was 48.1±13.4 years; the mean duration of the disease at its onset was 14.1±12.8 months. A significant decrease in the number of patients with high DAS 28 scores was recorded every 12 weeks during the treatment. It reduced from 355 (73.3% to 41 (8.5% by the end of the observation. At the same time, there was a significant increase in the number of patients with low activity and remission every 12 weeks (p < 0.01. During the last visit, a remission

  9. The alkaline single cell electrophoresis assay with eight mouse organs: results with 22 mono-functional alkylating agents (including 9 dialkyl N-nitrosoamines) and 10 DNA crosslinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, S; Matsusaka, N; Madarame, H; Miyamae, Y; Ishida, K; Satoh, M; Sekihashi, K; Sasaki, Y F

    2000-04-13

    The genotoxicity of 22 mono-functional alkylating agents (including 9 dialkyl N-nitrosoamines) and 10 DNA crosslinkers selected from IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) groups 1, 2A, and 2B was evaluated in eight mouse organs with the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) (comet) assay. Groups of four mice were treated once intraperitoneally at the dose at which micronucleus tests had been conducted, and the stomach, colon, liver, kidney, bladder, lung, brain, and bone marrow were sampled 3, 8, and/or 24 h later. All chemicals were positive in the SCGE assay in at least one organ. Of the 22 mono-functional alkylating agents, over 50% were positive in all organs except the brain and bone marrow. The two subsets of mono-functional alkylating agents differed in their bone marrow genotoxicity: only 1 of the 9 dialkyl N-nitrosoamines was positive in bone marrow as opposed to 8 of the 13 other alkylating agents, reflecting the fact that dialkyl N-nitrosoamines are poor micronucleus inducers in hematopoietic cells. The two groups of mono-functional alkylating agents also differ in hepatic carcinogenicity in spite of the fact that they are similar in hepatic genotoxicity. While dialkyl N-nitrosoamines produce tumors primarily in mouse liver, only one (styrene-7,8-oxide) out of 10 of the other type of mono-functional alkylating agents is a mouse hepatic carcinogen. Taking into consideration our previous results showing high concordance between hepatic genotoxicity and carcinogenicity for aromatic amines and azo compounds, a possible explanation for the discrepancy might be that chemicals that require metabolic activation show high concordance between genotoxicity and carcinogenicity in the liver. A high percent of the 10 DNA crosslinkers were positive in the SCGE assay in the gastrointestinal mucosa, but less than 50% were positive in the liver and lung. In this study, we allowed 10 min alkali-unwinding to obtain low and stable control values

  10. Performance of a plasma window for a high pressure differentially pumped deuterium gas target for mono-energetic fast neutron production - Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, A. de; Hershcovitch, A.; Franklyn, C.B.; Straaten, S. van; Guzek, J. E-mail: jguzek@debeers.co.za

    2000-09-01

    The reactions D(d,n){sup 3}He and T(d,n){sup 4}He are frequently used for production of the mono-energetic or quasi mono-energetic neutron beams but successful applications are often limited by the intensity of the generated neutron beams. The development of a suitable neutron source for such applications as studies of resonance phenomena, fast neutron radiography, selective fast neutron activation, explosives and contraband detection and others, depends on the output ion current of the accelerator and the design of the target system. A practical solution for a high pressure gas target was previously developed and successfully implemented at De Beers Diamond Research Laboratory in Johannesburg (Guzek et al., 1999), but it is limited to applications using low (<20%) duty cycle accelerators. The concept of a plasma window for the separation of a high pressure gas target region and accelerator vacuum, that was originally developed by Hershcovitch (1995) for electron welding applications, may be suitable for operation with continuous wave accelerators at high particle current output. Preliminary test results, which have been performed with various gases (argon, helium and deuterium), indicate that implementation of the plasma window into a gas target system, for the production of intense mono-energetic fast neutron beams will be achievable.

  11. Water management alternatives at Reelfoot Lake: Results of a workshop

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes a workshop for discussing water management alternatives at Reelfoot Lake National Wildlife Refuge. The objectives of the workshop were to...

  12. First Year Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Frey, K. E.; Lenters, J. D.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Gaglioti, B.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2012-12-01

    variability related to snow depth. Rapid warming follows ice-off, with water temperature responding synchronously to synoptic weather variations across the area. Regionally, ice-off occurs 2-4 weeks later on lakes near the coast, but with high inter-lake variability related to lake depth and area. Inland lakes are warmer in mid-summer than those near the coast, reflecting the regional climate gradient and the maritime effect. All lakes are well-mixed and largely isothermal, with some thermal stratification occurring during calm, sunny periods in deeper lakes. This project also involves measurement of carbon and nutrient dynamics and inorganic geochemistry of the lakes. Preliminary data indicate that brown colored lakes have greater dissolved methane concentrations under ice in winter than clear-water lakes, which is promising for remote sensing applications. Through a collaborative effort between the USGS-Alaska Science Center, the BLM Arctic Field Office, the NSF and other partners, we have established the Teshekpuk Lake Observatory as part of the CALON project in order to assess the past, present, and future response of Teshekpuk Lake ecosystem to environmental stressors and change. All data resulting from this 4-year project will be stored at CADIS and a specially designed web portal, and is currently accessible through the CALON web page at https://sites.google.com/a/giesn.com/nsf-calon/.

  13. Reservoir Management using seasonal forecasts in Lake Kariba and Lake Kahora Bassa: Initial results and plans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muchuru, S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal forecasting as a tool to improve on reservoir management in Zimbabwe is presented. The focus of the talk is on predicting rainfall extremes over the Lake Kariba catchments. The forecast systems to do the predictions and the levels of skill...

  14. Second-Year Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Gaglioti, B.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2013-12-01

    temperatures in small shallow lakes and more southern latitudes. Most lakes are well-mixed and largely isothermal, with short periods of thermal stratification occurring in deeper lakes during calm, sunny periods. Over the ice-free season, the majority of the available energy from net radiation goes into evaporation, followed by sensible heat flux and warming of bottom sediments. Thermal bands of MODIS and Landsat imagery were fused using a spatio-temporal cokriging method to generate daily surface temperature estimates at Landsat spatial resolution. The close correspondence between satellite-derived and in situ measured near-surface lake temperature suggests that this approach yields viable results. Biogeochemical and inorganic geochemical constituents measured include dissolved greenhouse gas concentrations (CO2, CH4, and N2O), inorganic N, DON and DOC, alkalinity, chlorophyll-a, major ions, and CDOM. The greatest difference in the dissolved CH4:CO2 ratio in summer was longitudinal, with several lakes in western Alaskan Arctic exhibiting CH4 concentrations hundreds of times more supersaturated than air. Stable isotope analyses of CH4 (δ13C and δ2H) show that several of these lakes have natural gas methane sources. Methane concentrations under ice (April) were several thousand times higher than in open-water conditions (August). Data collected during this 4-year project are archived at A-CADIS.

  15. Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  16. Influence of preoperative nucleus pulposus status and radiculopathy on outcomes in mono-segmental lumbar total disc replacement: results from a nationwide registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zweig Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP with radiculopathy and other preconditions are regarded as relative or absolute contraindications for lumbar total disc replacement (TDR. In Switzerland it is left to the surgeon's discretion when to operate. The present study is based on the dataset of SWISSspine, a governmentally mandated health technology assessment registry. We hypothesized that preoperative nucleus pulposus status and presence or absence of radiculopathy has an influence on clinical outcomes in patients treated with mono-segmental lumbar TDR. Methods Between March 2005 and April 2009, 416 patients underwent mono-segmental lumbar TDR, which was documented in a prospective observational multicenter mode. The data collection consisted of perioperative and follow-up data (physician based and clinical outcomes (NASS, EQ-5D. Patients were divided into four groups according to their preoperative status: 1 group degenerative disc disease ("DDD": 160 patients without HNP and no radiculopathy, classic precondition for TDR; 2 group "HNP-No radiculopathy": 68 patients with HNP but without radiculopathy; 3 group "Stenosis": 73 patients without HNP but with radiculopathy, and 4 group "HNP-Radiculopathy": 132 patients with HNP and radiculopathy. The groups were compared regarding preoperative patient characteristics and pre- and postoperative VAS and EQ-5D scores using general linear modeling. Results Demographics in all four groups were comparable. Regarding the improvement of quality of life (EQ-5D there were no differences across the four groups. For the two main groups DDD and HNP-Radiculopathy no differences were found in the adjusted postoperative back- and leg pain alleviation levels, in the stenosis group back- and leg pain relief were lower. Conclusions Despite higher preoperative leg pain levels, outcomes in lumbar TDR patients with HNP and radiculopathy were similar to outcomes in patients with the classic

  17. Mono pile foundation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyngesen, S.; Brendstrup, C.

    1997-02-01

    The use of mono piles as foundations for maritime structures has been developed during the last decades. The installation requirements within the offshore sector have resulted in equipment enabling driving of piles up to 3-4 m to large penetration depths. The availability of this equipment has made the use of large mono piles feasible as foundations for structures like wind turbines. The mono pile foundations consists of three parts; the bare pile, a conical transition and a boat landing. All parts are prefitted at the yard in order to minimise the installation work that has to be carried out offshore. The study of a mono pile foundations for a 1.5 MW wind turbine has been conducted for two locations, Horns Rev and Roedsand. Three different water depths: 5, 8 and 11 m have been investigated in the study. The on-site welding between pile and conical transition is performed by an automatic welding machine. Final testing and eventually repair of the weld are conducted at least 16 hours after welding. This is followed by final installation of J-tube, tie-in to subsea cables and installation of the impressed current system for corrosive protection of the mono pile. The total cost for procurement and installation of the mono pile using the welded connection is estimated. The price does not include procurement and installation of access platform and boat landing. These costs are estimated to 250.000 DKK. Depending on water depth the cost of the pile ranges from 2,2 to 2,7 million DKK. Procurement and fabrication of the pile are approx. 75% of the total costs. The remaining 25% are due to installation. The total costs are very sensitive to the unit price of pile steel. During the project it became obvious that ice load has a very large influence on the dimensions of the mono pile. (EG)

  18. Quaternary Eruptions of the Mono-Inyo Craters, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursik, M. I.; Pouget, S.; Mangan, M.; Marcaida, M.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The eruptive products of the Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain include the tephra and associated volcanic rocks of Black Point, islands of Mono Lake, Mono Craters, Inyo Craters, late eruptions of Mammoth Mountain and Red Cones. Most of the eruptions were explosive, and generated numerous pyroclastic flows, surges and falls as well as the prominent domes and lava flows that now cover vents. The eruptions range in age from several hundred years to at least 60,000 yr BP. The Mono-Inyo tephras are dispersed throughout the Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range, providing key time-stratigraphic marker layers. Recent work has not only resulted in high-precision radiometric dating of many of the tephras, but also detailed geochemical data that for the first time provides fingerprinting sufficiently precise to discriminate among the tephras. Lithostratigraphy of many of the layers is herein described for the first time, based on careful sampling and description in the field, and laboratory grain size, grain shape and componentry analyses of the late Pleistocene tephras of the Wilson Creek Formation. Most of the Wilson Creek volcanic layers are fall deposits accumulated within paleolake Russell, which were generated by eruptions of variable intensity and influenced by paleowinds of different orientation. Prevailing winds were generally to the North and East, but often the Pleistocene layers less than 25 ka were dispersed to the West. Many of the fall layers show evidence of wave reworking, generally near the top, although in some cases it is pervasive. Only near the vent do some layers of apparent debris flow origin occur. Maximum pumice sizes range up to nearly 3 cm, and lithics range up to 1 cm in the rhyolitic fall beds, while thicknesses range up to c. 30 cm. These data are consistent with relatively low volume, subplinian style eruptive behavior for most of the life of the Mono-Inyo Craters.

  19. Acoustic search for high-energy neutrinos in the Lake Baikal: Results and plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aynutdinov, V.; Avrorin, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belolaptikov, I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bogorodsky, D. [Applied Physics Institute of Irkutsk State University, Gagarin blvd. 20, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Budnev, N., E-mail: nbudnev@api.isu.ru [Applied Physics Institute of Irkutsk State University, Gagarin blvd. 20, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Danilchenko, I.; Domogatsky, G.; Doroshenko, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dyachok, A. [Applied Physics Institute of Irkutsk State University, Gagarin blvd. 20, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Dzhilkibaev, Zh.-A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fialkovsky, S. [Nizhni Novgorod State Technical University, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Gaponenko, O. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Golubkov, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Gress, O.; Gress, T.; Grishin, O. [Applied Physics Institute of Irkutsk State University, Gagarin blvd. 20, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Karnaukhov, V. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klabukov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klimov, A. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kochanov, A. [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Lermontov st. 126a, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); and others

    2012-01-11

    We report the present status and perspectives of the feasibility study to detect cosmic neutrinos acoustically in the Lake Baikal. The results of background studies are presented. It was shown that most of the detected neutrino-like pulses come from the lake surface. This fact has been used in the project of an acoustic prototype detector that consists of compact Acoustic Sensor Modules with 4-channel antennas each, arranged above the Baikal Neutrino Telescope at shallow depths and 'listening' the deep-water layers of the lake.

  20. FY 79 Lava Lake Drilling Program: results of drilling experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, R.R.; Striker, R.P.; Curlee, R.M.

    1979-12-01

    A drilling program was conducted in December 1978 and January and February 1979 to continue the characterization of the solid and liquid rock components of the Kilauea Iki lava lake. Six holes were drilled from the surface and two previously drilled holes were reentered and deepened for the purposes of measuring downhole temperature profiles, recovering samples of solid, plastic, and molten rock, measuring crust permeability, and determining the performance of conventional and special drilling techniques. Conventional HQ-size (3.78 inches diameter) core drilling equipment using water for cooling and cuttings removal was used to successfully drill during initial entry into 1052/sup 0/C formations. Conventional drilling in reentering flow-back rock was less reliable. The specially designed water jet-augmented drag bit or water jet-augmented core bit was needed to drill reliably into the plastic flow-back rock and through liquid rock veins. This document contains the drill performance data which were recorded during drilling in the crust and the plastic and molten rock zones using both conventional and special drilling procedures and equipment.

  1. Measured and modelled trends in European mountain lakes: results of fifteen years of cooperative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela ROGORA

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Papers included in this Special Issue of the Journal of Limnology present results of long-term ecological research on mountain lakes throughout Europe. Most of these studies were performed over the last 15 years in the framework of some EU-funded projects, namely AL:PE 1 and 2, MOLAR and EMERGE. These projects together considered a high number of remote lakes in different areas or lake districts in Europe. Central to the projects was the idea that mountain lakes, while subject to the same chemical and biological processes controlling lowland lakes, are more sensitive to any input from their surroundings and can be used as earlywarning indicators of atmospheric pollution and climate change. A first section of this special issue deal with the results of long-term monitoring programmes at selected key-sites. A second section focuse on site-specific and regional applications of an acidification model designed to reconstruct and predict long-term changes in the chemistry of mountain lakes.

  2. Activities and geochronology of (137)Cs in lake sediments resulting from sediment resuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoff, Gerald

    2017-02-01

    In lakes with a large surface area to watershed ratio (137)Cs delivery is primarily by direct atmospheric fallout to the lake surface, where its activity in the sediments has been used to estimate the exposure to organisms and sediment mass deposition rates. Comparison of (137)Cs in the historical atmospheric fallout record with (137)Cs activity profiles in sediment cores reveals that although the general features of a maxima in the fallout deposition can be matched to activity peaks in the core, the general shape of the (137)Cs profile is not an exact replica of the fallout history. Instead, the sediment reflects post-depositional processes such as resuspension, bioturbation, partitioning of (137)Cs between the sediment solids and the pore fluids, and molecular diffusion of (137)Cs through the pore fluids. Presented here is a model that couples these processes to a system time averaging (STA) model that accounts for the time history of (137)Cs fallout and the particle residence time in the water column or in the 'active' surface sediment subject to resuspension. Sediment profiles are examined by comparing reasonable ranges of each of the coefficients of each of these major processes and by applying the model to cores collected from two large, shallow lakes, Lake Erie (USA/Canada) and Lake Winnipeg (Canada). The results indicate that the STA model with molecular diffusion and sediment resuspension best describes the data from these large, shallow lakes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pirla Project (paleoecological investigation of recent lake acidification): preliminary results for the Adirondacks, New England, Great Lakes States, and N. Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, D.F.; Whitehead, D.R.; Anderson, D.S.; Bienert, R.; Camburn, K.E.; Cook, R.B.; Crisman, T.L.; Davis, R.B.; Ford, J.; Fry, B.D.; Hites, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The PIRLA project is an interdisciplinary paleoecological study designed to provide reconstructions of the recent acidification histories of a representative set of lakes in four acid-sensitive regions in North America. We are trying to determine if lakes in the study regions have acidified, and if so, to what extent, over what time period and why. Sediment cores from 5 to 15 lakes in each region are being analyzed for several characteristics. Diatoms and chrysophytes are being used to reconstruct lake water pH. Results for three Adirondack lakes with current pH of 4.8 to 5.0 indicate a decrease in pH beginning in the 1930's-1950's. Increased atmospheric deposition of strong acids appears to be the primary factor responsible for the pH decline. Two lakes (pH 4.4 and 4.7) in New England show clear evidence of acidification probably due to acidic deposition. Preliminary reconstruction for two lakes in Michigan (pH 4.4 and 5.6), one in Wisconsin (pH 5.3), and one in Minnesota (pH 6.8) suggest no recent pH decrease. For the one Florida lake (pH 4.4) analyzed, inferred pH decreases by about 0.5 unit, beginning in the 1950s; the cause has not been determined.

  4. Embryotoxicity of an extract from Great Lakes lake trout to rainbow trout and lake trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States). Midwest Science Center

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic ecosystems such as the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with chemicals that are toxic to fish. However, the role of these contaminants in reproductive failures of fishes, such as lake trout recruitment, has remained controvertible. It was the objective to evaluate dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a complex mixture of chemicals and predict their potential to cause the lack of recruitment in Great Lakes lake trout. Graded doses of a complex environmental extract were injected into eggs of both rainbow trout and lake trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988. The extract was embryotoxic in rainbow trout, with LD50 values for Arlee strain and Erwin strain of 33 eggEQ and 14 eggEQ respectively. The LOAEL for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities in rainbow trout were 2, 2, and 4 eggEQ, respectively. Subsequent injections of the extract into lake trout eggs were likewise embryotoxic, with an LD50 value of 7 eggEQ. The LOAEL values for the extract in lake trout for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities were 0.1, 1, and 2 eggEQ, respectively. The current levels of contaminants in lake trout eggs are above the threshold for hemorrhaging and yolk-sac edema. The results also support the use of an additive model of toxicity to quantify PCDDs, PCDFs, Non-o-PCBs, and Mono-o-PCBs in relation to early life stage mortality in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  5. Hydrologic and geomorphic changes resulting from episodic glacial lake outburst floods: Rio Colonia, Patagonia, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, J.; McCoy, S. W.; McGrath, D.; Nimick, D. A.; Fahey, M.; O'kuinghttons, J.; Friesen, B. A.; Leidich, J.

    2017-01-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) are a prominent but poorly understood cryospheric hazard in a warming climate. We quantify the hydrologic and geomorphic response to 21 episodic GLOFs that began in April 2008 using multitemporal satellite imagery and field observations. Peak discharge exiting the source lake became progressively muted downstream. At 40-60 km downstream, where the floods entered and traveled down the main stem Rio Baker, peak discharges were generally 1-2 times the peak annual discharge of this system, Chile's largest river by volume. As such, caution must be applied to empirical relationships relating lake volume to peak discharge, as the latter is dependent on where this observation is made along the flood path. The GLOFs and subsequent periods of free drainage resulted in > 40 m of incision, the net removal of 25 × 106 m3 of sediment from the source lake basin, and a nonsteady channel configuration downstream. These results demonstrate that GLOFs sourced from low-order tributaries can produce significant floods on major main stem rivers, in addition to significantly altering sediment dynamics.

  6. The PIRLA project (Paleoecological investigation of recent lake acidification). Preliminary results for the Adirondacks, New England, N. Great Lakes States, and N. Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, D.F.; Whitehead, D.R.; Anderson, D.S.; Bienert, R.; Camburn, K.E.; Cook, R.B.; Crisman, T.L.; Davis, R.B.; Ford, J.; Fry, B.D.

    1986-09-01

    The PIRLA project is an interdisciplinary paleoecological study designed to provide reconstructions of the recent acidification histories of a representative set of lakes in four acid-sensitive regions in North America. We are trying to determime if lakes in the study regions have acidified, and if so, to what extent, over what time period and why. Sediment cores from 5 to 15 lakes in each region are being analyzed for several characteristics. Diatoms and chrysophytes are being used to reconstruct lakewater pH. Results for three Adirondack lakes with current pH of 4.8 to 5.0 indicate a decrease in pH beginning in the 1930's-1950's. Increased atmospheric deposition of strong acids appears to be the primary factor responsible for the pH decline. Two lakes (pH 4.4 and 4.7) in New England show clear evidence of acidification probably due to acidic deposition. Preliminary reconstructions for two lakes in Michigan (pH 4.4 and 5.6), one in Wisconsin (pH 5.3), and one in Minnesota (pH 6.8) suggest no recent pH decrease. For the one Florida lake (pH 4.4) analyzed, inferred pH decreases by about 0.5 unit, beginning in the 1950's; the cause has not been determined. 26 refs.

  7. Possible future lakes resulting from continued glacier shrinkage in the Aosta Valley Region (Western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viani, Cristina; Machguth, Horst; Huggel, Christian; Godio, Alberto; Perotti, Luigi; Giardino, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Aosta Valley (NW-Alps, Italy) is the region with the largest glaciarized area of Italy (133.73 km2). Like the other alpine regions it has shown a significant glacier retreat starting from the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA, ca. 1850 AD), by losing about 60% of its glaciarized area. As a direct consequence of glacier shrinkage, within glacially-sculpted landscapes, glacier-bed overdeepenings become exposed, offering suitable conditions for glacier lakes formation. In the Aosta Valley region, about 200 glacier lakes have been recognized in different time periods within LIA maximum extent boundaries, mainly dammed by bedrock landforms. With respect to human activities, glacier lakes represent both opportunities (e.g. Miage lake for tourism) and risks (e.g. outburst flood of the Gran Croux lake above Cogne in August 2016) in such a densely populated and developed region. The objective of this contribution is to assess locations of possible future glacier lakes in the Aosta Valley by using the GlabTop2 model (Glacier Bed Topography model version 2). Understanding where future lakes will appear is of fundamental importance for the identification of potential hazards and the interpretation of conditioning factors and dynamics. We first assessed ice thickness and consequently glacier bed topography over large glaciated areas of the region, by using both glaciers outlines related to 1999 (provided by the GlaRiskAlp project) and the regional DEM of 1990 (provided by the Aosta Valley Region) as input data. We performed several runs by varying different input parameters (e,g.: pixel size and basal shear stress). Then we compared modelled results on selected test glaciers (Rutor and Grand Etrèt) with available GPR data. As a validation, we also carried out a GPR survey during summer 2016 on the central area of Indren Glacier (Monte Rosa massif) where GlabTop2 shows the presence of a possible subglacial overdeepening morphology. We found that ice thickness and consequently the

  8. Trace metals in Norwegian lakes. Preliminary results for 473 lakes; Sporeelementer i norske innsjoeer. Foreloepig resultat for 473 sjoeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjelkvaale, B.L.; Henriksen, A.; Vadset, M.; Roeyset, O. [Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning, Kjeller (Norway)

    1996-04-15

    In the autumn of 1995, a regional investigation of 1500 Norwegian lakes was performed as part of a programme on monitoring long-range transfrontier pollution and fallout deposits. This report presents the levels and regional distributions of about 50 trace metals in 473 statistically selected lakes. The concentrations of some of the metals fall off markedly from south to north. The high concentration in the south is probably due to long-range pollution. Some metals have high local concentrations, ascribed to point sources or local rock minerals. Acidification may lead to increased mobilization of certain metals. Lakes in coastal areas often have important quantities of trace metals from sea water, such as B and Sr. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 table

  9. A biogeochemical model of Lake Pusiano (North Italy and its use in the predictability of phytoplankton blooms: first preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro OGGIONI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the first preliminary results of the DYRESM-CAEDYM model application to a mid size sub-alpine lake (Lake Pusiano North Italy. The in-lake modelling is a part of a more general project called Pusiano Integrated Lake/Catchment project (PILE whose final goal is to understand the hydrological and trophic relationship between lake and catchment, supporting the restoration plan of the lake through field data analysis and numerical models. DYRESM is a 1D-3D hydrodynamics model for predicting the vertical profile of temperature, salinity and density. CAEDYM is multi-component ecological model, used here as a phytoplankton-zooplankton processes based model, which includes algorithms to simulate the nutrient cycles within the water column as well as the air-water gas exchanges and the water-sediments fluxes. The first results of the hydrodynamics simulations underline the capability of the model to accurately simulate the surface temperature seasonal trend and the thermal gradient whereas, during summer stratification, the model underestimates the bottom temperature of around 2 °C. The ecological model describes the epilimnetic reactive phosphorus (PO4 depletion (due to the phytoplankton uptake and the increase in PO4 concentrations in the deepest layers of the lake (due to the mineralization processes and the sediments release. In terms of phytoplankton dynamics the model accounts for the Planktothrix rubescens dominance during the whole season, whereas it seems to underestimate the peak in primary production related to both the simulated algal groups (P. rubescens and the rest of the other species aggregated in a single class. The future aims of the project are to complete the model parameterization and to connect the in-lake and the catchment modelling in order to gain an integrated view of the lake-catchment ecosystem as well as to develop a three dimensional model of the lake.

  10. Small Boreal Lake Ecosystem Evolution under the Influence of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors: Results of Multidisciplinary Long-Term Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Shirokova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Small aquatic ecosystems of the boreal zone are known to be most sensitive indicators of on-going environmental change as well as local anthropogenic pressure, while being highly vulnerable to external impacts. Compared to rather detailed knowledge of the evolution of large and small lakes in Scandinavia and Canada, and large lakes in Eurasia, highly abundant small boreal lakes of northwest Russia have received very little attention, although they may become important centers of attraction of growing rural population in the near future. Here we present the results of a multidisciplinary, multi-annual study of a small boreal humic lake of NW Russia. A shallow (3 m and a deep (16 m site of this lake were regularly sampled for a range of chemical and biological parameters. Average multi-daily, summer-time values of the epilimnion (upper oxygenated layer of the lake provided indications of possible trends in temperature, nutrients, and bacterio-plankton concentration that revealed the local pollution impact in the shallow zone and overall environmental trend in the deep sampling point of the lake. Organic phosphorus, nitrate, and lead were found to be most efficient tracers of local anthropogenic pollution, especially visible in the surface layer of the shallow site of the lake. Cycling of trace elements between the epilimnion and hypolimnion is tightly linked to dissolved organic matter speciation and size fractionation due to the dominance of organic and organo-ferric colloids. The capacity of lake self-purification depends on the ratio of primary productivity to mineralization of organic matter. This ratio remained >1 both during winter and summer periods, which suggests a high potential of lake recovery from the input of allochthonous dissolved organic matter and local anthropogenic pollution.

  11. Search for Exotic mono-jet and mono-photon signatures with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvani Reyhaneh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mono-jet and mono-photon signatures are final states in a variety of scenarios beyond the Standard Model, such as the Large Extra Dimension models, gauge-mediated SUSY breaking scenarios, and models with pair production of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles considered as dark matter candidates. The produced exotic particles do not interact with the detector, resulting in missing transverse energy. The results of searches, performed in the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, for new physics in final states with an energetic jet or photon and large missing transverse energy are presented. The mono-jet search is performed using both 4.6 fb−1 of 7 TeV and 10.5 fb−1 of 8 TeV data, while the mono-photon results correspond to 4.6 fb−1 of 7 TeV data.

  12. Lake Towuti, Indonesia: First Sedimentological Results of a New Surface Sediment Study during the Icdp-Tdp Campaign 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasberg, A. K.; Melles, M.; Vogel, H.; Russel, J.; Bijaksana, S.

    2015-12-01

    A. HASBERG1, M. MELLES1, H. VOGEL2, J. RUSSEL3, S. BIJAKSANA4 and all ICDP field campaign participations 1Institute for Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Str. 49a, 50974 Cologne, Germany, email: hasberga@uni-koeln.de 2Department for Geology, University Bern, Switzerland3Department of Geology, Brown University, USA 4Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia Lake Towuti (2.75°S, 121.5°E), the largest tectonically formed lake (surface area: 561 km²) of the Republic Indonesia, is located in Central Sulawesi. The lake has a high, unique, Fe-reducing bacterial biodiversity and it has an important relevance to evolutionary biology through its location. Furthermore it is part of the Malili lake system, which consists of five lakes. The three largest of these, Matano, Mahalona and Towuti, are connected through a surface outflow today, but the linkage may not have always existed during the past, as indicated by the high level of endemism in each lake and the active tectonic movement of the 'Matano Fault system'. In summer 2015 the ICDP-funded Towuti Drilling Project (TDP) was conducted at Lake Towuti and recovered over 1000 meters of new sediment core. Within the scope of the TDP, lake surface sediments were also collected to investigate the modern terrestrial climate and aquatic environmental conditions, as well as the major sediment input sources from the catchment area. We collected a 1 to 4 km high-resolution grid of 84 surface samples from Lake Towuti and five samples from the Mahalona River, which links the Malili Lakes. These 89 surface samples were analyzed by various, sedimentological methods including smear-slide microscopy, coarse-fraction analyses, grain-size analysis, XRF-powder, and CNS measurements. The results will help to understand the interaction between the present-day lake sedimentation, hydrological and climatic conditions and to evaluate these as proxies for the hydrological

  13. Age of the youngest volcanism at Eagle Lake, northeastern California—40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynne, Michael A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Champion, Duane E.; Muffler, L.J.P.; Sawlan, Michael G.; Downs, Drew T.

    2017-03-22

    The age of the youngest volcanism at Eagle Lake, California, was investigated using stratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and 40Ar/39Ar techniques. The three youngest volcanic lava flows at Eagle Lake yielded ages of 130.0±5.1, 127.5±3.2 and 123.6±18.7 ka, and are statistically indistinguishable. Paleomagnetic results demonstrate that two of the lava flows are very closely spaced in time, whereas the third is different by centuries to at most a few millennia. These results indicate that the basalt lava flows at Eagle Lake are not Holocene in age, and were erupted during an episode of volcanism at about 130–125 ka that is unlikely to have spanned more than a few thousand years. Thus, the short-term potential for subsequent volcanism at Eagle Lake is considered low. 

  14. Dissolved organic carbon concentration controls benthic primary production: results from in situ chambers in north-temperate lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Sean C.; Jones, Stuart E.; Weidel, Brian C.; Solomon, Christopher T.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated several potential drivers of primary production by benthic algae (periphyton) in north-temperate lakes. We used continuous dissolved oxygen measurements from in situ benthic chambers to quantify primary production by periphyton at multiple depths across 11 lakes encompassing a broad range of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total phosphorous (TP) concentrations. Light-use efficiency (primary production per unit incident light) was inversely related to average light availability (% of surface light) in 7 of the 11 study lakes, indicating that benthic algal assemblages exhibit photoadaptation, likely through physiological or compositional changes. DOC alone explained 86% of the variability in log-transformed whole-lake benthic production rates. TP was not an important driver of benthic production via its effects on nutrient and light availability. This result is contrary to studies in other systems, but may be common in relatively pristine north-temperate lakes. Our simple empirical model may allow for the prediction of whole-lake benthic primary production from easily obtained measurements of DOC concentration.

  15. How Long Is Mono Contagious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is contagious. Once someone gets mono, the virus stays in that person's body for life. That doesn't mean that you are always ... as long as 18 months. After that, the virus remains dormant (inactive) in the body for the rest of a person's life. If you've had mono, the virus can ...

  16. Biogeochemistry of Lakes in Western Papua, Indonesia - First Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallmeyer, J.; Nomosatryo, S.; Henny, C.; Kopalit, H.

    2016-12-01

    Despite years of exploration for mineral and hydrocarbon resources, the lakes of Western Papua have received very little attention from a limnogeologic perspective. In some cases not even the maximum water depth of the lakes is published. The only research carried out so far focused on the fish and invertebrate fauna of the lakes, because the macrofauna of Papuan Lakes is significantly different from other islands of western Indonesia. Most lakes harbor numerous endemic species. We carried out a first limnogeologic pilot campaign in spring 2016 to measure water column profiles and take short (max 80 cm long) sediment cores.Lake Sentani is seated in Mesozoic mafic bedrock and consists of four separate basins with maximum water depths of 30 to 40 m. Three basins are connected by shallow sills and one by a natural canal. Although all four basins share almost identical surface water chemistry and exhibit sub- to anoxic bottom waters, each basin has its distinct water column stratification and sediment geochemistry. Despite its coastal location and minimal elevation we could not identify an influx of seawater into the lake. Lake Ayamaru is located further inland on a densely forested karstified carbonate platform. The lake level has dropped significantly in recent years due to water loss into the karst, further reduction of open water surface is caused by massive growth of Pistia. Currently the lake has a maximum depth of around 2 m. Its sediment is mainly composed of carbonate minerals and methane saturated. Due to the carbonate bedrock the lake is highly alkaline (up to 20 meq/L) despite its very low salinity. The initial analyses show that these lakes offer unique biogeochemical conditions that require further in-depth studies.Our research will expand to lakes Anggi Giji and Anggi Gida, which are at almost 2000 m elevation. They have maximum depths of around 200 m and much colder surface waters (12-20°C) compared to the other two lakes that have about 30

  17. Hydrology of the lakes in Central Wohlthat Massif, East Antarctica: new results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haendel, Dietmar; Hermichen, Wolf-Dieter; Höfling, Reiner; Kowski, Peter

    2011-12-01

    In 1983/1984, in the course of the 28th Soviet Antarctic Expedition, waterbody, ice cover, and surrounding glaciers of the lakes Untersee and Obersee were sampled along some depth profiles. The geochemical data of those samples, now available, show the homogeneity of both large lakes in vertical (down to the maximum depth) as well as in lateral directions. The comparison of isotope and chemical composition of lake water and adjoining glacier ice suggests strong differences in the long-term evolution between the lakes Untersee and Obersee. First data from a lakelet, embedded in the large morainic area to the west of Lake Untersee, are of special interest: the δ(2)H values of the lakelet water are lower than those of recent regional glacier ice by 50‰ SMOW. This fact indicates that the lakelet is fed episodically by Pleistocene dead ice, covered by the morainic material.

  18. Holocene glacier activity on Kerguelen Island: preliminary results from a novel proglacial lake sediment record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støren, Eivind; Bakke, Jostein; Arnaud, Fabien; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Malet, Emmanuel; Sabatier, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Polar-regions are changing rapidly as greenhouse warming is continuing with huge impact on e.g. sea ice extent and snow cover. This change triggers teleconnections to low latitude areas challenging societies and human activity. We have, however, very little quantitative information of past climate in the Polar-regions that can be used to evaluate the potential responses and the response patterns to forcing changes and changes in boundary conditions. Whatever anthropogenic changes may occur in the future, they will be superimposed on, and interact with, natural climate variations due to all the forcing we are aware of. This means we need to better document past climate/environmental variability of the Polar-regions. Especially in the Southern Ocean there are few time series recording past climate due to few suitable land areas and the few Sub-Antarctic Islands is remote and has cumbersome logistics. Continuous terrestrial records from this region are therefore urgently needed for constraining future scenarios from earth system models. Glaciers and ice caps are still ubiquitous in the Polar-regions, although they are rapidly shrinking due to the on-going warming. The continuous sedimentary records produced by glaciers, which are stored in downstream lakes, represent supreme archives of past variability wherefrom quantitative information of key climate system components can be extracted. Kerguelen Island is located within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Southern Westerly wind belt and contains several glaciers and smaller ice caps. Terrestrial archives recording past history of the glaciers at Kerguelen thus have a unique potential to record past changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns from southern mid-latitudes. Here we present preliminary results from the first distal glacier-fed lake that is sampled from Kerguelen Island. A 2.8 m long sediment core was obtained from Lac Guynemer (121masl.) located at the Peninsule Loranchet at the

  19. High Holocene lake levels in eastern Patagonia (Argentina) as a result of persistent Atlantic rainfall (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariztegui, D.; Compagnucci, R.; Agosta, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Today's precipitation in central Patagonia, Argentina, mostly follows the intensity of the Westerlies. However, the extraordinary persistence of daily easterly winds can trigger episodes of intense rainfall reflected as water level variations in Lago Cardiel, a closed lacustrine basin located at 49°S. Meteorological data from 11-20 March 2002 at nearby Gobernador Gregores station recorded a heavy rain spell of 50mm accounting for 30% of the mean annual rainfall (167mm/year). The synoptic situation during this interval shows rainfall produced by wet air mass advection from the Atlantic. The weather surface maps for these days display a cyclone incoming at 45°S to the west of western Patagonia together with a concomitant anticyclone to the southwest, while a cyclogenesis initiates in eastern Patagonia. This pressure dipole produced east-north-eastern winds at the lake latitude and a generalized drop in the Westerlies intensity almost across the entire Patagonia. This is shown in distant stations such as Bariloche(41.9°S) and Rio Gallegos (51.4°S) in northwestern and southeastern Patagonia, respectively, as well as in Chilean stations such as Balmaceda (45.9°S) and Chile Chico (46.9°S). Similar pressure anomalies along with changes in wind intensity and direction have been previously simulated for the Austral winter (JJA) during the middle Holocene (7.0 to 4.5 kcal yrs BP). Thus, weaker Westerlies along with a higher frequency of the dipole-type atmospheric circulation than at present increased the described easterly winds-triggered rainfall. This inference agrees with high lake levels in the Lago Cardiel record along with more negative - Atlantic type - oxygen isotopic composition of authigenic carbonates. An increase in the frequency of this climatic configuration during longer time intervals could further explain the extreme lake highstands reconstructed for the early Holocene, and the contemporaneous negative isotopic signature of the carbonates. It could

  20. Deposits of the most recent eruption in the Southern Mono Craters, California: Description, interpretation and implications for regional marker tephras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursik, Marcus; Sieh, Kerry; Meltzner, Aron

    2014-04-01

    The penultimate eruption in the Mono Craters, Mono County, CA, USA, occurred in the southern section of the volcanic chain, and is herein named the South Mono eruption. The South Mono eruption occurred in 594-648cal A.D., and its products consist of widespread Plinian and phreatomagmatic fall, surge and pyroclastic flow deposits. The explosive deposits can be broken into Basal, Orange-Brown (surge dominated) and Upper subunits. The eruptive phase represented by the Upper beds was the most intense and voluminous, dispersing tephra over a wide region of eastern CA and western NV. South Coulee was the only effusive product of the eruption, and comprises the vast majority of the c. 0.4 cu km dense-rock equivalent (DRE) volume. The tephra overlies the deposits of Wilson Butte to the south, and is correlated herein with Wood's Tephra 2, and Walker Lake and Turupah Flats regional marker tephra layers. Other dates for these regional tephras may be the result of dating ash redeposited in debris flow events following fire.

  1. Water Resources Data for California, water year 1981: Vol. 1. Colorado River basin, Southern Great basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1982-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1981 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 169 gaging stations; stage and contents for 19 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 42 streams and 21 wells; water levels for 169 observation wells. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  2. Stakeholder Survey Results for Lake Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge : Completion Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Lake Umbagog is a newly established Refuge (in 1993) with an increasing visitation. Current visitation numbers are around 55,000 visits/year. Though limited visitor...

  3. Effect of inorganic N enrichment on basal pelagic production in boreal unproductive lakes along a gradient of DOC concentration - results after 1 year of fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Anne; Bergström, Ann-Kristin

    2013-04-01

    Input of inorganic nitrogen (N) in boreal unproductive lakes is steadily increasing due to anthropogenic deposition and usage of artificial fertilizers. N enrichment is predicted to have a major impact on the ecosystem productivity and food web structure in unproductive clear-water and humic lakes. For a long time, pelagic primary production (PP) has been mainly regarded as being phosphorus (P) limited. However, recent studies have shown that this is not true for unproductive lakes in northern Sweden, where phytoplankton is mainly N limited. Addition of inorganic N should therefore increase phytoplankton growth in these lake ecosystems. Bacterial production (BP) in the pelagic habitat, on the other hand, is usually limited by P. Nevertheless, elevated N could have a stimulating effect on BP through enhanced leakage of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from phytoplankton following enhanced N availability and higher PP. Further, unproductive lakes vary naturally in their DOC content which affects overall nutrient- (N and P), energy- and carbon availability (light, C) for the basal producers (phytoplankton, bacteria). It is still not clear how higher inorganic N availability affects primary- and bacterial production in the pelagic in lakes with varying DOC content. We subsequently assessed this question by conducting whole-lake fertilization experiments with inorganic N additions in 6 lakes with varying DOC concentrations (2 low DOC; 2 medium DOC; 2 high DOC). For each DOC level one lake functioned as a reference and one was fertilized with N. Year 2011 was a reference year (all lakes) and 2012 was the first year of fertilization (i.e. in 3 lakes). Measurements included basal productivity such as primary production and bacteria production, lake water chemistry and physical parameters (i.e. light, temperature). The results of this study will help to develop a conceptual understanding of how increased inorganic N availability (through land use such as forestry and

  4. RESULTS OF LONG-TERM (2006-2016 AVIAN INFLUENZA SURVEILLANCE IN WILD BIRDS OF UVS NUUR LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shestopalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to analyze the long-term results of the avian influenza virus surveillance monitoring of influenza virus in birds of one of the key Northern Eurasia points Lake. Uvs Nuur, the Republic of Tyva. Methods. The analysis of the available sources and our own research results is conducted. We used MEGA 5.2 software to construct a phylogenetic dendrogram. Tree topology is constructed by the method of maximum likelihood. Genetic distance matrix is calculated using the Kimura two-parameter metric method. Results. We conducted a biogeographical analysis of the Great Lakes basin, and an overview of the literature and the original results of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza circulation and molecular epidemiology at Uvs Nuur Lake. Conclusion. Long-term observations at Lake Uvs Nuur revealed the important role of the biogeocoenose for the preservation and evolution of influenza A virus in wild bird populations. Planned ecological and virological monitoring is the basis for correct conclusions about the dynamics of epizootic process, infection control, as well as for the evaluation of the epidemic and pandemic potential of novel viral strains.

  5. Preliminary Results from a Late Pleistocene to Holocene Paleoclimate Study of the Lake Sediment Cores, Northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo, D. N.; Brister, A. R.; LoPresti, C. A.; Maldonado, M.; Pitrucha, R. M.; West, C.; Martinez, E.; Lineline, J.; Petronis, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    We present the preliminary results from an integrated, paleoclimatic study of sediment cores collected from the Las Vegas National Wildlife Refuge (LVNWR) and surrounding region that bear on the late Pleistocene to Holocene paleoclimatic variations in northeastern NM. We collected sedimentologic, midge fossil, and rock magnetic data from sediment cores to characterize the materials, identify stratigraphic changes, document shifting lake levels, assess temperature changes, and infer paleoclimate conditions. Data from McAllister and Wallace Lake are encouraging and reveal depth dependent changes in fossil assemblages, grain size, and rock magnetic properties that we interpret to reflect climatic driven variations impacting the depositional system. We recognize three different types of chironomid subfamilies (Chironomini, Tanypodinae, and Orthocladiinae). Based on the fossil results, the water has been warm in the most recent years. Grain size distribution from the lower to upper core levels reveal that the amount of fine sand-sized sediment (0.125 mm diameter) increases while the amount of medium (0.25) to coarse (0.50) sand-sized sediment decreases implying that there may have been a reduction in stream energy and hence precipitation over the time period represented by the core. Bulk low-field magnetic susceptibility decreases by an order of magnitude from the surface to the base of the measured core suggesting a change in detrital magnetic influx into the lacustrian system. Curie point estimates indicate that the dominant magnetic mineral in all samples is cubic, low-Ti titanomagnetite phase. We postulate that concurrent with alpine glacial activity during the Pleistocene, the LVNWR and the transitional Great Plains region to the northeast was an expansive single lake or interconnected lake system, analogous to the Pleistocene lakes of the Estancia Basin (Lake Estancia) and the Tularosa Basin (Lake Otero) of central and southern NM. Following the end of glacial

  6. Dissolved greenhouse gas concentrations as proxies for emissions: First results from a survey of 43 Alpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pighini, Sylvie; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Miglietta, Franco

    2015-04-01

    Up to very recently, freshwater ecosystems were neglected in assessments of the global carbon cycle and considered merely as passive 'pipes' which transport carbon from the land to the oceans. This view has been challenged by an increasing number of studies showing that freshwater ecosystems may negate a substantial fraction of the carbon sink through carbon dioxide (CO2) and in particular methane (CH4) emissions and thus rather should be viewed as 'reactors' which process a large fraction of the terrigenous carbon. Most of our knowledge on freshwater CO2 and CH4 emissions to date derives from studies in tropical and boreal regions, while temperate freshwater ecosystems are understudied. This study is focused on lakes from the Alpine area and their content in dissolved greenhouse gases, CH4 and CO2. We mostly aim to assess the content of dissolved methane and carbon dioxide from the Alpine lakes in order to understand whether Alpine lakes could be potential CH4 and CO2 emitters. We also would like to relate concentrations to lake characteristics and potential biotic and abiotic driving forces. A diverse set of 43 lakes, from Trentino, South Tirol (Italy) and North Tirol (Austria), was selected resulting in a gradient with respect to elevation (from 240 to 1700 m a.s.l.) and latitude (from 45.52° to 47.38°). Complementary to dissolved CH4 and CO2 surface water samples, dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured. Only water surface samples were considered. Analyses were done with a gas chromatographer equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) for CH4 and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) for CO2 determination. The first results show that all the sampled lakes were super-saturated in dissolved methane and carbon dioxide concentrations, at least partly to a degree that in the literature has been shown to result in substantial emissions to the atmosphere. To estimate emissions, CO2 and CH4 fluxes will be quantified using the eddy covariance and floating

  7. Optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer - ready as a surrogate for optical biopsy? - results of a prospective mono-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction New modalities like Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT allow non-invasive examination of the internal structure of biological tissue in vivo. The potential benefits and limitations of this new technology for the detection and evaluation of bladder cancer were examined in this study. Materials and methods Between January 2007 and January 2008, 52 patients who underwent transurethral bladder biopsy or TUR-BT for surveillance or due to initial suspicion of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder were enrolled in this study. In total, 166 lesions were suspicious for malignancy according to standard white light cystoscopy. All suspicious lesions were scanned and interpreted during perioperative cystoscopy using OCT. Cold cup biopsies and/or TUR-B was performed for all these lesions. For this study we used an OCT-device (Niris®, Imalux®, Cleveland, US, that utilizes near-infrared light guided through a flexible fibre-based applicator, which is placed into the bladder via the working channel of the cystoscope. The technology provides high spatial resolution on the order of about 10-20 μm, and a visualization of tissue to a depth of about 2 mm across a lateral span of about 2 mm in width. The device used received market clearance from the FDA and CE approval in Germany. The diagnostic and surgical procedure was videotaped and analyzed afterwards for definitive matching of scanned and biopsied lesion. The primary aim of this study was to determine the level of correlation between OCT interpretation and final histological result. Results Of 166 scanned OCT images, 102 lesions (61.4% matched to the same site where the biopsy/TUR-BT was taken according to videoanalysis. Only these video-verified lesions were used for further analysis. Of all analyzed lesions 88 were benign (inflammation, edema, hyperplasia etc. and 14 were malignant (CIS, Ta, T1, T2 as shown by final histo pathology. All 14 malignant lesions were detected correctly by

  8. Impact of lamivudine monotherapy in failing patients with multidrug-resistant HIV: final 48 weeks results (MONO-AIFA FARM7PAZS3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Castagna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: To assess the impact of lamivudine (3TC monotherapy in failing patients with multidrug-resistant HIV and limited therapeutic options. Methods: Prospective, open-label, multicenter, randomised (1:1, pilot study. HIV-1 failing pts with M184V mutation, HBsAg negative were assigned to 3TC 300mg QD for 24 weeks followed by a new regimen for 24 weeks (Arm A or to a new regimen for 48 weeks (Arm B. The new HAART regimen was decided before randomisation in both groups, based on clinical history, genotype and viral tropism. Primary endpoint was the proportion of pts with HIV-RNA<50 copies/mL (VS at week 48 (W48. ITT and OT analysis performed. Results described by median (IQR. Summary of results: 109 screened, 34 screening failures, 75 randomised, 72 initiated the assigned treatment [38 and 34 pts in Arm A and B, respectively]: 69% males; age: 47.4 (43.2–51.9 years; years of HIV infection: 17 (14–23; nadir CD4+: 150 (47–231 cells/μL. Similar baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were found in Arm A vs Arm B [CD4+: 413 (294–550 vs 377 227–520 cells/µL; HIV-RNA: 3.94 (2.89–4.43 vs 3.66 (2.78–4.20 log10copies/mL; number of mutations: 9 (5–13 vs 9 (3–19; R5-virus: 67% vs 50%; new regimen GSS: 2 (2–3 vs 2 (2–2; 60% vs 56% pts included in the new regimen at least two of the following drugs: DRV/r, MVC, RAL, ETR, T-20]. At W48, pts with VS were 15/38 (39% vs 17/34 (50% in Arm A and B, respectively (ITT: P=0.477. In Arm A, 25/38 (66% completed the 24-weeks of monotherapy and 21 reached week 48 vs 27 pts in Arm B (P=0.045. Pts with VS were 15/21 (71% vs 17/27 (63% in Arm A and B, respectively (OT: P=0.758. VS according to nadir CD4+, screening HIVRNA and GSS of the new regimen shown in 1. SAEs occurred in 4 (11% and 2 (6% in Arm A and B, respectively; all but 1 in Arm A unrelated to the regimen; 4 CDC events: 3 oral candidiasis and 1 recurrence of CMV infection in Arm A; 1 oral candidiasis in Arm B. W48 CD4

  9. Optical Coherencetomography for Bladder Cancer-Ready as a Surrogate for Optical Biopsy? Results of a Prospective Mono-Centre Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl, H. Stepp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is no perfect noninvasive diagnostic technique for bladder cancer. Cystoscopy and transurethral resection (TUR are stil gold standard for the diagnosis of muscle invasive bladder cancer. On the other hand, Optical CoherenceTomography (OCT can be alternative in the future. OCT was the first applied for opthalmology. OCT provides layer by layer images from target tissues with high-resolution, optical cross-sectional tomographic imaging. OCT’s concept is similar to ultrasound, differently it use light for detection. OCT’s resolution may vary from 20 microns (μm up to 1 μm that depends on optical system and lightsource. The image penetration depth of OCT can reach to 2-3 mm. Recently, there are many research about OCT for the diagnosis of urogenital tumors in the literature. In this study, A.Karl reported sensitivity and specificty of OCT for detecting the presence of malignant lession as 100% and %65. But, this small study includes only 52 patients who have 166 suspicious lesions. Specifity of OCT was inadequate due to false positive images, in this report. Contrary, there were no false negative lesions and its sensitivity was 100% depend on all invasive tumors detected and staged correctly beyond the lamina propria. False positive results were associated with edema, inflammation and scar. The overall OCT sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative and positive predictive values are reported as 75-100%, 65-98%, 92%, 75% and 100% in the literature. We need more large-scale studies about this topic. It will be promissing technique for diagnostics of urogenital malignant lesions. OCT (optical biopsy will progress with tecnical development and it will be alternative method for staging of bladder cancer.

  10. Are Sierran Lakes Warming as a Result of Climate Change? The Effects of Climate Warming and Variation in Precipitation on Water Temperature in a Snowmelt-Dominated Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadro, S.; Melack, J. M.; Sickman, J. O.; Skeen, K.

    2016-12-01

    Water temperature regulates a broad range of fundamental ecosystem processes in lakes. While climate can be an important factor regulating lake temperatures, heterogeneity in the warming response of lakes is large, and variation in precipitation is rarely considered. We analyzed three decades of climate and water temperature data from a high-elevation catchment in the southern Sierra Nevada of California to illustrate the magnitude of warming taking place during different seasons and the role of precipitation in regulating lake temperatures. Significant climate warming trends were evident during all seasons except spring. Nighttime rates of climate warming were approximately 25% higher than daytime rates. Spatial patterns in warming were elevation dependent, with rates of temperature increase higher at sites above 2800 m.a.s.l. than below. Although interannual variation in snow deposition was high, the frequency and severity of recent droughts has contributed to a significant 3.4 mm year -1 decline in snow water equivalent over the last century. Snow accumulation, more than any other climate factor, regulated lake temperature; 94% of variation in summer lake temperature was regulated by precipitation as snow. For every 100 mm decrease in snow water equivalent there was a 0.62 ° increase in lake temperature. Drought years amplify warming in lakes by reducing the role of cold spring meltwaters in lake energy budgets and prolonging the ice-free period during which lakes warm. The combination of declining winter snowpack and warming air temperatures has the capacity to amplify the effect of climate warming on lake temperatures during drought years. Interactions among climatic factors need to be considered when evaluating ecosystem level effects, especially in mountain regions. For mountain lakes already affected by drought, continued climate warming during spring and autumn has the greatest potential to impact mean lake temperatures.

  11. High energy neutrino acoustic detection activities in Lake Baikal: Status and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aynutdinov, V.; Avrorin, A.; Balkanov, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belolaptikov, I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bogorodsky, D. [Applied Physics Institute of Irkutsk State University, Gagarin blvd. 20, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Budnev, N. [Applied Physics Institute of Irkutsk State University, Gagarin blvd. 20, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: nbudnev@api.isu.ru; Danilchenko, I.; Domogatsky, G.; Doroshenko, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dyachok, A. [Applied Physics Institute of Irkutsk State University, Gagarin blvd. 20, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Dzhilkibaev, Zh.-A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fialkovsky, S. [Nizhni Novgorod State Technical University, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Gaponenko, O. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Golubkov, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Gress, O.; Gress, T.; Grishin, O. [Applied Physics Institute of Irkutsk State University, Gagarin blvd. 20, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation); Klabukov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klimov, A. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kochanov, A. [Applied Physics Institute of Irkutsk State University, Gagarin blvd. 20, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation)] (and others)

    2009-06-01

    We review the status of high-energy acoustic neutrino detection activities in Lake Baikal. The Baikal collaboration constructed a hydro-acoustic device which may be regarded as a prototype subunit for a future underwater acoustic neutrino telescope. The device is capable of common operation with the Baikal neutrino telescope NT200+, and is operating at a depth of about 150 m on the 'NT200+ instrumentation string'. Our measurements show that the integral noise power in the frequency band 20-40 kHz can reach levels as low as about 1 mPa, i.e. one of the lowest noise levels measured at the currently considered acoustic neutrino sites. At the same time, short acoustic pulses with different amplitudes and shapes have been observed. Low sound absorption in Baikal freshwater and absence of strong acoustic noise sources do motivate further activities towards a large-scale acoustic neutrino detector in Lake Baikal.

  12. First tephrostratigraphic results of the DEEP site record from Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania)

    OpenAIRE

    Leicher, Niklas; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Giaccio, Biagio; Wagner, Bernd; Nomade, Sebastien; Francke, Alexander; Carlo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A tephrostratigraphic record covering the Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1–15 was established for the DEEP site record of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia and Albania). Major element analyses (energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy (WDS)) were carried out on juvenile fragments extracted from 12 tephra layers (OH-DP-0115 to OH-DP-2060). The geochemical analyses of the glass shards of all of these layers suggest an origin in the Italian volcanic province...

  13. Festival nimega Mono / Ivar Sakk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sakk, Ivar, 1962-

    2015-01-01

    Haapsalu graafilise disaini festival Haapsalu Linnagaleriis: sisaldab ülevaate- ja teemanäitust ning väikest sümpoosioni. Temaatilise aastanäituse motiiv on "MONO". Plakateid on ka välismaa tegijatelt. Kuraator Marko Kekishev

  14. Debris flows resulting from glacial-lake outburst floods in tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Cheng, Z.; Scott, K.

    2010-01-01

    During the last 70 years of general climatic amelioration, 18 glacial-lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and related debris flows have occurred from 15 moraine-dammed lakes in Tibet, China. Catastrophic loss of life and property has occurred because of the following factors: the large volumes of water discharged, the steep gradients of the U-shaped channels, and the amount and texture of the downstream channel bed and bank material. The peak discharge of each GLOF exceeded 1000 m3/s. These flood discharges transformed to non-cohesive debris flows if the channels contained sufficient loose sediment for entrainment (bulking) and if their gradients were >1%. We focus on this key element, transformation, and suggest that it be included in evaluating future GLOF-related risk, the probability of transformation to debris flow and hyperconcentrated flow. The general, sequential evolution of the flows can be described as from proximal GLOFs, to sedimentladen streamflow, to hyperconcentrated flow, to non-cohesive debris flow (viscous or cohesive debris flow only if sufficient fine sediment is present), and then, distally, back to hyperconcentrated flow and sediment-laden streamflow as sediment is progressively deposited. Most of the Tibet examples transformed only to non-cohesive debris flows. The important lesson for future hazard assessment and mitigation planning is that, as a GLOF entrains (bulks) enough sediment to become a debris flow, the flow volume must increase by at least three times (the "bulking factor"). In fact, the transforming flow waves overrun and mix with downstream streamflow, in addition to adding the entrained sediment (and thus enabling addition of yet more sediment and a bulking factor in excess of three times). To effectively reduce the risk of GLOF debris flows, reducing the level of a potentially dangerous lake with a siphon or excavated spillway or installing gabions in combination with a downstream debris dam are the primary approaches.

  15. Hydrothermal Petroleum in Active Continental Rift: Lake Chapala, Western Mexico, Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate-del Valle, P. F.; Simoneit, B. R.; Ramirez-Sanchez, H. U.

    2003-12-01

    Lake Chapala in western Mexico is located partially in the Citala Rift, which belongs to the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The region is characterized by active volcanism (Ceboruco, Volcan de Fuego), tectonic (1995 earthquake, M=8, 40-50 mm to SW) and hydrothermal (San Juan Cosala & Villa Corona spas and La Calera sinter deposit) activities. Hydrothermal petroleum has been described in active continental rift (East African Rift) and marine spreading zones (Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California). In 1868 the Mexican local press reported that manifestations of bitumen were appearing in front of the Columba Cap on the mid south shore of Lake Chapala. This bitumen is linked to the lake bottom and when the water level decreases sufficiently it is possible to access these tar bodies as islands. Because of these manifestations the Mexican oil company (PEMEX) drilled an exploration well (2,348m) at Tizapan El Alto without success. Hydrothermal activity is evident in the tar island zone as three in-shore thermal springs (26.8 m depth, 48.5° C, pH 7.8 and oriented N-S). The preliminary analyses by GC-MS of the tar from these islands indicate hydrothermal petroleum derived from lake sedimentary organic matter, generated at low temperatures (150° -200° C). The tars contain no n-alkanes, no PAH or other aromatics, but a major UCM of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons and mature biomarkers derived from lacustrine biota. The biomarkers consist of mainly 17α (H),21β (H)-hopanes ranging from C27 to C34 (no C28), gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes (C20-C26), carotane and its cracking products, and drimanes (C14-C16). The biomarker composition indicates an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. 14C dating of samples from two tar islands yielded ages exceeding 40 kyrs, i.e., old carbon from hydrothermal/tectonic remobilization of bitumen from deeper horizons to the surface. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in

  16. Plasma etching on large-area mono-, multi- and quasi-mono crystalline silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We use plasma etched Black Si (BS)[1][2] nanostructures to achieve low reflectance due to the resulting graded refractive index at the Si-air interface. The goal of this investigation is to develop a suitable texturing method for Si solar cells. Branz et al. [3]report below 3% average reflectance...... advantages such as; (i) excellent light trapping, (ii) dry, single-sided and scalable process method and (iii) etch independence on crystallinity of Si, RIE-texturing has so far not been proven superior to standard wet texturing, primarily as a result of lower power conversion efficiency due to increased...... using maskless RIE in a O2 and SF6 plasma, and the surface topology was optimized for solar cell applications by varying gas flows, pressure, power and process time. The starting substrates were 156x156 mm p-type, CZ mono-, multi- and quasi-mono crystalline Si wafers, respectively, with a thickness...

  17. First tephrostratigraphic results of the DEEP site record from Lake Ohrid, Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Leicher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A~tephrostratigraphic record covering the Marine Isotope Stages (MIS 1–15 was established for the DEEP site record of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania. Major element analyses (SEM-EDS/WDS were carried out on juvenile fragments extracted from 12 tephra layers (OH-DP-0115 to OH-DP-2060. The geochemical analyses of the glass shards of all of these layers suggest an origin from the Italian Volcanic Provinces. They include: the Y-3 (OH-DP-0115, 26.68–29.42 cal ka BP, the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 (OH-DP-0169, 39.6 ± 0.1 ka, and the X-6 (OH-DP-0404, 109 ± 2 ka from the Campanian volcanoes, the P-11 of the Pantelleria Island (OH-DP-0499, 129 ± 6 ka, the Vico B (OH-DP-0617, 162 ± 6 ka from the Vico volcano, the Pozzolane Rosse (OH-DP-1817, 457 ± 2 ka and the Tufo di Bagni Albule (OH-DP-2060, 527 ± 2 ka from the Colli Albani volcanic district, and the Fall A (OH-DP-2010, 496 ± 3 ka from the Sabatini volcanic field. Furthermore, a comparison of the Ohrid record with tephrostratigraphic records of mid-distal archives related to the Mediterranean area, allowed the recognition of the equivalents of other less known tephra layers, such as the TM24-a/POP2 (OH-DP-0404, 101.8 ka from the Lago Grande di Monticchio and the Sulmona basin, the CF-V5/PRAD3225 (OH-DP-0624, ca. 162 ka from the Campo Felice basin/Adriatic Sea, the SC5 (OH-DP-1955, 493.1 ± 10.9 ka from the Mercure basin, and the A11/12 (OH-DP-2017, 511 ± 6 ka from the Acerno basin, whose specific volcanic sources are still poorly constrained. Additionally, one cryptotephra (OH-DP-0027 was identified by correlation of the potassium XRF intensities from the DEEP site with those from short cores of previous studies from Lake Ohrid. In these cores, a maximum in potassium is caused by glass shards, which were correlated with the Mercato tephra (8.43–8.63 cal ka BP from Somma-Vesuvius. With the tephrostratigraphic work, a consistent part of the Middle Pleistocene tephrostratigraphic framework of

  18. Climate inferences between paleontological, geochemical, and geophysical proxies in Late Pleistocene lacustrine sediments from Summer Lake, Oregon, western Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Eric; Thompson, Greg; Negrini, Rob; Wigand, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Paleontological, geochemical, and geophysical data from western Great Basin pluvial Summer Lake, Oregon have established a high resolution paleoclimate record during the late Pleistocene Mono Lake Excursion (~34.75 ka), Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials 6-8, and the end of Heinrich Even 4 (~38 ka). Proxies of grain-size, magnetic susceptibility, carbon/nitrogen ratio, ostracode analysis and palynology from a depocenter core show new results with improved age control regarding high amplitude, high frequency changes in lake level, lake temperature, and regional precipitation and temperature which correspond directly with colder/warmer and respectively drier/wetter climates as documented with Northern Atlantic Greenland ice core data. Results from geophysical and geochemical analysis, and the presence of ostracode Cytherissa lacustris consistently demonstrate the correspondence of low lake conditions and colder water temperatures during Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials and the Mono Lake Excursion. The opposite holds true during interstadials. Smaller grain size, increases in carbon/nitrogen ratio and consistent absence of C. lacustris suggest periods of increased discharge into the lake, increased lake level, and warmer water temperatures. Warmer/wetter climate conditions are confirmed during interstadials 7 and 8 from pollen analysis. Existence of Atriplex, Rosaceae, Chrysothamnus and Ambrosia, and pollen ratios of Juniperus/Dip Pinus and (Rosaceae+Atriplex+Poaceae+Chrysothamnus+Ambrosia)/(Pinus+Picea+T. mertensiana+Sarcobatus) suggest warmer/wetter semi-arid woodland conditions during interstadials 7 and 8. This contrasts with absences in these pollens and pollen ratios indicating colder/drier continental montane woodland conditions during stadials and the Mono Lake Excursion. Increases in Juniper/Dip Pinus ratio suggest a warmer/wetter climate during interstadial 6 however additional proxies do not demonstrate comparative warmer/wetter climate, deeper lake level or

  19. Forsmark site investigation. Hydrochemical investigations in four calciferous lakes in the Forsmark area. Results from the second year of a complementary investigation in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qvarfordt, Susanne; Borgiel, Micke [Sveriges Vattenekologer AB, Vingaaker (Sweden); Berg, Cecilia [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    The present report documents the results from the second year of hydrochemical investigations in four small, calciferous lakes in the Forsmark area in order to study the lake water compositions. The construction of a permanent storage facility for used nuclear fuel may result in a lowering of the ground water level and also lake surface water levels. Restoration of habitats by adding water may be an option to reduce possible negative consequences induced by a lower water level on biodiversity and valuable species. Thus, knowledge of the water composition is needed. This report presents the results from six sampling occasions during January to December 2010. The results from the sampling of the four lakes includes field measurements of redox potential (ORP), pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, salinity, depth, atmospheric pressure, turbidity, chlorophyll and water temperature, as well as chemical analyses of major constituents and nutrient salts. The four investigated small lakes are well buffered with high alkalinity, high pH and high calcium concentrations. This is in accordance with results from the ongoing monitoring programme of lakes and streams in the area and with the results from the previous sampling period (2008-2009). The results show both seasonal and inter-annual variation in the analysed parameters. This can be explained by seasonal changes and annual differences in temperature, ice-cover, precipitation etc and lake specific parameters such as lake size and drainage area. The variation highlights the importance of both year round sampling and continued sampling for several years when discussing the water composition.

  20. Arsenic, Prokaryotes, and Closed Basin Soda Lakes of the Western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    A number of saline, alkaline soda lakes in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert of the United States have unusually high concentrations of inorganic arsenic dissolved in their brine-waters. The arsenic originates from natural rather than anthropogenic sources, namely volcanic hydrothermal inputs. When this influx is coupled with evapo-concentration and the unique chemical behavior of arsenic oxyanions in alkaline waters, it results in extremely elevated As concentrations. For example, the salinity and arsenate levels of 3 comparable soda lakes (pH 9.8) are: Big Soda Lake, NV (27 g/L; 20 uM), Mono Lake, CA (90 g/L; 200 uM), and Searles Lake, CA (340 g/L; 3,900 uM). The arsenic oxidation state changes from As5+ (arsenate) to As3+ (arsenite) with vertical transition from their oxygenated surface water to their anoxic bottom water. Similar phenomena occur in their littoral sediments. These lakes also harbor active populations of prokaryotes that achieve these As redox changes either by using arsenate as an electron acceptor for respiration, or by employing arsenite as a chemoautotrophic electron donor. Diverse microorganisms have been identified in these systems that are involved in the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic therein, and in situ studies made with radiotracer (73As) and other means showed that these redox reactions occur at rapid rates. However, other than their use for waterfowl hunting (Big Soda Lake), as a region of scenic beauty (Mono Lake), or as a resource for the chemical industry (Searles Lake), there is little concern about the arsenic in these systems because the waters are not potable and their chemistry is too extreme to allow for the presence of fish. Nonetheless, microbial processes that govern arsenic biogeochemistry can greatly influence the hydrologic mobility and toxicity of this element in freshwater systems, such as drinking water aquifers. Moreover, anthropogenic inputs of arsenic can also occur in closed basin lakes in this region, such as

  1. Mono-W Dark Matter Signals at the LHC: Simplified Model Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Nicole F; Leane, Rebecca K

    2015-01-01

    We study mono-W signals of dark matter (DM) production at the LHC, in the context of gauge invariant renormalizable models. We analyze two simplified models, one involving an s-channel Z' mediator and the other a t-channel colored scalar mediator, and consider examples in which the DM-quark couplings are either isospin conserving or isospin violating after electroweak symmetry breaking. While previous work on mono-W signals have focused on isospin violating EFTs, obtaining very strong limits, we find that isospin violating effects are small once such physics is embedded into a gauge invariant simplified model. We thus find that the 8 TeV mono-W results are much less constraining than those arising from mono-jet searches. Considering both the leptonic (mono-lepton) and hadronic (mono fat jet) decays of the W, we determine the 14 TeV LHC reach of the mono-W searches with 3000 fb$^{-1}$ of data. While a mono-W signal would provide an important complement to a mono-jet discovery channel, existing constraints on t...

  2. Results of national lake surveys 1995 in Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Russian Kola, Russian Karelia, Scotland and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Arne; Skjelkvaale, Brit Lisa [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Mannio, Jaakko [FEI, (Finland)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Beginning in 1995, national lake surveys were conducted in the above North European countries. This report provides the first united evaluation of lake water chemistry in Northern Europe. It was found that, except for Denmark, the water was characterized by low ionic strength and had low content of nitrogen and phosphorus. In Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Kola and Karelia more than 50% of the lakes had low critical load (CL) values for sulphur acidity (S), while Scotland, Wales and Denmark had very few lakes with low CL for S. The highest percentage (27%) of lakes with exceedence of CL for S was found in Norway, while the values for Russian Kola, Sweden and Finland were 17%, 9% and 9%, respectively. In Scotland and Wales, critical loads for sulphur acidity were exceeded in 1% of the total lake population. For Denmark and Russian Karelia, too few lakes were sampled to give reliable estimates. This adds up to approximately 22000 lakes in Northern Europe where CL for S was exceeded. However, this number of lakes is a minimum as exceedence of CL for N was not included in the calculation due to lack of catchment data. 26 refs., 21 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. A comparison of results from previous and present investigations of benthic macroinvertebrates in the small and shallow Lake Shoji, Fuji Five Lakes, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimio Hirabayashi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the current status of the benthic community of Lake Shoji, and to examine the difference with the last quantitative data of the lake by Miyadi (1932 and Kitagawa (1973, the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in this lake was studied. Also, a comparison of the benthic fauna and density was made between the present and previous studies, with a discussion concerning the succession of benthic macroinvertebrates in relation to changes in the lake bottom environment. On March 1, 2010, and September 7, 2011, bathymetrical sampling surveys were carried out using a standard Ekman-Birge grab at each of the 7 locations in Lake Shoji. The average densities of the benthic communities for all the stations were 4,107 inds. m-2, comprised principally of oligochaetes 50.2%, chironomids 48.6%, and chaoborid 1.2% in March 2010, whereas in September 2011 the average density was 1,185 inds. m-2, and mostly comprised of oligochaetes 86.6% and chironomids 13.4%. On the other hand, the average biomasses (wet weight of these benthic macroinvertebrates in March 2010 were composed of 33.3% oligochaetes, 62.8% chironomid larvae, and 3.9% chaoborid larvae, as opposed to 48.8% oligochaetes and 51.2% chironomid larvae, respectively, in September 2011. Propsilocerus akamusi (Tokunaga, 1938 and Procladius sp. of chironomid larvae were the dominant species, making up 10.0% and 17.6%, respectively, of the total chironomid fauna in density, and 83.2% and 9.2% in biomass in March 2010. The mean density of P. akamusi was about 2.5 times higher than that reported by Kitagawa in the 1970s. In recent years, the number of P. akamusi larvae has tended to increase; they are widely distributed, and the anoxic-layer and anaerobic-layer are thickening, especially during summer to late fall in Lake Shoji, suggesting that the lake is in the process of eutrophication.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1365.Published online: 17 October 2012

  4. How well suited are maar lakes of Madagascar for palaeoenvironmental multi-proxy reconstructions? - First results from shallow seismic, sedimentological and hydrological investigations in Central and Northwest Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daut, Gerhard; Jasmin Krahn, Kim; Rabhobisoa, Jean-Jacques; Ornella Moanazafy, Sergénie; Haberzettl, Torsten; Kasper, Thomas; Mäusbacher, Roland; Schwalb, Antje

    2017-04-01

    high contents in organic matter, indicate a mixed signal of terrestrial input and intra-lake productivity, with sedimentation most probably under anoxic conditions. The marine site, in contrast, is influenced by tides, and characterized by coral debris in the shallow parts of the maar and grey silty sediments in the central part with a water depth of 5 m during low tide. However, initial results indicate that a combination of these maar lakes along climatic gradients hold a high potential for paleoenvironmental reconstructions even on long timescales.

  5. Enantioselective recognition of mono-demethylated methoxychlor metabolites by the estrogen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Masahiro; Shimada, Takahiro; Nakagami, Shizuka; Kurihara, Norio; Miyagawa, Hisashi; Akamatsu, Miki

    2004-02-01

    Metabolites of methoxychlor such as 2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (mono-OH-MXC) and 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (bis-OH-MXC), have estrogenic activity. Mono-OH-MXC is a chiral compound in which the carbon atom bridging two benzene rings is the chiral centre. In previous studies the estrogenic activity of racemic mono-OH-MXC has been measured, and the activity of each enantiomer of this compound has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the estrogen receptor-binding activity of each enantiomer of mono-OH-MXC to clarify the enantioselective recognition by the estrogen receptor. (S)-mono-OH-MXC showed 3-fold higher binding activity than that of the (R) enantiomer. The activity of bis-OH-MXC was only 1.7-fold higher than that of (S)-mono-OH-MXC. This result suggests that the one hydroxy group and the orientation of the CCl3 group of mono- and bis-OH-MXCs are important for the interaction with the estrogen receptor. The result also points out the estrogenic activity of methoxychlor after metabolic activation in vivo, which predominantly produces the (S)-mono-OH-MXC, may be higher than estimated from the in vitro activity of racemic mixtures.

  6. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2010/2011 : Individual refuge results for Banks Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Banks Lake NWR and is part of the USGS Data Series 643. The survey was conducted to better...

  7. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2010/2011 : Individual refuge results for Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Rice Lake NWR and is part of the USGS Data Series 643. The survey was conducted to better...

  8. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2010/2011 : Individual refuge results for Big Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Big Lake NWR and is part of the USGS Data Series 643. The survey was conducted to better...

  9. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2010/2011 : Individual refuge results for Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Sand Lake NWR and is part of the USGS Data Series 643. The survey was conducted to better...

  10. Collide and Conquer: Constraints on Simplified Dark Matter Models using Mono-X Collider Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Brennan, A J; Gramling, J; Jacques, T D

    2016-01-01

    The use of simplified models as a tool for interpreting dark matter collider searches has become increasingly prevalent, and while early Run II results are beginning to appear, we look to see what further information can be extracted from the Run I dataset. We consider three `standard' simplified models that couple quarks to fermionic singlet dark matter: an $s$-channel vector mediator with vector or axial-vector couplings, and a $t$-channel scalar mediator. Upper limits on the couplings are calculated and compared across three alternate channels, namely mono-jet, mono-$Z$ (leptonic) and mono-$W/Z$ (hadronic). The strongest limits are observed in the mono-jet channel, however the computational simplicity and absence of significant $t$-channel model width effects in the mono-boson channels make these a straightforward and competitive alternative. We also include a comparison with relic density and direct detection constraints.

  11. Ecosystem Responses to Changed Atmospheric Mercury Load: Results from Seven Years of Mercury Loading to Lake 658

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, C.; Harris, R.; Kelly, C.; Rudd, J.; Amyot, M.; Hurley, J.; Babiarz, C.; Paterson, M.; Blanchfield, P.; Beaty, K.; Sandilands, K.; Hintelmann, H.; Krabbenhoft, D.; Tate, M.; Lindberg, S.; Southworth, G.; St. Louis, V.; Graydon, J.

    2009-05-01

    The response of fish methylmercury concentrations to changes in mercury deposition has been difficult to establish because sediments/soils contain large pools of historical contamination, and many factors in addition to deposition affect fish mercury. To test directly the response of fish contamination to changing mercury deposition, we are conducting the METAALICUS study, a whole-ecosystem experiment, increasing the mercury load to a lake and its watershed by the addition of enriched stable mercury isotopes. The isotopes allowed us to distinguish between experimentally applied mercury and mercury already present in the ecosystem and to examine bioaccumulation of mercury deposited to different parts of the watershed. Loading began in 2001 and ended in 2007. In this paper we will present mercury and methylmercury budgets for the study lake for the entire 7 year loading period. Overall, we increased the total Hg load to L658 and its watershed by roughly a factor of 3. However, we only increased the Hg load the lake itself by about 2X, since, during the seven years of addition, almost none of the Hg spike deposited to the watershed was transported all the way to the lake. Spike Hg concentrations in lake water rose each year during the open-water loading period and declined rapidly each winter. Methylmercury production in the lake responded rapidly to changes in mercury load during the first year of addition. After about 3 years, the increase in MeHg in lake water and in surface sediments slowed, suggesting that MeHg production was approaching a new level, or different rate, in response to the increased Hg load. We will discuss major input and loss terms for newly deposited Hg, the timing and proportionality of response, the timing and locations of MeHg production within the lake.

  12. Investigations of the Origin of the Magnetic Remanence in Late Pleistocene Lacustrine Sediments in the Mono Basin, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, N.; Corley, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    In the Mono Basin, CA, fine sand, silt, and volcanic ash deposited in Pleistocene Lake Russell is exposed on the margin of Mono Lake, and on Paoha Island in the lake. The silt records the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE: Denham and Cox, 1971) and several tens of thousands of years of paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV: Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat, 1976; Lund et al., 1988). The sediment is believed to be an accurate recorder of PSV because the MLE has the same signal at widely separated localities in the basin (Denham, 1974; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Liddicoat, 1992) with the exception at wave-cut cliffs on the southeast side of the lake (Coe and Liddicoat, 1994). Magnetite, titanomagnetite, and titanomaghemite are present in the sediment (Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat, 1976; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979), which is glacial flour from the adjacent Sierra Nevada (Lajoie, 1968). X-rays of the sediment and lineation measurements show patterns of normal bedding with layers aligned such that the minimum axes are within 5-10 degrees of normal bedding, with 10 percent foliation and 1 percent lineation (Coe and Liddicoat, 1994). We explore reasons for the difference in part of the PSV record at the wave-cut cliffs beyond the interpretation of Coe and Liddicoat (1994) that paleomagnetic field strength is a controlling factor. Possibilities include the sedimentation rate - at localities on the margin of Mono Lake the rate is about 60 percent less than at the wave-cut cliffs - and lithology of the sediment. At Mill Creek on the northwest side of Mono Lake, the non-magnetic sediment fraction is coarser-grained than at the wave-cut cliffs by a factor of about two, and there is a similar difference in the total inorganic carbon (TIC) percentage by weight for the two localities. (Spokowski et al., 2011) Studies of the sediment at two localities in the basin where the Hilina Pali Excursion (Teanby et al., 2002) might be recorded (Wilson Creek and South Shore Cliffs; Liddicoat and Coe

  13. Long-Term Results from Evaluation of Advanced New Construction Packages in Test Homes: Lake Elsinore, Californi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Brozyna, K. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This report presents the long-term evaluation results from a hot-dry climate project that examines the room-to-room temperature conditions that exist in a high performance envelope, the performance of a simplified air distribution system, and a comparison of modeled energy performance with measured energy use. The project, a prototype house built by K. Hovnanian Homes’ Ontario Group, is located in Lake Elsinore, Riverside County, California, and achieves a 50% level of whole house source energy savings with respect to the Building America (BA) Benchmark Definition 2009 (Hendron and Engebrecht 2010). Temperature measurements in three rooms indicate that the temperature difference between the measured locations and the thermostat were within recommendations 90.3% of the time in heating mode and 99.3% of the time in cooling mode. The air distribution system is operating efficiently with average delivered temperatures adequate to facilitate proper heating and cooling and only minor average temperature differences observed between the system’s plenum and farthest register. Monitored energy use results for the house indicate that it is using less energy than predicted from modeling. A breakdown of energy use according to end use determined little agreement between comparable values.

  14. Long-Term Results from Evaluation of Advanced New Construction Packages in Test Homes: Lake Elsinore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, D.; Brozyna, K.

    2013-08-01

    This report presents the long-term evaluation results from a hot-dry climate project that examines the room-to-room temperature conditions that exist in a high performance envelope, the performance of a simplified air distribution system, and a comparison of modeled energy performance with measured energy use. The project, a prototype house built by K. Hovnanian Homes' Ontario Group, is located in Lake Elsinore, Riverside County, California, and achieves a 50% level of whole house source energy savings with respect to the Building America (BA) Benchmark Definition 2009 (Hendron and Engebrecht 2010). Temperature measurements in three rooms indicate that the temperature difference between the measured locations and the thermostat were within recommendations 90.3% of the time in heating mode and 99.3% of the time in cooling mode. The air distribution system is operating efficiently with average delivered temperatures adequate to facilitate proper heating and cooling and only minor average temperature differences observed between the system's plenum and farthest register. Monitored energy use results for the house indicate that it is using less energy than predicted from modeling. A breakdown of energy use according to end use determined little agreement between comparable values.

  15. Stochastic modeling of Lake Van water level time series with jumps and multiple trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aksoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, water level in the closed-basin Lake Van located in the Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, has risen up about 2 m. Analysis of the hydrometeorological data shows that change in the water level is related to the water budget of the lake. In this study, stochastic models are proposed for simulating monthly water level data. Two models considering mono- and multiple-trend time series are developed. The models are derived after removal of trend and periodicity in the dataset. Trend observed in the lake water level time series is fitted by mono- and multiple-trend lines. In the so-called mono-trend model, the time series is treated as a whole under the hypothesis that the lake water level has an increasing trend. In the second model (so-called multiple-trend, the time series is divided into a number of segments to each a linear trend can be fitted separately. Application on the lake water level data shows that four segments, each fitted with a trend line, are meaningful. Both the mono- and multiple-trend models are used for simulation of synthetic lake water level time series under the hypothesis that the observed mono- and multiple-trend structure of the lake water level persist during the simulation period. The multiple-trend model is found better for planning the future infrastructural projects in surrounding areas of the lake as it generates higher maxima for the simulated lake water level.

  16. Hydrologic and Geomorphic Changes Resulting from the Onset of Episodic Glacial Lake Outburst Floods: Colonia River, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, J.; McCoy, S. W.; McGrath, D.; Nimick, D.; Friesen, B.; Fahey, M. J.; Leidich, J.; Okuinghttons, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Colonia river system, draining the eastern edge of the Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile, has experienced a dramatic shift in flow regime from one characterized by seasonal discharge variability to one dominated by episodic glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). We use multi-temporal visible satellite images, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from stereo image pairs, and in situ observations to quantify sediment and water fluxes out of the dammed glacial lake, Lago Cachet Dos (LC2), as well as the concomitant downstream environmental change. GLOFs initiated in April 2008 and have since occurred, on average, two to three times a year. Differencing concurrent gage measurements made on the Baker River upstream and downstream of the confluence with the Colonia river finds peak GLOF discharges of ~ 3,000 m3s-1, which is ~ 4 times the median discharge of the Baker River and over 20 times the median discharge of the Colonia river. During each GLOF, ~ 200,000,000 m3 of water evacuates from the LC2, resulting in erosion of valley-fill sediments and the delta on the upstream end of LC2. Differencing DEMs between April 2008 and February 2014 revealed that ~ 2.5 x 107 m3 of sediment was eroded. Multi-temporal DEM differencing shows that erosion rates were highest initially, with > 20 vertical m of sediment removed between 2008 and 2012, and generally less than 5 m between 2012 and 2014. The downstream Colonia River Sandur also experienced geomorphic changes due to GLOFs. Using Landsat imagery to calculate the normalized difference water index (NDWI), we demonstrate that the Colonia River was in a stable configuration between 1984 and 2008. At the onset of GLOFs in April 2008, a change in channel location began and continued with each subsequent GLOF. Quantification of sediment and water fluxes due to GLOFs in the Colonia river valley provides insight on the geomorphic and environmental changes in river systems experiencing dramatic shifts in flow

  17. Reticulate phylogeny of gastropod-shell-breeding cichlids from Lake Tanganyika – the result of repeated introgressive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanc Michel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tribe Lamprologini is the major substrate breeding lineage of Lake Tanganyika's cichlid species flock. Among several different life history strategies found in lamprologines, the adaptation to live and breed in empty gastropod shells is probably the most peculiar. Although shell-breeding arose several times in the evolutionary history of the lamprologines, all obligatory and most facultative shell-breeders belong to the so called "ossified group", a monophyletic lineage within the lamprologine cichlids. Since their distinctive life style enables these species to live and breed in closest vicinity, we hypothesized that these cichlids might be particularly prone to accidental hybridization, and that introgression might have affected the evolutionary history of this cichlid lineage. Results Our analyses revealed discrepancies between phylogenetic hypotheses based on mitochondrial and nuclear (AFLP data. While the nuclear phylogeny was congruent with morphological, behavioral and ecological characteristics, several species – usually highly specialized shell-breeders – were placed at contradicting positions in the mitochondrial phylogeny. The discordant phylogenies strongly suggest repeated incidents of introgressive hybridization between several distantly related shell-breeding species, which reticulated the phylogeny of this group of cichlids. Long interior branches and high bootstrap support for many interior nodes in the mitochondrial phylogeny argue against a major effect of ancient incomplete lineage sorting on the phylogenetic reconstruction. Moreover, we provide morphological and genetic (mtDNA and microsatellites evidence for ongoing hybridization among distantly related shell-breeders. In these cases, the territorial males of the inferred paternal species are too large to enter the shells of their mate, such that they have to release their sperm over the entrance of the shell to fertilize the eggs. With sperm

  18. Effect of imbalanced nutrients and immigration on Prymnesium parvum community dominance and toxicity: Results from in-lake microcosm experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errera, R.M.; Roelke, D.L.; Kiesling, R.L.; Brooks, B.W.; Grover, J.P.; Schwierzke, L.; Urena-Boeck, F.; Baker, J.W.; Pinckney, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Prymnesium parvum, a haptophyte species, forms harmful blooms, including those that have caused severe fish kills in Texas, USA, over the past 6 yr. We studied P. parvum dynamics using in situ microcosm experiments at Lake Possum Kingdom, Texas, during 3 seasons (fall 2004, winter and spring 2005). Experimental treatments included full and partial nutrient enrichment (encompassing nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P] deficient treatments), P. parvum immigration and combinations of these factors. In the control and N and P deficient treatments, P. parvum populations dominated the community, but only in the N deficient treatments did P. parvum experience a significant growth in the population. In contrast, when nutrients were not limiting, P. parvum tended to lose its competitive edge to other taxa such as chlorophytes, euglenophytes and diatoms, which then dominated the community. Population growth of P. parvum was also stimulated through immigration, but only during the winter experiment, a period of the year when bloom initiation is common. This finding suggests that movement into the water column may be an important process leading to P. parvum bloom initiation. Toxicity of P. parvum to fish was also affected by the nutrient changes: during conditions of no nutrient addition P. parvum was most toxic; intermediate toxicity was observed under N and P deficient conditions, and full nutrient enrichments resulted in nearly non-toxic conditions. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  19. Monitoring of wild fish health at selected sites in the Great Lakes Basin: methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki; Mazik, Patricia M.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Braham, Ryan; Hahn, Cassidy; Walsh, Heather L.; Sperry, Adam

    2014-01-01

    During fall 2010 and spring 2011, a total of 119 brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), 136 white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), 73 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and 59 largemouth bass (M. salmoides) were collected from seven Great Lakes Basin Areas of Concern and one Reference Site. Comprehensive fish health assessments were conducted in order to document potential adverse affects from exposure to complex chemical mixtures. Fish were necropsied on site, blood samples obtained, pieces of liver, spleen, kidney, gill and any abnormalities placed in fixative for histopathology. Liver samples were saved for gene expression analysis and otoliths were removed for aging. A suite of fish health indicators was developed and implemented for site comparisons and to document seasonal effects and species differences in response to environmental conditions. Organism level (grossly visible lesions, condition factor), tissue level (microscopic pathology, organosomatic indices, micronuclei, and other nuclear abnormalities), plasma factors (reproductive steroid hormones, vitellogenin), and molecular (gene expression) indicators were included. This report describes the methods and preliminary results.

  20. Holocene Paleoenvironment of the North-central Great Basin: Preliminary Results from Favre Lake, Northern Ruby Mountains, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starratt, S.; Wahl, D.; Wan, E.; Anderson, L.; Wanket, J.; Olson, H.; Lloyd-Davies, T.; Kusler, J.

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about Holocene climate variability in north-central Nevada. This study aims to assess changes in watershed vegetation, fire history, lake levels and limnological conditions in order to understand secular to millennial-scale changes in regional climate. Favre Lake (2,899 m a.s.l.; 12 m deep; 7.7 hectares) is a flow-through lake in the northern Ruby Mountains. The primary sources of influent, both of which appear to be intermittent, are Castle Lake (2,989 m a.s.l.) and Liberty Lake (3,077 m a.s.l.). The bedrock of the three lake basins is early Paleozoic marble and Mesozoic granite and metamorphic rocks. Bathymetric maps and temperature, pH, salinity, and conductivity profiles have been generated for Favre Lake. Surface samples and a series of cores were also collected using a modified Livingstone piston corer. The presence of the Mazama ash in the basal sediment (~4 m below the sediment/water interface) indicates the record extends to ~7,700 cal yr B.P. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) and loss-on-ignition data indicate that the sediments in the lowest part of the core contain primary and reworked Mazama ash. About 2,000 years ago CaCO3 increased from 2 to 3% of the inorganic sediment. The upper 25 cm of the core are marked by an increase in MS which may indicate increased erosion due to grazing. Between about 7,700 and 6,000 cal yr B.P. the diatom flora is dominated by a diverse assemblage of benthic species. The remainder of the core is dominated by Fragilaria, suggesting that lake level rose and flooded the shelf that surrounds the depocenter of the lake. This is supported by changes in the abundance of the aquatic fern Isoetes. Pinus and Artemisia dominate the pollen record, followed by subordinate levels of Poaceae, Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, and Sarcobatus. The late early Holocene (7,700-6,000 cal yr B.P.) is dominated by Pinus which is present in reduced amounts during the middle Holocene (6,000-3,000 cal yr B.P.) and then returns to dominance in

  1. Rare earth element and uranium-thorium variations in tufa deposits from the Mono Basin, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, E. S.; Tomascak, P. B.; Hemming, N.; Hemming, S. R.; Rasbury, T.; Stine, S.; Zimmerman, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    , have small negative Ce anomalies. Concentrations of U and Th range from 0.5 to 12 ppm and from 0.2 to 12 ppm, respectively, with substantial variability in U/Th (0.08 to 20). Relative to modern Mono Lake water (Johannesson and Lyons, 1994, Limn. Oc., 39, 1141-1154) the tufa samples have 29 to 144000 times the total REE contents, but the water has HREE/LREE nearly twice as high as the most HREE-enriched fossil tufa. There is a general trend in which samples from higher elevation have lower average total REE, (Gd/Lu)SN and Th and higher average U and U/Th, the latter ranging from 0.52 in the locality at lowest elevation to 10.5 at the highest. In general the results show promise for the application of this approach to paleo-alkalinity, although analyses of modern precipitates as well as laboratory precipitation experiments are needed to fully address the processes.

  2. A scuba diving direct sediment sampling methodology on benthic transects in glacial lakes: procedure description, safety measures, and tests results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    This work presents an in situ sediment sampling method on benthic transects, specifically intended for scientific scuba diver teams. It was originally designed and developed to sample benthic surface and subsurface sediments and subaqueous soils in glacial lakes up to a maximum depth of 25 m. Tests were conducted on the Sabocos and Baños tarns (i.e., cirque glacial lakes) in the Spanish Pyrenees. Two 100 m transects, ranging from 24.5 to 0 m of depth in Sabocos and 14 m to 0 m deep in Baños, were conducted. In each test, 10 sediment samples of 1 kg each were successfully collected and transported to the surface. This sampling method proved operative even in low visibility conditions (sampling tests were conducted in Sabocos and Truchas tarns. This sampling methodology can be easily adapted to accomplish underwater sampling campaigns in nonglacial lakes and other continental water or marine environments.

  3. The environmental and evolutionary history of Lake Ohrid (FYROM/Albania): interim results from the SCOPSCO deep drilling project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bernd; Wilke, Thomas; Francke, Alexander; Albrecht, Christian; Baumgarten, Henrike; Bertini, Adele; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; D'Addabbo, Michele; Donders, Timme H.; Föller, Kirstin; Giaccio, Biagio; Grazhdani, Andon; Hauffe, Torsten; Holtvoeth, Jens; Joannin, Sebastien; Jovanovska, Elena; Just, Janna; Kouli, Katerina; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Krastel, Sebastian; Lacey, Jack H.; Leicher, Niklas; Leng, Melanie J.; Levkov, Zlatko; Lindhorst, Katja; Masi, Alessia; Mercuri, Anna M.; Nomade, Sebastien; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos; Peyron, Odile; Reed, Jane M.; Regattieri, Eleonora; Sadori, Laura; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Stelbrink, Björn; Sulpizio, Roberto; Tofilovska, Slavica; Torri, Paola; Vogel, Hendrik; Wagner, Thomas; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wolff, George A.; Wonik, Thomas; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Zhang, Xiaosen S.

    2017-04-01

    This study reviews and synthesises existing information generated within the SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) deep drilling project. The four main aims of the project are to infer (i) the age and origin of Lake Ohrid (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia/Republic of Albania), (ii) its regional seismotectonic history, (iii) volcanic activity and climate change in the central northern Mediterranean region, and (iv) the influence of major geological events on the evolution of its endemic species. The Ohrid basin formed by transtension during the Miocene, opened during the Pliocene and Pleistocene, and the lake established de novo in the still relatively narrow valley between 1.9 and 1.3 Ma. The lake history is recorded in a 584 m long sediment sequence, which was recovered within the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) from the central part (DEEP site) of the lake in spring 2013. To date, 54 tephra and cryptotephra horizons have been found in the upper 460 m of this sequence. Tephrochronology and tuning biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters revealed that the upper 247.8 m represent the last 637 kyr. The multi-proxy data set covering these 637 kyr indicates long-term variability. Some proxies show a change from generally cooler and wetter to drier and warmer glacial and interglacial periods around 300 ka. Short-term environmental change caused, for example, by tephra deposition or the climatic impact of millennial-scale Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events are superimposed on the long-term trends. Evolutionary studies on the extant fauna indicate that Lake Ohrid was not a refugial area for regional freshwater animals. This differs from the surrounding catchment, where the mountainous setting with relatively high water availability provided a refuge for temperate and montane trees during the relatively cold and dry glacial periods. Although Lake Ohrid experienced

  4. Lake records of Northern Hemisphere South American summer monsoon variability from the Cordillera Oriental, Colombia: Initial results from Lago de Tota and Laguna de Ubaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, J.; Rudloff, O.; Bird, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    The lack of terrestrial paleoclimate records from the Northern Hemisphere Andes with decadal resolution has meant that our understanding of abrupt South American summer monsoon (SASM) variability during the Holocene is almost exclusively based on data from Southern Hemisphere sites. In order to develop a more integrated and complete picture of the SASM as a system and its response during rapid climate changes, high-resolution paleoclimate records are needed from the Northern Hemisphere Andes. We present initial results from analysis of lake sediment cores that were collected from Lago de Tota (N 5.554, W 72.916) and Laguna de Ubaque (N 4.500, W 73.935) in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. These sediment cores were collected in July 2013 as part on an ongoing paleoclimate research initiative in Colombia. Located in the Boyacá Provence, Lago de Tota is the largest high-altitude lake (3010 masl) in the Northern Hemisphere Andes and the second largest Andean lake in South America. As such, hydrologic changes recorded in the lake's sediment record reflect regional climate responses. Lago de Ubaque (2070 masl) is a small east facing moraine-dammed lake near the capital of Bogotá that contains finely laminated clastic sediments. The initial sedimentological and chronological results demonstrate that Lago de Tota and Laguna de Ubaque have excellent potential for resolving Northern Hemisphere SASM variability at decadal time scales or better. Such records will provide important counterparts to high-resolution paleoclimate records from the Southern Hemisphere Andes.

  5. Interaction of potassium mono and di phosphates with bovine serum albumin studied by fluorescence quenching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkialakshmi, S; Shanthi, B; Chandrakala, D

    2011-03-01

    The interactions between potassium mono and di phosphates and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) and ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV). The experimental results showed that the potassium mono and di phosphates could insert into the BSA and quench the inner fluorescence of BSA by forming the potassium mono phosphate-BSA and pottassium di phosphate-BSA complexes. It was found that the static quenching was the main reason leading to the fluorescence quenching. It was conformed by XRD and SEM techniques.

  6. Possible Recording of the Hilina Pali Excursion in the Mono Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, R.; Liddicoat, J.

    2012-04-01

    Inclination of about negative 40˚ in basalt from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (Teanby et al., 2002), that is assigned an age of about 18,000 radiocarbon years (uncorrected)(Coe et al., 1978, after Rubin and Berthold, 1961) and an excursion in northeastern China at Changbaishan Volcano of similar age from Ar40/Ar39 dates (Singer et al., 2011) that was interpreted to be the Blake Subchron (Zhu et al., 2000) using K/Ar (Liu, 1987) and Ar40/39 dates (Lin, 1999), might be recorded as shallow positive inclination in lacustrine siltstone in the bank of Wilson Creek in the Mono Basin, CA. The siltstone was deposited in Pleistocene Lake Russell, of which Mono Lake is the remnant, and was exposed when Wilson Creek was incised as the shoreline of Mono Lake receded (Lajoie, 1968). Basaltic and rhyolitic volcanic ash layers exposed in the bank of the creek are stratigraphic markers that have been important for studies of the Mono Lake Excursion (Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Liddicoat, 1992; Coe and Liddicoat, 1994) and Pleistocene climate in the U.S. Great Basin (Zimmerman et al., 2006). Those ash layers likewise are useful for locating paleomagnetic directions along strike that might be the negative inclination in Hawaii named the Hilina Pali Excursion (Teanby et al., 2002). The portion of the lacustine section exposed along Wilson Creek that is of interest records waveform Delta in Lund et al. (1988) in Subunit E of Lajoie (1993) that is bracketed by ash layers 12 and 13; in Lajoie (1968), those ash layers are numbered 8 and 7, respectively. About midway in Subunit E, which has a thickness of 1.1 m, the inclination is about 15˚ in four back-to-back horizons that span 8 cm. The subsamples, each 2 cm thick, were treated by either alternating field or thermal demagnetization. The Virtual Geomagnetic Pole (VGP) for the horizon with the shallowest inclination (14.9˚) is 53.8˚ N, 22.7˚ E (n = 6, Alpha-95 = 2.3˚), and the VGPs within waveform Delta when followed

  7. Mono-X, dijet, and long-lived particle searches at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Emily; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the most recent Run II searches and results in the mono-X (photon, Z/W/H), mono-/di-jet, and long-lived particle channels for the ATLAS and CMS experiments. Limits on Simplified Models of dark matter and Effective Field Theories in each channel are also presented where relevant as a complement to the SUSY, BSM Higgs, and Invisible Higgs results which are to be covered in a separate presentation.

  8. Permeability of mono- and bi-dispersed porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S.J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the permeability of mono- and bi-dispersed porous media is considered. The effects of the particle size distribution and the packing structure of particles on the permeability are investigated experimentally and analytically. Both experimental and analytic results suggest that the particlesize distribution is close to the log-normal distribution, and the permeability of the mono-dispersed porous media quasi-linearly decreases as the range of the particle size distribution increases. On the other hand, the effect of packing structure of particles on the permeability is shown to be negligible.The permeability of the bidispersed porous media quasi-linearly decreases as the range of cluster size increases, and nearly independent of the particle size distribution. The present model is valid over the range of parameters typically found in heat transfer applications.

  9. Resonant mono Higgs at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Basso, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the production of a SM particle with large missing transverse momentum, dubbed mono-X searches, have gained increasing attention. After the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, the run-II of the LHC will now scrutinise its properties, looking for BSM physics. In particular, one could search for mono-Higgs signals, that are typically studied in models addressing dark matter. However, this signal can appear also in models addressing the neutrino masses, if additional heavier neutrinos with masses at the electroweak scale are present. The latter will couple to the SM neutrinos and the Higgs boson, yielding a type of mono-Higgs signal not considered for dark matter: the resonant production of a Higgs boson and missing energy. In this paper, we address the LHC exclusion power of the latter with dedicated detector simulations, and reinterpret it in a benchmark model for neutrino mass generation.

  10. Mercury Sources and Cycling in the Great Lakes: Dramatic Changes Resulting from Altered Atmospheric Loads and the Near-Shore Shunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, D. P.; DeWild, J. F.; Maglio, M. M.; Tate, M. T.; Ogorek, J. M.; Hurley, J. P.; Lepak, R.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of the aquatic food webs across the Great Lakes remains a significant environmental issue. However, our ability to prescribe corrective actions has been significantly hampered by a scarcity of data, particularly for methylmercury (MeHg) the most toxic and bioaccumulative form of mercury in freshwater ecosystems. As part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative initiated in 2010, a joint effort was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to improve our understanding of total Hg and MeHg concentrations and distributions in the Great Lakes. Since 2010, sampling surveys have been conducted at about 15-20 stations twice annually (April and August) at 15-20 stations per lake to collect data from both cold and warm water conditions. All sampling was conducted using trace-metal free protocols using a sampling rosette equipped with 12 Teflon-lined Niskin. Water samples were collected at predetermined depths: mid-epilimnion, mid-thermocline, deep chlorophyll layer, mid-hypolimnion, and about 2 meters above the bottom. Seston samples were collected from the top 20 meters using plankton nets, while bottom sediments and benthos samples were acquired using a ponar sampler. Water, biota, and sediment samples were all analyzed for Hg and MeHg concentration at the USGS Mercury Research Laboratory in Middleton, Wisconsin. Several important trends are apparent from the water column samples. First, most stations reveal a strong top-to-bottom declining trend total Hg concentration, underscoring the importance of atmospheric deposition to the Great Lakes. Methylmercury profiles, show maximal concentrations at the thermocline or deep chlorophyll layer, suggesting in situ water-column MeHg production. Calculations suggest this in-lake MeHg source is similar in magnitude to tributary loading of MeHg, which heretofore was thought to be the dominant MeHg source. Aqueous total Hg results also suggest that

  11. Determination of trace elements in planktonic microcrustaceans using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF): First results from two Chilean lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woelfl, Stefan; Mercado, Susana; Villalobos, Lorena [Instituto de Zoologia, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Mages, Margarete; Ovari, Mihaly [Department of Inland Water Research Magdeburg, UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Brueckstrasse 3a, 39114, Magdeburg (Germany); Encina, Francisco [Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Catolica de Temuco, Montt 056, Temuco (Chile)

    2004-02-01

    First results are described from the application of a recently developed dry method for determination of elements in single specimens of freshwater microcrustaceans, using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF). This method is a powerful, non-destructive technique for quantifying the trace element content of minute biological samples with a dry weight of 3-50 {mu}g. Three different freshwater microcrustaceans were sampled, from the natural, uncontaminated Lake Laja and from the artificial Rapel reservoir which is slightly contaminated by drainage water from a copper mine. Single specimens of Daphnia pulex, Bosmina chilensis, and Ceriodaphnia dubia were prepared using a modification of the dry method and measured by TXRF. The results showed that both As, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, and Cu content and the bioaccumulation of these metals were usually significantly different between the microcrustaceans from the two lakes. The largest difference was found for Cu which was eight times more concentrated in the two microcrustaceans from Rapel reservoir than it was in D. pulex from Lake Laja. (orig.)

  12. Field Investigation of Surface-Lake Processes on Ice Shelves: Results of the 2015/16 Field Campaign on McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAyeal, Doug; Banwell, Alison; Willis, Ian; Macdonald, Grant

    2016-04-01

    Ice-shelf instability and breakup of the style exhibited by Larsen B Ice Shelf in 2002 remains the most difficult glaciological process of consequence to observe in detail. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain, thereby changing the surface loads the ice-shelf must adjust to. Our model suggest that these fractures resulted in a chain-reaction style drainage of >2750 surface lakes on the Larsen B in the days prior to its demise. To validate this and other models, we began a field project on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) during the 2015/16 austral summer. Advantages of the MIS study site are: there is considerable surface melting during 3-6 weeks of the summer season, the ice is sufficiently thin (logistical support (McMurdo Station). Here we show initial results from the field campaign, including GPS and water-depth observations of a lake that has filled and drained over multiple week timescales in previous austral summers. We also report on the analysis of high-resolution WorldView satellite imagery from several summers that reveals the complexity of surface meltwater movement in channels and subsurface void spaces. Initial reconnaissance of the largest surface-lake features reveal that they have a central circular depression surrounded by an uplifted ring, which supports one of the central tenets of our ice-shelf flexure theory. A second field season is anticipated for the 2016/17 austral summer.

  13. The relationship between mono-abundance and mono-age stellar populations in the Milky Way disk

    CERN Document Server

    Minchev, I; Chiappini, C; Martig, M; Anders, F; Matijevic, G; de Jong, R S

    2016-01-01

    Studying the Milky Way disk structure using stars in narrow bins of [Fe/H] and [alpha/Fe] has recently been proposed as a powerful method to understand the Galactic thick and thin disk formation. It has been assumed so far that these mono-abundance populations (MAPs) are also coeval, or mono-age, populations. Here we study this relationship for a Milky Way chemo-dynamical model and show that equivalence between MAPs and mono-age populations exists only for the high-[alpha/Fe] tail, where the chemical evolution curves of different Galactic radii are far apart. At lower [alpha/Fe]-values a MAP is composed of stars with a range in ages, even for small observational uncertainties and a small MAP bin size. Due to the disk inside-out formation, for these MAPs younger stars are typically located at larger radii, which results in negative radial age gradients that can be as large as 2 Gyr/kpc. Positive radial age gradients can result for MAPs at the lowest [alpha/Fe] and highest [Fe/H] end. Such variations with age p...

  14. Can lake sensitivity to desiccation be predicted from lake geometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Menberu, Meseret Walle; Aminnezhad, Mousa; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-08-01

    Declining lake levels (Aral Sea syndrome) can be caused by changes in climate, increased water use or changed regulation patterns. This paper introduces a novel lake geometry index (LGI) to quantify lake hydrological characteristics. The index was developed using a large representative dataset of lake hypsographic characteristics from 152 lakes and man-made reservoirs. Using the LGI index, lakes can be classified into five groups: groups 1-4 when LGI is 0.5-2.5, 2.5-4.5, 4.5-6.5 and 6.5-8.5, respectively, and group 5 when LGI is >8.5. Naturally shallow and vast lakes and wetlands fall into the first group and deep man-made reservoirs in narrow valleys are in group 5. The response of three different lake systems (LGI 0.75, 2.75 and 6.5) to different water flow scenarios was then simulated using the water balance equation. From this, the index 'potential lake area' (Apot) was developed to show lake responses to changed hydro-climatological conditions. Apot and LGI can be used to classify lakes into open or closed systems. Simulations showed that lakes with low LGI have a shorter response time to flow and climate changes. As a result, the impact of water balance restoration is faster for lakes with low LGI than for lakes with high LGI. The latter are also more vulnerable to climate variation and change.

  15. Effect of Subgrains on the Performance of Mono-Like Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of Czochralski (Cz monocrystalline silicon material in solar cells is limited by its high cost and serious light-induced degradation. The use of cast multicrystalline silicon is also hindered by its high dislocation densities and high surface reflectance after texturing. Mono-like crystalline silicon is a promising material because it has the advantages of both mono- and multicrystalline silicon. However, when mono-like wafers are made into cells, the efficiencies of a batch of wafers often fluctuate within a wide range of >1% (absolute. In this work, mono-like wafers are classified by a simple process and fabricated into laser doping selective emitter cells. The effect and mechanism of subgrains on the performance of mono-like crystalline silicon solar cells are studied. The results show that the efficiency of mono-like crystalline silicon solar cells significantly depends on material defects that appear as subgrains on an alkaline textured surface. These subgrains have an almost negligible effect on the optical performance, shunt resistance, and junction recombination but significantly affect the minority carrier diffusion length and quantum efficiency within a long wavelength range. Finally, an average efficiency of 18.2% is achieved on wafers with hardly any subgrain but with a small-grain band.

  16. 21 CFR 172.834 - Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ethoxylated mono-and diglycerides (polyoxyethylene (20) mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids) (polyglycerate... labeling it shall be followed by either “polyoxyethylene (20) mono-and diglycerides of fatty acids” or... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD...

  17. Crescent Lake Wilderness Reference Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reference sheet includes information about Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and results of the public hearing for Crescent Lake Wilderness Proposal.

  18. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  19. Separation of mono- and di-PEGylate of exenatide and resolution of positional isomers of mono-PEGylates by preparative ion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Thanh Thi; Lee, Jae Sun; Yun, Soi; Lee, E K

    2016-07-29

    Exenatide is a synthetic version of the 39-mer peptide of Exendin-4, which is an FDA-approved therapeutic against Type II diabetes mellitus. However, exenatide has a very short in-serum half-life and PEGylation have been performed to improve its in-serum stability. PEGylation often yields multivalent binding to non-specific residues, and the desired species should be carefully separated by chromatographies. In this study, we first devised an aqueous-phase, two-step PEGylation process. This consists of thiolation of Lys 12 and 27 residues followed by attachment of PEG-maleimide (10kD) to thiol groups. This process yields various species: mono-PEGylates with positional isomers, di-PEGylate, and other higher MW substances. A prep-grade cationic exchange chromatography (HiTrap SP) at pH 3.0 partially separated mono- and di-PEGylates based on the molar ratio of conjugated PEG and peptide and thus molecular weight of the conjugates. To further investigate the chromatographic separation of positional isomers of mono-PEGylates, we prepared two kinds of exenatide analogs by point mutation; K12C and K27C. Each analog was mono-PEGylated with very high yield (>95%). When a mixture of the two positional isomers of mono-PEGylates was applied to HiTrap SP chromatography, K12C-PEGylate and K27C-PEGylate eluted separately at 0.22M and 0.33M NaCl, respectively. When the proportions of acid and its conjugate base of the amino acid residues adjacent to the PEGylation site at pH 3.0 were analyzed, K27C-PEGylate shows stronger positive charge than K12C-PEGylate, and we propose the residence time difference between the two mono-PEGylates could be due to the charge difference. ELISA result shows that the immuno-binding activity of both analogs and their mono-PEGylates are well maintained. Furthermore, both mono-PEGylates of the analogs show higher than 50-fold improved anti-trypsin stability. We expect that mono-PEGylates of the exenatide analogs are alternatives to the conventional C40

  20. Synthesis of lanthanum tris (mono-i-octyl phthalate)and its thermal stability for polyvinyl chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel type of thermal stabilizer-lanthanum tris (mono-i-octyl phthalate) (LTMP) was synthesized by double-decomposition reaction of sodium mono-i-octyl phthalate with lanthanum chloride at 60℃.Sodium mono-i-octyl phthalate was prepared by sodium hydrate and mono-i-octyl phthalate prepared by reaction of isooctyl alcohol and phthalic anhydride in the presence of sulfuric acid catalyst at 110 ℃. The yield of lanthanum tris (mono-i-octyl phthalate) is about 84.5%. Its thermal stabilities were measured by heat-ageing oven test when incorporated into PVC. The experimental results show that the heat stability time is about 40min at 190 ℃ when adding 3phr (per hundred resin) to PVC. The thermal stability of this product is better than that of Ca-Zn complex and basic lead salt stabilizers, and equal to that of dibutyltin dilaurate.

  1. The first US National Coastal Condition Assessment survey in the Great Lakes: Development of the GIS frame and exploration of spatial variation in nearshore water quality results

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive approach to assess conditions in the Great Lakes nearshore zone has been lacking for decades. We had the opportunity to conduct a pilot survey in Lake Erie (45 sites) in summer 2009 and to develop a full survey across the 5 lakes (~400 sites) as part of the US N...

  2. Leachate Geochemical Results for Ash Samples from the June 2007 Angora Wildfire Near Lake Tahoe in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Philip L.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Martin, Deborah A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Adams, Monique; Lamothe, Paul J.; Todorov, Todor; Anthony, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    This report releases leachate geochemical data for ash samples produced by the Angora wildfire that burned from June 24 to July 2, 2007, near Lake Tahoe in northern California. The leaching studies are part of a larger interdisciplinary study whose goal is to identify geochemical characteristics and properties of the ash that may adversely affect human health, water quality, air quality, animal habitat, endangered species, debris flows, and flooding hazards. The leaching study helps characterize and understand the interactions that occur when the ash comes in contact with rain or snowmelt, and helps identify the constituents that may be mobilized as run-off from these materials. Similar leaching studies were conducted on ash and burned soils from the October 2007 southern California wildfires (Hageman and others, 2008; Plumlee and others, 2007).

  3. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-08-15

    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m(2). As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma etching on large-area mono-, multi- and quasi-mono crystalline silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We use plasma etched Black Si (BS)[1][2] nanostructures to achieve low reflectance due to the resulting graded refractive index at the Si-air interface. The goal of this investigation is to develop a suitable texturing method for Si solar cells. Branz et al. [3]report below 3% average reflectance...... for their 16.8% efficient black Si cell using a metal-assisted, chemical etching method on FZ mono-crystalline Si substrates. Yoo et al. [4] use RIE similar to this work on large-area, multi-crystalline Si cells and achieve a 16.1% efficiency despite a relatively high reflectance of 13.3%. Despite several...... advantages such as; (i) excellent light trapping, (ii) dry, single-sided and scalable process method and (iii) etch independence on crystallinity of Si, RIE-texturing has so far not been proven superior to standard wet texturing, primarily as a result of lower power conversion efficiency due to increased...

  5. Initial Results from a New Lake Elsinore Sediment Core Reveal Evidence for Hydrologic Change During the Late-Glacial/Holocene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, J. M.; Kirby, M. E.; Lund, S.; Hiner, C.

    2010-12-01

    While there are several well-developed records of marine climate from Southern California that span the late-Glacial/Holocene transition, there are currently no high-resolution terrestrial counterparts. In June 2010, a 20 meter sediment core covering 10-30 meters below the sediment-water interface was extracted from the depocenter of Lake Elsinore, California - the largest natural, permanent lake in the region. Here, we present the initial results of a multi-proxy study on the section of this sediment core that spans the late-Glacial/Holocene transition (10-18.5 m below the sediment-water line [bswl]). Initial results reveal three distinct sediment units. Unit I (10-15m bswl) is composed of a homogeneous, often mottled (bioturbated?), gray mud with high and moderately variable magnetic susceptibility values (avg=1.20±0.29x10-7m3/kg), low organic matter content (6.50±0.83%), and highly variable carbonate content (12.21±4.89%). Unit II (15-17m bswl) is a transitional unit that begins as a gray mud similar to that of Unit I and transitions into a massive to laminated brown mud with low and variable magnetic susceptibility values (0.88±0.38x10-7m3/kg), increasing organic matter content (11.52±2.19%), and highly variable carbonate content (10.84±4.75%). Unit III (17-18.5m bswl) is characterized by a massive to laminated brown mud with very low and stable magnetic susceptibility values (0.87±0.19x10-7m3/kg), declining organic matter content (11.21±2.02%), and low to negligible carbonate content (5.0±0.87%). Together, these data indicate a significant change in Lake Elsinore’s depositional environment that is likely related to hydrologic change (i.e. average lake level) during the late Glacial to Holocene transition - a change that has not previously been documented in Southern California.

  6. Comparative Results of Using Different Methods for Discovery of Microorganisms in very Ancient Layers of the Central Antarctic Glacier above the Lake Vostok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Hoover, R. B.; Imura, S.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Naganuma, T.; Poglazova, M. N.; Ivanov, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    The ice sheet of the Central Antarctic is considered by the scientific community worldwide, as a model to elaborate on different methods to search for life outside Earth. This became especially significant in connection with the discovery of the underglacial lake in the vicinity of the Russian Antarctic Station Vostok. Lake Vostok is considered by many scientists as an analog of the ice covered seas of Jupiter's satellite Europa. According to the opinion of many researchers there is the possibility that relict forms of microorganisms, well preserved since the Ice Age, may be present in this lake. Investigations throughout the thickness of the ice sheet above Lake Vostok show the presence of microorganisms belonging to different well-known taxonomic groups, even in the very ancient horizons near close to floor of the glacier. Different methods were used to search for microorganisms that are rarely found in the deep ancient layers of an ice sheet. The method of aseptic sampling from the ice cores and the results of controlled sterile conditions in all stages when conducting these investigations, are described in detail in previous reports. Primary investigations tried the usual methods of sowing samples onto different nutrient media, and the result was that only a few microorganisms grew on the media used. The possibility of isolating the organisms obtained for further investigations, by using modern methods including DNA-analysis, appears to be the preferred method. Further investigations of the very ancient layers of the ice sheet by radioisotopic, luminescence, and scanning electron microscopy methods at different modifications, revealed the quantity and morphological diversity of the cells of microorganisms that were distributed on the different horizons. Investigations over many years have shown that the microflora in the very ancient strata of the Antarctic ice cover, nearest to the bedrock, support the effectiveness of using a combination of different methods

  7. Drilling rig noise assessment model vs. field monitoring results Imperial Oil Resources Cold Lake in-situ bitumen development area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.; MacDonald, T. [Imperial Oil Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada). Cold Lake Projects; Wright, R. [HFP Acoustical Consultants Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Oil and gas companies in Alberta must comply with the noise-emissions standards in the Noise Control Directive 038 of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). Licensees are responsible for risk when choosing sites and designing facilities. As such, they are required to work proactively to minimize potential impacts of new developments and must report existing noise levels. Imperial Oil Resources (IOR) Cold Lake operation is Canada's largest in-situ bitumen development facility which undergoes significant, ongoing development including the addition of up to 10 new multi-well production sites per year. In this study, the following equipment was assessed as a component of the noise impact assessment: the draw works, rotary table and drilling floor operations of a typical pad-drilling rig; the equipment skid for a typical diesel-electric rig, which includes two diesel engines, mud pumps and mud tanks; and, the equipment skid for a typical all electric rig, which includes only the mud pumps and mud tanks. Drilling rig noise measurements taken in 2006 at at two operating drill rigs were compared with 1996 drilling rig noise measurements. Sound level measurements at the U08 and U09 operating drill rigs were completed at distances of 5 m, 10 m, 20 m and 40 m and the measurements were used to calculate sound power levels for the drilling floor. A comparison of predicted sound levels to measured sound levels was then presented. Higher sound power level values in the 2006 measurements were due to equipment noise being centered at the drilling complex as opposed to the rig floor in 1996. The 2006 field monitoring data were then used by HFP Acoustical Consultants to update the predictive model which was provided to IOR in January 2006. The updated sound levels around the electric drilling rigs range from approximately 60 dBA near the edge of the lease up to 83 dBA near the noisiest equipment. It was concluded that the predictions from the model remain conservative and

  8. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur cyc...

  9. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences.

  10. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  11. Scour properties of mono bucket foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroescu, Ionut Emanuel; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2016-01-01

    Field experience proved that the Mono Bucket Foundations (MBFs) have good response against scour development. Moreover, the ratio between large diameter (bucket lid) and the small diameter (shaft tower) is the driving parameter for the process of erosion/backfill, like scour protection diameter...... in the case of scour protected monopiles. However, the structural design to reduce the scour development for MBFs is still open to optimization. The influences of parameters that generate backfill and scour, the transfer load webs and the misalignment with seabed, have not been systematically studied until...

  12. Late Pleistocene eruptive history of the Mono Craters rhyolites, eastern California, from U-Th dating of explosive and effusive products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcaida, M.; Vazquez, J. A.; Calvert, A. T.; Miller, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    During late Pleistocene-Holocene time, repeated explosive and effusive eruptions of high-silica rhyolite magma south of Mono Lake, California, have produced a chain of massive domes known as the Mono Craters and a time-series of tephra deposits preserved in sediments of the Wilson Creek formation of ancestral Mono Lake. The record of late Holocene volcanism at Mono Craters is relatively well constrained by tephrostratigraphy and 14C dating, and the timing of late Pleistocene eruptions is similarly well constrained by tephrochronology and magnetostratigraphy of the Wilson Creek formation. However, the chronology of eruptions for the Mono Craters chain, comprising at least 28 individual domes, has thus far been based on age estimates from hydration rind dating of obsidian that is highly dependent on local calibration. We constrain the timing of late Pleistocene dome emplacement by linking independently dated Wilson Creek tephras to their dome equivalents in the Mono Craters using combined titanomagnetite geochemistry and U-Th geochronology. Ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of unpolished allanite and zircon rims gives isochron dates of ca. 42 ka, ca. 38 ka, ca. 26 ka, and ca. 20 ka for domes 19, 24, 31 (newly recognized), and 11 of the Mono Craters, respectively. These domes are biotite-bearing rhyolites with titanomagnetites that are compositionally identical to those from several Wilson Creek tephras. Specifically, we correlate Ash 15, Ash 7, and Ash 3 of the Wilson Creek formation to domes 19, 31, and 11 of the Mono Craters, respectively, based on matching titanomagnetite compositions and indistinguishable U-Th ages. 40Ar/39Ar dating of single sanidines from domes 19 and 31 yield mean dates that are 10 k.y. older than their corresponding U-Th dates, likely due to excess argon from melt inclusions and/or incompletely re-equilibrated antecrysts. Based on our new U-Th isochron date of ca. 34 ka for allanite-zircon from Ash 8 pumice and the ca. 26-27 ka age of Ash 7

  13. Selective mono-radioiodination and characterization of a cell-penetrating peptide. L-Tyr-maurocalcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Mitra; Bacot, Sandrine; Perret, Pascale; Riou, Laurent; Ghezzi, Catherine [Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); INSERM U1039, Grenoble (France). Radiopharmaceutiques Biocliniques; Poillot, Cathy; Cestele, Sandrine [INSERM U836, Grenoble (France). Grenoble Inst. of Neuroscience; Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Desruet, Marie-Dominique [INSERM U1039, Grenoble (France). Radiopharmaceutiques Biocliniques; Couvet, Morgane; Bourgoin, Sandrine; Seve, Michel [CRI-INSERM U823, Grenoble (France). Inst. of Albert Bonniot; Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Waard, Michel de [INSERM U836, Grenoble (France). Grenoble Inst. of Neuroscience; Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Smartox Biotechnologies, Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-01

    Mono-and poly-iodinated peptides form frequently during radioiodination procedures. However, the formation of a single species in its mono-iodinated form is essential for quantitative studies such as determination of tissue concentration or image quantification. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to define the optimal experimental conditions in order to exclusively obtain the mono-iodinated form of L-maurocalcine (L-MCa). L-MCa is an animal venom toxin which was shown to act as a cell-penetrating peptide. In order to apply the current direct radioiodination technique using oxidative agents including chloramine T, Iodo-Gen {sup registered} or lactoperoxidase, an analogue of this peptide containing a tyrosine residue (Tyr-L-MCa) was synthesized and was shown to fold/oxidize properly. The enzymatic approach using lactoperoxidase/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was found to be the best method for radioiodination of Tyr-L-MCa. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses were then used for identification of the chromatographic eluting components of the reaction mixtures. We observed that the production of different radioiodinated species depended upon the reaction conditions. Our results successfully described the experimental conditions of peptide radioiodination allowing the exclusive production of the mono-iodinated form with high radiochemical purity and without the need for a purification step. Mono-radioiodination of L-Tyr-MCa will be crucial for future quantitative studies, investigating the mechanism of cell penetration and in vivo biodistribution.

  14. Results of ground level radiation measurements in support of the 1978 aerial survey of the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works, Lewiston, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berven, B A; Doane, R W; Haywood, F F; Shinpaugh, W H

    1979-09-01

    This report contains the results of a limited series of measurements at the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works site, three miles northeast of Lewiston, New York. The scope of this survey was not extensive, and the survey was conducted to support a concurrent aerial survey conducted by EG and G, Inc. Results of this survey indicate two souces of significant external gamma exposure on the site as well as several locations that retain low to intermediate levels of radioactivity in soil. Off-site soil radionuclide concentrations were well within background levels with one exception. Water radionuclide concentrations on the site in the Central Drainage Ditch are significantly above background levels but decrease with distance from the spoil pile, and are within restrictive concentration guides for off-site locations.

  15. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  16. Mono-Energy Coronary Angiography with a Compact Synchrotron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noёl, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-02-01

    X-ray coronary angiography is an invaluable tool for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, the use of iodine-based contrast media can be contraindicated for patients who present with chronic renal insufficiency or with severe iodine allergy. These patients could benefit from a reduced contrast agent concentration, possibly achieved through application of a mono-energetic x-ray beam. While large-scale synchrotrons are impractical for daily clinical use, the technology of compact synchrotron sources strongly advanced during the last decade. Here we present a quantitative analysis of the benefits a compact synchrotron source can offer in coronary angiography. Simulated projection data from quasi-mono-energetic and conventional x-ray tube spectra is used for a CNR comparison. Results show that compact synchrotron spectra would allow for a significant reduction of contrast media. Experimentally, we demonstrate the feasibility of coronary angiography at the Munich Compact Light Source, the first commercial installation of a compact synchrotron source.

  17. Mono(ADP-ribosylation) in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, B; Richter, C

    1988-01-26

    This paper investigates protein mono(ADP-ribosylation) in rat liver mitochondria. In isolated inner mitochondrial membranes, in the presence of both ADP-ribose and NAD+, a protein is mono-(ADP-ribosylated) with high specificity. The reaction apparently consists of enzymatic NAD+ glycohydrolysis and subsequent binding of free ADP-ribose to the acceptor protein. In terms of chemical stability, the resulting bond is unique among the ADP-ribose linkages thus far characterized. Formation of a Schiff base adduct between free ADP-ribose and the acceptor protein is excluded. In intact mitochondria at least three classes of proteins are ADP-ribosylated in vivo. One ADP-ribose-protein linkage is of the carboxylate ester type as indicated by its lability in neutral buffer. Another class of ADP-ribosylated proteins requires hydroxylamine for release of ADP-ribose. The third class is stable in hydroxylamine but labile to alkali, similar to the ADP-ribose-cysteine linkage in transducin formed by pertussis toxin.

  18. On mono-W signatures in spin-1 simplified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haisch, Ulrich [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics; CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Kahlhoefer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Tait, Tim M.P. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-03-15

    The potential sensitivity to isospin-breaking effects makes LHC searches for mono-W signatures promising probes of the coupling structure between the Standard Model and dark matter. It has been shown, however, that the strong sensitivity of the mono-W channel to the relative magnitude and sign of the up-type and down-type quark couplings to dark matter is an artefact of unitarity violation. We provide three different solutions to this mono-W problem in the context of spin-1 simplified models and briefly discuss the impact that our findings have on the prospects of mono-W searches at future LHC runs.

  19. On mono-W signatures in spin-1 simplified models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Haisch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential sensitivity to isospin-breaking effects makes LHC searches for mono-W signatures promising probes of the coupling structure between the Standard Model and dark matter. It has been shown, however, that the strong sensitivity of the mono-W channel to the relative magnitude and sign of the up-type and down-type quark couplings to dark matter is an artifact of unitarity violation. We provide three different solutions to this mono-W problem in the context of spin-1 simplified models and briefly discuss the impact that our findings have on the prospects of mono-W searches at future LHC runs.

  20. Analysis of Drought in Poyang Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The drought situation and causes in Poyang Lake were analyzed.[Method] In response to the drought in Poyang Lake in ten years ago and in recent 10 years,the causes of drought in Poyang Lake were discussed.[Result] Drought occurred frequently in Poyang Lake and the consecutive serious drought occurred now and then.The water level in Poyang Lake since 21st century was lower.The drought in Poyang Lake was due to reduction of precipitation,low water level in Yangtze River and "five lakes",hydraulic ...

  1. Impact of temperature on performance of series and parallel connected mono-crystalline silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chander

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on impact of temperature on the performance of series and parallel connected mono-crystalline silicon (mono-Si solar cell employing solar simulator. The experiment was carried out at constant light intensity 550 W/m2with cell temperature in the range 25–60 oC for single, series and parallel connected mono-Si solar cells. The performance parameters like open circuit voltage, maximum power, fill factor and efficiency are found to decrease with cell temperature while the short circuit current is observed to increase. The experimental results reveal that silicon solar cells connected in series and parallel combinations follow the Kirchhoff’s laws and the temperature has a significant effect on the performance parameters of solar cell.

  2. Second- and third-order nonlinear optical properties of unsubstituted and mono-substituted chalcones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegão, Luis M. G.; Fonseca, Ruben D.; Santos, Francisco A.; Souza, Gabriela B.; Barreiros, André Luis B. S.; Barreiros, Marizeth L.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.; Mendonça, Cleber R.; Silva, Daniel L.; De Boni, Leonardo; Rodrigues, J. J.

    2016-03-01

    This work describes the second and third orders of nonlinear optics properties of unsubstituted chalcone (C15H12O) and mono-substituted chalcone (C16H14O2) in solution, using hyper-Rayleigh scattering and Z-Scan techniques to determine the first molecular hyperpolarizability (β) and the two-photon absorption (2PA) cross section respectively. β Values of 25.4 × 10-30 esu and 31.6 × 10-30 esu, for unsubstituted and mono-substituted chalcone, respectively, dissolved in methanol have been obtained. The highest values of 2PA cross-sections obtained were 9 GM and 14 GM for unsubstituted and mono-substituted chalcone, respectively. The experimental 2PA cross sections obtained for each chalcone are in good agreement with theoretical results.

  3. Insights into MIS 3 and 4 climate in the Alps from the Baumkirchen paleo-lake site: Results of pollen analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Samuel; Drescher-Schneider, Ruth; Starnberger, Reinhard; Spötl, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The well-known Baumkirchen site of western Austria has recently been the focus of a renewed research effort. New drilling has greatly extended the length of the known lacustrine sequence to over 250 m. Luminescence dating has corroborated the late MIS 3 radiocarbon dates for the upper part of the sequence and revealed two lake phases: the upper extending from late MIS 3 back to mid MIS 3, and the lower covering late MIS 4 or early MIS 3 back possibly as far as MIS 5a. X-ray fluorescence core scanning analysis confirmed the presence of two phases which have different geochemical signals, and provided a chemistry-based stratigraphy in the visually monotonous sediments. In these uniform sediments, the only clear indication of climatic conditions from the sediments themselves is a short sequence of ice-rafted debris corresponding to the end of MIS 4. However, given their age and location within the Alps, these sediments provide an important archive of Alpine climate in the last glacial cycle. We present new results from pollen analysis and discuss them in the context of previously reported findings. Due to high sedimentation rates, pollen counts were very low. However, two stadials and two interstadials were identified. The entire lower lake phase corresponding to MIS 4 was identified as a stadial, being characterised by a very low total pollen concentrations, a dominance of herb over tree pollen and significant reworking of pre-Quaternary forms and wood fragments. The upper lake phase contains two interstadials split by an intervening stadial. The interstadials are characterised by higher total pollen concentrations and proportion of woody species including the sporadic presence of relatively warm climate species with the upper of the two appearing better developed with these indicators more strongly expressed. This upper interstadial corresponds to the location of well dated plant remains putting its age around 35 ka cal BP, strongly suggesting a correlation to

  4. A study on synthesis and oxidation mechanism of mono-alkyl phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Oxidation of white phosphorus by peroxides to produce mono-alkyl phosphate in the alcoholic solution has been studied under non-and catalytic conditions. In this paper,the mechanism of the oxidation process was analyzed. The content of mono-alkyl phosphate in the product is affected by different types of alcoholic solution and peroxide solvent. The result shows the availability of the following order for the activity of the peroxide solvent and alcoholic solutions-tert-butyl hydroperoxide>(di) benzoyl perox...

  5. Stochastic modeling of Lake Van water level time series with jumps and multiple trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aksoy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1990s, water level in the closed-basin Lake Van located in the Eastern Anatolia, Turkey has risen up about 2 m. Analysis of the hydrometeorological shows that change in the water level is related to the water budget of the lake. In this study, a stochastic model is generated using the measured monthly water level data of the lake. The model is derived after removal of trend and periodicity in the data set. Trend observed in the lake water level time series is fitted by mono- and multiple-trend lines. For the multiple-trend, the time series is first divided into homogeneous segments by means of SEGMENTER, segmentation software. Four segments are found meaningful practically each fitted with a trend line. Two models considering mono- and multiple-trend time series are developed. The multiple-trend model is found better for planning future development in surrounding areas of the lake.

  6. High-Resolution Late Holocene Climatic Records From Kucukcekmece Lagoon and Uludag Glacial, Yeniçaga, Bafa Lakes in Western Turkey: Some Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcer On, S.; Cagatay, M.; Sakinc, M.

    2010-12-01

    This study focuses on climatic and environmental sedimentary records of the last 4000 years in Kucukcekmece Lagoon (Istanbul), Uludag glacial (Bursa) , Yenicaga (Bolu) and Bafa (Mugla) Lakes in western Turkey. The water bodies are located on a N-S transect in western Turkey, and as such the’r records are important for assesment of Late Holocene eastern Mediterranean climatic changes. A total of 12 cores varying between 0.6 and 4.8 m are analyzed at 5mm resolution using Multi Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) having magnetic susceptibilty, P-Wave, density and resistivity sensors, XRF(X-Ray Fluoresance) core scanner multi element analysis at a 0.2 mm resolution. The cores are then sampled at 20, 50 and 100 mm intervals for different analyses. The samples are analyzed for total inorganic (TIC) and organic carbon (TOC). The ostracoda and benthic foraminifera shells in the sand size fraction of the sediment samples are identified under binocular microscope and suitable species are picked and analyzed for the stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis. The cores are dated using AMS 14C analysis. The data from these lakes and lagoon are interpreted for environmental and climatic changes and compared with historical and other regional and global climate signals. The results indicate dry periods during 3300 -2500 ka BP and 867-1790 AD and1070-1690 AD with some brief intervening humid periods. Abrupt environmental change starting around1950 due to mainly human activities has also been clearly detected. These changes in the sedimentds are well correlated with the historical records.

  7. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eClingenpeel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1,349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels. However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (70 pyrosequencing reads was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  8. Yellowstone lake nanoarchaeota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  9. Effect of mono-vacancy on transport properties of zigzag carbon- and boron-nitride-nanotube heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P.; Liu, D. S.; Chen, G.

    2013-04-01

    On the basis of first-principles density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function technique, we have investigated the effects of a mono-vacancy on the electronic transport properties of the carbon nanotube/boron nitride nanotube heterostructures. The results show that the electronic transport properties are strongly dependent on the position of the mono-vacancy, and the negative differential resistance and rectifying performances can be strengthened or weakened alternately with the position change of the mono-vacancy. Moreover, the performance change is more significant when the mono-vacancy occurs on the carbon nanotube part. These interesting phenomena are explained in terms of the evolution of the transmission spectrum with applied bias combined with molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian states analysis.

  10. The synthesis of mono-6-thio-β-cyclodextrin capped CdTe QDs and its interaction with neutral red

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the synthesis of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) capped with β-cyclodextrin in aqueous solution using both TGA and mono-6-thio-β-CD as stabilizers.The interaction between mono-6-thio-β-CD-CdTe QDs and neutral red (NR) was studied with fluorescence,UV-absorption and the resonance Rayleigh scattering spectrum.When its concentration was over 7.5 × 10-6 mol/L,the neutral red began to aggregate on the surface of the mono-6-thio-β-CD-CdTe QDs,which resulted in the mono-6-thio-β-CD-CdTe QDs particle size increasing,the sharply quenched fluorescence,and the marked increase of RRS intensity.

  11. Investigation of the dramatic changes in lake level of the Bosten Lake in northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengjing; Wu, Wei; Zhou, Xiaode; Chen, Yongmin; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Bosten Lake, located in the arid region of northwest China, is the largest inland freshwater lake in China. Water resources in Bosten Lake are of great importance for the regional drinking water supply, agricultural irrigation, and economic development of Xinjiang province. In this study, the dynamics of the lake level in Bosten Lake were investigated from 1956 to 2010. We found that the lake level experienced three different periods of change due to the combined influences of climate variation and human activities. Generally, the lake level has shown a significant downward trend since the first observation started in 1956 and dropped to its lowest level in 1987. Thereafter, the lake level presented a continuous upward trend and rose to its highest value in 2002. Then, the level decreased dramatically from 2002 to 2010. A water balance model and the climate elasticity method were used to estimate the reasons for the lake level changes of Bosten Lake. The results showed that an increase in lake evaporation led to the continuous decrease in lake level from 1958 to 1987. Then, human-controlled lake outflow and increasing lake inflow together led to the increase in lake level from 1988 to 2002. During 2003 to 2010, the emergency project of transferring water to Tarim River led to the increase in lake outflow, while the lake inflow obviously decreased because of a decrease in precipitation. These factors resulted in a sharp decrease in the lake level from 2003 to 2010. The changes in lake level indicate changes in available water resources from Bosten Lake. This reason for the analysis of the change in lake level in this study is to support the water resources management of Bosten Lake.

  12. MONO-PULSE RADAR 3-D IMAGING TECHNIQUES FOR TARGET IN STEPPED TRACKING MODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Tao; Ma Changzheng; Zhang Qun; Zhang Shouhong

    2002-01-01

    A method for mono-pulse radar 3-D imaging in stepped tracking mode is presented and the amplitude linear modulation of error signals in stepped tracking mode is analyzed with its compensation method followed, so the problem of precisely tracking of target is solved. Finally the validity of these methods is proven by the simulation results.

  13. Classification of All Associative Mono-n-ary Algebras with 2 Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Dominique Andres

    2009-01-01

    of these associative mono--ary algebras with 2 elements for even ≥2 and 6 for odd ≥3. These algebras are described explicitly. It is shown that a similar result is impossible for algebras with at least 4 elements. An application concerning the assignment of a control bit to a string is given.

  14. Some Results of Three Fish Population Surveys of Lake Drummond in the Great Dismal Swamp of Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dismal Swamp has been gradually changing for about three hundred years as a result of the interest it has created in many people. Although it is not the purpose of...

  15. Biogeochemistry of Kenyan Rift Valley Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Sina; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The numerous lakes in the Kenyan Rift Valley show strong hydrochemical differences due to their varying geologic settings. There are freshwater lakes with a low alkalinity like Lake Naivasha on the one hand and very salt-rich lakes with high pH values like Lake Logipi on the other. It is known that the underlying lake sediments are influenced by the lake chemistry and by the microorganisms in the sediment. The aim of this work is to provide a biogeochemical characterization of the lake sediments and to use these data to identify the mechanisms that control lake chemistry and to reconstruct the biogeochemical evolution of each lake. The examined rift lakes were Lakes Logipi and Eight in the Suguta Valley, Lakes Baringo and Bogoria south of the valley, as well as Lakes Naivasha, Oloiden, and Sonachi on the Kenyan Dome. The porewater was analysed for different ions and hydrogen sulphide. Additionally, alkalinity and salinity of the lake water were determined as well as the cell numbers in the sediment, using fluorescent microscopy. The results of the porewater analysis show that the overall chemistry differs considerably between the lakes. In some lakes, concentrations of fluoride, chloride, sulphate, and/or hydrogen sulphide show strong concentration gradients with depth, whereas in other lakes the concentrations show only minor variations. Fluoride is present in all lakes; the lowest concentration is found in Lake Oloiden (60 - 90 mg/l), the highest one in Lake Bogoria (1,025 - 1,930 mg/l). The lakes show also large differences in sulphate concentrations. The values vary between 2 mg/l in Lake Baringo and 15,250 mg/l in Lake Eight. In all cores, sulphate concentration does not change significantly with depth; however, there is a distinct peak in each core, raising the question of synchronicity. As expected, chloride concentrations correlate with total salinity. There is no hydrogen sulphide present in the porewater of Lakes Naivasha, Baringo, and Oloiden, whereas in

  16. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  17. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  18. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  19. Results from the Italian participation in the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Acidification of Rivers and Lakes (ICP Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele A. TARTARI

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the research activity carried out by the Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia of the CNR, on behalf of the Ministero dell'Ambiente, Servizio Inquinamento Atmosferico e Acustico, in the context of the Italian participation in the International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Acidification of Rivers and Lakes (ICP Waters. Atmospheric deposition chemistry shows that nitrate increased and sulphate decreased in the 70's and 80's, while acidity started to decrease in the early 90's. The studied rivers and lakes show variations in sulphate and nitrate in agreement with those of atmospheric deposition. Alkalinity is mainly determined by watershed geo-lithology and is always present in the studied lakes and streams; the lowest values of 0-10 μeq l-1 are measured in the high altitude Lake Paione Superiore, which however shows an increasing trend of alkalinity and pH.

  20. Mono- and combined antimicrobial agents efficiency in experimental wound infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Ігорівна Філімонова

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern problems of antibiotic therapy are shown by wide range of side effects, both on organism and microbiological levels: the spread of allergies, toxic for organ systems reactions, dysbiosis development, and resistant pathogens formation and dissemination. Therefore the necessity of search for new effective drugs with significant antimicrobial activity applied for the wounds treatment arises. Development of combined remedies on the background of different origin antimicrobial agents’ derivatives is one of the fight directions against infectious diseases in the skin pathology. Recently among the existing antimicrobial agents one should focus on antiseptic drugs, due to degenerative and dysfunctional effect on microbial cell.Aim of research. The comparison of mono- and combined antimicrobial agents chemotherapeutic efficiency in the treatment of localized purulent infection under experimental conditions.Metods. The study of chemotherapeutic efficiency was carried out on the model of localized purulent Staphylococcus infection on albino mice weighting 14 – 16 g. S.aureus ATCC 25923 strains were used as infectious agents. The contamination was performed subcutaneously to the right side of mice’s skin after depilation. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: the 1st group – infected mice without treatment (control; the 2nd group – infected mice treated with a ciprofloxacin; the 3rd group – infected mice treated with a Ciprofloxacin and Decamethoxin combination; the 4th group – infected mice treated with a combined drug on the base of mutual prodrugs (Hexamethylenetetramine and Phenyl salicylate.Results. The efficiency of mono- and combined antimicrobial agents under experimental Staphylococcus wound infection conditions was studied. It was found that localized purulent staph center was formed more slowly in comparison with control and mono preparation use (2nd group of animals. The average index of skin lesions in comparison

  1. Investigations About the Recording of the Palaeomagnetic Field in the Mono Basin, CA, in Siltstone from a Granitic Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Coe, Robert

    2014-05-01

    For more than three decades, Reidar Lovlie did innovative laboratory and field experiments that advanced our understanding about how sediments acquire a remanent magnetization (Lovlie, 1979, and his subsequent publications about that research). The investigations we and our students have done with lacustrine sediments deposited during the late Pleistocene in the Mono Basin, CA, have benefited from those experiments. One of Lovlie's laboratory experiments that was especially useful in our investigation of the role of relative field intensity (RFI) during a rapidly changing field, the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE; Coe and Liddicoat, 1994), was his study of suspended magnetic grains in slowly curing epoxy resin as the field strength was varied (Lovlie, 1993). More recently we did comparative field and laboratory experiments with sediments from different depositional environments in the Mono Basin that help to explain the recording of the palaeomagnetic field in unweathered siltstone derived from a granitic provenance in the California Sierra Nevada. Our investigations are possible because inclination, declination, and RFI using alternating field and thermal demagnetization and intensity normalizing experiments of magnetic susceptibility (k), saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM)(Lund et al., 2005) can be measured with precision for localities separated by as much as 15 kilometres using volcanic ash beds as marker horizons. In addition to making the comparison between localities in the Mono Basin that record the MLE, we have done that for a time interval following the MLE also in the Mono Basin where the palaeomagnetic directions are anomalous compared to secular variation (waveform Delta in Lund et al., 1988; Liddicoat and Coe, 2013). In that interval the RFI is nearly double the RFI during the MLE (Zimmerman et al., 2006), which again allows us to study RFI as a factor in the palaeomagnetic recording process in

  2. Biomass removal, retention, and costs associated with biomass harvesting in the partial harvest systems of Ontario's Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence forest region : preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, D. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry

    2010-07-01

    Recent bioenergy policy developments in Ontario have increased interest in forest biomass supply research. Biomass harvested from clearcut and partial harvest system in the Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence (GLSL) region can be used to supply centralized pellet plants or directly to forest mill-based conversion facilities for electricity generation. Preliminary results from a biomass harvesting trial conducted in the GLSL have confirmed that whole-tree harvesting (WTH) and the removal of skid trail results in increased biomass removal and improved operational productivity relative to conventional cut-to-length methods. Biomass removals can be increased through the imposition of smaller minimum topping diameters and the harvesting of unmerchantable trees. The results of a study conducted to evaluate the difference between conventional and biomass harvesting in a shelterwood and selection system in the GLSL has indicated that increases in the amount of firewood and small, irregular blocks of wood recovered from biomass harvests are negligible compared with conventional harvesting practices. Biomass harvesting trials are currently being conducted to determine biomass removal and operational productivity calculations for determining the overall economic feasibility of biomass harvesting for energy in the region.

  3. One-step selection of Vaccinia virus-binding DNA aptamers by MonoLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöcklein Walter

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a new class of therapeutic and diagnostic reagents, more than fifteen years ago RNA and DNA aptamers were identified as binding molecules to numerous small compounds, proteins and rarely even to complete pathogen particles. Most aptamers were isolated from complex libraries of synthetic nucleic acids by a process termed SELEX based on several selection and amplification steps. Here we report the application of a new one-step selection method (MonoLEX to acquire high-affinity DNA aptamers binding Vaccinia virus used as a model organism for complex target structures. Results The selection against complete Vaccinia virus particles resulted in a 64-base DNA aptamer specifically binding to orthopoxviruses as validated by dot blot analysis, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and real-time PCR, following an aptamer blotting assay. The same oligonucleotide showed the ability to inhibit in vitro infection of Vaccinia virus and other orthopoxviruses in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion The MonoLEX method is a straightforward procedure as demonstrated here for the identification of a high-affinity DNA aptamer binding Vaccinia virus. MonoLEX comprises a single affinity chromatography step, followed by subsequent physical segmentation of the affinity resin and a single final PCR amplification step of bound aptamers. Therefore, this procedure improves the selection of high affinity aptamers by reducing the competition between aptamers of different affinities during the PCR step, indicating an advantage for the single-round MonoLEX method.

  4. Non-destructive elemental analysis of large meteorite samples by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis with the internal mono-standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Sk A; Oura, Y; Ebihara, M; Nakahara, H

    2013-11-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) using the internal mono-standard method was tested for its applicability to analyzing large solid samples including irregularly shaped meteorite samples. For evaluating the accuracy and precision of the method, large quantities of the Geological Survey of Japan standardized rock powders (JB-1a, JG-1a, and JP-1) were analyzed and 12 elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Sm, and Gd) were determined by using Si as an internal standard element. Analytical results were mostly in agreement with literature values within 10 %. The precision of the method was also shown to be within 10 % (1σ) for most of these elements. The analytical procedure was then applied to four stony meteorites (Allende, Kimble County, Leedey, Lake Labyrinth) and four iron meteorites (Canyon Diablo, Toluca (Mexico), Toluca (Xiquipilco), Squaw Creek) consisting of large chunks or single slabs. For stony meteorites, major elements (Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and Ni), minor elements (Na and Mn) and trace element (B, Cl, K, Ti, Co, and Sm) were determined with adequate accuracy. For iron meteorites, results for the Co and Ni mass fractions determined are all consistent with corresponding literature values. After the analysis, it was confirmed that the residual radioactivity remaining in the sample after PGNAA was very low and decreased down to the background level. This study shows that PGNAA with the internal mono-standard method is highly practical for determining the elemental composition of large, irregularly shaped solid samples including meteorites.

  5. Vegetation history in southern Patagonia: first palynological results of the ICDP lake drilling project at Laguna Potrok Aike, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäbitz, Frank; Michael, Wille

    2010-05-01

    Laguna Potrok Aike located in southern Argentina is one of the very few locations that are suited to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental and climatic history of southern Patagonia. In the framework of the multinational ICDP deep drilling project PASADO several long sediment cores to a composite depth of more than 100 m were obtained. Here we present first results of pollen analyses from sediment material of the core catcher. Absolute time control is not yet available. Pollen spectra with a spatial resolution of three meters show that Laguna Potrok Aike was always surrounded by Patagonian Steppe vegetation. However, the species composition underwent some marked proportional changes through time. The uppermost pollen spectra show a high contribution of Andean forest and charcoal particles as it can be expected for Holocene times and the ending last glacial. The middle part shows no forest and relatively high amounts of pollen from steppe plants indicating cold and dry full glacial conditions. The lowermost samples are characterized by a significantly different species composition as steppe plants like Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Ericaceae and Ephedra became more frequent. In combination with higher charcoal amounts and an algal species composition comparable to Holocene times we suggest that conditions during the formation of sediments at the base of the record were more humid and/or warmer causing a higher fuel availability for charcoal production compared to full glacial times.

  6. Misapplied survey data and model uncertainty result in incorrect conclusions about the role of predation on alewife population dynamics in Lake Huron: a comment on He et al. (2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Dunlop, Erin S.

    2016-01-01

    Drastic recent and ongoing changes to fish populations and food webs in the Great Lakes have been well-described (Riley et al. 2008; Barbiero et al. 2009; Nalepa et al. 2009; Fahnenstiel et al. 2010;Evans et al. 2011; Gobin et al. 2015), and uncertainty regarding their potential effects on fisheries has caused concern among scientists and fishery managers (e.g., Dettmers et al. 2012). In particular, the relative importance of “bottom-up” (e.g., lower trophic level changes) versus “top-down” (e.g., predation) factors to fish community changes in the Great Lakes have been widely debated (e.g.,Barbiero et al. 2011; Eshenroder and Lantry 2012; Bunnell et al. 2014). In Lake Huron, recent ecosystem changes have been particularly profound, and populations of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), an offshore pelagic prey fish, collapsed in 2003 and have yet to recover (Riley et al. 2008, 2014). He et al. (2015) recently used a series of linked ecological models to assess the role of predation in the dynamics of the offshore prey fish community in Lake Huron. While we believe that they provide a novel method for combining bioenergetics and stock assessment modeling, we question the validity of their conclusions because of the misapplication of survey data and the lack of critical interpretation of their modeling efforts. Here we describe how He et al. (2015) have misapplied bottom trawl data from Lake Huron, and we provide examples of how this has resulted in erroneous conclusions regarding the importance of predation to the population dynamics and collapse of alewife in Lake Huron.

  7. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, an iconic ultra-oligotrophic lake in the central Sierra Nevada, has been studied intensively since 1968, with the goal of understanding and ultimately controlling its eutrophication and loss of clarity. Research on the lake has included a) periodic profiles of primary productivity, nutrients, temperature, and plankton; b) Secchi depth; c) nutrient limitation experiments; d) analysis of sediment cores; e) radiocarbon dating of underwater in-place tree stumps; g) analysis of long-term temperature trends. Work in its watershed has included a) monitoring of stream discharge, sediment and nutrients at up to 20 stream gaging stations; b) monitoring of urban runoff water quality at selected sites; c) development of a GIS data base, including soils, vegetation, and land use. Based on these studies, we know that a) primary productivity in the lake is limited by phosphorus, and continues to increase; b) the loss of clarity continues, but at a declining rate; c) the lake has been warming since 1970, and its resistance to deep mixing is increasing; d) historically the lake level drops below the outlet elevation about one year in seven; e) 6300 to 4300 yrs BP lake level was below the present outlet elevation long enough for large trees to grow; f) the date of the peak snowmelt runoff is shifting toward earlier dates; g) after accounting for annual runoff, loads of nutrients and suspended sediment have declined significantly in some basin streams since 1980. Downscaled outputs from GCM climatic models have recently been used to drive hydrologic models and a lake clarity model, projecting future trends in the lake and watersheds. Results show a) the temperature and thermal stability will likely continue to increase, with deep mixing shutting down in the latter half of this century; b) the lake may drop below the outlet for an extended period beginning about 2085; c) the annual snowpack will continue to decline, with earlier snowmelt and shift from snowfall to rain; d

  8. Professional Android Programming with Mono for Android and NETC#

    CERN Document Server

    McClure, Wallace B; Croft, John J; Dick, Jonathan; Hardy, Chris

    2012-01-01

    A one-of-a-kind book on Android application development with Mono for Android The wait is over! For the millions of .NET/C# developers who have been eagerly awaiting the book that will guide them through the white-hot field of Android application programming, this is the book. As the first guide to focus on Mono for Android, this must-have resource dives into writing applications against Mono with C# and compiling executables that run on the Android family of devices. Putting the proven Wrox Professional format into practice, the authors provide you with the knowledge you need to become a succ

  9. Upgrading of the Mono Media Filters in Water Treatment Plants by Changing Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Rezaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackground and Objectives:Dual media filters have two different layer beds consist of sand and Anthracite. Advantage of dual media filters is longer run duration and more filtration rate. The purpose of this study was to achieve a performable model to improve single media Filters in water treatment plants."nMaterials and Methods: in this cross-sectional study, two pilots; mono and dual media were made and in a 5 month period samples taking were done. Total samples taken from input and output of each pilot, was 40. The samples then introduced for the measurment of turbidity and total organic carbon. Meanwhile the filters head loss also quantified in 40 times head loss measurement was done."nResults: Average turbidity removal in mono and two layer pilots were 63 and 65 percent respectively. Average removal of Total Organic Carbon in mono and two media pilots were 40 and 66 percent respectively. Head loss in dual and single media pilots were 0 .68 and 1.15 m respectively."nConclusion: Although average torbidity removal disparity between two pilots was not significant the amount of total organic carbon removed was considerable. Average head loss in single media pilot was more than dual media type. Ratio of UFRV in dual media to mono media filter was 51:30 it shows that filtration rate capacity will be improved up to70 percent by changing media type.

  10. Emotions in freely varying and mono-pitched vowels, acoustic and EGG analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaramaa, Teija; Palo, Pertti; Kankare, Elina

    2015-12-01

    Vocal emotions are expressed either by speech or singing. The difference is that in singing the pitch is predetermined while in speech it may vary freely. It was of interest to study whether there were voice quality differences between freely varying and mono-pitched vowels expressed by professional actors. Given their profession, actors have to be able to express emotions both by speech and singing. Electroglottogram and acoustic analyses of emotional utterances embedded in expressions of freely varying vowels [a:], [i:], [u:] (96 samples) and mono-pitched protracted vowels (96 samples) were studied. Contact quotient (CQEGG) was calculated using 35%, 55%, and 80% threshold levels. Three different threshold levels were used in order to evaluate their effects on emotions. Genders were studied separately. The results suggested significant gender differences for CQEGG 80% threshold level. SPL, CQEGG, and F4 were used to convey emotions, but to a lesser degree, when F0 was predetermined. Moreover, females showed fewer significant variations than males. Both genders used more hypofunctional phonation type in mono-pitched utterances than in the expressions with freely varying pitch. The present material warrants further study of the interplay between CQEGG threshold levels and formant frequencies, and listening tests to investigate the perceptual value of the mono-pitched vowels in the communication of emotions.

  11. Enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria and resulting mineral formation in media mimicking pore water metal ion concentrations and pH conditions of acidic pit lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Jutta; Piva, Angela; Fortin, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Acid mine drainage sites are extreme environments with high acidity and metal ion concentrations. Under anoxic conditions, microbial sulfate reduction may trigger the formation of secondary minerals as a result of H2S production and pH increase. This process was studied in batch experiments with enrichment cultures from acidic sediments of a pit lake using growth media set at different pH values and containing elevated concentrations of Fe²⁺ and Al³⁺. At initial pH values of 5 and 6, sulfate reduction occurred shortly after inoculation. Sulfate- reducing bacteria affiliated to the genus Desulfosporosinus predominated the microbial communities as shown by 16S rRNA gene analysis performed at the end of the incubation. At initial pH values of 3 and 4, sulfate reduction and cell growth occurred only after an extended lag phase, however, at a higher rate than in the less acidic assays. At the end of the growth phase, enrichments were dominated by Thermodesulfobium spp. suggesting that these sulfate reducers were better adapted to acidic conditions. Iron sulfides in the bulk phase were common in all assays, but specific aluminum precipitates formed in close association with cell surfaces and may function as a detoxification mechanism of dissolved Al species at low pH.

  12. Characteristics and degradation of carbon and phosphorus from aquatic macrophytes in lakes: Insights from solid-state 13C NMR and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, S. S.; Zhu, Y.; Meng, W.; Wu, F.

    2016-12-01

    Water extractable organic matter (WEOM) derived from macrophytes plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, including carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lakes. However, reports of their composition and degradation in natural waters are scarce. Therefore, compositions and degradation of WEOM derived from six aquatic macrophytes species of Tai Lake, China, were investigated by use of solid-state 13C NMR and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy. Carbohydrates were the predominant constituents of WEOM fractions, followed by carboxylic acid. Orthophosphate (ortho-P) was the dominant form of P (78.7% of total dissolved P) in the water extracts, followed by monoester P (mono-P) (20.6%) and little diester P (0.65%). The proportion of mono-P in total P species increased with the percentage of O-alkyl and O-C-O increasing in the WEOM, which is likely due to degradation and dissolution of biological membranes and RNA from aquatic plants. Whereas the proportion of mono-P decreased with alkyl-C, NCH/OCH3 and COO/N-C=O increasing, which may be owing to the insoluble compounds including C functional groups of alkyl-C, NCH/OCH3 and COO/N-C=O, such as aliphatic biopolymers, lignin and peptides. Based on the results of this study and information in the literature about water column and sediment, we propose that WEOM, dominated by polysaccharides, are the most labile and bioavailable component in debris of macrophytes. Additionally, these WEOMs would also be a potential source for bioavailable organic P (e.g., RNA, DNA and phytate) for lakes.

  13. Stable isotope evolution and paleolimnology of ancient Lake Creede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Robert O.; Bethke, Philip M.; Finkelstein, David B.

    2000-01-01

    and were dominated by CO2 produced by the oxidation of organic matter (hypolimnion). During Period III the lake remained stratified. The productive zone was in the hypolimnion, probably due to a thinning of the epilimnion resulting from an increase in the surface area of the lake or a decrease in input waters reflecting a climate change. An upsection increase in values δ18O for the heaviest samples during Periods ! and II indicates evaporative concentration of 18O and by, analogy, salinity in the hypolimnon. The δD-δ18O evolution of the lake is inferred on theoretical evaporation trends, comparison to Mono Lake, and measurement of the δD in fluid inclusions in a calcite pseudomorph after ikaite. The δD-δ18O composition of the lake water followed a curved path that eventually hooked over at a nearly constant δ18O value for the lake of 2% to 2%. Travetine (tufa) mounds formed along the inner and outer margins of the lake in a zone of mixing of warm, volcanic CO2-bearing, meteoric waters and lake water. Ikaite crystals formed on the mounds from unmixed saline lake water, probably below the thermocline. As the position of the thermocline deepened, likely following the spring runoff, the ikaite was replaced by calcite and the resulting "pearls" were covered with travertine deposited from mixed meteoric and lake waters. The upsection increase in δ18O values of the carbonates, the long period of invariance of large δ18OH2O values, the presence of brine shrimp fecal pellets, and the inferred hooked δD-δ18O path are consistent with evidence from other studies that Lake Creede obtained significant salinity rather early in its history and certainly by the time the lake became permanently stratified.

  14. Playa Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the spatial distribution of soil units associated with playa lakes. Specific soil types have been designated by the...

  15. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  16. Increased expression and dysregulated association of restriction factors and type I interferon in HIV, HCV mono- and co-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Wu; Liu, Feng-Liang; Mu, Dan; Deng, De-Yao; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2016-06-01

    Host restriction factors and type I interferon are important in limiting HIV and HCV infections, yet the role of HIV, HCV mono- and co-infection in regulating these antiviral genes expression is not clear. In this study, we measured the levels of TRIM5α, TRIM22, APOBEC3G, and IFN-α, -β mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 43 HIV mono-infected, 70 HCV mono-infected and 64 HIV/HCV co-infected patients along with 98 healthy controls. We also quantified HIV and HCV viral loads in mono- and co-infected patients. The results showed that HCV, HIV mono- and co-infection differentially increased TRIM22, APOBEC3G, and IFN-α, -β mRNA expression while the mRNA expression of TRIMα was upregulated only by HCV-mono infection. HIV/HCV co-infection was associated with higher viral load, compared to either HIV or HCV mono-infection. Additionally, we showed TRIMα and TRIM22 positively correlated with IFN-α, -β, which could be dysregulated by HIV, HCV mono- and co-infection. Furthermore, we found TRIM22 negatively correlated with HCV viral load in mono-infected patients and APOBEC3G positively correlated with HCV viral load in co-infected patients. Collectively, our findings suggest the potential role of restriction factors in restricting HIV, HCV mono- and co-infection in vivo, which appears to be a therapeutic target for potential drug discovery.

  17. Greater Sage-grouse Telemetry - Mono Co. [ds68

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Combined telemetry locations for sage grouse in Mono County which were fitted with radio-transmitters for the USGS Greater sage-grouse project. Contains spatial and...

  18. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Treatment Outcomes of Isoniazid- and Rifampicin- Mono-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Leonela; Huaman, Moises A.; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Isoniazid and rifampicin are the two most efficacious first-line agents for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We assessed the prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance, associated risk factors, and the association of mono-resistance on treatment outcomes. Methods A prospective, observational cohort study enrolled adults with a first episode of smear-positive pulmonary TB from 34 health facilities in a northern district of Lima, Peru, from March 2010 through December 2011. Participants were interviewed and a sputum sample was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) media. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the proportion method. Medication regimens were documented for each patient. Our primary outcomes were treatment outcome at the end of treatment. The secondary outcome included recurrent episodes among cured patients within two years after completion of the treatment. Results Of 1292 patients enrolled, 1039 (80%) were culture-positive. From this subpopulation, isoniazid mono-resistance was present in 85 (8%) patients and rifampicin mono-resistance was present in 24 (2%) patients. In the multivariate logistic regression model, isoniazid mono-resistance was associated with illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–4.1), and rifampicin mono-resistance was associated with HIV infection (aOR = 9.43; 95%CI: 1.9–47.8). Isoniazid mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of poor treatment outcomes including treatment failure (2/85, 2%, p-value<0.01) and death (4/85, 5%, p<0.02). Rifampicin mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of death (2/24, 8%, p<0.01). Conclusion A high prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance was found among TB patients in our low HIV burden setting which were similar to regions with high HIV burden. Patients with isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance had an increased risk of poor treatment outcomes. PMID:27045684

  19. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-09-01

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S2CNR'R″]2 (R= Ph, CH3, R' = CH3, C2H5, C7H7 and R″ = C2H5, C6H11, iC3H7, C7H7). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444-1519, 954-1098 and 318-349 cm-1 respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 - 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The 13C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N13CS2) in the range of 196.8 - 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S2CN(Et)(i-Pr)]2, MeSnCl[S2CN(Me)(Cy)]2 and MeSnCl[S2CN(i-Pr)(CH2Ph)]2. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS4 donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands.

  20. Effects of lake trout refuges on lake whitefish and cisco in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.

  1. Preserving Urmia Lake in a changing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shadkam, Somayeh

    2017-01-01

    Urmia Lake, in north-western Iran, is an important internationally recognized natural area designated as a RAMSAR site and UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Over the last 20 years, the surface area of Urmia Lake has declined by 80%. As a result, the salinity of the lake has sharply increased which is

  2. Long-term changes in the flora and vegetation of Lake Mikołajskie (Poland as a result of its eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Solińska-Górnicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in littoral flora as well as aquatic and swamp vegetation were analysed with increasing eutrophication of the mesotrophic Lake Mikołajskie. Over 30 years the habitat conditions of the lake deteriorated and the phy-tolittoral was reduced from a zone 6 metres wide to one of only 2 metres. In addition, the number of submerged macrophyte species decreased by 50% and the frequency of most of the remaining species declined severalfold. No new species were encountered. Species retreating from the lake littoral included all Chara species, Potamogeton obtusifolius, P. natans and Hydrocharis morsus-ranae. A significant lowering of the phytosociological diversity and species richness of aquatic and swamp communities was observed. By 1994, six of the 12 associations identified in 1964 and representing the submerged and floating-leaved vegetation (e.g. Nitellopsidetum ubtusae, Charetum asperae and Potamogetonetum compressi were no longer present. In turn, 6 swamp communities from among the original 14 identified in the lake were lacking (e.g. Typhetum angustifoliae, Sugittario-Sparganietum emersi and Eleocharitetum palustris. At the same time, two new aquatic and swamp communities appeared (Ranunculetum circinuti, Myriophylletum spicati, Caricetum acutiformis and Caricetum distichae. In contrast there was an increase in the species richness of reedswamp communities due to an influx of marshland species. While the 1990s witnessed a distinct decrease in concentrations of nutrients in Lake Mikołajskie, the consequent increase in water transparency was not associated with an increase in the area of submerged macrophytes, or the species richness of aquatic vegetation.

  3. Thermokarst lakes, drainage, and drained basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Jones, B.; Arp, C.; Shroder, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins are widespread in Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost lowlands with ice-rich sediments. Thermokarst lake formation is a dominant mode of permafrost degradation and is linked to surface disturbance, subsequent melting of ground ice, surface subsidence, water impoundment, and positive feedbacks between lake growth and permafrost thaw, whereas lake drainage generally results in local permafrost aggradation. Thermokarst lakes characteristically have unique limnological, morphological, and biogeochemical characteristics that are closely tied to cold-climate conditions and permafrost properties. Thermokarst lakes also have a tendency toward complete or partial drainage through permafrost degradation and erosion. Thermokarst lake dynamics strongly affect the development of landscape geomorphology, hydrology, and the habitat characteristic of permafrost lowlands.

  4. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S{sub 2}CNR′R″]{sub 2} (R= Ph, CH{sub 3}, R′ = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7} and R″ = C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, iC{sub 3}H{sub 7}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7}). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444–1519, 954–1098 and 318–349 cm{sup −1} respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 – 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N{sup 13}CS{sub 2}) in the range of 196.8 – 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Et)(i−Pr)]{sub 2}, MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Me)(Cy)]{sub 2} and MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(i−Pr)(CH{sub 2}Ph)]{sub 2}. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS{sub 4} donor atom from the two

  5. The organic content of the Tagish Lake meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, S; Huang, Y; Becker, L; Poreda, R J; Nieman, R A; Cooper, G; Williams, M

    2001-09-21

    The Tagish Lake meteorite fell last year on a frozen lake in Canada and may provide the most pristine material of its kind. Analyses have now shown this carbonaceous chondrite to contain a suite of soluble organic compounds (approximately 100 parts per million) that includes mono- and dicarboxylic acids, dicarboximides, pyridine carboxylic acids, a sulfonic acid, and both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The insoluble carbon exhibits exclusive aromatic character, deuterium enrichment, and fullerenes containing "planetary" helium and argon. The findings provide insight into an outcome of early solar chemical evolution that differs from any seen so far in meteorites.

  6. Pairing preferences of the model mono-valence mono-atomic ions investigated by molecular simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Ruiting; Zhao, Ying; Li, HuanHuan; Gao, Yi Qin; Zhuang, Wei

    2014-05-14

    We carried out a series of potential of mean force calculations to study the pairing preferences of a series of model mono-atomic 1:1 ions with evenly varied sizes. The probabilities of forming the contact ion pair (CIP) and the single water separate ion pair (SIP) were presented in the two-dimensional plots with respect to the ion sizes. The pairing preferences reflected in these plots largely agree with the empirical rule of matching ion sizes in the small and big size regions. In the region that the ion sizes are close to the size of the water molecule; however, a significant deviation from this conventional rule is observed. Our further analysis indicated that this deviation originates from the competition between CIP and the water bridging SIP state. The competition is mainly an enthalpy modulated phenomenon in which the existing of the water bridging plays a significant role.

  7. Delineation of sympatric morphotypes of lake trout in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Seth A.; Bronte, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    Three morphotypes of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush are recognized in Lake Superior: lean, siscowet, and humper. Absolute morphotype assignment can be difficult. We used a size-free, whole-body morphometric analysis (truss protocol) to determine whether differences in body shape existed among lake trout morphotypes. Our results showed discrimination where traditional morphometric characters and meristic measurements failed to detect differences. Principal components analysis revealed some separation of all three morphotypes based on head and caudal peduncle shape, but it also indicated considerable overlap in score values. Humper lake trout have smaller caudal peduncle widths to head length and depth characters than do lean or siscowet lake trout. Lean lake trout had larger head measures to caudal widths, whereas siscowet had higher caudal peduncle to head measures. Backward stepwise discriminant function analysis retained two head measures, three midbody measures, and four caudal peduncle measures; correct classification rates when using these variables were 83% for leans, 80% for siscowets, and 83% for humpers, which suggests the measures we used for initial classification were consistent. Although clear ecological reasons for these differences are not readily apparent, patterns in misclassification rates may be consistent with evolutionary hypotheses for lake trout within the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  8. The 2005 catastrophic acid crater lake drainage, lahar, and acidic aerosol formation at Mount Chiginagak volcano, Alaska, USA: Field observations and preliminary water and vegetation chemistry results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, J.R.; Scott, W.E.; Evans, William C.; Jorgenson, J.; McGimsey, R.G.; Wang, B.

    2008-01-01

    A mass of snow and ice 400-m-wide and 105-m-thick began melting in the summit crater of Mount Chiginagak volcano sometime between November 2004 and early May 2005, presumably owing to increased heat flux from the hydrothermal system, or possibly from magma intrusion and degassing. In early May 2005, an estimated 3.8??106 m3 of sulfurous, clay-rich debris and acidic water, with an accompanying acidic aerosol component, exited the crater through a tunnel at the base of a glacier that breaches the south crater rim. Over 27 km downstream, the acidic waters of the flood inundated an important salmon spawning drainage, acidifying Mother Goose Lake from surface to depth (approximately 0.5 km3 in volume at a pH of 2.9 to 3.1), killing all aquatic life, and preventing the annual salmon run. Over 2 months later, crater lake water sampled 8 km downstream of the outlet after considerable dilution from glacial meltwater was a weak sulfuric acid solution (pH = 3.2, SO4 = 504 mg/L, Cl = 53.6 mg/L, and F = 7.92 mg/L). The acid flood waters caused severe vegetation damage, including plant death and leaf kill along the flood path. The crater lake drainage was accompanied by an ambioructic flow of acidic aerosols that followed the flood path, contributing to defoliation and necrotic leaf damage to vegetation in a 29 km2 area along and above affected streams, in areas to heights of over 150 m above stream level. Moss species killed in the event contained high levels of sulfur, indicating extremely elevated atmospheric sulfurcontent. The most abundant airborne phytotoxic constituent was likely sulfuric acid aerosols that were generated during the catastrophic partial crater lake drainage event. Two mechanisms of acidic aerosol formation are proposed: (1) generation of aerosol mist through turbulent flow of acidic water and (2) catastrophic gas exsolution. This previously undocumented phenomenon of simultaneous vegetationdamaging acidic aerosols accompanying drainage of an acidic crater

  9. [Study on biodegradation of 2,4-DCP by anaerobic sludge acclimated by mixed mono-chlorphenols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Chen, Ling; Ji, Jun-Ping; Xia, Si-Qing

    2007-06-01

    Purpose of this study was to determine the treatability of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) by anaerobic granular sludge which was acclimated by mixed mono-chlorphenols (2-CP, 4-MCP). The characteristic of degradation of 2,4-DCP by anaerobic sludge acclimated by mixed mono-chlorphenols was investigated through shake flask study and performance of continuous flow anaerobic bioreactors. The difference of degradation of 2,4-DCP by acclimated and unacclimated sludge was also compared. 2,4-DCP was degraded at 50 h and 180 h respectively for acclimated and unacclimated sludge, which testified that acclimated sludge could more effectively degrade 2,4-DCP. Although the intermediate product 4-MCP was present in both reaction system, 4-MCP could be degraded completely after 400 h in the acclimated sludge but accumulated in the unacclimated sludge. Therefore, acclimation by the mixed mono-chlorphenols (2-CP, 4-MCP) could enhance the ability of para- and meta-dechlorination for anaerobic sludge and increase the treatability of 2,4-DCP. The results of continuous anaerobic sludge-suspended carrier bioreactor (ASSCB) indicate that inoculation of the acclimated sludge by mixed mono-chlorphenols can degrade two mono-chlorphenols simultaneously, shorten the setup period, and increase the efficiency of degrading 2,4-DCP. 2-CP was easily degraded with removal rate of over 80% . While the removal rate of 4-MCP was fluctuating within 30% - 80% with changes of its influent concentration.

  10. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  11. Zooplankton communities in a large prealpine lake, Lake Constance: comparison between the Upper and the Lower Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard MAIER

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The zooplankton communities of two basins of a large lake, Lake Constance, were compared during the years 2002 and 2003. The two basins differ in morphology, physical and chemical conditions. The Upper Lake basin has a surface area of 470 km2, a mean depth of 100 and a maximum depth of 250 m; the Lower Lake basin has a surface area of 62 km2, a mean depth of only 13 and a maximum depth of 40 m. Nutrient, chlorophyll-a concentrations and mean temperatures are somewhat higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of rotifers (number per m2 lake surface was higher and rotifer development started earlier in the year in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of crustaceans was higher in the Upper Lake in the year 2002; in the year 2003 no difference in abundance could be detected between the lake basins, although in summer crustacean abundance was higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Crustacean communities differed significantly between lake basins while there was no apparent difference in rotifer communities. In the Lower Lake small crustaceans, like Bosmina spp., Ceriodaphnia pulchella and Thermocyclops oithonoides prevailed. Abundance (number per m2 lake surface of predatory cladocerans, large daphnids and large copepods was much lower in the Lower than in the Upper Lake, in particular during the summer months. Ordination with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS separated communities of both lakes along gradients that correlated with temperature and chlorophyll a concentration. Clutches of copepods were larger in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. No difference could be detected in clutch size of large daphnids between lake basins. Our results show that zooplankton communities in different basins of Lake Constance can be very different. They further suggest that the lack of large crustaceans in particular the lack of large predatory cladocerans in the Lower Lake can have negative effects on growth and

  12. Estimating the volume of Alpine glacial lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S. J.; Quincey, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Supraglacial, moraine-dammed and ice-dammed lakes represent a potential glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) threat to downstream communities in many mountain regions. This has motivated the development of empirical relationships to predict lake volume given a measurement of lake surface area obtained from satellite imagery. Such relationships are based on the notion that lake depth, area and volume scale predictably. We critically evaluate the performance of these existing empirical relationships by examining a global database of glacial lake depths, areas and volumes. Results show that lake area and depth are not always well correlated (r2 = 0.38) and that although lake volume and area are well correlated (r2 = 0.91), and indeed are auto-correlated, there are distinct outliers in the data set. These outliers represent situations where it may not be appropriate to apply existing empirical relationships to predict lake volume and include growing supraglacial lakes, glaciers that recede into basins with complex overdeepened morphologies or that have been deepened by intense erosion and lakes formed where glaciers advance across and block a main trunk valley. We use the compiled data set to develop a conceptual model of how the volumes of supraglacial ponds and lakes, moraine-dammed lakes and ice-dammed lakes should be expected to evolve with increasing area. Although a large amount of bathymetric data exist for moraine-dammed and ice-dammed lakes, we suggest that further measurements of growing supraglacial ponds and lakes are needed to better understand their development.

  13. Degenerate gaugino mass region and mono-boson collider signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Anandakrishnan, Archana; Raby, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss search strategies at the LHC for light electroweak gauginos which are mostly Wino-like, Higgsino-like or an admixture. These states are typically degenerate with decay products that are less energetic and hence difficult to detect. In addition, their production cross-sections at a hadron collider are suppressed compared to colored states such as the gluinos. In order to detect these states one needs to trigger on initial or final state radiation. Many previous analyses have focussed on mono-jet and mono-photon triggers. In the paper we argue and show that these triggers are unlikely to succeed, due to the large background from QCD backgrounds for the mono-jet searches and the fact that the $p_T$ distribution of the mono-photons are rapidly decreasing functions of $p_T$. We show this with both an analytic calculation of photons in the initial state radiation and also a detailed numerical analysis. We then argue that mono-Z triggers, from Z decaying into charged leptons may well provide...

  14. Novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex Mono-Pt induces apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human ovarian carcinoma cells, distinct from cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Yang-Miao; Zhang, Li; Huang, Bin; Tao, Fei-Fei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Zi-Jian; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2013-07-01

    Failure to engage apoptosis appears to be a leading mechanism of resistance to traditional platinum drugs in patients with ovarian cancer. Therefore, an alternative strategy to induce cell death is needed for the chemotherapy of this apoptosis-resistant cancer. Here we report that autophagic cell death, distinct from cisplatin-induced apoptosis, is triggered by a novel monofunctional platinum (II) complex named Mono-Pt in human ovarian carcinoma cells. Mono-Pt-induced cell death has the following features: cytoplasmic vacuolation, caspase-independent, no nuclear fragmentation or chromatin condensation, and no apoptotic bodies. These characteristics integrally indicated that Mono-Pt, rather than cisplatin, initiated a nonapoptotic cell death in Caov-3 ovarian carcinoma cells. Furthermore, incubation of the cells with Mono-Pt but not with cisplatin produced an increasing punctate distribution of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and an increasing ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I. Mono-Pt also caused the formation of autophagic vacuoles as revealed by monodansylcadaverine staining and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, Mono-Pt-induced cell death was significantly inhibited by the knockdown of either BECN1 or ATG7 gene expression, or by autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine, chloroquine and bafilomycin A 1. Moreover, the effect of Mono-Pt involved the AKT1-MTOR-RPS6KB1 pathway and MAPK1 (ERK2)/MAPK3 (ERK1) signaling, since the MTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased, while the MAPK1/3 inhibitor U0126 decreased Mono-Pt-induced autophagic cell death. Taken together, our results suggest that Mono-Pt exerts anticancer effect via autophagic cell death in apoptosis-resistant ovarian cancer. These findings lead to increased options for anticancer platinum drugs to induce cell death in cancer.

  15. Phosphorous Loading in Lake Champlain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, H.; Halliday, B.; Lane, T.

    2016-12-01

    Phosphate movement from different sources into Lake Champlain is a problem. Excess phosphate generates algae growth causing eutrophication. This excessive growth known as algae blooms leads to poor water quality (State of Lake Report, 2015). Phosphate moves primarily by attachment to soil particles (Busman, Lamb, 09). Historically its movement has been limited to spring, summer and fall. Spring runoff is thought to contribute the most phosphate to Lake Champlain (Jensen, Tiessen, 11). With changes in global and local temperatures effecting weather patterns and the winter season, does phosphate continue to move into Lake Champlain during the winter months? Water samples from two tributaries to Lake Champlain were collected biweekly year around for the past three years. These samples were then tested for total suspended solids and phosphate levels. The results indicate that phosphate loading occurs throughout the year even during the winter months.

  16. Dark Matter searches with Mono-X signatures at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00377126; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    At the LHC dark matter particles can be produced in association with Standard Model particles coming from initial state radiation. Searches for such processes using events with jets, photons or massive gauge bosons recoiling against large missing transverse momentum in ATLAS at 13 TeV are presented. These ``mono-X'' signatures provide powerful probes to dark matter production at the LHC, allowing for the interpretation of results in terms of simplified models with pair production of WIMPs.

  17. New concept research on mono-hull compounded ship form with high seakeeping performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ya-dong; LI Ji-de; WANG Qing

    2003-01-01

    The seakeeping performance of a certain ship equipped with semi-submerged bow (SSB) and bow-fins is discussed. The numerical calculations are carried out on a 600t deep-V compound archetypal ship. The results show that the compounded ship form has excellent seakeeping performance and thus it establishes the theoretical foundations for the development of mono-hull compounded ship form with high seakeeping performance.

  18. Similar Sister Chromatid Arrangement in Mono- and Holocentric Plant Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Veit; Zelkowski, Mateusz; Klemme, Sonja; Houben, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Due to the X-shape formation at somatic metaphase, the arrangement of the sister chromatids is obvious in monocentric chromosomes. In contrast, the sister chromatids of holocentric chromosomes cannot be distinguished even at mitotic metaphase. To clarify their organization, we differentially labelled the sister chromatids of holocentric Luzula and monocentric rye chromosomes by incorporating the base analogue EdU during replication. Using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and 3D rendering, we found that holocentric sister chromatids attach to each other at their contact surfaces similar to those of monocentrics in prometaphase. We found that sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are distributed homogeneously along the whole holocentric chromosomes of Luzula, and that their occurrence is increased compared to monocentric rye chromosomes. The SCE frequency of supernumerary B chromosomes, present additionally to the essential A chromosome complement of rye, does not differ from that of A chromosomes. Based on these results, models of the sister chromatid arrangement in mono- and holocentric plant chromosomes are presented.

  19. Mono-energy coronary angiography with a compact light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noël, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    While conventional x-ray tube sources reliably provide high-power x-ray beams for everyday clinical practice, the broad spectra that are inherent to these sources compromise the diagnostic image quality. For a monochromatic x-ray source on the other hand, the x-ray energy can be adjusted to optimal conditions with respect to contrast and dose. However, large-scale synchrotron sources impose high spatial and financial demands, making them unsuitable for clinical practice. During the last decades, research has brought up compact synchrotron sources based on inverse Compton scattering, which deliver a highly brilliant, quasi-monochromatic, tunable x-ray beam, yet fitting into a standard laboratory. One application that could benefit from the invention of these sources in clinical practice is coronary angiography. Being an important and frequently applied diagnostic tool, a high number of complications in angiography, such as renal failure, allergic reaction, or hyperthyroidism, are caused by the large amount of iodine-based contrast agent that is required for achieving sufficient image contrast. Here we demonstrate monochromatic angiography of a porcine heart acquired at the MuCLS, the first compact synchrotron source. By means of a simulation, the CNR in a coronary angiography image achieved with the quasi-mono-energetic MuCLS spectrum is analyzed and compared to a conventional x-ray-tube spectrum. The results imply that the improved CNR achieved with a quasi-monochromatic spectrum can allow for a significant reduction of iodine contrast material.

  20. Synergistic extraction of praseodymium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester and 8-Hydroxyquinoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; WU Dong-bei; BAO Bo-rong

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic extraction of Pr3+ from hydrochloric medium using mixture of 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (P507, HL) and 8-Hydroxyquinoline (HQ) in heptane was investigated. The effect of equilibrium of aqueous acidity on extraction of Pr3+ was discussed. The effect of extractant concentraction, different diluents, equilibrium time and acetate ion concentration on extraction reaction were also studied. With a method of double-logarithmic slope, composition of the extracted species on 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester and 8-Hydroxyquinolinc was derived. The result shows that the synergistic extraction system not only overcomes emulsification of 8-Hydroxyquinoline, but also shows perfect capacity of synergistic extraction. The largest synergistic enhancement factor can be calculated to be 5.49 at pH 3.6 for Pr3+.

  1. Mono-layer BC2 a high capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardikar, Rahul; Samanta, Atanu; Han, Sang Soo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Singh, Abhishek

    2015-04-01

    Mono-layer of graphene with high surface area compared to the bulk graphite phase, shows less Li uptake. The Li activity or kinetics can be modified via defects and/or substitutional doping. Boron and Nitrogen are the best known dopants for carbonaceous anode materials. In particular, boron doped graphene shows higher capacity and better Li adsorption compared to Nitrogen doped graphene. Here, using first principles density functional theory calculations, we study the spectrum of boron carbide (BCx) mono-layer phases in order to estimate the maximum gravimetric capacity that can be achieved by substitutional doping in graphene. Our results show that uniformly boron doped BC2 phase shows a high capacity of? 1400 mAh/g, much higher than previously reported capacity of BC3. Supported by Korea Institute of Science and Technology.

  2. Couple Control Model Implementation on Antagonistic Mono- and Bi-Articular Actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Prattico, Flavio; Yamamoto, Shin-ichiroh

    2014-01-01

    Recently, robot assisted therapy devices are increasingly used for spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation in assisting handicapped patients to regain their impaired movements. Assistive robotic systems may not be able to cure or fully compensate impairments, but it should be able to assist certain impaired functions and ease movements. In this study, a couple control model for lower-limb orthosis of a body weight support gait training system is proposed. The developed leg orthosis implements the use of pneumatic artificial muscle as an actuation system. The pneumatic muscle was arranged antagonistically to form two pair of mono-articular muscles (i.e., hip and knee joints), and a pair of bi-articular actuators (i.e., rectus femoris and hamstring). The results of the proposed couple control model showed that, it was able to simultaneously control the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular actuators and sufficiently performed walking motion of the leg orthosis.

  3. Detection and Quantification of Crack in Composite Mono Leaf Spring by Vibration Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamadar, Nagendra Iranna; Kivade, Sangshetty Bheemanna; Pedada, Sudhakara Rao

    2016-06-01

    Automobile industries focus for the components alternative to conventional materials with composites. There is high demand for enhanced performance and light weight. The emphasis is given for composite mono leaf spring as potential item as it is made up of glass fibre reinforced plastics despite they are sensitive to damages such as crack, delamination, de-bonding etc., occurred during either manufacturing or in service condition. These damages grow in progression and results in catastrophic failure. This work aims to deal with structural health monitoring to study and analyse the damage levels in composite mono leaf spring such as detection, location and quantification of damage. An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate presence and severity of damage by vibration parameters and validated with simulation.

  4. Fatigue Analysis of a Mono-Tower Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Brincker, Rune

    In this paper, a fatigue reliability analysis of a Mono-tower platform is presented. The failure mode, fatigue failure in the butt welds, is investigated with two different models. The one with the fatigue strength expressed through SN relations, the other with the fatigue strength expressed thro...... of the natural period, damping ratio, current, stress Spectrum and parameters describing the fatigue strength. Further, soil damping is shown to be significant for the Mono-tower.......In this paper, a fatigue reliability analysis of a Mono-tower platform is presented. The failure mode, fatigue failure in the butt welds, is investigated with two different models. The one with the fatigue strength expressed through SN relations, the other with the fatigue strength expressed...

  5. Fatigue Reliability Analysis of a Mono-Tower Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Brincker, Rune

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a fatigue reliability analysis of a Mono-tower platform is presented. The failure mode, fatigue failure in the butt welds, is investigated with two different models. The one with the fatigue strength expressed through SN relations, the other with the fatigue strength expressed thro...... of the natural period, damping ratio, current, stress spectrum and parameters describing the fatigue strength. Further, soil damping is shown to be significant for the Mono-tower.......In this paper, a fatigue reliability analysis of a Mono-tower platform is presented. The failure mode, fatigue failure in the butt welds, is investigated with two different models. The one with the fatigue strength expressed through SN relations, the other with the fatigue strength expressed...

  6. Extraction of mono- and dicarboxylic acids from a curative water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, C; Weil, L; Niessner, R

    1995-09-01

    A method for the analysis of mono- and dicarboxylic acids from water is presented. For this purpose two techniques, a C(18) solid phase extraction (SPE) and a combination method of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and aminopropyl SPE, were tested. With the combination method all analytes, short-chain mono- and long-chain dicarboxylic acids, could be analysed in one approach. The C(18) SPE was not suitable for short-chain mono- but for dicarboxylic acids. Concentrations in the investigated water ranged from 315 mg/l (butanoic acid) to 2.9 mg/l (octanoic acid). Dicarboxylic acids were found from 5 mg/l (octanedioic acid) to 0.5 mg/l (dodecanedioic acid).

  7. Increasing thiamine concentrations in lake trout eggs from Lakes Huron and Michigan coincide with low alewife abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Rinchard, Jacques; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Evans, Allison N.; Begnoche, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the Laurentian Great Lakes suffer from thiamine deficiency as a result of adult lake trout consuming prey containing thiaminase, a thiamine-degrading enzyme. Sufficiently low egg thiamine concentrations result in direct mortality of or sublethal effects on newly hatched lake trout fry. To determine the prevalence and severity of low thiamine in lake trout eggs, we monitored thiamine concentrations in lake trout eggs from 15 sites in Lakes Huron and Michigan from 2001 to 2009. Lake trout egg thiamine concentrations at most sites in both lakes were initially low and increased over time at 11 of 15 sites, and the proportion of females with egg thiamine concentrations lower than the recommended management objective of 4 nmol/g decreased over time at eight sites. Egg thiamine concentrations at five of six sites in Lakes Huron and Michigan were significantly inversely related to site-specific estimates of mean abundance of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus, and successful natural reproduction of lake trout has been observed in Lake Huron since the alewife population crashed. These results support the hypothesis that low egg thiamine in Great Lakes lake trout is associated with increased alewife abundance and that low alewife abundance may currently be a prerequisite for successful reproduction by lake trout in the Great Lakes.

  8. Hydrology of Hunters Lake, Hernando County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    The size and shape of Hunters Lake, Florida has been significantly altered by development of the surrounding Spring Hill residential community. The lake is the largest in Hernando County, enlarged by lakeshore excavation and connection to nearby ponds to an area of 360 acres at an average stage of 17.2 ft above sea level. Hunters Lake is naturally a closed lake, but development of Spring Hill has resulted in a surface water outflow from the lake in its southwest corner. Inflow to the lake could occur on the east side during extreme high-water periods. The karst terrain of the Hunters Lake area is internally drained through permeable soils, depressions, and sinkholes, and natural surface drainage is absent. The underlying Floridan aquifer system is unconfined except locally near coastal springs. Flow in the groundwater system is to the west regionally and to the southwest in the immediate area of Hunters Lake. Water level gradients in the groundwater system increase from 1.4 ft/mi east of the lake to about 8 ft/mi southwest of the lake. Hunters Lake is hydraulically connected to the groundwater system, receiving groundwater on the northeast side and losing water to the groundwater system on the southwest side. This close relationship with the groundwater system is demonstrated by graphical and numerical comparison of Hunters Lake stage with water levels in nearby groundwater sites. During 1965-84, the stage of Hunters Lake fluctuated between 12.48 and 20.7 ft above sea level. Because area lakes are all directly affected by groundwater levels, they also show a close relationship with water levels in Hunters Lake. Analysis of water quality data for Hunters Lake indicates that the water of the lake is a soft calcium bicarbonate type with ionic concentrations higher than in water from nearby shallow wells and lower than in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Samples collected in 1981-1983 indicate slightly higher levels of ionic concentration than in 1965

  9. Mechanism and control of lake eutrophication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Boqiang; YANG Liuyan; CHEN Feizhou; ZHU Guangwei; ZHANG Lu; CHEN Yiyu

    2006-01-01

    A review about lake naturally eutrophi- cating, the internal loading of nutrients from lake sediment as well as the mechanism of algal blooms and the control practices was made, especially the eutrophication problem of shallow lakes since sev- enty percent of fresh water lakes in China are shallow lakes. It was found that shallow lakes are apt toward eutrophication than deep lakes. Without any influ- ences of human activity, shallow lakes in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River are still easily eutrophicated, which may be owing to the effects of flood in this area. In shallow lakes, sediments are frequently disturbed by wind-wave and resuspended, which result in huge nutrients release to overlying water. This may be the major reason for higher in- ternal loading of nutrients in shallow lakes than in deep lakes. Algal bloom is an extreme response of lake ecosystem to the eutrophication. Appearance of algal blooms is related to physical condition of lakes, such as underwater radiation (or transparency), temperature, and hydrodynamic conditions, or related to geochemical conditions of lakes, like concentra- tions of nutrients and ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus, as well as the physiological advantage of cyanobac- teria such as vacuole for moving towards the radiant energy-rich zone and the mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) for resisting the harm of ultraviolet ra- diation. In shallow lakes, these advantages of cyanobacteria are favorable in the competition than in deep lakes. Also being the shallowness, it is more difficult to reduce nutrient loading and to control algae blooms in shallow lakes. For the control of eutrophi- cation, people should follow the sequence from pollution sources control, ecological restoration to catchment management. To control the internal nu- trient release, physical, chemical, biological tech- niques, and even bionic techniques could be selected. The idea of ecological restoration for a eutrophic lake is to shift the ecosystem

  10. Reliability Analysis of a Mono-Tower Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard;

    In this paper a reliability analysis of a Mono-tower platform is presented. The failure modes, considered, are yelding in the tube cross-sections, and fatigue failure in the butt welds. The fatigue failure mode is investigated with a fatigue model, where the fatigue strength is expressed through SN...... for the fatigue limit state is a significant failure mode for the Mono.tower platform. Further, it is shown for the fatigue failure mode the the largest contributions to the overall uncertainty are due to the damping ratio, the inertia coefficient, the stress concentration factor, the model uncertainties...

  11. Reliability Analysis of a Mono-Tower Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard;

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, a reliability analysis of a Mono-tower platform is presented. Te failure modes considered are yielding in the tube cross sections and fatigue failure in the butts welds. The fatigue failrue mode is investigated with a fatigue model, where the fatigue strength is expressed through SN...... that the fatigue limit state is a significant failure mode for the Mono-tower platform. Further, it is shown for the fatigue failure mode that the largest contributions to the overall uncertainty are due to the damping ratio, the inertia coefficient, the stress concentration factor, the model uncertainties...

  12. Cost-Effective Mass Production of Mono Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gres, Szymon; Nielsen, Søren Andreas; Fejerskov, Morten

    2015-01-01

    No recognized procedures exist for the Mono Bucket Foundation design, which is an obstruction for mass customization/production and industrialization in relation to certifying authorities. This paper presents the outcome of on-going research and development program that provides solution for inno......No recognized procedures exist for the Mono Bucket Foundation design, which is an obstruction for mass customization/production and industrialization in relation to certifying authorities. This paper presents the outcome of on-going research and development program that provides solution...

  13. Seasonal thermal ecology of adult walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Huron and Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Tyler B; Hayden, Todd A.; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Fielder, David G.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Murchie, Karen J; Dettmers, John M.; Krueger, Charles C.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize thermal patterns and generate occupancy models for adult walleye from lakes Erie and Huron with internally implanted biologgers coupled with a telemetry study to assess the effects of sex, fish size, diel periods, and lake. Sex, size, and diel periods had no effect on thermal occupancy of adult walleye in either lake. Thermal occupancy differed between lakes and seasons. Walleye from Lake Erie generally experienced higher temperatures throughout the spring and summer months than did walleye in Lake Huron, due to limnological differences between the lakes. Tagged walleye that remained in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron (i.e., adjacent to the release location), as opposed to those migrating to the main basin of Lake Huron, experienced higher temperatures, and thus accumulated more thermal units (the amount of temperature units amassed over time) throughout the year. Walleye that migrated toward the southern end of Lake Huron occupied higher temperatures than those that moved toward the north. Consequently, walleye that emigrated from Saginaw Bay experienced thermal environments that were more favorable for growth as they spent more time within their thermal optimas than those that remained in Saginaw Bay. Results presented in this paper provide information on the thermal experience of wild fish in a large lake, and could be used to refine sex- and lake-specific bioenergetics models of walleye in the Great Lakes to enable the testing of ecological hypotheses.

  14. Seasonal thermal ecology of adult walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Huron and Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Tyler B; Hayden, Todd A; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Vandergoot, Christopher S; Fielder, David G; Madenjian, Charles P; Murchie, Karen J; Dettmers, John M; Krueger, Charles C; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize thermal patterns and generate occupancy models for adult walleye from lakes Erie and Huron with internally implanted biologgers coupled with a telemetry study to assess the effects of sex, fish size, diel periods, and lake. Sex, size, and diel periods had no effect on thermal occupancy of adult walleye in either lake. Thermal occupancy differed between lakes and seasons. Walleye from Lake Erie generally experienced higher temperatures throughout the spring and summer months than did walleye in Lake Huron, due to limnological differences between the lakes. Tagged walleye that remained in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron (i.e., adjacent to the release location), as opposed to those migrating to the main basin of Lake Huron, experienced higher temperatures, and thus accumulated more thermal units (the amount of temperature units amassed over time) throughout the year. Walleye that migrated toward the southern end of Lake Huron occupied higher temperatures than those that moved toward the north. Consequently, walleye that emigrated from Saginaw Bay experienced thermal environments that were more favorable for growth as they spent more time within their thermal optimas than those that remained in Saginaw Bay. Results presented in this paper provide information on the thermal experience of wild fish in a large lake, and could be used to refine sex- and lake-specific bioenergetics models of walleye in the Great Lakes to enable the testing of ecological hypotheses.

  15. Unique and differential protein signatures within the mononuclear cells of HIV-1 and HCV mono-infected and co-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Boukli Nawal M; Shetty Vivekananda; Cubano Luis; Ricaurte Martha; Coelho-dos-Reis Jordana; Nickens Zacharie; Shah Punit; Talal Andrew H; Philip Ramila; Jain Pooja

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pathogenesis of liver damage in patients with HIV and HCV co-infection is complex and multifactorial. Although global awareness regarding HIV-1/HCV co-infection is increasing little is known about the pathophysiology that mediates the rapid progression to hepatic disease in the co-infected individuals. Results In this study, we investigated the proteome profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-1 mono-, HCV mono-, and HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients. The resul...

  16. Magnetostratigraphic results from impact crater Lake El'gygytgyn, northeastern Siberia: a 300 kyr long high-resolution terrestrial palaeoclimatic record from the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczyk, N. R.; Minyuk, P.; Melles, M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Glushkova, O.; Nolan, M.; Lozhkin, A. V.; Stetsenko, T. V.; M. Andersen, P.; Forman, S. L.

    2002-07-01

    A 12.7 m long sedimentary record recovered from Lake El'gygytgyn, located in a meteorite impact crater created 3.6 Ma in Late Cretaceous igneous rocks on Chukotka Peninsula, northeast Siberia, has been analysed for its palaeo- and rock-magnetic properties. Continuous high resolution (1 mm) measurements of magnetic susceptibility yielded successions of pronounced lows and highs. Analyses of the rock-magnetic properties by low and high temperature runs of magnetic susceptibility, determination of hysteresis parameters as well as IRM acquisition experiments, yielded a dominance of PSD (pseudo-single domain) magnetite in intervals of high magnetic susceptibility, whereas, due to selective magnetite dissolution associated with anoxic Lake water and/or pore water conditions during times of enhanced deposition of organic matter, haematite dominates within low susceptibility intervals in terms of mass percentage. Here however, magnetic properties are still dominated by magnetite. Five AMS (accelerator mass spectromentry) 14C ages, eight IRSL (infrared stimulated luminescense) ages together with preliminary pollen data suggest that variations in magnetite content reflect climatic variability of the last ~300 ka with low (high) susceptibilities representing cold (warm) climates. This pattern, caused by a complex system of deposition, preservation or decomposition of organic matter and/or magnetic minerals, in turn can be correlated in detail to global climate archives such as the oxygen isotope records from Greenland ice cores and marine sediments, respectively. Thus, the sedimentary sequence recovered from Lake El'gygytgyn represents the longest continuous terrestrial climate record now available from the Arctic.

  17. Biofilm formation and disinfectant resistance of Salmonella sp. in mono- and dual-species with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, X Y; Yang, Y S; Yuk, H G

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the biofilm formation and disinfectant resistance of Salmonella cells in mono- and dual-species biofilms with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and to investigate the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the protection of biofilms against disinfection treatment. The populations of Salmonella in mono- or dual-species biofilms with P. aeruginosa on stainless steel (SS) coupons were determined before and after exposure to commercial disinfectant, 50 μg ml(-1) chlorine or 200 μg ml(-1) Ecolab(®) Whisper™ V (a blend of four effective quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC)). In addition, EPS amount from biofilms was quantified and biofilm structures were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antagonistic interactions between Salmonella and P. aeruginosa resulted in lower planktonic population level of Salmonella, and lower density in dual-species biofilms compared to mono-species biofilms. The presence of P. aeruginosa significantly enhanced disinfectant resistance of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis biofilm cells for 2 days, and led to an average of 50% increase in polysaccharides amount in dual-species biofilms than mono-species biofilms of Salmonella. Microscopy observation showed the presence of large microcolonies covered by EPS in dual-species biofilms but not in mono-species ones. The presence of P. aeruginosa in dual-species culture inhibited the growth of Salmonella cells in planktonic phase and in biofilms, but protected Salmonella cells in biofilms from disinfection treatment, by providing more production of EPS in dual-species biofilms than mono-species ones. This study provides insights into inter-species interaction, with regard to biofilm population dynamics and disinfectant resistance. Thus, a sanitation protocol should be designed considering the protective role of secondary species to pathogens in biofilms on SS surface which has been widely used at food surfaces and manufacturers. © 2017 The

  18. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayr, S., E-mail: suvi.bayr@jyu.fi; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  19. Dust Storms From Owens and Mono Valleys, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    asthma , and chronic bronchitis are subject to increased morbidity. Hospitalization of these patients with bronchial spasm and related pulmonary...waters in Lake Magadi, Kenya . at temperatures between 67 and 82’C and p11 about 9 (Eugster and Jones 1968. p. 160).The temperature in the first...Silicate, Lake Magadi, Kenya ." Science, Volume 161, 12 July 1968. Pp. 160-163. Eugster, H. P., and G. I. Smith. "Mineral Equilibria in the Searles Lake

  20. Modeling of point defects and rare gas incorporation in uranium mono-carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, A.; Van Brutzel, L.

    2007-02-01

    An embedded atom method (EAM) potential has been established for uranium mono-carbide. This EAM potential was fitted on structural properties of metallic uranium and uranium mono-carbide. The formation energies of point defects, as well as activation energies for self migration, have been evaluated in order to cross-check the suitability of the potential. Assuming that the carbon vacancies are the main defects in uranium mono-carbide compounds, the migration paths and energies are consistent with experimental data selected by Catlow[C.R.A. Catlow, J. Nucl. Mater. 60 (1976) 151]. The insertion and migration energies for He, Kr and Xe have also been evaluated with available inter-atomic potentials [H.H. Andersen, P. Sigmund, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 38 (1965) 238]. Results show that the most stable defect configuration for rare gases is within uranium vacancies. The migration energy of an interstitial Xe is 0.5 eV, in agreement with the experimental value of 0.5 eV [Hj. Matzke, Science of advanced LMFBR fuels, Solid State Physics, Chemistry and Technology of Carbides, Nitrides and Carbonitrides of Uranium and Plutonium, North-Holland, 1986].

  1. Modeling of dielectric barrier discharge excimer lamp excited by mono polar voltage pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Oda, Akinori; Sakai, Yosuke

    2007-10-01

    Filametal discharges in Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) excimer lamp excited by mono polar voltage pulses has been simulated using two dimensional fluid model. And the differences of the filament discharges formations between mono polar case and bipolar case [1] have been examined. Xe gas was used and its pressure is 300Torr. Simulated region is 1cm (gap length) x 3cm (radial length). Periodical boundary conditions are assumed for the radial direction boundaries. The both electrodes are covered with dielectrics and their thickness is 0.2cm. Applied voltage is 5kV trapezoid shape with 50% duty ratio waveform and its repetition rate is 200kpps. First a small amount of electron-ion pair is provided in the middle of the gap for initial condition. Then the voltage starts to apply. In the case of bipolar excitation, the discharge starts from one filament (streamer discharge), and finally, 5 filaments are obtained self-consistently. In the case of mono polar case, as first, similar to bipolar case, the discharge starts from one filament, however, only 3 filaments have been obtained. This result is similar to that of 100kHz bipolar voltage case. [1] H. Akashi et al, IEEE Trans. Plasma Science, Vol.33, No.2 (2005) pp.308-309

  2. p-Type Quasi-Mono Silicon Solar Cell Fabricated by Ion Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The p-type quasi-mono wafer is a novel type of silicon material that is processed using a seed directional solidification technique. This material is a promising alternative to traditional high-cost Czochralski (CZ and float-zone (FZ material. Here, we evaluate the application of an advanced solar cell process featuring a novel method of ion implantation on p-type quasi-mono silicon wafer. The ion implantation process has simplified the normal industrial process flow by eliminating two process steps: the removal of phosphosilicate glass (PSG and the junction isolation process that is required after the conventional thermal POCl3 diffusion process. Moreover, the good passivation performance of the ion implantation process improves Voc. Our results show that, after metallization and cofiring, an average cell efficiency of 18.55% can be achieved using 156 × 156 mm p-type quasi-mono silicon wafer. Furthermore, the absolute cell efficiency obtained using this method is 0.47% higher than that for the traditional POCl3 diffusion process.

  3. Fusion of agarase and neoagarobiose hydrolase for mono-sugar production from agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkotaini, Bassam; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Beom Soo

    2017-02-01

    In enzymatic saccharification of agar, endo- and exo-agarases together with neoagarobiose hydrolase (NABH) are important key enzymes for the sequential hydrolysis reactions. In this study, a bifunctional endo/exo-agarase was fused with NABH for production of mono-sugars (D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose) from agar using only one fusion enzyme. Two fusion enzymes with either bifunctional agarase (Sco3476) or NABH (Zg4663) at the N-terminus, Sco3476-Zg4663 (SZ) and Zg4663-Sco3476 (ZS), were constructed. Both fusion enzymes exhibited their optimal agarase and NABH activities at 40 and 35 °C, respectively. Fusions SZ and ZS enhanced the thermostability of the NABH activity, while only fusion SZ showed a slight enhancement in the NABH catalytic efficiency (K cat/K M) from 14.8 (mg/mL)(-1) s(-1) to 15.8 (mg/mL)(-1) s(-1). Saccharification of agar using fusion SZ resulted in 2-fold higher mono-sugar production and 3-fold lower neoagarobiose accumulation when compared to the physical mixture of Sco3476 and Zg4663. Therefore, this fusion has the potential to reduce enzyme production cost, decrease intermediate accumulation, and increase mono-sugar yield in agar saccharification.

  4. Influence of littoral periphyton on whole-lake metabolism relates to littoral vegetation in humic lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Jussi; Devlin, Shawn P; Syväranta, Jari; Jones, Roger I

    2017-09-09

    The role of littoral habitats in lake metabolism has been underrated, especially in humic lakes, based on an assumption of low benthic primary production (PP) due to low light penetration into water. This assumption has been challenged by recent recognition of littoral epiphyton dominance of whole-lake PP in a small highly humic lake and of epiphyton as an important basal food source for humic lake biota. However, as these studies have mostly concerned single lakes, there is a need to test their wider generality. We studied the whole-lake PP and community respiration (CR) in eight small humic lakes in southern Finland during July 2015 using (14) C incorporation to measure pelagic PP and the changes in dissolved inorganic carbon in light and dark in situ incubations to measure CR and littoral PP by epiphyton. Changes in O2 concentration in both pelagic and littoral surface water were measured periodically from each lake and, additionally, continuously with a data logger from one lake during the study period. The results revealed that the littoral dominated whole-lake net primary production (NPP) in five of the eight lakes, which was supported by observed O2 supersaturation in the littoral surface water in most of the lakes. Calculated pelagic:littoral ratios by area correlated negatively with both littoral NPP and littoral contribution to whole-lake NPP. Moreover, there was a significant positive relationship between littoral proportion of whole-lake NPP and the fraction of lake surface area covered by littoral aquatic vegetation. This demonstrates that increased aquatic littoral vegetation cover increases the overall importance of the littoral to whole-lake PP in highly humic lakes. Littoral NPP also correlated strongly with littoral O2 saturation, and the continuously measured O2 revealed substantial temporal variation in O2 saturation, particularly in the littoral zone. Whole-lake gross primary production:community respiration (GPP:CR) ratios revealed that

  5. Pedagogical Comparison of Five Reactions Performed under Microwave Heating in Multi-Mode versus Mono-Mode Ovens: Diels-Alder Cycloaddition, Wittig Salt Formation, E2 Dehydrohalogenation to Form an Alkyne, Williamson Ether Synthesis, and Fischer Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Marsha R.; Gammerdinger, William; Leap, Jennifer; Morales, Erin; Shikora, Jonathan; Weber, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Five reactions were rate-accelerated relative to the standard reflux workup in both multi-mode and mono-mode microwave ovens, and the results were compared to determine whether the sequential processing of a mono-mode unit could provide for better lab logistics and pedagogy. Conditions were optimized so that yields matched in both types of…

  6. Pedagogical Comparison of Five Reactions Performed under Microwave Heating in Multi-Mode versus Mono-Mode Ovens: Diels-Alder Cycloaddition, Wittig Salt Formation, E2 Dehydrohalogenation to Form an Alkyne, Williamson Ether Synthesis, and Fischer Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Marsha R.; Gammerdinger, William; Leap, Jennifer; Morales, Erin; Shikora, Jonathan; Weber, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Five reactions were rate-accelerated relative to the standard reflux workup in both multi-mode and mono-mode microwave ovens, and the results were compared to determine whether the sequential processing of a mono-mode unit could provide for better lab logistics and pedagogy. Conditions were optimized so that yields matched in both types of…

  7. Contaminant Monitoring Strategy for Henrys Lake, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Irving; R. P. Breckenridge

    1992-12-01

    Henrys Lake, located in southeastern Idaho, is a large, shallow lake (6,600 acres, {approx} 17.1 feet maximum depth) located at 6,472 feet elevation in Fremont Co., Idaho at the headwaters of the Henrys Fork of the Snake River. The upper watershed is comprised of high mountains of the Targhee National Forest and the lakeshore is surrounded by extensive flats and wetlands, which are mostly privately owned. The lake has been dammed since 1922, and the upper 12 feet of the lake waters are allocated for downriver use. Henrys Lake is a naturally productive lake supporting a nationally recognized ''Blue Ribbon'' trout fishery. There is concern that increasing housing development and cattle grazing may accelerate eutrophication and result in winter and early spring fish kills. There has not been a recent thorough assessment of lake water quality. However, the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is currently conducting a study of water quality on Henrys Lake and tributary streams. Septic systems and lawn runoff from housing developments on the north, west, and southwest shores could potentially contribute to the nutrient enrichment of the lake. Many houses are on steep hillsides where runoff from lawns, driveways, etc. drain into wetland flats along the lake or directly into the lake. In addition, seepage from septic systems (drainfields) drain directly into the wetlands enter groundwater areas that seep into the lake. Cattle grazing along the lake margin, riparian areas, and uplands is likely accelerating erosion and nutrient enrichment. Also, cattle grazing along riparian areas likely adds to nutrient enrichment of the lake through subsurface flow and direct runoff. Stream bank and lakeshore erosion may also accelerate eutrophication by increasing the sedimentation of the lake. Approximately nine streams feed the lake (see map), but flows are often severely reduced or completely eliminated due to irrigation diversion. In addition, subsurface

  8. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  9. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  10. Designated Wildlife Lakes - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a point shapefile of Designated Wildlife Lakes in Minnesota. This shapefile was created by converting lake polygons from the Designated Wildlife Lakes...

  11. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  12. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  13. Hydrography - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  14. Bathymetry of Lake Huron

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  15. Soil mesofauna in disturbed spruce forest stands near Čertovo and Plešné Lakes, the Bohemian Forest: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuchta, Peter; Starý, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    The soil microarthropod communities were studied in disturbed spruce forest stands in the catchments areas of Čertovo (CT) and Plešné (PL) Lakes in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. The study is focused on the impact of the windthrow, bark beetle outbreak damage and consecutive changes in the forest stands including soil environment. Within the soil microarthropods, two main groups, Collembola (Hexapoda) and Oribatida (Acari) are analysed. Four different treatments were selected for the study on both study areas: CT1 and PL1 stands - undamaged control forest stands, CT2 and PL2 stands - "dead" forest stands damaged by bark beetle, CT3 and PL3 stands - slightly managed windthrown forest stands left for the natural succession, and CT4 and PL4 stands - harvested windthrown stands. Soil samples were taken in June (CT1/PL1 - CT3/PL3), July and October (CT1/PL1 - CT4/PL4) 2012 from each treatment. Microarthropods were subsequently extracted in a modified high-gradient apparatus in the laboratory for seven days. Finally, the comparison of the microarthropod assemblages found at different treatment stands was performed. The most abundant groups in both study areas (Čertovo and Plešné Lakes) were Collembola and Oribatida with considerable diferences within particular treatments and in time as well.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  17. Tagging a mono-top signature in Natural SUSY

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, Dorival; Takeuchi, Michihisa

    2016-01-01

    We study the feasibility of probing a region of Natural Supersymmetry where the stop and higgsino masses are compressed. Although this region is most effectively searched for in the mono-jet channel, this signature is present in many other non-supersymmetric frameworks. Therefore, another channel that carries orthogonal information is required to confirm the existence of the light stop and higgsinos. We show that a supersymmetric version of the $t \\bar t H$ process, $pp \\to t \\tilde t_1 \\tilde \\chi^0_{1(2)}$, can have observably large rate when both the stop and higgsinos are significantly light, and it leads to a distinctive mono-top signature in the compressed mass region. We demonstrate that the hadronic channel of the mono-top signature can effectively discriminate the signal from backgrounds by tagging a hadronic top-jet. We show that the hadronic channel of mono-top signature offers a significant improvement over the leptonic channel and the sensitivity reaches $m_{\\tilde t_1} \\simeq 420$ GeV at the 13 ...

  18. Spin, Charge, and Bonding in Transition Metal Mono Silicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, D. van der; Damascelli, A.; Schulte, K.; Menovsky, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Published in: Physica B 244 (1998) 138-147 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We review some of the relevant physical properties of the transition metal mono-silicides with the FeSi structure (CrSi, MnSi, FeSi, CoSi, NiSi, etc) and explore the relation between their structural

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. N/A

  20. Transient Monotonic and Cyclic Load Effects on Mono Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam

    and when hitting the foundation they induce high impact loads with a short duration. It is important that the foundation is able to resists these huge loads. Fortunately, the conducted research showed that the capacity of the mono bucket foundation is high to impact loads. When exposed to a huge wave load...

  1. Temperature dependence of atomic vibrations in mono-layer graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, C.S.; Liberti, E.; Kim, J.S.; Xu, Q.; Fan, Y.; He, K.; Robertson, A.W.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Warner, J.H.; Kirkland, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the mean square amplitude of both in- and out-of-plane lattice vibrations for mono-layer graphene at temperatures ranging from ∼100 K to 1300 K. The amplitude of lattice vibrations was calculated from data extracted from selected area electron diffraction patterns recorded across a

  2. Range optimization for mono- and bi-energetic proton modulated arc therapy with pencil beam scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Parcerisa, Daniel; Kirk, Maura; Fager, Marcus; Burgdorf, Brendan; Stowe, Malorie; Solberg, Tim; Carabe, Alejandro

    2016-11-01

    The development of rotational proton therapy plans based on a pencil-beam-scanning (PBS) system has been limited, among several other factors, by the energy-switching time between layers, a system-dependent parameter that ranges between a fraction of a second and several seconds. We are investigating mono- and bi-energetic rotational proton modulated arc therapy (PMAT) solutions that would not be affected by long energy switching times. In this context, a systematic selection of the optimal proton energy for each arc is vital. We present a treatment planning comparison of four different range selection methods, analyzing the dosimetric outcomes of the resulting treatment plans created with the ranges obtained. Given the patient geometry and arc definition (gantry and couch trajectories, snout elevation) our in-house treatment planning system (TPS) FoCa was used to find the maximum, medial and minimum water-equivalent thicknesses (WETs) of the target viewed from all possible field orientations. Optimal ranges were subsequently determined using four methods: (1) by dividing the max/min WET interval into equal steps, (2) by taking the average target midpoints from each field, (3) by taking the average WET of all voxels from all field orientations, and (4) by minimizing the fraction of the target which cannot be reached from any of the available angles. After the range (for mono-energetic plans) or ranges (for bi-energetic plans) were selected, the commercial clinical TPS in use in our institution (Varian Eclipse™) was used to produce the PMAT plans using multifield optimization. Linear energy transfer (LET) distributions of all plans were also calculated using FoCa and compared among the different methods. Mono- and bi-energetic PMAT plans, composed of a single 180° arc, were created for two patient geometries: a C-shaped target located in the mediastinal area of a thoracic tissue-equivalent phantom and a small brain tumor located directly above the brainstem. All

  3. Electricity generation by anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from hypersaline soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from soda lakes produced electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). No electricity was generated in the absence of bacterial metabolism. Arsenate respiring bacteria isolated from moderately hypersaline Mono Lake (Bacillus selenitireducens), and salt-saturated Searles Lake, CA (strain SLAS-1) oxidized lactate using arsenate as the electron acceptor. However, these cultures grew equally well without added arsenate using the MFC anode as their electron acceptor, and in the process oxidized lactate more efficiently. The decrease in electricity generation by consumption of added alternative electron acceptors (i.e. arsenate) which competed with the anode for available electrons proved to be a useful indicator of microbial activity and hence life in the fuel cells. Shaken sediment slurries from these two lakes also generated electricity, with or without added lactate. Hydrogen added to sediment slurries was consumed but did not stimulate electricity production. Finally, electricity was generated in statically incubated "intact" sediment cores from these lakes. More power was produced in sediment from Mono Lake than from Searles Lake, however microbial fuel cells could detect low levels of metabolism operating under moderate and extreme conditions of salt stress. ?? 2008 US Government.

  4. Rehabilitation of Delavan Lake, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Helsel, D.R.; MacKinnon, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive rehabilitation plan was developed and implemented to shift Delavan Lake, Wisconsin, from a hypereutrophic to a mesotrophic condition. The plan was threefold: (1) reduce external phosphorus (P) loading by applying Best Management Practices in the watershed, enhance an existing wetland, and short-circuit the inflows through the lake, (2) reduce internal P loading by treating the sediments with alum and removing carp, and (3) rehabilitate the fishery by removing carp and bigmouth buffalo and adding piscivores (biomanipulation). The first and second parts of the plan met with only limited success. With only minor reductions in internal and external P loading, P concentrations in the lake returned to near pre-treatment concentrations. The intensive biomanipulation and resulting trophic cascade (increased piscivores, decreased planktivores, increased large zooplankton populations, and reduced phytoplankton populations) eliminated most of the original problems in the lake (blue-green algal blooms and limited water clarity). However, now there is extensive macrophyte growth and abundant filamentous algae. Without significantly reducing the sources of the problems (high P loading) in Delavan Lake, the increased water clarity may not last. With an improved understanding of the individual components of this rehabilitation program, better future management plans can be developed for Delavan Lake and other lakes and reservoirs with similar eutrophication problems.

  5. Taxa-specific eco-sensitivity in relation to phytoplankton bloom stability and ecologically relevant lake state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napiórkowska-Krzebietke, Agnieszka; Dunalska, Julita A.; Zębek, Elżbieta

    2017-05-01

    Phytoplankton (including plant-like, animal-like algae and Cyanobacteria) blooms have recently become a serious global threat to the sustenance of ecosystems, to human and animal health and to economy. This study focused on the composition and stability of blooms as well as their taxa-specific ecological sensitivity to the main causal factors (especially phosphorus and nitrogen) in degraded urban lakes. The analyzed lakes were assessed with respect to the trophic state as well as ecological status. Total phytoplankton biomass (ranging from 1.5 to 181.3 mg dm-3) was typical of blooms of different intensity, which can appear during a whole growing season but are the most severe in early or late summer. Our results suggested that steady-state and non-steady-state bloom assemblages including mono-, bi- and multi-species or heterogeneous blooms may occur in urban lakes. The most intense blooms were formed by the genera of Cyanobacteria: Microcystis, Limnothrix, Pseudanabaena, Planktothrix, Bacillariophyta: Cyclotella and Dinophyta mainly Ceratium and Peridinium. Considering the sensitivity of phytoplankton assemblages, a new eco-sensitivity factor was proposed (E-SF), based on the concept of Phytoplankton Trophic Index composed of trophic scores of phytoplankton taxa along the eutrophication gradient. The E-SF values of 0.5, 1.3, 6.7 and 15.1 were recognized in lakes having a high, good, moderate or poor ecological status, respectively. For lake restoration, each type of bloom should be considered separately because of different sensitivities of taxa and relationships with environmental variables. Proper recognition of the taxa-specific response to abiotic (especially to N and P enrichment) and biotic factors could have significant implications for further water protection and management.

  6. Determination of in vitro relative potency (REP) values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls after purification with active charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.K.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Zhao, B.; Bergman, A.; Denison, M.S.; Berg, van den M.

    2006-01-01

    The TEF system for dioxin-like compounds has included assignment of TEF values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (MO-PCBs). Small traces of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active impurities could result in artifactually higher relative potency (REP) values. MO-PCBs -105, -118, -156, and -167

  7. Late Holocene subalpine lake sediments record a multi-proxy shift to increased aridity at 3.65 kyr BP, following a millennial-scale neopluvial interval in the Lake Tahoe watershed and western Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Paula; Zimmerman, Susan; Ball, Ian; Adams, Kenneth; Maloney, Jillian; Smith, Shane

    2016-04-01

    A mid Holocene dry period has been reported from lake records in the Great Basin and Sierra Nevada, yet the spatial and temporal extent of this interval is not well understood. We present evidence for a millennial-scale interval of high winter precipitation (neopluvial) at the end of the mid Holocene in the Lake Tahoe-Pyramid Lake watershed in the northern Sierra Nevada that reached its peak ˜3.7 kcal yr BP. A transect of 4 cores recovered from Fallen Leaf Lake in the Tahoe Basin were dated using AMS14C on plant macrofossils, and analyzed using scanning XRF, C and N elemental and stable isotope measurements, and diatoms as paleoclimate proxies. Fallen Leaf Lake is a deep glacially-derived lake situated in the Glen Alpine Valley at an elevation of 1942m, ˜45 m above the level of Lake Tahoe. In Fallen Leaf Lake, the end of the neopluvial is dated at 3.65 ± 0.09 kcal yr BP, and is the largest post-glacial signal in the cores. The neopluvial interval is interpreted to be a period of increased snowpack in the upper watershed, supported by depleted g δ13Corg (-27.5) values, negative baseline shifts in TOC and TN, lower C:N, and high abundances of Aulacoseira subarctica, a winter-early spring diatom. Collectively, these proxies indicate cooler temperatures, enhanced mixing, and/or shortened summer stratification resulting in increased algal productivity relative to terrestrial inputs. The neopluvial interval ends abruptly at 3.65 ka, with a change from mottled darker opaline clay to a homogeneous olive clay with decreased A. subarctica and opal, and followed by a 50% reduction in accumulation rates. After this transition δ13Corg becomes enriched by 2‰ and TOC, TN, and C:N all show the start of positive trends that continue through the Holocene. Pyramid Lake is an endorheic basin situated at the terminal end of the watershed, and inflow arrives from the Lake Tahoe basin via the Truckee River. At Pyramid Lake, existing ages on paleo-shorelines indicate a significant

  8. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  9. Pyrogen testing of lipid-based TPN using Mono Mac 6 monocyte cell line and DELFIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Hansen, E W; Christensen, J D

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in Mono Mac 6 cells.......Measurement of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion in Mono Mac 6 cells....

  10. Microplastics in Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Xue, Yingang; Li, Lingyun; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-09-01

    In comparison with marine environments, the occurrence of microplastics in freshwater environments is less understood. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution levels during 2015 in Taihu Lake, the third largest Chinese lake located in one of the most developed areas of China. The abundance of microplastics reached 0.01 × 10(6)-6.8 × 10(6) items/km(2) in plankton net samples, 3.4-25.8 items/L in surface water, 11.0-234.6 items/kg dw in sediments and 0.2-12.5 items/g ww in Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea). The average abundance of microplastics was the highest in plankton net samples from the southeast area of the lake and in the sediments from the northwest area of the lake. The northwest area of the lake was the most heavily contaminated area of the lake, as indicated by chlorophyll-α and total phosphorus. The microplastics were dominated by fiber, 100-1000 μm in size and cellophane in composition. To our best knowledge, the microplastic levels measured in plankton net samples collected from Taihu Lake were the highest found in freshwater lakes worldwide. The ratio of the microplastics in clams to each sediment sample ranged from 38 to 3810 and was negatively correlated to the microplastic level in sediments. In brief, our results strongly suggest that high levels of microplastics occurred not only in water but also in organisms in Taihu Lake.

  11. Dual or mono antiplatelet therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeganage, Chamila M; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Algra, Ale; Chen, Christopher; Topol, Eric J; Dengler, Reinhard; Markus, Hugh S; Bath, Matthew W; Bath, Philip M W

    2012-04-01

    Antiplatelets are recommended for patients with acute noncardioembolic stroke or transient ischemic attack. We compared the safety and efficacy of dual versus mono antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Completed randomized controlled trials of dual versus mono antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute (≤3 days) ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack were identified using electronic bibliographic searches. The primary outcome was recurrent stroke (ischemic, hemorrhagic, unknown; fatal, nonfatal). Comparison of binary outcomes between treatment groups was analyzed with random effect models and described using risk ratios (95% CI). Twelve completed randomized trials involving 3766 patients were included. In comparison with mono antiplatelet therapy, dual therapy (aspirin+dipyridamole and aspirin+clopidogrel) significantly reduced stroke recurrence, dual 58 (3.3%) versus mono 91 (5.0%; risk ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.49-0.93); composite vascular event (stroke, myocardial infarction, vascular death), dual 74 (4.4%) versus mono 106 (6%; risk ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99); and the combination of stroke, transient ischemic attack, acute coronary syndrome, and all death, dual 100 (1.7%) versus mono 136 (9.1%; risk ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.91); dual therapy was also associated with a nonsignificant trend to increase major bleeding, dual 15 (0.9%) versus mono 6 (0.4%; risk ratio, 2.09; 95% CI, 0.86-5.06). Dual antiplatelet therapy appears to be safe and effective in reducing stroke recurrence and combined vascular events in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack as compared with mono therapy. These results need to be tested in prospective studies.

  12. Arsenic(III) fuels anoxygenic photosynthesis in hot spring biofilms from Mono Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, T.R.; Hoeft, S.E.; Asao, M.; Madigan, M.T.; Hollibaugh, J.T.; Fisher, J.C.; Stolz, J.F.; Culbertson, C.W.; Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis indicates that microbial arsenic metabolism is ancient and probably extends back to the primordial Earth. In microbial biofilms growing on the rock surfaces of anoxic brine pools fed by hot springs containing arsenite and sulfide at high concentrations, we discovered light-dependent oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] to arsenate [As(V)] occurring under anoxic conditions. The communities were composed primarily of Ectothiorhodospira-like purple bacteria or Oscillatoria-like cyanobacteria. A pure culture of a photosynthetic bacterium grew as a photoautotroph when As(III) was used as the sole photosynthetic electron donor. The strain contained genes encoding a putative As(V) reductase but no detectable homologs of the As(III) oxidase genes of aerobic chemolithotrophs, suggesting a reverse functionality for the reductase. Production of As(V) by anoxygenic photosynthesis probably opened niches for primordial Earth's first As(V)-respiring prokaryotes.

  13. Systemic lupus erythematosus patients contain significantly less igm against mono-methylated lysine than healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Guo

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications on proteins are important in biological processes but may create neo-epitopes that induce autoimmune responses. In this study, we measured the serum IgG and IgM response to a set of non-modified or acetyl- and methyl-modified peptides corresponding to residues 1-19 of the histone 3 N-terminal tail in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients and healthy subjects. Our results indicated that the SLE patients and healthy subjects produced antibodies (Abs to the peptides, but the two groups had different Ab isotype and epitope preferences. Abs to the non-modified form, H31-19, were of the IgG isotype and produced by SLE patients. They could not recognize the scrambled H31-19, which contained the same amino acid composition but a different sequence as H31-19. In comparison, healthy subjects in general did not produce IgG against H31-19. However, about 70% of the healthy subjects produced IgM Abs against mono-methylated K9 of H31-19 (H31-19K9me. Our further studies revealed that ε-amine mono-methylated lysine could completely inhibit the IgM binding to H31-19K9me, but lysine had no inhibitory effect. In addition, the IgM Abs could bind peptides containing a mono-methylated lysine residue but with totally different sequences. Thus, mono-methylated lysine was the sole epitope for the IgM. Interestingly, SLE patients had much lower levels of this type of IgM. There was no obvious correlation between the IgM levels and disease activity and the decreased IgM was unlikely caused by medical treatments.We also found that the IgM Abs were not polyreactive to dsDNA, ssDNA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS or insulin and they did not exist in umbilical cord serum, implying that they were not natural Abs. The IgM Abs against mono-methylated lysine are present in healthy subjects but are significantly lower in SLE patients, suggesting a distinct origin of production and special physiological functions.

  14. Phosphorus limitation in Daphnia: Evidence from a long term study of three hypereutrophic Dutch lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeMott, W.R.; Gulati, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Loosdrecht lakes comprise three shallow, interconnected hypereutrophic lakes in The Netherlands. A lake restoration project conducted during the 1980s resulted in reduced phosphorus loading. However, no changes in phytoplankton abundance or species composition were noted, although seston carbon:

  15. Palaeolimnological evidence of vulnerability of Lake Neusiedl (Austria) toward climate related changes since the last "vanished-lake" stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolotti, Monica; Milan, Manuela; Boscaini, Adriano; Soja, Gerhard; Herzig, Alois

    2013-04-01

    The palaeolimnological reconstruction of secular evolution of Euroepan Lakes with key socio-economical relevance respect to large (climate change) and local scale (land use, tourism) environmental changes, represents one of the objectives of the project EuLakes (European Lakes Under Environmental Stressors, Supporting lake governance to mitigate the impact of climate change, Reg. N. 2CE243P3), launched in 2010 within the Central European Inititiative. The project consortium comprises lakes of different morphology and prevalent human uses, including the meso-eutrophic Lake Neusiedl, the largest Austrian lake (total area 315 km2), and the westernmost shallow (mean depth 1.2 m) steppe lake of the Euro-Asiatic continent. The volume of Lake Neusiedl can potentially change over the years, in relation with changing balance between atmospheric precipitation and lake water evapotranspiration. Changing water budget, together with high lake salinity and turbidity, have important implications over the lake ecosystem. This contribution illustrates results of the multi-proxi palaeolimnological reconstruction of ecologial changes occurred in Lake Neusiedl during the last ca. 140 years, i.e. since the end of the last "vanished-lake" stage (1865-1871). Geochemical and biological proxies anticipate the increase in lake productivity of ca. 10 years (1950s) respect to what reported in the literature. Diatom species composition indicate a biological lake recovery in the late 1980s, and suggest a second increment in lake productivity since the late 1990s, possibly in relation with the progressive increase in the nitrogen input from agriculture. Abundance of diatoms typical of brackish waters indicated no significant long-term change in lake salinity, while variations in species toleranting dessiccation confirm the vulnerability of Lake Neusiedl toward climate-driven changes in the lake water balance. This fragility is aggravated by the the semi-arid climate conditions of the catchemnt

  16. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the hydroxyl...

  17. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  18. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and... DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.856 Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  19. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. 573... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  20. Spatial distribution of seepage at a flow-through lake: Lake Hampen, Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, Jacob Baarstrøm; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Nilsson, Bertel;

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of seepage at a flow-through lake in western Denmark was investigated at multiple scales with integrated use of a seepage meter, lake–groundwater gradients, stable isotope fractionation (d18O), chlorofl uorocarbon (CFC) apparent ages, land-based and off -shore geophysical...... that corroborates the interpretation of lake water recharging off shore and moving down gradient. Inclusion of lake bed heterogeneity in the model improved the comparison of simulated and observed discharge to the lake. The apparent age of the discharging groundwater to the lake was determined by CFCs, resulting...

  1. Restoration in northern Lake Gehu, a eutrophic lake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Wenchao; Pan, Jizheng; Ma, Shuzhan; Chen, Bingfa; He, Shangwei

    2017-02-01

    Lake Gehu is a severely eutrophic lake in southeast China. A series of restoration measures have been implemented since 2009 in northern Lake Gehu. This study compared aquatic plants, water quality, sediment, and phytoplankton between restoration and control areas to investigate the effect of restoration measures. The results demonstrated that aquatic macrophyte coverage increased from 0% to 10.6%; mean TP, TN, and CODMn concentrations increased by 50.0%, 42.4%, and 40.8%, respectively, compared with those before the measures were carried out; the mean Secchi depth (SD) increased to 42.5 cm, which is 1.4 times higher than that before restoration; the mean euphotic depth (Zeu) in the summer increased from 91 to 130 cm; the mean chl a concentration decreased from 34.8 to 20.2 μg/L, compared with that before restoration; the Shannon-Wiener index of phytoplankton increased by 28.7%. The mean TP and TN concentrations in sediments decreased by 63.8% and 52.4%, respectively, compared with that before dredging. These results indicate that the restoration in northern Lake Gehu was effective. To complete the transformation from an algae- to a macrophyte-stable state within the region, further measures must be adopted. This restoration of a eutrophic lake can serve as a reference for similar eutrophic lakes.

  2. Phase 1, Background study results under the Council of Great Lake Governors program to perform stack sampling and analysis of emissions from densified refuse derived fuels (d-RDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-07

    This report covers the results of the first part of the study. Chapter 2 contains a summary of the d-RDF literature which was surveyed. Chapter 3 contains a compilation of existing and proposed regulation information from the seven participating Great Lakes States. Chapter 4 includes identification of pellet producers in the region. Chapter 5 contains a description of the pellet producers and test burn facilities selected for the experimental work to be undertaken in the second part of the program study. Chapter 6 contains a list of references. 27 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Characteristics and degradation of carbon and phosphorus from aquatic macrophytes in lakes: Insights from solid-state {sup 13}C NMR and solution {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shasha [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhu, Yuanrong, E-mail: zhuyuanrong07@mails.ucas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Meng, Wei, E-mail: mengwei@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); He, Zhongqi [USDA-ARS Southern Regional Research Center, 1100 Robert E Lee Blvd, New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Feng, Weiying [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhang, Chen [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Giesy, John P. [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Department of Biomedical and Veterinary Biosciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2016-02-01

    Water extractable organic matter (WEOM) derived from macrophytes plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, including carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lakes. However, reports of their composition and degradation in natural waters are scarce. Therefore, compositions and degradation of WEOM derived from six aquatic macrophytes species of Tai Lake, China, were investigated by use of solid-state {sup 13}C NMR and solution {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy. Carbohydrates were the predominant constituents of WEOM fractions, followed by carboxylic acid. Orthophosphate (ortho-P) was the dominant form of P (78.7% of total dissolved P) in the water extracts, followed by monoester P (mono-P) (20.6%) and little diester P (0.65%). The proportion of mono-P in total P species increased with the percentage of O-alkyl and O–C–O increasing in the WEOM, which is likely due to degradation and dissolution of biological membranes and RNA from aquatic plants. Whereas the proportion of mono-P decreased with alkyl-C, NCH/OCH{sub 3} and COO/N–C=O increasing, which may be owing to the insoluble compounds including C functional groups of alkyl-C, NCH/OCH{sub 3} and COO/N–C=O, such as aliphatic biopolymers, lignin and peptides. Based on the results of this study and information in the literature about water column and sediment, we propose that WEOM, dominated by polysaccharides, are the most labile and bioavailable component in debris of macrophytes. Additionally, these WEOMs would also be a potential source for bioavailable organic P (e.g., RNA, DNA and phytate) for lakes. - Highlights: • WEOM derived from aquatic macrophytes was characterized. • C and P in WEOM were characterized by solid {sup 13}C NMR and solution {sup 31}P NMR. • Degradation and transformation of macrophyte-derived C and P were investigated. • Macrophyte-derived WEOM are important source for bioavailable nutrients in lakes.

  4. Functional microbiology of soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Banciu, Horia L; Muyzer, Gerard

    2015-06-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling, including oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, aerobic chemolithotrophs, fermenting and respiring anaerobes. The main conclusion from this work is that the soda lakes are very different from other high-salt systems in respect to microbial richness and activity. The reason for this difference is determined by the major physico-chemical features of two dominant salts - NaCl in neutral saline systems and sodium carbonates in soda lakes, that are influencing the amount of energy required for osmotic adaptation.

  5. MONO, DI and TRI SSRs data extraction & storage from 1403 virus genomes with next generation retrieval mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, K V S S R; Satyanarayana, K V V

    2017-08-01

    Now a day׳s SSRs occupy the dominant role in different areas of bio-informatics like new virus identification, DNA finger printing, paternity & maternity identification, disease identification, future disease expectations and possibilities etc., Due to their wide applications in various fields and their significance, SSRs have been the area of interest for many researchers. In the SSRs extraction, retrieval algorithms are used; if retrieval algorithms quality is improved then automatically SSRs extraction system will achieve the most relevant results. For this retrieval purpose in this paper a new retrieval mechanism is proposed which will extracted the MONO, DI and TRI patterns. To extract the MONO, DI and TRI patterns using proposed retrieval mechanism in this paper, DNA sequence of 1403 virus genome data sets are considered and different MONO, DI and TRI patterns are searched in the data genome sequence file. The proposed Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) retrieval mechanism extracted the MONO, DI and TRI patterns without missing anything. It is observed that the retrieval mechanism reduces the unnecessary comparisons. Finally the extracted SSRs provide the useful, single view and useful resource to researchers.

  6. A progress report on results of test drilling and ground-water investigations of the Snake Plain aquifer, southeastern Idaho: Part 1: Mud Lake Region, 1969-70 and Part 2: Observation Wells South of Arco and West of Aberdeen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1973-01-01

    The results of drilling test holes to depths of approximately 1,000 feet in the Mud Lake region show that a large part of the region is underlain by both sedimentary deposits and basalt flows. At some locations, predominantly sedimentary deposits were penetrated; at others, basalt flows predominated. The so-called Mud Lake-Market Lake barrier denotes a change in geology. From the vicinity of the barrier area, as described by Stearns, Crandall, and Steward (1938, p. 111), up the water-table gradient for at least a few tens of miles, the saturated geologic section consists predominantly of beds of sediments that are intercalated with numerous basalt flows. Downgradient from the barrier, sedimentary deposits are not common and practically all the water-bearing formations are basalt, at least to the depths explored so far. Thus, the barrier is a transition zone from a sedimentary-basaltic sequence to a basaltic sequence. The sedimentary-basaltic sequence forms a complex hydrologic system in which water occurs under water-table conditions in the upper few tens of feet of saturated material and under artesian conditions in the deeper material in the southwest part of the region. The well data indicate that southwest of the barrier, artesian pressures are not significant. Southwest of the barrier, few sedimentary deposits occur in the basalt section and, as described by Mundorff, Crosthwaite, and Kilburn (1964). ground water occurs in a manner typical of the Snake Plain aquifer. In several wells, artesian pressures are higher in the deeper formations than in the shallower ones, but the reverse was found in a few wells. The available data are not adequate to describe the water-bearing characteristics of the artesian aquifer nor the effects that pumping in one zone would have on adjacent zones. The water-table aquifer yields large quantities of water to irrigation wells.

  7. Modification and performance evaluation of a mono-valve engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Justin W.

    A four-stroke engine utilizing one tappet valve for both the intake and exhaust gas exchange processes has been built and evaluated. The engine operates under its own power, but has a reduced power capacity than the conventional 2-valve engine. The reduction in power is traced to higher than expected amounts of exhaust gases flowing back into the intake system. Design changes to the cylinder head will fix the back flow problems, but the future capacity of mono-valve engine technology cannot be estimated. The back flow of exhaust gases increases the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and deteriorates combustion. Intake pressure data shows the mono-valve engine requires an advanced intake valve closing (IVC) time to prevent back flow of charge air. A single actuation camshaft with advanced IVC was tested in the mono-valve engine, and was found to improve exhaust scavenging at TDC and nearly eliminated all charge air back flow at IVC. The optimum IVC timing is shown to be approximately 30 crank angle degrees after BDC. The mono-valve cylinder head utilizes a rotary valve positioned above the tappet valve. The open spaces inside the rotary valveand between the rotary valve and tappet valve represent a common volume that needs to be reduced in order to reduce the base EGR rate. Multiple rotary valve configurations were tested, and the size of the common volume was found to have no effect on back flow but a direct effect on the EGR rate and engine performance. The position of the rotary valve with respect to crank angle has a direct effect on the scavenging process. Optimum scavenging occurs when the intake port is opened just after TDC.

  8. Mono- versus polydrug abuse patterns among publicly funded clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relyea George

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To examine patterns of mono- versus polydrug abuse, data were obtained from intake records of 69,891 admissions to publicly funded treatment programs in Tennessee between 1998 and 2004. While descriptive statistics were employed to report frequency and patterns of mono- and polydrug abuse by demographic variables and by study years, bivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the probability of being a mono- or polydrug abuser for a number of demographic variables. The researchers found that during the study period 51.3% of admissions reported monodrug abuse and 48.7% reported polydrug abuse. Alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana were the most commonly abused substances, both alone and in combination. Odds ratio favored polydrug abuse for all but one drug category–other drugs. Gender did not affect drug abuse patterns; however, admissions for African Americans and those living in urban areas exhibited higher probabilities of polydrug abuse. Age group also appeared to affect drug abuse patterns, with higher odds of monodrug abuse among minors and adults over 45 years old. The discernable prevalence of polydrug abuse suggests a need for developing effective prevention strategies and treatment plans specific to polydrug abuse.

  9. Alaska Open-file Report 144 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites Aleutian Arc, Atka Island to Becherof Lake -- Preliminary Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, R.J.; Moorman, M.A.; Liss, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty of more than 30 thermal spring areas reported to exist in the Aleutian arc extending from Atka Island to Becherof Lake were investigated during July and August, 1980. Thermal activity of three of these sites had diminished substantially or no longer existed. At least seven more sites where thermal-spring activity is probable or certain were not visited because of their remoteness or because of time constraints. The existence of several other reported thermal spring sites could not be verified; these sites are considered questionable. On the basis of geothermometry, subsurface reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C are estimated for 10 of the thermal spring sites investigated. These sites all occur in or near regions of Recent volcanism. Five of the sites are characterized by fumaroles and steaming ground, indicating the presence of at least a shallow vapor-dominated zone. Two, the Makushin Valley and Glacier Valley thermal areas, occur on the flanks of active Mukushin Volcano located on Unalaska Island, and may be connected to a common source of heat. Gas geothermometry suggests that the reservoir feeding the Kliuchef thermal field, located on the flanks of Kliuchef volcano of northeast Atka Island, may be as high as 239 C.

  10. Results of thermal horizontal completions with sand control in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela : case histories of horizontal gravel packs in Bachaquero-01 reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potma, J.J. [Schlumberger, IPM Prisa (Venezuela); Pizzarelli, S.G.; Gonzalez, O.E. [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas, (Venezuela); Justiniano, P.; Olivares, S.A. [Schlumberger, WCP (Venezuela)

    2002-07-01

    The experience gained through decades of applying vertical steam injection well technology in the heavy oil producing region of Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela was discussed. The oil from the Bachaquero-01 heavy oil reservoir has an API gravity of 12. Petroleum producers made an attempt to optimize production in 1996 by drilling wells with 1000 ft of horizontal section and then injecting steam. However, the initial production of 1000 BOPD dropped by 50 per cent within 4 months. A NODAL production system analysis calculation suggested that the best remedy would be to apply horizontal gravel packs to allow for more permeability compared to natural sand packs. Gravel packing of the horizontal thermal wells began in October 2000 during a drilling and completion campaign in which 18 wells were successfully gravel packed. The average production for 6 of the wells increased by 135 BOPD after 8 months compared to 9 nearby nongravel-packed horizontal wells, representing an 18 per cent higher production rate than the declining rate of the nongravel-packed wells. After one year, productivity increased by an average of 15 per cent with no sand production. Gravelpack operations were conducted at a pump rate of 2 to 3 bbl/min with a sand concentration of 0.5 to 0.7 pounds of proppant per gallon added. This maintained continuous fluid returns of 50 to 80 per cent. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  11. Transient hydrogeological controls on the chemistry of a seepage lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Webster, Katherine E.

    1995-01-01

    A solute mass balance method was used to estimate groundwater inflow and outflow rates for Nevins Lake, Michigan, a seepage lake in the upper peninsula that historically has shown extremely variable water chemistry compared with most other seepage lakes. A 4-year study (1989–1992) of the hydrology and geochemistry of Nevins Lake and its contiguous groundwater system revealed that changes in the mass of dissolved solutes are the result of annual hydraulic gradient reversals. A pronounced acidification of Nevins Lake from 1986 to 1988 was likely caused by drought-induced diminished groundwater inflow rates. In this study, dissolved calcium (the major cation in water of Nevins Lake, groundwater, and precipitation) was used for estimating mass flow rates. During the 1989–1992 period, Nevins Lake showed a reproducible annual cycle in calcium mass. Immediately following spring snowmelt and the resulting hydraulic gradient reversal, the mass of dissolved calcium in the lake increases rapidly, and then it decreases steadily throughout the summer and early fall, at which time the lake becomes hydraulically mounded and receives no groundwater inflow. Groundwater flow rates estimated by the solute mass balance method are sensitive to assumed solute concentrations in discharging groundwater. Pore water samples from the lake bed are shown to be more representative of water discharging to the lake than are samples from piezometers near the lake shore, but spatial and temporal variability in pore water chemistry must be considered. Stable isotope analyses (18O and 2H) of lake water, groundwater, and pore water samples show that water discharging to Nevins Lake in the spring is entirely recycled lake water, and no groundwater derived from terrestrial recharge reaches the lake. The conceptual model formulated during this study linking lake chemistry and the contiguous groundwater system and general groundwater flow patterns surrounding highly transient lake systems are likely

  12. Radiochronology of lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erten, H.N. [Bilkent Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-01

    Sediment cores from Lakes Zurich, Constance, from the Sea of Marmara and from southern Turkey, northern Cyprus and eastern Spain were dated using natural {sup 210}Pb, fallout {sup 137}Cs and cosmic-ray produced {sup 7}Be radionuclides. Constant activity regions in the uppermost sections of sediments from Lake Zurich and the Sea of Marmara were attributed to post-depositional mobility of {sup 210}Pb in the former case and to bioturbation in the latter. A serious discrepancy exists between the {sup 210}Pb dating of Sea of Marmara sediments and those obtained by organic carbon based methods. The elements Zn, Cu, P and Pb were enriched in the upper sections of the sediment cores corresponding to the last 200 years. The increased metallurgical activities as a result of reforms in the Ottoman Army during the 18th century could be the most likely cause. (Author).

  13. Host-feeding behaviour of Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor marginatus in mono-specific and inter-specific infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, Alicja; Bartosik, Katarzyna; Zając, Zbigniew; Stanko, Michał

    2015-09-17

    Given the sympatric occurrence in some regions of Europe and the great epidemiological significance of D. reticulatus and D. marginatus species, we investigated the behaviour of these ticks during inter-specific and mono-specific host infestations. The investigations were conducted on rabbits at 20 ± 3 °C and humidity of 38 ± 1 %. The inter-specific infestations groups consisted of 20 females and ten males of D. marginatus and 20 females and ten males of D. reticulatus on each host, whereas mono-specific infestations involved 40 females and 20 males of each species. The investigations have demonstrated competition between the two tick species resulting in modification of the behaviour on the host and the feeding course in D. marginatus females by the presence of D. reticulatus. In the inter-specific group, D. marginatus females attached for a longer time (mean 2.74 ± 1.12 h) than in the mono-specific group (mean 1.24 ± 0.97 h) (p feeding period of these females was shorter (9.45 ± 1.30 days) than in the mono-specific group (13.15 ± 2.53 days) (p feeding rates between the mono-specific and inter-specific groups. The differences in the behaviour of the females from both species during co-feeding reflect physiological adaptation to environmental conditions, which enables them to ingest blood and reproduce. During co-feeding of D. reticulatus and D. marginatus on the same host, two inter-specific systems with different physiological features are formed, which may influence the transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

  14. Polyelectrolyte Properties in Mono and Multi-Valent Ionic Media: Brushes and Complex Coacervates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Robert M.

    Materials composed of polyelectrolytes have unique and interesting physical properties resulting primarily from their charged monomer segments. Polyelectrolytes, which exist in many different biological and industrial forms, have also been shown to be highly responsive to external environmental changes. Here, two specific polyelectrolyte systems, brushes and complex coacervates, are discussed in regards to how their properties can be tailored by adjusting the surrounding ionic environment with mono and multi-valent ions. End-tethered polyelectrolyte brushes, which constitute an interesting and substantial portion of polyelectrolyte applications, are well known for their ability to provide excellent lubrication and low friction when coated onto surfaces (e.g. articular cartilage and medical devices), as well as for their ability to stabilize colloidal particles in solution (e.g. paint and cosmetic materials). These properties have been extensively studied with brushes in pure mono-valent ionic media. However, polyelectrolyte brush interactions with multi-valent ions in solution are much less understood, although highly relevant considering mono and multi-valent counterions are present in most applications. Even at very low concentrations of multi-valent ions in solution, dramatic polyelectrolyte brush physical property changes can occur, resulting in collapsed chains which also adhere to one another via multi-valent bridging. Here, the strong polyelectrolyte poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) was studied using the Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA) and electrochemistry in order to investigate brush height and intermolecular interactions between two brushes as a function of multi-valent counterion population inside a brush. Complex coacervates are formed when polyanions and polycations are mixed together in proper conditions of an aqueous solution. This mixing results in a phase separation of a polymer-rich, coacervate phase composed of a chain network held together via

  15. The effect of the polycrystalline furnace in Mono -like growth process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liu; Zhenzhen Yao; Yan Feng Ning; Xie Min Peng

    2015-01-01

    In this work,we found that the polycrystalline furnace of the thermal field simulation,which has a very important role in this class the growth of monocrystalline silicon.The software is Fluent.Polycrystalline furnace thermal field change process is closely related to the nucleation.we have improved the ration of the grain crystal,and reduce the height of the seed crystal.It is proved that the electrical of the mono like wafer is rather perfect,and the efficiency of the cell is improved greatly.The simulation cal-culation is well agree with the experimental results.

  16. Search for Dark Matter in Mono-Photon Events at 13 TeV with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ratti, Maria Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A search for Dark Matter in events with an energetic photon and large missing transverse momentum with the ATLAS experiment is presented. The analysis is performed on the data collected from proton-proton collisions delivered by the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb−1. A solid estimation of the amount of mono-photon events that are due to Standard Model processes is the key ingredient for this search. The techniques developed at this aim are presented. Results are interpreted in terms of direct production of Dark Matter particles.

  17. Mono Energetic Beams from Laser Plasma Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Cameron G; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim; Nieter, Chet; Schröder, Carl B; Toth, Csaba; Van Tilborg, Jeroen

    2005-01-01

    A laser driven wakefield accelerator has been tuned to produce high energy electron bunches with low emittance and energy spread by extending the interaction length using a plasma channel. Wakefield accelerators support gradients thousands of times those achievable in RF accelerators, but short acceleration distance, limited by diffraction, has resulted in low energy beams with 100% electron energy spread. In the present experiments on the L’OASIS laser,* the relativistically intense drive pulse was guided over 10 diffraction ranges by a plasma channel. At a drive pulse power of 9 TW, electrons were trapped from the plasma and beams of percent energy spread containing >200pC charge above 80 MeV and with normalized emittance estimated at < 2 pi -mm-mrad were produced.** Data and simulations (VORPAL***) show the high quality bunch was formed when beam loading turned off injection after initial trapping, and when the particles were extracted as they dephased from the wake. Up to 4TW was g...

  18. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Liu

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE, whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC. In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM. Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278 among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  19. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunping; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Shen, Hailong; Hu, Lijiang; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE), whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC). In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM). Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278) among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  20. Gamma spectra pictures using a digital plotter. Program MONO; Representacion de Espectros directos mediante un trazado digital. Prograa MONO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Arcos, J. M.

    1978-07-01

    The program MONO has been written for a CALCOMP-936 digital plotter operating off- -line with a UMI VAC 1106 computer, to obtain graphic representations of single gamma spectra stored on magnetic tape. It allows to plot the whole spectrum or only a part, as well as to draw a given spectrum on the same or different picture than the previous one. Ten representation scales are available and at up nine comment lines can be written in a graphic. (Author) 4 refs.

  1. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  2. Basic limnology of fifty-one lakes in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberyan, Kurt A; Horn, Sally P; Umaña, Gerardo

    2003-03-01

    We visited 51 lakes in Costa Rica as part of a broad-based survey to document their physical and chemical characteristics and how these relate to the mode of formation and geographical distribution of the lakes. The four oxbow lakes were low in elevation and tended to be turbid, high in conductivity and CO2, but low in dissolved O2; one of these, L. Gandoca, had a hypolimnion essentially composed of sea water. These were similar to the four wetland lakes, but the latter instead had low conductivities and pH, and turbidity was often due to tannins rather than suspended sediments. The thirteen artificial lakes formed a very heterogenous group, whose features varied depending on local factors. The thirteen lakes dammed by landslides, lava flows, or lahars occurred in areas with steep slopes, and were more likely to be stratified than most other types of lakes. The eight lakes that occupy volcanic craters tended to be deep, stratified, clear, and cool; two of these, L. Hule and L. Río Cuarto, appeared to be oligomictic (tending toward meromictic). The nine glacial lakes, all located above 3440 m elevation near Cerro Chirripó, were clear, cold, dilute, and are probably polymictic. Cluster analysis resulted in three significant groups of lakes. Cluster 1 included four calcium-rich lakes (average 48 mg l-1), Cluster 2 included fourteen lakes with more Si than Ca+2 and higher Cl- than the other clusters, and Cluster 3 included the remaining thirty-three lakes that were generally less concentrated. Each cluster included lakes of various origins located in different geographical regions; these data indicate that, apart from the high-altitude glacial lakes and lakes in the Miravalles area, similarity in lake chemistry is independent of lake distribution.

  3. An analysis on the evolvement processes of lake eutrophication and their characteristics of the typical lakes in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xiaoying; LI Shijie

    2006-01-01

    According to the study on the aquatic environment of the typical lakes in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, lake eutrophication is a process in which the lake ecosystem degenerates,resulting in the deterioration of the water quality due to the enrichment of the nutrients. Moreover, the succession of lake ecosystem and change of water quality both couple well with the evolvement of trophic state. Then the conceptual model is mentioned and ten lake states are classified. Based on these,the authors analyzed the eutrophication processes of the typical lakes in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. The large lakes with taking in - sending out water typical of Poyang Lake evolve from State 1 before the 1980s into State 2 after the 1980s,the large and medium lakes typical of Taihu Lake evolve from State 1 -2 in the 1960s into State 8 in the 1980s then into State 9 in the 1990s, the medium and small shallow lakes typical of Honghu Lake evolve from State 1 in the 1960s into State 2 after the 1980s and the small city (suburban) lakes typical of Donghu Lake evolve from State 2 in the 1960s into State 9after the 1970s. Further, the 1980s is the key conversion period of the lakes of various types typical of Poyang Lake, Honghu Lake and Taihu Lake converting into mesotrophic state, the 1990s is that of Taihu Lake into eutrophic state and the 1970s is that of the small city (suburban) lakes typical of Donghu Lake into eutrophic state. The series of nutrient evolvement of different typical lakes are similar, but the processes are not synchronous, which is related to the various human and natural driving mechanisms in lake basins.

  4. Current status and future tendency of lake eutrophication in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiangcan; XU Qiujin; HUANG Changzhu

    2005-01-01

    Current trophic status and trend of Chinese freshwater lakes were investigated in this study. The results showed that all lakes studied were commonly undergoing the eutrophication process, water quality decreased and lake's ecosystem is being declined. Most of the urban lakes are facing serious eutrophication. Many medium-sized lakes are in metrophic or eutrophic status, some local water are even approaching the hypertrophic level. The famous five freshwater lakes in China have entered into eutrophication in the condition of higher nutrient load. Lake Taihu, Hongze and Caohu are already in eutrophic state. Eutrophic lakes are mainly distributed in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Yungui plateau. Lake eutrophication developed rapidly. Among the 34 lakes studied in 1970's, most of lakes were in the mesotrophic status,mesotrophic water area accounted for 91.8%. With the nine year of 1978-1987 the area percentage of oligotrophic lakes decreased from 3.2% to 0.53%, and that of eutrophic lakes increased from 5.0% to 55.01%. Recent data showed 57.5% lakes were in eutrophic and hypertrophic status of the 40 surveyed lakes.Eutrophic trend of Lake Taihu, Chaohu and Xuanwu in the region of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River was predicated using the ecological stress model. The results showed that in 2008 Lake Taihu, Chaohu and Xuanwu might be of eutrophication, eutrophication and hypertrophication, respectively if no control measurement is taken. Provided the pollution water treatment rate is 60% in 2030, approximately 30 billion ton pollution water would still be discharged directly in the lakes. Therefore, in 2030 the urban lakes in China might be eutrophication or hypertrophication, and most of the medium-sized lakes at the urban-rural fringe might be in eutrophication or hypertrophication. The famous five biggest freshwater lakes in China might be eutrophication if control countermeasures are taken as now.Lake eutrophication has become a

  5. New ruthenium nitrosyl pincer complexes bearing an O2 ligand. Mono-oxygen transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogler, Eran; Efremenko, Irena; Gargir, Moti; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Martin, Jan M L; Milstein, David

    2015-03-02

    We report on Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) nitrosyl pincer complexes that can return to their original Ru(0) state by reaction with mono-oxygen scavengers. Potential intermediates were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and a mechanism is proposed, revealing a new type of metal-ligand cooperation consisting of activation of the O2 moiety by both the metal center and the NO ligand. Reaction of the Ru(0) nitrosyl complex 1 with O2 quantitatively yielded the crystallographically characterized Ru((II)) (μ(2)-O2) nitrosyl complex 2. Reaction of 2 with the mono-oxygen scavengers phosphines or CO gave the Ru(0) complex 1 and phosphine oxides, or the carbonyl complex 3 (1 trapped by CO) and CO2, respectively. Reaction of 2 with 1 equiv of phosphine at room temperature or -40 °C resulted in immediate formation of half an equivalent of 1 and 1 equiv of phosphine oxide, while half an equivalent of 2 remained unchanged. Overnight reaction at room temperature of 2 with excess CO (≥3 equiv) resulted in 3 and CO2 gas as the only products. Reaction of 1 with 1 equiv of mono-oxygen source (dioxirane) at -78 °C yielded the Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) complex 2. Similarly, reaction of the Ru(0) dearomatized complex 4 with O2 led to the crystallographicaly characterized Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) complex 5. Further reaction of 5 with mono-oxygen scavengers (phosphines or CO) led to the Ru(0) complex 4 and phosphine oxides or complex 6 (4 trapped by CO) and CO2. When instead only 1 equiv of 5 was reacted with 1 equiv of phosphine at room temperature, immediate formation of half an equivalent of 4 and 1 equiv of phosphine oxide took place, while half an equivalent of 5 remained unchanged. When 5 reacted with an excess of CO (≥3 equiv), complex 6 and CO2 gas were the only products obtained. DFT studies indicate a new mode of metal-ligand cooperation involving the nitrosyl ligand in the oxygen transfer process.

  6. Lake metabolism scales with lake morphometry and catchment conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter A.; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars; Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2012-01-01

    We used a comparative data set for 25 lakes in Denmark sampled during summer to explore the influence of lake morphometry, catchment conditions, light availability and nutrient input on lake metabolism. We found that (1) gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (R) decline with lake...... in lake morphometry and catchment conditions when comparing metabolic responses of lakes to human impacts....

  7. Escitalopram tolerability as mono- versus augmentative therapy in patients with affective disorders: a naturalistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bernardo Dell’Osso, Chiara Arici, Cristina Dobrea, Giulia Camuri, Beatrice Benatti, A Carlo AltamuraUniversity of Milan, Department of Psychiatry, Fondazione IRCSS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, ItalyBackground: Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, widely used in the treatment of affective disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine its safety and tolerability, as mono- versus augmentative therapy, in a group of patients with affective disorders.Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 131 patients suffering from different affective disorders, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, who received escitalopram for at least 4 weeks. Data were analyzed on the basis of mono- versus augmentative therapy, as well as age, gender, mean daily dosage, and patterns of combination therapy.Results: Sixty-seven (51.1% patients were treated with monotherapy (mean dose of 11.76 mg/day and 64 (48.9% with augmentative escitalopram (mean dose of 12.81 mg/day. The mean duration of escitalopram treatment was 14 months. The most frequently combined compounds were: other antidepressants (36.5%, mood stabilizers (33.4%, and atypical antipsychotics (30.1%. Side effects were reported in 5.3% of the total sample and the most common were insomnia (2.3%, nausea (2.3%, and dizziness (0.8%. No significant difference, in terms of tolerability, in mono- versus augmentative therapy groups was found. In addition, neither age nor gender was significantly correlated with a greater presence of side effects. Finally, no significant correlation between dosage and side effects was observed.Conclusion: Over a 14-month observation period, escitalopram, either as monotherapy or an augmentative treatment, was found to be well tolerated in a large sample of patients with affective disorders, with an overall low rate of side effects.Keywords: affective disorders, escitalopram

  8. 巢湖西半湖主要入湖河流水质的模糊评价及结果分析%Fuzzy Evaluation and Results Analysis of Water Quality in Major Rivers Feeding Western Chaohu Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文静; 孙世群

    2011-01-01

    This paper applied the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method tO the major rivers feeding the western Chaohu Lake. A corresponding fuzzy coefficient matrix was established and the weights to evaluate the water quality were identified in the study of the major rivers feeding the western Chaobu Lake. The final result was compared with the one ohtained by using the single factor assessment method. The results show that the water quality of most sections of the major rivers feeding the western Chaohu Lake belong to class V and bad class V. These research results by different methods are in conformity to the facts, but small differences still exist in some sections. Compared with the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and single factor evaluation for water quality evaluation system, water quality with multiple factors can be reflected objectively and comprehensively. It provides basis for the formulation of environmental protection policies, plans for preventing and controlling water pollution as well as referential value for further research.%文章对巢湖西半湖主要入湖河流采用模糊综合评价法进行评价。通过建立相应的模糊系数矩阵及确定权重并综合评价模糊运算,最终将所得结果与单因子评价指数所得结果相比较。结果表明:巢湖西半湖入湖河流大多数断面属于V和劣V类水,两种方法的评价结果基本吻合,个别断面存在微小分歧。通过将模糊综合评价法和单因子评价法进行比较分析,客观全面地反映出了多种因子复合影响下的水质状况,为制定环保政策和水污染防治规划起到借鉴作用。

  9. Lake Erie phosphorus loading and Cladophora updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation will focus on updates or progress being made on each Phosphorus Loadings and Cladophora for Lake Erie. The format will give a brief summary of data, findings, and results that were used by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) Annex 4 Nutrients Modeli...

  10. Climate-driven changes in grassland vegetation, snow cover, and lake water of the Qinghai Lake basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuelu; Liang, Tiangang; Xie, Hongjie; Huang, Xiaodong; Lin, Huilong

    2016-07-01

    Qinghai Lake basin and the lake have undergone significant changes in recent decades. We examine MODIS-derived grassland vegetation and snow cover of the Qinghai Lake basin and their relations with climate parameters during 2001 to 2010. Results show: (1) temperature and precipitation of the Qinghai Lake basin increased while evaporation decreased; (2) most of the grassland areas improved due to increased temperature and growing season precipitation; (3) weak relations between snow cover and precipitation/vegetation; (4) a significantly negative correlation between lake area and temperature (r=-0.9, presponsible for the degradation of vegetation cover in Namco Lake basin. These results suggest different responses to the similar warming climate: improved (degraded) ecological condition and productive capacity of the Qinghai Lake basin (Namco Lake basin).

  11. A coupled lake-atmosphere model (CLAM) and its application to Lake Kinneret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hai

    1999-08-01

    Kinneret is a 166-km2 lake located in Northern Israel, in the central part of the Jordan Valley, a corridor running from north to south, between the Galilee hills in the west and the Golan Heights in the east. Both the Galilee hills and the Golan Heights reach an elevation of about 400 m above mean sea level (MSL), and the lake is about -210 m (MSL). North of the lake is the mountainous area of the Hermon, culminating at about 2800 m (MSL). About 120 km south of it is the Dead Sea, which is about -410 m (MSL), and about 45 km west of it is the Mediterranean Sea. The complexity of the terrain, combined with relatively arid soil and various ground covers surrounding the lake, results in a very complicated system of atmospheric and lake processes. To understand this system, especially the processes affecting the atmosphere and lake dynamics and thermodynamics, and their effects on Lake Kinneret evaporation, a coupled lake-atmosphere model (CLAM) was developed and applied to the lake region. The CLAM is based on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and the oceanic S-coordinate Rutgers University Model (SCRUM). Energy, mass, and momentum are conserved at the interface between the atmosphere and the lake, and appropriate balance equations are applied there. In the atmospheric module, two nested grids are employed to simulate Northern Israel at a resolution of 4 x 4 km2, and the near-lake region at a resolution of 1 x 1 km 2. Synoptic conditions obtained from the National Meteorological Center (NMC) reanalysis are assimilated by the model. Soil moisture, which appears to have a significant impact on atmospheric circulation in this region, was transformed from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Observations collected during two summers above and inside the lake emphasize the good capability of CLAM to simulate surface fluxes and other microclimatic conditions, as well as lake temperature and currents. Although the lake is small (about 12-km wide

  12. Using Satellite Imagery to Monitor the Major Lakes; Case Study Lake Hamun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Islam, R.; Bah, A.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    Proper lakes function can ease the impact of floods and drought especially in arid and semi-arid regions. They are important environmentally and can directly affect human lives. Better understanding of the effect of climate change and human-driven changes on lakes would provide invaluable information for policy-makers and local people. As part of a comprehensive study, we aim to monitor the land-cover/ land-use changes in the world's major lakes using satellite observations. As a case study, Hamun Lake which is a pluvial Lake, also known as shallow Lake, located on the south-east of Iran and adjacent to Afghanistan, and Pakistan borders is investigated. The Lake is the main source of resources (agriculture, fishing and hunting) for the people around it and politically important in the region since it is shared among three different countries. The purpose of the research is to find the Lake's area from 1972 to 2015 and to see if any drought or water resources management has affected the lake. Analyzing satellites imagery from Landsat shows that the area of the Lake changes seasonally and intra-annually. Significant seasonal effects are found in 1975,1977, 1987, 1993, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2009 and 2011, as well as, substantial amount of shallow water is found throughout the years. The precipitation records as well as drought historical records are studied for the lake's basin. Meteorological studies suggest that the drought, decrease of rainfalls in the province and the improper management of the Lake have caused environmental, economic and geographical consequences. The results reveal that lake has experienced at least two prolong dryings since 1972 which drought cannot solely be blamed as main forcing factor.Proper lakes function can ease the impact of floods and drought especially in arid and semi-arid regions. They are important environmentally and can directly affect human lives. Better understanding of the effect of climate change and human-driven changes on lakes

  13. Primary Productivity Estimates in Lower Derby and Ladora Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    destroys the hypo- winter. There are no distressed fish spoiling’. Our New York State lake limnion by low cost. low-powered, and our bacteria keep on...equipment have limnion arid 60 to 70 times faster lake bed aerator makes an unbe- yielded only inconclusive results. If than it we had left the lake to its

  14. iOS Development using MonoTouch Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tavlikos, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    The book is written in a cookbook style, presenting examples in the style of recipes, allowing you to go directly to your topic of interest, or follow topics throughout a chapter to gain in-depth knowledge. This book is essential for C# and .NET developers with no previous experience in iOS development and Objective-C developers that want to make a transition to the benefits of MonoTouch and the C# language, for creating complete, compelling iPhone, iPod and iPad applications and deploying them to the App Store.

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of EGBE that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  16. Deoxygenation of Lake Ikeda, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, R.; Hasegawa, N.

    2010-12-01

    was observed in Lake Ikeda. On the other hand, the AO index was negative in December 1995 and January 1996. In addition, the WP (Western Pacific) index was also negative in the winter of 1995/96. When the WP index is negative, Japan experiences a cold winter (Koide and Kodera, 1999; Yasunaka and Hanawa, 2008). Therefore, the combination of the negative phase of AO and the negative phase of WP led to the occurrence of cold surges near Lake Ikeda, which in turn resulted in the high DO mass in February 1996. When DO concentration in the deep layer of the lake becomes higher caused winter mixing, we observe also a reduction in the DO concentration in the surface layer. The DO concentration in the surface layer sometimes decreased to 70%. In future, once Lake Ikeda will deep mixing during very cold winters, the DO concentration in the surface water might reduce largely.

  17. Lake Charles CCS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leib, Thomas [Leucadia Energy, LLC, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Cole, Dan [Denbury Onshore, LLC, Plano, TX (United States)

    2015-06-30

    In late September 2014 development of the Lake Charles Clean Energy (LCCE) Plant was abandoned resulting in termination of Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project which was a subset the LCCE Plant. As a result, the project was only funded through Phase 2A (Design) and did not enter Phase 2B (Construction) or Phase 2C (Operations). This report was prepared relying on information prepared and provided by engineering companies which were engaged by Leucadia Energy, LLC to prepare or review Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) for the Lake Charles Clean Energy Project, which includes the Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project in Lake Charles, Louisiana. The Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project was to be a large-scale industrial CCS project intended to demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. The Scope of work was divided into two discrete sections; 1) Capture and Compression prepared by the Recipient Leucadia Energy, LLC, and 2) Transport and Sequestration prepared by sub-Recipient Denbury Onshore, LLC. Capture and Compression-The Lake Charles CCS Project Final Technical Report describes the systems and equipment that would be necessary to capture CO2 generated in a large industrial gasification process and sequester the CO2 into underground formations. The purpose of each system is defined along with a description of its equipment and operation. Criteria for selection of major equipment are provided and ancillary utilities necessary for safe and reliable operation in compliance with environmental regulations are described. Construction considerations are described including a general arrangement of the CCS process units within the overall gasification project. A cost estimate is provided, delineated by system area with cost breakdown showing equipment, piping and materials

  18. Facile Synthesis of Mono-Dispersed Polystyrene (PS/Ag Composite Microspheres via Modified Chemical Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A modified method based on in situ chemical reduction was developed to prepare mono-dispersed polystyrene/silver (PS/Ag composite microspheres. In this approach; mono-dispersed PS microspheres were synthesized through dispersion polymerization using poly-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP as a dispersant at first. Then, poly-dopamine (PDA was fabricated to functionally modify the surfaces of PS microspheres. With the addition of [Ag(NH32]+ to the PS dispersion, [Ag(NH32]+ complex ions were absorbed and reduced to silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of PS-PDA microspheres to form PS/Ag composite microspheres. PVP acted both as a solvent of the metallic precursor and as a reducing agent. PDA also acted both as a chemical protocol to immobilize the silver nanoparticles at the PS surface and as a reducing agent. Therefore, no additional reducing agents were needed. The resulting composite microspheres were characterized by TEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, XRD, UV-Vis and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS. The results showed that Ag nanoparticles (NPs were homogeneously immobilized onto the PS microspheres’ surface in the presence of PDA and PVP. PS/Ag composite microspheres were well formed with a uniform and compact shell layer and were adjustable in terms of their optical property.

  19. DNR 24K Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Medium scale lake polygons derived from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) polygons and MnDOT Basemap lake delineations. Integrated with the DNR 24K Streams...

  20. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  1. Determining lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs worldwide using a tuned 1-dimensional lake model (FLake, v1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Layden

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available FLake, a 1-dimensional freshwater lake model, is tuned for 244 globally distributed large lakes using lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs derived from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs. The model, tuned using only 3 lake properties; lake depth, albedo (snow and ice and light extinction co-efficient, substantially improves the measured biases in various features of the LSWT annual cycle, including the LSWTs of saline and high altitude lakes. The daily mean absolute differences (MAD and the spread of differences (±2 standard deviations across the trial seasonally ice covered lakes (lakes with a lake-mean LSWT remaining below 1 °C for part of the annual cycle is reduced from 3.01± 2.25 °C (pre-tuning to 0.84 ± 0.51 °C (post-tuning. For non-seasonally ice-covered trial lakes (lakes with a lake-mean LSWT remaining above 1 °C throughout its annual cycle, the average daily mean absolute difference (MAD is reduced from 3.55 ± 3.20 °C to 0.96 ± 0.63 °C. The post tuning results for the trial lakes (35 lakes are highly representative of the post tuning results of the 244 lakes. The sensitivity of the summer LSWTs of deeper lakes to changes in the timing of ice-off is demonstrated. The modelled summer LSWT response to changes in ice-off timing is found to be strongly affected by lake depth and latitude, explaining 0.50 (R2adj, p = 0.001 of the inter-lake variance in summer LSWTs. Lake depth alone explains 0.35 (p =0.003 of the variance. The tuning approach undertaken in this study, overcomes the obstacle of the lack of available lake characteristic information (snow and ice albedo and light extinction co-efficient for individual lakes. Furthermore, the tuned values for lake depth, snow and ice albedo and light extinction co-efficient for the 244 lakes provide guidance for improving LSWTs modelling in FLake.

  2. Understanding the mechanisms of blooming of phytoplankton in Lake Shira, a saline lake in Siberia (the Republic of Khakasia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degermendzhy, A.G.; Gulati, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper summarises the results of a three-year research study (European Union Grant: INTAS 97-O519) aimed at investigating the planktonic populations and trophic organization of the Lake Shira ecosystem – a saline lake in Khakasia, Siberia. The lake exhibits a stable summer-autumn stratification o

  3. Heterogeneous glacial lake changes and links of lake expansions to the rapid thinning of adjacent glacier termini in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunqiao; Sheng, Yongwei; Wang, Jida; Ke, Linghong; Madson, Austin; Nie, Yong

    2017-03-01

    Glacier mass loss in the Himalayas has far-reaching implications for the alteration of regional hydrologic regimes, an increased risk of glacial lake outburst, downstream water resource abundance, and contributions to sea level rise. However, the mass losses of Himalayan glaciers are not well understood towing to the scarcity of observations and the heterogeneous responses of Himalayan glaciers to climate change and local factors (e.g., glacier surge, interacting with proglacial lakes). In particular, there is a lack of understanding on the unique interactions between moraine-dammed glacial lakes and their effects on debris cover on valley glacier termini. In this study, we examined the temporal evolution of 151 large glacial lakes across the Himalayas and then classified these glacial lakes into three categories: proglacial lakes in contact with full or partial debris-covered glaciers (debris-contact lakes), ice cliff-contact lakes, and non-glacier-contact lakes. The results show that debris-contact lakes experienced a dramatic areal increase of 36.5% over the years 2000 to 2014, while the latter two categories of lakes remained generally stable. The majority of lake expansions occurred at the glacier front without marked lake level rises. This suggests that the rapid expansion of these debris-contact lakes can be largely attributed to the thinning of debris-covered ice as caused by the melting of glacial fronts and the subsequent glacial retreat. We reconstructed the height variations of glacier fronts in contact with 57 different proglacial lakes during the years 2000 to 2014. These reconstructed surface elevation changes of debris-covered, lake-contact glacier fronts reveal significant thinning trends with considerable lowering rates that range from 1.0 to 9.7 m/y. Our study reveals that a substantial average ice thinning of 3.9 m/y occurred at the glacier fronts that are in contact with glacial lakes.

  4. Crystal growth of 50 cm square mono-like Si by directional solidification and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, Y.; Harada, H.; Jiptner, K.; Chen, J.; Prakash, R. R.; Nakano, S.; Gao, B.; Kakimoto, K.; Sekiguchi, T.

    2014-09-01

    Seed-assisted growth of mono crystalline-like Silicon (mono-like Si) ingots of 50 cm square has been performed. By controlling the shape of the liquid-solid interface, a mono-like crystal was grown from a small seed of 20 cm diameter. Several developments to reduce the carbon incorporation have been realized as can be seen from the shiny ingot surfaces. The dislocation density is reduced to the order of 104 cm-2.

  5. LAKE VICTORIA BASIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selected satellite lakes and Mara River in Lake Victoria basin, during wet and dry seasons in. 2002. Samples ... The wet season recorded higher biomass in all satellite lakes than during the dry season (t = 2.476, DF ..... communication. Urbana ...

  6. Interaction of Hypocrellin B or Mono-cysteine Substituted Hypocrellin B with CT-DNA by Spectral Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Hong ZHOU; Sheng Qin XIA; Xue Song WANG; Bao Wen ZHANG; Yi CAO

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of the anticancer drag hypocrellin B (HB) or the mono-cysteinesubstituted hypocrellin B (MCHB) and calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (CT-DNA) has beeninvestigated using spectral methods. The results of UV-visible spectra show that the HB andMCHB could intercalate into the base-stacking domain of the CT-DNA double helix. The studiesof fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism(CD) spectra also support the interacalationmechanism.

  7. Evaluation of a lake whitefish bioenergetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Argyle, Ray L.; Brandt, Stephen B.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis in the laboratory and in the field. For the laboratory evaluation, lake whitefish were fed rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax in four laboratory tanks during a 133-d experiment. Based on a comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of lake whitefish food consumption and growth with observed consumption and growth, we concluded that the bioenergetics model furnished significantly biased estimates of both food consumption and growth. On average, the model overestimated consumption by 61% and underestimated growth by 16%. The source of the bias was probably an overestimation of the respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit of the model to the observed consumption and growth in our laboratory tanks. Based on the adjusted model, predictions of food consumption over the 133-d period fell within 5% of observed consumption in three of the four tanks and within 9% of observed consumption in the remaining tank. We used polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as a tracer to evaluate model performance in the field. Based on our laboratory experiment, the efficiency with which lake whitefish retained PCBs from their food (I?) was estimated at 0.45. We applied the bioenergetics model to Lake Michigan lake whitefish and then used PCB determinations of both lake whitefish and their prey from Lake Michigan to estimate p in the field. Application of the original model to Lake Michigan lake whitefish yielded a field estimate of 0.28, implying that the original formulation of the model overestimated consumption in Lake Michigan by 61%. Application of the bioenergetics model with the adjusted respiration component resulted in a field I? estimate of 0.56, implying that this revised model underestimated consumption by 20%.

  8. Mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and mono-n-butyl phthalate activation of peroxisome proliferator activated-receptors alpha and gamma in breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata, Nagaraj Gopisetty; Robinson, Jodie A; Cabot, Peter J; Davis, Barbara; Monteith, Greg R; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J

    2006-06-01

    The phthalates di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) are environmental contaminants with significant human exposures. Both compounds are known reproductive toxins in rodents and DEHP also induces rodent hepatocarcinogenesis in a process believed to be mediated via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). DEHP and DBP are metabolised to their respective monoesters, mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), which are the active metabolites. MEHP also activates another member of the PPAR subfamily, PPARgamma. The effects of PPARalpha and PPARgamma activation in human breast cells appears to be opposing; PPARalpha activators in breast cells cause an increase in proliferation, while PPARgamma activation in breast cells is associated with differentiation and an inhibition of cell proliferation. Further to this the activation of the PPARs is cell and ligand specific, suggesting the importance of examining the effect of MEHP and MBP on the activation of PPARalpha, PPARbeta and PPARgamma in human breast. We used the common model of human breast cancer MCF-7 and examined the ability of MEHP and MBP to activate human PPARs in this system. The ability of MBP and MEHP to block PPAR responses was also assessed. We found that both human PPARalpha and PPARgamma were activated by MEHP whereas MEHP could not activate PPARbeta. MBP was unable to activate any PPAR isoforms in this breast model, despite being a weak peroxisome proliferator in liver, although MBP was an antagonist for both PPARgamma and PPARbeta. Our results suggest that the toxicological consequences of MEHP in the breast could be complex given the opposing effects of PPARalpha and PPARgamma in human breast cells.

  9. Subglacial Lake McGregor, south-central Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro-Stasiuk, Mandy J.

    2003-08-01

    It is proposed that a lake, here named "Subglacial Lake McGregor", existed beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet at, or near, the last glacial maximum. The lake resided in the ancient buried McGregor and Tee Pee preglacial valleys, which are now mostly filled with glacigenic deposits. The greatest thickness of sediment in the valleys is in the form of chaotically deposited lake beds that were laid down in a subaqueous environment by a number of process: gravity flow, water transport, and suspension settling. Topographic, sedimentary, and stratigraphic evidence point to a subglacial, not a proglacial, origin for the beds. During the early stages of lake existence, ice movement was significant as there are numerous sets of shear planes in the sedimentary beds. This indicates that the lake filled (lake sedimentation) and drained (shearing of the beds by overlying ice when ice contacted the bed) often. Thus, early in its history, the lake(s) was/were ephemeral. During the later stages of lake existence, the lake was relatively stable with no rapid draining or influx of sediment. Gradual drainage of the lake resulted in lowering of the ice onto the lake beds resulting in subglacial till deposition. Drainage was not a single continuous event. Rather it was characterized by multiple phases of near total drainage (till deposition), followed by water accumulation (lake sedimentation). Water accumulation events became successively less significant reflected by thinning of lake beds and thickening of till beds higher in the stratigraphic sequence. Since subglacial lake sedimentation appears to be restricted to the subglacial valleys, it is suggested that the valleys acted as a large-scale interconnected cavity system that both stored and transported water. It is also suggested that these acted as the main routes of water flow beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  10. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Katsev

    Full Text Available Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  11. Mono-dispersed cross-linked polystyrene micro-spheres prepared by seed swelling polymerization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongsha WANG; Yanjun LIU

    2008-01-01

    A two-step swelling procedure was adopted to synthesize mono-dispersed and highly cross-linked poly (St-divinylbenzene) particles with PSt micro-spheres (1.80 μmin diameter). The PSt micro-spheres were prepared by a dispersion polymerization method and used as seeds. The effects of monomer concentration, ratio of ethanol to water, swelling reagents, crosslinking reagents, swelling temper-ature and agitation speed on particle size were investigated in detail. The morphologies and size distributions of these micro-spheres were examined by SEM and particle size analysis (PSA). The Tg of the micro-spheres was measured by DSC. The results indicate that the particles (6.20 μm in diameter) exhibit excellent mono dispersed property and high crosslinking degree when the concentration of the swelling reagent was 25%, the concentration of the cross-linking reagents was 23%, the swelling temperature was 30℃ and the stirring speed was 150 r/min.

  12. Enhanced cooling in mono-crystalline ultra-thin silicon by embedded micro-air channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-12-11

    In today’s digital world, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled scaling of bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) based electronics has resulted in their higher performance but with increased dynamic and off-state power consumption. Such trade-off has caused excessive heat generation which eventually drains the charge of battery in portable devices. The traditional solution utilizing off-chip fans and heat sinks used for heat management make the whole system bulky and less mobile. Here we show, an enhanced cooling phenomenon in ultra-thin (>10 μm) mono-crystalline (100) silicon (detached from bulk substrate) by utilizing deterministic pattern of porous network of vertical “through silicon” micro-air channels that offer remarkable heat and weight management for ultra-mobile electronics, in a cost effective way with 20× reduction in substrate weight and a 12% lower maximum temperature at sustained loads. We also show the effectiveness of this event in functional MOS field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high-κ/metal gate stacks.

  13. TRUST IN MONO-ETHNIC AND MIXED-ETHNIC ASSOCIATIONS IN PENANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Campbell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation into trust has become a topical issue in current socialscience research. This is, in large part, a result of a perception that trust in institutions has declined markedly in the past two decades. This paper investigates trust in some of Penang’s civil associations as a way of measuring the health of social capital in Penang. It focuses on issues of trust and diversity since both are critical issues in Malaysian society in general and civil associations in particular. We began our analysis expecting higher forms of trust among members in the mono-ethnic associations, based on the power of bonding. However, findings from this study tend to suggest that rather than leading to lesser trust and infectiveness, involvement in mixed-ethnic associations have in fact generated higher trust among their members. These findings reveal an interesting corrective to more pessimistic view on the relationshipbetween trust and diversity. Data from this study also provide important insight into how bridging between different people in associations marked by diversity can accentuate trust over and above the levels found in associations were bonding between like types is the dominant characteristic. The data also indicate that for both, mono-ethnic and mixed-ethnic associations, it is the extent of members’ involvements in their associations that form trust and not vice versa.

  14. Mono-allelic retrotransposon insertion addresses epigenetic transcriptional repression in human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byun Hyang-Min

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons have been extensively studied in plants and animals and have been shown to have an impact on human genome dynamics and evolution. Their ability to move within genomes gives retrotransposons to affect genome instability. Methods we examined the polymorphic inserted AluYa5, evolutionary young Alu, in the progesterone receptor gene to determine the effects of Alu insertion on molecular environment. We used mono-allelic inserted cell lines which carry both Alu-present and Alu-absent alleles. To determine the epigenetic change and gene expression, we performed restriction enzyme digestion, Pyrosequencing, and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation. Results We observed that the polymorphic insertion of evolutionally young Alu causes increasing levels of DNA methylation in the surrounding genomic area and generates inactive histone tail modifications. Consequently the Alu insertion deleteriously inactivates the neighboring gene expression. Conclusion The mono-allelic Alu insertion cell line clearly showed that polymorphic inserted repetitive elements cause the inactivation of neighboring gene expression, bringing aberrant epigenetic changes.

  15. Rapid identification of vibrio-cholerae O1 by coaglutination test using mono-specifis antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazargan SA

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In our investigation, rabbit hyper-immune serum to V.cholerae ogawa was absorbed with V.cholerae inaba whole-cells and vice versa. Applying ammonium sulphate precipitation method, mono-specific g globulins were purified and concentrated from the absorbed whole serum. These antibodies were fixed on staphylococcus cowan 1 NCTC-8325 whole-cells, using different chemical fixatives. It was observed that maximum fixation of g globulin to protein-A was achieved by 1-propanol 50% at 3 hours, which revealed through single radial immuno-diffusion techniqe. The rectal swab samples were cultured in an enrichment bile-peptons broth. After 5 hours 37°C while agitations, one drop of each sample was mixed with one drop of vibrio-cholerae bivalent mono-specific coagglutination reagent (VBCR. The results were read after 2 to 3 minutes. Finally though statistical analysis sensitivity and specificity of coagglutination test were calculated to be 95.1% and 99.2% respectively, when compared to positive & negative controls and conventional culture methods. Using VBCR, coagglutination test can be therefore considered as a simple, reliable and rapid method to detect V.cholerae O1 in the stool of patients in endemic area and less equipped laboratories

  16. From toxins to mammalian enzymes: the diversity of mono-ADP-ribosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Giovanna; Corda, Daniela; Catara, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    The ADP-ribosylation of proteins is a phylogenetically ancient mechanism that involves the transfer of ADP-ribose from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD⁺) to specific amino acids of target proteins post-translationally. In the first part of this review, we briefly describe ADP-ribosylation as the mechanism of action of toxins, while giving particular emphasis to a non-conventional ADP-ribosylation reaction that is mediated by the fungal toxin brefeldin A (BFA). This modification results in the loss of the membrane fission activity of the C-terminal binding protein (CtBP)1/ BFA-ADP-ribosylated substrate (BARS), thus blocking progression of cells into mitosis, with important implications for the design of new anticancer drugs. In addition, we summarize the most recent findings on mammalian, intracellular mono-ADP-ribosyl transferase enzymes, underlining the emerging functional roles in which they are involved, including immune responses, transcriptional regulation, stress responses, cell survival. The observation that several mono-ADP-ribosyl transferases, such as PARP-10, PARP-12, PARP-13, are involved in a range of physiological processes points at the multifunctional feature of these proteins.

  17. Study of the molecularly imprinted polymers for selective binding of the mono-substituted sulfonylurea herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengli; Dong, Xiangchao; Wang, Bo; Fan, Zhijin; Luan, Linbo; Li, Yanni

    2013-04-01

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized for the selective extraction of mono-substituted sulfonylurea herbicides, with monosulfuron as the template and acrylamide as the functional monomer. The recognition property and affinity of the MIP for monosulfuron and its analog, monosulfuron-ester, were evaluated by equilibrium adsorption and a chromatographic study. Computer modeling, including simulated annealing and semi-empirical quantum calculation, was employed to study the recognition mechanism. The computer modeling demonstrated that monosulfuron can form multiple hydrogen bonds with methacrylic acid and acrylamide, whereas monosulfuron-ester cannot form a stable complex with these two functional monomers, which aligns with the results of the rebinding experiment. The selectivity study further demonstrated that binding sites in the MIP interact with the hydrogen in the acylamino group of mono-substituted sulfonylurea. A comparison experiment also showed that monosulfuron-imprinted MIP offers better selectivity for monosulfuron-ester than the commercial C18 high-performance liquid chromatography stationary phase material.

  18. Photon, electron, magnon, phonon and plasmon mono-mode circuits [review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, J. O.; Akjouj, A.; Dobrzynski, L.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; El Boudouti, E. H.

    2004-06-01

    Photon circuits are light conducting networks formed by joining several dielectric wave-guide channels for the transmission of light. Their production utilizes the most advanced surface technologies and represents one of the most important challenges for the next decade. These circuits are usually mono-mode when the lateral dimensions of the conducting wires are small as compared to the photon wavelength. Plasmon circuits are plasmon conducting networks, a plasmon being a collective excitation of an electron gas in a metal. Such circuits made out of nanometric metallic clusters and wires can also be tuned to work at light wavelength. Similarly, electron circuits can be designed with modern surface technologies in which the propagation of electrons is non-diffusive. Similar investigations also started recently for circuits in which the propagating excitations are phonons and magnons (spin waves). In this review paper, we deal with mono-mode circuits for propagating photons, non-diffusive ballistic electrons, magnons, phonons and plasmons. In all these circuits, the interfaces between the different wires out of which the circuits are made of, play a fundamental role. All such circuits exhibit a variety of interference effects in their transport properties. Emphasis in this review paper is placed on the network creations, which include barriers, stubs or resonators, closed loops, interconnecting branched networks and multiplexers. Results for the transmission and reflection properties of such circuits are discussed as a function of the wavelength of the excitations and the physical properties of the circuits.

  19. Enhanced cooling in mono-crystalline ultra-thin silicon by embedded micro-air channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Alfaraj, Nasir; Lizardo, Ernesto B.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2015-12-01

    In today's digital world, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled scaling of bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) based electronics has resulted in their higher performance but with increased dynamic and off-state power consumption. Such trade-off has caused excessive heat generation which eventually drains the charge of battery in portable devices. The traditional solution utilizing off-chip fans and heat sinks used for heat management make the whole system bulky and less mobile. Here we show, an enhanced cooling phenomenon in ultra-thin (>10 μm) mono-crystalline (100) silicon (detached from bulk substrate) by utilizing deterministic pattern of porous network of vertical "through silicon" micro-air channels that offer remarkable heat and weight management for ultra-mobile electronics, in a cost effective way with 20× reduction in substrate weight and a 12% lower maximum temperature at sustained loads. We also show the effectiveness of this event in functional MOS field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high-κ/metal gate stacks.

  20. Leptonic mono-top from single stop production at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Guang Hua; Wu, Lei; Yang, Jin Min; Zhang, Mengchao

    2016-01-01

    Top squark (stop) can be produced via QCD interaction but also the electroweak interaction at the LHC. In this paper, we investigate the observability of the associated production of stop and chargino, $pp \\to \\tilde{t}_1\\tilde{\\chi}^-_1$, in compressed electroweakino scenario at the 14 TeV LHC. Due to the small mass-splitting between the lightest neutralino ($\\tilde{\\chi}^0_1$) and chargino ($\\tilde{\\chi}^-_1$), such a single stop production can give a mono-top signature through the stop decay $\\tilde{t}_1 \\to t \\tilde{\\chi}^0_1$. Focusing on the leptonic mono-top channel, we propose a lab-frame observable $\\cos\\theta_{b\\ell}$ to reduce the SM backgrounds in virtue of a boosted top quark from the stop decay. We find that the single stop production can be probed at $2\\sigma$ level at the HL-LHC for $m_{\\tilde{t}_1}<760$ GeV and $m_{\\tilde{\\chi}^0_1}<150$ GeV.

  1. Suppression of invasive lake trout in an isolated backcountry lake in Glacier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, C. R.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Syslo, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Fisheries managers have implemented suppression programmes to control non-native lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum), in several lakes throughout the western United States. This study determined the feasibility of experimentally suppressing lake trout using gillnets in an isolated backcountry lake in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, for the conservation of threatened bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus (Suckley). The demographics of the lake trout population during suppression (2009–2013) were described, and those data were used to assess the effects of suppression scenarios on population growth rate (λ) using an age-structured population model. Model simulations indicated that the population was growing exponentially (λ = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.16–1.28) prior to suppression. However, suppression resulted in declining λ(0.61–0.79) for lake trout, which was concomitant with stable bull trout adult abundances. Continued suppression at or above observed exploitation levels is needed to ensure continued population declines.

  2. Spatial heterogeneity of cyanobacterial communities and genetic variation of Microcystis populations within large, shallow eutrophic lakes (Lake Taihu and Lake Chaohu, China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanfeng Cai; Fanxiang Kong; Limei Shi; Yang Yu

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria,specifically Microcystis,usually form massive blooms in eutrophic freshwater lakes.Cyanobacterial samples were collected from eight sites of both Lake Taihu and Lake Chaohu in late summer to determine the diversity and distribution pattern of cyanobacteria and Microcystis in large,shallow,entropic lakes with significant spatial heterogeneity and long-term Microcystis bloom.Molecular methods based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library analysis were used.A similar heterogeneous distribution pattern of cyanobacteria in both lakes was observed.Most parts of these two lakes with high trophic level were dominated by Microcystis.However,in the regions with low trophic levels as well as low concentrations of chlorophyll a,Synechococcus occupied a considerable percentage.Different morphospecies and genotypes dominated the bloom-forming Microcystis populations in these two lakes.Microcystis viridis and Microcystis novacekii were dominant in Lake Chaohu,whereas Microcystis flos-aquae was dominant in Lake Taihu.Only 2 of thel3 Microcystis operational taxonomic units were shared between these two lakes.Analysis of molecular variance based on 16S to 23S internal transcribed spacer sequences indicated the significant genetic differentiation of Microcystis between these two lakes (Fst =0.19,p < 0.001).However,only 19.46% of the genetic variability was explained by the population variation between lakes,whereas most (80.54%) of the genetic variability occurred within the lakes.Phylogenetic analysis revealed no phylogeographic structure of Microcystis population in these two lakes,as illustrated by their cosmopolitan nature.Our results revealed that spatial heterogeneity within lakes has more impact on the cyanobacterial diversity than geographical isolation in a local scale.

  3. Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenyl Picolinate Catalyzed by Mono-and Binuclear Transition Metal Complexes with Polyether Bridged Dihydroxamic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建章; 李鸿波; 冯发美; 谢家庆; 李慎新; 周波; 秦圣英

    2005-01-01

    Two polyether bridged dihydroxamic acids and their mono-and binuclear manganese(Ⅱ), zinc(Ⅱ) complexes have been synthesized and employed as models to mimic hydrolase in catalytic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl picolinate (PNPP). The reaction kinetics and the mechanism of hydrolysis of PNPP have been investigated. The kinetic mathematical model for PNPP cleaved by the complexes has been proposed. The effects of the different central metal ion, mono-and binuclear metal, the pseudo-macrocyclic polyether constructed by polyethoxy group of the complexes, and reactive temperature on the rate for catalytic hydrolysis of PNPP have been examined. The results showed that the transition metal dthydroxamates exhibited high catalytic activity to the hydrolysis of PNPP, the catalytic activity of binuclear complexes was higher than that of mononuclear ones, and the pseudo-macrocyclic polyether might synergetically activate H20 coordinated to metal ion with central metal ion together and promote the catalytic hydrolysis of PNPP.

  4. L-Lake zooplankton: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Bowen, M. [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The L- Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor affluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake. This report details results of monitoring zooplankton populations in L-Lake.

  5. Two coarse pyroclastic flow deposits, northern Mono-Inyo Craters, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennen, R. L.; Bursik, M. I.; Stokes, P. J.; Lagamba, M.; Fontanella, N.; Hintz, A. R.; Jayko, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    The ~1350 A.D., rhyolitic North Mono eruption, Mono-Inyo Craters, CA, included the extrusion and destruction of Panum Dome and associated clastic deposits. Overlying the tephras of the North Mono sequence, the Panum deposits include a block-and-ash flow (BAF) deposit, covering ~3.5 km2. Blocks within the deposit are typically lithic rhyolite and banded gray micro-vesicular glass, showing white, almost powdery marks ranging from circular to linear in shape. These marks are interpreted as friction marks resulting from collisions between clasts. The deposit also contains bread-crusted obsidians with pressed-in clasts as well as reticulite with a bread-crusted surface texture. Near the centerline of the deposit is a ridge-topping train of jigsaw fractured blocks, often with reddish-orange alteration. One house sized jigsaw block sits upstream of a long, thinning pile of reddish orange debris; this “flow shadow” indicates that the block remained relatively stationary while the block and ash flow continued to propagate around it. The bread-crusted reticulite is most common at proximal localities. It is proposed that the dome destruction included a debris avalanche emplacing the train of jigsaw fractured blocks and creating a topographic high, the block-and-ash flow (the farthest reaching deposit from this event) which flowed around the debris avalanche deposits, and a final “lateral expansion” of a magma foam, creating the reticulite seen concentrated at proximal locations. Another coarse pyroclastic flow (here termed the “lower blast deposit”) underlies the North Mono tephra. It is more obsidian rich and finer grained than the Panum BAF. The lower blast deposit may have originated from Pumice Pit vent, which is now capped with an older dome ~0.5 km southeast of Panum. The lower blast deposit extends farther from the Panum vent than does the Panum BAF deposit, and apparently was mistaken for the Panum BAF deposit by previous workers. Hence the run

  6. Using a Hydrodynamic Lake Model to Predict the Impact of Avalanche Events at Lake Palcacocha, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, R. E.; Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; McKinney, D. C.; Hodges, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    Accelerated retreat of Andean glaciers in recent decades due to a warming climate has caused the emergence and growth of glacial lakes. As these lakes continue to grow, they pose an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). GLOFs can be triggered by moraine failures or by avalanches, rockslides, or ice calving into glacial lakes. Many of the processes influencing GLOF risk are still poorly understood. For many decades Lake Palcacocha in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru has posed a threat to citizens living in the watershed below, including the city of Huaraz which was devastated by a GLOF in 1941. A safety system for Lake Palcacocha was put in place in the 1970's to control the lake level with a tunnel and reinforced dyke, but the lake has since grown to the point where the lake is once again dangerous. Overhanging ice from the Palcaraju glacier and a relatively low freeboard level make the lake vulnerable to avalanches and landslides. A siphon system has been put in place to lower the lake below the level of the tunnel, but this system is temporary and the potential reduction in the water level is limited. Lake Palcacocha is used as a case study to investigate the impact of an avalanche event on the lake dynamics and the ensuing flood hydrograph. Empirical equations are used to determine the initial wave characteristics of an impulse wave created by three different avalanche scenarios that represent small, medium and large events. The characteristics of the initial impulse wave are used as inputs to a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to predict the wave propagation across the lake and the moraine overtopping volume. The results from this model will be used as inputs to a downstream GLOF model to predict the impact from an outburst flood event. Additionally several scenarios are considered to evaluate the downstream impact from avalanche events with a reduction in the lake level. Use of a robust three-dimensional hydrodynamic lake model enables more

  7. Middle Holocene Unconformity in Seneca Lake, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, T. M.; Crocker, M.; Loddengaard, K.

    2008-12-01

    The post-glacial history of the Finger Lakes, NY have involved several changes in lake levels throughout the latest Pleistocene and Holocene, resulting from the changing position of the retreating Laurentide ice sheet, river outlet position, glacial rebound, and water balance. Previous studies of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles from three Finger Lakes define a middle Holocene erosional surface at water depths as great as 26 m in the northern end of each of lake. There are two proposed hypotheses to explain the origin of the observed erosional surfaces: 1) subaerial erosion during a lake lowstand and 2) erosion resulting from increased internal seiche activity. To evaluate these hypotheses, we examined a series of 2 to 5 m long piston cores collected along a north-south transect from one of the Finger Lakes, Seneca Lake. Cores were correlated using distinctive changes in the profiles of grain size, loss-on-ignition, and magnetic susceptibility. We recognize a significant erosional unconformity of early to middle Holocene sediment at modern depths 60 m, the unconformity continues as a conformable zone. We attribute the unconformity to wave abrasion and nearshore current winnowing of the shoreface during a lowstand. With an assumption of an effective 20 m wave base, the depth to the low level lake surface responsible for the unconformity is estimated to be 40 m. The age of the unconformity is ~6 ka, based on radiocarbon ages of lithologic boundaries in the sediment cores. Because the unconformity grades into a conformable zone in deepwater cores that display no change in lithology, we hypothesize that the large-scale lake level drop is likely not the result of climate change, but rather a change in accommodation space in the northern portion of the lake basin due to glacial rebound.

  8. Information Mining of Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Lakes Based on Multiple Dynamic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, W.; Chen, J.

    2017-09-01

    Lakes are important water resources and integral parts of the natural ecosystem, and it is of great significance to study the evolution of lakes. The area of each lake increased and decreased at the same time in natural condition, only but the net change of lakes' area is the result of the bidirectional evolution of lakes. In this paper, considering the effects of net fragmentation, net attenuation, swap change and spatial invariant part in lake evolution, a comprehensive evaluation indexes of lake dynamic evolution were defined,. Such degree contains three levels of measurement: 1) the swap dynamic degree (SDD) reflects the space activity of lakes in the study period. 2) the attenuation dynamic degree (ADD) reflects the net attenuation of lakes into non-lake areas. 3) the fragmentation dynamic degree (FDD) reflects the trend of lakes to be divided and broken into smaller lakes. Three levels of dynamic measurement constitute the three-dimensional "Swap - attenuation - fragmentation" dynamic evolution measurement system of lakes. To show its effectiveness, the dynamic measurement was applied to lakes in Jianghan Plain, the middle Yangtze region of China for a more detailed analysis of lakes from 1984 to 2014. In combination with spatial-temporal location characteristics of lakes, the hidden information in lake evolution in the past 30 years can be revealed.

  9. A population on the rise: The origin of deepwater sculpin in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Amy B.; Scribner, Kim T.; Stott, Wendylee; Walsh, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    Deepwater sculpin, Myoxocephalus thompsonii, were thought to have been extirpated from Lake Ontario. However, in recent years, abundance has increased and recruitment has been documented. There are two hypotheses concerning the origin of the current Lake Ontario deepwater sculpin population. First, individuals from the upper Great Lakes may have recolonized Lake Ontario. Alternatively, the Lake Ontario population may have not been extirpated, and the remnant population has recovered naturally. To test these hypotheses, eight microsatellite loci were used to analyze samples from the current Lake Ontario population, museum specimens from the historic Lake Ontario population, and current upper Great Lakes populations. The genetic data suggest that historically throughout the Great Lakes, deepwater sculpin exhibited low levels of spatial genetic structure. Approximate Bayesian Computation analyses support the hypothesis that the current Lake Ontario population is more closely related to populations in the upper Great Lakes than to the historic Lake Ontario samples, indicating that the current Lake Ontario population likely resulted from recolonization from the Upper Great Lakes. The current Lake Ontario population has reduced allelic diversity relative to upper Great Lakes populations, indicating a possible founder effect. This study demonstrates the role life history variation can play in recolonization success. The pelagic larval phase of the deepwater sculpin allowed recolonization of Lake Ontario via passive larval drift.

  10. Lake Chapala change detection using time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caloca, Alejandra; Tapia-Silva, Felipe-Omar; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris

    2008-10-01

    The Lake Chapala is the largest natural lake in Mexico. It presents a hydrological imbalance problem caused by diminishing intakes from the Lerma River, pollution from said volumes, native vegetation and solid waste. This article presents a study that allows us to determine with high precision the extent of the affectation in both extension and volume reduction of the Lake Chapala in the period going from 1990 to 2007. Through satellite images this above-mentioned period was monitored. Image segmentation was achieved through a Markov Random Field model, extending the application towards edge detection. This allows adequately defining the lake's limits as well as determining new zones within the lake, both changes pertaining the Lake Chapala. Detected changes are related to a hydrological balance study based on measuring variables such as storage volumes, evapotranspiration and water balance. Results show that the changes in the Lake Chapala establish frail conditions which pose a future risk situation. Rehabilitation of the lake requires a hydrologic balance in its banks and aquifers.

  11. Hydrologic description of Lake Hancock, Polk County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, K.M.; Snell, L.J.; Joyner, Boyd F.

    1981-01-01

    Available data were evaluated to document hydrologic conditions in the Lake Hancock basin. Bathymetric data indicate that Lake Hancock is very shallow, having a maximum depth of about 3 feet. The lake bottom is covered by a layer of organic material that may be more than 5 feet thick near the center of the lake. Lake Hancock 's stage fluctuates within 0.5 foot of average stage about 40 percent of the time. Lake outflow is through an operable control. There are many days with no outflow in some years. A water-budget analysis of the lake indicates that substantial lake stage declines in 1968 and 1975 followed successive years of deficient precipitation and were primarily the result of a net loss of water from the lake to the ground-water system. During a period in 1971-72 when lake stage remained relatively stable, the ground-water system contributed a significant volume of water to the lake. Water-quality data indicate that Lake Hancock is in a eutrophic state. The eutrophication process appears to have been accelerated through the addition of nutrients from inflow of wastewater effluent from secondary treatment plants. (USGS)

  12. Absence of germline mono-allelic promoter hypermethylation of the CDH1 gene in gastric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozawa Takachika

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mono-allelic promoter hypermethylation of the MLH1 or MSH2 gene in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer has recently been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if germline promoter hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor gene CDH1 (E-cadherin might cause predisposition to gastric cancer. Methods We prepared two groups of samples, a group of blood samples from 22 patients with familial gastric cancer or early-onset gastric cancer selected from among 39 patients, and a group of non-cancerous gastric tissue samples from 18 patients with sporadic gastric cancer showing loss of CDH1 expression selected from among 159 patients. We then investigated the allele-specific methylation status of the CDH1 promoter by bisulfite sequencing of multiple clones. Results Although there was a difference between the methylation level of the two alleles in some samples, there was no mono-allelic promoter hypermethylation in any of the samples. Conclusion These results suggest that germline mono-allelic hypermethylation of the CDH1 promoter is not a major predisposing factor for gastric cancer.

  13. Geometric dependency of Tibetan lakes on glacial runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Phan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau is an essential source of water for Southeast Asia. The runoff from its ~34 000 glaciers, which occupy an area of ~50 000 km2, feeds Tibetan lakes and major Asian rivers like the Indus and Brahmaputra. Reported glacial shrinkage likely has an impact on the runoff. Unfortunately, accurate quantification of glacial changes is difficult over the high-relief Tibetan Plateau. However, it has recently been shown that it is possible to directly assess water level changes of a significant number of the ~900 Tibetan lakes with an area over 1 km2. This paper exploits different remote sensing products to create drainage links between Tibetan glaciers, lakes and rivers. The results allow us to differentiate between lakes with and without outlet. In addition, we introduce the notion of geometric dependency of a lake on glacial runoff, defined as the ratio between the total area of glaciers draining into a lake and the total area of the lake catchment. We determined these dependencies for all ~900 sufficiently large Tibetan lakes. To do so, we combined three remote sensing products: the CAREERI glacier mask product, a lake mask product based on the MODIS MOD44W water product and the HydroSHEDS river network product derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM elevation data. Using a drainage network analysis, we determined all drainage links between glaciers and lakes. The results show that 25.3% of the total glacier area directly drains into one of 244 Tibetan lakes. The results also give the geometric dependency of each lake on glacial runoff. For example, there are ten lakes with direct glacial runoff from at least 240 km2 of glacier. Three case studies, including one of the well-studied Nam Tso Lake, demonstrate how the geometric dependency of a lake on glacial runoff can be directly linked to hydrological processes.

  14. Lake Sediments from Dianchi Lake:A Phosphorus Sink or Source?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Li; YANG Hao; ZHOU Jian-Min; Lü Jun-Jie

    2004-01-01

    Dianchi Lake is a highly eutrophic lake in southwestern China where phosphorus (P) is the limiting element for eutrophication and where lake sediments play an important role in the P cycle. One hundred and eighteen sites were sampled throughout Dianchi Lake in 2002 to investigate the P loading of the lake sediments, while fresh surface sediments were studied in the laboratory to clarify its role for phosphorus. The results showed that concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in sediments were very high, with a maximum value of 6.66 g kg-1, and decreased with sediment depth. P adsorption on surface sediments was rapid with adsorption amounts higher in acidic than in alkaline conditions. The release experiments showed that P release increased as pH rose from 7.0 to 10.5. Additionally, compared with aerobic conditions, P release was much higher under anaerobic conditions, especially with low P content in the lake water. At present, the sediments in Dianchi Lake still function as a sink for phosphorus at high P levels in lake water. However, if the external P load was reduced and P content in lake water became low, the sediment would have a large potential for P release under anaerobic conditions.

  15. Long Lake banding project, 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a banding project on Long Lake in 1965. The dates at the banding site were July 27th through August 8th. As in the past, the...

  16. Hydrology and water quality of Geneva Lake, Walworth County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Mergener, Elizabeth A.; Rose, William J.; Garrision, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    As part of continuing efforts to improve the water quality of Geneva Lake, a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, and the Geneva Lake Environmental Agency was initiated in 1997 to document the present quality of the lake and its sediments, compute detailed hydrologic and nutrient (primarily phosphorus) budgets for the lake, estimate how changes in nutrient loading may affect water quality, and describe changes in the lake over the past 170 years by comparing water quality measured in this study with historical measurements and sediment-core information. This report presents the results of this collaborative study.

  17. Pharyngeal airway changes after mono- and bimaxillary surgery in skeletal class III patients: Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatab, N A; Konstantinović, V S; Mudrak, J K H

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) changes in the pharyngeal airway space (PAS) in 20 class III patients who underwent mono- or bimaxillary surgery using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT examination was obtained before surgery (T1) and at least 3 months after surgery (T2). The pharyngeal airway of each patient was studied at three levels: the level of the posterior nasal spine, the level of the most inferior point of the soft palate, and the level of the top of the epiglottis. At each of these levels, the anteroposterior and lateral dimension as well as cross-sectional area were measured. The volume of the whole PAS and volume between each cross section were also measured. The area and anteroposterior dimensions at the level of the most inferior point of the soft palate significantly decreased in patients who underwent monomaxillary surgery. The volume of the PAS decreased in both groups, but decreased significantly only in the monomaxillary group. The upper volume decreased in the mono- and increased in the bimaxillary group. The lower volume significantly decreased in the monomaxillary group. However, results showed that PAS decreased more after mono-than after bimaxillary surgery. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analytical results comparison of some physical-chemical parameters of Maimba lake; Comparacao de resultados analiticos de alguns parametros fisico-quimicos da Lagoa de Maimba: uma parceria CDTN/LIMNOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelar, Marta Maria

    2000-07-01

    CDTN and LIMNOS laboratory, MG, Brazil, have put into practice and exercise of analytical results comparison through the determination of twelve physical-chemical parameters of Maimba lake, which is located between Meaipe and Ubu, ES, Brazil. It is the final receiver of the major part of liquid effluents of Samarco Mineracao and is used as a water supply after complete conventional treatment and also for fishing. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, flame photometry, ion exchange chromatography, volumetry, turbidimetry, conductimetry and potentiometry, each institution has applied its respective routine analysis methodology for the determination of pH, conductivity, turbidity, total alkalinity, total hardness, sulfate chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. Equivalent results (relative error between 1 and 10%) were obtained for pH, conductivity, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Different results (relative error of 20%) were obtained for sulfate. Discrepant results were obtained for turbidity and iron. It was possible to apply the variance analysis for pH, conductivity, chloride, sodium, potassium and magnesium,. There was difference statistically significant for all of them. It was suggested the institutions review their analytical and sampling procedures for the determinations of sulfate, turbidity and iron. (author)

  19. Integration of Bayesian analysis for eutrophication prediction and assessment in a landscape lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Likun; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Sen; Zhou, Guangyu

    2015-01-01

    Eutrophication models have been widely used to assess water quality in landscape lakes. Because flow rate in landscape lakes is relatively low and similar to that of natural lakes, eutrophication is more dominant in landscape lakes. To assess the risk of eutrophication in landscape lakes, a set of dynamic equations was developed to simulate lake water quality for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), dissolve oxygen (DO) and chlorophyll a (Chl a). Firstly, the Bayesian calibration results were described. Moreover, the ability of the model to reproduce adequately the observed mean patterns and major cause-effect relationships for water quality conditions in landscape lakes were presented. Two loading scenarios were used. A Monte Carlo algorithm was applied to calculate the predicated water quality distributions, which were used in the established hierarchical assessment system for lake water quality risk. The important factors affecting the lake water quality risk were defined using linear regression analysis. The results indicated that the variations in the landscape lake receiving recharge water quality caused considerable landscape lake water quality risk in the surrounding area. Moreover, the Chl a concentration in lake water was significantly affected by TP and TN concentrations; the lake TP concentration was the limiting factor for growth of plankton in lake water. The lake water TN concentration provided the basic nutritional requirements. Lastly, lower TN and TP concentrations in the receiving recharge water caused increased lake water quality risk.

  20. Mono-jet signatures of gluphilic scalar dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Rohini M.; Mendiratta, Gaurav; Shivaji, Ambresh; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2017-09-01

    A gluphilic scalar dark matter (GSDM) model has recently been proposed as an interesting vision for WIMP dark matter communicating dominantly with the Standard Model via gluons. We discuss the collider signature of a hard jet recoiling against missing momentum (;mono-jet;) in such a construction, whose leading contribution is at one-loop. We compare the full one-loop computation with an effective field theory (EFT) treatment, and find (as expected) that EFT does not accurately describe regions of parameter space where mass of the colored mediator particles are comparable to the experimental cuts on the missing energy. We determine bounds (for several choices of SU(3) representation of the mediator) from the √{ s} = 8 TeV data, and show the expected reach of the √{ s} = 13 TeV LHC and a future 100 TeV pp collider to constrain or discover GSDM models.

  1. Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase activity in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, G.D.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1981-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase (AHM), an enzyme of key importance in metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA), is present in human lymphocytes. Studies investing the relation of activity of AHM in human lymphocytes to parameters such as disease state, PNA exposure, in vitro mitogen stimulation, etc. have been summarized in this report. Some studies have demonstrated increased AHM activity in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers (compared to nonsmokers), and in lung cancer patients when compared to appropriate control groups. These observations are confused by extreme variability in human lymphocyte AHM activities, such variability arising from factors such as genetic variation in AHM activity, variation in in vitro culture conditions which affect AHM activity, and the problematical relationship of common AHM assays to actual PNA metabolism taking place in lymphocytes. If some of the foregoing problems can be adequately addressed, lymphocyte AHM activity could hold the promise of being a useful biomarker system for human PNA exposure.

  2. Mono-jet Signatures of Gluphilic Scalar Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Godbole, Rohini M; Shivaji, Ambresh; Tait, Tim M P

    2016-01-01

    A gluphilic scalar dark matter (GSDM) model has recently been proposed as an interesting vision for WIMP dark matter communicating dominantly with the Standard Model via gluons. We discuss the collider signature of a hard jet recoiling against missing momentum ("mono-jet") in such a construction, whose leading contribution is at one-loop. We compare the full one-loop computation with an effective field theory (EFT) treatment, and find (as expected) that EFT does not accurately describe regions of parameter space where mass of the colored mediator particles are comparable to the experimental cuts on the missing energy. We determine bounds (for several choices of SU(3) representation of the mediator) from the $\\sqrt{s}=$ 8 TeV data, and show the expected reach of the $\\sqrt{s}=$ 13 TeV LHC and a future 100 TeV $pp$ collider to constrain or discover GSDM models.

  3. Mechanically flexible optically transparent porous mono-crystalline silicon substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, we present a simple process to fabricate a thin (≥5μm), mechanically flexible, optically transparent, porous mono-crystalline silicon substrate. Relying only on reactive ion etching steps, we are able to controllably peel off a thin layer of the original substrate. This scheme is cost favorable as it uses a low-cost silicon <100> wafer and furthermore it has the potential for recycling the remaining part of the wafer that otherwise would be lost and wasted during conventional back-grinding process. Due to its porosity, it shows see-through transparency and potential for flexible membrane applications, neural probing and such. Our process can offer flexible, transparent silicon from post high-thermal budget processed device wafer to retain the high performance electronics on flexible substrates. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Mono-jet signatures of gluphilic scalar dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini M. Godbole

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A gluphilic scalar dark matter (GSDM model has recently been proposed as an interesting vision for WIMP dark matter communicating dominantly with the Standard Model via gluons. We discuss the collider signature of a hard jet recoiling against missing momentum (“mono-jet” in such a construction, whose leading contribution is at one-loop. We compare the full one-loop computation with an effective field theory (EFT treatment, and find (as expected that EFT does not accurately describe regions of parameter space where mass of the colored mediator particles are comparable to the experimental cuts on the missing energy. We determine bounds (for several choices of SU(3 representation of the mediator from the s=8 TeV data, and show the expected reach of the s=13 TeV LHC and a future 100 TeV pp collider to constrain or discover GSDM models.

  5. Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Quik, J.T.K.; Velzeboer, I.

    2015-01-01

    For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hy

  6. Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Quik, J.T.K.; Velzeboer, I.

    2015-01-01

    For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hy

  7. Synthesis and Photocytotoxicity of Mono-functionalised Porphyrin with Valine Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Min SHI; Jian WU; Yi Feng WU; Kai Xian QIAN

    2004-01-01

    A mono-funtionalised tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) bearing valine moiety at the phenyl ring was synthesized for photocytotoxicity examination in four steps, starting from regiospecific mono-nitration of TPP at the phenyl ring. The in vitro photocytotoxicitic effect against SPC-A1 adenocarcinona cell line was tested.

  8. Salting our freshwater lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Hilary A; Bartlett, Sarah L; Burke, Samantha M; Doubek, Jonathan P; Krivak-Tetley, Flora E; Skaff, Nicholas K; Summers, Jamie C; Farrell, Kaitlin J; McCullough, Ian M; Morales-Williams, Ana M; Roberts, Derek C; Ouyang, Zutao; Scordo, Facundo; Hanson, Paul C; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2017-04-25

    The highest densities of lakes on Earth are in north temperate ecosystems, where increasing urbanization and associated chloride runoff can salinize freshwaters and threaten lake water quality and the many ecosystem services lakes provide. However, the extent to which lake salinity may be changing at broad spatial scales remains unknown, leading us to first identify spatial patterns and then investigate the drivers of these patterns. Significant decadal trends in lake salinization were identified using a dataset of long-term chloride concentrations from 371 North American lakes. Landscape and climate metrics calculated for each site demonstrated that impervious land cover was a strong predictor of chloride trends in Northeast and Midwest North American lakes. As little as 1% impervious land cover surrounding a lake increased the likelihood of long-term salinization. Considering that 27% of large lakes in the United States have >1% impervious land cover around their perimeters, the potential for steady and long-term salinization of these aquatic systems is high. This study predicts that many lakes will exceed the aquatic life threshold criterion for chronic chloride exposure (230 mg L(-1)), stipulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the next 50 y if current trends continue.

  9. A quantum Monte Carlo study of mono(benzene) TM and bis(benzene) TM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M. Chandler; Kulahlioglu, A. H.; Mitas, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of mono(benzene) TM and bis(benzene) TM systems, where TM = {Mo, W}. We calculate the binding energies by quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) approaches and compare the results with other methods and available experiments. The orbitals for the determinantal part of each trial wave function were generated from several types of DFT functionals in order to optimize for fixed-node errors. We estimate and compare the size of the fixed-node errors for both the Mo and W systems with regard to the electron density and degree of localization in these systems. For the W systems we provide benchmarking results of the binding energies, given that experimental data is not available.

  10. On the semimetal-insulator transition and Lifshitz transition in simulations of mono-layer graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Dominik; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2014-01-01

    We report on the status of ongoing Hybrid-Monte-Carlo simulations of the tight-binding model of mono-layer graphene. We present results concerning the semimetal-insulator phase transition, whereby two-body interactions are modeled by a partially screened Coulomb potential which takes into account screening by electrons in the lower $\\sigma$-orbitals. We obtain evidence that finite-size effects may still be present in the current estimate of the critical coupling strength $\\alpha_C$, which was previously extracted from simulations on lattice-sizes up to $N_x=N_y=18$. We also present preliminary results concerning the Neck-disrupting Lifshitz transition which occurs at finite Fermion-density in the limit of vanishing two-body interactions. A sign-problem is circumvented by using a spin-dependent chemical potential in our simulations.

  11. A Quantum Monte Carlo Study of mono(benzene)TM and bis(benzene)TM Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, M Chandler; Mitas, Lubos

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of mono(benzene)TM and bis(benzene)TM systems, where TM={Mo,W}. We calculate the binding energies by quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) approaches and compare the results with other methods and available experiments. The orbitals for the determinantal part of each trial wave function were generated from several types of DFT in order to optimize for fixed-node errors. We estimate and compare the size of the fixed-node errors for both the Mo and W systems with regard to the electron density and degree of localization in these systems. For the W systems we provide benchmarking results of the binding energies, given that experimental data is not available.

  12. Interactive lakes in the Canadian Regional Climate Model, version 5: the role of lakes in the regional climate of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Dugas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two one-dimensional (1-D column lake models have been coupled interactively with a developmental version of the Canadian Regional Climate Model. Multidecadal reanalyses-driven simulations with and without lakes revealed the systematic biases of the model and the impact of lakes on the simulated North American climate.The presence of lakes strongly influences the climate of the lake-rich region of the Canadian Shield. Due to their large thermal inertia, lakes act to dampen the diurnal and seasonal cycle of low-level air temperature. In late autumn and winter, ice-free lakes induce large sensible and latent heat fluxes, resulting in a strong enhancement of precipitation downstream of the Laurentian Great Lakes, which is referred to as the snow belt.The FLake (FL and Hostetler (HL lake models perform adequately for small subgrid-scale lakes and for large resolved lakes with shallow depth, located in temperate or warm climatic regions. Both lake models exhibit specific strengths and weaknesses. For example, HL simulates too rapid spring warming and too warm surface temperature, especially in large and deep lakes; FL tends to damp the diurnal cycle of surface temperature. An adaptation of 1-D lake models might be required for an adequate simulation of large and deep lakes.

  13. Geometric dependency of Tibetan lakes on glacial runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Phan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan plateau is an essential source of water for South-East Asia. The run-off from its ~ 34 000 glaciers, which occupy an area of ~ 50 000 km2, feed Tibetan lakes and major Asian rivers like Indus and Brahmaputra. Reported glacial shrinkage likely has its impact on the run-off. Unfortunately, accurate quantification of glacial changes is difficult over the high relief Tibetan plateau. However, it has been recently shown that it is possible to directly assess water level changes of a significant part of the ~ 900 Tibetan lakes greater than one square kilometer. This paper exploits different remote sensing products to explicitly create links between Tibetan glaciers, lakes and rivers. The results allow us first to differentiate between lakes with and without outlet. In addition, we introduce the notion of geometric dependency of a lake on glacial runoff, defined as the ratio between the total area of glaciers draining into a lake and the area of the catchment of the lake. These dependencies are determined for all ~ 900 Tibetan lakes. To obtain these results, we combine the so-called CAREERI glacier mask, a lake mask based on the MODIS MOD44W water product and the HydroSHEDS river network product derived from SRTM elevation data. Based on a drainage network analysis, all drainage links between glaciers and lakes are determined. The results show that 25.3% of the total glacier area directly drains into one of 244 Tibetan lakes. The results also give the geometric dependency of each lake on glacial runoff. For example, there are 10~lakes with direct glacial runoff from at least 240 km2 of glacier. Three case studies, including one over the well-studied Nam Tso, demonstrate how the geometric dependency of a lake on glacial runoff can be directly linked to hydrological processes.

  14. Modeling toxaphene behavior in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M; Crimmins, Bernard S

    2011-01-15

    Chlorinated camphenes, toxaphene, are persistent organic pollutants of concern in the Great Lakes since elevated concentrations are found in various media throughout the system. While concentrations have decreased since their peak values in the 1970s and 80s, recent measurements have shown that the rate of this decline in Lake Superior has decreased significantly. This modeling study focused on toxaphene cycling in the Great Lakes and was performed primarily to determine if elevated water and fish concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by physical differences among the lakes. Specifically, the coastal zone model for persistent organic pollutants (CoZMo-POP), a fugacity-based multimedia fate model, was used to calculate toxaphene concentrations in the atmosphere, water, soil, sediment, and biota. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing calculated and reported concentrations in these compartments. In general, simulated and observed concentrations agree within one order of magnitude. Both model results and observed values indicate that toxaphene concentrations have declined in water and biota since the 1980s primarily as the result of decreased atmospheric deposition rates. Overall the model results suggest that the CoZMo-POP2 model does a reasonable job in simulating toxaphene variations in the Great Lakes basin. The results suggest that the recent findings of higher toxaphene concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by differences in the physical properties of the lake (primarily large volume, large residence time and cold temperatures) compared to the lower lakes and increased recent inputs are not needed to explain the measured values.

  15. Microbial diversity in lake sediments detected by PCR-DGGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinqing ZHAO; Liuyan YANG; Can CHEN; Lin XIAO; Lijuan JIANG; Zhe MA; Haowei ZHU; Zhenyang YU; Daqiang YIN

    2008-01-01

    In this study,PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was applied to analyze the microbial communities in lake sediments from Lake Xuanwu,Lake Mochou in Nanjing and Lake Taihu in Wuxi.Sediment samples from seven locations in three lakes were collected and their genomic DNAs were extracted.The DNA yields of the sediments of Lake Xuanwu and Lake Mochou were high (10 μg/g),while that of sediments in Lake Taihu was relatively low.After DNA purification,the 16S rDNA genes (V3 to V5 region) were amplified and the amplified DNA fragments were separated by parallel DGGE.The DGGE profiles showed that there were five common bands in all the lake sediment samples indicating that there were similarities among the populations of microorganisms in all the lake sediments.The DGGE profiles of Lake Xuanwu and Lake Mochou were similar and about 20 types of micro-organisms were identified in the sediment samples of both lakes.These results suggest that the sediment samples of these two city lakes (Xuanwu,Mochou) have similar microbial communities.However,the DGGE profiles of sediment samples in Lake Taihu were significantly differ-ent from these two lakes.Furthermore,the DGGE pro-files of sediment samples in different locations in Lake Taihu were also different,suggesting that the microbial communities in Lake Taihu are more diversified than those in Lake Xuanwu and Lake Mochou.The differences in microbial diversity may be caused by the different environmental conditions,such as redox potential,pH,and the concentrations of organic matters.Seven major bands of 16S rDNA genes fragments from the DGGE profiles of sediment samples were further re-amplified and sequenced.The results of sequencing analysis indicate that five sequences shared 99%-100% homology with known sequences (Bacillus and Brevibacillus,uncultured bacteria),while the other two sequences shared 93%-96% homology with known sequences (Acinetobacter,and Bacillus).The study shows that the PCR-DGGE tech

  16. Injection of Helium 3 and SF{sub 6} in a lake for the determination of gaseous exchange rates at the water-air interface: implementation, analysis and experimental results; Injection d`helium-3 et SF{sub 6} en lac pour la determination des coefficients gazeux a l`interface eau-air: deploiement, analyse et resultats experimentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poisson, A. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France); Jean-Baptiste, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere

    1994-12-31

    In order to study the hypothesis of an under-rating of the exchange velocity at the ocean-atmosphere interface that could explain the lack of CO{sub 2} in the global CO{sub 2} balance, an experiment was carried out in two lakes at the Kerguelen Islands where strong winds are common, in order to evaluate precisely the relation between the transfer coefficient and the wind velocity: {sup 3}He and SF{sub 6} tracers were injected in the lakes; concentration evolutions were recorded and results are shown to validate the above assumption. 6 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs.

  17. The "tipping" temperature within Subglacial Lake Ellsworth, West Antarctica and its implications for lake access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thoma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We present results from new geophysical data allowing 3-D modelling of the water flow within Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE, West Antarctica. Our simulations indicate that this lake has a novel temperature distribution due to significantly thinner ice than other surveyed subglacial lakes. The critical pressure boundary (tipping depth, established from the semi-empirical Equation of State, defines whether the lake's flow regime is convective or stratified. It passes through SLE and separates different temperature (and flow regimes on either side of the lake. Our results have implications for the location of proposed access holes into SLE, the choice of which will depend on scientific or operational priorities. If an understanding of subglacial lake water properties and dynamics is the priority, holes are required in a basal freezing area at the North end of the lake. This would be the preferred priority suggested by this paper, requiring temperature and salinity profiles in the water column. A location near the Southern end, where bottom currents are lowest, is optimum for detecting the record of life in the bed sediments; to minimise operational risk and maximise the time span of a bed sediment core, a location close to the middle of the lake, where the basal interface is melting and the lake bed is at its deepest, remains the best choice. Considering potential lake-water salinity and ice-density variations, we estimate the critical tipping depth, separating different temperature regimes within subglacial lakes, to be in about 2900 to 3045 m depth.

  18. 2016 Lake Michigan Lake Trout Working Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Breidert, Brian; Boyarski, David; Bronte, Charles R.; Dickinson, Ben; Donner, Kevin; Ebener, Mark P.; Gordon, Roger; Hanson, Dale; Holey, Mark; Janssen, John; Jonas, Jory; Kornis, Matthew; Olsen, Erik; Robillard, Steve; Treska, Ted; Weldon, Barry; Wright, Greg D.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides a review on the progression of lake trout rehabilitation towards meeting the Salmonine Fish Community Objectives (FCOs) for Lake Michigan (Eshenroder et. al. 1995) and the interim goal and evaluation objectives articulated in A Fisheries Management Implementation Strategy for the Rehabilitation of Lake Trout in Lake Michigan (Dexter et al. 2011); we also include data describing lake trout stocking and mortality to portray the present state of progress towards lake trout rehabilitation.

  19. Sexual difference in mercury concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Keir, M.J.; Whittle, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We determined total mercury (Hg) concentrations in 50 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 69 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). Results showed that, on average, males were 8% higher in Hg concentration than females in Lake Ontario. We also used bioenergetics modeling to determine whether a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE) could explain the observed sexual difference in Hg concentrations. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, male GGE was about 3% higher than female GGE, on average. Although the bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher Hg concentrations exhibited by the males, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in Hg concentrations of the lake trout. In an earlier study, male lake trout from Lake Ontario were found to be 22% higher in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration than females from Lake Ontario. Thus, although males were higher in both Hg and PCB concentrations, the degree of the sexual difference in concentration varied between the two contaminants. Further research on sexual differences in Hg excretion rates and Hg direct uptake rates may be needed to resolve the disparity in results between the two contaminants.

  20. RADARSAT-2 Polarimetry for Lake Ice Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Kang, Kyung-Kuk; Duguay, Claude

    2016-04-01

    Changes in the ice regime of lakes can be employed to assess long-term climate trends and variability in high latitude regions. Lake ice cover observations are not only useful for climate monitoring, but also for improving ice and weather forecasts using numerical prediction models. In recent years, satellite remote sensing has assumed a greater role in observing lake ice cover for both purposes. Radar remote sensing has become an essential tool for mapping lake ice at high latitudes where cloud cover and polar darkness severely limits ice observations from optical systems. In Canada, there is an emerging interest by government agencies to evaluate the potential of fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from RADARSAT-2 (C-band) for lake ice monitoring. In this study, we processed and analyzed the polarization states and scattering mechanisms of fully polarimetric RADARSAT-2 data obtained over Great Bear Lake, Canada, to identify open water and different ice types during the freeze-up and break-up periods. Polarimetric decompositions were employed to separate polarimetric measurements into basic scattering mechanisms. Entropy, anisotropy, and alpha angle were derived to characterize the scattering heterogeneity and mechanisms. Ice classes were then determined based on entropy and alpha angle using the unsupervised Wishart classifier and results evaluated against Landsat 8 imagery. Preliminary results suggest that the RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data offer a strong capability for identifying open water and different lake ice types.

  1. Control concept and countermeasures for shallow lakes'eutrophication in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangcan JIN; Shaoyong LU; Xiaozhen HU; Xia JIANG; Fengchang WU

    2008-01-01

    Research-on lake eutrophication in China began in the early 1970s, and many lakes in China are now known to be in meso-eutrophic status. Lake eutrophication has been showing a rapidly increasing trend since 2000. Investigations show that the main reasons for lake eutro-phication include a fragile lake background environment, excessive nutrient loading into lakes, excessive human activities, ecological degeneration, weak environmental protection awareness, and lax lake management. Major mechanisms resulting from lake eutrophication include nutrient recycling imbalance, major changes in water chem-istry (pH, oxygen, and carbon), lake ecosystem imbalance, and algal prevalence in lakes. Some concepts for controlling eutrophication should be persistently proposed, including lake catchment control, combination of pollutant source control with ecological restoration, protection of three important aspects (terrestrial ecology, lake coast zone, and submerged plant), and combination of lake manage-ment with regulation. Measures to control lake eutrophica-tion should include pollution source control (i.e., optimize industrial structural adjustments in the lake catchment, reduce nitrogen and phosphorus emission amounts, and control endogenous pollution) and lake ecological restora-tion (i.e. establish a zone-lake buffer region and lakeside zone, protect regional vegetation, utilize hydrophytes in renovation technology); countermeasures for lake manage-ment should include implementing water quality manage-ment, identifying environmental and lake water goals, legislating and formulating laws and regulations to protect lakes, strengthening publicity and the education of people, increasing public awareness through participation in sys-tems and mechanic innovations, establishing lake region management institutions, and ensuring implementation of governance and management measures.

  2. Chemical analysis of sediments from Lake Champlain

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides the results of a study done on Lake Champlain to evaluate the level of environmental contaminants at specific sites impacted by human...

  3. Multi-proxy identification of the Laschamp geomagnetic field excursion in Lake Pupuke, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Andreas; Muscheler, Raimund; Snowball, Ian; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Augustinus, Paul; Atkin, Daniel; Stephens, Tom

    2011-11-01

    We present palaeomagnetic and cosmogenic radionuclide records of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion in Lake Pupuke, a maar lake in Auckland, New Zealand. Laschamp was identified by a combination of relative palaeointensity, 10Be and 14C data from the lake sediments and represents the first such record from the Southern Hemisphere. Despite the high organic carbon content, which causes relatively weak natural remanent magnetisations, the geomagnetic intensity minimum associated with the Laschamp excursion is identifiable as a relative palaeointensity minimum that is synchronous with (i) a peak in 10Be concentration and (ii) an anomaly in Δ 14C. The Lake Pupuke time scale, provided by 14C data calibrated with INTCAL09, places the 10Be maximum at the same time as a 10Be maximum in Greenland ice cores when secured to the GICC05 time scale. The central age of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion in Lake Pupuke as defined by the 10Be prediction peak is c. 41 kyr, which confirms its global application as a palaeomagnetic isochron. Anomalous palaeomagnetic directional data at c. 32 kyr in the Lake Pupuke sediments may represent the Mono Lake geomagnetic excursion, but tephra layers caused by frequent eruptions in the Auckland volcanic field during this excursion probably disrupted the palaeointensity signal. The study highlights the value of combining traditional palaeomagnetic methods with measurements of cosmogenic radionuclides in the quest for accurate and precise geochronologies during MIS3, a time of rapid global climate change.

  4. Recent desiccation of Western Great Basin Saline Lakes: Lessons from Lake Abert, Oregon, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Johnnie N

    2016-06-01

    Although extremely important to migrating waterfowl and shorebirds, and highly threatened globally, most saline lakes are poorly monitored. Lake Abert in the western Great Basin, USA, is an example of this neglect. Designated a critical habitat under the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, the lake is at near record historic low levels and ultra-high salinities that have resulted in ecosystem collapse. Determination of the direct human effects and broader climate controls on Lake Abert illustrates the broader problem of saline lake desiccation and suggests future solutions for restoration of key habitat values. A 65-year time series of lake area was constructed from Landsat images and transformed to lake volume and salinity. "Natural" (without upstream withdrawals) conditions were calculated from climate and stream flow data, and compared to measured volume and salinity. Under natural conditions the lake would have higher volume and lower salinities because annual water withdrawals account for one-third of mean lake volume. Without withdrawals, the lake would have maintained annual mean salinities mostly within the optimal range of brine shrimp and alkali fly growth. Even during the last two years of major drought, the lake would have maintained salinities well below measured values. Change in climate alone would not produce the recent low lake volumes and high salinities that have destroyed the brine shrimp and alkali fly populations and depleted shorebird use at Lake Abert. Large scale withdrawal of water for direct human use has drastically increased the imbalance between natural runoff and evaporation during periods of drought in saline lakes worldwide but could be offset by establishing an "environmental water budget" to lay a foundation for the conservation of saline lake habitats under continued threats from development and climate change.

  5. Groundwater flow and heterogeneous discharge into a seepage lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmierczak, Jolanta; Müller, Sascha; Nilsson, B.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater discharge into a seepage lake was investigated by combining flux measurements, hydrochemical tracers, geological information, and a telescopic modeling approach using first two-dimensional (2-D) regional then 2-D local flow and flow path models. Discharge measurements and hydrochemical...... with the lake remained under seemingly steady state conditions across seasons, a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the discharge to the lake was observed. The results showed that part of the groundwater flowing from the west passes beneath the lake and discharges at the eastern shore, where groundwater...... springs and high discharge zones (HDZs) are observed at the lake bottom and at seepage faces adjacent to the lake. In the 2-D cross section, surface runoff from the seepage faces delivers 64% of the total groundwater inputs to the lake, and a 2 m wide offshore HDZ delivers 13%. Presence of HDZs may...

  6. Forecasting Lake-Effect Precipitation in the Great Lakes Region Using NASA Enhanced-Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Lake-effect precipitation is common in the Great Lakes region, particularly during the late fall and winter. The synoptic processes of lake-effect precipitation are well understood by operational forecasters, but individual forecast events still present a challenge. Locally run, high resolution models can assist the forecaster in identifying the onset and duration of precipitation, but model results are sensitive to initial conditions, particularly the assumed surface temperature of the Great Lakes. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has created a Great Lakes Surface Temperature (GLST) composite, which uses infrared estimates of water temperatures obtained from the MODIS instrument aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites, other coarser resolution infrared data when MODIS is not available, and ice cover maps produced by the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab (GLERL). This product has been implemented into the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model Environmental Modeling System (WRF-EMS), used within forecast offices to run local, high resolution forecasts. The sensitivity of the model forecast to the GLST product was analyzed with a case study of the Lake Effect Storm Echinacea, which produced 10 to 12 inches of snowfall downwind of Lake Erie, and 8 to 18 inches downwind of Lake Ontario from 27-29 January 2010. This research compares a forecast using the default Great Lakes surface temperatures from the Real Time Global sea surface temperature (RTG SST), in the WRF-EMS model to the enhanced NASA SPoRT GLST product to study forecast impacts. Results from this case study show that the SPoRT GLST contained less ice cover over Lake Erie and generally cooler water temperatures over Lakes Erie and Ontario. Latent and sensible heat fluxes over Lake Ontario were decreased in the GLST product. The GLST product decreased the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF), which can be correlated to the decrease in temperatures and heat

  7. Distribution of dissolved green-house gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) in Lakes Edward and George: Results from the first field cruise of the HIPE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Morana, Cédric D. T.; Lambert, Thibault; Okello, William; Bouillon, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Inland waters (streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs) are quantitatively important components of the global budgets of atmospheric emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4, N2O). Available data indicate that a very large fraction of CO2 and CH4 emissions from rivers and reservoirs occurs at tropical latitudes. Data on GHGs at tropical latitudes from lakes however are much more scarse, and the relative importance of emissions, in particular in Africa, remains to be determined. Large tropical lakes are net autotrophic (hence potentially sinks for atmospheric CO2) due generally low dissolved organic carbon concentrations, seasonally near constant light and temperature conditions, and generally deep water columns favourable for export of organic matter to depth. This sharply contrasts with their much better documented temperate and boreal counterparts, usually considered as CO2 sources to the atmosphere sustained by net heterotrophy. Here, we report a data-set of dissolved CO2, CH4, N2O obtained in October 2016 in Lakes Edward and George and adjacent streams and crater lakes in the frame of Belgian Science Policy (BELSPO) HIPE (Human impacts on ecosystem health and resources of Lake Edward, http://www.co2.ulg.ac.be/hipe/) project. Lake George and part of Lake Edward were sinks for atmospheric CO2 and N2O due to high primary production and denitrification in sediments, respectively, and modest sources of CH4 to the atmosphere. Sampled rivers and streams were oversaturated in CO2 and CH4 and close to atmospheric equilibrium with regards to N2O. Spatial variations within rivers and streams were related to elevation and vegetation characteristics on the catchments (savannah versus forest). Levels of CO2, CH4, and N2O were within the range of those we reported in other African rivers. Crater lakes acted as sinks for atmospheric CO2 and N2O but were extremely over-saturated in CH4, due to intense primary production sustained by cyanobacteria. These CH4 levels

  8. Hydrography - Lakes Assessments - Non Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only non attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water...

  9. Boat Dwellers of Weishan Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    1998-01-01

    IN the south of Shandong Province, Weishan Lake is the largest freshwater lake in northern China. Under the bright blue sky, it gleams like a large mirror. "As the sun is about to set, Weishan Lake is quiet…" Humming

  10. Lake-level variability and water availability in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Booth, Robert K.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present recorded and reconstructed (pre-historical) changes in water levels in the Great Lakes, relate them to climate changes of the past, and highlight major water-availability implications for storage, coastal ecosystems, and human activities. 'Water availability,' as conceptualized herein, includes a recognition that water must be available for human and natural uses, but the balancing of how much should be set aside for which use is not discussed. The Great Lakes Basin covers a large area of North America. The lakes capture and store great volumes of water that are critical in maintaining human activities and natural ecosystems. Water enters the lakes mostly in the form of precipitation and streamflow. Although flow through the connecting channels is a primary output from the lakes, evaporation is also a major output. Water levels in the lakes vary naturally on timescales that range from hours to millennia; storage of water in the lakes changes at the seasonal to millennial scales in response to lake-level changes. Short-term changes result from storm surges and seiches and do not affect storage. Seasonal changes are driven by differences in net basin supply during the year related to snowmelt, precipitation, and evaporation. Annual to millennial changes are driven by subtle to major climatic changes affecting both precipitation (and resulting streamflow) and evaporation. Rebounding of the Earth's surface in response to loss of the weight of melted glaciers has differentially affected water levels. Rebound rates have not been uniform across the basin, causing the hydrologic outlet of each lake to rise in elevation more rapidly than some parts of the coastlines. The result is a long-term change in lake level with respect to shoreline features that differs from site to site. The reconstructed water-level history of Lake Michigan-Huron over the past 4,700 years shows three major high phases from 2,300 to 3,300, 1,100 to 2,000, and 0 to 800

  11. Tectonic geomorphological characteristics for evolution of the Manas Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Owing to global climatic changes and human activities,the lakes have changed dramatically in the Junggar Basin of Xinjiang in recent 50 years. Based on the remote sensing images from Beijing Satellite No.1 in 2006 together with the measured topographical data in 1999 and other data since the 1950s,this paper analyzes mainly the features of landforms around the Manas Lake and the changes of feeding sources of the lake. The results are as follows:(1) Tectonic movement brought about the fundamental geomorphological basis for lacustrine evolution,and the Manas Lake is one of small lakes broken up from the Old Manas Lake due to tectonic movement and drought climate; the Manas Lake had existed before the Manas River flowed into it in 1915. The geomorphologic evidences for evolution of the Manas Lake include:(a) Diluvial fans and old channels at the north of the lake indicate that the rivers originating from the north mountains of the Junggar Basin had fed the Old Manas Lake and now still feed the lake as seasonal rivers; (b) The Old Manas Lake was fed by many rivers originating from the mountains,except for the Manas River,from the evidence of small lakes around the Manas Lake,old channels,alluvial fans,etc.; (c) The elevations of the alluvial and diluvial fans are near to the 280 m a.s.l. and all of the small lakes and lacustrine plains are within the range of the 280 m a.s.l.,which may prove that the elevation of the Old Manas Lake was about 280 m a.s.l.; (d) Core analysis of the Manas Lake area also indicates that the Manas Lake has existed since Late Pleistocene epoch. (2) Analysis on the feeding relations between the lakes and the lacustrine evolution shows that human activities are one of main driving forces of the lacustrine evolution in recent 50 years,and it is the precondition of restoring and maintaining the lacutrine wetlands in the study area to satisfy the feeding of the Baiyang and Manas rivers to the Manas Lake.

  12. Sensitivity of the East African rift lakes to climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaka, L.; Trauth, M. H.

    2009-04-01

    simple model written on a Matlab code to illustrate the lake volume and area response to climate of surficialy closed, graben shaped and panshaped lake basins. From preliminary results, lake basins that are sensitive to climate variability have a high HI and high aridity index, which will be presented in this conference

  13. Toxaphene in Great Lakes biota and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmeyer, Susan Theresa

    1998-11-01

    Toxaphene is a complex mixture of at least 600 hexa- through decachlorinated bornanes and bornenes, which was used as an insecticide in the United States from the 1950's until 1982, when it was banned. Toxaphene is ubiquitous in the environment, probably because of its atmospheric transport away from areas of use. Toxaphene's complex nature makes accurate quantitation difficult. I have developed a computer program to automate quantitation, thus decreasing the time required for analysis while maintaining precise quantitation. I have shown that toxaphene in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) taken from Lake Superior have not decreased as they have in the four other Great Lakes from the time of the ban though 1992. This result could be due to three possibilities: ( a) There had been a food chain perturbation that made the 1982 concentrations unusually low. (b) The physical properties of Lake Superior make the loss rate significantly lower than the other Great Lakes. (c) There are current sources of toxaphene entering the Lake Superior basin. I analyzed an extended time series of lake trout from Lake Superior and from northern Lake Michigan to test the first two hypotheses. The concentrations of toxaphene have been constant in trout from Lake Superior since the late 1970's, so hypothesis a can be negated. The northern Lake Michigan samples did not decline as greatly as the southern basin samples, so hypothesis b can not be disproved. To determine the atmospheric deposition of toxaphene to Lake Superior, I analyzed air samples collected every twelve days for sixteen months at Eagle Harbor, Michigan. The concentrations of toxaphene in these samples are similar to those found in recent studies of air collected at Traverse City, MI., but significantly lower than samples taken at a land based site in southern Ontario in 1988 and 1989. This difference in concentration may (or may not) be due to differences in sampling times or locations or

  14. Multiple isomers in the photoelectron spectra of small mono-niobium carbide clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanov, Ivan; Sofo, Jorge O.

    2011-05-01

    We calculate the photoelectron spectrum of small mono-niobium carbide clusters (NbCn) using density functional theory for clusters with n = 2-7 and the symmetry adapted cluster configuration interaction method for the smallest clusters (n = 2-4). Theoretical spectra of a single structure cannot explain all peaks present in the spectrum measured by Zhai et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 115, 5170 (2001)]. However, we can match all peaks in the experimental spectra if we assume that the beam contains a combination of cyclic and linear structures. This finding is even more surprising given the fact that some of the excited metastable geometries have energies as large as 0.5 eV above the ground state. Our result is confirmed by both theoretical approaches. We suggest further experiments, using additional beam cooling, to corroborate this observation.

  15. A study on the clinical profile of complicated Plasmodium vivax mono-infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter George; Lobo Manuel Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To identify cases of severe Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) mono-infections among adults. Methods:In this retrospective study, 30 adult patients admitted to medical wards of a tertiary hospital in a malaria endemic urban area from March 2010 to April 2010 were included. The diagnosis of P. vivax malaria was established by peripheral blood film (PBF) examination, and severe malaria was categorized as per World Health Organization guidelines. Results:Complications observed were thrombocytopenia in 28 (93.3%), hepatic dysfunction and jaundice in 13 (43.3%), renal dysfunction in 8 (26.7%), severe anaemia in 3 (10.0%), cerebral malaria in 2 (6.7%), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in 1 (3.3%) of 30 patients. Conclusions:P. vivax malaria with severe complications is common in the investigated area, and an intensive and large-scale study of the disease is necessary.

  16. Five novel mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins from the seeds of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieser, M J; Gu, Z M; Fang, X P; Zeng, L; Wood, K V; McLaughlin, J L

    1996-02-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) resulted in the isolation of five new compounds: cis-annonacin (1), cis-annonacin-10-one (2), cis-goniothalamicin (3), arianacin (4), and javoricin (5). Three of these (1-3) are among the first cis mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins to be reported. NMR analyses of published model synthetic compounds, prepared cyclized formal acetals, and prepared Mosher ester derivatives permitted the determinations of absolute stereochemistries. Bioassays of the pure compounds, in the brine shrimp test, for the inhibition of crown gall tumors, and in a panel of human solid tumor cell lines for cytotoxicity, evaluated relative potencies. Compound 1 was selectively cytotoxic to colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) in which it was 10,000 times the potency of adriamycin.

  17. Enzymatic routes for the production of mono- and di-glucosylated derivatives of hydroxytyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincone, Antonio; Pagnotta, Eduardo; Tramice, Annabella

    2012-07-01

    In this work, a new eco-friendly procedure for the synthesis of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol α-glycosidic derivatives was proposed by using the marine α-glucosidase from Aplysia fasciata, and a commercial tyrosinase from mushroom for the bioconversion of tyrosol glycosidic derivatives into the corresponding hydroxytyrosol products. New hydroxytyrosol mono- and di-saccharide derivatives were synthesized at final concentrations of 9.35 and 10.8 g/l of reaction, respectively, and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH test. The best antioxidant agent resulted the (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethyl-α-D-glucopyranoside; it showed a radical scavenging activity similar to that of the hydroxytyrosol, together with an increased hydrosolubility. This molecule could be a good response to many food industry demands, always in search of cheap antioxidants with nutritional properties to improve the nutritional value and the quality of foods.

  18. Influence of wind and lake morphometry on the interaction between two rivers entering a stratified lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, S.; Imberger, J.; Antenucci, J.P.; Woods, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of two rivers flowing into Coeur d'Alene Lake (United States) was investigated with a field experiment and three-dimensional numerical simulations. The focus was on the influence of basin morphology, wind speed, and wind direction on the fate and transport of the inflowing water. Data from the field campaign showed that intrusions from the two rivers propagated into the lake at different depths, with the trace element polluted Coeur d'Alene River flowing into the lake above the trace element poor and nutrient rich St. Joe River inflow. The inflows initially intruded horizontally into the lake at their level of neutral buoyancy and later mixed vertically. Model results revealed that, as the intrusions entered the main lake basin, a forced horizontal mode-two basin-scale internal wave interacted with the intrusions to frequently siphon them into the lake proper and where rapid vertical mixing followed. The results serve to show how detailed transport and mixing patterns in a lake can have important consequences for the plankton ecology in the lake. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  19. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  20. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, Dale C; Fitzsimons, John D; Tillitt, Donald E; Brown, Scott B

    2009-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  1. State of humoral link of immune system in children with mono- and mixed-variants of rotavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Катерина Олександрівна Сміян-Горбунова

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Connection of an immune system with infection agents defines the further development of infectious diseases especially rotavirus infection (RVI. The state of immune system before the beginning of disease and an adequacy of immune answer to causative agent defines the possibility of disease and its heaviness, duration of an acute period, cyclicity, time of pathogens elimination and period of reconvalescence. The humoral link is one of important components of immune system.Methods. 96 children 1 month-5 years old with acute intestinal infections of rotavirus etiology were under observation. 51 children with mono-variant of rotavirus infection formed the 1 group. The 11 group included 45 patients with mixed-variant of rotavirus infection. The control group included 32 practically healthy children. The research was carried out at the high point of disease (1–3 day and in period of reconvalescence. (5–6 day. The study of humoral link of immunity was carried out using the method of radial immunodiffusion in agar on Mancini G.Results. At comparison of indicators of the humoral link of immune system in children with mono- and mixed-variants of RVI at admission to hospital it was established that Ig М concentration in children of the 1 group was higher (р<0,05, and Ig G level in blood serum lower(р<0,05 than in the 11 group. So the study of the humoral immunity in blood serum in children with rotavirus infection revealed changes that were presented as an increase of Ig М and IgG indicators and also decrease of IgА. An assessment of an immune system after treatment within this research is characterized with an increase of IgА and IgG and decrease of IgМ.Conclusions. In blood serum of children with mono- and mixed-variants of rotavirus infection in an acute period of disease there was observed decrease of Ig А concentration and increase of Ig М і IgG. In the period of reconvalescence in children with mono- and mixed-variants of an acute

  2. Detecting Magnetosomes in Freshwater Lakes and Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K. P.; Kim, B.; Kopp, B.; Chen, A. P.

    2008-05-01

    We will present a summary of the work done to date on detecting magnetosomes in the lake sediments and water column of Lake Ely, a small post-glacial lake in northeastern Pennsylvania. To establish that magnetosomes dominate the magnetic mineralogy of the Lake Ely sediments we sampled the water column every meter down to its maximum depth of 23 m and measured the dissolved oxygen, sulfide, and iron, as well as the ARM of the material filtered from the water. We examined the water samples for magnetotactic bacteria. These results established an increase in the ARM of the filtered material at the oxic-anoxic transition. They also showed that the ARM was carried by magnetosomes produced by magnetotactic bacteria living in the water column at depths from 15-19 m. TEM of magnetic separates collected from the lake sediments show that magnetosomes are transferred to the sediments from the water column and are a significant fraction of the magnetic minerals in the sediments. We used a variety of mineral magnetic techniques to magnetically characterize the magnetosomes in the lake sediments. The delta-delta ratio test of low temperature behavior at the Verwey transition (Moskowitz et al., 1993) gave values of 1.2 to 1.5, lower than the theoretically predicted level of 2 for magnetosomes, but a numeric unmixing technique could resolve higher delta-delta ratios in the dark organic-rich layers in the sediments where magnetosomes were more prevalent. ARM/SIRM ratios of 0.15 to 0.35 with Raf values (the crossover of an IRM acquisition curve versus its alternating field demagnetization curve) of 0.45 to 0.5 are consistent with the presence of magnetosomes in the sediments, the water column, and in a sediment trap located at the bottom of the lake. IRM and ARM acquisition modeling of samples collected from a 160 cm piston core revealed two components of magnetization with coercivities of about 25 mT and 65 mT that are identified as Egli's (2004) biogenic soft (BS) and biogenic

  3. The Magnetic Properties of Indonesian Lake Sediment: A Case Study of a Tectonic Lake in South Sulawesi and Maar Lakes in East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Tamuntuan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic properties of sediments from two different environmental settings in Indonesia have been studied using rock magnetic methods and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In the first setting, magnetic measurements were conducted on core sediments from two maar lakes in East Java (Lakes Lading and Bedali that represent very confined environments where sediments are derived mainly from rocks and soils within the craters. In the second setting, similar measurements were obtained on core sediment from Lake Matano, a cryptodepression lake in tectonically active South Sulawesi where the area around the lake is dominated by highly magnetic lateritic soils. The results show that the predominant magnetic mineralogy in sediments from Lakes Lading, Bedali, as well as Matano is pseudo-single domain (PSD magnetite (Fe3O4. Compared to that of Lake Matano, the maar lake sediments of Lakes Lading and Bedali have higher magnetic susceptibility as well as high intensity of ARM and SIRM. Variations in magnetic susceptibility in all core sediments are controlled mainly by the concentration of magnetic minerals. The homogeneity of magnetic minerals in these three lakes sediment provides an excellent setting for interpreting paleoclimatic signals as they will be recorded as anomalies of magnetic susceptibility.

  4. Heritage strain and diet of wild young of year and yearling lake trout in the main basin of Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, E.F.; Stott, W.; O'Brien, T. P.; Riley, S.C.; Schaeffer, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Restoration of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush stocks in Lake Huron is a fish community objective developed to promote sustainable fish communities in the lake. Between 1985 and 2004, 12.65 million lake trout were stocked into Lake Huron representing eight different genetic strains. Collections of bona fide wild fish in USGS surveys have increased in recent years and this study examined the ancestry and diet of fish collected between 2004 and 2006 to explore the ecological role they occupy in Lake Huron. Analysis of microsatellite DNA revealed that both pure strain and inter-strain hybrids were observed, and the majority of fish were classified as Seneca Lake strain or Seneca Lake hybrids. Diets of 50 wild age-0 lake trout were examined. Mysis, chironomids, and zooplankton were common prey items of wild age-0 lake trout. These results indicate that stocked fish are successfully reproducing in Lake Huron indicating a level of restoration success. However, continued changes to the benthic macroinvertebrate community, particularly declines of Mysis, may limit growth and survival of wild fish and hinder restoration efforts.

  5. Evaluation of offshore stocking of Lake Trout in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.; Strang, T.G.; Lantry, J.R.; Connerton, M.J.; Schanger, T.

    2011-01-01

    Restoration stocking of hatchery-reared lake trout Salvelinus namaycush has occurred in Lake Ontario since 1973. In U.S. waters, fish stocked through 1990 survived well and built a large adult population. Survival of yearlings stocked from shore declined during 1990–1995, and adult numbers fell during 1998–2005. Offshore stocking of lake trout was initiated in the late 1990s in response to its successful mitigation of predation losses to double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and the results of earlier studies that suggested it would enhance survival in some cases. The current study was designed to test the relative effectiveness of three stocking methods at a time when poststocking survival for lake trout was quite low and losses due to fish predators was a suspected factor. The stocking methods tested during 2000–2002 included May offshore, May onshore, and June onshore. Visual observations during nearshore stockings and hydroacoustic observations of offshore stockings indicated that release methods were not a direct cause of fish mortality. Experimental stockings were replicated for 3 years at one site in the southwest and for 2 years at one site in the southeast. Offshore releases used a landing craft to transport hatchery trucks from 3 to 6 km offshore out to 55–60-m-deep water. For the southwest site, offshore stocking significantly enhanced poststocking survival. Among the three methods, survival ratios were 1.74 : 1.00 : 1.02 (May offshore : May onshore : June onshore). Although not statistically significant owing to the small samples, the trends were similar for the southeast site, with survival ratios of 1.67 : 1.00 : 0.72. Consistent trends across years and sites indicated that offshore stocking of yearling lake trout during 2000–2002 provided nearly a twofold enhancement in survival; however, this increase does not appear to be great enough to achieve the 12-fold enhancement necessary to return population abundance to restoration

  6. Dreissenid mussels are not a "dead end" in Great Lakes food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenijan, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Bence, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels have been regarded as a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs because the degree of predation on dreissenid mussels, on a lakewide basis, is believed to be low. Waterfowl predation on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes has primarily been confined to bays, and therefore its effects on the dreissenid mussel population have been localized rather than operating on a lakewide level. Based on results from a previous study, annual consumption of dreissenid mussels by the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) population in central Lake Erie averaged only 6 kilotonnes (kt; 1 kt = one thousand metric tons) during 1995–2002. In contrast, our coupling of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) population models with a lake whitefish bioenergetics model revealed that lake whitefish populations in Lakes Michigan and Huron consumed 109 and 820 kt, respectively, of dreissenid mussels each year. Our results indicated that lake whitefish can be an important predator on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, and that dreissenid mussels do not represent a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs. The Lake Michigan dreissenid mussel population has been estimated to be growing more than three times faster than the Lake Huron dreissenid mussel population during the 2000s. One plausible explanation for the higher population growth rate in Lake Michigan would be the substantially higher predation rate by lake whitefish on dreissenid mussels in Lake Huron.

  7. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. (a) Product. Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible...

  8. Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative Final Scientific/Technical Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. L. [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Roelke, Daniel [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Brooks, Bryan [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Grover, James [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-10-11

    A team of Texas AgriLife Research, Baylor University and University of Texas at Arlington researchers studied the biology and ecology of Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) in Texas lakes using a three-fold approach that involved system-wide monitoring, experimentation at the microcosm and mesocosm scales, and mathematical modeling. The following are conclusions, to date, regarding this organism's ecology and potential strategies for mitigation of blooms by this organism. In-lake monitoring revealed that golden algae are present throughout the year, even in lakes where blooms do not occur. Compilation of our field monitoring data with data collected by Texas Parks and Wildlife and Brazos River Authority (a period spanning a decade) revealed that inflow and salinity variables affect bloom formations. Thresholds for algae populations vary per lake, likely due to adaptations to local conditions, and also to variations in lake-basin morphometry, especially the presence of coves that may serve as hydraulic storage zones for P. parvum populations. More specifically, our in-lake monitoring showed that the highly toxic bloom that occurred in Lake Granbury in the winter of 2006/2007 was eliminated by increased river inflow events. The bloom was flushed from the system. The lower salinities that resulted contributed to golden algae not blooming in the following years. However, flushing is not an absolute requirement for bloom termination. Laboratory experiments have shown that growth of golden algae can occur at salinities ~1-2 psu but only when temperatures are also low. This helps to explain why blooms are possible during winter months in Texas lakes. Our in-lake experiments in Lake Whitney and Lake Waco, as well as our laboratory experiments, revealed that cyanobacteria, or some other bacteria capable of producing algicides, were able to prevent golden algae from blooming. Identification of this organism is a high priority as it may be a key to managing golden algae

  9. Serum metabolomics analysis of patients with chikungunya and dengue mono/co-infections reveals distinct metabolite signatures in the three disease conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinet, Jatin; Shastri, Jayanthi S.; Gaind, Rajni; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar; Sunil, Sujatha

    2016-11-01

    Chikungunya and dengue are arboviral infections with overlapping clinical symptoms. A subset of chikungunya infection occurs also as co-infections with dengue, resulting in complications during diagnosis and patient management. The present study was undertaken to identify the global metabolome of patient sera infected with chikungunya as mono infections and with dengue as co-infections. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the metabolome of sera of three disease conditions, namely, chikungunya and dengue as mono-infections and when co-infected were ascertained and compared with healthy individuals. Further, the cohorts were analyzed on the basis of age, onset of fever and joint involvement. Here we show that many metabolites in the serum are significantly differentially regulated during chikungunya mono-infection as well as during chikungunya co-infection with dengue. We observed that glycine, serine, threonine, galactose and pyrimidine metabolisms are the most perturbed pathways in both mono and co-infection conditions. The affected pathways in our study correlate well with the clinical manifestation like fever, inflammation, energy deprivation and joint pain during the infections. These results may serve as a starting point for validations and identification of distinct biomolecules that could be exploited as biomarker candidates thereby helping in better patient management.

  10. Mechanisms influencing changes in lake area in Alaskan boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Jennifer K.; Griffith, Brad; Verbyla, David; Jones, Jeremy B.

    2011-01-01

    During the past ∼50 years, the number and area of lakes have declined in several regions in boreal forests. However, there has been substantial finer-scale heterogeneity; some lakes decreased in area, some showed no trend, and others increased. The objective of this study was to identify the primary mechanisms underlying heterogeneous trends in closed-basin lake area. Eight lake characteristics (δ18O, electrical conductivity, surface : volume index, bank slope, floating mat width, peat depth, thaw depth at shoreline, and thaw depth at the forest boundary) were compared for 15 lake pairs in Alaskan boreal forest where one lake had decreased in area since ∼1950, and the other had not. Mean differences in characteristics between paired lakes were used to identify the most likely of nine mechanistic scenarios that combined three potential mechanisms for decreasing lake area (talik drainage, surface water evaporation, and terrestrialization) with three potential mechanisms for nondecreasing lake area (subpermafrost groundwater recharge through an open talik, stable permafrost, and thermokarst). A priori expectations of the direction of mean differences between decreasing and nondecreasing paired lakes were generated for each scenario. Decreasing lakes had significantly greater electrical conductivity, greater surface : volume indices, shallower bank slopes, wider floating mats, greater peat depths, and shallower thaw depths at the forest boundary. These results indicated that the most likely scenario was terrestrialization as the mechanism for lake area reduction combined with thermokarst as the mechanism for nondecreasing lake area. Terrestrialization and thermokarst may have been enhanced by recent warming which has both accelerated permafrost thawing and lengthened the growing season, thereby increasing plant growth, floating mat encroachment, transpiration rates, and the accumulation of organic matter in lake basins. The transition to peatlands associated

  11. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Eric V.; Murphy, Dan [University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414, 612-625-2810 (United States); Stefan, Heinz G. [University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414, 612-625-2810 (United States)], E-mail: stefa001@umn.edu

    2008-11-15

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds.

  12. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Eric V; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G

    2008-11-15

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds.

  13. Insights from a synthesis of old and new climate-proxy data from the Pyramid and Winnemucca lake basins for the period 48 to 11.5 cal ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Larry; Smoot, J.P.; Lund, S.P.; Mensing, S.A.; Foit, F.F.; Rye, R.O.

    2013-01-01

    A synthesis of old and new paleoclimatic data from the Pyramid and Winnemucca lake basins indicates that, between 48.0 and 11.5·103 calibrated years BP (hereafter ka), the climate of the western Great Basin was, to a degree, linked with the climate of the North Atlantic. Paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) records from Pyramid Lake core PLC08-1 were tied to the GISP2 ice-core record via PSV matches to North Atlantic sediment cores whose isotopic and(or) carbonate records could be linked to the GISP2 δ18O record. Relatively dry intervals in the western Great Basin were associated with cold Heinrich events and relatively wet intervals were associated with warm Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) oscillations. The association of western Great Basin dry events with North Atlantic cold events (and vice versa) switched sometime after the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) reached its maximum extent. For example, the Lahontan highstand, which culminated at 15.5 ka, and a period of elevated lake level between 13.1 and 11.7 ka were associated with cold North Atlantic conditions, the latter period with the Youngest Dryas event. Relatively dry periods were associated with the Bølling and Allerød warm events. A large percentage of the LIS may have been lost to the North Atlantic during Heinrich events 1 and 2 and may have resulted in the repositioning of the Polar Jet Stream over North America. The Trego Hot Springs, Wono, Carson Sink, and Marble Bluff tephras found in core PLC08-1 have been assigned GISP2 calendar ages of respectively, 29.9, 33.7, 34.1, and 43.2 ka. Given its unique trace-element chemistry, the Carson Sink Bed is the same as Wilson Creek Ash 15 in the Mono Lake Basin. This implies that the Mono Lake magnetic excursion occurred at approximately 34 ka and it is not the Laschamp magnetic excursion. The entrance of the First Americans into the northern Great Basin is dated to approximately 14.4 ka, a time when the climate was relatively dry. Evidence for human occupation of

  14. Forecasting cyanobacteria dominance in Canadian temperate lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Anurani D; Paterson, Andrew M; Dillon, Peter J; Winter, Jennifer G; Palmer, Michelle; Somers, Keith M

    2015-03-15

    Predictive models based on broad scale, spatial surveys typically identify nutrients and climate as the most important predictors of cyanobacteria abundance; however these models generally have low predictive power because at smaller geographic scales numerous other factors may be equally or more important. At the lake level, for example, the ability to forecast cyanobacteria dominance is of tremendous value to lake managers as they can use such models to communicate exposure risks associated with recreational and drinking water use, and possible exposure to algal toxins, in advance of bloom occurrence. We used detailed algal, limnological and meteorological data from two temperate lakes in south-central Ontario, Canada to determine the factors that are closely linked to cyanobacteria dominance, and to develop easy to use models to forecast cyanobacteria biovolume. For Brandy Lake (BL), the strongest and most parsimonious model for forecasting % cyanobacteria biovolume (% CB) included water column stability, hypolimnetic TP, and % cyanobacteria biovolume two weeks prior. For Three Mile Lake (TML), the best model for forecasting % CB included water column stability, hypolimnetic TP concentration, and 7-d mean wind speed. The models for forecasting % CB in BL and TML are fundamentally different in their lag periods (BL = lag 1 model and TML = lag 2 model) and in some predictor variables despite the close proximity of the study lakes. We speculate that three main factors (nutrient concentrations, water transparency and lake morphometry) may have contributed to differences in the models developed, and may account for variation observed in models derived from large spatial surveys. Our results illustrate that while forecast models can be developed to determine when cyanobacteria will dominate within two temperate lakes, the models require detailed, lake-specific calibration to be effective as risk-management tools.

  15. Development and evaluation of the Lake Multi-biotic Integrity Index for Dongting Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A Lake Multi-biotic Integrity Index (LMII for the China’s second largest interior lake (Dongting Lake was developed to assess the water quality status using algal and macroinvertebrate metrics. Algae and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled at 10 sections across 3 subregions of Dongting Lake. We used a stepwise process to evaluate properties of candidate metrics and selected ten for the LMII: Pampean diatom index, diatom quotient, trophic diatom index, relative abundance diatoms, Margalef index of algae, percent sensitive diatoms, % facultative individuals, % Chironomidae individuals, % predators individuals, and total number of macroinvertebrate taxa. We then tested the accuracy and feasibility of the LMII by comparing the correlation with physical-chemical parameters. Evaluation of the LMII showed that it discriminated well between reference and impaired sections and was strongly related to the major chemical and physical stressors (r = 0.766, P<0.001. The re-scored results from the 10 sections showed that the water quality of western Dongting Lake was good, while that of southern Dongting Lake was relatively good and whereas that of eastern Dongting Lake was poor. The discriminatory biocriteria of the LMII are suitable for the assessment of the water quality of Dongting Lake. Additionally, more metrics belonging to habitat, hydrology, physics and chemistry should be considered into the LMII, so as to establish comprehensive assessment system which can reflect the community structure of aquatic organisms, physical and chemical characteristics of water environment, human activities, and so on.

  16. Planetary Lake Lander - A Robotic Sentinel to Monitor a Remote Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Liam; Smith, Trey; Lee, Susan; Cabrol, Nathalie; Rose, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Planetary Lake Lander Project is studying the impact of rapid deglaciation at a high altitude alpine lake in the Andes, where disrupted environmental, physical, chemical, and biological cycles result in newly emerging natural patterns. The solar powered Lake Lander robot is designed to monitor the lake system and characterize both baseline characteristics and impacts of disturbance events such as storms and landslides. Lake Lander must use an onboard adaptive science-on-the-fly approach to return relevant data about these events to mission control without exceeding limited energy and bandwidth resources. Lake Lander carries weather sensors, cameras and a sonde that is winched up and down the water column to monitor temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and other water quality parameters. Data from Lake Lander is returned via satellite and distributed to an international team of scientists via web-based ground data systems. Here, we describe the Lake Lander Project scientific goals, hardware design, ground data systems, and preliminary data from 2011. The adaptive science-on-the-fly system will be described in future papers.

  17. Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2014-11-01

    East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could

  18. A Systematic Study of Zerbar Lake Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Reza; Oveis Torabi, Seyed; Forman Asgharzadeh, Deonna

    2017-04-01

    The beautiful lake of Zerbar, located near Marivan City at the west of Iran, is a freshwater lake with an area of 20 km2 and average depth of 5 meters. The lake is created by regional tectonic activities and is mainly fed with natural spring water from bottom. During the past three decades, regional development has caused much disturbance to the natural environment of the lake and its watershed. Rescuing the lake is crucial to the sustainability of the whole region. The study of Zerbar Restoration was performed with the aim to restore its health indicators. Variety of human activities in the watershed, as well as the multidisciplinary nature of lake restoration studies, made it necessary to develop a systematic approach to conduct the study. In Step I of restoration studies, satellite images were investigated to identify the historical changes of watershed during the past 30 years. Meanwhile, documents since 50 years ago were studied. Results indicate that farmland and graze land areas have been relatively constant during the past 50 years. Also, the area of lake, its riparian canes and floating plants have not changed much. In fact, the only significant land use change observed was the significant spread of Marivan City that has stretched toward the lake. The main physical variation to the lake has been elevating the southern edge of the lake by a constructing a landfill dam which was done to control the lake's overflow discharge for irrigation of downstream farmland development. Step II consists of studies performed by disciplines of water resources, hydrogeology, water quality, wetland and watershed ecology, agriculture, animal farming and fishery. Study results indicate that eutrophication (TSL>100), mainly caused by sewage from Marivan City and the surrounding rural areas has been the main reason for lake ecosystem degradation. DPSIR framework, as a novel approach in lake restoration, was applied to synthesize the study results of different disciplines in a

  19. Lake volume monitoring from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crétaux, Jean-Francois; Abarca Del Rio, Rodrigo; Berge-Nguyen, Muriel; Arsen, Adalbert; Drolon, Vanessa; Maisongrande, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Lakes are integrator of environmental changes occurring at regional to global scale and present a high variety of behaviors on a variety of time scales (cyclic and secular) depending on the climate conditions and their morphology. In addition their crucial importance as water stocks and retaining, given the significant environment changes occurring worldwide at many anthropocentric levels, has increased the necessity of monitoring all its morphodynamics characteristics, say water level, surface (water contour) and volume. The satellite altimetry and satellite imagery together are now widely used for the calculation of lakes and reservoirs water storage changes worldwide. However strategies and algorithms to calculate these characteristics are not straightforward and need development of specific approaches. We intend to present a review of some of these methodologies by using the lakes over the Tibetan Plateau to illustrate some critical aspects and issues (technical and scientific) linked with the survey of climate changes impacts on surface waters from remote sensing data. Many authors have measured water variations using the short period of remote sensing measurements available, although time series are probably too short to lead to definitive conclusions to link these results directly with the framework of climate changes. Indeed, many processes beyond the observations are still uncertain, for example the influence of morphology of the lakes. The time response for a lake to reach new state of equilibrium is one of the key aspects often neglected in the current literature. Observations over long period of time, therein maintaining a constellation of comprehensive and complementary satellite missions with a continuity of services over decades, especially when ground gauges network is too limited is therefore a necessity. In addition, the design of future satellite missions with new instrumental concepts (e.g. SAR, SARin, Ka band altimetry, Ka interferometry) is

  20. Professional iPhone Programming with MonoTouch and .NET/C#

    CERN Document Server

    McClure, Wallace B; Dunn, Craig

    2010-01-01

    What .NET C# developers need to enter the hot field of iPhone apps. iPhone applications offer a hot opportunity for developers. Until the open source MonoTouch project, this field was limited to those familiar with Apple's programming languages. Now .NET and C# developers can join the party. This Wrox guide is the first book to cover MonoTouch, preparing developers to take advantage of this lucrative opportunity.: MonoTouch opens the field of iPhone app development to .NET and C# developers for the first time; the Wrox reputation among .NET developers assures them that this guide covers everyt

  1. A new approach to modelling and designing mono-block dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    R. Hunter; F. Alister; Möller, J.; J. Alister

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is present a new approach to modelling and design the low cost mono-block dental implants based on the integration of the computer aided techniques. This approach provides the automation of the design process of the mono-block dental implants.Design/methodology/approach: The approach used to develop the modelling and design of the mono-block dental implants are based on the parametrization of the main geometric features of the implants. This approach allows to generate ...

  2. Develop mono-block tooth implants using automate design and FEM analysis

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Alister; J. Moller,; F. Alister; R. Hunter

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this paper is present a new approach to modelling and design the low cost mono-block dental implants based on the integration of the computer aided techniques. This approach provides the automation of the design process of the mono-block dental implants.Design/methodology/approach: The approach used to develop the modelling and design of the mono-block dental implants are based on the parametrization of the main geometric features of the implants. This approach allows to ...

  3. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  4. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  5. The Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  6. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  7. The springs of Lake Patzcuaro: chemistry, salt-balance, and implications for the water balance of the lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, James L.; Israde-Alcantara, Isabel; Garduno-Monroy, Victor H.; Shanks III, Wayne C

    2004-11-01

    Lake Patzcuaro, the center of the ancient Tarascan civilization located in the Mexican altiplano west of the city of Morelia, has neither river input nor outflow. The relatively constant lake-salinity over the past centuries indicates the lake is in chemical steady state. Springs of the south shore constitute the primary visible input to the lake, so influx and discharge must be via sub-lacustrine ground water. The authors report on the chemistry and stable isotope composition of the springs, deeming them representative of ground-water input. The springs are dominated by Ca, Mg and Na, whereas the lake is dominated by Na. Combining these results with previously published precipitation/rainfall measurements on the lake, the authors calculate the chemical evolution from spring water to lake water, and also calculate a salt balance of the ground-water-lake system. Comparing Cl and {delta}{sup 18}O compositions in the springs and lake water indicates that 75-80% of the spring water is lost evaporatively during evolution toward lake composition. During evaporation Ca and Mg are lost from the water by carbonate precipitation. Each liter of spring water discharging into the lake precipitates about 18.7 mg of CaCO{sub 3}. Salt balance calculations indicate that ground water input to the lake is 85.9 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}/a and ground water discharge from the lake is 23.0 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}/a. Thus, the discharge is about 27% of the input, with the rest balanced by evaporation. A calculation of time to reach steady-state ab initio indicates that the Cl concentration of the present day lake would be reached in about 150 a.

  8. The springs of Lake Pátzcuaro: chemistry, salt-balance, and implications for the water balance of the lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, James L.; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Garduno-Monroy, Victor H.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Pa??tzcuaro, the center of the ancient Tarascan civilization located in the Mexican altiplano west of the city of Morelia, has neither river input nor outflow. The relatively constant lake-salinity over the past centuries indicates the lake is in chemical steady state. Springs of the south shore constitute the primary visible input to the lake, so influx and discharge must be via sub-lacustrine ground water. The authors report on the chemistry and stable isotope composition of the springs, deeming them representative of ground-water input. The springs are dominated by Ca, Mg and Na, whereas the lake is dominated by Na. Combining these results with previously published precipitation/rainfall measurements on the lake, the authors calculate the chemical evolution from spring water to lake water, and also calculate a salt balance of the ground-water-lake system. Comparing Cl and ??18O compositions in the springs and lake water indicates that 75-80% of the spring water is lost evaporatively during evolution toward lake composition. During evaporation Ca and Mg are lost from the water by carbonate precipitation. Each liter of spring water discharging into the lake precipitates about 18.7 mg of CaCO3. Salt balance calculations indicate that ground water input to the lake is 85.9??106 m3/a and ground water discharge from the lake is 23.0??106 m3/a. Thus, the discharge is about 27% of the input, with the rest balanced by evaporation. A calculation of time to reach steady-state ab initio indicates that the Cl concentration of the present day lake would be reached in about 150 a. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Extreme drought causes distinct water acidification and eutrophication in the Lower Lakes (Lakes Alexandrina and Albert), Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyue; Bush, Richard T.; Mao, Rong; Xiong, Lihua; Ye, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Droughts are set to increase in frequency and magnitude with climate change and water extraction, and understanding their influence on ecosystems is urgent in the Holocene. Low rainfall across the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) of Australia resulted in an unprecedented water level decline in the Lower Lakes (Lakes Alexandrina and Albert) at the downstream end of the river system. A comprehensive data covering pre-drought (2004-2006), drought (2007-2010) and post-drought (2010-2013) was firstly used to unravel drought effects on water quality in the contrasting main parts and margins of the two Lakes, particularly following water acidification resulting from acid sulfate soil oxidation. Salinity, nutrients and Chl-a significantly increased during the drought in the Lake main waterbody, while pH remained stable or showed minor shifts. In contrast to the Lake Alexandrina, total dissolved solid (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC) during the post-drought more than doubled the pre-drought period in the Lake Albert as being a terminal lake system with narrow and shallow entrance. Rewetting of the exposed pyrite-containing sediment resulted in very low pH (below 3) in Lake margins, which positively contributed to salinity increases via SO42- release and limestone dissolution. Very acidic water (pH 2-3) was neutralised naturally by lake refill, but aerial limestone dosing was required for neutralisation of water acidity during the drought period. The Lower Lakes are characterized as hypereutrophic with much higher salinity, nutrient and algae concentrations than guideline levels for aquatic ecosystem. These results suggest that, in the Lower Lakes, drought could cause water quality deterioration through water acidification and increased nutrient and Chl-a concentrations, more effective water management in the lake catchment is thus crucial to prevent the similar water quality deterioration since the projected intensification of droughts. A comparative assessment on lake

  10. The Gigaton Volume Detector in Lake Baikal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrorin, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation); Aynutdinov, V., E-mail: aynutdin@yandex.r [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation); Belolaptikov, I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Berezhnev, S. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bogorodsky, D.; Budnev, N. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Danilchenko, I.; Domogatsky, G.; Doroshenko, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation); Dyachok, A. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Dzhilkibaev, Zh. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation); Ermakov, G. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fialkovsky, S. [Nizhni Novgorod State Technical University, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Gaponenko, O. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation); Golubkov, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Gres' , O.; Gres' , T. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Grishin, N. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Grishin, O. [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Klabukov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117132 (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-21

    The objective of the Baikal Project is the creation of a kilometer-scale high-energy neutrino observatory: the Gigaton Volume Detector (GVD) in Lake Baikal. Basic elements of the GVD - new optical modules, FADC readout units, and underwater communication systems - were investigated and tested in Lake Baikal with prototype strings in 2008-2010. We describe the results of prototype strings operation and review the preliminary design and expected sensitivity of the GVD telescope.

  11. A Mono Master Shrug Matching Algorithm for Examination Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Devi G

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an unusual slant for Shrug recognition from Gesticulation Penetrated Images (GPI based on template matching. Shrugs can be characterized with image templates which are used to compare and match shrugs. The proposed technique makes use of a single template to identify match in the candidates and hence entitled as mono master shrug matching. It does not necessitate erstwhile acquaintance of movements, motion estimation or tracking. The proposed technique brands a unique slant to isolate various shrugs from a given video. Additionally, this method is based on the reckoning of feature invariance to photometric and geometric variations from a given video for the rendering of the shrugs in a lexicon. This descriptor extraction method includes the standard deviation of the gesticulation penetrated images of a shrug. The comparison is based on individual and rational actions with exact definitions varying widely uses histogram based tracker which computes the deviation of the candidate shrugs from the template shrug. Far-reaching investigation is done on a very intricate and diversified dataset to establish the efficacy of retaining the anticipated method.

  12. Adding Mono- and Multivalent Ions to Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Luana; Park, Heung-Shik; Antion, Kelly; Woolwerton, Chris; Finotello, Daniele; Lavrentovich, Oleg

    2006-03-01

    Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals (LCLCs) are a distinct class of liquid crystals formed in aqueous solutions by molecules with rigid polyaromatic cores and ionic groups at the periphery [1-4]. The phase diagrams of these materials should depend on entropic factors (as in the Onsager model) and electrostatic interactions. Using optical polarizing microscopy, we studied the effects of mono- and multivalent ions on the phase diagrams of Blue 27 [3] and Sunset Yellow [2]. The monovalent ions change the temperatures of phase transitions, as described in [4], while the effect of multivalent ions is more dramatic and, in addition to the changed temperatures of phase transitions by tens of degrees, it often involves condensation of LCLC aggregates into domains with birefringence much higher than that in a normal nematic phase. Work supported by OBR B-7844. [1]J. Lydon, Current Opin. Colloid & Interface Sci. 3, 458 (1998);8, 480-489 (2004); [2]V. R. Horowitz, L. A. Janowitz, A. L. Modic, P. J. Heiney, and P. J. Collings, 2005, Phys. Rew. E 72, 041710; [3]Yu. A. Nastishin, H. Liu, T. Schneider, T., V. Nazarenko, R. Vasyuta, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, 2005, Phys. Rev. E 72, 041711; [4]A.F. Kostko, B. H. Cipriano, O. A. Pinchuk, L. Ziserman, M. A. Anisimov, D. Danino, and S. R. Raghavan. J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 19126-19133 (2005)

  13. Fringing in MonoCam Y4 filter images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J.; Fisher-Levine, M.; Nomerotski, A.

    2017-05-01

    We study the fringing patterns observed in MonoCam, a camera with a single Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) CCD sensor. Images were taken at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona (NOFS) employing its 1.3 m telescope and an LSST y4 filter. Fringing occurs due to the reflection of infrared light (700 nm or larger) from the bottom surface of the CCD which constructively or destructively interferes with the incident light to produce a net ``fringe'' pattern which is superimposed on all images taken. Emission lines from the atmosphere, dominated by hydroxyl (OH) spectra, can change in their relative intensities as the night goes on, producing different fringe patterns in the images taken. We found through several methods that the general shape of the fringe patterns remained constant, though with slight changes in the amplitude and phase of the fringes. We also found that a superposition of fringes from two monochromatic lines taken in the lab offered a reasonable description of the sky data.

  14. THE RECOGNITION OF SPOKEN MONO-MORPHEMIC COMPOUNDS IN CHINESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-da Lai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the auditory lexical access of mono-morphemic compounds in Chinese as a way of understanding the role of orthography in the recognition of spoken words. In traditional Chinese linguistics, a compound is a word written with two or more characters whether or not they are morphemic. A monomorphemic compound may either be a binding word, written with characters that only appear in this one word, or a non-binding word, written with characters that are chosen for their pronunciation but that also appear in other words. Our goal was to determine if this purely orthographic difference affects auditory lexical access by conducting a series of four experiments with materials matched by whole-word frequency, syllable frequency, cross-syllable predictability, cohort size, and acoustic duration, but differing in binding. An auditory lexical decision task (LDT found an orthographic effect: binding words were recognized more quickly than non-binding words. However, this effect disappeared in an auditory repetition and in a visual LDT with the same materials, implying that the orthographic effect during auditory lexical access was localized to the decision component and involved the influence of cross-character predictability without the activation of orthographic representations. This claim was further confirmed by overall faster recognition of spoken binding words in a cross-modal LDT with different types of visual interference. The theoretical and practical consequences of these findings are discussed.

  15. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of mono- and bissalicylic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurendić Evgenija A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple synthesis of mono- and bis-salicylic acid derivatives 1-10 by the transesterification of methyl salicylate (methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate with 3-oxapentane-1,5-diol, 3,6- dioxaoctane-1,8-diol, 3,6,9-trioxaundecane-1,11-diol, propane-1,2-diol or 1-aminopropan- 2-ol in alkaline conditions is reported. All compounds were tested in vitro on three malignant cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, PC-3 and one non-tumor cell line (MRC- 5. Strong cytotoxicity against prostate PC-3 cancer cells expressed compounds 3, 4, 6, 9 and 10, all with the IC50 less than 10 μmol/L, which were 11-27 times higher than the cytotoxicity of antitumor drug doxorubicin. All tested compounds were not toxic against the non-tumor MRC-5 cell line. Antioxidant activity of the synthesized derivatives was also evaluated. Compounds 2, 5 and 8 were better OH radical scavengers than commercial antioxidants BHT and BHA. The synthesized compounds showed satisfactory scavenger activity, which was studied by QSAR modeling. A good correlation between the experimental variables IC50 DPPH and IC50 OH and MTI (molecular topological indices molecular descriptors and CAA (accessible Connolly solvent surface area for the new compounds 1, 3, and 5 was observed.

  16. Lead Speciation in remote Mountain Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöger, A.; van den Berg, C. M. G.

    2003-04-01

    In natural waters trace metals can become complexed by organic matter. This complexation can change the geochemistry of the metals by preventing them being scavenged, thereby increasing their residence time in the water column. The chemical speciation of trace metals also affects the bioavalability and their toxicological impact on organisms. It is therefore important to determine the chemical speciation of trace metals as well as their concentrations. Mountain lakes have been less studied in the past than other lakes- partly because of their remoteness and partly because they were perceived to be unpolluted and undisturbed. But work so far on mountain lakes has shown that most sites are affected and threatened, for example by transboundary air pollutants like trace metals. One of the important features that distinguishes these lakes from lowland lakes at similar latitudes is the fact that they may be isolated from the atmosphere for six months or more during the winter by a thick ice cover. Also, as these lakes are remote from direct anthropogenic influences, they reflect the regional distribution of pollutants transferred via the atmosphere. For this work, under the framework of the EMERGE (European Mountain lake Ecosystems: Regionalisation, diaGnostic and socio-economic Evaluation) programme, two remote mountain lakes have been studied in detail, with water sampling taking place at different times of the year to investigate possible seasonal differences in lead concentrations and speciation. Results so far have shown that lead-complexing ligand concentrations are in excess to dissolved lead concentrations, indicating that dissolved lead probably occurs fully complexed in these lakes. Therefore the toxic fraction is likely to be less than the dissolved lead concentration. Also, lead concentrations at the time of the spring thaw are higher than autumn concentrations just before ice cover, indicating that a significant proportion of fallout onto the lake catchment

  17. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  18. Lake metabolism scales with lake morphometry and catchment conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter A.; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars; Jensen, Kaj Sand;

    2012-01-01

    We used a comparative data set for 25 lakes in Denmark sampled during summer to explore the influence of lake morphometry, catchment conditions, light availability and nutrient input on lake metabolism. We found that (1) gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (R) decline with lake...... area, water depth and drainage ratio, and increase with algal biomass (Chl), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total phosphorus (TP); (2) all lakes, especially small with less incident light, and forest lakes with high DOC, have negative net ecosystem production (NEP ... decreases with lake area and water depth as a consequence of lower input of nutrients and organic matter per unit water volume; (4) the influence of benthic processes on free water metabolic measures declines with increasing lake size; and (5) with increasing lake size, lake metabolism decreases...

  19. Estimate of the trophic status of subarctic Imandra Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terent'eva I. A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of study is Imandra Lake – the largest reservoir of the Murmansk region. The lake is being influenced by the long-term and multi-factorial activities of mining and ore processing industries, air pollution and energetics. Moreover, the drain of municipal sewage from the large settlements situated on the lake's watershed makes a serious contribution to water pollution. As a result the lake has accumulated a significant amount of pollutants and nutrients that resulted currently in an increase of the toxic load on the lake system. One of the main ecological problems also is the intensification of the anthropogenic eutrophication processes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the current trophic status of Imandra Lake using the trophic index (TSI with the average annual values of the parameters: chlorophyll, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total organic carbon and to find the dynamics of these parameters' changes during more than 20-year period. The study of the trophic status of Imandra Lake has been performed for the period 1991–2013 yrs. using the trophic state index developed by Carlson, Kratzer and Bresonik, Dunalska. According to the calculated values of the indexes Bolshaja Imandra Lake corresponds to eutrophic-mesotrophic trophic status, Yokostrovskaya Imandra Lake could be described as mesotrophic. Babinskaja Imandra Lake that subjected to essential nutrient loading is close to the oligotrophic trophic status. However, some parts of Babinskaja Imandra Lake refer to the mesotrophic state due to influence of industrial, household and heated water of the Kola atomic power station. Thus, this part of Imadra Lake could be considered as a meso-oligotrophic status. It has been established that currently nitrogen is a limiting factor for development of algae in Imandra Lake. Based on the mathematical Vollenweider model the critical phosphorus loading values to control such an important nutrient element as phosphorus have been

  20. Human land uses enhance sediment denitrification and N2O production in Yangtze lakes primarily by influencing lake water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sediment denitrification in lakes alleviates the effects of eutrophication through removal of nitrogen to the atmosphere as N2O and N2. However, N2O contributes notably to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Human lands uses (e.g., agricultural and urban areas strongly affect lake water quality and sediment characteristics, which, in turn, may regulate lake sediment denitrification and N2O production. In this study, we investigated sediment denitrification and N2O production and their relationships to within-lake variables and watershed land uses in 20 lakes from the Yangtze River basin in China. The results indicated that both lake water quality and sediment characteristics were significantly influenced by watershed land uses. Increased background denitrification rate would result in increased N2O production rate. Background denitrification and N2O production rates were positively related to water nitrogen concentrations but were not significantly correlated with sediment characteristics and plant community structure. A significant positive relationship was observed between background denitrification rate and percentage of human-dominated land uses (HDL in watersheds. Structural equation modelling revealed that the indirect effects of HDL on sediment denitrification and N2O production in Yangtze lakes were mediated primarily through lake water quality. Our findings also suggest that although sediments in Yangtze lakes can remove large quantities of nitrogen through denitrification, they may also be an important source of N2O, especially in lakes with high nitrogen content.

  1. Comparing effects of lake- and watershed-scale influences on communities of aquatic invertebrates in shallow lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hanson

    Full Text Available Constraints on lake communities are complex and are usually studied by using limited combinations of variables derived from measurements within or adjacent to study waters. While informative, results often provide limited insight about magnitude of simultaneous influences operating at multiple scales, such as lake- vs. watershed-scale. To formulate comparisons of such contrasting influences, we explored factors controlling the abundance of predominant aquatic invertebrates in 75 shallow lakes in western Minnesota, USA. Using robust regression techniques, we modeled relative abundance of Amphipoda, small and large cladocera, Corixidae, aquatic Diptera, and an aggregate taxon that combined Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Odonata (ETO in response to lake- and watershed-scale characteristics. Predictor variables included fish and submerged plant abundance, linear distance to the nearest wetland or lake, watershed size, and proportion of the watershed in agricultural production. Among-lake variability in invertebrate abundance was more often explained by lake-scale predictors than by variables based on watershed characteristics. For example, we identified significant associations between fish presence and community type and abundance of small and large cladocera, Amphipoda, Diptera, and ETO. Abundance of Amphipoda, Diptera, and Corixidae were also positively correlated with submerged plant abundance. We observed no associations between lake-watershed variables and abundance of our invertebrate taxa. Broadly, our results seem to indicate preeminence of lake-level influences on aquatic invertebrates in shallow lakes, but historical land-use legacies may mask important relationships.

  2. The Lakes and Seas of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Alexander G.

    2016-06-01

    Analogous to Earth's water cycle, Titan's methane-based hydrologic cycle supports standing bodies of liquid and drives processes that result in common morphologic features including dunes, channels, lakes, and seas. Like lakes on Earth and early Mars, Titan's lakes and seas preserve a record of its climate and surface evolution. Unlike on Earth, the volume of liquid exposed on Titan's surface is only a small fraction of the atmospheric reservoir. The volume and bulk composition of the seas can constrain the age and nature of atmospheric methane, as well as its interaction with surface reservoirs. Similarly, the morphology of lacustrine basins chronicles the history of the polar landscape over multiple temporal and spatial scales. The distribution of trace species, such as noble gases and higher-order hydrocarbons and nitriles, can address Titan's origin and the potential for both prebiotic and biotic processes. Accordingly, Titan's lakes and seas represent a compelling target for exploration.

  3. Statistical analysis of interaction between lake seepage rates and groundwater and lake levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-aho, P.; Rossi, P. M.; Klöve, B.

    2012-04-01

    measurement locations. Result suggested that underlying hydrogeological conditions dictated the variation of seepage rates to some extent for all of the measurement locations. Correlation analysis of seepage meter measurements and water levels and precipitation indicated that seepage rates in a specific seepage measurement location were influenced by different parts of the hydrogeological system. Location and rate of inseepage were dictated by a different groundwater flow system compared to locations where outseepage were measured. In addition locations of outseepage responded differently to changes in the lake and groundwater levels. Variation of seepage rate in some locations reflected the changes in the regional groundwater system, as other responded to changes in the local flow system. Study shows that a simple statistical analysis of temporal variability of lake seepage rates and lake and groundwater level recordings can give a valuable insight to the dynamics of lake - groundwater interaction. Such understanding is of crucial importance when effects of changes in climate, land use or water extraction needs to be understood and managed in lake - aquifer systems. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The project was financed by the 7th framework project GENESIS (226536).

  4. Identifying Watershed Regions Sensitive to Soil Erosion and Contributing to Lake Eutrophication--A Case Study in the Taihu Lake Basin (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; He, Bin

    2015-12-24

    Taihu Lake in China is suffering from severe eutrophication partly due to non-point pollution from the watershed. There is an increasing need to identify the regions within the watershed that most contribute to lake water degradation. The selection of appropriate temporal scales and lake indicators is important to identify sensitive watershed regions. This study selected three eutrophic lake areas, including Meiliang Bay (ML), Zhushan Bay (ZS), and the Western Coastal region (WC), as well as multiple buffer zones next to the lake boundary as the study sites. Soil erosion intensity was designated as a watershed indicator, and the lake algae area was designated as a lake quality indicator. The sensitive watershed region was identified based on the relationship between these two indicators among different lake divisions for a temporal sequence from 2000 to 2012. The results show that the relationship between soil erosion modulus and lake quality varied among different lake areas. Soil erosion from the two bay areas was more closely correlated with water quality than soil erosion from the WC region. This was most apparent at distances of 5 km to 10 km from the lake, where the r² was as high as 0.764. Results indicate that soil erosion could be used as an indicator for identifying key watershed protection areas. Different lake areas need to be considered separately due to differences in geographical features, land use, and the corresponding effects on lake water quality.

  5. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

  6. 3-D Eutrophication Modeling for Lake Simcoe, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Q.; Duckett, F.; Nairn, R.; Brunton, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority (LSRCA) and the Province of Ontario are undertaking a series of studies to facilitate management of the pressures of population growth in the Lake Simcoe watershed. With rapid population growth and urban development comes additional land clearing, storm water runoff and the discharge of treated sewage, all of which are sources of increased phosphorus loading to Lake Simcoe. Depressed oxygen levels were linked to phosphorous enrichment of the lake, with the resultant stimulation of algal growth in the sunlit upper waters of the lake, and its subsequent senescence and settling into the hypolimnion where bacterial decomposition consumes oxygen from the stratified waters. This poster describes a 3-D hydrodynamic, thermal and water quality model of Lake Simcoe developed using the Danish Hydraulics Institute (DHI) MIKE3 model. The hydrodynamic module includes wind-driven circulation, temperature variation, development of the thermocline and thermal stratification, and hydraulic forcing from inflowing tributaries. This is linked to the water quality module which simulates the eutrophication processes in the response of the lake to loadings of phosphorus, such as algal growth, the growth of aquatic plants and subsequent oxygen consumption. The model has been calibrated against Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler velocity data, plus measured temperature and water quality data at MOE stations in the lake and water intakes. The model is an important assessment tool for the management of the lake and its watersheds, allowing assessment of the impacts of the urban growth and land use change on the water quality in Lake Simcoe.

  7. Water quality assessment in a shallow lake used for tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembowska Ewa A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The routine evaluation of water quality is limited to lakes with the largest area. In Poland, only lakes with an area exceeding 50 hectares are monitored by the State Environmental Monitoring System. For many local communities, however, small lakes are more important. This applies mainly to areas with a small number of lakes, where even the smallest lakes are used for various purposes. This paper presents the results of phytoplankton analysis in a small and shallow lake used for recreation. The study was conducted at three sites located in different parts of the lake. A total of 122 algae taxa were identified in the phytoplankton, mainly diatoms and green algae. The most constant taxa in the lake were: Stephanodiscus hantzschii, Desmodesmus communis, Pediastrum tetras and Crucigenia tetrapedia. The average phytoplankton biomass was 37 mg l−1. The maximum biomass, almost 140 mg dm−3, was recorded in late July at the site located near the beach. At that time, there was a massive cyanobacterial bloom composed of Microcystis wesenbergii and Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi. Based on these studies, the lake should be classified as hypertrophic with bad ecological status. This lake should not be used for recreational purposes in the current state.

  8. Research on the effects of machining-induced subsurface damages on mono-crystalline silicon via molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Hongwei, E-mail: hwzhao@jlu.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun, Jilin 130025 (China); Shi Chengli; Zhang Peng; Zhang Lin; Huang Hu; Yan Jiwang [College of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun, Jilin 130025 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MD simulations of nano-cutting process are carried out to obtain machining-induced subsurface with diamond cutting tools. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After cutting, the crystal lattice reconstructed and led to the formation of the machined surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanical properties of the pristine and machining-induced subsurface Si are studied by means of nanoindentation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoindentation results show that the hardness of the machined surface was smaller than mono-crystalline Si. - Abstract: Nanoindentation simulation via molecular dynamic (MD) method was carried out to investigate the characteristics of machining-induced subsurface damage of mono-crystalline silicon with a spherical diamond indenter. In this study, MD simulations of nano-cutting process were carried out firstly to cut through the specimen's surface with diamond cutting tools of different edge radius of 0 nm, 3 nm and 5 nm respectively. Then, MD simulation of nanoindentation on the machined surface was carried out. Tersoff potential was used to model the interaction of Si atoms, and the interaction between Si and C atoms was modeled by Morse potential. Simulational results indicate that during cutting process, the specimen undergo plastic deformation and phase transformation. After cutting process, the crystal lattice reconstructs and the residual amorphous layers lead to the formation of the machined surface. Nanoindentation results show that the hardness of the machined surface is smaller than mono-crystalline Si. So in order to get accurate properties of the pristine silicon or other semiconductor materials via experiments, the amorphous phase should be completely removed or it would influence the mechanical properties of the pristine materials.

  9. [Ecosystem services valuation of Qinghai Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Lu; Ouyang, Zhi-yun

    2015-10-01

    Qinghai Lake is the largest inland and salt water lake in China, and provides important ecosystem services to beneficiaries. Economic valuation of wetland ecosystem services from Qinghai Lake can reveal the direct contribution of lake ecosystems to beneficiaries using economic data, which can advance the incorporation of wetland protection of Qinghai Lake into economic tradeoffs and decision analyses. In this paper, we established a final ecosystem services valuation system based on the underlying ecological mechanisms and regional socio-economic conditions. We then evaluated the eco-economic value provided by the wetlands at Qinghai Lake to beneficiaries in 2012 using the market value method, replacement cost method, zonal travel cost method, and contingent valuation method. According to the valuation result, the total economic values of the final ecosystem services provided by the wetlands at Qinghai Lake were estimated to be 6749.08 x 10(8) yuan RMB in 2012, among which the value of water storage service and climate regulation service were 4797.57 x 10(8) and 1929.34 x 10(8) yuan RMB, accounting for 71.1% and 28.6% of the total value, respectively. The economic value of the 8 final ecosystem services was ranked from greatest to lowest as: water storage service > climate regulation service > recreation and tourism service > non-use value > oxygen release service > raw material production service > carbon sequestration service > food production service. The evaluation result of this paper reflects the substantial value that the wetlands of Qinghai Lake provide to beneficiaries using monetary values, which has the potential to help increase wetland protection awareness among the public and decision-makers, and inform managers about ways to create ecological compensation incentives. The final ecosystem service evaluation system presented in this paper will offer guidance on separating intermediate services and final services, and establishing monitoring programs for

  10. Mono-Cycle Photonics and Optical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Route to Femtosecond Ångstrom Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Yamashita, Mikio; Morita, Ryuji

    2005-01-01

    "Mono-Cycle Photonics and Optical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy" deals with both the ultrashort laser-pulse technology in the few- to mono-cycle region and the laser-surface-controlled scanning-tunneling microscopy (STM) extending into the spatiotemporal extreme technology. The former covers the theory of nonlinear pulse propagation beyond the slowly-varing-envelope approximation, the generation and active chirp compensation of ultrabroadband optical pulses, the amplitude and phase characterization of few- to mono-cycle pulses, and the feedback field control for the mono-cycle-like pulse generation. In addition, the wavelength-multiplex shaping of ultrabroadband pulse is described. The latter covers the CW-laser-excitation STM, the femtosecond-time-resolved STM and atomic-level surface phenomena controlled by femtosecond pulses.

  11. Developing C# Apps for iPhone and iPad using MonoTouch

    CERN Document Server

    Costanich, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Developing C# Applications for iPhone and iPad using MonoTouch shows you how to use your existing C# skills to write apps for the iPhone and iPad. Fortunately, there's MonoTouch, Novell's .NET library that allows C# developers to write C# code that executes in iOS. Furthermore, MonoTouch allows you to address all the unique functions of the iPhone, iPod Touch, and iPad. And the big plus: You needn't learn any Objective-C to master MonoTouch!. Former Microsoft engineer and published app-store developer Bryan Costanich shows you how to use the tools you already know to create native apps in iOS

  12. Repairing split ends: SIRT6, mono-ADP ribosylation and DNA repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Michael; Mao, Zhiyong; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The sirtuin gene family comprises an evolutionarily ancient set of NAD+ dependent protein deacetylase and mono-ADP ribosyltransferase enzymes. Found in all domains of life, sirtuins regulate a diverse array of biological processes, including DNA repair, gene silencing, apoptosis and metabolism. Studies in multiple model organisms have indicated that sirtuins may also function to extend lifespan and attenuate age-related pathologies. To date, most of these studies have focused on the deacetylase activity of sirtuins, and relatively little is known about the other biochemical activity of sirtuins, mono-ADP ribosylation. We recently reported that the mammalian sirtuin, SIRT6, mono-ADP ribosylates PARP1 to promote DNA repair in response to oxidative stress. In this research perspective we review the role of SIRT6 in DNA repair and discuss the emerging implications for sirtuin directed mono-ADP ribosylation in aging and age-related diseases. PMID:21946623

  13. [Determination of mono- to tri-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in stack gas using isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chen; Liu, Qipeng; Tian, Zhenyu; Xie, Huiting; Wang, Mengjing; Liu, Wenbin

    2014-09-01

    A method for the determination of mono- to tri-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (mono- to tri-CDD/Fs) in stack gas using isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) was developed. The sam- ples were extracted by Soxhlet extraction, and then the extracts were concentrated and purified using a multilayer silica gel column and a basic alumina column. The analytes were separated by HRGC on a DB-5MS column (30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 μm) and determined by HRMS. The identi- fication of mono- to tri-CDD/Fs was based on the retention times of 13C-labelled standard and the abundance ratios of the two exacted mass-to-charge ratios. The quantitative analysis was performed using the ratios of the integrated areas of the 13C-labelled standards. This method had the recoveries ranging from 66.6% to 112.5% and the relative standard deviations (RSD) ranging from 19.9% to 40.5% (n = 5). The limits of detection (LODs) of this method for the mono- to tri-CDD/Fs were ranging from 0.027 to 0.485 μg/L. Three stack gas samples from waste incinerators were measured using this method, with the recoveries ranging from 85.7% to 137.0% and the concentrations ranging from 11.4 to 9,183 pg/Nm3. The results indicated that the method can be applied to the precise determination of mono- to tri-CDD/Fs at trace level in stack gas.

  14. Baker's yeast mediated reduction of substituted acenaphthenequinones: Regio- and enantioselective preparation of mono-hydroxyacenaphthenones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Yong Wang; Jing Nan Cui; Wei Min Ren; Feng Li; Chun Liang Lu; Xu Hong Qian

    2007-01-01

    Baker's yeast mediated reduction of acenaphthenequinone within 4-10 h afforded mono-hydroxyacenaphthenone mainly with low enantioselectivity, the substrate and mono-hydroxyacenaphthenone product almost converted to dihydroxyacenaphthene after 48 h.By control of the reaction time and in the presence of DMF as co-solvent, the reduction of 6-substituted acenaphthenequinones under vigorous agitation afforded the corresponding 2-hydroxyacenaphthenones in 24-84% yields with 10-93% ee.

  15. Evidence that Mono-ADP-Ribosylation of CtBP1/BARS Regulates Lipid Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Bartz, René; Seemann, Joachim; Zehmer, John K.; Serrero, Ginette; Kent D. Chapman; Anderson, Richard G. W.; Liu, Pingsheng

    2007-01-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is emerging as an important posttranslational modification that modulates a variety of cell signaling pathways. Here, we present evidence that mono-ADP-ribosylation of the transcriptional corepressor C terminal binding protein, brefeldin A (BFA)-induced ADP-ribosylated substrate (CtBP1/BARS) regulates neutral lipid storage in droplets that are surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipid and associated proteins. CtBP1/BARS is an NAD-binding protein that becomes ribosylated ...

  16. Geothermal systems of the Mono Basin-Long Valley region, eastern California and western Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, C.T.; Flynn, T.; Chapman, R.H.; Trexler, D.T.; Chase, G.R.; Bacon, C.F.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The region that includes Mono Basin, Long Valley, the Bridgeport-Bodie Hills area, and Aurora, in eastern California and western Nevada was studied to determine the possible causes and interactions of the geothermal anomalies in the Mono Basin-Long Valley region as a whole. A special goal of the study was to locate possible shallow bodies of magma and to determine their influence on the hydrothermal systems in the region. (ACR)

  17. Ecology under lake ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Stephanie E; Galloway, Aaron W E; Powers, Stephen M; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H; Batt, Ryan D; Labou, Stephanie G; O'Reilly, Catherine M; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R; Stanley, Emily H; North, Rebecca L; Stockwell, Jason D; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L; Carey, Cayelan C; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N; Jolley, Jeff C; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W; Mariash, Heather L; McKay, Robert M; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C; Post, David M; Pruett, Matthew J; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S; Roberts, Sarah L; Rücker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A; Smith, Derek E; Sterner, Robert W; Swann, George E A; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R; Vogt, Richard J; Watson, Susan B; Whiteford, Erika J; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

    2017-01-01

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experience periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems, due to a historical research focus on summer 'growing seasons'. We executed the first global quantitative synthesis on under-ice lake ecology, including 36 abiotic and biotic variables from 42 research groups and 101 lakes, examining seasonal differences and connections as well as how seasonal differences vary with geophysical factors. Plankton were more abundant under ice than expected; mean winter values were 43.2% of summer values for chlorophyll a, 15.8% of summer phytoplankton biovolume and 25.3% of summer zooplankton density. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations were typically higher during winter, and these differences were exaggerated in smaller lakes. Lake size also influenced winter-summer patterns for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with higher winter DOC in smaller lakes. At coarse levels of taxonomic aggregation, phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition showed few systematic differences between seasons, although literature suggests that seasonal differences are frequently lake-specific, species-specific, or occur at the level of functional group. Within the subset of lakes that had longer time series, winter influenced the subsequent summer for some nutrient variables and zooplankton biomass. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The force resulting from the action of mono- and biarticular muscles in a limb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL

    2001-01-01

    Human and animal limbs can be modelled as a chain of segments connected at joints. For a static limb, the force exerted at the endpoint due to the force of a single muscle has been calculated. It turns out that there are marked differences in the action of monovs. biarticular muscles. Monoarticular

  19. On the possibility of using short chain length mono-carboxylic acids for stabilization of magnetic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdeev, Mikhail V. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna Moscow Region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: avd@nf.jinr.ru; Bica, Doina [Laboratory of Magnetic Fluids, CFATR, Romanian Academy, Timisoara Division, Timisoara (Romania); Vekas, Ladislau [National Center for Engineering of Systems with Complex Fluids, University Politehnica, Timisoara (NC ESCF-UPT) (Romania); Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Marinica, Oana [National Center for Engineering of Systems with Complex Fluids, University Politehnica, Timisoara (NC ESCF-UPT) (Romania); Balasoiu, Maria [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Aksenov, Victor L. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Rosta, Laszlo [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Garamus, Vasil M. [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Schreyer, Andreas [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Short chain length mono-carboxylic acids (lauric and myristic acids) are used to coat magnetite nanoparticles in non-polar organic liquids, which results in highly stable magnetic fluids. The new fluids are compared with classical organic fluids stabilized by oleic acid (OA). Magnetic granulometry and small-angle neutron scattering (polarized mode) reveal a great difference in the particle size distribution function for the studied magnetic fluids, particularly a decrease in the characteristic particle radius of magnetite when lauric and myristic acids are used instead of OA.

  20. On the possibility of using short chain length mono-carboxylic acids for stabilization of magnetic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Bica, Doina; Vékás, Ladislau; Marinica, Oana; Balasoiu, Maria; Aksenov, Victor L.; Rosta, László; Garamus, Vasil M.; Schreyer, Andreas

    2007-04-01

    Short chain length mono-carboxylic acids (lauric and myristic acids) are used to coat magnetite nanoparticles in non-polar organic liquids, which results in highly stable magnetic fluids. The new fluids are compared with classical organic fluids stabilized by oleic acid (OA). Magnetic granulometry and small-angle neutron scattering (polarized mode) reveal a great difference in the particle size distribution function for the studied magnetic fluids, particularly a decrease in the characteristic particle radius of magnetite when lauric and myristic acids are used instead of OA.

  1. A Preliminary Analysis of Lake Level and Water Storage Changes over Lakes Baikal and Balkhash from Satellite Altimetry and Gravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lakes Baikal and Balkhash are two of the world¡¦s major lakes affecting fresh water supplies in their catchments. Measurements from satellite altimetry (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and -2, satellite gravimetry (GRACE and a hydrological model (LDAS are used to see the relationship between lake level change (LLC and water storage change in these two lakes. At Lake Baikal, the average rate of LLC is negative for 1992 - 1998 and positive for 1998 - 2007, and the reversal of the LLC trend concurs with that of the temperature trend during the 1997 - 1998 El Nino. The rate of gravity change ranges from -0.5 to 0.5 ugal yr-1 with a low over the Tian Shan and a high over western Lake Baikal. Due to the climates over the two lakes, the phases of the annual gravity changes differ by up to 100 days. Using the rates of LLC and gravity changes, the ratios between the mass changes of the lake and its catchment over Lakes Baikal and Balkhash are estimated to 0.6 and 0.3, respectively. The result may help to establish water balance models over these two lakes.

  2. Discovery and industrial applications of lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Katja S

    2016-02-01

    The recent discovery of copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMOs) has opened up a vast area of research covering several fields of application. The biotech company Novozymes A/S holds patents on the use of these enzymes for the conversion of steam-pre-treated plant residues such as straw to free sugars. These patents predate the correct classification of LPMOs and the striking synergistic effect of fungal LPMOs when combined with canonical cellulases was discovered when fractions of fungal secretomes were evaluated in industrially relevant enzyme performance assays. Today, LPMOs are a central component in the Cellic CTec enzyme products which are used in several large-scale plants for the industrial production of lignocellulosic ethanol. LPMOs are characterized by an N-terminal histidine residue which, together with an internal histidine and a tyrosine residue, co-ordinates a single copper atom in a so-called histidine brace. The mechanism by which oxygen binds to the reduced copper atom has been reported and the general mechanism of copper-oxygen-mediated activation of carbon is being investigated in the light of these discoveries. LPMOs are widespread in both the fungal and the bacterial kingdoms, although the range of action of these enzymes remains to be elucidated. However, based on the high abundance of LPMOs expressed by microbes involved in the decomposition of organic matter, the importance of LPMOs in the natural carbon-cycle is predicted to be significant. In addition, it has been suggested that LPMOs play a role in the pathology of infectious diseases such as cholera and to thus be relevant in the field of medicine. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  3. OVERVIEW OF MONO-ENERGETIC GAMMA-RAY SOURCES & APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; O' Neill, K L; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C P; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Raubenheimer, T O

    2010-05-18

    Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of tunable gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development and construction at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by an X-band linac designed in collaboration with SLAC NAL will interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps, diode-pumped CPA laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. This MEGa-ray source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence in various isotopes. Applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented, along with important applications, including nuclear resonance fluorescence. In conclusion, we have optimized the design of a high brightness Compton scattering gamma-ray source, specifically designed for NRF applications. Two different parameters sets have been considered: one where the number of photons scattered in a single shot reaches approximately 7.5 x 10{sup 8}, with a focal spot size around 8 {micro}m; in the second set, the spectral brightness is optimized by using a 20 {micro}m spot size, with 0.2% relative bandwidth.

  4. Ecology of playa lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.

    1992-01-01

    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  5. Lake on life support: Evaluating urban lake management measures by using a coupled 1D-modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, Robert; Kirillin, Georgiy; Hinkelmann, Reinhard; Hupfer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Urban surface water systems and especially lakes are heavily stressed and modified systems to comply with water management goals and expectations. In this study we focus on Lake Tegel in Berlin, Germany, as a representative of heavily modified urban lakes. In the 20th century, Lake Tegel received increased loadings of nutrients and leached heavy metals from an upstream sewage farm resulting in severe eutrophication problems. The construction of two upstream treatment plants caused a lowering of nutrient concentrations and a re-oligotrophication of the lake. Additionally, artificial aerators, to keep the hypolimnion oxic, and a lake pipeline, to bypass water for maintaining a minimum discharge, went into operation. Lake Tegel is still heavily used for drinking water extraction by bank filtration. These interacting management measures make the system vulnerable to changing climate conditions and pollutant loads. Past modelling studies have shown the complex hydrodynamics of the lake. Here, we are following a simplified approach by using a less computational time consuming vertical 1D-model to simulate the hydrodynamics and the ecological interactions of the system by coupling the General Lake Model to the Aquatic Ecodynamics Model Library 2. For calibration of the multidimensional parameter space we applied the Covariance Matrix Adaption-Evolution Strategy algorithm. The model is able to sufficiently replicate the vertical field temperature profiles of Lake Tegel as well as to simulate similar concentration ranges of phosphate, dissolved oxygen and nitrate. The calibrated model is used to run an uncertainty analysis by sampling the simulated data within the meaning of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Finally, we are evaluating different scenarios: (1) changing air temperatures, precipitation and wind speed due to effects of climate change, (2) decreased discharges into the lake due to bypassing treated effluents into a near stream instead of Lake Tegel, and (3

  6. Predicting the locations of naturally fishless lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Emily Gaenzle; Loftin, C.S.; Degoosh, K.E.; Huryn, Alexander D.; Webster, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    complementary approaches. First we visited 21 lakes predicted to be fishless and assessed current fish presence with gillnetting. Second, we used paleolimnological techniques based on the abundance of Chaoborus americanus mandibles in the bottom segments of sediment cores. Fifteen of the 21 lakes predicted to be fishless currently contain fish. Paleolimnological evidence, however, suggests that nine of the 15 lakes were historically fishless and thus were subject to undocumented fish introductions. 8. Our approach efficiently predicts the distribution Maine's naturally fishless lakes, and our results indicate that these habitats have declined due to fish introductions. Our method could be applied to other regions with similar geographic and geomorphic constraints on fish distributions as a tool to enhance conservation of a limited resource that provides habitat for unique biological communities. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Alan D.; Cardinale, Bradley J; Munns Jr, Wayne R; Ogdahl, Mary E.; Allan, David J; Angadi, Ted; Bartlett, Sarah; Brauman, Kate; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Doss, Matt; Dupont, Diane; Johns, Annie; Kashian, Donna; Lupi, Frank; McIntyre, Peter B.; Miller, Todd; Moore, Michael P.; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Poudel, Rajendra; Price, James; Provencher, Bill; Rea, Anne; Read, Jennifer; Renzetti, Steven; Sohngen, Brent; Washburn, Erica

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided misguided resource management decisions in the past that resulted in negative legacies inherited by future generations. Given the interest in ecosystem services and lack of a coherent approach to addressing this topic in the Great Lakes, a summit was convened involving 28 experts working on various aspects of ecosystem services in the Great Lakes. The invited attendees spanned a variety of social and natural sciences. Given the unique status of the Great Lakes as the world's largest collective repository of surface freshwater, and the numerous stressors threatening this valuable resource, timing was propitious to examine ecosystem services. Several themes and recommendations emerged from the summit. There was general consensus that: 1) a comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services throughout the Great Lakes is a desirable goal but would require considerable resources; 2) more spatially and temporally intensive data are needed to overcome our data gaps, but the arrangement of data networks and observatories must be well-coordinated; 3) trade-offs must be considered as part of ecosystem services analyses; and 4) formation of a Great Lakes Institute for Ecosystem Services, to provide a hub for research, meetings, and training is desirable. Several challenges also emerged during the summit, which are discussed.

  8. Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2000-09-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: (1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; (2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; (3) The lake morphometry; (4) The lake ecosystem; (5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake

  9. Hydrochemical determination of source water contributions to Lake Lungo and Lake Ripasottile (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Archer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Lungo and Lake Ripasottile are two shallow (4-5 m lakes located in the Rieti Basin, central Italy, that have been described previously as surface outcroppings of the groundwater table. In this work, the two lakes as well as springs and rivers that represent their potential source waters are characterized physio-chemically and isotopically, using a combination of environmental tracers. Temperature and pH were measured and water samples were analyzed for alkalinity, major ion concentration, and stable isotope (δ2H, δ18O, δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and δ34S and δ18O of sulfate composition.  Chemical data were also investigated in terms of local meteorological data (air temperature, precipitation to determine the sensitivity of lake parameters to changes in the surrounding environment. Groundwater represented by samples taken from Santa Susanna Spring was shown to be distinct with SO42- and Mg2+ content of 270 and 29 mg/L, respectively, and heavy sulfate isotopic composition (δ34S=15.2 ‰ and δ18O=10‰. Outflow from the Santa Susanna Spring enters Lake Ripasottile via a canal and both spring and lake water exhibits the same chemical distinctions and comparatively low seasonal variability. Major ion concentrations in Lake Lungo are similar to the Vicenna Riara Spring and are interpreted to represent the groundwater locally recharged within the plain. The δ13CDIC exhibit the same groupings as the other chemical parameters, providing supporting evidence of the source relationships. Lake Lungo exhibited exceptional ranges of δ13CDIC (±5 ‰ and δ2H, δ18O (±5 ‰ and ±7 ‰, respectively, attributed to sensitivity to seasonal changes. The hydrochemistry results, particularly major ion data, highlight how the two lakes, though geographically and morphologically similar, represent distinct hydrochemical facies. These data also show a different response in each lake to temperature and precipitation patterns in the basin that

  10. Hazard Map in Huaraz-Peru due to a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood from Palcacocha Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; Chisolm, R. E.; McKinney, D. C.; Rivas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Palcacocha lake is located in the Ancash Region in the Cordillera Blanca at an elevation of 4,567 m in the Quilcay sub-basin, province of Huaraz, Peru. The lake drains into the Quebrada Cojup, which subsequently drains into the Quilcay River. The Quilcay River passes through the City of Huaraz emptying its water into the Santa River, which is the primary river of the basin. This location has a special interest since the city of Huaraz, which is located at the bottom of the Quilcay sub-basin, was devastated by a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) released from Lake Palcacocha on December 13, 1941. In that event, many lost their lives. In recent years Palcacocha has grown to the point where the lake is once again dangerous. Ice/rock avalanches from the steep surrounding slopes can now directly reach the lake. A process chain of debris flow and hyper-concentrated flow from Lake Palcacocha could easily reach the city of Huaraz with the current lake volume. Local authorities and people livi