WorldWideScience

Sample records for monkeys general comments

  1. Monkey King by Zhengjiang General Troupe of Quyi and Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉

    2008-01-01

    Monkey King,the grand acrobatic and magical theme show, has successfully given its first dozen shows at Hangzhou Theater since July 27.The show was presented by Zhejiang General Troupe of Quyi and Acrobatics, and

  2. An assessment of domain-general metacognitive responding in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emily Kathryn; Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2017-02-01

    Metacognition is the ability to monitor and control one's cognition. Monitoring may involve either public cues or introspection of private cognitive states. We tested rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a series of generalization tests to determine which type of cues control metacognition. In Experiment 1, monkeys learned a perceptual discrimination in which a "decline-test" response allowed them to avoid tests and receive a guaranteed small reward. Monkeys declined more difficult than easy tests. In Experiments 2-4, we evaluated whether monkeys generalized this metacognitive responding to new perceptual tests. Monkeys showed a trend toward generalization in Experiments 2 & 3, and reliable generalization in Experiment 4. In Experiments 5 & 6, we presented the decline-test response in a delayed matching-to-sample task. Memory tests differed from perceptual tests in that the appearance of the test display could not control metacognitive responding. In Experiment 6, monkeys made prospective metamemory judgments before seeing the tests. Generalization across perceptual tests with different visual properties and mixed generalization from perceptual to memory tests provide provisional evidence that domain-general, private cues controlled metacognition in some monkeys. We observed individual differences in generalization, suggesting that monkeys differ in use of public and private metacognitive cues.

  3. Auditory generalization gradients for response latency in the monkey1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, David B.; Stebbins, William C.; Iglauer, Carol

    1971-01-01

    Two monkeys were trained to press and hold a response key in the presence of a light and to release it at the onset of a pure tone. Initially, all responses with latencies shorter than 1 sec were reinforced without regard to the frequency of the pure tone, and the intensity of the pure tone that resulted in equal latencies at each frequency was determined. The second stage of the experiment consisted of discrimination training, during which releases to one pure-tone frequency (positive stimulus) were reinforced and releases to a second frequency (negative stimulus) were extinguished. Median latencies to the negative stimulus slowly increased as did the variability of the latency distribution for the negative stimulus. There was no evidence of a concurrent decrease in latencies to the positive stimulus indicative of behavioral contrast. The third part of the experiment consisted of determining maintained generalization gradients by increasing the number of nonreinforcement stimuli. The gradients that eventually resulted showed approximately equal latencies to all frequencies of the negative stimulus and shorter latencies to the positive stimulus frequency. PMID:5003971

  4. Comment on "Generalized exclusion processes: Transport coefficients"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, T.; Nelissen, K.; Cleuren, B.; Partoens, B.; Van den Broeck, C.

    2016-04-01

    In a recent paper, Arita et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 052108 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052108] consider the transport properties of a class of generalized exclusion processes. Analytical expressions for the transport-diffusion coefficient are derived by ignoring correlations. It is claimed that these expressions become exact in the hydrodynamic limit. In this Comment, we point out that (i) the influence of correlations upon the diffusion does not vanish in the hydrodynamic limit, and (ii) the expressions for the self- and transport diffusion derived by Arita et al. are special cases of results derived in Becker et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110601 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.110601].

  5. Generally representative is generally representative: comment on Shuttleworth-Edwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide comment on Shuttleworth-Edwards' criticism of the general population norms created for the South African adaptation of the WAIS-IV. In her criticism, she states that the norms are not applicable for any groups in South Africa, based on the fact that the norms were not stratified according to quality of education. A discussion of some of the key issues that impact on the creation of general population norms in the South African context is provided. Demographic characteristics such as education level, quality of education, urban and rural demarcations, and home language are all considered. While the utility of within-group norms is not denied, the adoption of these without reference to the general population is not advised. To recommend that practitioners simply dispense with the general population norm without evidence that it creates misclassification or does not function effectively for the intended population lacks scientific merit at the current time. The need for clinical studies and further predictive validity research using the South African adaptation of the WAIS-IV is crucial to demonstrate the continued utility of the test in the South African context. Additional reference groups will improve the amount of comparative information available for clinicians to be able to make better informed decisions for diagnosis, but the general population norms will be an important starting point in this process.

  6. Reply to "Comment on `Generalized exclusion processes: Transport coefficients' "

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Chikashi; Krapivsky, P. L.; Mallick, Kirone

    2016-07-01

    We reply to the Comment of Becker, Nelissen, Cleuren, Partoens, and Van den Broeck [Phys. Rev. E 93, 046101 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.046101] on our article [Arita, Krapivsky, and Mallick, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052108 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052108] about the transport properties of a class of generalized exclusion processes.

  7. 77 FR 23322 - Proposed Information Collection (Report of General Information) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Report of General Information) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act... proposed collection of information, including each proposed extension of a currently approved...

  8. Asymmetric generalization and interaction profiles in rhesus monkeys discriminating intravenous cocaine or intravenous heroin from vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Donna M; Rowlett, James K; Spealman, Roger D

    2010-03-01

    Many polydrug abusers combine cocaine with heroin in the form of a "speedball." This study investigated the discriminative stimulus (DS) effects of speedballs in rhesus monkeys trained to discriminate either intravenous cocaine or intravenous heroin from vehicle. Initial substitution tests revealed an asymmetry in the generalization profile of dopamine and opioid agonists such that mu agonists partially substituted for cocaine, but direct and indirect dopamine agonists did not substitute for heroin. Subsequent speedball tests in which drug mixtures were administered by coinjecting the component drugs while keeping the dose-ratio constant revealed an additional asymmetry. In cocaine-trained monkeys, coadministration of cocaine and heroin produced leftward shifts in the cocaine dose-response function. Heroin's cocaine-enhancing effects were mimicked by the mu agonists fentanyl and methadone and less consistently by the delta agonist (+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide (SNC 80) and reversed by the mu antagonist naltrexone and the delta antagonist naltrindole. In heroin-trained monkeys, coadministration of cocaine and heroin attenuated the DS effects of heroin. Cocaine's heroin-attenuating effects were mimicked by the D1-like agonist 6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-(1H)-3-benzazepine (SKF 81297) and the D2-like agonist R-(-)-propylnorapomorphine and reversed by the D1-like antagonist (6aS-trans)-11-chloro-6,6a,7,8,9,13b-hexahydro-7-methyl-5H- benzo[d] aphtha[2,1-b]azepin-12-ol hydrobromide (SCH 39166) and the D2-like antagonist raclopride. Attenuation of the effects of heroin was accompanied by decreases in response rate. These results suggest that heroin enhances the DS effects of cocaine via mu, and to a lesser extent delta, receptor mechanisms; whereas cocaine-induced inhibition of the DS effects of heroin probably was due at least in part to masking of the heroin DS presumably

  9. Comment on "General equilibrium shape equations of polymer chains".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamwattana, Ngamta; Hill, James M

    2008-07-01

    In this Comment, we point out that the Euler-Lagrange equations, which are referred to as the general equilibrium shape equations presented by Zhang et al. [Phys. Rev. E 70, 051902 (2004)] are incorrect, along with equations derived from them. The correct equations are provided here and they are cross-checked using certain energy functions previously presented in the literature. Further, with the use of the correct equations, we present new numerical results, which for the values of the constants given by Zhang et al. do not give rise to the physical behavior observed for DNA by those authors. However, the correct equations can be consistent with sensible behavior for different values of the constants.

  10. 77 FR 10752 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; General Licensing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; General Licensing Provisions; Section 351(k) Biosimilar Applications;...

  11. General intelligence in another primate: individual differences across cognitive task performance in a New World monkey (Saguinus oedipus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konika Banerjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual differences in human cognitive abilities show consistently positive correlations across diverse domains, providing the basis for the trait of "general intelligence" (g. At present, little is known about the evolution of g, in part because most comparative studies focus on rodents or on differences across higher-level taxa. What is needed, therefore, are experiments targeting nonhuman primates, focusing on individual differences within a single species, using a broad battery of tasks. To this end, we administered a large battery of tasks, representing a broad range of cognitive domains, to a population of captive cotton-top tamarin monkeys (Saguinus oedipus. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Using a Bayesian latent variable model, we show that the pattern of correlations among tasks is consistent with the existence of a general factor accounting for a small but significant proportion of the variance in each task (the lower bounds of 95% Bayesian credibility intervals for correlations between g and task performance all exceed 0.12. CONCLUSION: Individual differences in cognitive abilities within at least one other primate species can be characterized by a general intelligence factor, supporting the hypothesis that important aspects of human cognitive function most likely evolved from ancient neural substrates.

  12. Comment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1999-01-01

    Comment on: Alessandra Casella (1999) Tradable deficit permits: efficient implementation of the Stability Pact in the European Monetary Union. Economic Policy 14 (29), 321-362......Comment on: Alessandra Casella (1999) Tradable deficit permits: efficient implementation of the Stability Pact in the European Monetary Union. Economic Policy 14 (29), 321-362...

  13. 78 FR 63974 - Student Assistance General Provisions-Subpart K-Cash Management; Extension of Public Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management; Extension of Public Comment Period..., ``Student Assistance General Provisions--Subpart K--Cash Management''. ED is extending the comment period...

  14. A Generalization of the Lamb-Bateman Integral Equation and Fractional Derivatives : A Comment

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    In this note a generalization of the Lamb-Bateman integral equation is presented and its solution is given in terms of {\\bf fractional derivatives}. This is a comment one to the paper by Babusci, Dattoli and Sacchetti (arXiv:1006.0184 [math-ph]).

  15. 77 FR 8880 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; General Licensing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Collection; Comment Request; General Licensing Provisions; Section 351(k) Biosimilar Applications AGENCY... for an application for a proposed biosimilar product and an application for a supplement for a...) Biosimilar Applications On March 23, 2010, the President signed into law the Patient Protection...

  16. Comment on "Generalized q-oscillators and their Hopf structures"

    CERN Document Server

    Quesne, C

    1995-01-01

    In a recent paper (1994 {\\sl J.\\ Phys.\\ A: Math.\\ Gen.\\ }{\\bf 27} 5907), Oh and Singh determined a Hopf structure for a generalized q-oscillator algebra. We prove that under some general assumptions, the latter is, apart from some algebras isomorphic to su_q(2), su_q(1,1), or their undeformed counterparts, the only generalized deformed oscillator algebra that supports a Hopf structure. We show in addition that the latter can be equipped with a universal \\cR-matrix, thereby making it into a quasitriangular Hopf algebra.

  17. A Comment On Gintis's "The Dynamics of General Equilibrium"

    OpenAIRE

    Ennio Bilancini; Fabio Petri

    2008-01-01

    Gintis (2007, 'The Dynamics of General Equilibrium'', Economic Journal 117 (523) , 1280–1309) provides an agent-based model of a Walrasian economy where the tâtonnement is replaced by imitation. His simulations show that the economy converges to the Walrasian equilibrium. Gintis concludes that 1) his stability results provide some justification for the importance placed upon the Walrasian model, and 2) models allowing agents to imitate successful others lead to an economy with a reasonable le...

  18. Comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Comments on preceding articles include "Studies of the Hexagonal Model" (Holland, Gottfredson); "Structure of Occupations" (Dawis); "Is Holland's Theory Worthy of So Much Attention?" (Schwartz); "Does Enough Evidence Exist to Modify Holland's Theory?" (Hansen); "Research and Application Using Holland's…

  19. Metallomics and the cell: some definitions and general comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banci, Lucia; Bertini, Ivano

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we aim at underlining the complexity of the interactions between living systems and inorganic elements. Attempts are made to move this field towards an "omics" approach through bioinfomatics and information technology. The metallome can be defined as the ensemble of all the biomolecules in a system which bind a given metal ion or an inorganic element at broad, or are affected by that element. A number of subsets of a metallome can then be defined based on the nature of the biomolecules interacting with the metal ions and the inorganic elements in general. The most relevant and most studied subset is the metalloproteome. This field now needs to be framed in a cellular context. The interlinks and connections among the various pathways and processes involving metal ions in the cell have to be described in an integrated way so to reach a systems biology vision.

  20. Rhesus monkey heart rate during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorge, J.; Thach, J. S., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Various schedules of reinforcement and their relation to heart rates of rhesus monkeys during exercise are described. All the reinforcement schedules produced 100 per cent or higher increments in the heart rates of the monkeys during exercise. Resting heart rates were generally much lower than those previously reported, which was attributed to the lack of physical restraint of the monkeys during recording.

  1. General guidelines about performance specifications for purchasing equipment for x-ray diagnostics, with comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    These general guidelines are intended to be used as a basis for what requirements are reasonable from a radiation protection point of view and should be part of the contract in connection with the purchase of equipment for x-ray diagnostics. Technical performance requirements are addressed as well as items like documentation, instructions for use and education and training. The guidelines are also useful for the design of quality assurance programs. In the comments in addition to these guidelines legal aspects are noted, including a list of relevant laws, regulations and directives. Standards, both national and international, within the field are referred to with a short description of their content. 40 refs.

  2. A generalized matching law analysis of cocaine vs. food choice in rhesus monkeys: effects of candidate 'agonist-based' medications on sensitivity to reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsell, Blake A; Negus, S Stevens; Banks, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated reductions in cocaine choice produced by either continuous 14-day phendimetrazine and d-amphetamine treatment or removing cocaine availability under a cocaine vs. food choice procedure in rhesus monkeys. The aim of the present investigation was to apply the concatenated generalized matching law (GML) to cocaine vs. food choice dose-effect functions incorporating sensitivity to both the relative magnitude and price of each reinforcer. Our goal was to determine potential behavioral mechanisms underlying pharmacological treatment efficacy to decrease cocaine choice. A multi-model comparison approach was used to characterize dose- and time-course effects of both pharmacological and environmental manipulations on sensitivity to reinforcement. GML models provided an excellent fit of the cocaine choice dose-effect functions in individual monkeys. Reductions in cocaine choice by both pharmacological and environmental manipulations were principally produced by systematic decreases in sensitivity to reinforcer price and non-systematic changes in sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude. The modeling approach used provides a theoretical link between the experimental analysis of choice and pharmacological treatments being evaluated as candidate 'agonist-based' medications for cocaine addiction. The analysis suggests that monoamine releaser treatment efficacy to decrease cocaine choice was mediated by selectively increasing the relative price of cocaine. Overall, the net behavioral effect of these pharmacological treatments was to increase substitutability of food pellets, a nondrug reinforcer, for cocaine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Monkey Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  4. Monkey Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  5. Reply to "Comment on 'Third law of thermodynamics as a key test of generalized entropies' ".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, E P; Viswanathan, G M; da Luz, M G E; Silva, R

    2015-07-01

    In Bento et al. [Phys. Rev. E 91, 039901 (2015)] we develop a method to verify if an arbitrary generalized statistics does or does not obey the third law of thermodynamics. As examples, we address two important formulations, Kaniadakis and Tsallis. In their Comment on the paper, Bagci and Oikonomou suggest that our examination of the Tsallis statistics is valid only for q≥1, using arguments like there is no distribution maximizing the Tsallis entropy for the interval qlaw is not verified) compatible with the problem energy expression. In this Reply, we first (and most importantly) show that the Comment misses the point. In our original work we have considered the now already standard construction of the Tsallis statistics. So, if indeed such statistics lacks a maximization principle (a fact irrelevant in our protocol), this is an inherent feature of the statistics itself and not a problem with our analysis. Second, some arguments used by Bagci and Oikonomou (for 0

  6. Reply to "Comment on `Third law of thermodynamics as a key test of generalized entropies' "

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, E. P.; Viswanathan, G. M.; da Luz, M. G. E.; Silva, R.

    2015-07-01

    In Bento et al. [Phys. Rev. E 91, 039901 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.039901] we develop a method to verify if an arbitrary generalized statistics does or does not obey the third law of thermodynamics. As examples, we address two important formulations, Kaniadakis and Tsallis. In their Comment on the paper, Bagci and Oikonomou suggest that our examination of the Tsallis statistics is valid only for q ≥1 , using arguments like there is no distribution maximizing the Tsallis entropy for the interval q <0 (in which the third law is not verified) compatible with the problem energy expression. In this Reply, we first (and most importantly) show that the Comment misses the point. In our original work we have considered the now already standard construction of the Tsallis statistics. So, if indeed such statistics lacks a maximization principle (a fact irrelevant in our protocol), this is an inherent feature of the statistics itself and not a problem with our analysis. Second, some arguments used by Bagci and Oikonomou (for 0

  7. Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    commentators and Stanley Kubrick predicted, but we understand the cosmos and our humble place in it much better. This issue of Physics Education sees contributions on a variety of space themes - Monica Grady, Curator of Meteorites at London's Natural History Museum and world expert on martian meteorites, has contributed a fascinating article, and we consider Time, artificial gravity and the use of computer-controlled telescopes. Few would dispute that the greatest changes to our teaching methods have almost all been due to the rise in available computing power. Computers control telescopes so that with active optics, telescopes in arrays, and with image enhancement techniques we can see far beyond the limits of simple optical apparatus. The internet allows us to control experiments and telescopes on opposite sides of the globe, and allows teachers to get rapid feedback on their students' progress. Interactive whiteboards, electronic conferencing ... the list goes on. We have unprecedented access to information and powerful means of communicating with each other. For good or for bad, the information age brings us too much information, and devalues it. Our students are not awed by our knowledge - they are more critical, harder to impress and more easily bored. A good teacher is one who knows this, who listens to their students and cares. The inspirational teacher is as important as ever. Time, whatever that is (see John Taylor's article), moves on, and change is an inevitable consequence. No living, dynamic system is immune to the effects of time, and our education systems should be living and dynamic. We are not striving for the perfect system, so that we can fix it in tablets of stone; we are working out the best ways to teach our students, today. I hope that this issue of Physics Education helps you to do just that. Editor: Kerry Parker

  8. Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    schools and colleges are exploring electronic learning through the internet and virtual labs (see Steve Mellema's use of IT in his Lecture for the 21st Century). We aim to provide useful material for everybody at and in between the extremes. But some words of caution, sounded by Robertson in Stirling: today we might find that our classes are motivated and interested when we use computers, but how long will the excitement last? If every lesson faces children with computer screens will they soon get bored and demotivated? Individual learning, through worksheets, was a great success when it was developed in the 70s, but when every lesson faced a child with yet another worksheet, students were turned off. It became known as 'death by a thousand worksheets'. Let's not abuse computers in the same way. Physics for the beach and the igloo Physics is about being cool, as we are always trying to tell our students! In this 'summer' issue we have two papers which allow us to demonstrate this practically. I should also like to remind readers that Physics Education is available online (www.iop.org/Journals/pe) in addition to the paper version. The electronic version has the advantages of hotlinks to websites, search facilities and the ability to download teaching materials. My guess is that we haven't begun to explore the possibilities of the electronic journal as a teaching resource for teachers. If it can be stored electronically, we can include it as a multimedia clip pictures, worksheets, spreadsheets, videos, sounds... But there are also many advantages of paper—convenience and permanence being just two. Physics Education is a worthwhile publication and it feels like that in your hand. Having a journal like this, to put in my bag, or stack on my bookshelf, still feels good to me. And judging by readers' comments, you agree. IOPP will, no doubt, support both formats for a long time to come. So, this summer, enjoy the format you are reading, read Physics Education on screen or on

  9. Campaigning and contestation: Comments on politicians’ Facebook pages during the 2011 Danish general election campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Andreas Schwartz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a critical study of the Facebook pages of politicians as public spheres using Dahlberg’s notion of contestation. A method is implemented inspired by qualitative content analysis and including focus groups in order to study citizen comments on eight main political candidates’ Facebook pages during the 2011 Danish election campaign. An analytical framework is presented that conceptualizes the particular platform as a dinner party, with a dinner table, a host, and the invited guests. The dinner party exhibits the interplay between these elements and how they limit the option of contesting the dominating discourse in favor of a supportive marketing logic.

  10. Comment on "A note on generalized radial mesh generation for plasma electronic structure"

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    In a recent note [High Energy Density Phys. 7, 161 (2011)], B.G. Wilson and V. Sonnad proposed a very useful closed form expression for the efficient generation of analytic log-linear radial meshes. The central point of the note is an implicit equation for the parameter h, involving Lambert's function W[x]. The authors mention that they are unaware of any direct proof of this equation (they obtained it by re-summing the Taylor expansion of h using high-order coefficients obtained by analytic differentiation of the implicit definition using symbolic manipulation). In the present comment, we present a direct proof of that equation.

  11. Kenya's Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐天麒

    2004-01-01

    It's difficult to get close to patas monkeys(花脸猴). Clever and nervous, they run away at the sight of humans. The long-legged monkeys, clocked ( 记录 [ 速度 ] ) at 34 miles an hour, easily escaped from the zoologist Lynne Isbell when she arrived in Kenya in 1992.

  12. 78 FR 21952 - Submission for OMB Review; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; General Services Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ..., company name (if any), and ``Information Collection 3090-0297'' on your attached document. Mail: General... feedback we mean information that provides useful insights on perceptions and opinions, but are not... feedback will provide insights into customer or stakeholder perceptions, experiences and expectations...

  13. 75 FR 81536 - Substances Generally Recognized as Safe; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... expressed the opinion that the proposed amendments would more accurately reflect the state of contemporary... is a different genre than data, information, and methods and is, by its very nature, generally... dietary exposure to contemporary consumers regardless of whether the determination of GRAS status...

  14. Some comments on the integrability of the noncommutative generalized massive Thirring model

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, H; Cerna, B M

    2009-01-01

    Some properties of a non-commutative version of the generalized massive Thirring theory (NCGMT) are studied. We develop explicit calculations for the affine Lie algebra $gl(3)$ case. The NCGMT model is written in terms of Dirac type fields corresponding to the Moyal product extension of the ordinary multi-field massive Thirring model. We discuss the Lagrangian formulation, its zero-curvature representation and integrability property of certain submodels.

  15. A Paradoxical Property of the Monkey Book

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Minnhagen, Petter

    2011-01-01

    A "monkey book" is a book consisting of a random distribution of letters and blanks, where a group of letters surrounded by two blanks is defined as a word. We compare the statistics of the word distribution for a monkey book with the corresponding distribution for the general class of random books, where the latter are books for which the words are randomly distributed. It is shown that the word distribution statistics for the monkey book is different and quite distinct from a typical sampled book or real book. In particular the monkey book obeys Heaps' power law to an extraordinary good approximation, in contrast to the word distributions for sampled and real books, which deviate from Heaps' law in a characteristics way. The somewhat counter-intuitive conclusion is that a "monkey book" obeys Heaps' power law precisely because its word-frequency distribution is not a smooth power law, contrary to the expectation based on simple mathematical arguments that if one is a power law, so is the other.

  16. Are Regional Organizations the 'Parties' in the United Nations General Assembly? Comments on a Misconception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmester, Nicolas; Jankowski, Michael

    In the field of international relations, regional organizations (ROs) are not only assumed to play an important role in the regional context, but also on the international level. A growing number of studies analyze ROs’ voting behavior in the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in a similar way...... to the analyses of parties in national parliaments. In this paper, we reflect on the question whether ROs can be treated as ‘political party’-like entities. First, based on literature on political parties and legislative voting, we develop two criteria to evaluate ROs in the UNGA. Second, we analyze UNGA voting...

  17. The Genial Monkeys of Emei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOHONG

    2004-01-01

    MANY of China's beautiful mountainous areas are home to monkeys,the most famous monkey resort being Emei Mountain. Perhaps affected by the mountain's Buddhist atmosphere, Emei's monkeys are gentle and often approach tourists for food and play. Cute and impish, these delightful creatures are the main attraction for many visitors.

  18. THE CLEVER MONKEYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付惠娟

    2004-01-01

    A man was walking through a forest. He had a few caps in his hands. In the forest there were a lot of monkeys. The day was hot, so he decided to have a rest under a tree. I-le put one cap on his head and lay down to sleep.

  19. The Elephant and the Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ Once an Elephant met a Monkey."Look how big and strong I am!"he said."I can break a tree.Can you break a tree?" "Look how quickly I can run and climb!"said the Monkey."Can you climb a tree?" The elephant was proud because he was so strong,and the Monkey Was proud because she was so quick.

  20. Rhesus monkeys see who they hear: spontaneous cross-modal memory for familiar conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuma Adachi

    Full Text Available Rhesus monkeys gather much of their knowledge of the social world through visual input and may preferentially represent this knowledge in the visual modality. Recognition of familiar faces is clearly advantageous, and the flexibility and utility of primate social memory would be greatly enhanced if visual memories could be accessed cross-modally either by visual or auditory stimulation. Such cross-modal access to visual memory would facilitate flexible retrieval of the knowledge necessary for adaptive social behavior. We tested whether rhesus monkeys have cross-modal access to visual memory for familiar conspecifics using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. Monkeys learned visual matching of video clips of familiar individuals to photographs of those individuals, and generalized performance to novel videos. In crossmodal probe trials, coo-calls were played during the memory interval. The calls were either from the monkey just seen in the sample video clip or from a different familiar monkey. Even though the monkeys were trained exclusively in visual matching, the calls influenced choice by causing an increase in the proportion of errors to the picture of the monkey whose voice was heard on incongruent trials. This result demonstrates spontaneous cross-modal recognition. It also shows that viewing videos of familiar monkeys activates naturally formed memories of real monkeys, validating the use of video stimuli in studies of social cognition in monkeys.

  1. Peer Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Asher Silberman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Peer comment on: Crime, Controversy and the Comments Section: Discussing archaeological looting, trafficking, and the illicit antiquities trade online by Meg Lambert and Donna Yates

  2. Comments on Freedman's Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Comment agrees with Freedman's criticism of the path analysis model for studying education and social stratification. The model makes assumptions about how data are generated that are generally false. (RB)

  3. Comment on 'Non-relativistic treatment of diatomic molecules interacting with generalized Kratzer potential in hyperspherical coordinates'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Francisco M, E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Blvd 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2011-08-26

    We argue that the textbook method for solving eigenvalue equations is simpler, more elegant and efficient than the asymptotic iteration method applied in Durmus (2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor.44 155205). We show that the Kratzer potential is not a realistic model for the vibration-rotation spectra of diatomic molecules because it predicts the position of the absorption infrared bands too far from the experimental ones (at least for the HCl and H{sub 2} molecules chosen as illustrative examples in that paper). (comment)

  4. Evaluation of seven hypotheses for metamemory performance in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M; Schroeder, Gabriel R; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2015-02-01

    Knowing the extent to which nonhumans and humans share mechanisms for metacognition will advance our understanding of cognitive evolution and will improve selection of model systems for biomedical research. Some nonhuman species avoid difficult cognitive tests, seek information when ignorant, or otherwise behave in ways consistent with metacognition. There is agreement that some nonhuman animals "succeed" in these metacognitive tasks, but little consensus about the cognitive mechanisms underlying performance. In one paradigm, rhesus monkeys visually searched for hidden food when ignorant of the location of the food, but acted immediately when knowledgeable. This result has been interpreted as evidence that monkeys introspectively monitored their memory to adaptively control information seeking. However, convincing alternative hypotheses have been advanced that might also account for the adaptive pattern of visual searching. We evaluated seven hypotheses using a computerized task in which monkeys chose either to take memory tests immediately or to see the answer again before proceeding to the test. We found no evidence to support the hypotheses of behavioral cue association, rote response learning, expectancy violation, response competition, generalized search strategy, or postural mediation. In contrast, we repeatedly found evidence to support the memory monitoring hypothesis. Monkeys chose to see the answer when memory was poor, either from natural variation or experimental manipulation. We found limited evidence that monkeys also monitored the fluency of memory access. Overall, the evidence indicates that rhesus monkeys can use memory strength as a discriminative cue for information seeking, consistent with introspective monitoring of explicit memory.

  5. THE INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHT TO HOUSING & THE CANADIAN CHARTER: A CASE COMMENT ON TANUDJAJA V. CANADA (ATTORNEY GENERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David DesBaillets

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The case of Tanudjaja v. Attorney General, represents an unprecedented opportunity for Canadian legal scholars to examine the right to adequate housing in the Canadian human rights context. It is the only legal challenge that broaches directly the right to housing under Canadian law, basing its arguments on two key elements contained in Charter of Rights and Freedoms: sections 7 and 15. Moreover, the case represents an attempt by the claimants to bolster their Charter claim with reference to housing rights found in international human right’s law. For Canadian housing rights’ scholars, this decision, though ultimately quite negative in its conclusions, demonstrates the need for a better understanding of the intersection between international legal norms on human rights on the one hand, and the Charter, on the other. It does not, however, adequately portray the full extent of the former’s influence on the latter, as Justice Lederer of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, failed to address the importance of international legal doctrine with respect to the interpretation of positive social and human rights in the Canadian legal context. In particular, he ignored the growing body of Charter related cases and precedents in Canadian jurisprudence that shed light on the complex relationship between fundamental human rights enshrined in various international legal documents and the recognized positive obligations they impose on the government of Canada to implement them under such long established treaties as the Covenant of Economic Social and Cultural Rights.    In this comment, the author makes a critique of the analysis undertaken by Judge Lederer with regards to the relevance of international human rights norms in the context of Tanudaja, by comparing it with past Charter jurisprudence involving the impact of these on Canadian human rights claims.   L’affaire Tanudjaja c. Attorney General est une occasion unique pour les sp

  6. Aging, dominance history, and social behavior in Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Veenema, H.C.; Spruijt, B.M.; Vanhooff, J.A.R.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the dominance history of socially housed Java-monkeys on the aging process. In monkeys, social subordinance is generally associated with elevated levels of cortisol, which, in turn, have been suggested to influence cognitive decline. As cogni

  7. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Justin D.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; Ryu, Stephen I.; Meng, Teresa H.; Murmann, Boris; Black, Michael J.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. Approach. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Main results. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Significance. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic

  8. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Justin D; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; I Ryu, Stephen; H Meng, Teresa; Murmann, Boris; J Black, Michael; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2014-08-01

    Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic motor neuroscience and for the successful

  9. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  10. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  11. Neural Monkey: An Open-source Tool for Sequence Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helcl Jindřich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we announce the development of Neural Monkey – an open-source neural machine translation (NMT and general sequence-to-sequence learning system built over the TensorFlow machine learning library. The system provides a high-level API tailored for fast prototyping of complex architectures with multiple sequence encoders and decoders. Models’ overall architecture is specified in easy-to-read configuration files. The long-term goal of the Neural Monkey project is to create and maintain a growing collection of implementations of recently proposed components or methods, and therefore it is designed to be easily extensible. Trained models can be deployed either for batch data processing or as a web service. In the presented paper, we describe the design of the system and introduce the reader to running experiments using Neural Monkey.

  12. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience.

  13. Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities across Senses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kerry E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys…

  14. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  15. Stereopsis and disparity vergence in monkeys with subnormal binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwerth, R S; Smith, E L; Crawford, M L; von Noorden, G K

    1997-02-01

    The surgical treatment for strabismus in infants generally results in microtropia or subnormal binocular vision. Although the clinical characteristics of these conditions are well established, there are important questions about the mechanisms of binocular vision in these patients that can best be investigated in an appropriate animal model. In the present psychophysical investigations, spatial frequency response functions for disparity-induced fusional vergence and for local stereopsis were studied in macaque monkeys, who demonstrated many of the major visual characteristics of patients whose eyes were surgically aligned during infancy. In six rhesus monkeys, unilateral esotropia was surgically induced at various ages (30-184 days of age). However, over the next 12 months, all of the monkeys recovered normal eye alignment. Behavioral measurements at 4-6 years of age showed that the monkeys' prism-induced fusional vergence responses were indistinguishable from those of control monkeys or humans with normal binocular vision. Investigations of stereo-depth discrimination demonstrated that each of the experimental monkeys also had stereoscopic vision, but their stereoacuities varied from being essentially normal to severely stereo-deficient. The degree of stereo-deficiency was not related to the age at which surgical esotropia was induced, or to the presence or absence of amblyopia, and was not dependent on the spatial frequency of the test stimulus. Altogether, these experiments demonstrate that a temporary, early esotropia can affect the binocular disparity responses of motor and sensory components of binocular vision differently, probably because of different sensitive periods of development for the two components.

  16. Delayed response task performance as a function of age in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, H S; Call, J; Sajuthi, D

    2014-01-01

    We compared delayed response task performance in young, middle-aged, and old cynomolgus monkeys using three memory tests that have been used with non-human primates. Eighteen cynomolgus monkeys-6 young (4-9 years), 6 middle-aged (10-19 years), and 6 old (above 20 years)-were tested. In general...

  17. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  18. Comment on "Generalized projective synchronization in time-delayed systems: nonlinear observer approach" [Chaos 19, 013102 (2009); 20, 029902 (2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theesar, S Jeeva Sathya; Balasubramaniam, P; Banerjee, Santo

    2012-09-01

    In Chaos 19, 013102 (2009), the author proposed generalized projective synchronization for time delay systems using nonlinear observer and obtained sufficient condition to ensure projective synchronization for modulated time varying delay. There are concerns with the obtained conditions as the result was applicable only to trivial case of time varying delay τ[over dot](1)(t)=dτ(1)(t)/dt<1. In this paper, we note the drawbacks of the proposed sufficient condition. The new improved sufficient condition for ensuring the projective synchronization of time varying delayed systems is presented. The proposed new criteria have been verified by adopting the Ikeda system.

  19. Spontaneous expression of mirror self-recognition in monkeys after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liangtang; Zhang, Shikun; Poo, Mu-Ming; Gong, Neng

    2017-03-21

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR) is generally considered to be an intrinsic cognitive ability found only in humans and a few species of great apes. Rhesus monkeys do not spontaneously show MSR, but they have the ability to use a mirror as an instrument to find hidden objects. The mechanism underlying the transition from simple mirror use to MSR remains unclear. Here we show that rhesus monkeys could show MSR after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images. We trained head-fixed monkeys on a chair in front of a mirror to touch with spatiotemporal precision a laser pointer light spot on an adjacent board that could only be seen in the mirror. After several weeks of training, when the same laser pointer light was projected to the monkey's face, a location not used in training, all three trained monkeys successfully touched the face area marked by the light spot in front of a mirror. All trained monkeys passed the standard face mark test for MSR both on the monkey chair and in their home cage. Importantly, distinct from untrained control monkeys, the trained monkeys showed typical mirror-induced self-directed behaviors in their home cage, such as using the mirror to explore normally unseen body parts. Thus, bodily self-consciousness may be a cognitive ability present in many more species than previously thought, and acquisition of precise visual-proprioceptive association for the images in the mirror is critical for revealing the MSR ability of the animal.

  20. Monkeys in a prisoner's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ju; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-03-12

    Haroush and Williams trained pairs of monkeys to play in a prisoner's dilemma game, a model of social interactions. Recording from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), they find neurons whose activity reflects the anticipation of the opponent's yet unknown choice, which may be important in guiding animals' performance in the game.

  1. Modelling Social Learning in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Jeremy R.

    2008-01-01

    The application of modelling to social learning in monkey populations has been a neglected topic. Recently, however, a number of statistical, simulation and analytical approaches have been developed to help examine social learning processes, putative traditions, the use of social learning strategies and the diffusion dynamics of socially…

  2. Multimodal convergence within the intraparietal sulcus of the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guipponi, Olivier; Wardak, Claire; Ibarrola, Danielle; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique; Pinède, Serge; Ben Hamed, Suliann

    2013-02-27

    The parietal cortex is highly multimodal and plays a key role in the processing of objects and actions in space, both in human and nonhuman primates. Despite the accumulated knowledge in both species, we lack the following: (1) a general description of the multisensory convergence in this cortical region to situate sparser lesion and electrophysiological recording studies; and (2) a way to compare and extrapolate monkey data to human results. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the monkey to provide a bridge between human and monkey studies. We focus on the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and specifically probe its involvement in the processing of visual, tactile, and auditory moving stimuli around and toward the face. We describe three major findings: (1) the visual and tactile modalities are strongly represented and activate mostly nonoverlapping sectors within the IPS. The visual domain occupies its posterior two-thirds and the tactile modality its anterior one-third. The auditory modality is much less represented, mostly on the medial IPS bank. (2) Processing of the movement component of sensory stimuli is specific to the fundus of the IPS and coincides with the anatomical definition of monkey ventral intraparietal area (VIP). (3) A cortical sector within VIP processes movement around and toward the face independently of the sensory modality. This amodal representation of movement may be a key component in the construction of peripersonal space. Overall, our observations highlight strong homologies between macaque and human VIP organization.

  3. Behavioral sleep in captive owl monkey (Aotus azarae) and squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Kantha, Sachi; Suzuki, Juri; Hirai, Yuriko; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that activity-behavioral sleep parameters differ between nocturnallyactive owl monkeys and diurnally-active squirrel monkeys which are sympatric and of Bolivian origin. The total sleep time (TST) and sleep episode length (SEL) of 7 adult owl monkey siblings and 4 adult squirrel monkeys were quantitated by actigraphy for 7 days under captive conditions. The higher TST/24 h values and longer SEL/12 h quiescent phase quantitated for owl monkeys in comparison to that of squirrel monkeys clearly indicate that the behavioral sleep is markedly different between these two groups, though they are sympatric in wild. Significant differences noted in the sleep architecture between squirrel monkeys and owl monkeys can be attributed to the influences in the selected sleep niche, threat perception from predators, and disturbances from natural elements (especially rain) in the natural habitat.

  4. Cooperation and competition in two forest monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Eckardt, Winnie; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Putty-nosed monkeys, Cercopithecus nictitans stampflii, occur at various sites in West Africa, particularly in the transition zone between rainforest and savannah. The species is sometimes seen in primary rainforest, although at a curiously low density compared with that of other monkey species. We conducted a 24-month field study in the tropical rainforest of Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, and found that putty-nosed monkeys require an ecological niche almost identical to that of the Diana m...

  5. Autism-like behaviours and germline transmission in transgenic monkeys overexpressing MeCP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jun-Tao; Cai, Yi-Jun; Cheng, Tian-Lin; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Chen-Chen; Nie, Yan-Hong; Chen, Zhi-Fang; Bian, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Ling; Xiao, Jianqiu; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Yue-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Di; Sang, Xiao; Wu, Jia-Jia; Xu, Xiu; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Feng; Yu, Xiang; Gong, Neng; Zhou, Wen-Hao; Sun, Qiang; Qiu, Zilong

    2016-02-04

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) has crucial roles in transcriptional regulation and microRNA processing. Mutations in the MECP2 gene are found in 90% of patients with Rett syndrome, a severe developmental disorder with autistic phenotypes. Duplications of MECP2-containing genomic segments cause the MECP2 duplication syndrome, which shares core symptoms with autism spectrum disorders. Although Mecp2-null mice recapitulate most developmental and behavioural defects seen in patients with Rett syndrome, it has been difficult to identify autism-like behaviours in the mouse model of MeCP2 overexpression. Here we report that lentivirus-based transgenic cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) expressing human MeCP2 in the brain exhibit autism-like behaviours and show germline transmission of the transgene. Expression of the MECP2 transgene was confirmed by western blotting and immunostaining of brain tissues of transgenic monkeys. Genomic integration sites of the transgenes were characterized by a deep-sequencing-based method. As compared to wild-type monkeys, MECP2 transgenic monkeys exhibited a higher frequency of repetitive circular locomotion and increased stress responses, as measured by the threat-related anxiety and defensive test. The transgenic monkeys showed less interaction with wild-type monkeys within the same group, and also a reduced interaction time when paired with other transgenic monkeys in social interaction tests. The cognitive functions of the transgenic monkeys were largely normal in the Wisconsin general test apparatus, although some showed signs of stereotypic cognitive behaviours. Notably, we succeeded in generating five F1 offspring of MECP2 transgenic monkeys by intracytoplasmic sperm injection with sperm from one F0 transgenic monkey, showing germline transmission and Mendelian segregation of several MECP2 transgenes in the F1 progeny. Moreover, F1 transgenic monkeys also showed reduced social interactions when tested in pairs, as

  6. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Macaque monkeys experience visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Erin A; Olson, Carl R

    2015-01-01

    In peripheral vision, objects that are easily discriminated on their own become less discriminable in the presence of surrounding clutter. This phenomenon is known as crowding.The neural mechanisms underlying crowding are not well understood. Better insight might come from single-neuron recording in nonhuman primates, provided they exhibit crowding; however, previous demonstrations of crowding have been confined to humans. In the present study, we set out to determine whether crowding occurs in rhesus macaque monkeys. We found that animals trained to identify a target letter among flankers displayed three hallmarks of crowding as established in humans. First, at a given eccentricity, increasing the spacing between the target and the flankers improved recognition accuracy. Second, the critical spacing, defined as the minimal spacing at which target discrimination was reliable, was proportional to eccentricity. Third, the critical spacing was largely unaffected by object size. We conclude that monkeys, like humans, experience crowding. These findings open the door to studies of crowding at the neuronal level in the monkey visual system.

  8. Artificial Nursing Procedure Establishment for Infant Rhesus Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong; Si Wei; Zhou Yin; Chen Lixian

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus monkey can not achieve natural delivery due to various reasons,and cesarean section becomes an important midwifery to get infant monkeys. After caesarean section,the pregnant monkey is weak and postoperative wound pain,so it can not personally feed infant monkeys which must be artificially fed. Thus,establishing suitable feeding management program is very important for improving survival rate of infant rhesus monkey and maintaining good health. We summarized food preparation method for infant rhesus monkeys as well as temperature setting and light control,and established the nursing program for newborn infant monkey and daily management process for infant monkeys.

  9. Generalizing dependency distance. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Richard; Levy, Roger; Gibson, Edward

    2017-07-01

    With the support of the comprehensive review in Liu et al. [14], we consider dependency distance minimization to be firmly established as a quantitative property of syntactic trees. In this comment, we consider future empirical and theoretical directions for this concept, including a recent information-theoretic reinterpretation of dependency locality effects as proposed by Futrell and Levy [4].

  10. Cup tool use by squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Christine L; Hyde, Shellie A; Parker, Karen J; Lyons, David M

    2015-12-01

    Captive-born male and female squirrel monkeys spontaneously 'invented' a cup tool use technique to Contain (i.e., hold and control) food they reduced into fragments for consumption and to Contain water collected from a valve to drink. Food cup use was observed more frequently than water cup use. Observations indicate that 68% (n = 39/57) of monkeys in this population used a cup (a plastic slip cap) to Contain food, and a subset of these monkeys, 10% (n = 4/39), also used a cup to Contain water. Cup use was optional and did not replace, but supplemented, the hand/arm-to-mouth eating and direct valve drinking exhibited by all members of the population. Strategies monkeys used to bring food and cups together for food processing activity at preferred upper-level perching areas, in the arboreal-like environment in which they lived, provides evidence that monkeys may plan food processing activity with the cups. Specifically, prior to cup use monkeys obtained a cup first before food, or obtained food and a cup from the floor simultaneously, before transporting both items to upper-level perching areas. After food processing activity with cups monkeys rarely dropped the cups and more often placed the cups onto perching. Monkeys subsequently returned to use cups that they previously placed on perching after food processing activity. The latter behavior is consistent with the possibility that monkeys may keep cups at preferred perching sites for future food processing activity and merits experimental investigation. Reports of spontaneous tool use by squirrel monkeys are rare and this is the first report of population-level tool use. These findings offer insights into the cognitive abilities of squirrel monkeys and provide a new context for behavior studies with this genus and for comparative studies with other primates.

  11. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor regulation by stress inoculation in squirrel monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex G. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent mildly stressful situations provide opportunities to learn, practice, and improve coping in a process called stress inoculation. Stress inoculation also enhances cognitive control and response inhibition of impulsive motivated behavior. Cognitive control and motivation have been linked to striatal dopamine D2 and/or D3 receptors (DRD2/3 in rodents, monkeys, and humans. Here, we study squirrel monkeys randomized early in life to stress inoculation with or without maternal companionship and a no-stress control treatment condition. Striatal DRD2/3 availability in adulthood was measured in vivo by [11C]raclopride binding using positron emission tomography (PET. DRD2/3 availability was greater in caudate and putamen compared to ventral striatum as reported in PET studies of humans and other non-human primates. DRD2/3 availability in ventral striatum was also consistently greater in stress inoculated squirrel monkeys compared to no-stress controls. Squirrel monkeys exposed to stress inoculation in the presence of their mother did not differ from squirrel monkeys exposed to stress inoculation without maternal companionship. Similar effects in different social contexts extend the generality of our findings and together suggest that stress inoculation increases striatal DRD2/3 availability as a correlate of cognitive control in squirrel monkeys.

  12. Genetic evidence for the coexistence of pheromone perception and full trichromatic vision in howler monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, David M; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2004-04-01

    Vertebrate pheromones are water-soluble chemicals perceived mainly by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) for intraspecific communications. Humans, apes, and Old World (OW) monkeys lack functional genes responsible for the pheromone signal transduction and are generally insensitive to vomeronasal pheromones. It has been hypothesized that the evolutionary deterioration of pheromone sensitivity occurred because pheromone communication became redundant after the emergence of full trichromatic color vision via the duplication of the X-chromosome-linked red/green opsin gene in the common ancestor of hominoids and OW monkeys. Interestingly, full trichromacy also evolved in the New World (NW) howler monkeys via an independent duplication of the same gene. Here we sequenced from three species of howler monkeys an essential component of the VNO pheromone transduction pathway, the gene encoding the ion channel TRP2. In contrast to those of hominoids and OW monkeys, the howler TRP2 sequences have none of the characteristics of pseudogenes. This and other observations indicate that howler monkeys have maintained both their systems of pheromone communication and full trichromatic vision, suggesting that the presence of full trichromacy alone does not lead to the loss of pheromone communication. We suggest that the ecological differences between OW and NW primates, particularly in habitat selection, may have also affected the evolution of pheromone perception.

  13. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  14. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  15. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  16. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  17. Spatial information processing in humans and monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis a series of experiments are described on human volunteers and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in the context of spatial information processing. In the first single-unit recording experiments in monkeys a spatial summation algorithm was investigated. The responses of single neurons to

  18. Threats from the past: Barbados green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus) fear leopards after centuries of isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns-Cusato, Melissa; Glueck, Amanda C; Merchak, Andrea R; Palmer, Cristin L; Rieskamp, Joshua D; Duggan, Ivy S; Hinds, Rebecca T; Cusato, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Ability to recognize and differentiate between predators and non-predators is a crucial component of successful anti-predator behavior. While there is evidence that both genetic and experiential mechanisms mediate anti-predator behaviors in various animal species, it is unknown to what extent each of these two mechanisms are utilized by the green monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus). Green monkeys on the West Indies island of Barbados offer a unique opportunity to investigate the underpinnings of anti-predator behaviors in a species that has been isolated from ancestral predators for over 350 years. In the first experiment, monkeys in two free-ranging troops were presented with photographs of an ancestral predator (leopard, Panthera pardus) and a non-predator (African Buffalo, Syncerus caffer). Relative to non-predator stimuli, images of a leopard elicited less approach, more alarm calls, and more escape responses. Subsequent experiments were conducted to determine whether the monkeys were responding to a leopard-specific feature (spotted fur) or a general predator feature (forward facing eyes). The monkeys showed similar approach to images of an unfamiliar non-predator regardless of whether the image had forward facing predator eyes or side facing non-predator eyes. However, once near the images, the monkeys were less likely to reach for peanuts near the predator eyes than the non-predator eyes. The monkeys avoided an image of spotted leopard fur but approached the same image of fur when the dark spots had been removed. Taken together, the results suggest that green monkey anti-predator behavior is at least partially mediated by genetic factors.

  19. The General Comments on HIV adopted by the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights as a tool to advance the sexual and reproductive rights of women in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durojaye, Ebenezer

    2014-12-01

    The present article examines the contents and importance of the General Comments adopted by the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights on Article 14 (1) (d) and (e) of the Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women in Africa as a tool for advancing women's rights in the context of HIV. Given that discriminatory practices in all facets of life have continued to limit African women's enjoyment of their sexual and reproductive rights and render them susceptible to HIV infection, it becomes vital that African governments adopt appropriate measures to address this challenge. The provisions of the Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa present great opportunities for this to be realized. The radical and progressive provisions of the Protocol will be of no use to women unless policymakers and other stakeholders have a clear understanding of them and are able to implement them effectively. The adoption of the General Comments is a welcome development, and states and civil society groups must maximize it to advance women's rights.

  20. Pluripotent hybrid stem cells from transgenic Huntington's disease monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laowtammathron, Chuti; Chan, Anthony W S

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating disease that currently has no cure. Transgenic HD monkeys have developed key neuropathological and cognitive behavioral impairments similar to HD patients. Thus, pluripotent stem cells derived from transgenic HD monkeys could be a useful comparative model for clarifying HD pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic approaches, which could be validated in HD monkeys. In order to create personal pluripotent stem cells from HD monkeys, here we present a tetraploid technique for deriving pluripotent hybrid HD monkey stem cells.

  1. 77 FR 54614 - Proposed Collection, Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... general public and Federal agencies with an opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing... Statistics (BLS) is soliciting comments concerning the revision of the ``The Consumer Expenditure Surveys... Consumer Expenditure (CE) Surveys collect data on consumer expenditures, demographic information, and...

  2. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly.

  3. A new surgical technique of uterine auto-transplantation in cynomolgus monkey: preliminary report about two cases

    OpenAIRE

    KISU, IORI; Mihara, Makoto; BANNO, KOUJI; Hara, Hisako; Yamamoto, Takumi; Araki, Jun; Iida, Takuya; Hayashi, Yohei; Moriguchi, Hisashi; Aoki, Daisuke

    2011-01-01

    Objective Uterine transplantation experiments have been performed in various animal species for future clinical applications of uterine transplantation for permanent uterine factor infertility in humans. The aim of this study was to confirm the feasibility of uterine auto-transplantation in cynomolgus monkeys by developing new surgical techniques. Methods Two female cynomolgus monkeys underwent surgery under general anesthesia. The uterus with vascular grafts and the vaginal wall was removed,...

  4. Generation of chimeric rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Ramsey, Cathy; Ma, Hong; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2012-01-20

    Totipotent cells in early embryos are progenitors of all stem cells and are capable of developing into a whole organism, including extraembryonic tissues such as placenta. Pluripotent cells in the inner cell mass (ICM) are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into any cell type of a body except extraembryonic tissues. The ability to contribute to chimeric animals upon reintroduction into host embryos is the key feature of murine totipotent and pluripotent cells. Here, we demonstrate that rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and isolated ICMs fail to incorporate into host embryos and develop into chimeras. However, chimeric offspring were produced following aggregation of totipotent cells of the four-cell embryos. These results provide insights into the species-specific nature of primate embryos and suggest that a chimera assay using pluripotent cells may not be feasible.

  5. Vitreal syneresis in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, B E; Talsma, D M; Beatrice, E S

    1977-11-01

    The eyes of 15 rhesus monkeys were evaluated. Various degrees of vitreal syneresis were observed in 28 of the 30 eyes. The observed vitreal structures varied from fine strands randomly spaced throughout the vitreous to thick, intertwining, fibrous networks with some clumping of the collagenous condensate at the fiber junctions. Qualitatively, the degree of syneresis was slightly more extensive in the eight older mature males than in the seven younger animals. In all animals a clear view of the fundus could be obtained with the ophthalmoscope. The vitreous structures may be one cause of variability in ocular dose-response relationships for exposure to laser radiation. The effect on retinal exposure experiments of the finer vitreal structure is considered minimal.

  6. Tonal frequency affects amplitude but not topography of rhesus monkey cranial EEG components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    The rhesus monkey is an important model of human auditory function in general and auditory deficits in neuro-psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia in particular. Several rhesus monkey studies have described homologs of clinically relevant auditory evoked potentials such as pitch-based mismatch negativity, a fronto-central negativity that can be observed when a series of regularly repeating sounds is disrupted by a sound of different tonal frequency. As a result it is well known how differences of tonal frequency are represented in rhesus monkey EEG. However, to date there is no study that systematically quantified how absolute tonal frequency itself is represented. In particular, it is not known if frequency affects rhesus monkey EEG component amplitude and topography in the same way as previously shown for humans. A better understanding of the effect of frequency may strengthen inter-species homology and will provide a more solid foundation on which to build the interpretation of frequency MMN in the rhesus monkey. Using arrays of up to 32 cranial EEG electrodes in 4 rhesus macaques we identified 8 distinct auditory evoked components including the N85, a fronto-central negativity that is the presumed homolog of the human N1. In line with human data, the amplitudes of most components including the N85 peaked around 1000 Hz and were strongly attenuated above ∼1750 Hz. Component topography, however, remained largely unaffected by frequency. This latter finding may be consistent with the known absence of certain anatomical structures in the rhesus monkey that are believed to cause the changes in topography in the human by inducing a rotation of generator orientation as a function of tonal frequency. Overall, the findings are consistent with the assumption of a homolog representation of tonal frequency in human and rhesus monkey EEG.

  7. 3 Zika Vaccines Effective in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160252.html 3 Zika Vaccines Effective in Monkeys Human trial set to ... In another key step toward a vaccine against Zika virus, scientists have found that three different experimental ...

  8. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  9. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  10. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V.

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultras...

  11. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  12. Squirrel monkey cytomegalovirus antibodies in free-ranging black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya), Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Argibay, Hernan; Rinas, Miguel A; Uhart, Marcela

    2012-04-01

    Serum from four black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) was screened for antibodies to seven viruses by dot immunoassay. Cytomegalovirus antibodies were detected in three of four individuals and provide the first evidence of exposure by black howler monkeys to this virus.

  13. Reaction time as a function of stimulus intensity for the monkey1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, William C.; Miller, Josef M.

    1964-01-01

    Monkeys were trained to release a telegraph key in response to a visual or auditory stimulus. The latency of the key release response was measured for different stimulus intensities. In general, the relation between latency and intensity is inverse and exponential with greater variability of latency at the lower intensities. Some preliminary data involving differential reinforcement of short latencies are presented. PMID:14176278

  14. Comments on the slope function

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Minkyoo

    2016-01-01

    The exact slope function was first proposed in $SL(2)$ sector and generalized to $SU(2)$ sector later. In this note, we consider the slope function in $SU(1|1)$ sector of ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM. We derive the quantity through the method invented by N. Gromov and discuss about its validity. Further, we give comments on the slope function in deformed SYM.

  15. DNA-Based Vaccine Guards Against Zika in Monkey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161106.html DNA-Based Vaccine Guards Against Zika in Monkey Study ... THURSDAY, Sept. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental DNA-based vaccine protected monkeys from infection with the ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Most ultrasound scanning is noninvasive (no needles or injections). Occasionally, an ultrasound exam may be temporarily uncomfortable, ... the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Images × Image Gallery General ...

  17. Atlas-Guided Segmentation of Vervet Monkey Brain MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoxing; Pohl, Kilian M.; Styner, Martin; Addicott, Merideth; Wyatt, Chris; Daunais, James B.; Fedorov, Andriy; Bouix, Sylvain; Wells, William Mercer; Kikinis, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI anal...

  18. Somatosensory thresholds in monkeys exposed to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurissen, J.P.J.; Weiss, B.; Davis, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    Six monkeys were trained to report detection of a vibratory or electrical stimulus applied to the fingertip. The vibratory stimuli were presented at two frequencies (40 and 150 Hz). Thresholds were determined with a tracking procedure before, during, and after dosing. Each monkey served as its own control. Four monkeys were dosed orally with 10 mg/kg of acrylamide 5 days a week until the appearance of toxic signs. The total administered dose varied between 320 and 450 mg/kg. The other two monkeys served as time-matched controls. All the monkeys were observed 5 days a week. They were also weighed and presented with a visuomotor task twice a week. Weight loss usually preceded the onset of gross behavioral disturbances, such as loss of balance, tremor, or decreased activity. Impaired coordination, as revealed with the pickup test, paralleled weight loss. Electrical sensitivity was not affected. Vibration sensitivity, however, fell during dosing and remained impaired for several months after dosing ended. These data indicate that vibration sensitivity testing can trace the time course of intoxication and recovery in toxic peripheral neuropathies. Furthermore, the differential results obtained with vibratory and electrical stimulation are consonant with a primary effect on end-organ receptors.

  19. Further evidence for the role of the caudate nucleus in programming motor and nonmotor behavior in Java monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijmoed-de Vries, M C; Cools, A R

    1985-01-01

    This study describes the short-term effects of intracaudate microinjections of carbachol in temporarily isolated and restrained Java monkeys. The monkeys were found to display a series of motor disturbances including blepharoptosis, facial twitches, tongue protrusions, ear flattening, torticollis, and compulsive alternations of rapid flexions and extensions of the extremities. In general, carbachol was found to produce consistent effects as far as it concerns its ability to elicit motor disturbances. Three of the five tested monkeys had previously received another series of carbachol injections when they were freely moving and living in a stabilized social group. Accordingly, the present study enabled us to compare the effectiveness of threshold doses of carbachol in the same monkey in two distinct situations. We concluded first, that motor disturbances and disturbances in social communication were closely coupled in relation to the involvement of a particular cholinoceptive substrate within the caudate nucleus of Java monkeys. Second, the motor disturbances under study appeared to require a larger degree of dysfunctioning of this substrate than did subtle disturbances in the social communication of these monkeys. And, finally, stress inherent to restraint increased the susceptibility of the cholinoceptive substrate within the caudate nucleus. The clinical impact of our findings is discussed in view of differences between the premorbid and manifest phases of Parkinson's disease.

  20. Bayesian Based Comment Spam Defending Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Nagamalai, Dhinaharan; Lee, Jae Kwang; 10.5121/ijnsa.2010.2420

    2010-01-01

    Spam messes up user's inbox, consumes network resources and spread worms and viruses. Spam is flooding of unsolicited, unwanted e mail. Spam in blogs is called blog spam or comment spam.It is done by posting comments or flooding spams to the services such as blogs, forums,news,email archives and guestbooks. Blog spams generally appears on guestbooks or comment pages where spammers fill a comment box with spam words. In addition to wasting user's time with unwanted comments, spam also consumes a lot of bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a software tool to prevent such blog spams by using Bayesian Algorithm based technique. It is derived from Bayes' Theorem. It gives an output which has a probability that any comment is spam, given that it has certain words in it. With using our past entries and a comment entry, this value is obtained and compared with a threshold value to find if it exceeds the threshold value or not. By using this concept, we developed a software tool to block comment spam. The experimental...

  1. 78 FR 40156 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Copy Testing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Copy Testing of the Food and Drug Administration's General Market Youth Tobacco... allow 60 days for public comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on Copy... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Copy Testing of FDA's General Market Youth Tobacco...

  2. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A

    2014-08-06

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of fMRI experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category- and feature-selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity investigation of a human anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody in non-naïve cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Gunn, George R; Marini, Joseph C; Shankar, Gopi; Han Hsu, Helen; Davis, Hugh M

    2015-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of biologic therapeutics, especially monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), in monkeys generally presents the most relevant predictive PK information for humans. However, human mAbs, xenogeneic proteins to monkeys, are likely to be immunogenic. Monkeys previously treated with a human mAb (non-naïve) may have developed antidrug antibodies (ADAs) that cross-react with another test mAb in subsequent studies. Unlike PK studies for small-molecule therapeutics, in which animals may be reused, naïve monkeys have been used almost exclusively for preclinical PK studies of biologic therapeutics to avoid potential pre-existing immunologic cross-reactivity issues. The propensity and extent of pre-existing ADAs have not been systematically investigated to date. In this study, the PK and immunogenicity of mAb A, a human anti-human interkeukin-17 mAb, were investigated in a colony of 31 cynomolgus monkeys previously exposed to other human mAbs against different targets. We screened the monkeys for pre-existing antibodies to mAb A prior to the PK study and showed that 44% of the monkeys had pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies to mAb A, which could affect the PK characterization of the antibody. In the subcolony of monkeys without measurable pre-existing ADAs, PK and immunogenicity of mAb A were successfully characterized. The impact of ADAs on mAb A PK was also demonstrated in the monkeys with pre-existing ADAs. Here we report the results and propose a pragmatic approach for the use of non-naïve monkeys when conducting PK studies of biologic therapeutics.

  4. Default mode of brain function in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Gerits, Annelis; Nelissen, Koen; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Joly, Olivier; Simone, Luciano; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Wardak, Claire; Orban, Guy A; Buckner, Randy L; Vanduffel, Wim

    2011-09-07

    Human neuroimaging has revealed a specific network of brain regions-the default-mode network (DMN)-that reduces its activity during goal-directed behavior. So far, evidence for a similar network in monkeys is mainly indirect, since, except for one positron emission tomography study, it is all based on functional connectivity analysis rather than activity increases during passive task states. Here, we tested whether a consistent DMN exists in monkeys using its defining property. We performed a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in 10 awake monkeys to reveal areas in which activity consistently decreases when task demands shift from passive tasks to externally oriented processing. We observed task-related spatially specific deactivations across 15 experiments, implying in the monkey a functional equivalent of the human DMN. We revealed by resting-state connectivity that prefrontal and medial parietal regions, including areas 9/46d and 31, respectively, constitute the DMN core, being functionally connected to all other DMN areas. We also detected two distinct subsystems composed of DMN areas with stronger functional connections between each other. These clusters included areas 24/32, 8b, and TPOC and areas 23, v23, and PGm, respectively. Such a pattern of functional connectivity largely fits, but is not completely consistent with anatomical tract tracing data in monkeys. Also, analysis of afferent and efferent connections between DMN areas suggests a multisynaptic network structure. Like humans, monkeys increase activity during passive epochs in heteromodal and limbic association regions, suggesting that they also default to internal modes of processing when not actively interacting with the environment.

  5. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultrasound signal attenuation and distortion caused by a relatively thick skull.

  6. [Cycloferon therapy of cytomegalovirus infection in monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezentseva, M V; Agrba, V Z; Karal-ogly, D D; Agumava, A A

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a wide-spread disease throw humans and monkeys, which and associated with various diseases. The development of this infection in human organism is much like that in rhesus macaque, which makes CMV-infected monkeys adequate model for studying and elaborating prophylactic and therapeutic measures against this disease in humans. This article presents data on the efficiency of cycloferon action on animals with the M. mulatta CMV infection. Cycloferon stimulated an increase in the IFN-alpha production and promoted the period of remission in CMV-infected animals.

  7. Measurement of fetal biparietal diameter in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, A Michele; Brady, Alan G; Tustin, George W; Parks, Virginia L; Morris, Chris G; Abee, Christian R

    2010-09-01

    Owl monkeys are New World primates frequently used in biomedical research. Despite the historical difficulty of breeding owl monkeys in captivity, several productive owl monkey breeding colonies exist currently. The animals in the colony we describe here are not timed-pregnant, and determination of gestational age is an important factor in prenatal care. Gestational age of human fetuses is often determined by using transabdominal measurements of fetal biparietal diameter. The purpose of this study was to correlate biparietal diameter measurements with gestational age in owl monkeys. We found that biparietal diameter can be used to accurately predict gestational age in owl monkeys.

  8. Introductory Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Sujecka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introductory Comments The fifth yearly volume of the Colloquia Humanistica comprises a thematic section on Nation, Natsiya, Ethnie. The subject it discusses has thus far received little attention as a research problem in the Slavia Orthodoxa, the Slavia Romana, the Balkans but also in Central and Eastern Europe.   Uwagi wstępne Piąty numer rocznika "Colloquia Humanistica" przedstawia dział tematyczny, poświęcony kategoriom narodu, nacji i etni. Temat ten, w takiej perspektywie, którą proponujemy, nie spotkał się dotąd z należytym namysłem badawczym w sferze Slavia Otrhodoxa, Slavia Romana i na Bałkanach, jak też w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej.

  9. Molecular detection of Yaba monkey tumour virus from a vervet monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Brettschneider

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Yaba monkey tumour virus (YMTV was first diagnosed in a colony of captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Yaba, Nigeria. It has been implicated as the cause of cutaneous nodules in wild baboons (Papio species, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis. This article reports a case of cutaneous pox lesions caused by YMTV in a  free-ranging  adult  female  vervet  monkey  (Chlorocebus  pygerythrus  from  the  Umkomaas coastal area in South Africa. The virus was identified by molecular sequencing from fragments of the insulin metalloprotease-like protein and intracellular mature virion membrane protein as well as the DNA polymerase genes. Phylogenetic analyses of these gene regions revealed a 99% similarity of the sample to YMTV. Although human disease caused by YMTV is normally mild,  it  is  recommended  that  persons  in  contact  with  non-human  primates  in  the  area  of Umkomaas who develop cutaneous lesions should inform their doctors of the possibility of this infection. The extent and significance of the virus to human and non-human primates in South Africa are not known. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first diagnosis of YMTV in South Africa and in vervet monkeys.

  10. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Byun, Yoon Woo; Zhuang, Katie Z; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2015-07-09

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

  11. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  12. OBSERVATIONS ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF VERVET MONKEYS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an order is admittedly more difficult to evaluate in the Cercopithecus monkeys ... being offered; if, on the other hand, the relationship is in doubt, competition will result ... The fact that size alone is not a significant factor in dominance was well ...

  13. Japanese monkeys perceive sensory consonance of chords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, A

    2000-12-01

    Consonance/dissonance affects human perception of chords from early stages of development [e.g., Schellenberg and Trainor, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3321-3328 (1996)]. To examine whether consonance has some role in audition of nonhumans, three Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) were trained to discriminate simultaneous two-tone complexes (chords). The task was serial discrimination (AX procedure) with repetitive presentation of background stimuli. Each tone in a chord was comprised of six harmonics, and chords with complex ratios of fundamental frequency (e.g., frequency ratio of 8:15 in major seventh) resulted in dissonance. The chords were transposed for each presentation to make monkeys attend to cues other than the absolute frequency of a component tone. Monkeys were initially trained to detect changes from consonant (octave) to dissonant (major seventh). Following the successful acquisition of the task, transfer tests with novel chords were conducted. In these transfer tests, the performances with detecting changes from consonant to dissonant chords (perfect fifth to major seventh; perfect fourth to major seventh) were better than those with detecting reverse changes. These results suggested that the consonance of chords affected the performances of monkeys.

  14. Cell-Type-Specific Optogenetics in Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-09-08

    The recent advent of technologies enabling cell-type-specific recording and manipulation of neuronal activity spurred tremendous progress in neuroscience. However, they have been largely limited to mice, which lack the richness in behavior of primates. Stauffer et al. now present a generalizable method for achieving cell-type specificity in monkeys.

  15. Transcranial photoacoustic tomography of the monkey brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Liming; Huang, Chao; Guo, Zijian; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    A photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using a virtual point ultrasonic transducer was developed for transcranial imaging of monkey brains. The virtual point transducer provided a 10 times greater field-of-view (FOV) than finiteaperture unfocused transducers, which enables large primate imaging. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through up to two skulls ranging from 4 to 8 mm in thickness. The mass density and speed of sound distributions of the skull were estimated from adjunct X-ray CT image data and utilized with a timereversal algorithm to mitigate artifacts in the reconstructed image due to acoustic aberration. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. Our experimental results demonstrate that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull, and the imaging aberration caused by skull can be corrected to a great extent.

  16. Mycobacterium marinum Infection from Sea Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn LeBlanc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection acquired from Artemia nyos (sea monkeys is presented. The infection was unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapies. A biopsy of a lesion revealed granulomatous inflammation with cultures that subsequently grew M marinum. A three-month course of clarithromycin provided complete resolution.

  17. Health-resort fee and a stay in a health-resort hospital – comments based on the general interpretation of the Minister of Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Wantoch-Rekowski

    2016-01-01

    The publication presents the argumentation of the Minister of Finance included in the general interpretation of 3 October 2014 concerning the interpretation of Article 17 paragraph 2 clause 2 of the Act on Local Taxes and Fees. It was explained what was understood by the term “hospital” before 3 October 2014 and what changed in this subject after the general interpretation of the Minister of Finance was issued. It was emphasized that now the health-resort fee should not be charged from legal ...

  18. Health-resort fee and a stay in a health-resort hospital – comments based on the general interpretation of the Minister of Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wantoch-Rekowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents the argumentation of the Minister of Finance included in the general interpretation of 3 October 2014 concerning the interpretation of Article 17 paragraph 2 clause 2 of the Act on Local Taxes and Fees. It was explained what was understood by the term “hospital” before 3 October 2014 and what changed in this subject after the general interpretation of the Minister of Finance was issued. It was emphasized that now the health-resort fee should not be charged from legal persons staying in health resort hospitals.

  19. The pattern of the arterial supply of the pancreas in anthropoid apes, catarrhine monkeys and platyrrhine monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawuti, Alimujiang; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Saito, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2009-11-01

    To get the full understanding of the arterial distribution to the pancreas, the analysis of the distribution of the variety of monkey species would be helpful. In this study, we studied the layout of the pancreatic artery in anthropoids (1 gorilla, 3 chimpanzees and 2 white-handed gibbons), in catarrhine monkeys (1 hamadryas baboon, 2 anubid baboons, 10 savannah monkeys) and in platyrrhine monkeys (6 squirrel monkeys). The pancreas of the monkeys was supplied by the arteries originating from the celiac trunk and/or superior mesenteric artery. There were three patterns in the arterial distribution; (1) the celiac artery supplied the major area of the pancreas. (2) the superior mesenteric artery supplied the major area of the pancreas. (3) the celiac artery supplied the whole pancreas. The pattern of the arterial distribution to the monkey pancreas had a wide variety. The result would be helpful for the elucidation of the development of the vascular distribution in the pancreas.

  20. Comment and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College English, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Includes: (1) "A Comment on 'Lacan, Transferences, and Writing Instruction'," Janet Hiller and Barbara Osburg; (2) "Robert Brooke Responds"; (3) "A Comment on 'Writing (with) Cixous'," Debra Raschke; and (4) "Clara Juncker Responds." (RAE)

  1. Comment and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College English, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Includes: (1) "A Comment on 'Lacan, Transferences, and Writing Instruction'," Janet Hiller and Barbara Osburg; (2) "Robert Brooke Responds"; (3) "A Comment on 'Writing (with) Cixous'," Debra Raschke; and (4) "Clara Juncker Responds." (RAE)

  2. Age-related effects of estrogen on the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) α and β mRNA in the ovariectomized (OVX) monkey hypothalamus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we reported distribution of ERα and ER β mRNAs in the hypothalamus of young and old ovariectomized (OVX) rhesus macaques. The ERα were detected in all six major vestiblular nuclei which included arcuate nucleus (ARC) , paraventricularis nucleus (PVN) , periventricular nucleus (PeriV) , supraoptic nucleus (SON) ,medial prioptic nucleus (MPN) and lateral hypothalamus area (LHA). However, the ERβ mRNA can also detected in those nuclei excerpt SON, but the signals of ERβ mRNA were weaker than those of ERα mRNA. We observed that the degree of expression of ERs mRNA were different in most nucleus of old and young monkeys. The ERα mRNAs were highly expressed in ARC and SON in young monkeys compared with old monkeys. Moderate amount of ERα mRNAs hybridization signals and weak signals were observed in LHA, and MPN both in young and old monkeys. In contrast, only lower level of ERα hybridization signal were observed in PVN and PeriV in young monkeys, and the signals of ERα were very low in those nucleus of old monkeys. In general, the expression of ERβ mRNA were weaker than that of ERα mRNA in above nucleus excerpt LHA. The relatively higher density of ERβ hybridization signals have been observed in the LHA in young monkey compared with old monkeys. Low amount of ERβ mRNA hybridization signals were observed in the ARC, PVN and MPN, and no age differences were seen in PVN and MPN of those monkeys. In PeriV, we observed some signals in young monkey and a few signals in old monkeys. It was different from the rodent in which we did not found ERβ hybridization signal in SON. This study showed that both of the two estrogen receptors not only had the same pattern of expression but also had many different patterns of expression. The different expression of ERα and ERβ mRNAs in the young and old monkey brain may imply diverse functions in different regions of the monkey brain.

  3. Similar substrate specificity of cynomolgus monkey cytochrome P450 2C19 to reported human P450 2C counterpart enzymes by evaluation of 89 drug clearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Shinya; Murayama, Norie; Satsukawa, Masahiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Shimizu, Makiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Iwano, Shunsuke; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are used widely in preclinical studies as non-human primate species. The amino acid sequence of cynomolgus monkey cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 2C19 is reportedly highly correlated to that of human CYP2C19 (92%) and CYP2C9 (93%). In the present study, 89 commercially available compounds were screened to find potential substrates for cynomolgus monkey CYP2C19. Of 89 drugs, 34 were metabolically depleted by cynomolgus monkey CYP2C19 with relatively high rates. Among them, 30 compounds have been reported as substrates or inhibitors of, either or both, human CYP2C19 and CYP2C9. Several compounds, including loratadine, showed high selectivity to cynomolgus monkey CYP2C19, and all of these have been reported as human CYP2C19 and/or CYP2C9 substrates. In addition, cynomolgus monkey CYP2C19 formed the same loratadine metabolite as human CYP2C19, descarboethoxyloratadine. These results suggest that cynomolgus monkey CYP2C19 is generally similar to human CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 in its substrate recognition functionality.

  4. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys.

  5. SPAM COMMENT DETECTION IN BLOG COMMENTS FROM BLOG RSS FEED BY MODIFIED TF-IDF ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOUZIA SULTANA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Publishing the opinions online through blog is growing day by day. Visibility of the blogs in search engines depends upon the page rank or PR of the blogs and PR depends upon number of links pointing to the blogs. Popular blog engines like word press; drupal allows comments system by means of which readers can leave comments after reading the blogs. Over the time automated engines are developed that can find the blogs that support comment system and publish automatic comments with links to particular websites. This is called blogspams. There are several techniques proposed to prevent blog spams but have failed to effectively detect the spams. In this work we propose a unique technique to detect blog spam based on modified TF-IDF algorithm to first find the relevancy of the comments with respect to the subject and further checking for repetition of thewords in the comments. Generally automated blog commenting or spamming publish the same comments across multiple sites and blogs, therefore this method can effectively detect the spams. The proposed technique is verified with respect to several blogs with the consent of blog webmaster. Results show the effectiveness of the technique against some of the theoretical model as well as some of the commercially available model like aksimet.

  6. Black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) activity, foraging and seed dispersal patterns in shaded cocoa plantations versus rainforest in southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Diego A; Andresen, Ellen; Estrada, Alejandro; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence has shown that primates worldwide use agroecosystems as temporary or permanent habitats. Detailed information on how these primates are using these systems is scant, and yet their role as seed dispersers is often implied. The main objective of this study was to compare the activity, foraging patterns and seed dispersal role of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting shaded cocoa plantations and rainforest in southern Chiapas, Mexico. We gathered data on three monkey groups living in shaded cocoa plantations and three groups living in rainforest, using focal sampling, and collecting fecal samples. General activity and foraging patterns were similar in both habitats, with the exception that monkeys in the cocoa habitat spent more time feeding on petioles. Monkeys in shaded cocoa plantations dispersed 51,369 seeds (4% were seeds ≥3 mm width) of 16 plant species. Monkeys in the rainforest dispersed 6,536 seeds (78% were seeds ≥3 mm width) of 13 plant species. Our data suggest that the difference between habitats in the proportion of large versus small seeds dispersed reflects differences in fruit species abundance and availability in cocoa versus forest. Mean seed dispersal distances were statistically similar in both habitats (cocoa = 149 m, forest = 86 m). We conclude that the studied cocoa plantations provide all elements necessary to constitute a long-term permanent habitat for black howler monkeys. In turn, howler monkeys living in these plantations are able to maintain their functional role as seed dispersers for those native tree and liana species present within their areas of activities.

  7. Analysis of the hydrogenotrophic microbiota of wild and captive black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in palenque national park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Noriko; Amato, Katherine R; Garber, Paul; Estrada, Alejandro; Mackie, Roderick I; Gaskins, H Rex

    2011-09-01

    Intestinal methanogenesis is one of the major pathways for consumption of hydrogen produced by bacterial fermentation and is considered to affect the efficiency of host energy harvest; however, little information is available regarding the hydrogenotrophic pathways of nonhuman primates in the wild, in general, and of howler monkeys, in particular. Microbial fermentation of plant structural carbohydrates is an important feature in wild howlers owing to the high fiber and low available energy content of leaves, which make up the primary component of their diet. In contrast, captive howlers may consume greater quantities of fruits and vegetables that are higher in water, lower in fiber, and, along with commercial monkey chow commonly added to captive monkey diets, more readily digestible than the natural diet. In this study, we analyzed the composition of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from fecal samples of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in the wild and in captivity. The hydrogenotrophic microbiota of three groups of monkeys was evaluated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting, small clone library construction, and quantitative real-time PCR. Abundance of methanogens was lower than SRB in all howler monkey groups studied. DGGE banding patterns were highly similar within each wild and captive group but distinct among groups. Desulfovibrionales-enriched DGGE showed reduced microbial diversity in the captive animals compared with their wild counterparts. Taken together, the data demonstrate that environmental or dietary changes of the host imposed by captivity likely influence the composition of intestinal hydrogenotrophs in black howler monkeys. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  9. Effects of aerobic exercise training on cognitive function and cortical vascularity in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyu, I J; Bytheway, J A; Kohler, S J; Lange, H; Lee, K J; Boklewski, J; McCormick, K; Williams, N I; Stanton, G B; Greenough, W T; Cameron, J L

    2010-06-02

    This study examined whether regular exercise training, at a level that would be recommended for middle-aged people interested in improving fitness could lead to improved cognitive performance and increased blood flow to the brain in another primate species. Adult female cynomolgus monkeys were trained to run on treadmills for 1 h a day, 5 days a week, for a 5 month period (n=16; 1.9+/-0.4 miles/day). A sedentary control group sat daily on immobile treadmills (n=8). Half of the runners had an additional sedentary period for 3 months at the end of the exercise period (n=8). In all groups, half of the monkeys were middle-aged (10-12 years old) and half were more mature (15-17 years old). Starting the fifth week of exercise training, monkeys underwent cognitive testing using the Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus (WGTA). Regardless of age, the exercising group learned to use the WGTA significantly faster (4.6+/-3.4 days) compared to controls (8.3+/-4.8 days; P=0.05). At the end of 5 months of running monkeys showed increased fitness, and the vascular volume fraction in the motor cortex in mature adult running monkeys was increased significantly compared to controls (P=0.029). However, increased vascular volume did not remain apparent after a 3-month sedentary period. These findings indicate that the level of exercise associated with improved fitness in middle-aged humans is sufficient to increase both the rate of learning and blood flow to the cerebral cortex, at least during the period of regular exercise.

  10. Auditory Rehabilitation in Rhesus Macaque Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Auditory Brainstem Implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Min Wang; Zhi-Jun Yang; Fu Zhao; Bo Wang; Xing-Chao Wang; Pei-Ran Qu; Pi-Nan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) have been used to treat deafness for patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 and nontumor patients.The lack of an appropriate animal model has limited the study of improving hearing rehabilitation by the device.This study aimed to establish an animal model of ABI in adult rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta).Methods:Six adult rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) were included.Under general anesthesia,a multichannel ABI was implanted into the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle through the modified suboccipital-retrosigmoid (RS) approach.The electrical auditory brainstem response (EABR) waves were tested to ensure the optimal implant site.After the operation,the EABR and computed tomography (CT) were used to test and verify the effectiveness via electrophysiology and anatomy,respectively.The subjects underwent behavioral observation for 6 months,and the postoperative EABR was tested every two weeks from the 1st month after implant surgery.Result:The implant surgery lasted an average of 5.2 h,and no monkey died or sacrificed.The averaged latencies of peaks Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅳ were 1.27,2.34 and 3.98 ms,respectively in the ABR.One-peak EABR wave was elicited in the operation,and one-or two-peak waves were elicited during the postoperative period.The EABR wave latencies appeared to be constant under different stimulus intensities;however,the amplitudes increased as the stimulus increased within a certain scope.Conclusions:It is feasible and safe to implant ABIs in rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) through a modified suboccipital RS approach,and EABR and CT are valid tools for animal model establishment.In addition,this model should be an appropriate animal model for the electrophysiological and behavioral study of rhesus macaque monkey with ABI.

  11. Uniformity of colour vision in Old World monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, G.H.; Deegan, J F

    1999-01-01

    It is often assumed that all Old World monkeys share the same trichromatic colour vision, but the evidence in support of this conclusion is sparse as only a small fraction of all Old World monkey species have been tested. To address this issue, spectral sensitivity functions were measured in animals from eight species of Old World monkey (five cercopithecine species and three colobine species) using a non-invasive electrophysiological technique. Each of the 25 animals examined had spectrally ...

  12. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S.; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A.; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L.; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M.; Swanbeck, Sonja N.; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection...

  13. Anatomic brain asymmetry in vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fears, Scott C; Scheibel, Kevin; Abaryan, Zvart; Lee, Chris; Service, Susan K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Woods, Roger P

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetry is a prominent feature of human brains with important functional consequences. Many asymmetric traits show population bias, but little is known about the genetic and environmental sources contributing to inter-individual variance. Anatomic asymmetry has been observed in Old World monkeys, but the evidence for the direction and extent of asymmetry is equivocal and only one study has estimated the genetic contributions to inter-individual variance. In this study we characterize a range of qualitative and quantitative asymmetry measures in structural brain MRIs acquired from an extended pedigree of Old World vervet monkeys (n = 357), and implement variance component methods to estimate the proportion of trait variance attributable to genetic and environmental sources. Four of six asymmetry measures show pedigree-level bias and one of the traits has a significant heritability estimate of about 30%. We also found that environmental variables more significantly influence the width of the right compared to the left prefrontal lobe.

  14. Monkey King —Prime Candidate for 2008 Olympics Mascot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDAOYING; YOUZHENGJUN; LIWUZHOU

    2003-01-01

    IS the monkey an appropriate 2008 Olympic mascot? No one will know for sure until next year. Now that the Chinese Seal has been officially des-ignated as the 2008 Olympics emblem,the games'' mascot has taken over as hot topic. Animal images like the panda, dragon, lion, tiger, Tibetan ante-lope, and rabbit are also under consid-eration, but monkeyking2008.com, a website promoting the Monkey King as 2008 Olympics mascot, reports that 89 percent of its visitors want the monkey. Results of a survey conducted by China''s largest portal site, Sina.com, also indicate the Monkey King as hot favorite for mascot.

  15. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood smear and was subsequently diagnosed with symptomatic malaria. In this animal, congestion and accumulation of hemozoin (malaria pigment) in macrophages were noted in the enlarged and darkly discolored spleen. As a follow-up for the experience, spleen sections from 800 cynomolgus monkeys in toxicity studies conducted between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively examined for hemozoin deposition as a marker of Plasmodium infection. The origin of the animals included Cambodia, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Hemozoin deposition was confirmed in 44% of all examined monkeys. Monkeys from Indonesia showed the highest incidence of hemozoin deposition (approx. 80%). A high prevalence of Plasmodium infection in laboratory monkeys was also confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using Plasmodium genus-specific primers. Although Japan is not a country with endemic malaria, it is important to be aware of the prevalence and potential impact of background infection with Plasmodium spp. and recrudescence of symptomatic malaria in imported laboratory monkeys on pharmaceutical toxicity studies.

  16. Spaceflight and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    In the grant period, we perfected techniques for determination of interleukin production and leukocyte subset analysis of rhesus monkeys. These results are outlined in detail in publication number 2, appended to this report. Additionally, we participated in the ARRT restraint test to determine if restraint conditions for flight in the Space Shuttle could contribute to any effects of space flight on immune responses. All immunological parameters listed in the methods section were tested. Evaluation of the data suggests that the restraint conditions had minimal effects on the results observed, but handling of the monkeys could have had some effect. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 3, appended to this report. Additionally, to help us develop our rhesus monkey immunology studies, we carried out preliminary studies in mice to determine the effects of stressors on immunological parameters. We were able to show that there were gender-based differences in the response of immunological parameters to a stressor. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 4, appended to this report.

  17. A. Femoralis in the small Green Monkey(Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The small Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus in large groups inhabits the African savannah. The animals delivered to us were from East Africa, that is from Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The length of the animal is 110 cm, and the tail itself is 50 cm long. They can often be seen in Zoos. According to data, mostly by zoo gardens, these monkeys live for about 15 to 17 years, exceptionally for 20 years. The objective of our work was to investigate a part of their cardiovascular system so in that way to contribute to a better knowledge of this animal body structure and accordingly to comparative anatomy in general. The investigation included 6 Small Green Monkeys, of both gender, 3-4 years old, body weight 2000-3000 grams, obtained from The Institute for Virusology, vaccines and serums from Belgrade. For obtaining the hindlimb arterial vascularization, after exsanguination of the animal, contrast mass of gelatin coloured with tempera was injected into the abdominal aorta. After injecting, the blood vessels were prepared and photographed. In the Small Green Monkey, femoral artery (A. femoralis is an continuation of the external iliac artery (A. iliaca externa. The branches of the femoral artery are: A. profunda femoris, A. saphena, A. genus descendens and A. caudalis femoralis. A. profunda femoris separates to A. circumflexa femoris lateralis, Ramus muscularis and A. circumflexa femoris medialis. In humans A. femoralis branches into: A. epigastrica superficialis, A. circumflexa ilium superficialis, Aa. pudendae externae, A. profunda femoris and A. genus descendens (A. descendens genus. A. profunda femoris branches into: A. circumflexa femoris lateralis, A. circumflexa femoris medialis and Aa. perforantes. In domestic animals, mammals, the branches of the femoral artery (A. femoralis are: A. circumflexa femoris lateralis, A. saphena, A. genus descendens and Aa. caudales femoris In the Small Green Monkey, humans and domestic mammals A. femoralis

  18. General mechanism and cultural diversity in psychotherapy:A comment%心理治疗的普遍性机制与文化多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭东; 钱捷

    2015-01-01

    Psychotherapy is a sort of arts based on science following the general principles of social science and natural science.Meanwhile,the content of psychotherapy,the process of the practice,and the relationship be-tween the help-seekers and the helpers reflect substantial humanistic connotation and are bound up with cultural and subcultural transmission and reality context.This paper is a commentary on the article written by an Indonesian fel-low T.Citraningtyas discussing the mother's role in the matriarchal society and its modern meanings.We discussed that the phenomenon of being "cultural extinction"also presents in China.Although the main stream in Chinese cul-ture is still patriarchic familism,the remainder of matriarchal society still exists in the basic emotional models of parent-child relationship.The deprivation and frustration related with filial piety and kinship may cause the conse-quence of "cultural extinction"in the individual level.Referring the theory of Wen-Shing Tseng on the mechanisms of the cultural influence on psychopathology,from the perspective of understanding psychology,we emphasized the importance of cultural empathy and recommended the systemic clinical thinking way of "empathic considering and contextualizing."Last but not least,we discussed the second case of the overseas migrant workers and their "left-at-home children"in this article within Chinese context.Moreover,besides the 61 million left-at-home children in rural areas,there are a large amount of substitute-raised children by their grandparents who might be also in the risk of being impaired physically and psychologically.This problematic phenomenon may relate to the living stress and the cultural encouragement as well.By providing a critique discussion with the related theories of correlation of the in-secure attachment with psychological disorders in childhood and adulthood,this commentary encouraged humble learning from our Indonesian fellows and appealed for greater

  19. Aged monkeys as a partial model for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, P J; Elsworth, J D; Whittaker, M C; Roth, R H; Redmond, D E

    2011-09-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the natural aging process share a number of biochemical mechanisms, including reduced function of dopaminergic systems. The present study aims to determine the extent that motor and behavioral changes in aged monkeys resemble parkinsonism induced by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. The behavioral and physiological changes in PD are believed to result largely from selective depletion of dopamine in the nigrostriatal system. In the present study, ten aged female monkeys were compared with three groups: 9 untreated young adult female monkeys, 10 young adult male monkeys and 13 older male monkeys that had been exposed to MPTP. Trained observers, blind as to age and drug condition and without knowledge of the hypotheses, scored the monkeys using the Parkinson's factor score (Parkscore), which has been validated by a high correlation with post mortem striatal dopamine (DA) concentrations. The aged animals had higher scores on the Parkscore compared with the young adults, with most of its component behavioral items showing significance (tremor, Eating Problems, Delayed initiation of movement, and Poverty of Movement). L-Dopa and DA-agonists did not clearly reverse the principal measure of parkinsonism. DA concentrations post mortem were 63% lower in 3 aged monkeys in the ventral putamen compared with 4 young adults, with greater reductions in putamen than in caudate (45%). We conclude that aged monkeys, unexposed to MPTP, show a similar profile of parkinsonism to that seen after the neurotoxin exposure to MPTP in young adult monkeys. The pattern of greater DA depletion in putamen than in caudate in aged monkeys is the same as in human Parkinson's disease and contrasts with the greater depletion in caudate seen after MPTP. Aged monkeys of this species reflect many facets of Parkinson's disease, but like older humans do not improve with standard dopamine replacement pharmacotherapies.

  20. Work Ethics and General Morality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玲玲

    2016-01-01

    "The Starving Sudan" is a photographic work awarded with South Africa Pulitzer Prize, which also arouses the warm discussion about work ethics and general morality. This paper aims to give comments from an objective perspective.

  1. Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Burns, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansen, W.L.; Ferket, P.R.; Heugten, E.

    2007-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions. Six woolly monkeys with known hypertension problems were tested to determine if diabetes mellitus and current dai

  2. Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Burns, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansen, W.L.; Ferket, P.R.; Heugten, E.

    2007-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions. Six woolly monkeys with known hypertension problems were tested to determine if diabetes mellitus and current dai

  3. Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the primate family, their physiology, and habits. Topics described include: (1) kinds of monkeys, including lemur, chimpanzee, gorilla, squirrel monkey, and marmoset; (2) behaviors when…

  4. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  5. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Numerical Ordering in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how within-stimulus heterogeneity affects the ability of rhesus monkeys to order pairs of the numerosities 1 through 9. Two rhesus monkeys were tested in a touch screen task where the variability of elements within each visual array was systematically varied by allowing elements to vary in color, size, shape, or any combination of…

  6. "Mohandas Fire" Year of the Fire Monkey (Chinese Zodiac)

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Exhibition of cartoons on the theme of the Fire Monkey - Chinese New Year at the Museo de Humor Grafico Diodenes Taborda, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Only British artist involved, with two works. 29 different nations entered and 51 artists involved. All works different approaches to the year of the Fire Monkey.

  7. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations o

  8. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  9. Discrimination Reversal Learning in Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Klein, Emily D.; Evans, Theodore A.; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M.; Harris, Emily H.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning styles in capuchin monkeys were assessed with a computerized reversal-learning task called the mediational paradigm. First, monkeys were trained to respond with 90% accuracy on a two-choice discrimination (A+B-). Then the authors examined differences in performance on three different types of reversal trials (A-B+, A-C+, B+C-), each of…

  10. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. Zihlman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas’ larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys’ basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas.

  11. Monkeying around: Use of Survey Monkey as a Tool for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massat, Carol Rippey; McKay, Cassandra; Moses, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of an online survey tool called Survey Monkey, which can be used by school social workers and school social work educators for evaluation of practice, needs assessment, and program evaluation. Examples of questions are given. Principles of writing good survey questions are described. (Contains 2 tables and 1…

  12. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Remember Future Responses in a Computerized Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Klein, Emily D.; Einstein, Gilles O.

    2012-01-01

    Planning is an important aspect of many daily activities for humans. Planning involves forming a strategy in anticipation of a future need. However, evidence that nonhuman animals can plan for future situations is limited, particularly in relation to the many other kinds of cognitive capacities that they appear to share with humans. One critical aspect of planning is the ability to remember future responses, or what is called prospective coding. Two monkey species performed a series of computerized tasks that required encoding a future response at the outset of each trial. Monkeys of both species showed competence in all tests that were given, providing evidence that they anticipated future responses, and that they appropriately engaged in those responses when the time was right for such responses. In addition, some tests demonstrated that monkeys even remembered future responses that were not as presently motivating as were other aspects of the task environment. These results indicated that monkeys can anticipate future responses and retain and implement those responses when appropriate. PMID:22545901

  13. Outbreak of pasteurellosis in captive Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOSHINO, Mizuki; SASAKI, Jun; KURAMOCHI, Konomi; IKEZAWA, Mitsutaka; MUKAIZAWA, Natsuko; GORYO, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    In September 2012, five Bolivian squirrel monkeys housed in a zoological park died within sequential several days without obvious clinical signs. In a necrospy, one monkey presented swelling of the kidney with multifocal white nodules in the parenchyma, and other two had pulmonary congestion. Histopathologically, multifocal bacterial colonies of gram-negative coccobacillus were found in the sinusoid of the liver in all monkeys examined (Nos.1−4). Additionally, purulent pyelonephritis, pneumonia and disseminated small bacterial colonies in blood vessels were observed. Immunohistochemically, the bacterial colonies from two monkeys were positive for P. multocida capsular serotype D. Based on these findings, these monkeys were diagnosed as septicemia caused by acute P. multocida infection. PMID:28190821

  14. Vestibular adaptation to space in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, M.; Raphan, T.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Cohen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Otolith-induced eye movements of rhesus monkeys were studied before and after the 1989 COSMOS 2044 and the 1992 to 1993 COSMOS 2229 flights. Two animals flew in each mission for approximately 2 weeks. After flight, spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was altered. In one animal the time constant of postrotatory nystagmus, which had been shortened by head tilts with regard to gravity before flight, was unaffected by the same head tilts after flight. In another animal, eye velocity, which tended to align with a gravitational axis before flight, moved toward a body axis after flight. This shift of orientation disappeared by 7 days after landing. After flight, the magnitude of compensatory ocular counter-rolling was reduced by about 70% in both dynamic and static tilts. Modulation in vergence in response to naso-occipital linear acceleration during off-vertical axis rotation was reduced by more than 50%. These changes persisted for 11 days after recovery. An up and down asymmetry of vertical nystagmus was diminished for 7 days. Gains of the semicircular canal-induced horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes were unaffected in both flights, but the gain of the roll angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was decreased. These data indicate that there are short- and long-term changes in otolith-induced eye movements after adaptation to microgravity. These experiments also demonstrate the unique value of the monkey as a model for studying effects of vestibular adaptation in space. Eye movements can be measured in three dimensions in response to controlled vestibular and visual stimulation, and the results are directly applicable to human beings. Studies in monkeys to determine how otolith afferent input and central processing is altered by adaptation to microgravity should be an essential component of future space-related research.

  15. Early life stress and novelty seeking behavior in adolescent monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J; Rainwater, Kimberly L; Buckmaster, Christine L; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lindley, Steven E; Lyons, David M

    2007-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to mild stress promotes the development of novelty seeking behavior. Here we test this hypothesis in squirrel monkeys and investigate whether novelty seeking behavior is associated with differences in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA), the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG), and the neuropeptide corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF). Monkeys were randomized early in life to either mild intermittent stress (IS) or no stress (NS) conditions, and subsequently presented with opportunities to interact with a familiar or novel object in a test box that was connected to each monkey's home cage. To further minimize the potentially stressful nature of the test situation, monkeys were acclimated to the test procedures prior to study initiation. Post-test plasma levels of cortisol in IS and NS monkeys did not differ significantly from baseline levels measured in undisturbed conditions. During testing, more IS than NS monkeys voluntarily left the home cage, and IS monkeys spent more time in the test box compared to NS monkeys. More IS than NS monkeys engaged in object exploration in the test box, and IS monkeys preferred to interact with the novel vs. familiar object. Novelty seeking was not associated with differences in 5HIAA, HVA, MHPG, or CRF, but correlated with differences in object exploration observed in a different test situation at an earlier age. These trait-like differences in novelty seeking appear to reflect mild early stress-induced adaptations that enhance curiosity and resilience.

  16. ARCTIC MONKEYS:猴子凶猛!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青鸟

    2007-01-01

    @@ 我不是成长于星条旗下的美利坚自由人民,所以英国乐队Arctic Monkeys在我跟前很能吃得开,打从我听到他们的第一个音符起.这或许是我从小看多了充满暴力的电视剧《西游记》,并对猴子产生了偏爱的缘故,而对Arctic Monkeys,来自北极的猴子,更是充满了好奇.

  17. Do wild titi monkeys show empathy?

    OpenAIRE

    Clyvia, A; Kaizer, M. C.; Santos,R.V.; Young, R.J.; C. Cäsar

    2014-01-01

    We observed a putative case of empathy among wild black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons)\\ud from two different groups (D and R). In over 10 years of behavioural observations of five habituated\\ud groups of this species, only low levels of inter-group tolerance have been observed. However, on one day, we\\ud encountered the adult male from group D limping (poor hind limb motor coordination) as he travelled alone\\ud along the ground. Interestingly, we observed that members of group R...

  18. Comment on "The envelope of projectile trajectories"

    CERN Document Server

    Butikov, E I

    2003-01-01

    Several simple alternative methods to obtain the equation of the envelope of the family of projectile trajectories corresponding to the same initial speed are suggested, including methods in which the boundary of the region occupied by the parabolic trajectories is found as an envelope of a set of circles. Two possible generalizations of the discussed problem are also suggested. (letters and comments)

  19. Spaceflight and immune responses of rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-a (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CD8+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  20. Explicit information reduces discounting behavior in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePearson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals are notoriously impulsive in common laboratory experiments, preferring smaller, sooner rewards to larger, delayed rewards even when this reduces average reward rates. By contrast, the same animals often engage in natural behaviors that require extreme patience, such as food caching, stalking prey, and traveling long distances to high quality food sites. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that standard laboratory delay discounting tasks artificially inflate impulsivity by subverting animals’ common learning strategies. To test this idea, we examined choices made by rhesus macaques in two variants of a standard delay discounting task. In the conventional variant, post-reward delays were uncued and adjusted to render total trial length constant; in the second, all delays were cued explicitly. We found that measured discounting was significantly reduced in the cued task, with discount rates well below those reported in studies using the standard uncued design. When monkeys had complete information, their decisions were more consistent with a strategy of reward rate maximization. These results indicate that monkeys, and perhaps other animals, are more patient than is normally assumed, and that laboratory measures of delay discounting may overstate impulsivity.

  1. Interactive effects of morphine and dopaminergic compounds on spatial working memory in rhesus monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hong Wang; Joshua Dominie Rizak; Yan-Mei Chen; Liang Li; Xin-Tian Hu; Yuan-Ye Ma

    2013-01-01

    Opiates and dopamine (DA) play key roles in learning and memory in humans and animals.Although interactions between these neurotransmitters have been found,their functional roles remain to be fully elucidated,and their dysfunction may contribute to human diseases and addiction.Here we investigated the interactions of morphine and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems with respect to learning and memory in rhesus monkeys by using the Wisconsin General Test Apparatus (WGTA) delayed-response task.Morphine and DA agonists (SKF-38393,apomorphine and bromocriptine) or DA antagonists (SKF-83566,haloperidol and sulpiride) were co-administered to the monkeys 30 min prior to the task.We found that dose-patterned co-administration of morphine with D1 or D2 antagonists or agonists reversed the impaired spatial working memory induced by morphine or the compounds alone.For example,morphine at 0.01 mg/kg impaired spatial working memory,while morphine (0.01 mg/kg) and apomorphine (0.01 or 0.06 mg/kg) co-treatment ameliorated this effect.Our findings suggest that the interactions between morphine and dopaminergic compounds influence spatial working memory in rhesus monkeys.A better understanding of these interactive relationships may provide insights into human addiction.

  2. Wood consumption by Geoffroyi's spider monkeys and its role in mineral supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar M Chaves

    Full Text Available Wood consumption is a rare behavior in frugivorous primates; however, it can be necessary for nutritional balancing as it may provide macro and/or micronutrients that are scarce in the most frequently eaten items (fruits. We tested this hypothesis in six spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi communities inhabiting continuous and fragmented rainforests in Lacandona, Mexico. We investigated the importance of both live and decayed wood in the diet of the monkeys, and assessed if wood consumption is related to the nutritional composition of these items. In general, wood consumption was focused on trees of Licania platypus (Chrysobalanaceae and Ficus spp. (Moraceae, and was similar in continuous forest and in fragments (mean ± SD; 24±20% vs 18±16% of total feeding time, respectively, but marginally higher in females than in males (16±14% vs 5±4%, respectively. Live and decayed wood were both poorer in lipids, proteins, total nonstructural carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients compared to mature and immature fruits. Moreover, decayed wood of L. platypus showed consistently higher levels of sodium and calcium compared to fruits. In conclusion, our findings suggest that wood from decaying trees of L. platypus and Ficus spp. and young branch piths of L. platypus represents an important source of sodium and/or calcium in the diet of spider monkeys, particularly in the case of females. The protection of decaying trees within forests and fragments is therefore necessary for the appropriate management and conservation of this endangered primate species.

  3. Wood consumption by Geoffroyi's spider monkeys and its role in mineral supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Oscar M; Stoner, Kathryn E; Angeles-Campos, Sergio; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Wood consumption is a rare behavior in frugivorous primates; however, it can be necessary for nutritional balancing as it may provide macro and/or micronutrients that are scarce in the most frequently eaten items (fruits). We tested this hypothesis in six spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) communities inhabiting continuous and fragmented rainforests in Lacandona, Mexico. We investigated the importance of both live and decayed wood in the diet of the monkeys, and assessed if wood consumption is related to the nutritional composition of these items. In general, wood consumption was focused on trees of Licania platypus (Chrysobalanaceae) and Ficus spp. (Moraceae), and was similar in continuous forest and in fragments (mean ± SD; 24±20% vs 18±16% of total feeding time, respectively), but marginally higher in females than in males (16±14% vs 5±4%, respectively). Live and decayed wood were both poorer in lipids, proteins, total nonstructural carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients compared to mature and immature fruits. Moreover, decayed wood of L. platypus showed consistently higher levels of sodium and calcium compared to fruits. In conclusion, our findings suggest that wood from decaying trees of L. platypus and Ficus spp. and young branch piths of L. platypus represents an important source of sodium and/or calcium in the diet of spider monkeys, particularly in the case of females. The protection of decaying trees within forests and fragments is therefore necessary for the appropriate management and conservation of this endangered primate species.

  4. Butylbenzyl phthalate hydrolysis in liver microsomes of humans, monkeys, dogs, rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Yuka; Kinashi, Yu; Takahara, Yuusuke; Hichiya, Hiroyuki; Okada, Kenji; Murata, Mikio; Shigeyama, Masato; Hanioka, Nobumitsu

    2014-01-01

    Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) is used as a plasticizer to import flexibility to polyvinylchloride plastics. In this study, hydrolysis of BBzP to monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) in liver microsomes of humans, monkeys, dogs, rats and mice was examined. The kinetics for MBP formation by human, dog and mouse liver microsomes followed the Michaelis-Menten model, whereas the kinetics by monkey and rat liver microsomes fitted the Hill model. The kinetics for MBzP formation fitted the Hill model for all liver microsomes. The Vmax and in vitro clearance (CLint or CLmax) ratios of MBP/MBzP formation varied among animal species, although the Km for MBP and MBzP formation in each liver microsomes were generally comparable. The hydrolysis of BBzP to monoester phthalates in mammalian liver microsomes could be classified into two types: MBzP>MBP type for humans and dogs, and MBP>MBzP type for monkeys, rats and mice. These findings suggest that the formation profile of MBzP and MBP from BBzP by liver microsomes differs extensively among animal species.

  5. Reduced cell turnover in lymphocytic monkeys infected by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debacq, Christophe; Héraud, Jean-Michel; Asquith, Becca; Bangham, Charles; Merien, Fabrice; Moules, Vincent; Mortreux, Franck; Wattel, Eric; Burny, Arsène; Kettmann, Richard; Kazanji, Mirdad; Willems, Luc

    2005-11-17

    Understanding cell dynamics in animal models have implications for therapeutic strategies elaborated against leukemia in human. Quantification of the cell turnover in closely related primate systems is particularly important for rare and aggressive forms of human cancers, such as adult T-cell leukemia. For this purpose, we have measured the death and proliferation rates of the CD4+ T lymphocyte population in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) infected by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The kinetics of in vivo bromodeoxyuridine labeling revealed no modulation of the cell turnover in HTLV-1-infected monkeys with normal CD4 cell counts. In contrast, a substantial decrease in the proliferation rate of the CD4+ T population was observed in lymphocytic monkeys (e.g. characterized by excessive proportions of CD4+ T lymphocytes and by the presence of abnormal flower-like cells). Unexpectedly, onset of HTLV-associated leukemia thus occurs in the absence of increased CD4+ T-cell proliferation. This dynamics significantly differs from the generalized activation of the T-cell turnover induced by other primate lymphotropic viruses like HIV and SIV.

  6. Predicting rhesus monkey eye movements during natural-image search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Mark A; Kuo, Emory; Caddigan, Sara; Berthiaume, Emily A; Kording, Konrad P

    2017-03-01

    There are three prominent factors that can predict human visual-search behavior in natural scenes: the distinctiveness of a location (salience), similarity to the target (relevance), and features of the environment that predict where the object might be (context). We do not currently know how well these factors are able to predict macaque visual search, which matters because it is arguably the most popular model for asking how the brain controls eye movements. Here we trained monkeys to perform the pedestrian search task previously used for human subjects. Salience, relevance, and context models were all predictive of monkey eye fixations and jointly about as precise as for humans. We attempted to disrupt the influence of scene context on search by testing the monkeys with an inverted set of the same images. Surprisingly, the monkeys were able to locate the pedestrian at a rate similar to that for upright images. The best predictions of monkey fixations in searching inverted images were obtained by rotating the results of the model predictions for the original image. The fact that the same models can predict human and monkey search behavior suggests that the monkey can be used as a good model for understanding how the human brain enables natural-scene search.

  7. Perception of chasing in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Takeshi; Nagasaka, Yasuo

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the intentions of others is crucial in developing positive social relationships. Comparative human and non-human animal studies have addressed the phylogenetic origin of this ability. However, few studies have explored the importance of motion information in distinguishing others' intentions and goals in non-human primates. This study addressed whether squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) are able to perceive a goal-directed motion pattern-specifically, chasing-represented by two geometric objects. In Experiment 1, we trained squirrel monkeys to discriminate a "Chasing" sequence from a "Random" sequence. We then confirmed that this discrimination transferred to new stimuli ("Chasing" and "Random") in a probe test. To determine whether the monkeys used similarities of trajectory to discriminate chasing from random motion, we also presented a non-chasing "Clone" sequence in which the trajectories of the two figures were identical. Three of six monkeys were able to discriminate "Chasing" from the other sequences. In Experiment 2, we confirmed humans' recognition of chasing with the stimuli from Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, the three monkeys for which discrimination did not transfer to the new stimuli in Experiment 1 were trained to discriminate between "Chasing" and "Clone" sequences. At testing, all three monkeys had learned to discriminate chasing, and two transferred their learning to new stimuli. Our results suggest that squirrel monkeys use goal-directed motion patterns, rather than simply similarity of trajectory, to discriminate chasing. Further investigation is necessary to identify the motion characteristics that contribute to this discrimination.

  8. Population coding of forelimb joint kinematics by peripheral afferents in monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Umeda

    Full Text Available Various peripheral receptors provide information concerning position and movement to the central nervous system to achieve complex and dexterous movements of forelimbs in primates. The response properties of single afferent receptors to movements at a single joint have been examined in detail, but the population coding of peripheral afferents remains poorly defined. In this study, we obtained multichannel recordings from dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons in cervical segments of monkeys. We applied the sparse linear regression (SLiR algorithm to the recordings, which selects useful input signals to reconstruct movement kinematics. Multichannel recordings of peripheral afferents were performed by inserting multi-electrode arrays into the DRGs of lower cervical segments in two anesthetized monkeys. A total of 112 and 92 units were responsive to the passive joint movements or the skin stimulation with a painting brush in Monkey 1 and Monkey 2, respectively. Using the SLiR algorithm, we reconstructed the temporal changes of joint angle, angular velocity, and acceleration at the elbow, wrist, and finger joints from temporal firing patterns of the DRG neurons. By automatically selecting a subset of recorded units, the SLiR achieved superior generalization performance compared with a regularized linear regression algorithm. The SLiR selected not only putative muscle units that were responsive to only the passive movements, but also a number of putative cutaneous units responsive to the skin stimulation. These results suggested that an ensemble of peripheral primary afferents that contains both putative muscle and cutaneous units encode forelimb joint kinematics of non-human primates.

  9. The function of loud calls in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra): food, mate, or infant defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Belle, Sarie; Estrada, Alejandro; Garber, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    Loud calling (i.e., howling) is the single most distinctive behavioral attribute of the social system of howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.), yet no general consensus exists regarding its main function. During a 28-month study of five groups of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) at Palenque National Park, Mexico, we examined whether howling mainly functioned in the defense of food resources, mates, or infants vulnerable to infanticide. We recorded 602 howling bouts. Howling occurred more frequently when monkeys were feeding, particularly on fruits, and less frequently when they were resting than would be expected by chance. Furthermore, howling was concentrated in areas of the home range in which major feeding sites were located. Howling did not occur more frequently when vulnerable infants or potentially fertile females were present versus absent, nor did the howling rate increase with an increasing number of vulnerable infants or potentially fertile females in the group. Howling bouts lasted on average 14.4 ± SE 0.5 min, and call duration was not influenced by the presence of vulnerable infants or potentially fertile females. The duration of spontaneous calls, however, was positively correlated to the percentage of feeding time in the vicinity of howling locations. In addition, vocal displays lasted longer when neighboring groups and extragroup males were within visual contact compared with spontaneous calls and calls in response to nearby calls in which there was no visual contact between callers. Our findings suggest that loud calls in black howler monkeys are multifunctional, but most frequently occur in the defense of major feeding sites. These calls also may function in the defense of infants and mates during encounters with extragroup males. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Instruments, conductors, dancers, and intendants. Reply to comments on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    I am happy about each commentator's contribution [1-27], about the wealth of the kind and generally positive comments, and the many interesting and enriching remarks, observations, and extensions. In the following, I will summarize some major points of the comments, and relate them to the Quartet Theory (henceforth QT) proposed in the target article [28].

  11. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  12. Do Online Comments Influence the Public's Attitudes Toward an Organization? Effects of Online Comments Based on Individuals' Prior Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kang Hoon; Lee, Moon J

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of reading different types of online comments about a company on people's attitude change based on individual's prior attitude toward the company. Based on Social Judgment Theory, several hypotheses were tested. The results showed that the effects of online comments interact with individuals' prior attitudes toward a corporation. People with a strong negative attitude toward a corporation were less influenced by other's online comments than people with a neutral attitude in general. However, people with a prior negative attitude were more affected by refutational two-sided comments than one-sided comments. The results suggest that the effects of user generated content should be studied in a holistic manner, not only by investigating the effects of online content itself, but also by examining how others' responses to the content shape or change individuals' attitudes based on their prior attitudes.

  13. Loss of metabolites from monkey striatum during PET with FDOPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, P; Munk, O L; Doudet, D

    2001-01-01

    constants using data recorded during 240 min of FDOPA circulation in normal monkeys and in monkeys with unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesions. Use of the extended models increased the magnitudes of K(D)(i) and k(D)(3) in striatum; in the case of k(D)(3), variance...... of the estimate was substantially improved upon correction for metabolite loss. The rate constants for metabolite loss were higher in MPTP-lesioned monkey striatum than in normal striatum. The high correlation between individual estimates of k(Lin)(cl) and k(DA)(9) suggests that both rate constants reveal loss...

  14. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lm; Holmes, An; Williams, LE; Brosnan, Sf

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran "open diffusion" tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the "Slide-box"). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a 'ghost' display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys' learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this case, those

  15. Gonadal and nongonadal mechanisms contribute to the prepubertal hiatus in gonadotropin secretion in the female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C R; deRidder, C M; Plant, T M

    1995-07-01

    The present study reexamined the role of the ovary in determining the prepubertal hiatus of gonadotropin secretion in the rhesus monkey. Day- and nighttime blood samples were obtained weekly from neonatally (7-10 days of age) ovariectomized and intact monkeys from birth until 3 yr of age. In the intact monkeys, plasma FSH levels increased during the first month of life, remained elevated until approximately 3 months of age, and then decreased to become undetectable by 7 months of age. Thereafter, plasma FSH remained undetectable until approximately 19 months of age, at which time it again increased to detectable concentrations. In animals ovariectomized as neonates, the developmental pattern in FSH secretion was similar to that in intact animals, but, quantitatively, mean plasma FSH concentrations in the agonadal females were greater than those in the intact control group at all times. Circulating daytime LH concentrations in intact animals were generally below the sensitivity of the assay during the neonatal and prepubertal phases of development, but after 27 months of age, this plasma hormone was measurable on occasion. In neonatally ovariectomized monkeys, daytime LH was elevated during the first month of life, undetectable between 2-20 months of age, and then rose into the adult range by the end of the study. Nocturnal plasma FSH and LH concentrations in agonadal monkeys were generally greater than those during the day at all stages of development. Of particular note was the finding that during the prepubertal hiatus in gonadotropin secretion, when daytime LH levels were mostly immeasurable, nighttime levels of this gonadotropin were consistently elevated. The hypersecretion of gonadotropin during prepubertal development in agonadal animals also occurred when ovariectomy was performed at 61-62 weeks of age. These findings demonstrate that in the female monkey, the open loop activity of the GnRH pulse generator during juvenile development is only partially

  16. Credit for Comments, Comments for Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Robert; Sommer, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    A survey in 2 undergraduate psychology classes (N = 93) found ambivalent attitudes toward credit for classroom participation. Although students viewed credit as a way to increase interaction and improve attendance, they also believed it could stimulate irrelevant comments and penalize shy students. The following year, in a class of 49 students,…

  17. Desferrioxamine suppresses Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, S; Rossan, R N; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A

    1987-02-01

    Clinical observation has suggested that iron deficiency may be protective in malaria, and we have found that desferrioxamine (DF), an iron-specific chelating agent, inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. It was difficult to be confident that DF would be effective in an intact animal, however, because continuous exposure to DF was required in vitro and, in vivo, DF is rapidly excreted. Also, the in vitro effect of DF was overcome by addition of iron to the culture and in vivo there are potentially high local iron concentrations when iron is absorbed from the diet or released from reticuloendothelial cells. We now show that DF given by constant subcutaneous infusion does suppress parasitemia in P. falciparum-infected Aotus monkeys.

  18. Amygdalar vocalization pathways in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, U

    1982-06-10

    In 22 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) vocalization-eliciting electrodes were implanted into the amygdala and along the trajectory of the stria terminalis. Then, lesions were placed in the stria terminalis, its bed nucleus, the ventral amygdalofugal pathway and several di- and mesencephalic structures in order to find out the pathways along which the amygdala exerts its vocalization-controlling influence. It was found that different call types are controlled by different pathways. Purring and chattering calls, which express a self-confident, challenging attitude and an attempt to recruit fellow-combatants in intra-specific mobbing, respectively, are controlled via the stria terminalis; alarm peep and groaning calls, in contrast, which indicate flight motivation and resentment, respectively, are triggered via the ventral amygdalofugal fibre bundle. Both pathways traverse the dorsolateral and dorsomedial hypothalamus, respectively, and unite in the periaqueductal grey of the midbrain.

  19. Keep children away from macaque monkeys!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréhin, Camille; Debuisson, Cécile; Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Niphuis, Henk; Buitendijk, Hester; Mengelle, Catherine; Grouteau, Erick; Claudet, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    To warn physicians and parents about the risk of macaque bites, we present two pediatric cases (a 4-year-old boy and a 10-year-old girl) of bites sustained while on holiday. The young boy developed febrile dermohypodermitis and was hospitalized for IV antibiotic treatment. He received an initial antirabies vaccine while still in the holiday destination. Except for local wound disinfection and antibiotic ointment, the girl did not receive any specific treatment while abroad. Both were negative for simian herpes PCR. When travelling in countries or cities with endemic simian herpes virus, parents should keep children away from monkeys. Travel agencies, pediatricians and family physicians should better inform families about the zoonotic risk.

  20. Molecular cloning of pituitary glycoprotein alpha-subunit and follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunits from New World squirrel monkey and owl monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Jonathan G; Funkhouser, Jane D; Moyer, Felricia S; Gibson, Susan V; Willis, Donna L

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the gonadotropins expressed in pituitary glands of the New World squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) and owl monkey (Aotus sp.). The various subunits were amplified from total RNA from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of other species. Mature squirrel monkey and owl monkey glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides (96 amino acids in length) were determined to be 80% homologous to the human sequence. The sequences of mature beta subunits of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHbeta) from squirrel monkey and owl monkey (111 amino acids in length) are 92% homologous to human FSHbeta. New World primate glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides and FSHbeta subunits showed conservation of all cysteine residues and consensus N-linked glycosylation sites. Attempts to amplify the beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands were unsuccessful. Rather, the beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) was amplified from pituitaries of both New World primates. Squirrel monkey and owl monkey CGbeta are 143 and 144 amino acids in length and 77% homologous with human CGbeta. The greatest divergence is in the C terminus, where all four sites for O-linked glycosylation in human CGbeta, responsible for delayed metabolic clearance, are predicted to be absent in New World primate CGbetas. It is likely that CG secreted from pituitary of New World primates exhibits a relatively short half-life compared to human CG.

  1. jMonkeyEngine 3.0 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Edén, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    If you are a jMonkey developer or a Java developer who is interested to delve further into the game making process to expand your skillset and create more technical games, then this book is perfect for you.

  2. Monkey visual behavior falls into the uncanny valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckenfinger, Shawn A; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2009-10-27

    Very realistic human-looking robots or computer avatars tend to elicit negative feelings in human observers. This phenomenon is known as the "uncanny valley" response. It is hypothesized that this uncanny feeling is because the realistic synthetic characters elicit the concept of "human," but fail to live up to it. That is, this failure generates feelings of unease due to character traits falling outside the expected spectrum of everyday social experience. These unsettling emotions are thought to have an evolutionary origin, but tests of this hypothesis have not been forthcoming. To bridge this gap, we presented monkeys with unrealistic and realistic synthetic monkey faces, as well as real monkey faces, and measured whether they preferred looking at one type versus the others (using looking time as a measure of preference). To our surprise, monkey visual behavior fell into the uncanny valley: They looked longer at real faces and unrealistic synthetic faces than at realistic synthetic faces.

  3. Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys without Anti-Rejection Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160989.html Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys Without Anti-Rejection Drugs Scientists say goal is to create banks of stem cells that could be used for any human patient ...

  4. INTERCEPTIVE EFFECTS OF EPOSTANE IN RATS AND RHESUS MONKEYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINZhong-Ming; LIUChang-Guan; CHENHui-Qing; LIWei-Kang; XURui-Ying

    1989-01-01

    Interceptives arc defined as agents which interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Epostane, a potent 3β-hydroxysteruid dehydrogenase inhibitor, possessed interceptive activities in rats and rhesus monkeys. In rats, day 10 and day 11 of pregnancy were the

  5. 78 FR 48048 - Student Assistance General Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... documents to be submitted electronically in an Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) directly to OHA through.... 553) (APA), the Department generally offers interested parties the opportunity to comment on proposed..., and the APA does not require notice and comment rulemaking here. See, Bachow Communications Inc. v...

  6. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis social learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM Hopper

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran “open diffusion” tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23. Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the “Slide-box”. Two thirds (67% of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a ‘ghost’ display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions and paired controls (28% were successful but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys’ learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert

  7. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A

    1985-11-01

    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains.

  8. Depth perception from moving cast shadow in macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Saneyuki; Usui, Nobuo; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Taira, Masato; Katsuyama, Narumi

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, we investigate whether the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow. To accomplish this, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, an adult Japanese monkey was trained in a motion discrimination task in depth by binocular disparity. A square was presented on the display so that it appeared with a binocular disparity of 0.12 degrees (initial position), and moved toward (approaching) or away from (receding) the monkey for 1s. The monkey was trained to discriminate the approaching and receding motion of the square by GO/delayed GO-type responses. The monkey showed a significantly high accuracy rate in the task, and the performance was maintained when the position, color, and shape of the moving object were changed. In the next experiment, the change in the disparity was gradually decreased in the motion discrimination task. The results showed that the performance of the monkey declined as the distance of the approaching and receding motion of the square decreased from the initial position. However, when a moving cast shadow was added to the stimulus, the monkey responded to the motion in depth induced by the cast shadow in the same way as by binocular disparity; the reward was delivered randomly or given in all trials to prevent the learning of the 2D motion of the shadow in the frontal plane. These results suggest that the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow as well as using binocular disparity.

  9. Monkey Feeding Assay for Testing Emetic Activity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are unique bacterial toxins that cause gastrointestinal toxicity as well as superantigenic activity. Since systemic administration of SEs induces superantigenic activity leading to toxic shock syndrome that may mimic enterotoxic activity of SEs such as vomiting and diarrhea, oral administration of SEs in the monkey feeding assay is considered as a standard method to evaluate emetic activity of SEs. This chapter summarizes and discusses practical considerations of the monkey feeding assay used in studies characterizing classical and newly identified SEs.

  10. Pulpal Response to Intraligamentary Injection in the Cynomologus Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Peurach, James C.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if intraligamentary injection causes qualitative histopathologic changes in the dental pulp of a Cynomologus monkey. In as much as the pulp and periapical tissues of the monkey are similar to that of humans, nonresolving damage to the pulp would contraindicate periodontal ligament injection in procedures where the tooth would not be extracted or the pulp extirpated. Periodontal ligament injection in this study did not produce any histopathological ...

  11. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic

  12. Monkey and dung beetle activities influence soil seed bank structure

    OpenAIRE

    Feer, François; Ponge, Jean-François; Jouard, Sylvie; Gomez, Doris

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In Neotropical forests, dung beetles act as efficient secondary dispersers of seeds that are dispersed primarily by red howler monkeys. Here, we investigated the origins of soil seed bank variability in relation to monkey and dung beetle activity, to assess the impact of dung beetles on seed fate, and their adaptability to resource availability. This question is important to better understand the process of tree regeneration, and is especially timely in the current con...

  13. Performing monkeys of Bangladesh: characterizing their source and genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Akhtar, Sharmin; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The acquisition and training of monkeys to perform is a centuries-old tradition in South Asia, resulting in a large number of rhesus macaques kept in captivity for this purpose. The performing monkeys are reportedly collected from free-ranging populations, and may escape from their owners or may be released into other populations. In order to determine whether this tradition involving the acquisition and movement of animals has influenced the population structure of free-ranging rhesus macaques in Bangladesh, we first characterized the source of these monkeys. Biological samples from 65 performing macaques collected between January 2010 and August 2013 were analyzed for genetic variation using 716 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA. Performing monkey sequences were compared with those of free-ranging rhesus macaque populations in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar. Forty-five haplotypes with 116 (16 %) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the performing monkeys. As for the free-ranging rhesus population, most of the substitutions (89 %) were transitions, and no indels (insertion/deletion) were observed. The estimate of the mean number of pair-wise differences for the performing monkey population was 10.1264 ± 4.686, compared to 14.076 ± 6.363 for the free-ranging population. Fifteen free-ranging rhesus macaque populations were identified as the source of performing monkeys in Bangladesh; several of these populations were from areas where active provisioning has resulted in a large number of macaques. The collection of performing monkeys from India was also evident.

  14. A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Banerji, Christopher R S; Severini, Simone

    2013-01-01

    We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.

  15. A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.

  16. Dyscoria Associated with Herpesvirus Infection in Owl Monkeys (Aotus nancymae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Montoya, Enrique J; Weller, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Dyscoria was noted in a female owl monkey and 2 of her offspring. The third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two male monkeys paired with the female died, 1 of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all 3 animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring w...

  17. Behavioral assessment of pain detection and tolerance in monkeys1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Alexander A.; Vierck, Charles J.

    1973-01-01

    Cebus albifrons monkeys received electrical stimulation of the hindlimbs over a wide range of intensities. On trials signalled by a blue light, the animals were permitted to escape shock by pressing a disc, or shock was terminated after 8 sec (free escape). Escape force (disc pressure) was found to increase as stimulation intensity increased well beyond escape threshold, while shock duration curves reached plateau at the mid-range of intensities. The shock duration curves generated by free escape responses should be comparable to pain detection functions obtained by similar operations in humans, and the curves were stable over months of testing, as is generally found in pain-detection studies. On trials signalled by a red light, the animals received intense tail shock immediately after escape responses (punished escape), or, if they endured leg shock for 8 sec without escaping, then they could avoid tail shock with a panel press. The shock duration curves generated by punished escape responses should be comparable to pain tolerance functions as defined for human subjects, and the escape thresholds were considerably higher on red-light trials. As in human studies, the tolerance curves were not stable over repeated testing sessions, and some feature of the paradigm forced a progression toward extremely high levels of tolerance. PMID:4196268

  18. Behavioral assessment of pain detection and tolerance in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, A A; Vierck, C J

    1973-01-01

    Cebus albifrons monkeys received electrical stimulation of the hindlimbs over a wide range of intensities. On trials signalled by a blue light, the animals were permitted to escape shock by pressing a disc, or shock was terminated after 8 sec (free escape). Escape force (disc pressure) was found to increase as stimulation intensity increased well beyond escape threshold, while shock duration curves reached plateau at the mid-range of intensities. The shock duration curves generated by free escape responses should be comparable to pain detection functions obtained by similar operations in humans, and the curves were stable over months of testing, as is generally found in pain-detection studies. On trials signalled by a red light, the animals received intense tail shock immediately after escape responses (punished escape), or, if they endured leg shock for 8 sec without escaping, then they could avoid tail shock with a panel press. The shock duration curves generated by punished escape responses should be comparable to pain tolerance functions as defined for human subjects, and the escape thresholds were considerably higher on red-light trials. As in human studies, the tolerance curves were not stable over repeated testing sessions, and some feature of the paradigm forced a progression toward extremely high levels of tolerance.

  19. Transcriptional profiling of rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, James A; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Clepper, Lisa; Wolf, Don P

    2006-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) may be able to cure or alleviate the symptoms of various degenerative diseases. However, unresolved issues regarding survival, functionality, and tumor formation mean a prudent approach should be adopted towards advancing ESCs into human clinical trials. The rhesus monkey provides an ideal model organism for developing strategies to prevent immune rejection and test the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of ESC-based medical treatments. Transcriptional profiling of rhesus monkey ESCs provides a foundation for pre-clinical ESC research in this species. In the present study, we used microarray technology, immunocytochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to characterize and transcriptionally profile rhesus monkey ESCs. We identified 367 stemness gene candidates that were highly (>85%) conserved across five different ESC lines. Rhesus monkey ESC lines maintained a pluripotent undifferentiated state over a wide range of POU5F1 (also known as OCT4) expression levels, and comparisons between rhesus monkey, mouse, and human stemness genes revealed five mammalian stemness genes: CCNB1, GDF3, LEFTB, POU5F1, and NANOG. These five mammalian genes are strongly expressed in rhesus monkey, mouse, and human ESCs, albeit only in the undifferentiated state, and represent the core key mammalian stemness factors.

  20. Insect-foraging in captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovich, Christy K; Rivera, Jeanette; Evans, Sian

    2010-08-01

    Whereas the diets of diurnal primate species vary greatly, almost all nocturnal primate species consume insects. Insect-foraging has been described in nocturnal prosimians but has not been investigated in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.). We studied 35 captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) in order to describe their foraging behavior and to determine if there were any age or sex differences in their ability to capture insect prey. Because owl monkeys cooperate in parental care and in food-sharing, we expected social interactions involving insect prey. We found that owl monkeys most often snatched flying insects from the air and immobilized crawling insects against a substrate using their hands. Immatures and adult female owl monkeys attempted to capture prey significantly more often than did adult males; however, there was no difference in the proportion of attempts that resulted in capture. Social interactions involving prey appeared similar to those with provisioned food, but possessors of prey resisted begging attempts more so than did possessors of other food. Owl monkeys attempted to capture prey often (mean = 9.5 +/- 5.8 attempts/h), and we speculate that the protein and lipid content of captured prey is important for meeting the metabolic demands for growth and reproduction.

  1. Intrapericardial Denervation: Responses to Water Immersion in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1995-01-01

    Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings.

  2. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M; Swanbeck, Sonja N; Conway, Bevil R

    2014-07-15

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection thresholds from initial testing to plateau performance (“learning”) was similar for +L − M (red) colors and +M − L (bluish-green) colors. But the extent of learning was higher for +S (lavender) than for −S (yellow-lime); moreover, at plateau performance, the cone contrast at the detection threshold was higher for +S than for −S. These asymmetries may reflect differences in retinal circuitry for S-ON and S-OFF. At plateau performance, the two species also had similar detection thresholds for all colors, although monkeys had shorter reaction times than humans and slightly lower thresholds for colors that modulated L/M cones. We discuss whether these observations, together with previous work showing that monkeys have lower spatial acuity than humans, could be accounted for by selective pressures driving higher chromatic sensitivity at the cost of spatial acuity amongst monkeys, specifically for the more recently evolved L − M mechanism.

  3. Auditory artificial grammar learning in macaque and marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Slater, Heather; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2013-11-27

    Artificial grammars (AG) are designed to emulate aspects of the structure of language, and AG learning (AGL) paradigms can be used to study the extent of nonhuman animals' structure-learning capabilities. However, different AG structures have been used with nonhuman animals and are difficult to compare across studies and species. We developed a simple quantitative parameter space, which we used to summarize previous nonhuman animal AGL results. This was used to highlight an under-studied AG with a forward-branching structure, designed to model certain aspects of the nondeterministic nature of word transitions in natural language and animal song. We tested whether two monkey species could learn aspects of this auditory AG. After habituating the monkeys to the AG, analysis of video recordings showed that common marmosets (New World monkeys) differentiated between well formed, correct testing sequences and those violating the AG structure based primarily on simple learning strategies. By comparison, Rhesus macaques (Old World monkeys) showed evidence for deeper levels of AGL. A novel eye-tracking approach confirmed this result in the macaques and demonstrated evidence for more complex AGL. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown level of AGL complexity in Old World monkeys that seems less evident in New World monkeys, which are more distant evolutionary relatives to humans. The findings allow for the development of both marmosets and macaques as neurobiological model systems to study different aspects of AGL at the neuronal level.

  4. @tComment: Testing Javadoc Comments to Detect Comment-Code Inconsistencies

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Shin Hwei; Tan, Lin; Leavens, Gary T

    2012-01-01

    Code comments are important artifacts in software. Javadoc comments are widely used in Java for API specifications. API developers write Javadoc comments, and API users read these comments to understand the API, e.g., reading a Javadoc comment for a method instead of reading the method body. An inconsistency between the Javadoc comment and body for a method indicates either a fault in the body or, effectively, a fault in the comment that can mislead the method callers to introduce faults in their code. We present a novel approach, called @TCOMMENT, for testing Javadoc comments, specifically method properties about null values and related exceptions. Our approach consists of two components. The first component takes as input source files for a Java project and automatically analyzes the English text in Javadoc comments to infer a set of likely properties for a method in the files. The second component generates random tests for these methods, checks the inferred properties, and reports inconsistencies. We eval...

  5. Natural Gastric Infection with Helicobacter pylori in Monkeys: A Model for Spiral Bacteria Infection in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    as a risk factor for adenocarci- o00S-05 M/94/SO.0O DTI@ QUALITY INSPECTED 5 1406 DUB013 ET AL GASTROEMEROLOGY Vol. 106, No. 6 including primates." The...polysube chai reaction. has been implicated in the pathogenesis of gastritis2 and This Is a U.s. govermet wok. There no r o lb duodenal ulcer disease 3 and...underwent gastroduodenal endo- from rhesus monkeys have been found to be very similar scopic examination under general anesthesia (atropine sulfate, to

  6. μ and κ opioid receptor distribution in the monogamous titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus): implications for social behavior and endocrine functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragen, B J; Freeman, S M; Laredo, S A; Mendoza, S P; Bales, K L

    2015-04-02

    The opioid system is involved in infant-mother bonds and adult-adult bonds in many species. We have previously shown that μ opioid receptors (MORs) and κ opioid receptors (KORs) are involved in regulating the adult attachment of the monogamous titi monkey. The present study sought to determine the distribution of MOR and KOR in the titi monkey brain using receptor autoradiography. We used [(3)H][D-Ala(2),N-Me-Phe(4),Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) to label MORs and [(3)H]U69,593 to label KORs. MOR binding was heterogeneous throughout the titi monkey brain. Specifically, MOR binding was observed in the cingulate gyrus (CG), striatum, septal regions, diagonal band, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and thalamus. Binding was particularly dense in the septum, medial amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, mediodorsal thalamus with moderate binding in the nucleus accumbens. Consistent with other primate species, MOR were also observed in "neurochemically unique domains of the accumbens and putamen" (NUDAPs). In general KOR binding was more homogenous. KORs were primarily found in the CG, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus. Dense KOR binding was observed in the claustrum. Relative MOR and KOR binding in the titi monkey striatum was similar to other humans and primates, but was much lower compared to rodents. Relative MOR binding in the titi monkey hypothalamus was much greater than that found in rodents. This study was the first to examine MOR and KOR binding in a monogamous primate. The location of these receptors gives insight into where ligands may be acting to regulate social behavior and endocrine function.

  7. Etiologic structure of bacterial intestinal infections in monkeys of Adler breeding center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardasheliya, S N; Kalashnikova, V A; Dzhikidze, E K

    2011-10-01

    We studied etiologic structure of bacterial intestinal infections in monkeys of Adler nursery. A total of 533 monkeys with diarrhea syndrome and monkeys dead from intestinal infections, as well as clinically healthy monkeys and animals dead from other pathologies were examined by bacteriological and molecular-genetic methods. Pathogenic enterobacteria Shigella and Salmonella and microaerophile Campylobacter were found in 5 and 19%, respectively. A high percentage (49%) of intestinal diseases of unknown etiology was revealed in monkeys. The fact that the number of detected opportunistic enterobacteria did not differ in healthy and diseased monkeys suggests that they are not involved into the etiology of intestinal disease.

  8. Cerebral Anatomy of the Spider Monkey Ateles Geoffroyi Studied Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. First Report: a Comparative Study with the Human Brain Homo Sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Chico-Ponce de León

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present qualitative studywas to analyze the morphological aspects of theinner cerebral anatomy of two species of primates,using magnetic resonance images (MRI:spider monkey (A. geoffroyi and human (H.sapiens, on the basis of a comparative study ofthe cerebral structures of the two species, focusingupon the brain of the spider monkey and,primarily, its limbic system. In spite of beingan endemic Western hemisphere species, a factwhich is by its own right interesting for researchdue to this animal’s social organization and motorfunctions, the spider monkey (A. geoffroyihas hardly been studied in regard to its neuroanatomy.MRI was carried out, in one spidermonkey, employing a General Electric Signa1.5 T scanner. This investigation was carried inaccordance to international regulations for theprotection of animals in captivity, taking intoaccount all protective means utilized in experimentalhandling, and not leaving behind any residualeffects, either physiological or behavioral.From a qualitative point of view, the brains ofthe spider monkey and the human were found to have similar structures. In reference to shape,the most similar structures were found in thelimbic system; proportionally, however, cervical curvature, amygdala, hippocampus, anteriorcommissure and the colliculi, were larger in thespider monkey than in the human.

  9. Credit for comments, comments for credit

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A survey in 2 undergraduate psychology classes (N = 93) found ambivalent attitudes toward credit for classroom participation. Although students viewed credit as a way to increase interaction and improve attendance, they also believed it could stimulate irrelevant comments and penalize shy students. The following year, in a class of 49 students, halfway through the course, the instructor offered a small amount of credit for office visits and for participation, but only on alternate days. The i...

  10. Shallow discounting of delayed cocaine by male rhesus monkeys when immediate food is the choice alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskinson, Sally L; Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Rowlett, James K; Woolverton, William L; Freeman, Kevin B

    2016-12-01

    Huskinson et al. (2015) recently examined delay discounting in monkeys choosing between an immediate drug (cocaine) reinforcer and a delayed nondrug (food) reinforcer. The present experiment examined the reverse situation: choice between immediate nondrug (food) and delayed drug (cocaine) reinforcers. Whereas the former choice situation exemplifies drug abuse from a delay-discounting perspective, our interest in the latter choice situation is derived from the observation that drug abusers, who characteristically are associated with impulsive choice, typically must devote considerable time to procuring drugs, often at the expense of immediate nondrug alternatives. Accordingly, we analyzed 3 male rhesus monkeys' choices between immediate food and delayed cocaine (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg/injection) using a hyperbolic model that allowed us to compare discounting rates between qualitatively different reinforcers. Choice of immediate food increased with food amount, and choice functions generally shifted leftward as delay to cocaine increased, indicating a decrease in the subjective value of cocaine. Compared with our previous delay-discounting experiment with immediate cocaine versus delayed food, both doses of delayed cocaine were discounted at a shallow rate. The present results demonstrate that rhesus monkeys will tolerate relatively long delays in an immediate-food versus delayed-drug situation, suggesting that in intertemporal choices between cocaine and food, the subjective value of cocaine is less affected by the delay until reinforcement than is the subjective value of delayed food. More generally, the present findings suggest that although drug abusers may choose impulsively when immediate drug reinforcement is available, they exercise self-control in the acquisition of a highly preferred, delayed drug reinforcer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Male-directed infanticide in spider monkeys (Ateles spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Sara; Di Fiore, Anthony; Champion, Jane; Pavelka, Mary Susan; Páez, Johanna; Link, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Infanticide is considered a conspicuous expression of sexual conflict amongst mammals, including at least 35 primate species. Here we describe two suspected and one attempted case of intragroup infanticide in spider monkeys that augment five prior cases of observed or suspected infanticide in this genus. Contrary to the typical pattern of infanticide seen in most primate societies, where infants are killed by conspecifics independent of their sex, all eight cases of observed or suspected infanticide in spider monkeys have been directed toward male infants within their first weeks of life. Moreover, although data are still scant, infanticides seem to be perpetrated exclusively by adult males against infants from their own social groups and are not associated with male takeovers or a sudden rise in male dominance rank. Although the slow reproductive cycles of spider monkeys might favor the presence of infanticide because of the potential to shorten females' interbirth intervals, infanticide is nonetheless uncommon among spider monkeys, and patterns of male-directed infanticide are not yet understood. We suggest that given the potentially close genetic relationships among adult males within spider monkey groups, and the need for males to cooperate with one another in territorial interactions with other groups of related males, infanticide may be expected to occur primarily where the level of intragroup competition among males outweighs that of competition between social groups. Finally, we suggest that infanticide in spider monkeys may be more prevalent than previously thought, given that it may be difficult for observers to witness cases of infanticide or suspected infanticide that occur soon after birth in taxa that are characterized by high levels of fission-fusion dynamics. Early, undetected, male-biased infanticide could influence the composition of spider monkey groups and contribute to the female-biased adult sex ratios often reported for this genus.

  12. Phenotypic and functional characterization of lymphocytes from different age groups of Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod N Nehete

    Full Text Available Due to many physiological and genetic characteristic similarities to humans, squirrel monkeys provide an ideal animal model specifically for studying malaria, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. While squirrel monkeys three years and older are generally considered adult subjects suitable for use in medical research studies, little is known about the functional properties of lymphocytes in relation to the age of these animals, which could significantly impact the quality and quantity of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we investigated differences in the phenotype and function of lymphocytes subsets of young (3-4 years, adult (8-10 years and aged (16-19 years squirrel monkeys. In general, animals in all three age groups exhibited comparable numbers of different lymphocyte subsets except for CD20+ B cells that were significantly lower in aged relative to young animals and T cells subsets expressing both CD4 and CD8 (double positive were significantly higher in aged relative to young animals. With increasing age, phenotypic differences in central and effector memory T cells subsets were observed, that were more pronounced for the CD8+ T cells. Despite equal proportions of CD3+ T cells among the three age groups, responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to T cell mitogens PHA and Con A showed lower IFN-γ producing cells in the aged group than that in the young group. Furthermore, aged animals showed significantly higher plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12. These findings suggest that while the squirrel monkeys in general share phenotypic and functional similarities of lymphocyte subsets with humans in relation to age, specific differences exist in immune function of lymphocytes between young and old animals that could potentially impact experimental outcomes for which the measurement of immunologic endpoints are critical.

  13. Seroepidemiological survey of pathogenic Yersinia in breeding squirrel monkeys in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Taketoshi; Une, Yumi; Lee, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Taniguchi, Takahide; Hayashidani, Hideki

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of antibodies to pathogenic Yersinia in breeding squirrel monkeys, the serum samples of 252 squirrel monkeys from 9 zoological gardens in Japan were tested by ELISA using plasmid-encoded Yersinia outer membrane protein (Yops) as the antigen. The cutoff value was calculated by using the serum samples of the squirrel monkeys from Suriname, where no prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia have been reported. According to the cutoff value, 164 of 252 (65.1%) squirrel monkeys were considered positive against pathogenic Yersinia. These positive monkeys belonged to 8 of the 9 zoological gardens, and the percentage of the seropositive monkeys ranged from 22.2 to 89.4%. Furthermore, in one zoological garden, the positive rate of the squirrel monkeys which were over 1 year old (95.7%) was significantly higher than those which were under 1 year old (23.3%). These results suggested that pathogenic Yersinia is highly prevalent among breeding monkeys in Japan.

  14. Fetal malformations and early embryonic gene expression response in cynomolgus monkeys maternally exposed to thalidomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was performed to determine experimental conditions for thalidomide induction of fetal malformations and to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying thalidomide teratogenicity in cynomolgus monkeys. Cynomolgus monkeys were orally administered (±)-thalidomid...

  15. Microsatellite polymorphisms of Sichuan golden monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Deng; LI Ying; HU Hongxing; MENG Shijie; MEN Zhengrning; FU Yunxin; ZHANG Yaping

    2005-01-01

    Previous study using protein electrophoresis shows no polymorphism in 44 nuclear loci of Sichuan golden monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), which limits our understandings of its population genetic patterns in the nuclear genome. In order to obtain sufficient information, we scanned 14 microsatellite loci in a sample of 32 individuals from its three major habitats (Minshan, Qinling and Shennongjia). A considerable amount of polymorphisms were detected. The average heterozygosities in the local populations were all above 0.5. The differentiations among local populations were significant. There was evidence of geneflow among subpopulations, but geneflow between Qinling and Shennongjia local populations was the weakest. Minshan and Qinling populations might have gone through recent bottlenecks. The estimation of the ratio of the effective population sizes among local populations was close to that from census sizes. Comparisons to available mitochondria data suggested that R. roxellana's social structures played an important role in shaping its population genetic patterns. Our study showed that the polymorphism level of R. roxellana was no higher than other endangered species; therefore, measures should be taken to preserve genetic diversity of this species.

  16. The Thatcher illusion in humans and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Christoph D; Logothetis, Nikos K; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Wallraven, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Primates possess the remarkable ability to differentiate faces of group members and to extract relevant information about the individual directly from the face. Recognition of conspecific faces is achieved by means of holistic processing, i.e. the processing of the face as an unparsed, perceptual whole, rather than as the collection of independent features (part-based processing). The most striking example of holistic processing is the Thatcher illusion. Local changes in facial features are hardly noticeable when the whole face is inverted (rotated 180 degrees ), but strikingly grotesque when the face is upright. This effect can be explained by a lack of processing capabilities for locally rotated facial features when the face is turned upside down. Recently, a Thatcher illusion was described in the macaque monkey analogous to that known from human investigations. Using a habituation paradigm combined with eye tracking, we address the critical follow-up questions raised in the aforementioned study to show the Thatcher illusion as a function of the observer's species (humans and macaques), the stimulus' species (humans and macaques) and the level of perceptual expertise (novice, expert).

  17. [Visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality in female macaque monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, M

    1997-04-01

    Visual information about face and body including facial expression and bodily behavioral patterns has been known to play an important role in social and emotional communication in monkeys. Its involvement in sexual activity has also been demonstrated in male monkeys but it is poorly understood in female monkeys. In the present study, visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality were investigated in female macaque monkeys performing operant bar-press tasks in an experimental cage which had a transparent panel facing a display. In the sex discrimination task, two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate sex of a monkey shown in a picture which was randomly selected from six photographs (three males and three females) and was presented on the display. The monkey pressed a right or left bar for male or female monkey, respectively, to get water as a reward. Under this discrimination task, the monkeys could discriminate the sexes of monkeys shown in newly presented pictures. When choice bars were reversed, correct responses significantly decreased below chance level. In the sex preference task, three rhesus monkeys and three Japanese monkeys (M. juscata) were used. The monkeys voluntarily pressed the bar to watch the video movie showing either male or female rhesus monkeys. The movies were presented as long as the subject kept pressing the bar. The same movie was continued when the monkey pressed the bar again within 10s after the previous release of the bar, while it was changed to the other when 10s passed after the subject released the bar. The total duration of the responses in daily sessions was measured. In this visual preference task, four out of six monkeys showed sex preference. Three adult Japanese monkeys (6-8 y) pressed the bar to watch the video movie of male monkeys which was taken in breeding season with longer duration than that of female monkeys taken in the same season. The other two adult rhesus monkeys (7 8 y) did not

  18. Behavioral effects in monkeys of racemates of two biologically active marijuana constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheckel, C L; Boff, E; Dahlen, P; Smart, T

    1968-06-28

    Both dl-Delta(8)- and dl-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol produced marked alterations of behavior in rhesus and squirrel monkeys. Squirrel monkeys appeared to have visual hallucinations. Continuous avoidance behavior of squirrel monkeys was stimulated by both drugs, but high doses of dl-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol also caused depression after the stimulant phase. Complex behavior involving memory and visual discrimination in rhesus monkeys was markedly disrupted by both drugs.

  19. Chronic experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in Cebus apella monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riarte

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young male Cebus apella monkeys were infected with CAl Trypanosoma cruzi strain and reinfected with CA l or Tulahuen T.cruzi strains, with different doses and parasite source. Subpatent parasitemia was usually demonstrated in acute and chronic phases. Patent parasitemia was evident in one monkey in the acute phase and in four of them in the chronic phase after re-inoculations with high doses of CAl strain. Serological conversion was observed in all monkeys; titers were low, regardless of the methods used to investigate anti-T. cruzi specific antibodies. Higher titers were induced only when re-inoculations were perfomed with the virulent Tulahuén strain or high doses of CAl strain. Clinical electrocardiographic and ajmaline test evaluations did not reveal changes between infected and control monkeys. Histopathologically, cardiac lesions were always characterized by focal or multifocal mononuclear infiltrates and/or isolated fibrosis, as seen during the acute and chronic phases; neither amastigote nests nor active inflammation and fibrogenic processes characteristic of human acute and chronic myocarditis respectively, were observed. These morphological aspects more closely resemble those found in the "indeterminate phase" and contrast with the more diffuse and progressive pattern of the human chagasic myocarditis. All monkeys survived and no mortality was observed.

  20. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  1. NUTRITIONAL CYTOPENIA (VITAMIN M DEFICIENCY) IN THE MONKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, W C; Darby, W J; Shukers, C F; Day, P L

    1938-10-31

    Young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were given a diet containing casein, polished rice, whole wheat, salt mixture, sodium chloride, cod liver oil, and ascorbic acid. They developed a syndrome characterized by anemia, leukopenia, and loss of weight. Ulceration of the gums and diarrhea were common, and death occurred between the 26th and 100th day. 4 monkeys were given the deficient diet supplemented with 1 mg. of riboflavin daily, and these developed the characteristic signs and died. in periods of time similar to the survival of monkeys receiving the deficient diet alone. Nicotinic acid, either alone or in combination with riboflavin and thiamin chloride, failed to alter appreciably the course of the deficiency manifestations. Thus, it is evident that this nutritional cytopenia is not the result of a deficiency of vitamin B, riboflavin, or nicotinic acid. The deficient diet supplemented with either 10 gm. of dried brewers' yeast or 2 gm. of liver extract (Cohn fraction G) daily supported good growth, permitted normal body development, and maintained a normal blood picture over long periods. It is obvious that yeast and liver extract contain a substance essential to the nutrition of the monkey which is not identical with any of those factors of the vitamin B complex that have been chemically identified. We have proposed the term vitamin M for this factor which prevents nutritional cytopenia in the monkey.

  2. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. (Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab., Pensacola, FL (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  3. Observational learning in capuchin monkeys: a video deficit effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2017-07-01

    Young human children have been shown to learn less effectively from video or televised images than from real-life demonstrations. Although nonhuman primates respond to and can learn from video images, there is a lack of direct comparisons of task acquisition from video and live demonstrations. To address this gap in knowledge, we presented capuchin monkeys with video clips of a human demonstrator explicitly hiding food under one of two containers. The clips were presented at normal, faster than normal, or slower than normal speed, and then the monkeys were allowed to choose between the real containers. Even after 55 sessions and hundreds of video demonstration trials the monkeys' performances indicated no mastery of the task, and there was no effect of video speed. When given live demonstrations of the hiding act, the monkeys' performances were vastly improved. Upon subsequent return to video demonstrations, performances declined to pre-live-demonstration levels, but this time with evidence for an advantage of fast video demonstrations. Demonstration action speed may be one aspect of images that influence nonhuman primates' ability to learn from video images, an ability that in monkeys, as in young children, appears limited compared to learning from live models.

  4. Selective hippocampal lesions yield nonspatial memory impairments in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, F Y; Thornton, J A; White, N M; Murray, E A

    1998-01-01

    Monkeys with removals of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures are widely recognized as valid models of human global anterograde amnesia, a syndrome that arises consequent to damage to a finite set of brain structures situated in the medial temporal lobe and/or medial diencephalon. However, a comparison of memory deficits in human and nonhuman primates with MTL damage has presented a long-standing puzzle. Whereas amnesic patients are impaired in learning object discrimination problems, monkeys with MTL damage are typically not. One possible explanation for this difference is that object discrimination tasks for humans and monkeys differ in that the former but not the latter requires the use of contextual information. If this analysis is correct, monkeys with MTL damage might be disadvantaged in learning to discriminate similar objects presented in different contexts. To test this possibility, we evaluated the effects of excitotoxic lesions of one of the MTL structures, the hippocampus, on the rate of learning of discrimination problems embedded within unique contexts. Monkeys with hippocampal lesions were impaired relative to controls in learning object discrimination problems of this type. These findings strongly support the idea that the difference in the effect on object memory of MTL damage in human and nonhuman primates is due to a difference in the opportunity to employ contextual cues rather than to a difference in the organization of memory.

  5. Monkey steering responses reveal rapid visual-motor feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth W Egger

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms underlying primate locomotion are largely unknown. While behavioral and theoretical work has provided a number of ideas of how navigation is controlled, progress will require direct physiolgical tests of the underlying mechanisms. In turn, this will require development of appropriate animal models. We trained three monkeys to track a moving visual target in a simple virtual environment, using a joystick to control their direction. The monkeys learned to quickly and accurately turn to the target, and their steering behavior was quite stereotyped and reliable. Monkeys typically responded to abrupt steps of target direction with a biphasic steering movement, exhibiting modest but transient overshoot. Response latencies averaged approximately 300 ms, and monkeys were typically back on target after about 1 s. We also exploited the variability of responses about the mean to explore the time-course of correlation between target direction and steering response. This analysis revealed a broad peak of correlation spanning approximately 400 ms in the recent past, during which steering errors provoke a compensatory response. This suggests a continuous, visual-motor loop controls steering behavior, even during the epoch surrounding transient inputs. Many results from the human literature also suggest that steering is controlled by such a closed loop. The similarity of our results to those in humans suggests the monkey is a very good animal model for human visually guided steering.

  6. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  7. 78 FR 70101 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 3800

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    2013-11-22

    ... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 3800, General Business Credit..., at Martha.R.Brinson@irs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: General Business Credit. OMB...

  8. 75 FR 40031 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 3800

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 3800, General Business Credit...: General Business Credit. OMB Number: 1545-0895. Form Number: Form 3800. Abstract: Internal Revenue...

  9. Removal of the amygdala plus subjacent cortex disrupts the retention of both intramodal and crossmodal associative memories in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, E A; Gaffan, D

    1994-06-01

    Naive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained preoperatively in an automated test apparatus on an auditory-visual (crossmodal) conditional task or on a visual-visual (intramodal) conditional task that involved learning a fixed set of stimulus-stimulus associations or paired associates. After having learned their respective tasks, each monkey received bilateral removal of the amygdala plus subjacent cortex. The 2 experimental groups showed equally poor retention of the stimulus-stimulus associations and subsequently relearned their respective crossmodal and intramodal associations at the same rate. These data argue against the idea that the amygdala is specialized for crossmodal associations. Instead, the data indicate that the amygdala or its underlying cortex, or both, play a more generalized role in stimulus-stimulus associative memory.

  10. Histochemistry profile of the biceps brachii muscle fibres of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHF Bortoluci

    Full Text Available A general analysis of the behaviour of “Cebus” shows that when this primate moves position to feed or perform another activity, it presents different ways of locomotion. This information shows that the brachial biceps muscle of this animal is frequently used in their locomotion activities, but it should also be remembered that this muscle is also used for other development activities like hiding, searching for objects, searching out in the woods, and digging in the soil. Considering the above, it was decided to research the histoenzimologic characteristics of the brachial biceps muscle to observe whether it is better adpted to postural or phasic function. To that end, samples were taken from the superficial and deep regions, the inserts proximal (medial and lateral and distal brachial biceps six capuchin monkeys male and adult, which were subjected to the reactions of m-ATPase, NADH-Tr. Based on the results of these reactions fibres were classified as in Fast Twitch Glycolitic (FG, Fast Twitch Oxidative Glycolitic (FOG and Slow Twitc (SO. In general, the results, considering the muscle as a whole, show a trend of frequency FOG> FG> SO. The data on the frequency were studied on three superficial regions FOG=FG>SO; the deep regions of the inserts proximal FOG=FG=SO and inserting the distal FOG>FG=SO. In conclusion, the biceps brachii of the capuchin monkey is well adapted for both postural and phasic activities.

  11. Fanjing Mountain:the Only Home of the Guizhou Golden Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    2000-01-01

    THE Guizhou golden monkey is one of three breeds of golden monkey (the others are in Sichuan and Yunnan) that are found only in China, and is an extremely rare and precious wild animal. Inhabiting a very small area around Guizhou's Fanjing Mountain, there are only about 750 monkeys in existence making it

  12. Comparative plasma lipidome between human and cynomolgus monkey: are plasma polar lipids good biomarkers for diabetic monkeys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghou Shui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-human primates (NHP are now being considered as models for investigating human metabolic diseases including diabetes. Analyses of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma derived from NHPs can easily be achieved using methods employed in humans. Information pertaining to other lipid species in monkey plasma, however, is lacking and requires comprehensive experimental analysis. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the plasma lipidome from 16 cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS. We established novel analytical approaches, which are based on a simple gradient elution, to quantify polar lipids in plasma including (i glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; phosphatidylinositol, PI; phosphatidylglycerol, PG; phosphatidylserine, PS; phosphatidic acid, PA; (ii sphingolipids (sphingomyelin, SM; ceramide, Cer; Glucocyl-ceramide, GluCer; ganglioside mannoside 3, GM3. Lipidomic analysis had revealed that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, with PC, SM, PE, LPC and PI constituting the major polar lipid species present. Human plasma contained significantly higher levels of plasmalogen PE species (p<0.005 and plasmalogen PC species (p<0.0005, while cynomolgus monkey had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acyls (PUFA in PC, PE, PS and PI. Notably, cynomolgus monkey had significantly lower levels of glycosphingolipids, including GluCer (p<0.0005 and GM(3 (p<0.0005, but higher level of Cer (p<0.0005 in plasma than human. We next investigated the biochemical alterations in blood lipids of 8 naturally occurring diabetic cynomolgus monkeys when compared with 8 healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, but contained different mol distribution of individual molecular species. Diabetic monkeys

  13. Reply to "Comment on 'Similarity between quantum mechanics and thermodynamics: Entropy, temperature, and Carnot cycle' ''.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2015-05-01

    In their Comment on the paper [Abe and Okuyama, Phys. Rev. E 83, 021121 (2011)], González-Díaz and Díaz-Solórzano discuss that the initial state of the quantum-mechanical analog of the Carnot cycle should be not in a pure state but in a mixed state due to a projective measurement of the system energy. Here, first the Comment is shown to miss the point. Then, second, multiple projective measurements are discussed as a generalization of the Comment, although they are not relevant to the work commented.

  14. Maxillary nerve compression in cynomolgus monkey Macaca fascicularis: altered somatic sensation and peripheral nerve firing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Ning

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trigeminal nerve is a major source of the sensory input of the face, and trigeminal neuropathology models have been reported in rodents with injury to branches of the maxillary or mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Non-human primates are neuroanatomically more closely related to human than rodents; however, nerve injury studies in non-human primates are limited. Results We describe here a nerve injury model of maxillary nerve compression (MNC in the cynomolgus macaque monkey, Macaca fascicularis, and the initial characterization of the consequences of damage to this trigeminal nerve branch. The nerve injury from the compression appeared to be mild, as we did not observe overt changes in home-cage behavior in the monkeys. When mechanical stimulation was applied to the facial area, monkeys with MNC displayed increased mechanical sensitivity, as the avoidance response scores were lower than those from the control animals. Such a change in mechanical sensitivity appeared to be somewhat bilateral, as the contralateral side also showed increased mechanical sensitivity, although the change on the ipsilateral side was more robust. Multiple-unit recording of the maxillary nerve showed a general pattern of increasing responsiveness to escalating force in mechanical stimulation on the contralateral side. Ipsilateral side of the maxillary nerve showed a lack of responsiveness to escalating force in mechanical stimulation, possibly reflecting a maximum stimulation threshold effect from sensitized nerve due to MNC injury. Conclusions These results suggest that MNC may produce increased sensitivity of the ipsilateral maxillary nerve, and that this model may serve as a non-human primate model to evaluate the effect of injury to trigeminal nerve branches.

  15. Ultrastructure of basement membranes in monkey and shark teeth at an early stage of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    The basement membrane, which separates the inner enamel epithelium from the dental papilla in the early stages of tooth development, is known to play a significant role in odontogenesis. In this review article, this basement membrane was described in detail based on our recent findings with the use of high-resolution electron microscopy. Tooth germs of a monkey (Macaca fuscata) and a shark (Cephaloscyllium umbratile) were processed for thin-section observations. During the early stage of development, the basement membrane of the inner enamel (dental) epithelium was composed of a lamina lucida, lamina densa, and much wider lamina fibroreticularis. At higher magnification, the lamina densa in both species was made up of a fine network of cords, which are generally the main constituents of the basement membranes. In the monkey tooth, the lamina fibroreticularis was rich in fibrils, which were now characterized as basotubules, 10-nm-wide microfibril-like structures. The space between the basotubules was filled with a cord network that extended from the lamina densa. Dental papilla cell processes were inserted into the lamina fibroreticularis, and their surface was closely associated with numerous parallel basotubules via 1.5- to 3-nm-wide filaments. In the shark tooth during its early stage of development, the basotubules were absent in the lamina fibroreticularis and only narrow extensions, 60-90 nm wide and 1-2 microm long, of the cord network of the lamina densa were present. The dental papilla cells were immobilized by means of the binding of their processes to the extensions. These results indicate that basement membranes in both monkey and shark teeth at early stage of development are specialized for functions as anchoring and firm binding, which are essential for the successful differentiation of the odontoblasts.

  16. Olfactory Sensitivity for Six Predator Odorants in CD-1 Mice, Human Subjects, and Spider Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafchi, Amir; Odhammer, Anna M. E.; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa; Laska, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Using a conditioning paradigm, we assessed the olfactory sensitivity of six CD-1 mice (Mus musculus) for six sulfur-containing odorants known to be components of the odors of natural predators of the mouse. With all six odorants, the mice discriminated concentrations <0.1 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with five of the six odorants the best-scoring animals were even able to detect concentrations <1 ppt (parts per trillion). Four female spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) and twelve human subjects (Homo sapiens) tested in parallel were found to detect the same six odorants at concentrations <0.01 ppm, and with four of the six odorants the best-scoring animals and subjects even detected concentrations <10 ppt. With all three species, the threshold values obtained here are generally lower than (or in the lower range of) those reported for other chemical classes tested previously, suggesting that sulfur-containing odorants may play a special role in olfaction. Across-species comparisons showed that the mice were significantly more sensitive than the human subjects and the spider monkeys with four of the six predator odorants. However, the human subjects were significantly more sensitive than the mice with the remaining two odorants. Human subjects and spider monkeys significantly differed in their sensitivity with only two of the six odorants. These comparisons lend further support to the notion that the number of functional olfactory receptor genes or the relative or absolute size of the olfactory bulbs are poor predictors of a species’ olfactory sensitivity. Analysis of odor structure–activity relationships showed that in both mice and human subjects the type of alkyl rest attached to a thietane and the type of oxygen moiety attached to a thiol significantly affected olfactory sensitivity. PMID:24278296

  17. Movement disorders induced in monkeys by chronic haloperidol treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.; Santelli, S.; Lusink, G.

    1977-01-01

    After several months of treatment, Cebus apella, Cebus albifrons, and Saimiri sciurea monkeys maintained on haloperidol, in doses of 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg orally 5 days per week, began to display severe movement disorders, typically 1 to 6 h post-drug. Cebus monkeys exhibited violent, uncontrolled movements that flung the animals about the cage. Such episodes usually lasted only a few minutes, recurring several times during the period following drug ingestion. Writhing and bizarre postures dominated the response in S. sciurea. Cessation of drug treatment produced no distinctive after-effects. When tested as long as 508 days after the last administration, however, Cebus monkeys responded to haloperidol with several episodes of hyperkinesis, even at challenge doses considerably lower than those in the original treatment.

  18. Movement disorders induced in monkeys by chronic haloperidol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B; Santelli, S; Lusink, G

    1977-08-16

    After several months of treatment, Cebus apella, Cebus albifrons, and Saimiri sciurea monkeys maintained on haloperidol, in doses of 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg orally 5 days per week, began to display severe movement disorders, typically 1-6 h post-drug. Cebus monkeys exhibited violent, uncontrolled movements that flung the animals about the cage. Such episodes usually lasted only a few minutes, recurring several times during the period following drug ingestion. Writhing and bizarre postures dominated the response in S. sciurea. Cessation of drug treatment produced no distinctive after-effects. When tested as long as 508 days after the last administration, however, Cebus monkeys responded to haloperidol with several episodes of hyperkinesis, even at challenge doses considerably lower than those in the original treatment.

  19. Dyskinesias evoked in monkeys by weekly administration of haloperidol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.; Santelli, S.

    1978-05-19

    In two cebus (Cebus albifrons) monkeys given weekly oral doses of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram, movement disorders appeared 1 to 8 hours after drug administration following the tenth weekly dose. These disorders included oral movements, peculiar postures, writhing, and stretching. Such reactions faded in intensity after the next two doses. Increasing the dose to 0.5 milligram per kilogram has elicited the disorders reliably after each weekly dose for almost 2 years. Similar reactions also developed in a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) treated weekly with haloperidol and in a third cebus monkey previously maintained for a year on a regimen of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram on 5 days per week. These findings suggest an experimental model for determining the etiology of drug-induced movement disorders. They also suggest an unrecognized clinical problem.

  20. Dyskinesias evoked in monkeys by weekly administration of haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B; Santelli, S

    1978-05-19

    In two cebus (Cebus albifrons) monkeys given weekly oral doses of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram, movement disorders appeared 1 to 8 hours after drug administration following the tenth weekly dose. These disorders included oral movements, peculiar postures, writhing, and stretching. Such reactions faded in intensity after the next two doses. Increasing the dose to 0.5 milligram per kilogram has elicited the disorders reliably after each weekly dose for almost 2 years. Similar reactions also developed in a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) treated weekly with haloperidol and in a third cebus monkey previously maintained for a year on a regimen of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram on 5 days per week. These findings suggest an experimental model for determining the etiology of drug-induced movement disorders. They also suggest an unrecognized clinical problem.

  1. Photoacoustic tomography of monkey brain using virtual point ultrasonic transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Liming; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-07-01

    A photoacoustic tomography system (PAT) using virtual point ultrasonic transducers was developed and applied to image a monkey brain. The custom-built transducers provide a 10-fold greater field-of-view (FOV) than finite-aperture unfocused transducers as well as an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reduced artifacts rather than negative-lens transducers. Their tangential resolution, radial resolution, and (SNR) improvements were quantified using tissue phantoms. Our PAT system can achieve high uniformity in both resolution (8) within a large FOV of 6 cm in diameter, even when the imaging objects are enclosed by a monkey skull. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through a skull ranging from 2 to 4 mm in thickness. This study demonstrates that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull and can potentially be applied to human neonatal brain imaging.

  2. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V

    2006-03-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head containing inserted needles. We also image the coronal and axial sections of a 7-month-old monkey head. Brain features that are 3 cm deep in the head are imaged clearly. Our results demonstrate that TAT has potential for use in portable, cost-effective imagers for pediatric brains.

  3. Predation of wild spider monkeys at La Macarena, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ikki; Izawa, Kosei

    2008-01-01

    The killing of an adult male spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth ) by a jaguar (Panthera onca) and a predation attempt by a puma (Felis concolor) on an adult female spider monkey have been observed at the CIEM (Centro de Investigaciones Ecológicas La Macarena), La Macarena, Colombia. These incidents occurred directly in front of an observer, even though it is said that predation under direct observation on any type of primate rarely occurs. On the basis of a review of the literature, and the observations reported here, we suggest that jaguars and pumas are likely to be the only significant potential predators on adult spider monkeys, probably because of their large body size.

  4. Evaluation of serum lipid, thyroid, and hepatic clinical chemistries in association with serum perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in cynomolgus monkeys after oral dosing with potassium PFOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Ching; Allen, Bruce C; Andres, Kara L; Ehresman, David J; Falvo, Ria; Provencher, Anne; Olsen, Geary W; Butenhoff, John L

    2017-01-23

    An oral dose study with PFOS was undertaken to identify potential associations between serum PFOS and changes in serum clinical chemistry parameters in purpose-bred young adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fasicularis). While control group (n=6/sex) was sham-dosed with vehicle (0.5% Tween® 20 and 5% ethanol in DI water) during the study, low-dose group (n=6/sex) received one single K(+)PFOS dose (9 mg/kg) and high-dose group (n=6/sex) received three separate K(+)PFOS doses (11 - 17.2 mg/kg). Monkeys were given routine checkups and observed carefully for health problems on a daily basis. Scheduled blood samples were drawn from all monkeys prior, during, and after PFOS administration for up to one year and they were analyzed for PFOS concentration and clinical chemistry markers for coagulation, lipids, hepatic, renal, electrolytes, and thyroid-related hormones. No mortality occurred during the study. All the monkeys were healthy, gained weight, and were released back to the colony at the end of the study. The highest serum PFOS achieved was approximately 165 µg/mL. Compared to time-matched controls, administration of K(+)PFOS to monkeys did not result in any toxicologically meaningful or clinically relevant changes in serum clinical measurements for coagulation, lipids, hepatic, renal, electrolytes, and thyroid-related hormones. A slight reduction in serum cholesterol (primarily the HDL fraction), although not toxicologically significant, was observed and the corresponding lower-bound 5(th) percentile benchmark concentrations (BMCL1sd) were 74 and 76 µg/mL for male and female monkeys, respectively. This compares to the 2011-2012 geometric mean serum PFOS level of 6.3 ng/mL (0.00063 µg/mL) in US general population would result in 4 orders of magnitude for margin of exposure.

  5. The use of camera traps to identify the set of scavengers preying on the carcass of a golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Pang Huang

    Full Text Available There exists very limited information on the set of scavengers that feed on the carcasses of wild primates. Here, we describe, based on information collected using a remote camera trap, carnivores consuming/scavenging the carcass of a wild golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana in the Laohegou Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China. During a 3 month behavioral and ecology study of a band of golden snub-nosed monkeys (March through May 2013, we encountered the carcass of an adult male (male golden snub-nosed monkeys weigh approximately 12-16 kg. After examining the dead monkey, we returned it to the death site and set out a camera trap to record the behavior and identity of scavengers. Over the course of 25 days, we collected 4145 photographs taken by the camera trap. Scavengers identified from these photographs include a masked civet (Paguma larvata, Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus, large-billed crow (Corvus macrorhynchos and the chestnut rat (Rattus fulvescens. No member of the golden snub-nosed monkey's social group, which was composed of approximately 120 individuals, was found to return to the general area of the death site. The masked civet fed principally on the face and intestines of the corpse at night, while the black bear consumed most of the body of the dead monkey during both the daytime and nighttime. These two taxa consumed virtually the entire carcass in one week. We suggest that the use of camera traps offers a powerful research tool to identify the scavenger community of a given ecosystem.

  6. 75 FR 2475 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Information Collection for the Child and Adult Care Food Program AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... notice invites the general public and other public agencies to comment on a proposed information...

  7. 77 FR 61024 - Notice of Public Meeting and Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... (President's Park), south of the White House. The general plan and theme for the event is the celebration of... National Park Service Notice of Public Meeting and Request for Comments AGENCY: National Park Service... Lighting and the subsequent 26-day event. SUMMARY: The National Park Service is seeking public comments...

  8. Comment on "Equilibrium conformation of polymer chains with noncircular cross section".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt-Bourke, Alexander; Thamwattana, Ngamta

    2013-04-01

    In this Comment, we point out that the Euler-Lagrange equations, which are referred to as the general equilibrium equations by Zhao et al. [Phys. Rev. E 74, 032801 (2006)] are incorrect along with the equations which are derived from them. The correct equations are provided in this Comment. We produce new numerical results with the use of the correct equations.

  9. 75 FR 4360 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments and Recommendations

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    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy... Comments. SUMMARY: EIA is seeking general comments on matters described below in support of the Energy and... prices and analysis through in-depth studies of energy market behavior. Other efforts...

  10. Oct-4 expression in pluripotent cells of the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Hennebold, Jon D; Wolf, Don P

    2003-12-01

    The POU (Pit-Oct-Unc)-domain transcription factor, Oct-4, has become a useful marker of pluripotency in the mouse. It is found exclusively in mouse preimplantation-stage embryos after embryonic genome activation and is a characteristic of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and its absence in knockout mice precludes inner cell mass (ICM) formation in blastocysts. Expression of Oct-4 has also been associated with pluripotency in primate cells. Here, we undertook a systematic study of Oct-4 expression in rhesus macaque preimplantation embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and in ES cells before and after exposure to differentiating conditions in vitro. We also evaluated Oct-4 expression as a means of monitoring the extent of reprogramming following somatic cell nuclear transfer. Oct-4 was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry with a monoclonal antibody. Monkey pronuclear-stage zygotes and cleaving embryos up to the 8-cell stage showed no detectable Oct-4. Nuclear staining for Oct-4 first became obvious at the 16-cell stage, and a strong signal was observed in morula and compact morula stages. Both ICM and trophectodermal cell nuclei of monkey early blastocysts were positive for Oct-4. However, the signal was diminished in trophectodermal cells of expanded blastocysts, whereas expression remained high in ICM nuclei. Similar to the mouse, hatched monkey blastocysts showed strong Oct-4 expression in the ICM, with no detectable signal in the trophectoderm. Undifferentiated monkey ES cells derived from the ICM of in vitro-produced blastocysts expressed Oct-4, consistent with their pluripotent nature, whereas ES cell differentiation was associated with signal loss. Therefore, Oct-4 expression in the monkey, as in the mouse, provides a useful marker for pluripotency after activation of the embryonic genome. Finally, the observed lack or abnormal expression of Oct-4 in monkey nuclear transfer embryos suggests

  11. Socialization of adult owl monkeys (Aotus sp.) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence E; Coke, C S; Weed, J L

    2017-01-01

    Social housing has often been recommended as one-way to address the psychological well-being of captive non-human primates. Published reports have examined methods to socialize compatible animals by forming pairs or groups. Successful socialization rates vary depending on the species, gender, and environment. This study presents a retrospective look at pairing attempts in two species of owl monkeys, Aotus nancymaae and A. azarae, which live in monogamous pairs in the wild. The results of 477 pairing attempt conducted with captive, laboratory housed owl monkeys and 61 hr of behavioral observations are reported here. The greatest success pairing these owl monkeys occurred with opposite sex pairs, with an 82% success rate. Opposite sex pairs were more successful when females were older than males. Female-female pairs were more successful than male-male (MM) pairs (62% vs 40%). Successful pairs stayed together between 3 and 7 years before the animals were separated due to social incompatibility. Vigilance, eating, and sleeping during introductions significantly predicted success, as did the performance of the same behavior in both animals. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to give captive owl monkeys a social alternative even if species appropriate social partners (i.e., opposite sex partners) are not available. The focus of this report is a description of one potential way to enhance the welfare of a specific new world primate, the owl monkey, under laboratory conditions. More important is how the species typical social structure of owl monkeys in nature affects the captive management of this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22521, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Positive reinforcement training in squirrel monkeys using clicker training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Timothy E; Janes, Amy C; Kaufman, Marc J

    2012-08-01

    Nonhuman primates in research environments experience regular stressors that have the potential to alter physiology and brain function, which in turn can confound some types of research studies. Operant conditioning techniques such as positive reinforcement training (PRT), which teaches animals to voluntarily perform desired behaviors, can be applied to improve behavior and reactivity. PRT has been used to train rhesus macaques, marmosets, and several other nonhuman primate species. To our knowledge, the method has yet to be used to train squirrel monkeys to perform complex tasks. Accordingly, we sought to establish whether PRT, utilizing a hand-box clicker (which emits a click sound that acts as the conditioned reinforcer), could be used to train adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis, N = 14). We developed and implemented a training regimen to elicit voluntary participation in routine husbandry, animal transport, and injection procedures. Our secondary goal was to quantify the training time needed to achieve positive results. Squirrel monkeys readily learned the connection between the conditioned reinforcer (the clicker) and the positive reinforcer (food). They rapidly developed proficiency on four tasks of increasing difficulty: target touching, hand sitting, restraint training, and injection training. All subjects mastered target touching behavior within 2 weeks. Ten of 14 subjects (71%) mastered all tasks in 59.2 ± 2.6 days (range: 50-70 days). In trained subjects, it now takes about 1.25 min per monkey to weigh and administer an intramuscular injection, one-third of the time it took before training. From these data, we conclude that clicker box PRT can be successfully learned by a majority of squirrel monkeys within 2 months and that trained subjects can be managed more efficiently. These findings warrant future studies to determine whether PRT may be useful in reducing stress-induced experimental confounds in studies involving squirrel monkeys.

  13. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhao; Fauzia Akbary; Shengli Li; Jing Lu; Feng Ling; Xunming Ji; Guowei Shang; Jian Chen; Xiaokun Geng; Xin Ye; Guoxun Xu; Ju Wang; Jiasheng Zheng; Hongjun Li

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiol-ogy in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group:middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood lfow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood lfow was restored. A revers-ible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identiifed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symp-toms of neurological deifcits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental ifndings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the ifeld of brain injury research.

  14. Atlas-guided segmentation of vervet monkey brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Andriy; Li, Xiaoxing; Pohl, Kilian M; Bouix, Sylvain; Styner, Martin; Addicott, Merideth; Wyatt, Chris; Daunais, James B; Wells, William M; Kikinis, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI analysis. In this paper we developed an open source image analysis framework based on the tools available within the 3D Slicer software to support a biological study that investigates the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on brain morphometry in a longitudinally followed population of male vervets. We first developed a computerized atlas of vervet monkey brain MRI, which was used to encode the typical appearance of the individual brain structures in MRI and their spatial distribution. The atlas was then used as a spatial prior during automatic segmentation to process two longitudinal scans per subject. Our evaluation confirms the consistency and reliability of the automatic segmentation. The comparison of atlas construction strategies reveals that the use of a population-specific atlas leads to improved accuracy of the segmentation for subcortical brain structures. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we describe an image processing workflow specifically tuned towards the analysis of vervet MRI that consists solely of the open source software tools. Second, we develop a digital atlas of vervet monkey brain MRIs to enable similar studies that rely on the vervet model.

  15. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Shang, Guowei; Chen, Jian; Geng, Xiaokun; Ye, Xin; Xu, Guoxun; Wang, Ju; Zheng, Jiasheng; Li, Hongjun; Akbary, Fauzia; Li, Shengli; Lu, Jing; Ling, Feng; Ji, Xunming

    2014-12-01

    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiology in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group: middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood flow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood flow was restored. A reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identified by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symptoms of neurological deficits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental findings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the field of brain injury research.

  16. Characteristics of histologically confirmed endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto-Kakiuchi, A.; Netsu, S.; Matsuo, S.; Hayashi, S.; Ito, T.; Okabayashi, S.; Yasmin, L.; Yuzawa, K.; Kondoh, O.; Kato, A.; Suzuki, M.; Konno, R.; Sankai, T.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the characteristics of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys? SUMMARY ANSWER Spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys exhibited similar characteristics to the human disease. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY One previous report described the prevalence and the basic histopathology of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Endometriotic lesions that had been histologically confirmed in 8 female cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 21 years old were subjected to study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The monkeys died of, or were sacrificed because of, sickness consequent on endometriosis. Specimens were evaluated histopathologically with haematoxylin and eosin staining, iron staining and immunohistochemistry (CD10, CD31, α-SMA and PGP9.5), and by observing them under a microscope. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Endometriotic and stromal cells (CD10-positive) with haemorrhage and inflammation were observed. Smooth muscle metaplasia and nerve fibres were also noted in the endometriotic lesions. Endometriotic lesions in lymph nodes were incidentally found. LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION Since laparoscopic analysis for monitoring the disease state was not set as a parameter of the current study, time course changes (progression) of the disease were not assessed. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Further investigation of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys may contribute to better understanding of the disease pathobiology. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) No external funds were used for this study. A.N.K., S.M., S.H., T.I., O.K., A.K. and M.S. are full-time employees of Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. R.K. received lecture fees from Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., unrelated to the submitted work. S.N., S. O., L.Y., K.Y. and T.S. have nothing to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER N/A. PMID:27591226

  17. Comparative Overview of Visuospatial Working Memory in Monkeys and Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Oyama, Kei; Nakamura, Shinya; Iijima, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Neural mechanisms of working memory, particularly its visuospatial aspect, have long been studied in non-human primates. On the other hand, rodents are becoming more important in systems neuroscience, as many of the innovative research methods have become available for them. There has been a question on whether primates and rodents have similar neural backgrounds for working memory. In this article, we carried out a comparative overview of the neural mechanisms of visuospatial working memory in monkeys and rats. In monkeys, a number of lesion studies indicate that the brain region most responsible for visuospatial working memory is the ventral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (vDLPFC), as the performance in the standard tests for visuospatial working memory, such as delayed response and delayed alternation tasks, are impaired by lesions in this region. Single-unit studies revealed a characteristic firing pattern in neurons in this area, a sustained delay activity. Further studies indicated that the information maintained in the working memory, such as cue location and response direction in a delayed response, is coded in the sustained delay activity. In rats, an area comparable to the monkey vDLPFC was found to be the dorsal part of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as the delayed alternation in a T-maze is impaired by its lesion. Recently, the sustained delay activity similar to that found in monkeys has been found in the dorsal mPFC of rats performing the delayed response task. Furthermore, anatomical studies indicate that the vDLPFC in monkeys and the dorsal mPFC in rats have much in common, such as that they are both the major targets of parieto-frontal projections. Thus lines of evidence indicate that in both monkeys and rodents, the PFC plays a critical role in working memory.

  18. Atlas-Guided Segmentation of Vervet Monkey Brain MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Andriy; Li, Xiaoxing; Pohl, Kilian M; Bouix, Sylvain; Styner, Martin; Addicott, Merideth; Wyatt, Chris; Daunais, James B; Wells, William M; Kikinis, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI analysis. In this paper we developed an open source image analysis framework based on the tools available within the 3D Slicer software to support a biological study that investigates the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on brain morphometry in a longitudinally followed population of male vervets. We first developed a computerized atlas of vervet monkey brain MRI, which was used to encode the typical appearance of the individual brain structures in MRI and their spatial distribution. The atlas was then used as a spatial prior during automatic segmentation to process two longitudinal scans per subject. Our evaluation confirms the consistency and reliability of the automatic segmentation. The comparison of atlas construction strategies reveals that the use of a population-specific atlas leads to improved accuracy of the segmentation for subcortical brain structures. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we describe an image processing workflow specifically tuned towards the analysis of vervet MRI that consists solely of the open source software tools. Second, we develop a digital atlas of vervet monkey brain MRIs to enable similar studies that rely on the vervet model. PMID:22253661

  19. 75 FR 73951 - Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553). Comments that are frivolous, insubstantial, or outside the scope of the... APA. If we receive no significant adverse comment during the specified comment period, we intend to...: PART 1--GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS 0 The authority citation for part 1 is revised to read...

  20. Functional analysis of aldehyde oxidase using expressed chimeric enzyme between monkey and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kunio; Asakawa, Tasuku; Hoshino, Kouichi; Adachi, Mayuko; Fukiya, Kensuke; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Yorihisa

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. Each subunit consists of about 20 kDa 2Fe-2S cluster domain storing reducing equivalents, about 40 kDa flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain and about 85 kDa molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) domain containing a substrate binding site. In order to clarify the properties of each domain, especially substrate binding domain, chimeric cDNAs were constructed by mutual exchange of 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains between monkey and rat. Chimeric monkey/rat AO was referred to one with monkey type 2Fe-2S/FAD domains and a rat type MoCo domain. Rat/monkey AO was vice versa. AO-catalyzed 2-oxidation activities of (S)-RS-8359 were measured using the expressed enzyme in Escherichia coli. Substrate inhibition was seen in rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, but not in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, suggesting that the phenomenon might be dependent on the natures of MoCo domain of rat. A biphasic Eadie-Hofstee profile was observed in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, but not rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, indicating that the biphasic profile might be related to the properties of MoCo domain of monkey. Two-fold greater V(max) values were observed in monkey AO than in chimeric rat/monkey AO, and in chimeric monkey/rat AO than in rat AO, suggesting that monkey has the more effective electron transfer system than rat. Thus, the use of chimeric enzymes revealed that 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains affect the velocity and the quantitative profiles of AO-catalyzed (S)-RS-8359 2-oxidation, respectively.

  1. Comment concerning Leonardo's rule

    CERN Document Server

    Sotolongo-Costa, O; Oseguera-Manzanilla, T; Díaz-Guerrero, D S

    2016-01-01

    In this comment we propose a novel explanation for the Leonardo's rule concerning the tree branching. According to Leonardo's notebooks he observed that if one observes the branches of a tree, the squared radius of the principal branch is equal to the sum of the squared radius of the branch daughters.

  2. Infection of capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons) with Herpesvirus saimiri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, H; Pearson, G R; Wallen, W C; Neubauer, R H; Cicmanec, J L; Orr, T W

    1975-03-01

    Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) induced persistent, clinically inapparent infections of long-term duration in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons). The infections were characterized by development of antibody to HVS-associated antigens and recovery of low levels of virus-genome-carrying lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Peripheral lymphocyte counts remained in low-normal to normal ranges and no physical signs of lymphoma were evident. Prednisolone treatment caused immunosuppression in one monkey; this was accompanied by a progressive loss of humoral antibody to HVS-associated antigens, but neoplastic disease did not develop.

  3. Electroretinogram measurements of cone spectral sensitivity in dichromatic monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitz, J; Jacobs, G H

    1984-12-01

    The corneal electroretinogram (ERG) was used to investigate the spectral sensitivities of cones in 12 dichromatic squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) whose color-vision capacities were established in behavioral tests. Three different varieties of dichromacy were represented among these animals. A flicker-photometric procedure was used in which the ERG response to a rapidly flickering monochromatic test light was compared with the response elicited by a similarly flickering reference light. The spectral-sensitivity functions obtained by the use of this technique are similar to previous estimates of cone spectral sensitivity in dichromatic squirrel monkeys derived from direct microspectrophotometric measurements.

  4. "Zeroing" in on mathematics in the monkey brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    A new study documented that monkeys showed selective neuronal responding to the concept of zero during a numerical task, and that there were two distinct classes of neurons that coded the absence of stimuli either through a discrete activation pattern (zero or not zero) or a continuous one for which zero was integrated with other numerosities in the relative rate of activity. These data indicate that monkeys, like humans, have a concept of zero that is part of their analog number line but that also may have unique properties compared to other numerosities.

  5. Terminal leptospirosis in a woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagothricha in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana González A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A captive woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagothricha displayed severe lethargy, vomiting and diarrhea. Laboratory tests revealed anemia, leukopenia, hypoproteinemia, severe azotemia and positive Leptospira IgM ELISA. The monkey was humanely euthanized and the necropsy revealed a multifocal tubulointerstitial glomerulonephritis; in addition to splenic lymphoid depletion, and interstitial pneumonia, all of which are compatible with leptospirosis. Rodent control and biosecurity measures should be done at all zoological collections in order to prevent transmission to facility personnel and to threatened mammals maintained in captivity.

  6. Bat Predation by Cercopithecus Monkeys: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapanes, Elizabeth; Detwiler, Kate M; Cords, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between bats and primates, which may contribute to zoonotic disease transmission, is poorly documented. We provide the first behavioral accounts of predation on bats by Cercopithecus monkeys, both of which are known to harbor zoonotic disease. We witnessed 13 bat predation events over 6.5 years in two forests in Kenya and Tanzania. Monkeys sometimes had prolonged contact with the bat carcass, consuming it entirely. All predation events occurred in forest-edge or plantation habitat. Predator-prey relations between bats and primates are little considered by disease ecologists, but may contribute to transmission of zoonotic disease, including Ebolavirus.

  7. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (< 1 MHz) are used to reconstruct the TAT images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head co...

  8. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  9. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia in a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, L R; DiLoreto, C; Leite, M C; Wakamatsu, A; Santos, R T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2000-09-01

    Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare and seldom reported disease in animals and humans induced by a papillomavirus. The present report is the first description of this disease in a Neotropical primate, a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca). The diagnosis was based on gross and microscopic findings. The generic papillomavirus antigen was identified by immunohistochemistry and was found not to be related to any human papillomavirus DNA tested by in situ hybridization. This virus is probably a specific papillomavirus of the howler monkey (HMPV).

  10. A hybrid monkey search algorithm for clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zhou, Yongquan; Luo, Qifang

    2014-01-01

    Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique. The k-means clustering algorithm is one of the most commonly used methods. However, it highly depends on the initial solution and is easy to fall into local optimum solution. In view of the disadvantages of the k-means method, this paper proposed a hybrid monkey algorithm based on search operator of artificial bee colony algorithm for clustering analysis and experiment on synthetic and real life datasets to show that the algorithm has a good performance than that of the basic monkey algorithm for clustering analysis.

  11. A Hybrid Monkey Search Algorithm for Clustering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique. The k-means clustering algorithm is one of the most commonly used methods. However, it highly depends on the initial solution and is easy to fall into local optimum solution. In view of the disadvantages of the k-means method, this paper proposed a hybrid monkey algorithm based on search operator of artificial bee colony algorithm for clustering analysis and experiment on synthetic and real life datasets to show that the algorithm has a good performance than that of the basic monkey algorithm for clustering analysis.

  12. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M.; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  13. Combined Treatment with Morphine and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Rhesus Monkeys: Antinociceptive Tolerance and Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerak, L R; France, C P

    2016-05-01

    Opioid receptor agonists are effective for treating pain; however, tolerance and dependence can develop with repeated use. Combining opioids with cannabinoids can enhance their analgesic potency, although it is less clear whether combined treatment alters opioid tolerance and dependence. In this study, four monkeys received 3.2 mg/kg morphine alone or in combination with 1 mg/kg Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) twice daily; the antinociceptive effects (warm water tail withdrawal) of morphine, the cannabinoid receptor agonists WIN 55,212 [(R)-(1)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone mesylate] and CP 55,940 (2-[(1R,2R,5R)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol), and the κ opioid receptor agonist U-50,488 (trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]benzenacetamide methanesulfonate) were examined before, during, and after treatment. To determine whether concurrent THC treatment altered morphine dependence, behavioral signs indicative of withdrawal were monitored when treatment was discontinued. Before treatment, each drug increased tail withdrawal latency to 20 seconds (maximum possible effect). During treatment, latencies did not reach 20 seconds for morphine or the cannabinoids up to doses 3- to 10-fold larger than those that were fully effective before treatment. Rightward and downward shifts in antinociceptive dose-effect curves were greater for monkeys receiving the morphine/THC combination than monkeys receiving morphine alone. When treatment was discontinued, heart rate and directly observable withdrawal signs increased, although they were generally similar in monkeys that received morphine alone or with THC. These results demonstrated that antinociceptive tolerance was greater during treatment with the combination, and although treatment conditions were sufficient to result in the development of dependence on morphine, withdrawal was not

  14. Seroprevalence of Zika Virus in Wild African Green Monkeys and Baboons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, Connor R.; Bailey, Adam L.; Weiler, Andrea M.; Barry, Gabrielle L.; Breitbach, Meghan E.; Stewart, Laurel M.; Jasinska, Anna J.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Apetrei, Cristian; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E.; Jolly, Clifford J.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Friedrich, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently spread through the Americas and has been associated with a range of health effects, including birth defects in children born to women infected during pregnancy. Although the natural reservoir of ZIKV remains poorly defined, the virus was first identified in a captive “sentinel” macaque monkey in Africa in 1947. However, the virus has not been reported in humans or nonhuman primates (NHPs) in Africa outside Gabon in over a decade. Here, we examine ZIKV infection in 239 wild baboons and African green monkeys from South Africa, the Gambia, Tanzania, and Zambia using combinations of unbiased deep sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and an antibody capture assay that we optimized using serum collected from captive macaque monkeys exposed to ZIKV, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus. While we did not find evidence of active ZIKV infection in wild NHPs in Africa, we found variable ZIKV seropositivity of up to 16% in some of the NHP populations sampled. We anticipate that these results and the methodology described within will help in continued efforts to determine the prevalence, natural reservoir, and transmission dynamics of ZIKV in Africa and elsewhere. IMPORTANCE Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus originally discovered in a captive monkey living in the Zika Forest of Uganda, Africa, in 1947. Recently, an outbreak in South America has shown that ZIKV infection can cause myriad health effects, including birth defects in the children of women infected during pregnancy. Here, we sought to investigate ZIKV infection in wild African primates to better understand its emergence and spread, looking for evidence of active or prior infection. Our results suggest that up to 16% of some populations of nonhuman primate were, at some point, exposed to ZIKV. We anticipate that this study will be useful for future studies that examine the spread of infections from wild animals to humans in general and

  15. A novel kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy in rhesus monkeys induced by Coriaria lactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhen; Yang, Tian-Hua; Tang, Ming-Hai; Zhang, Heng; Li, Hong-Xia; Chen, Lei; Chen, Qin; Zhou, Dong

    2013-12-01

    One of the major challenges in developing novel therapeutics for human epileptic disorders derives from the limitation of knowledge of the processes by which epilepsy is generated (epileptogenesis). Furthermore, the inability to obtain human samples at the early stage of epilepsy hinders studies designed to further understand epileptogenesis. Thus, an effective animal model is critical for studies investigating this process. The purpose of this study was to establish a new primate kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) as an animal model of epileptogenesis. Here, repeated injections of Coriaria lactone (CL) at a subthreshold dose elicited partial seizures that culminated in secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The sequence of events and features of the behaviors observed in this model simulated those observed in human TLE. Electroencephalogram monitoring revealed the temporal lobe origins of the epileptiform potentials, which were consistent with the behavioral changes observed. A total of 7 rhesus monkeys (78%) were kindled with a median of 48 (41 to 60) CL injections. Both the seizure-induction and mortality rates were dose-dependent. A CL injection at 1.50mg/kg showed the lowest animal mortality rate (0%) and the highest seizure-induction rate (100%). Extensive kindling by CL injections with a median of 97 injections (overkindling) subsequently resulted in the recurrence of spontaneous seizures in rhesus monkeys with frequency patterns that were similar to those observed in human TLE. In addition, rhesus monkeys subjected to large numbers of kindling stimuli displayed mitochondrial damage and astrocyte activation in a pattern that was similar to the neuropathological changes characteristic of human TLE. Thus, a kindling TLE model in rhesus monkeys representing a primate animal model of epileptogenesis was established for the first time using repeated intramuscular injections of Coriaria lactone. This model was easily and efficiently performed

  16. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehan; Xie, Na; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya'an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis.

  17. Cynomolgus monkey induced pluripotent stem cells established by using exogenous genes derived from the same monkey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Ono, Ryoichi; Shimada, Manami; Shibata, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Inada, Hiroyasu; Takada, Tatsuyuki; Nosaka, Tetsuya; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells established by introduction of the transgenes POU5F1 (also known as Oct3/4), SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC have competence similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells. iPS cells generated from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells by using genes taken from the same species would be a particularly important resource, since various biomedical investigations, including studies on the safety and efficacy of drugs, medical technology development, and research resource development, have been performed using cynomolgus monkeys. In addition, the use of xenogeneic genes would cause complicating matters such as immune responses when they are expressed. In this study, therefore, we established iPS cells by infecting cells from the fetal liver and newborn skin with amphotropic retroviral vectors containing cDNAs for the cynomolgus monkey genes of POU5F1, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. Flat colonies consisting of cells with large nuclei, similar to those in other primate ES cell lines, appeared and were stably maintained. These cell lines had normal chromosome numbers, expressed pluripotency markers and formed teratomas. We thus generated cynomolgus monkey iPS cell lines without the introduction of ecotropic retroviral receptors or other additional transgenes by using the four allogeneic transgenes. This may enable detailed analysis of the mechanisms underlying the reprogramming. In conclusion, we showed that iPS cells could be derived from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on iPS cell lines established from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells by using genes from the same species.

  18. Interactions of motivation and reinforcement during the performance of a simple instrumental reflex by a monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, I M; Shul'govskii, V V

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of the performance of an instrumental task by Macaca rhesus monkeys was investigated in an automated experiment. Three monkeys were trained to complete a movement with a lever in response to a light stimulus. It was demonstrated that the performance of the instrumental reflex by the monkeys is comprised of the alternation of blocks of more or less continuous realizations and pauses between them. The relationship of the intensity of the work of the monkeys to the time from the beginning of the experiment was studied, and a comparison was made of the magnitude of the intensity for the three monkeys. The average intensity of the work of the monkeys within the blocks of continuous realizations is a constant and individual value. The influence of the degree of deprivation and of the delivery of out-of-turn reinforcement on the work of the monkeys was also investigated.

  19. A Deficit in Face-Voice Integration in Developing Vervet Monkeys Exposed to Ethanol during Gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenehpour, Shahin; Javadi, Pasha; Ervin, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    monkey model of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) provides an unparalleled opportunity to study the neurobehavioral outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure in a controlled experimental setting. Recent work has revealed a significant reduction of the neuronal population in the frontal lobes of these monkeys. We...... used an intersensory matching procedure to investigate audiovisual perception of socially relevant stimuli in young FAE vervet monkeys. Here we show a domain-specific deficit in audiovisual integration of socially relevant stimuli. When FAE monkeys were shown a pair of side-by-side videos of a monkey....... However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face...

  20. Effect of long-term feeding of soy-based diets on the pancreas of Cebus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, J P; Ausman, L M; King, N W; Sehgal, P K; Nicolosi, R J; Liener, I E; Donatucci, D; Tarcza, J

    1986-01-01

    Feeding soy-based protein containing trypsin inhibitor causes pancreatic hypertrophy in the rat, and long-term feeding (up to 2 years) has revealed a high incidence of adenoma following hypertrophy. It was therefore of interest to determine whether the ingestion of soy-based protein has any adverse effects on the primate pancreas. A resource of 27 Cebus albifrons monkeys, previously used to evaluate the protein quality of several soy and milk proteins, has been maintained on semi-synthetic diets for 3 to 4 years; the protein sources for the diets were casein, lactalbumin, soy isolate and soy concentrate. In general the monkeys were in good physical health and their weights were appropriate for age and sex. Serum biochemical and hematological profiles were normal and there were no major differences between the groups. A pancreatic biopsy from both the head and tail region of the pancreas was taken from each monkey. Visual observation of the pancreas revealed no overt pathology; two independent histological examinations indicated no diet-related differences between groups, and biochemical analyses of trypsin, chymotrypsin, protein, DNA and RNA revealed no differences. It is concluded that feeding low level trypsin inhibitor-containing diets for up to 4 years caused no adverse effects in the pancreas of the Cebus nonhuman primate.

  1. Reward-Induced Phasic Dopamine Release in the Monkey Ventral Striatum and Putamen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Yoshimi

    Full Text Available In-vivo voltammetry has successfully been used to detect dopamine release in rodent brains, but its application to monkeys has been limited. We have previously detected dopamine release in the caudate of behaving Japanese monkeys using diamond microelectrodes (Yoshimi 2011; however it is not known whether the release pattern is the same in various areas of the forebrain. Recent studies have suggested variations in the dopaminergic projections to forebrain areas. In the present study, we attempted simultaneous recording at two locations in the striatum, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV on carbon fibers, which has been widely used in rodents. Responses to unpredicted food and liquid rewards were detected repeatedly. The response to the liquid reward after conditioned stimuli was enhanced after switching the prediction cue. These characteristics were generally similar between the ventral striatum and the putamen. Overall, the technical application of FSCV recording in multiple locations was successful in behaving primates, and further voltammetric recordings in multiple locations will expand our knowledge of dopamine reward responses.

  2. Wild Vervet Monkeys Trade Tolerance and Specific Coalitionary Support for Grooming in Experimentally Induced Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgeaud, Christèle; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-11-16

    Grooming is a key social behavior in many primate species. Research has focused on three important aspects: the short- and long-term trading patterns of grooming for itself and/or for other commodities like tolerance or coalitionary support, the issue of whether exchanges are a convincing example for reciprocity, and what decision rules underlie trading. These issues remain largely unresolved due to the correlative nature of observational studies and the rarity of experimental studies. Here, we present a new experimental paradigm to address these questions in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). Adult females were first trained to approach a personal box, identifiable by unique color patterns, to access high-quality food. During the experiments, two boxes were placed next to each other to induce conflict through forced proximity. We found that while dominants were generally more tolerant toward bonded individuals, recent grooming increased tolerance independently of relationship quality. The latter result shows that vervet monkeys traded grooming for short-term tolerance, where dominants used a direct-reciprocity decision rule. In contrast, females invariably supported the higher-ranking opponent in a conflict, independently of who was the recent grooming partner. Nevertheless, recent grooming increased the probability that a female supported the partner during conflicts with a low-ranking third party. Thus, females' decisions about coalitionary support seem to integrate information about the current social hierarchy with recent grooming events. In conclusion, decision rules underlying trading of grooming for other commodities involve a variety of timescales and factors.

  3. Motivational Shifts in Aging Monkeys and the Origins of Social Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeling, Laura; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Sennhenn-Reulen, Holger; Freund, Alexandra M; Fischer, Julia

    2016-07-11

    As humans age, they become more selective regarding their personal goals [1] and social partners [2]. Whereas the selectivity in goals has been attributed to losses in resources (e.g., physical strength) [3], the increasing focus on emotionally meaningful partners is, according to socioemotional selectivity theory, driven by the awareness of one's decreasing future lifetime [2]. Similar to humans, aging monkeys show physical losses [4] and reductions in social activity [2, 5-7]. To disentangle a general resource loss and the awareness of decreasing time, we combined field experiments with behavioral observations in a large age-heterogeneous population of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at La Forêt des Singes. Novel object tests revealed a loss of interest in the nonsocial environment in early adulthood, which was modulated by the availability of a food reward. Experiments using vocal and visual representations of social partners indicated that monkeys maintained an interest in social stimuli and a preferential interest in friends and socially important individuals into old age. Old females engaged in fewer social interactions, although other group members continued to invest in relationships with them. Consequently, reductions in sociality were not due to a decrease in social interest. In conclusion, some of the motivational shifts observed in aging humans, particularly the increasing focus on social over nonsocial stimuli, may occur in the absence of a limited time perspective and are most likely deeply rooted in primate evolution. Our findings highlight the value of nonhuman primates as valuable models for understanding human aging [8, 9].

  4. Reward-Induced Phasic Dopamine Release in the Monkey Ventral Striatum and Putamen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, Kenji; Kumada, Shiori; Weitemier, Adam; Jo, Takayuki; Inoue, Masato

    2015-01-01

    In-vivo voltammetry has successfully been used to detect dopamine release in rodent brains, but its application to monkeys has been limited. We have previously detected dopamine release in the caudate of behaving Japanese monkeys using diamond microelectrodes (Yoshimi 2011); however it is not known whether the release pattern is the same in various areas of the forebrain. Recent studies have suggested variations in the dopaminergic projections to forebrain areas. In the present study, we attempted simultaneous recording at two locations in the striatum, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) on carbon fibers, which has been widely used in rodents. Responses to unpredicted food and liquid rewards were detected repeatedly. The response to the liquid reward after conditioned stimuli was enhanced after switching the prediction cue. These characteristics were generally similar between the ventral striatum and the putamen. Overall, the technical application of FSCV recording in multiple locations was successful in behaving primates, and further voltammetric recordings in multiple locations will expand our knowledge of dopamine reward responses.

  5. Circulation of Campylobacter spp. in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta held in captivity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an extremely important zoonosis, circulating freely in the environment. In nonhuman primates kept in open facilities and bred for experimental purposes, the presence of Campylobacter spp. could cause severe damage to the production and interfere with the results of scientific research. In this paper, we assessed the circulation of Campylobacter spp. in a colony of clinically healthy rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta destined to research. The analysis was carried out during seven non-consecutive years. Data showed that despite several changes made in animal management along the studied years in order to control this zoonosis, reduction of bacterial charge did not occur. Significant differences among the age groups and sex were observed. Infants showed higher susceptibility than adult animals. In general males were more infected than females. Modifications adopted in the handling techniques need to be reviewed with the intent of improving the production, reducing bacterial infection of the stock and avoiding undesirable cross reactions in the research carried out with these animals. Therefore, this paper alerts professionals that work directly with captive rhesus monkeys about the risks of Campylobacter spp. infection and possible interference on the experimental procedures.

  6. Monkeys Share the Human Ability to Internally Maintain a Temporal Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garibay, Otto; Cadena-Valencia, Jaime; Merchant, Hugo; de Lafuente, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Timing is a fundamental variable for behavior. However, the mechanisms allowing human and non-human primates to synchronize their actions with periodic events are not yet completely understood. Here we characterize the ability of rhesus monkeys and humans to perceive and maintain rhythms of different paces in the absence of sensory cues or motor actions. In our rhythm task subjects had to observe and then internally follow a visual stimulus that periodically changed its location along a circular perimeter. Crucially, they had to maintain this visuospatial tempo in the absence of movements. Our results show that the probability of remaining in synchrony with the rhythm decreased, and the variability in the timing estimates increased, as a function of elapsed time, and these trends were well described by the generalized law of Weber. Additionally, the pattern of errors shows that human subjects tended to lag behind fast rhythms and to get ahead of slow ones, suggesting that a mean tempo might be incorporated as prior information. Overall, our results demonstrate that rhythm perception and maintenance are cognitive abilities that we share with rhesus monkeys, and these abilities do not depend on overt motor commands. PMID:28066294

  7. Monkeys Share the Human Ability to Internally Maintain a Temporal Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Garibay, Otto; Cadena-Valencia, Jaime; Merchant, Hugo; de Lafuente, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Timing is a fundamental variable for behavior. However, the mechanisms allowing human and non-human primates to synchronize their actions with periodic events are not yet completely understood. Here we characterize the ability of rhesus monkeys and humans to perceive and maintain rhythms of different paces in the absence of sensory cues or motor actions. In our rhythm task subjects had to observe and then internally follow a visual stimulus that periodically changed its location along a circular perimeter. Crucially, they had to maintain this visuospatial tempo in the absence of movements. Our results show that the probability of remaining in synchrony with the rhythm decreased, and the variability in the timing estimates increased, as a function of elapsed time, and these trends were well described by the generalized law of Weber. Additionally, the pattern of errors shows that human subjects tended to lag behind fast rhythms and to get ahead of slow ones, suggesting that a mean tempo might be incorporated as prior information. Overall, our results demonstrate that rhythm perception and maintenance are cognitive abilities that we share with rhesus monkeys, and these abilities do not depend on overt motor commands.

  8. Resorption of elastic fibers in monkey gingival connective tissue: ultrastructural and immunocytochemical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takashi

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about the remodeling of elastic fibers in gingival connective tissue. In this study, elastic fibers in the lamina propria of monkey gingiva were examined by transmission electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. Some elastic fibers were localized at invagination on the surface of the narrow processes of fibroblasts distributed among dense assemblies of collagen fibrils, and also within coated pits, which were pinching off as coated vesicles. At a higher magnification, the coated vesicles contained filamentous structures, as well as pentagonal structures similar those previously reported in elastic fibers. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated positive staining for fibrillin, one of the main components of microfibril, localized either in the coated pits or vesicles. These observations indicate that at least some elastic fibers were resorbed by fibroblasts, and that, in spite of the general belief that little remodeling of elastic fibers occurs under normal conditions, resorption of elastic fibers does occur in monkey gingival connective tissue. The functional significance of this is not yet clear, but it may be involved in facilitating the delicate and efficient adaptation of tissue to physical requirements during mastication.

  9. Discovery and characterization of distinct simian pegiviruses in three wild African Old World monkey species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D Sibley

    Full Text Available Within the Flaviviridae, the recently designated genus Pegivirus has expanded greatly due to new discoveries in bats, horses, and rodents. Here we report the discovery and characterization of three simian pegiviruses (SPgV that resemble human pegivirus (HPgV and infect red colobus monkeys (Procolobus tephrosceles, red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius and an olive baboon (Papio anubis. We have designated these viruses SPgVkrc, SPgVkrtg and SPgVkbab, reflecting their host species' common names, which include reference to their location of origin in Kibale National Park, Uganda. SPgVkrc and SPgVkrtg were detected in 47% (28/60 of red colobus and 42% (5/12 red-tailed guenons, respectively, while SPgVkbab infection was observed in 1 of 23 olive baboons tested. Infections were not associated with any apparent disease, despite the generally high viral loads observed for each variant. These viruses were monophyletic and equally divergent from HPgV and pegiviruses previously identified in chimpanzees (SPgVcpz. Overall, the high degree of conservation of genetic features among the novel SPgVs, HPgV and SPgVcpz suggests conservation of function among these closely related viruses. Our study describes the first primate pegiviruses detected in Old World monkeys, expanding the known genetic diversity and host range of pegiviruses and providing insight into the natural history of this genus.

  10. Monkey hybrid stem cells develop cellular features of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorthongpanich Chanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluripotent stem cells that are capable of differentiating into different cell types and develop robust hallmark cellular features are useful tools for clarifying the impact of developmental events on neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. Additionally, a Huntington's cell model that develops robust pathological features of Huntington's disease would be valuable for drug discovery research. Results To test this hypothesis, a pluripotent Huntington's disease monkey hybrid cell line (TrES1 was established from a tetraploid Huntington's disease monkey blastocyst generated by the fusion of transgenic Huntington's monkey skin fibroblast and a wild-type non-transgenic monkey oocyte. The TrES1 developed key Huntington's disease cellular pathological features that paralleled neural development. It expressed mutant huntingtin and stem cell markers, was capable of differentiating to neural cells, and developed teratoma in severely compromised immune deficient (SCID mice. Interestingly, the expression of mutant htt, the accumulation of oligomeric mutant htt and the formation of intranuclear inclusions paralleled neural development in vitro , and even mutant htt was ubiquitously expressed. This suggests the development of Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. Conclusions Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. These results are the first to demonstrate that a pluripotent stem cell line is able to mimic Huntington's disease progression that parallels neural development, which could be a useful cell model for investigating the developmental impact on Huntington's disease pathogenesis.

  11. Effect of physical restraint on glucose tolerance in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Yasufumi; Yoshioka, Naoya; Kanazawa, Kanpei; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi; Horikawa, Tadahiro; Hayashi, Toshiaki

    2013-06-01

    Physiologic stress has been demonstrated to impair glucose tolerance. Glucose tolerance tests were performed using six cynomolgus monkeys. Chair-restrained subjects elicited higher elevations of plasma glucose and cortisol compared with squeezing device-restrained subjects. The responses to a glucose challenge are altered by different restraint procedures.

  12. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Desiré L; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  13. Mononeuropathy multiplex in rhesus monkeys with chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J D; Bohm, R P; Roberts, E D; Philipp, M T

    1997-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a recognized but poorly understood manifestation of Lyme disease. We performed serial electrophysiological studies on 8 rhesus monkeys chronically infected with the JD1 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi and compared the results with those of similar studies on 10 uninfected control monkeys. Four infected and 2 uninfected animals underwent sural nerve biopsy. Five of the infected and 1 of the uninfected animals also had postmortem neuropathological examinations. Altogether, 5 of the infected monkeys demonstrated primarily axonal-loss-variety multifocal neuropathies. Only one nerve lesion exhibited findings compatible with demyelination. Pathologically, peripheral nerve specimens showed multifocal axonal degeneration and regeneration and occasional perivascular inflammatory cellular infiltrates without vessel wall necrosis. Free spirochetal structures were not seen, but several macrophages exhibited positive immunostaining with a highly specific anti-B. burgdorferi, 7.5-kd lipoprotein monoclonal antibody. In the infected animals, serial analysis of serum antibodies to B. burgdorferi showed increasing numbers of IgG specificities and new IgM specificities, suggesting persistent infection. Thus, peripheral neuropathy in the form of a mononeuropathy multiplex develops frequently in rhesus monkeys chronically infected with B. burgdorferi. The pathogenesis of these nerve lesions is not yet known, but our studies suggest an immune-mediated process perhaps driven by persistent infection with B. burgdorferi.

  14. GLP-1 receptor localization in monkey and human tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Charles; Heller, R Scott; Kirk, Rikke Kaae

    2014-01-01

    and increase heart rate. Using a new monoclonal antibody for immunohistochemistry, we detected GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in important target organs in humans and monkeys. In the pancreas, GLP-1R was predominantly localized in β-cells with a markedly weaker expression in acinar cells. Pancreatic ductal epithelial...

  15. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiré L Dalton

    Full Text Available The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  16. Prospective and Retrospective Metacognitive Abilities in Rhesus Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ding

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Metacognition refers to a knowledge of one’s own cognitive abilities and one’s aptitude to alter these abilities if necessary. Previous research from our lab shows that monkeys exhibit metacognitive abilities by accurately judging their own performance on perceptual and serial working memory tasks. The present study includes two phases during which a monkey makes retrospective and prospective judgments of confidence. In the retrospective phase of this experiment, the subject completes a recall task, and then judges his performance on the test phase by choosing from high and low-risk confidence choices. In the prospective task, the monkey makes his confidence judgment before the test, instead judging how well he learned during the study phase. An analysis of results indicates that monkeys can immediately transfer the ability to make metacognitive judgments from the serial working memory tasks in previous experiments to retrospective and prospective recall tasks in the present study. These findings underline the similarity between the non-human primate and human abilities to make confidence judgments. Further, they are the first evidence to date of a non-human primate making a prospective judgment of future performance, suggesting that the ability to use a metacognitive state to control one’s actions is not uniquely human.

  17. Phospholipid organization in monkey erythrocytes upon Plasmodium knowlesi infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, P.H. van der; Beaumelle, B.; Vial, H.; Roelofsen, B.; Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1987-01-01

    The phospholipid organization in monkey erythrocytes upon Plasmodium knowlesi infection has been studied. Parasitized and nonparasitized erythrocytes from malaria-infected blood were separated and pure erythrocyte membranes from parasitized cells were isolated using Affi-Gel beads. In this way, the

  18. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...

  19. Serial memory strategies in macaque monkeys: behavioral and theoretical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Tanya; Yakovlev, Volodya; Amit, Daniel; Hochstein, Shaul; Zohary, Ehud

    2002-03-01

    Serial memory is the ability to encode and retrieve a list of items in their correct temporal order. To study nonverbal strategies involved in serial memory, we trained four macaque monkeys on a novel delayed sequence-recall task and analysed the mechanisms underlying their performance in terms of a neural network model. Thirty fractal images, divided into 10 triplets, were presented repeatedly in fixed temporal order. On each trial the monkeys viewed three sequentially presented sample images, followed by a test stimulus consisting of the same triplet of images and a distractor image (chosen randomly from the remaining 27). The task was to touch the three images in their original order, avoiding the distractor. The monkeys' most common error was touching the distractor when it had the same ordinal position (in its own triplet) as the correct image. This finding suggests that monkeys naturally categorize images by their ordinal number. Additional, secondary strategies were eventually used to avoid distractor images. These include memory of the sample images (working memory) and associations between triplet members. Further direct evidence for ordinal number categorization was provided by a transfer of learning to untrained images of the same ordinal category, following reassignment of image categories within each triplet. We propose a generic three-tier neuronal framework that can explain the components and complex set of characteristics of the observed behavior. This framework, with its intermediate level representing ordinal categories, can also explain the transfer of learning following category reassignment.

  20. Monkey Malaria in a European Traveler Returning from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Hanspeter; Felger, Ingrid; Müller, Dania; Jokiranta, T. Sakari

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, a Finnish traveler was infected in Peninsular Malaysia with Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite that usually causes malaria in monkeys. P. knowlesi has established itself as the fifth Plasmodium species that can cause human malaria. The disease is potentially life-threatening in humans; clinicians and laboratory personnel should become more aware of this pathogen in travelers. PMID:18760013

  1. [The principles of the therapy of glanders in monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomiakov, Iu N; Manzeniuk, I N; Naumov, D V; Svetoch, E A

    1998-01-01

    The effect of pathogenetic therapy in the normalization of homeostasis disturbances in monkeys has been shown under experimental conditions. Data on the possibility of using hemosorption in the treatment of severe forms of glanders are presented. The conclusion on the necessity of using complex treatment for the effective therapy of glanders in humans has been made.

  2. Monkeys Exhibit Prospective Memory in a Computerized Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) involves forming intentions, retaining those intentions, and later executing those intended responses at the appropriate time. Few studies have investigated this capacity in animals. Monkeys performed a computerized task that assessed their ability to remember to make a particular response if they observed a PM cue embedded…

  3. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  4. Servants, Managers and Monkeys: New Perspectives on Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskey, Frederick C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author questions whether the understanding of teaching and leading is the same today as it was last year? The chances are that the concept of what it means to be a teacher and a leader has changed. After describing three leadership types: servants, managers, and monkeys, Buskey suggest several things that are needed to improve…

  5. MAC of xenon and halothane in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, S L; Nemoto, E M; Yao, L; Yonas, H

    1994-10-01

    Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) maps produced by 33% xenon-enhanced computed tomographic scanning (Xe/CT LCBF) are useful in the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with cerebrovascular disorders. However, observations in humans that 25-35% xenon (Xe) inhalation increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) have raised concerns that Xe/CT LCBF measurements may be inaccurate and that Xe inhalation may be hazardous in patients with decreased intracranial compliance. In contrast, 33% Xe does not increase CBF in rhesus monkeys. To determine whether this interspecies difference in the effect of Xe on CBF correlates with an interspecies difference in the anesthetic potency of Xe, we measured the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of Xe preventing movement to a tail-clamp stimulus in rhesus monkeys. Using a standard protocol for the determination of MAC in animals, we first measured the MAC of halothane (n = 5), and then used a combination of halothane and Xe to measure the MAC of Xe (n = 7). The halothane MAC was 0.99 +/- 0.12% (M +/- SD), and the Xe MAC was 98 +/- 15%. These results suggest that the MAC of Xe in rhesus monkeys is higher than the reported human Xe MAC value of 71%. Thus the absence of an effect of 33% Xe on CBF in the rhesus monkey may be related to its lower anesthetic potency.

  6. Assessing Unit-Price Related Remifentanil Choice in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuska, Chad M.; Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    Given a commodity available at different prices, a unit-price account of choice predicts preference for the cheaper alternative. This experiment determined if rhesus monkeys preferred remifentanil (an ultra-short-acting [mu]-opioid agonist) delivered at a lower unit price over a higher-priced remifentanil alternative (Phases 1 and 3). Choice…

  7. Monkey malaria in a European traveler returning from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantele, Anu; Marti, Hanspeter; Felger, Ingrid; Müller, Dania; Jokiranta, T Sakari

    2008-09-01

    In 2007, a Finnish traveler was infected in Peninsular Malaysia with Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite that usually causes malaria in monkeys. P. knowlesi has established itself as the fifth Plasmodium species that can cause human malaria. The disease is potentially life-threatening in humans; clinicians and laboratory personnel should become more aware of this pathogen in travelers.

  8. Polioencephalomalacia secondary to hypernatremia in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macri, S M Cummings; Masek-Hammerman, K; Crowell, A M; Fenn, M S; Knight, H L; Westmoreland, S V; Miller, A D

    2014-05-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp) are one of the most consistently used New World primates in biomedical research and are increasingly being used in neuroscience research, including models of drug abuse and addiction. Spontaneous neurologic disease in the squirrel monkey is uncommonly reported but includes various infectious diseases as well as cerebral amyloidosis. Hypernatremia is an extremely serious condition of hyperosmolarity that occurs as a result of water loss, adipsia, or excess sodium intake. Neurologic effects of hypernatremia reflect the cellular dehydration produced by the shift of water from the intracellular fluid space into the hypertonic extracellular fluid space. Severe hypernatremia may result in cerebrocortical laminar necrosis (polioencephalomalacia) in human patients as well as in a number of domestic species, including pigs, poultry, and ruminants. We report the clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings of polioencephalomalacia in 13 squirrel monkeys. Polioencephalomalacia in these animals was associated with hypernatremia that was confirmed by serum levels of sodium greater than 180 mmol/L (reference range, 134.0-154.0 mmol/L [mEq/L]). All animals had concurrent diseases or experimental manipulation that predisposed to adipsia. Immunohistochemical investigation using antibodies to neuronal nuclei (NeuN), CNPase, Iba-1, and CD31 revealed necrosis of predominantly cerebral cortical layers 3, 4, and 5 characterized by neuronal degeneration and loss, oligodendrocytic loss, microglial proliferation, and vascular reactivity. The squirrel monkey is exquisitely sensitive to hyperosmolar metabolic disruption and it is associated with laminar cortical necrosis.

  9. The Monkey Kid: A Personal Glimpse into the Cultural Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M. Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Wang, Xiao-Yen (Director/Writer, 'The Monkey Kid '(1995. San Francisco, Calif.: Beijing–San Francisco Film Group. Also released in France by Les Films du Parodoxe under the title, 'La Mome Singe '(1997. 95 minutes. Mandarin Chinese with English subtitles.

  10. Experimental toxoplasmosis and vaccine tests in Aotus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escajadillo, A; Frenkel, J K

    1991-04-01

    We studied Aotus lemurinus, Panamanian night monkeys, for susceptibility to Toxoplasma infection and for their capacity to develop immunity using either sufadiazine prophylaxis or the non-persistent ts-4 vaccine. The animals were highly susceptible to infection with a mouse pathogenic (T265) and a mouse nonpathogenic (T163) Toxoplasma isolate. A calculated single bradyzoite by mouth gave rise to infection which was fatal in nine to 12 days. Chemoprophylaxis with 60-300 of sulfadiazine mg per day for up to 40 days protected the animals; however this was followed by fatal reactivation of infection between 11 and 70 days after treatment was stopped. Vaccination was carried out in two or three doses subcutaneously. Challenge was performed in 26 animals using both Toxoplasma isolates. Five monkeys (19%) survived for over a year, 10 died after a prolonged illness, and 11 died as rapidly as the seven controls. Safety tests showed the vaccine to be nonpathogenic in 111 adults except for slight fever and local inflammation, although one of four juveniles died from disseminated infection. Vaccination of 25 pregnant monkeys was non-pathogenic; however two of 25 fetuses were aborted, one of which was infected and one newborn had microphthalmia, retinitis and a cataract; four of the offspring were not tested. When six lactating monkeys were vaccinated, Toxoplasma was not transmitted to the infants. The high susceptibility to Toxoplasma and the low immunizability was circumstantially attributed to absence of exposure and lack of selection by Toxoplasma of these arboreal monkeys even though about 50% of terrestrial animals from the same area were infected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Comment on Lasetron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, Gennady V.

    2003-02-05

    In a recent paper [1] Kaplan and Shkolnikov propose to generate intense ultrashort pulses of electromagnetic radiation in the range {approx} 10{sup -21}s (zeptosecond) and large magnetic fields by using a petawatt electron laser irradiating a small solid particle or a piece of wire of a submicron size. In this comment we would like to point out that the method proposed in Ref. [1] will not achieve the desired results.

  12. The Long and the Short of It: Comments on Multiple Timescale Studies of Human Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Jay L.

    2001-01-01

    Comments on four articles in a special issue of the Journal of the Learning Sciences on methodology in learning sciences. Analyzes the articles within a general model seeking to analyze human activity across multiple time scales. (Author/MM)

  13. 77 FR 10558 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Immigration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Immigration Practitioner Complaint...), Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR) will be submitting the following information collection... Robin M. Stutman, General Counsel, Executive Office for Immigration Review, U.S. Department of...

  14. 75 FR 67116 - Civil Rights Division; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... brief abstract: General Public. Information is used to find jurisdiction to investigate the alleged... Rights Division; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested... of Justice. ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection under Review: FCS Complaint Form. The...

  15. Collected EPA Responses to Comments on the Probabilistic Assessment (PRA) White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA responds to comments from American Water Works Association, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Wood Preservative Science Council, CropLife America, American Chemistry Council, General Electric Company and Bayer CropScience US.

  16. 75 FR 79009 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Questionnaire Cognitive Interview and Pretesting (NCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, for opportunity for public comment on proposed data... answers, while noting points of confusion and errors in responding. Interviews are generally conducted...

  17. Evaluation of third-party reciprocity by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and the question of mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Bucher, Benoit; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    Social evaluation during third-party interactions emerges early in human ontogeny, and it has been shown in adult capuchin monkeys who witness violations of reciprocity in object exchanges: Monkeys were less inclined to accept food from humans who refused to reciprocate with another human. A recent study reporting similar evidence in marmoset monkeys raised the possibility that such evaluations might be based on species' inherent cooperativeness. We tested a species not renowned for cooperativeness-squirrel monkeys-using the procedure used with marmosets and found a similar result. This finding rules out any crucial role for cooperative tendencies in monkeys' responses to unfair exchanges. We then tested squirrel monkeys using procedures more similar to those used in the original study with capuchins. Squirrel monkeys again accepted food less frequently from non-reciprocators, but unlike capuchins, they also strongly preferred reciprocators. We conclude that neither squirrel monkeys nor marmoset monkeys engaged in emotional bookkeeping of the type that probably underlies social evaluation in capuchin monkeys; instead, they employed one or more simple behavioral rules. Further comparative studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying social evaluation processes across species.

  18. 78 FR 27259 - Information Collection; Request for Public Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Respondent: 1. Frequency of Response: Annually. Needs and Uses: Reports from auditors to auditees and reports... the general public and Federal agencies to comment on a revision of an approved information form (SF-SAC) that is used to report audit results, audit findings, and questioned costs as required by the...

  19. Comments on the Energy Principle and the Minimizing Eigenfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    In this lecture, we make some comments on the MHD energy principle and the process of minimization. These remarks are quite general. Some of them require a considerable amount of vector algebra and integration by parts. Most of these details have been omitted for clarity of presentation.

  20. 7 CFR 1.416 - Comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comment period. 1.416 Section 1.416 Agriculture Office... Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620 et seq.) § 1.416 Comment period. Written comments... and by the Regional Forester by the 30th day of the comment period. ...

  1. Two Universality Properties Associated with the Monkey Model of Zipf's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perline, Richard; Perline, Ron

    2016-03-01

    The distribution of word probabilities in the monkey model of Zipf's law is associated with two universality properties: (1) the power law exponent converges strongly to $-1$ as the alphabet size increases and the letter probabilities are specified as the spacings from a random division of the unit interval for any distribution with a bounded density function on $[0,1]$; and (2), on a logarithmic scale the version of the model with a finite word length cutoff and unequal letter probabilities is approximately normally distributed in the part of the distribution away from the tails. The first property is proved using a remarkably general limit theorem for the logarithm of sample spacings from Shao and Hahn, and the second property follows from Anscombe's central limit theorem for a random number of i.i.d. random variables. The finite word length model leads to a hybrid Zipf-lognormal mixture distribution closely related to work in other areas.

  2. Two Universality Properties Associated with the Monkey Model of Zipf's Law

    CERN Document Server

    Perline, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of word probabilities in the monkey model of Zipf's law is associated with two universality properties: (1) the power law exponent converges strongly to $-1$ as the alphabet size increases and the letter probabilities are specified as the spacings from a random division of the unit interval for any distribution with a bounded density function on $[0,1]$; and (2), on a logarithmic scale the version of the model with a finite word length cutoff and unequal letter probabilities is approximately normally distributed in the part of the distribution away from the tails. The first property is proved using a remarkably general limit theorem for the logarithm of sample spacings from Shao and Hahn, and the second property follows from Anscombe's central limit theorem for a random number of i.i.d. random variables. The finite word length model leads to a hybrid Zipf-lognormal mixture distribution closely related to work in other areas.

  3. Growth and immunity conferred by a Plasmodium falciparum temperature sensitive mutant in Panamanian owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inselburg, J; Rossan, R N; Escajadillo, A

    1989-05-01

    We have compared the growth of the wild type Plasmodium falciparum strain Honduras 1 and a previously isolated temperature sensitive mutant of it, AP1-16, in Panamanian owl monkeys. We examined serially infected splenectomized and normal animals that were initially infected with cultured parasites that had been grown in a mixture of owl monkey and human erythrocytes. Initial infections in splenectomized monkeys were marked by multiple recrudescences. The mutant grew less well than the wild type in the splenectomized monkeys, as determined by lower peak and total parasitemias. In the splenectomized monkeys tested by rechallenge with the wild type parasite, the mutant stimulated a comparable degree of protection. That protection was manifested in 2 ways. There was a marked reduction in the level of the primary parasitemia in the rechallenged monkeys and an absence of recrudescent parasitemias after the primary parasitemia. The potential value of generating and studying temperature sensitive P. falciparum strains that show attenuated growth is considered.

  4. Captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) arm-raise to solicit allo-grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H; Edwards, Dori

    2012-03-01

    Old World monkeys solicit allo-grooming from conspecifics. However, there are relatively few studies of allo-grooming among spider monkeys, and descriptions of allo-grooming solicitation among spider monkeys are anecdotal. In this study, eighty-one hours of video, shot over eight weeks, captured 271 allo-grooming bouts among small groups of captive spider monkeys. Six of eight monkeys made heretofore unreported arm-raises that solicited higher than normal rates of allo-grooming. Allo-grooming bout durations following arm-raises also tended to be longer than bouts not preceded by arm-raises. The efficacy of the arm-raise at soliciting allo-grooming suggests spider monkeys are capable of intentional communication.

  5. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  6. On Primatology and Ethics: When Monkeys and Apes Are Informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Barbara J.

    1993-01-01

    Comments to a previous article focusing on power and method in linguistic research. It is suggested that the method advocated is worthwhile, modifiable for other disciplines, and should be read and discussed by scholars from many fields. (VWL)

  7. [The interrelationships of motivation and reinforcement in the performance of a simple instrumental reflex by the monkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, I M; Shul'govskiĭ, V V

    1991-01-01

    The dynamics of instrumental reflex of rhesus monkey was studied in automatic experiment. Three monkeys performed a movement of the lever in response to the light stimulus. It was shown, that the realization of the instrumental reflex by monkeys represented blocks of continuous or interrupted realizations and pauses between them. The dependence was studied of intensity of performance upon the time from the beginning of the experiment, and a comparison was drawn of intensities for three monkeys. The average intensity in block is constant and individual for each monkey. Also the influence of food deprivation and complementary reinforcement on the monkey's performance was studied.

  8. Comment on "Scalar Einstein-Aether theory"

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Ted; Speranza, Antony J.

    2014-01-01

    A recent paper studies a modification of Einstein-aether theory in which the aether vector is restricted, at the level of the action, to be the gradient of a scalar. In this comment we note that this scalar version of Einstein-aether theory is equivalent to the projectable version of the IR limit of Ho\\v{r}ava gravity when the potential for the scalar is constant. This provides a generally covariant formulation for projectable Ho\\v{r}ava gravity.

  9. Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following monkey bite in a 2-month-old infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Srinivasan; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Raghavan, Renitha; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-05-01

    Although cerebral abscesses caused by animal bites have been reported, they are extremely rare in infants and have not been described following monkey bite. A 55-day-old male infant presented with a multi-loculated Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following a monkey bite on the scalp. There was a clinical response to antibiotic therapy and repeated surgical aspiration followed by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This is the first report of a patient with a brain abscess following a monkey bite.

  10. Immunization with Recombinant Helicobacter pylori Urease in Specific-Pathogen-Free Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Solnick, Jay V.; Canfield, Don R.; Hansen, Lori M.; Torabian, Sima Z.

    2000-01-01

    Immunization with urease can protect mice from challenge with Helicobacter pylori, though results vary depending on the particular vaccine, challenge strain, and method of evaluation. Unlike mice, rhesus monkeys are naturally colonized with H. pylori and so may provide a better estimate of vaccine efficacy in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of H. pylori urease as a vaccine in specific-pathogen (H. pylori)-free rhesus monkeys. Monkeys raised from birth and do...

  11. Comments on transect methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.L.

    1980-02-01

    One of the outcomes of the recent spate of attention to environmental problems is the realization that we do not have suitable methods to census non-game species. Since marking is expensive and time-consuming, investigators have tended to look for methods that involve only visual techniques. One of the leading candidates thus becomes the line transect method. The purpose here is to briefly describe some of the available transect methods, and to comment on some aspects that may be of particular interest and importance.

  12. ‘‘What's wrong with my monkey?''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    it is acceptable to use animals as models of human disease; whether it is acceptable to genetically modify animals; and whether these animals' being monkeys makes a difference. The analysis considers the prospect of transgenic marmoset studies coming to replace transgenic mouse studies and lesion studies......, readily available in the way that transgenic laboratory mice are currently, prompts excitement in the scientific community; but the idea of monkeys being bred to carry diseases is also contentious. We structure an ethical analysis of the transgenic marmoset case around three questions: whether...... in marmosets in some areas of research. The mainstream, broadly utilitarian view of animal research suggests that such a transition will not give rise to greater ethical problems than those presently faced. It can be argued that using marmosets rather than mice will not result in more animal suffering...

  13. Protein deficiency and energy restriction in young cebus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, K W; Hegsted, D M

    1978-03-01

    Infant cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) were fed liquid formulas that were limited in protein, energy, or a combination of the two restrictions. Weight gain, food intake, hematological development, and plasma protein and cholesterol levels were monitored over a 20-week period. The animals restricted in protein developed the classical signs of protein deficiency--reductions in plasma albumin, a mild anemia, accumulation of fat in the liver, and, in a few cases, facial edema. These animals maintained a relatively high energy intake, and apparently wasted energy when compared to similarly non-growing energy-restricted animals. Energy-restricted animals did not exhibit these symptoms, even when their daily protein intake was reduced to match that of protein-restricted monkeys. It is concluded that an energy restriction superimposed upon a limited protein intake did not increase protein requirements or precipitate protein deficiency.

  14. Grooming, rank, and agonistic support in tufted capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Studies investigating the relation between allogrooming and social rank in capuchin monkeys (genus Cebus) have yielded inconsistent results. In this study, we investigated the relation between grooming, agonistic support, aggression and social rank in a captive group of tufted capuchin monkeys (C. apella). Differently from most previous studies, we based our analyses on a relatively large database and studied a group with known genealogical relationships. Tufted capuchin females did not exchange grooming for rank-related benefits such as agonistic support or reduced aggression. Coherently with this picture, they did not groom up the hierarchy and did not compete for accessing high-ranking grooming partners. It is suggested that a small group size, coupled with a strong kin bias, may make the exchange of grooming for rank-related benefits impossible or unprofitable, thus eliminating the advantages of grooming up the hierarchy. We provide several possible explanations for the heterogeneity of results across capuchin studies that have addressed similar questions.

  15. Metabolic alkalosis during immobilization in monkeys (M. nemestrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. R.; Yeh, I.; Swenson, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systemic and renal acid-base response of monkeys during ten weeks of immobilization was studied. By three weeks of immobilization, arterial pH and bicarbonate concentrations were elevated (chronic metabolic alkalosis). Net urinary acid excretion increased in immobilized animals. Urinary bicarbonate excretion decreased during the first three weeks of immobilization, and then returned to control levels. Sustained increases in urinary ammonium excretion were seen throughout the time duration of immobilization. Neither potassium depletion nor hypokalemia was observed. Most parameters returned promptly to the normal range during the first week of recovery. Factors tentatively associated with changes in acid-base status of monkeys include contraction of extracellular fluid volume, retention of bicarbonate, increased acid excretion, and possible participation of extrarenal buffers.

  16. Protein composition of rhesus monkey milk: comparison to human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, C; Lönnerdal, B

    1993-04-01

    1. Proteins in human milk and Rhesus monkey milk have been compared by FPLC gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography, SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, nitrogen and protein determination. 2. Mature Rhesus milk is higher in protein concentration (15-20 mg/ml) than human milk (8-9 mg/ml). 3. Non-Protein nitrogen is 6-13% in Rhesus milk but 25-30% in human milk. 4. Secretory IgA, lactoferrin, serum albumin, alpha-lactalbumin and lysozyme are present in Rhesus milk, but at a lower concentration than in human milk. 5. The casein subunit pattern is more complex in Rhesus milk compared to human milk. 6. The ratio of whey proteins to casein is similar in both milks (approximately 60/40). 7. A protein with a M(r) of 21,600 is a major component in monkey whey but is not found in human milk.

  17. Hemodynamic effects of barnidipine hydrochloride in conscious squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, M; Inagaki, O; Takenaka, T

    1994-05-01

    1. The effects of barnidipine, a new dihydropyridine Ca2+ antagonist, on cardiovascular and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems were investigated in conscious squirrel monkeys. 2. Barnidipine (0.3-3 mg/kg p.o.) produced a dose-related decrease in systolic blood pressure. The hypotensive action after 3 mg/kg p.o. lasted more than 8 hr. 3. Barnidipine increased heart rate, but did not affect the PQ-interval of the electrocardiograph. 4. Barnidipine (1 and 3 mg/kg p.o.) increased plasma renin activity dose-dependently. However, it had no significant effect on plasma aldosterone concentration. 5. These results indicate that barnidipine produces a sustained hypotension without affecting atrioventricular conduction time and plasma aldosterone concentration in conscious squirrel monkeys.

  18. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Danilo B; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Ferreira, Paulo C P

    2016-03-01

    Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest.

  19. Spontaneous Cholelithiasis in a Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Mia T; Wachtman, Lynn M; Marini, Robert P; Bakthavatchalu, Vasu; Fox, James G

    2016-02-01

    A mature female squirrel monkey was noted during routine semiannual examinations to have moderate progressive weight loss. Serum chemistry panels revealed marked increases in hepatic enzyme, bilirubin, and bile salt concentrations and hypoalbuminemia. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed echogenic, shadowing debris in the gallbladder, consistent with cholelithiasis. At necropsy, marked thickening and distension of the gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct was noted, and more than 50 irregularly shaped, black gallstones were removed from the biliary tract. Gallbladder tissue, bile, and gallstones cultured positive for Escherichia coli and Proteus spp., suggesting a brown-pigment gallstone type secondary to a bacterial nidus. Histopathology revealed severe chronic-active diffuse cholecystitis and severe chronic-active hepatic degeneration and necrosis with severe cholestasis. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of spontaneous choleilthiasis in a squirrel monkey.

  20. A monkey metabolism pod for space-flight weightlessness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Grunbaum, B. W.

    1973-01-01

    The system described will permit quantitative physiological studies in adult monkeys, weighing from 8 to 14 kg, during future space flights. The system comprises a fiberglass pod containing a comfortable restraint couch for the animal. The pod is divided into upper and lower halves. When the monkey occupies the couch, a rubber belly-band forms a gas seal between the upper and lower portions of the animal. The upper-pod ventilating air stream is monitored for the partial pressures of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water to permit continuous metabolic gas-exchange measurements for computation of metabolic energy expediture. The lower pod is lined with ashless filter paper for excreta collection.

  1. Dyscoria associated with herpesvirus infection in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Montoya, Enrique J; Weller, Richard E

    2008-07-01

    "Dyscoria was noted in a female owl monkey and 2 of her offspring. The third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two male monkeys paired with the female died, 1 of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all 3 animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring were positive for Herpesvirus simplex antibodies by ELISA. The clinical history, gross and microscopic lesions, and serology results suggests a herpesviral etiology, possibly H. simplex or H. saimiri 1. This report underscores the risks associated with introducing into breeding or research colonies animals that previously were kept as pets or those from unknown origin that could carry asymptomatic pathogenic Herpesvirus infections. In addition, herpesviral infection should be considered among the differential diagnoses if dyscoria is noted in nonhuman primates."

  2. Monkeying with the Goodness-of-Fit Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The familiar Σ(OBS - EXP 2/EXP goodness-of-fit measure is commonly used to test whether an observed sequence came from the realization of n independent identically distributed (iid discrete random variables. It can be quite effective for testing for identical distribution, but is not suited for assessing independence, as it pays no attention to the order in which output values are received. This note reviews a way to adjust or tamper, that is, monkey-with the classical test to make it test for independence as well as identical distribution--in short, to test for both the i's in iid, using monkey tests similar to those in the Diehard Battery of Tests of Randomness (Marsaglia 1995.

  3. Present and potential distribution of Snub-nosed Monkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nüchel, Jonas; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    are the Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus), a temperate-subtropical East Asian genus. We use species distribution modeling to assess the following question of key relevancy for conservation management of Rhinopithecus; 1. Which climatic factors determine the present distribution of Rhinopithecus within...... distribution of Rhinopithecus within the region, considering climate, habitat availability and the locations of nature reserves. Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, conservation, China, snub-nosed monkey, rhinopithecus, primates, species distribution modeling......Around 28 % of mammal species are threatened or near threatened with extinction. One of the mammal taxa with many threatened species are the primates. Of which more than 65 % of the world’s 424 know species are threatened or near threatened (IUCN, 2014). One group of threatened primates...

  4. Photoacoustic tomography of monkey brain using virtual point ultrasonic transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Liming; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-01-01

    A photoacoustic tomography system (PAT) using virtual point ultrasonic transducers was developed and applied to image a monkey brain. The custom-built transducers provide a 10-fold greater field-of-view (FOV) than finite-aperture unfocused transducers as well as an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reduced artifacts rather than negative-lens transducers. Their tangential resolution, radial resolution, and (SNR) improvements were quantified using tissue phantoms. Our PAT system can achi...

  5. Mirror neurons and mirror systems in monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2008-06-01

    Mirror neurons are a distinct class of neurons that transform specific sensory information into a motor format. Mirror neurons have been originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey. Subsequent neurophysiological (TMS, EEG, MEG) and brain imaging studies have shown that a mirror mechanism is also present in humans. According to its anatomical locations, mirror mechanism plays a role in action and intention understanding, imitation, speech, and emotion feeling.

  6. Monkeys get a silver in Abstract Art Olympics

    CERN Document Server

    Simkin, M V

    2011-01-01

    Experiment shows that art students prefer abstract art to monkey art in about two-third of the cases. Since the number is above 50%, some argue that abstract art is different and better than animal art. I compare this result with figure skating competitions, where on average 73% of judges prefer gold medalist to silver medalist. This means that the difference between abstract artists and animal artists is less than the difference between gold and silver medalists.

  7. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space

    OpenAIRE

    Drucker, Caroline B.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance...

  8. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4% and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35% from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  9. Effect of new training technique on affinity of cynomolgus monkeys for animal care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Ai; Tachibana, Yuki; Takaura, Kaoru; Ochi, Takehiro; Koyama, Hironari

    2015-01-01

    To confirm our hypothesis that the sex and age of cynomolgus monkeys influences the effect of training, we employed a new training technique designed to increase the animal's affinity for animal care personnel. During 151 days of training, monkeys aged 2 to 10 years accepted each 3 raisins/3 times/day, and communicated with animal care personnel (5 times/day). Behavior was scored using integers between -1 and 5. Before training, 35 of the 61 monkeys refused raisins offered directly by animal care personnel (Score -1, 0 and 1). After training, 28 of these 35 monkeys (80%) accepted raisins offered directly by animal care personnel (>Score 2). The mean score of monkeys increased from 1.2 ± 0.1 to 4.3 ± 0.2. The minimum training period required for monkeys to reach Score 2 was longer for females than for males. After 151 days, 6 of the 31 females and 1 of the 30 males still refused raisins offered directly by animal care personnel. Beneficial effects of training were obtained in both young and adult monkeys. These results indicate that our new training technique markedly improves the affinity of monkeys for animal care personnel, and that these effects tend to vary by sex but not age. In addition, abnormal behavior and symptoms of monkeys were improved by this training.

  10. A coprological survey of parasites of wild mantled howling monkeys, Alouatta palliata palliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, M D; Greenspan, L L; Glander, K E; Clarke, M R

    1990-10-01

    Fecal samples from 155 mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata palliata) examined at Centro Ecologico La Pacifica, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, revealed 75 (48%) had parasitic infections. A sampling of nine howling monkeys from Santa Rosa National Park. Costa Rica indicated only one infected animal (11%). Only three of 19 (16%) spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) also from Santa Rosa were infected. Controrchis biliophilus, Trypanoxyuris minutus, unidentified strongylid eggs and Isospora sp. oocysts were found. Three monkeys from La Pacifica died and were examined for adult helminths. They were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, C. biliophilus and T. minutus.

  11. Color vision test for dichromatic and trichromatic macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koida, Kowa; Yokoi, Isao; Okazawa, Gouki; Mikami, Akichika; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2013-11-01

    Dichromacy is a color vision defect in which one of the three cone photoreceptors is absent. Individuals with dichromacy are called dichromats (or sometimes "color-blind"), and their color discrimination performance has contributed significantly to our understanding of color vision. Macaque monkeys, which normally have trichromatic color vision that is nearly identical to humans, have been used extensively in neurophysiological studies of color vision. In the present study we employed two tests, a pseudoisochromatic color discrimination test and a monochromatic light detection test, to compare the color vision of genetically identified dichromatic macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with that of normal trichromatic macaques. In the color discrimination test, dichromats could not discriminate colors along the protanopic confusion line, though trichromats could. In the light detection test, the relative thresholds for longer wavelength light were higher in the dichromats than the trichromats, indicating dichromats to be less sensitive to longer wavelength light. Because the dichromatic macaque is very rare, the present study provides valuable new information on the color vision behavior of dichromatic macaques, which may be a useful animal model of human dichromacy. The behavioral tests used in the present study have been previously used to characterize the color behaviors of trichromatic as well as dichromatic new world monkeys. The present results show that comparative studies of color vision employing similar tests may be feasible to examine the difference in color behaviors between trichromatic and dichromatic individuals, although the genetic mechanisms of trichromacy/dichromacy is quite different between new world monkeys and macaques.

  12. Vitamins in the monkey brain: An immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, A; Coveñas, R; Bodet, D; Duleu, S; Marcos, P; Geffard, M

    2009-09-01

    Using highly specific antisera directed against vitamins, the distribution of pyridoxal-, pyridoxine-, vitamin C- and nicotinamide-immunoreactive structures in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis) brain was studied. Neither immunoreactive structures containing pyridoxine or nicotinamide, nor immunoreactive fibers containing vitamin C were found in the monkey brain. However, this work reports the first visualization and the morphological characteristics of pyridoxal- and vitamin C-immunoreactive cell bodies in the mammalian central nervous system using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. A high density of pyridoxal-immunoreactive cell bodies was found in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and in the supraoptic nucleus and a low density of the same was observed in the periventricular hypothalamic region, whereas a moderate density of vitamin C-immunoreactive cell bodies was observed in the somatosensorial cortex (precentral gyrus). Immunoreactive fibers containing pyridoxal were only visualized in the anterior commissure. The restricted distribution of pyridoxal and vitamin C in the monkey brain suggests that both vitamins could be involved in very specific physiological mechanisms.

  13. Cognitive performance of juvenile monkeys after chronic fluoxetine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari S. Golub

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N = 16/group for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N = 8/group suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention. After dosing was discontinued, sustained attention, recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were evaluated. Sustained attention was affected by fluoxetine, both during and after dosing, as indexed by omission errors. Response accuracy was not affected by fluoxetine in post-dosing recognition memory and cognitive flexibility tests, but formerly fluoxetine-treated monkeys compared to vehicle controls had more missed trial initiations and choices during testing. Drug treatment also interacted with genetic and environmental variables: MAOA genotype (high- and low transcription rate polymorphisms and testing location (upper or lower tier of cages. Altered development of top-down cortical regulation of effortful attention may be relevant to this pattern of cognitive test performance after juvenile fluoxetine treatment.

  14. The cortical motor system of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakola, Sophia; Burman, Kathleen J; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2015-04-01

    Precise descriptions of the anatomical pathways that link different areas of the cerebral cortex are essential to the understanding of the sensorimotor and association processes that underlie human actions, and their impairment in pathological situations. Many years of research in macaque monkeys have critically shaped how we currently think about cortical motor function in humans. However, it is important to obtain additional understanding about the homologies between cortical areas in human and various non-human primates, and in particular how evolutionary changes in connectivity within specific neural circuits impact on the capacity for different behaviors. Current research has converged on the New World marmoset monkey as an important animal model for cortical function and dysfunction, emphasizing advantages unique to this species. However, the motor repertoire of the marmoset differs from that of the macaque in many ways, including the capacity for skilled use of the hands. Here, we review current knowledge about the cortical frontal areas in marmosets, which are key to the generation and control of motor behaviors, with focus on comparative analyses. We note significant parallels with the macaque monkey, as well as a few potentially important differences, which suggest future directions for work involving architectonic and functional analyses.

  15. Atopic dermatitis with possible polysensitization and monkey esophagus reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease resulting from interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Recent studies link atopic dermatitis with asthma and with eosinophilic esophagitis. Case Report: Based on this association, we investigated by indirect immunofluorescence the immunoreactivity patterns on monkey esophagus substrate utilizing the serum of a patient with severe atopic dermatitis. We also examined the patient′s skin biopsy by H&E histology and immunohistochemistry. We detected strong deposits of albumin, IgE, IgG, IgD, IgA, Complement/C1q and mast cell tryptase in multiples structures of the skin, as well as a broad pattern of intraepithelial staining on monkey esophagus. Strong staining positivity was also detected within the inflammatory infiltrate around the upper dermal vessels, as well as additional positive staining for the human leukocyte antigen system antigens DR DP and DQ. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that there could be an indication for testing patients with severe atopic dermatitis for autoreactivity to filaggrin (anti-keratin antibodies utilizing monkey esophagus. Larger studies are needed to clarify any immunologic interaction between the reactivity to albumin and food allergens that may sensitize patients via the esophageal mucosa.

  16. Phenytoin and/or stiripentol in pregnancy: infant monkey hyperexcitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N K; Lockard, J S

    1993-01-01

    A monkey (Macaca fascicularis) model was used to assess infant hyperexcitability after prenatal exposure to phenytoin (PHT, n = 4), stiripentol (STP, n = 5), or PHT + STP (n = 4). Adult female monkeys were equipped with tether systems and stomach catheters so that drug administration could start 1 month before mating and could be continued throughout gestation. During pregnancy, PHT and STP plasma levels were maintained between 4-12 and 4-10 micrograms/ml respectively (for both monotherapy and polytherapy). Infants were separated from mothers at birth and transferred to the University of Washington's (Seattle) Infant Primate Research Laboratory (IPRL) for postnatal care and testing. Data on a hyperexcitability scale were obtained during cognitive testing for visual and cross-modal recognition memory in 13 infant monkeys when they were between 2 weeks and 3 months of age. The data indicated that infants prenatally exposed to PHT, whether alone or in combination with STP, were at increased risk for hyperexcitability (screeching, refusing to attend to stimuli, lack of visual orientation). This was not true of infants prenatally exposed to STP monotherapy (drug group differences, p < 0.05).

  17. Electrons at the monkey saddle: A multicritical Lifshitz point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyk, A.; Goldstein, G.; Chamon, C.

    2017-01-01

    We consider two-dimensional interacting electrons at a monkey saddle with dispersion ∝px3-3 pxpy2 . Such a dispersion naturally arises at the multicritical Lifshitz point when three Van Hove saddles merge in an elliptical umbilic elementary catastrophe, which we show can be realized in biased bilayer graphene. A multicritical Lifshitz point of this kind can be identified by its signature Landau level behavior Em∝(Bm ) 3 /2 and related oscillations in thermodynamic and transport properties, such as de Haas-Van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, whose period triples as the system crosses the singularity. We show, in the case of a single monkey saddle, that the noninteracting electron fixed point is unstable to interactions under the renormalization-group flow, developing either a superconducting instability or non-Fermi-liquid features. Biased bilayer graphene, where there are two non-nested monkey saddles at the K and K' points, exhibits an interplay of competing many-body instabilities, namely, s -wave superconductivity, ferromagnetism, and spin- and charge-density waves.

  18. Larva migrans in squirrel monkeys experimentally infected with Baylisascaris potosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Tsugo, Kosuke; Nakamura, Shohei; Taira, Kensuke; Une, Yumi

    2015-10-01

    Roundworms of the genus Baylisascaris are natural parasites primarily of wild carnivores, and they can occasionally cause infection in humans and animals. Infection results in visceral larva migrans and/or neural larva migrans, which can be severe or fatal in some animals. Recently, Baylisascaris nematodes isolated from kinkajous (Potos flavus) and previously referred to as Baylisascaris procyonis were renamed as Baylisascaris potosis; however, data regarding the pathogenicity of B. potosis towards animals and humans are lacking. In the present study, we experimentally infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with B. potosis to determine the suitability of the monkey as a primate model. We used embryonated eggs of B. potosis at two different doses (10,000 eggs and 100,000 eggs) and examined the animals at 30 days post-infection. Histopathological examination showed the presence of B. potosis larvae and infiltration of inflammatory cells around a central B. potosis larvae in the brain, intestines, and liver. Nevertheless, the monkeys showed no clinical signs associated with infection. Parasitological examination revealed the presence of B. potosis larvae in the intestines, liver, lung, muscles, brain, kidney, and diaphragm. Our findings extend the range of species that are susceptible to B. potosis and provide evidence for the zoonotic potential of larva migrans in high dose infections.

  19. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Caroline B; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2014-07-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance, location, and spacing of the vertical array. We next asked whether monkeys show a spatially-oriented number mapping by testing their responses to the same five-element stimulus array rotated ninety degrees into a horizontal line. In these horizontal probe trials, monkeys preferentially selected the fourth position from the left, but not the fourth position from the right. Our results indicate that rhesus macaques map number onto space, suggesting that the association between number and space in human cognition is not purely a result of cultural experience and instead has deep evolutionary roots.

  20. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhia eCatapano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good’s price can have irrational effects on people’s preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased, we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human price effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling.

  1. Dual axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 2: Public comments and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    On May 12, 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the draft Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility Environmental Impact Statement (DARHT EIS) for review by the State of New Mexico, Indian Tribes, local governments, other Federal agencies, and the general public. DOE invited comments on the accuracy and adequacy of the draft EIS and any other matters pertaining to their environmental reviews. The formal comment period ran for 45 days, to June 26, 1995, although DOE indicated that late comments would be considered to the extent possible. As part of the public comment process, DOE held two public hearings in Los Alamos and Santa Fe, New Mexico, on May 31 and June 1, 1995. In addition, DOE made the draft classified supplement to the DARHT EIS available for review by appropriately cleared individuals with a need to know the classified information. Reviewers of the classified material included the State of New Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Defense, and certain Indian Tribes. Volume 2 of the final DARHT EIS contains three chapters. Chapter 1 includes a collective summary of the comments received and DOE`s response. Chapter 2 contains the full text of the public comments on the draft DARHT EIS received by DOE. Chapter 3 contains DOE`s responses to the public comments and an indication as to how the comments were considered in the final EIS.

  2. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals.

  3. Comment on ''Interacting holographic dark energy model and generalized second law of thermodynamics in a non-flat universe{sup ,} by M.R. Setare (JCAP 01 (2007) 023)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, K., E-mail: kkarami@uok.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Author of ref. 1, M.R. Setare (JCAP 01 (2007) 023), by redefining the event horizon measured from the sphere of the horizon as the system's IR cut-off for an interacting holographic dark energy model in a non-flat universe, showed that the generalized second law of thermodynamics is satisfied for the special range of the deceleration parameter. His paper includes an erroneous calculation of the entropy of the cold dark matter. Also there are some missing terms and some misprints in the equations of his paper. Here we present that his conclusion is not true and the generalized second law is violated for the present time independently of the deceleration parameter.

  4. SV40 host-substituted variants: a new look at the monkey DNA inserts and recombinant junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Maxine; Winocour, Ernest

    2011-04-10

    The available monkey genomic data banks were examined in order to determine the chromosomal locations of the host DNA inserts in 8 host-substituted SV40 variant DNAs. Five of the 8 variants contained more than one linked monkey DNA insert per tandem repeat unit and in all cases but one, the 19 monkey DNA inserts in the 8 variants mapped to different locations in the monkey genome. The 50 parental DNAs (32 monkey and 18 SV40 DNA segments) which spanned the crossover and flanking regions that participated in monkey/monkey and monkey/SV40 recombinations were characterized by substantial levels of microhomology of up to 8 nucleotides in length; the parental DNAs also exhibited direct and inverted repeats at or adjacent to the crossover sequences. We discuss how the host-substituted SV40 variants arose and the nature of the recombination mechanisms involved.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Adrenergic responsiveness is reduced, while baseline cardiac function is preserved in old adult conscious monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, N.; Kiuchi, K.; Shen, Y. T.; Vatner, S. F.; Vatner, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    To examine the physiological deficit to adrenergic stimulation with aging, five younger adult (3 +/- 1 yr old) and nine older adult (17 +/- 1 yr old) healthy monkeys were studied after instrumentation with a left ventricular (LV) pressure gauge, aortic and left atrial catheters, and aortic flow probes to measure cardiac output directly. There were no significant changes in baseline hemodynamics in conscious older monkeys. For example, an index of contractility, the first derivative of LV pressure (LV dP/dt) was similar (3,191 +/- 240, young vs. 3,225 +/- 71 mmHg/s, old) as well as in isovolumic relaxation, tau (24.3 +/- 1.7 ms, young vs. 23.0 +/- 1.0 ms, old) was similar. However, inotropic, lusitropic, and chronotropic responses to isoproterenol (Iso; 0.1 micrograms/kg), norepinephrine (NE; 0.4 micrograms/kg), and forskolin (For; 75 nmol/kg) were significantly (P monkeys. For example. Iso increased LV dP/dt by by 146 +/- 14% in younger monkeys and by only 70 +/- 5% in older monkeys. Iso also reduced tau more in younger monkeys (-28 +/- 7%) compared with older monkeys (-13 +/- 3%). Furthermore, peripheral vascular responsiveness to Iso, NE, For, and phenylephrine (PE; 5 micrograms/kg) was significantly (P monkeys. For example, phenylephrine (5 micrograms/kg) increased total peripheral resistence by 69 +/- 4% in younger monkeys and by only 45 +/- 3% in older monkeys. Thus in older monkeys without associated cardiovascular disease, baseline hemodynamics are preserved, but adrenergic receptor responsiveness is reduced systemically, not just in the heart.

  7. Crossmodal Association of Visual and Haptic Material Properties of Objects in the Monkey Ventral Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Naokazu; Yokoi, Isao; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Minamimoto, Takafumi; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2016-04-04

    Just by looking at an object, we can recognize its non-visual properties, such as hardness. The visual recognition of non-visual object properties is generally accurate [1], and influences actions toward the object [2]. Recent studies suggest that, in the primate brain, this may involve the ventral visual cortex, which represents objects in a way that reflects not only visual but also non-visual object properties, such as haptic roughness, hardness, and weight [3-7]. This new insight raises a fundamental question: how does the visual cortex come to represent non-visual properties--knowledge that cannot be acquired directly through vision? Here we addressed this unresolved question using fMRI in macaque monkeys. Specifically, we explored whether and how simple visuo-haptic experience--just seeing and touching objects made of various materials--can shape representational content in the visual cortex. We measured brain activity evoked by viewing images of objects before and after the monkeys acquired the visuo-haptic experience and decoded the representational space from the activity patterns [8]. We show that simple long-term visuo-haptic experience greatly impacts representation in the posterior inferior temporal cortex, the higher ventral visual cortex. After the experience, but not before, the activity pattern in this region well reflected the haptic material properties of the experienced objects. Our results suggest that neural representation of non-visual object properties in the visual cortex emerges through long-term crossmodal exposure to objects. This highlights the importance of unsupervised learning of crossmodal associations through everyday experience [9-12] for shaping representation in the visual cortex.

  8. Nutrition and foraging strategies of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in Palenque National Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Katherine R; Garber, Paul A

    2014-08-01

    Food resources consumed by primates vary markedly in nutritional content. As a result, foragers must develop a feeding strategy to select resources that balance energy and macronutrient intake and reduce the consumption of fiber and toxins. In this study, we collected data on dietary patterns, rates of food consumption, and weight of food items consumed and combined them with published values of the nutritional content of Neotropical foods to estimate energy and nutrient intake during a 10-month period in two groups (N=16 individuals) of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting Palenque National Park, Mexico. Although howler monkeys are generally assumed to exploit a leaf-dominated diet and be energy-limited, our results indicated that black howlers met their estimated energy requirements, consuming an average of 0.58 MJ of overall energy per metabolic body mass per day. The howlers also surpassed protein requirements by consuming an average of 8.2 g of protein per metabolic body mass per day. The amount of time they spent resting was not correlated with the amount of leaves or fruit in the diet or with overall energy intake. Therefore, despite consuming a leaf-heavy diet during some months of the year, black howlers do not appear to be energy-limited. Additionally, the howlers maintained a relatively consistent level of average daily protein energy intake regardless of diet composition, while non-protein energy intake varied in response to the amount of ripe fruits consumed. Although our use of published nutritional data introduces error, these findings suggest that black howler feeding ecology is more similar to other fruit-eating atelines than previously suspected, and several common assumptions regarding howler behavior and feeding ecology need to be reexamined. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Transfer of hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls to nursing infant rhesus monkeys: enhanced toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.; Knauf, V.; Mueller, W.; Hobson, W.

    1980-02-01

    Clophen A-30 (CA-30 or PCB) or hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were given daily by gavage to lactating rhesus monkeys for either 30 days (CA-30, 16 mg/kg/day) or 60 days (HCB, 64 mg/kg/day) to three infant-mother pairs per compound. The extent to which the CA-30 or HCB were concentreated in the milk of the mothers and consequently transferred to the nursing infants was determined by measuring concentrations of both substances in milk and serum samples collected at frequent intervals. One mother and all the infants from each group were sacrificed and the tissue content of HCB or PCBs measured. Milk concentrations averaged 20 and 17 times higher than maternal serum levels for CA-300 and HCB-treated monkeys, respectively. Infant serum levels were approximately two to three (PCBs)-or two to five (HCB)-fold higher than serum concentrations in their mothers. All of the HCB-treated mothers remained healthy during dosing but one infant became moribund and was sacrificed on Day 22, and another died on Day 38. One CA-30-treated infant-mother pair was sacrificed on Day 23 of the study when they developed severe symptoms of poisoning. In general tissue levels of both HCB and Ca-30 were higher in the infants than in their mothers. Both HCB and PCB were concentrated in the infant fat, bone marrow, and adrenals. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that nursing infants are at greater risk than their mothers when the mothers are exposed to lipophilic toxins.

  10. Gravitational duality in General Relativity and Supergravity theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehouck, F. [Service de physique mathematique et interactions fondamentales. Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine CP-231, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2011-07-15

    We quickly review the current status of gravitational duality in General Relativity. We summarize and comment some recent work on constructing dual (topological) charges and understanding how this duality acts in supergravity theories.

  11. The effect of harp music on heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature in the African green monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Sarah Bro; Raimond, Susan; Purcell, Bret K

    2007-04-01

    The effectiveness of recorded harp music as a tool for relaxation for non-human primates is explored in this study. Konigsberg Instruments Model T27F-1B cardiovascular telemetry devices were implanted into nine African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). After post-surgical recovery, animals were exposed to recorded harp music. Telemetry data were collected on heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature for a 30-minute baseline period before music exposure; a 90-minute period of music exposure; and a 90-minute post-exposure period, where no music was played. No statistical differences were noted in heart rate, mean blood pressure, respiratory rate, and body temperature between pre-exposure, exposure, and post-exposure periods. The lack of response in these African green monkeys may be attributable to their generally calm demeanor in captivity; experiments with a more excitable species such as the rhesus macaque might demonstrate a significant relaxation response to music.

  12. Reproducibility of Perfusion Parameters of Optic Disc and Macula in Rhesus Monkeys by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The study is about the reproducibility of optic disc and macular perfusion parameters as measured by OCT angiography in healthy rhesus monkeys. Flow index measurement reproducibility is high for both the optic disc and macula of normal monkey eyes. OCT angiography might be a useful technique to assess changes when examining monkeys with experimental ocular diseases.

  13. Nutritional analysis and intervention in the captive woolly monkey (Lagothric lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix ssp.) are a threatened species in the wild and are extremely difficult to breed and successfully maintain in captivity. The majority of health complications in woolly monkeys (WM) may be of nutritional origin. The objectives of this thesis were to: 1) determine the current

  14. Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp. and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D. Ange-van Heugten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27 and spider monkeys (n=61. The research was conducted in three studies: the first investigated spider monkeys in the United States, the second investigated spider monkeys within Europe, and the third investigated woolly monkeys within Europe. Fecal cortisol in spider monkeys in US zoos varied (P=.07 from 30 to 66 ng/g. The zoo with the highest fecal cortisol also had the highest salivary cortisol (P≤.05. For European zoos, fecal cortisol differed between zoos for both spider and woolly monkeys (P≤.05. Spider monkeys had higher fecal cortisol than woolly monkeys (P≤.05. Zoos with the highest dietary carbohydrates, sugars, glucose, and fruit had the highest cortisol. Cortisol was highest for zoos that did not meet crude protein requirements and fed the lowest percentage of complete feeds and crude fiber. Differences among zoos in housing and diets may increase animal stress. The lifespan and reproductive success of captive primates could improve if stressors are reduced and dietary nutrients optimized.

  15. No effects of dioxin singly on limb malformations in macaque monkeys through epidemiological and treated studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaoka, Kazuo; Iida, Hiroko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Insitute, Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry; Watanabe, Kunio [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Institute, Field Research Center; Goda, Hiroshi [Towa Kagaku Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ihara, Toshio; Nagata, Ryoichi [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd. (Japan). Safety Research Facility; Yasuda, Mineo [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan). Fac. of Health Sciences, Dept. of Clinical Engineering; Kubata, Shunichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Life Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

    2004-09-15

    Human populations exposed with highly dioxin were suspected to be caused immunological dysfunctions, carcinogenesis, and developmental and reproductive dysfunctions. Because of species resemblances, the dioxin effects have been investigating using monkeys as a model for assessment of dioxin exposure on human health. Since 1957 the limb malformations of monkeys in Japan have been reported. The higher frequency of them was found in provisional groups of monkeys who were given the same kind of food for human. The chromosomal abnormalities are excluded from the factor for the congenital limb malformations that are still producing in Japan. In this study, the relations between dioxin and the limb malformations of macaque monkeys were estimated by the epidemiological and administered researches. The dioxin levels in monkeys were measured at two districts that one has the provisional groups including monkeys with limb malformations and the other has breeding groups never seeing the malformations for a long time. TEQ was calculated by the levels of dioxin isomers in the monkeys and the values show no difference between the two places and between the individuals with and without the limb malformations. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was administered via subcutaneous to pregnant rhesus monkeys from the day 20 of gestation to the day 90 after birth. The exposed babies, including the offspring and died in neonatal, had observed normal limbs in the range of 30-300 ng TCDD /kg of body weight.

  16. The endocannabinoid system within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the vervet monkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, P.; Bouskila, J.; Bouchard, J. -F.

    2015-01-01

    and monkey retinae. Here, we investigated the expression and localization of the eCB system beyond the retina, namely the first thalamic relay, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), of vervet monkeys using immunohistochemistry methods. Our results show that CB1R is expressed throughout the d...

  17. Cardiac Responses in a Japanese Monkey to Mirror-Self-Image

    OpenAIRE

    Itakura, Shoji; Fukuda, Sachio

    1993-01-01

    The heart rate of one male Japanese monkey was recorded during the presentation of a mirror and a real monkey. The patterns of heart rate changes were different between the two kinds of stimuli. The possibility of a new index of self-recognition in nonhuman primates was demonstrated.

  18. Stimulus Similarity and Encoding Time Influence Incidental Recognition Memory in Adult Monkeys with Selective Hippocampal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeamer, Alyson; Meunier, Martine; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory impairment after selective hippocampal lesions in monkeys is more profound when measured with visual paired-comparison (VPC) than with delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). To clarify this issue, we assessed the impact of stimuli similarity and encoding duration on the VPC performance in monkeys with hippocampal lesions and…

  19. Collagen-induced arthritis in rhesus monkeys: Evaluation of markers for inflammation and joint degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, B.A. 't; Bank, R.A.; Roos, J.A.D.M. de; Brok, H.; Jonker, M.; Theuns, H.M.; Hakimi, J.; Koppele, J.M.Te.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse parameters in rhesus monkey collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) with which the inflammation and destruction of the joints can be described in quantitative terms. CIA was induced in genetically susceptible and resistant monkeys, which can be distinguished on th

  20. Essentialism in the Absence of Language? Evidence from Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Webb; Shankar, Maya; Santos, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    We explored whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) share one important feature of human essentialist reasoning: the capacity to track category membership across radical featural transformations. Specifically, we examined whether monkeys--like children (Keil, 1989)--expect a transformed object to have the internal properties of its original…

  1. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) adaptively adjust information seeking in response to information accumulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Pani, Alex A; Hampton, Robert R

    2015-11-01

    Metacognition consists of monitoring and control processes. Monitoring has been inferred when nonhumans use a "decline test" response to selectively escape difficult test trials. Cognitive control has been inferred from selective information-seeking behavior by nonhumans ignorant of needed knowledge. Here we describe a computerized paradigm that extends previous work and assesses dynamic interactions between monitoring and control. Monkeys classified images as containing birds, fish, flowers, or people. To-be-classified images were initially masked, and monkeys were trained to gradually reveal the images by touching a "reveal button." Monkeys could choose to classify images at any time or to reveal more of the images. Thus, they had the opportunity to assess when enough of an image had been revealed to support accurate classification. In Experiment 1, monkeys made more reveal responses before classifying when smaller amounts of the image were revealed by each button touch. In Experiment 2, to-be-classified images were shrunk and covered by 1 critical blocker among other blockers that did not provide information when removed. Monkeys made more reveal responses as the critical blocker was removed later in the trial. In Experiment 3, monkeys were presented with previously classified images with either more or fewer blockers obscuring the image than was the case when they chose to classify that image previously. Monkeys made more reveal responses when information was insufficient than when it was excessive. These results indicate that monkeys dynamically monitor evolving decision processes and adaptively collect information as necessary to maintain accuracy.

  2. A simple and reliable method to blood type monkeys using serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Wei, Qing; Li, Junhua; Xiang, Ying; Guo, Hui; Ichim, Thomas E; Chen, Shi; Chen, Gang

    2009-10-01

    Monkeys are frequently used in experimental transplantation research because of their physical traits and availability. As ABO incompatibility may result in humoral injury, it is important to identify the ABO blood typing of monkeys before transplantation. However, monkeys lack expression of ABH antigens on red blood cells, which makes accurate determination of the blood type difficult. The gel agglutination assay has been widely used as a routine blood grouping test clinically for more than 10 years. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and the interference factors of using the gel system (including the direct gel system and the reverse gel system) for ABO typing in rhesus monkeys (n = 38) and cynomolgus monkeys (n = 26). Immunohistochemistry assay was used to obtain the accurate blood type data of monkeys. The results revealed that the direct gel system was ineffective in blood typing of monkeys, whereas the reverse gel system assay, which is based on preabsorbed serum, provided reproducible results that were confirmed by histologic analysis. We conclude that the reverse gel system assay with use of preabsorbed serum is a simple and reliable method for ABO typing of monkeys.

  3. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Physiology and Cognitive Control of Behavior in Stress Inoculated Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J.; Buckmaster, Christine L.; Lindley, Steven E.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Lyons, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Monkeys exposed to stress inoculation protocols early in life subsequently exhibit diminished neurobiological responses to moderate psychological stressors and enhanced cognitive control of behavior during juvenile development compared to non-inoculated monkeys. The present experiments extended these findings and revealed that stress inoculated…

  4. Hemopoietic stem cells in rhesus monkeys : surface antigens, radiosensitivity, and responses to GM-CSF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Wielenga (Jenne)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractRhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were bred at the Primate Center TNO, Rijswijk, The Netherlands!. Both male and female animals were used for the experiments. The monkeys weighed 2.5-4 kg and were 2-4 years old at the time of the experiment. They were all typed for RhLA-A, -B and -DR antig

  5. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) modulate their use of an uncertainty response depending on risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Perdue, Bonnie M; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2016-01-01

    Metacognition refers to thinking about thinking, and there has been a great deal of interest in how this ability manifests across primates. Based on much of the work to date, a tentative division has been drawn with New World monkeys on 1 side and Old World monkeys and apes on the other. Specifically, Old World monkeys, apes, and humans often show patterns reflecting metacognition, but New World monkeys typically do not, or show less convincing behavioral patterns. However, recent data suggest that this difference may relate to other aspects of some experimental tasks. For example, 1 possibility is that risk tolerance affects how capuchin monkeys, a New World primate species, tend to perform. Specifically, it has recently been argued that on tasks in which there are 2 or 3 options, the "risk" of guessing is tolerable for capuchins because there is a high probability of being correct even if they "know they do not know" or feel something akin to uncertainty. The current study investigated this possibility by manipulating the degree of risk (2-choices vs. 6-choices) and found that capuchin monkeys used the uncertainty response more on 6-choice trials than on 2-choice trials. We also found that rate of reward does not appear to underlie these patterns of performance, and propose that the degree of risk is modulating capuchin monkeys' use of the uncertainty response. Thus, the apparent differences between New and Old World monkeys in metacognition may reflect differences in risk tolerance rather than access to metacognitive states.

  6. Evidence of Metacognitive Control by Humans and Monkeys in a Perceptual Categorization Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Joshua S.

    2010-01-01

    Metacognition research has focused on the degree to which nonhuman primates share humans' capacity to monitor their cognitive processes. Convincing evidence now exists that monkeys can engage in metacognitive monitoring. By contrast, few studies have explored metacognitive control in monkeys, and the available evidence of metacognitive control…

  7. Nutritional analysis and intervention in the captive woolly monkey (Lagothric lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix ssp.) are a threatened species in the wild and are extremely difficult to breed and successfully maintain in captivity. The majority of health complications in woolly monkeys (WM) may be of nutritional origin. The objectives of this thesis were to: 1) determine the current

  8. Effects of Head-down Tilt on Nerve Conduction in Rhesus Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the compound muscle action potential amplitudes of nerves are decreased under simulated microgravity in rhesus monkeys. Moreover, rhesus monkeys exposed to HDT might be served as an experimental model for the study of NCS under microgravity.

  9. Comment on ``Equilibrium conformation of polymer chains with noncircular cross section''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt-Bourke, Alexander; Thamwattana, Ngamta

    2013-04-01

    In this Comment, we point out that the Euler-Lagrange equations, which are referred to as the general equilibrium equations by Zhao [Phys. Rev. EPRESCM1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.74.032801 74, 032801 (2006)] are incorrect along with the equations which are derived from them. The correct equations are provided in this Comment. We produce new numerical results with the use of the correct equations.

  10. 75 FR 5868 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-PE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ...The Department of the Treasury, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments......

  11. 75 FR 28325 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8879-PE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ...The Department of the Treasury, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments......

  12. 78 FR 13401 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8453-PE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ...The Department of the Treasury, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments......

  13. 75 FR 56657 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Cognitive and Psychological Research Coordinated by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ...The Department of the Treasury, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments......

  14. 78 FR 63569 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Cognitive and Psychological Research Coordinated by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ...The Department of the Treasury, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments......

  15. Visual motion integration by neurons in the middle temporal area of a New World monkey, the marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Selina S; Tailby, Chris; Gharaei, Saba; Camp, Aaron J; Bourne, James A; Solomon, Samuel G

    2011-12-01

    The middle temporal area (MT/V5) is an anatomically distinct region of primate visual cortex that is specialized for the processing of image motion. It is generally thought that some neurons in area MT are capable of signalling the motion of complex patterns, but this has only been established in the macaque monkey. We made extracellular recordings from single units in area MT of anaesthetized marmosets, a New World monkey. We show through quantitative analyses that some neurons (35 of 185; 19%) are capable of signalling pattern motion ('pattern cells'). Across several dimensions, the visual response of pattern cells in marmosets is indistinguishable from that of pattern cells in macaques. Other neurons respond to the motion of oriented contours in a pattern ('component cells') or show intermediate properties. In addition, we encountered a subset of neurons (22 of 185; 12%) insensitive to sinusoidal gratings but very responsive to plaids and other two-dimensional patterns and otherwise indistinguishable from pattern cells. We compared the response of each cell class to drifting gratings and dot fields. In pattern cells, directional selectivity was similar for gratings and dot fields; in component cells, directional selectivity was weaker for dot fields than gratings. Pattern cells were more likely to have stronger suppressive surrounds, prefer lower spatial frequencies and prefer higher speeds than component cells. We conclude that pattern motion sensitivity is a feature of some neurons in area MT of both New and Old World monkeys, suggesting that this functional property is an important stage in motion analysis and is likely to be conserved in humans.

  16. Exploring a partially enclosed space by lead-exposed female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, R E; Laughlin, N K

    2001-01-01

    Beginning on Day 8 postpartum, lead acetate was administered to female rhesus monkeys (n=48). Their blood lead levels rose to 35-40 microg/dl (the level maintained for the duration of the study period) by 12 weeks of age. Weekly, these lead-exposed monkeys and their controls (n=23) were placed in a partially enclosed space from the second postnatal week until they escaped three times or were 26 weeks old. The lead-exposed monkeys exhibited more fear, were more likely to be agitated, and climbed more frequently during the first testing session. In subsequent sessions, they more frequently explored the periphery of the test area than the controls. The lead-exposed monkeys also tended to escape sooner although that trend did not consistently reach the.05 level of significance. The increased activity and agitation of the lead-exposed monkeys is suggestive of deficits reported in human children with high blood lead levels.

  17. Cystic urolithiasis in captive waxy monkey frogs (Phyllomedusa sauvagii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Kate E; Minter, Larry J; Dombrowski, Daniel S; O'Brien, Jodi L; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2015-03-01

    The waxy monkey frog (Phyllomedusa sauvagii) is an arboreal amphibian native to arid regions of South America, and it has developed behavioral and physiologic adaptations to permit survival in dry environments. These adaptations include a uricotelic nitrogen metabolism and unique cutaneous lipid excretions to prevent evaporative water loss. Uroliths are a rare finding in amphibians. Six adult, presumed wild-caught waxy monkey frogs housed in a museum animal collection were diagnosed with cystic urolithiasis over a 7-yr period, and a single animal was diagnosed with four recurrent cases. Six cases were identified incidentally at routine physical or postmortem examination and four cases were identified during veterinary evaluation for coelomic distension, lethargy, anorexia, and increased soaking behavior. Calculi were surgically removed from three frogs via cystotomy, and a single frog underwent three cystotomies and two cloacotomies for recurrent urolithiasis. Two frogs died within the 24-hr postoperative period. Two representative calculi from a single frog were submitted for component analysis and found to consist of 100% ammonium urate. In the present report, cystic calculi are proposed to be the result of a high-protein diet based on a single invertebrate source, coupled with uricotelism, dehydration, increased cutaneous water loss, body temperature fluctuations facilitating supersaturation of urine, and subsequent accumulation and precipitation of urogenous wastes within the urinary bladder. Surgical cystotomy represents a short-term treatment strategy for this condition. Preventative measures, such as supplying a diversified and balanced diet in addition to environmental manipulation aimed at promoting adequate hydration, are anticipated to be more-rewarding management tools for cystic urolithiasis in the waxy monkey frog.

  18. Identification of a novel polyomavirus from vervet monkeys in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Nakamura, Ichiro; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Thomas, Yuka; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi; Orba, Yasuko

    2013-06-01

    To examine polyomavirus (PyV) infection in wildlife, we investigated the presence of PyVs in Zambia with permission from the Zambia Wildlife Authority. We analysed 200 DNA samples from the spleens and kidneys (n = 100 each) of yellow baboons and vervet monkeys (VMs) (n = 50 each). We detected seven PyV genome fragments in 200 DNA samples using a nested broad-spectrum PCR method, and identified five full-length viral genomes using an inverse PCR method. Phylogenetic analysis of virally encoded proteins revealed that four PyVs were closely related to either African green monkey PyV or simian agent 12. Only one virus detected from a VM spleen was found to be related, with relatively low nucleotide sequence identity (74 %), to the chimpanzee PyV, which shares 48 % nucleotide sequence identity with the human Merkel cell PyV identified from Merkel cell carcinoma. The obtained entire genome of this virus was 5157 bp and had large T- and small t-antigens, and VP1 and VP2 ORFs. This virus was tentatively named vervet monkey PyV 1 (VmPyV1) as a novel PyV. Comparison with other PyVs revealed that VmPyV1, like chimpanzee PyV, had a longer VP1 ORF. To examine whether the VmPyV1 genome could produce viral proteins in cultured cells, the whole genome was transfected into HEK293T cells. We detected VP1 protein expression in the transfected HEK293T cells by immunocytochemical and immunoblot analyses. Thus, we identified a novel PyV genome from VM spleen.

  19. Utility functions predict variance and skewness risk preferences in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genest, Wilfried; Stauffer, William R; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-26

    Utility is the fundamental variable thought to underlie economic choices. In particular, utility functions are believed to reflect preferences toward risk, a key decision variable in many real-life situations. To assess the validity of utility representations, it is therefore important to examine risk preferences. In turn, this approach requires formal definitions of risk. A standard approach is to focus on the variance of reward distributions (variance-risk). In this study, we also examined a form of risk related to the skewness of reward distributions (skewness-risk). Thus, we tested the extent to which empirically derived utility functions predicted preferences for variance-risk and skewness-risk in macaques. The expected utilities calculated for various symmetrical and skewed gambles served to define formally the direction of stochastic dominance between gambles. In direct choices, the animals' preferences followed both second-order (variance) and third-order (skewness) stochastic dominance. Specifically, for gambles with different variance but identical expected values (EVs), the monkeys preferred high-variance gambles at low EVs and low-variance gambles at high EVs; in gambles with different skewness but identical EVs and variances, the animals preferred positively over symmetrical and negatively skewed gambles in a strongly transitive fashion. Thus, the utility functions predicted the animals' preferences for variance-risk and skewness-risk. Using these well-defined forms of risk, this study shows that monkeys' choices conform to the internal reward valuations suggested by their utility functions. This result implies a representation of utility in monkeys that accounts for both variance-risk and skewness-risk preferences.

  20. Derivation and characterization of monkey embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Don P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Embryonic stem (ES cell based therapy carries great potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, before clinical application is realized, the safety, efficacy and feasibility of this therapeutic approach must be established in animal models. The rhesus macaque is physiologically and phylogenetically similar to the human, and therefore, is a clinically relevant animal model for biomedical research, especially that focused on neurodegenerative conditions. Undifferentiated monkey ES cells can be maintained in a pluripotent state for many passages, as characterized by a collective repertoire of markers representing embryonic cell surface molecules, enzymes and transcriptional factors. They can also be differentiated into lineage-specific phenotypes of all three embryonic germ layers by epigenetic protocols. For cell-based therapy, however, the quality of ES cells and their progeny must be ensured during the process of ES cell propagation and differentiation. While only a limited number of primate ES cell lines have been studied, it is likely that substantial inter-line variability exists. This implies that diverse ES cell lines may differ in developmental stages, lineage commitment, karyotypic normalcy, gene expression, or differentiation potential. These variables, inherited genetically and/or induced epigenetically, carry obvious complications to therapeutic applications. Our laboratory has characterized and isolated rhesus monkey ES cell lines from in vitro produced blastocysts. All tested cell lines carry the potential to form pluripotent embryoid bodies and nestin-positive progenitor cells. These ES cell progeny can be differentiated into phenotypes representing the endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal lineages. This review article describes the derivation of monkey ES cell lines, characterization of the undifferentiated phenotype, and their differentiation into lineage-specific, particularly neural, phenotypes

  1. Traditions in spider monkeys are biased towards the social domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorelli, Claire J; Schaffner, Colleen M; Campbell, Christina J; Notman, Hugh; Pavelka, Mary S; Weghorst, Jennifer A; Aureli, Filippo

    2011-02-23

    Cross-site comparison studies of behavioral variation can provide evidence for traditions in wild species once ecological and genetic factors are excluded as causes for cross-site differences. These studies ensure behavior variants are considered within the context of a species' ecology and evolutionary adaptations. We examined wide-scale geographic variation in the behavior of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) across five long-term field sites in Central America using a well established ethnographic cross-site survey method. Spider monkeys possess a relatively rare social system with a high degree of fission-fusion dynamics, also typical of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans (Homo sapiens). From the initial 62 behaviors surveyed 65% failed to meet the necessary criteria for traditions. The remaining 22 behaviors showed cross-site variation in occurrence ranging from absent through to customary, representing to our knowledge, the first documented cases of traditions in this taxon and only the second case of multiple traditions in a New World monkey species. Of the 22 behavioral variants recorded across all sites, on average 57% occurred in the social domain, 19% in food-related domains and 24% in other domains. This social bias contrasts with the food-related bias reported in great ape cross-site comparison studies and has implications for the evolution of human culture. No pattern of geographical radiation was found in relation to distance across sites. Our findings promote A. geoffroyi as a model species to investigate traditions with field and captive based experiments and emphasize the importance of the social domain for the study of animal traditions.

  2. Intranasal oxytocin enhances socially-reinforced learning in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Parr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of social deficits associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. One hypothesis for these deficits is that individuals with ASD lack the motivation to attend to social cues because those cues are not implicitly rewarding. Therefore, any drug that could enhance the rewarding quality of social stimuli could have a profound impact on the treatment of ASD, and other social disorders. Oxytocin (OT is a neuropeptide that has been effective in enhancing social cognition and social reward in humans. The present study examined the ability of OT to selectively enhance learning after social compared to nonsocial reward in rhesus monkeys, an important species for modeling the neurobiology of social behavior in humans. Monkeys were required to learn an implicit visual matching task after receiving either intranasal (IN OT or Placebo (saline. Correct trials were rewarded with the presentation of positive and negative social (play faces/threat faces or nonsocial (banana/cage locks stimuli, plus food. Incorrect trials were not rewarded. Results demonstrated a strong effect of socially-reinforced learning, monkeys’ performed significantly better when reinforced with social versus nonsocial stimuli. Additionally, socially-reinforced learning was significantly better and occurred faster after IN-OT compared to placebo treatment. Performance in the IN-OT, but not Placebo, condition was also significantly better when the reinforcement stimuli were emotionally positive compared to negative facial expressions. These data support the hypothesis that OT may function to enhance prosocial behavior in primates by increasing the rewarding quality of emotionally positive, social compared to emotionally negative or nonsocial images. These data also support the use of the rhesus monkey as a model for exploring the neurobiological basis of social behavior and its impairment.

  3. Sleeping site preferences in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bitetti, M S; Vidal, E M; Baldovino, M C; Benesovsky, V

    2000-04-01

    The characteristics and availability of the sleeping sites used by a group of 27 tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) were studied during 17 months at the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. We tested different hypotheses regarding possible ultimate causes of sleeping-site selection. Most sleeping sites were located in areas of tall, mature forest. Of the 34 sleeping sites the monkeys used during 203 nights, five were more frequently used than the others (more than 20 times each, constituting 67% of the nights). Four species of tree (Peltophorum dubium, Parapiptadenia rigida, Copaifera langsdorfii and Cordia trichotoma) were the most frequently used. They constituted 82% of all the trees used, though they represent only 12% of the trees within the monkeys' home range which had a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 48.16 cm (1 SD below the mean DBH of sleeping trees). The sleeping trees share a set of characteristics not found in other trees: they are tall emergent (mean height +/- SD = 31.1+/-5.2 m) with large DBH (78.5+/-30.3 cm), they have large crown diameter (14+/-5.5 m), and they have many horizontal branches and forks. Adult females usually slept with their kin and infants, while peripheral adult males sometimes slept alone in nearby trees. We reject parasite avoidance as an adaptive explanation for the pattern of sleeping site use. Our results and those from other studies suggest that predation avoidance is a predominant factor driving sleeping site preferences. The patterns of aggregation at night and the preference for trees with low probability of shedding branches suggest that social preferences and safety from falling during windy nights may also affect sleeping tree selection. The importance of other factors, such as seeking comfort and maintaining group cohesion, was not supported by our results. Other capuchin populations show different sleeping habits which can be explained by differences in forest structure and by demographic differences.

  4. Taste responses to neohesperidin dihydrochalcone in rats and baboon monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naim, M; Rogatka, H; Yamamoto, T; Zehavi, U

    1982-06-01

    Preference-aversion behavior to solutions containing neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDHC) was studied rats and baboon monkeys. Electrophysiological responses evoked by application of NHDHC solutions to taste receptors innervated by the chorda tympani and the glossopharyngeal nerves were also measured. As a group, rats were indifferent to solutions containing up to 1.2 x 10(-3) M NHDHC in short and long-term preference tests. A solution containing the very high concentration of 8.2 x 10(-3) M NHDHC was consumed less than water by all rats. The aversive behavior of rats to the 8.2 x 10(-3) M NHDHC solution appeared to be due to taste quality rather than olfaction. When percent preferences were calculated on an individual basis for the long-term preference tests, 59% of the rats were indifferent to solutions containing up to 1.2 x 10(-3) M NHDHC, 33% of the animals found this solution aversive and less than 8% showed preference. Behavioral responses to a solution of 3.4 x 10(-4) M aspartame also varied considerably among rats. The electrophysiological data were in line with the behavioral responses suggesting weak taste responses for NHDHC in rats. More pronounced responses observed in the glossopharyngeal nerve as compared to the chorda tympani. Baboon monkeys showed a strong preference for solutions containing 1.6 x 10(-5) M-1.6 x 10(-3) M NHDHC. A solution of 1.6 x 10(-2) M was consumed to a lesser extent than water. It is concluded that baboon monkeys present a better experimental model than rats for investigating the sweetness of NHDHC.

  5. 75 FR 1656 - Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public Comments; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... COMMISSION Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public Comments; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION: Issuance of draft safety culture policy statement and notice of opportunity for public comment; Extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On November...

  6. ‘‘What's wrong with my monkey?''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    in marmosets in some areas of research. The mainstream, broadly utilitarian view of animal research suggests that such a transition will not give rise to greater ethical problems than those presently faced. It can be argued that using marmosets rather than mice will not result in more animal suffering......, readily available in the way that transgenic laboratory mice are currently, prompts excitement in the scientific community; but the idea of monkeys being bred to carry diseases is also contentious. We structure an ethical analysis of the transgenic marmoset case around three questions: whether...

  7. Prefrontal dysfunction and a monkey model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ping; Cui, Ding; Zhao, Xu-Dong; Ma, Yuan-Ye

    2015-04-01

    The prefrontal cortex is implicated in cognitive functioning and schizophrenia. Prefrontal dysfunction is closely associated with the symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition to the features typical of schizophrenia, patients also present with aspects of cognitive disorders. Based on these relationships, a monkey model mimicking the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia has been made using treatment with the non-specific competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, phencyclidine. The symptoms are ameliorated by atypical antipsychotic drugs such as clozapine. The beneficial effects of clozapine on behavioral impairment might be a specific indicator of schizophrenia-related cognitive impairment.

  8. Postconflict behaviour in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, João R; Santos, António J; Cruz, Mónica G

    2009-01-01

    Postconflict affiliation has been mostly studied in Old World primates, and we still lack comparative research to understand completely the functional value of reconciliation. Cebus species display great variability in social characteristics, thereby providing a great opportunity for comparative studies. We recorded 190 agonistic interactions and subsequent postconflict behaviour in a captive group of brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Only 26.8% of these conflicts were reconciled. Reconciliation was more likely to occur between opponents that supported each other more frequently and that spent more time together. Postconflict anxiety was mostly determined by conflict intensity, and none of the variables thought to measure relationship quality had a significant effect on postconflict stress.

  9. A MEG investigation of somatosensory processing in the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tony W; Godwin, Dwayne W; Czoty, Paul W; Nader, Michael A; Kraft, Robert A; Buchheimer, Nancy C; Daunais, James B

    2009-07-15

    The use of minimally and non-invasive neuroimaging methods in animal models has sharply increased over the past decade. Such studies have enhanced understanding of the neural basis of the physical signals quantified by these tools, and have addressed an assortment of fundamental and otherwise intractable questions in neurobiology. To date, these studies have almost exclusively utilized positron-emission tomography or variants of magnetic resonance based imaging. These methods provide largely indirect measures of brain activity and are strongly reliant on intact vasculature and normal blood-flow, which is known to be compromised in many clinical conditions. The current study provides the first demonstration of whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG), a non-invasive and direct measure of neuronal activity, in a rhesus monkey, and in the process supplies the initial data on systems-level dynamics in somatosensory cortices. An adult rhesus monkey underwent three separate studies of tactile stimulation on the pad of the right second or fifth digit as whole-head MEG data were acquired. The neural generators of the primary neuromagnetic components were localized using an equivalent-current-dipole model. Second digit stimulation produced an initial cortical response peaking approximately 16 ms after stimulus onset in the contralateral somatosensory cortices, with a later response at approximately 96 ms in an overlapping or nearby neural area with a roughly orthogonal orientation. Stimulation of the fifth digit produced similar results, the main exception being a substantially weaker later response. We believe the 16 ms response is likely the monkey homologue of the human M50 response, as both are the earliest cortical response and localize to the contralateral primary somatosensory area. Thus, these data suggest that mechanoreception in nonhuman primates operates substantially faster than that in adult humans. More broadly, these results demonstrate that it is feasible to

  10. [Heart functions in monkeys during a 2-week antiorthostatic hypokinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotov, V. P.; Convertino, V.; Korol'kov, V. I.; Latham, R.; Trambovetskii, E. V.; Fanton, J.; Crisman, R.; Truzhennikov, A. N.; Evert, D.; Nosovskii, A. M.; Conolly, J.

    1996-01-01

    Dynamics of the left heart ventricular muscle contractility and compliance was studied in 4 monkeys in the head down position (antiorthostatic hypokinesia) with the body angle 10 during 2 weeks. Functional tests on a tilt table and under two conditions of centrifuge rotation were performed prior to and after the antiorthostatic hypokinesia. No changes in the left heart ventricular muscle contractility was found. However, the sensitivity level of the baroreflex control decreased. Compliance of the left heart myocardial fibre increased in the first hours and days of the antiorthostatic hypokinesia.

  11. Testosterone urinary excretion rate increases during hypergravity in male monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, F.; Barger, L.; Fuller, C.

    2000-01-01

    Real and simulated microgravity impairs T secretion both in animals and in the human. To verify whether hypergravity might enhance T secretion as a consequence of an opposite mechanical effect, 6 male monkeys were centrifuged at 2 G for 3 weeks after a 1 G stabilization period lasting 3 weeks and then taken back to 1 G for 1 week and urine were collected daily for T excretion measurement. Significantly higher level were observed during the initial 2 G phase as compared to pre- and post centrifugation periods and the trend was the same during the remaining 2 G period. This may reflect changes in testicular perfusion rather than endocrine adaptation per se.

  12. The squirrel monkey as a candidate for space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Kaack, B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of its size and other unique diurnal-primate characteristics, the squirrel monkey is used in: (1) actual bioflight missions, (2) in laboratory tests designed to clarify the risks to man during launch and recovery as well as in hazardous spaceflight environments; and (3) in the acquisition of data on unknown risks encountered in long duration space exploration. Pertinent data concerning samiri sciureus as described in published and unpublished reports are summarized. Topics include: taxonomy, ethology, life history, sensory-learning-motor capabilities in primate perspective, anatomy and physiology (including homeostatic adaptation to stress), susceptibility to environmental hazards, reproduction, care and clinical management, and previous use in aerospace biomedical research.

  13. Looking ahead? Computerized maze task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and human children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Futch, Sara E; Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M

    2015-05-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and-at least to an extent-anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future-oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques), a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys), and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to "plan ahead" to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future-oriented cognition in primates.

  14. Evaluation of Serum Lipid, Thyroid, and Hepatic Clinical Chemistries in Association With Serum Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in Cynomolgus Monkeys After Oral Dosing With Potassium PFOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bruce C.; Andres, Kara L.; Ehresman, David J.; Falvo, Ria; Provencher, Anne; Olsen, Geary W.; Butenhoff, John L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An oral dose study with perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was undertaken to identify potential associations between serum PFOS and changes in serum clinical chemistry parameters in purpose-bred young adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). In this study, control group (n = 6/sex) was sham-dosed with vehicle (0.5% Tween 20 and 5% ethanol in water), low-dose group (n = 6/sex) received 1 single K+PFOS dose (9 mg/kg), and high-dose group (n = 4–6/sex) received 3 separate K+ PFOS doses (11–17.2 mg/kg). Monkeys were given routine checkups and observed carefully for health problems on a daily basis. Scheduled blood samples were drawn from all monkeys prior to, during, and after K+PFOS administration for up to 1 year and they were analyzed for PFOS concentrations and clinical chemistry markers for coagulation, lipids, hepatic, renal, electrolytes, and thyroid-related hormones. No mortality occurred during the study. All the monkeys were healthy, gained weight, and were released back to the colony at the end of the study. The highest serum PFOS achieved was approximately 165 μg/ml. When compared with time-matched controls, administration of K+PFOS to monkeys did not result in any toxicologically meaningful or clinically relevant changes in serum clinical measurements for coagulation, lipids, hepatic, renal, electrolytes, and thyroid-related hormones. A slight reduction in serum cholesterol (primarily the high-density lipoprotein fraction), although not toxicologically significant, was observed. The corresponding lower-bound fifth percentile benchmark concentrations (BMCL1sd) were 74 and 76 μg/ml for male and female monkeys, respectively. Compared to the 2013–2014 geometric mean serum PFOS level of 4.99 ng/ml (0.00499 μg/ml) in US general population reported by CDC NHANES, this represents 4 orders of magnitude for margin of exposure. PMID:28115654

  15. A comment on ''A test of general relativity using the LARES and LAGEOS satellites and a GRACE Earth gravity model'', by I. Ciufolini et al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, Lorenzo [Ministero dell' Istruzione Univ. della Ricerca (M.I.U.R.), Bari (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Recently, Ciufolini et al. reported on a test of the general relativistic gravitomagnetic Lense-Thirring effect by analyzing about 3.5 years of laser ranging data to the LAGEOS, LAGEOS II, LARES geodetic satellites orbiting the Earth. By using the GRACE-based GGM05S Earth's global gravity model and a linear combination of the nodes Ω of the three satellites designed to remove the impact of errors in the first two even zonal harmonic coefficients J{sub 2}, J{sub 4} of the multipolar expansion of the Newtonian part of the Earth's gravitational potential, they claimed an overall accuracy of 5% for the Lense-Thirring caused node motion. We show that the scatter in the nominal values of the uncancelled even zonals of degree l = 6, 8, 10 from some of the most recent global gravity models does not yet allow to reach unambiguously and univocally the expected ∼1% level, being large up to

  16. 77 FR 43086 - Solicitation of Written Comments on Draft Phase 3 Long-Term Care Facilities Strategy/Module for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... increasing healthcare personnel influenza vaccination coverage (Phases 1 & 2). DATES: Comments on the draft... the general public, providers, and other stakeholder groups. The Action Plan also delineates specific... Action Plan also addressed strategies to increase influenza vaccination coverage amongst...

  17. 78 FR 25321 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... advisers' supervised persons. The respondents to this information collection are investment advisers... techniques or other forms of information technology. Consideration will be given to comments and suggestions... ``Commission'') is soliciting comments on the collections of information summarized below. The Commission...

  18. 77 FR 65688 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Member Assets, Core Mission Activities, Investments and Advances,'' to the Office of Management and...; Comment Request: Federal Home Loan Bank Acquired Member Assets, Core Mission Activities, Investments and... Collection; Comment Request: Federal Home Loan Bank Acquired Member Assets, Core Mission...

  19. 实验猕猴全身CT影像学观察%Observation of whole body CT tomography of the laboratorial rhesus monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范春梅; 李志雄; 周建华

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To research the clinical diagnosis of disease in rhesus monkey with the observation of whole CT tomography of the healthy adult laboratorial monkey, to establish the maps of CT tomography of the healthy adult rhesus monkey, to provide ?the basic image?data of CT technology in the applications of anatomy, clinical diagnosis and scientific experiments of rhesus monkey. Methods (1) 10 laboratorial monkeys were selected for whole body CT tomography. (2)After general anesthesia, the monkeys were placed in supine position and the volume data were collected to obtain the whole body CT images of normal rhesus monkey by using plain and enhanced scanning technology. (3)The scan obtained volume data were restructured into 2D or 3D images using CT image post- processing technology. Results (1)the Continuous CT tomography data set of living rhesus monkey were obtained. (2)From the CT tomography images, anatomical images were carefully selected and edited to establish the CT tomography map of ?laboratorial rhesus monkeys. There are 4 representative CT tomography images and 5 3D restructured images in this paper. (3)Describes the rhesus monkey's physiological structural characteristics and the difference between rhesus monkey and human. Conclusion (1)CT tomography image can clearly display and distinguish the rhesus monkey's structure of tissues and organs. (2)The fundamental imaging data obtained in the test provide a reference of CT tomography technology in the field of rhesus monkey anatomy research, clinical diagnosis of disease and scientific experiments. (3)Some preliminary results of rhesus monkey CT tomography imaging were seen in this paper, further study will be done in the field of selection of parameters of rhesus monkey CT tomography technology and establishing of quantitative statistics data of rhesus monkey organs and tissues.%目的:应用CT技术对成年实验猕猴全身进行断层扫描,探讨CT技术

  20. Using infective mosquitoes to challenge monkeys with Plasmodium knowlesi in malaria vaccine studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background When rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are used to test malaria vaccines, animals are often challenged by the intravenous injection of sporozoites. However, natural exposure to malaria comes via mosquito bite, and antibodies can neutralize sporozoites as they traverse the skin. Thus, intravenous injection may not fairly assess humoral immunity from anti-sporozoite malaria vaccines. To better assess malaria vaccines in rhesus, a method to challenge large numbers of monkeys by mosquito bite was developed. Methods Several species and strains of mosquitoes were tested for their ability to produce Plasmodium knowlesi sporozoites. Donor monkey parasitaemia effects on oocyst and sporozoite numbers and mosquito mortality were documented. Methylparaben added to mosquito feed was tested to improve mosquito survival. To determine the number of bites needed to infect a monkey, animals were exposed to various numbers of P. knowlesi-infected mosquitoes. Finally, P. knowlesi-infected mosquitoes were used to challenge 17 monkeys in a malaria vaccine trial, and the effect of number of infectious bites on monkey parasitaemia was documented. Results Anopheles dirus, Anopheles crascens, and Anopheles dirus X (a cross between the two species) produced large numbers of P. knowlesi sporozoites. Mosquito survival to day 14, when sporozoites fill the salivary glands, averaged only 32% when donor monkeys had a parasitaemia above 2%. However, when donor monkey parasitaemia was below 2%, mosquitoes survived twice as well and contained ample sporozoites in their salivary glands. Adding methylparaben to sugar solutions did not improve survival of infected mosquitoes. Plasmodium knowlesi was very infectious, with all monkeys developing blood stage infections if one or more infected mosquitoes successfully fed. There was also a dose-response, with monkeys that received higher numbers of infected mosquito bites developing malaria sooner. Conclusions Anopheles dirus, An. crascens and a

  1. News comments: exploring, modeling, and online prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsagkias, M.; Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Online news agents provide commenting facilities for their readers to express their opinions or sentiments with regards to news stories. The number of user supplied comments on a news article may be indicative of its importance, interestingness, or impact. We explore the news comments space, and com

  2. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) discriminate between knowing and not knowing and collect information as needed before acting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Robert R; Zivin, Aaron; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2004-10-01

    Humans use memory awareness to determine whether relevant knowledge is available before acting, as when we determine whether we know a phone number before dialing. Such metacognition, or thinking about thinking, can improve selection of appropriate behavior. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys ( Macaca mulatta) are capable of a simple form of metacognitive access to the contents of short-term memory. Monkeys chose among four opaque tubes, one of which concealed food. The tube containing the reward varied randomly from trial to trial. On half the trials the monkeys observed the experimenter baiting the tube, whereas on the remaining trials their view of the baiting was blocked. On each trial, monkeys were allowed a single chance to select the tube containing the reward. During the choice period the monkeys had the opportunity to look down the length of each tube, to determine if it contained food. When they knew the location of the reward, most monkeys chose without looking. In contrast, when ignorant, monkeys often made the effort required to look, thereby learning the location of the reward before choosing. Looking improved accuracy on trials on which monkeys had not observed the baiting. The difference in looking behavior between trials on which the monkeys knew, and trials on which they were ignorant, suggests that rhesus monkeys discriminate between knowing and not knowing. This result extends similar observations made of children and apes to a species of Old World monkey, suggesting that the underlying cognitive capacities may be widely distributed among primates.

  3. Comments on "On q-non-extensive statistics with non-Tsallisian entropy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Velimir M.; Stanković, Miomir S.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, in Jizba and Korbel (2016), four generalized Shannon-Khinchin [GSK] axioms have been proposed and a generalized entropy which uniquely satisfies the GSK axioms has been derived. In this comment, we show that the unique class of the entropies derived in the aforementioned paper is not correct, as it violates the fourth GSK axiom, and we derive the correct one. Nevertheless, the class of entropies proposed in the commented paper still can serve as a basis for generalized statistical mechanics. We propose a new axiomatic system which characterizes the class of entropies.

  4. Protein requirements of adult cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, L M; Hegsted, D M

    1980-12-01

    Twenty-nine adult cebus monkeys (18 males and 11 females) were used in long-term feeding experiments designed to study the protein requirements of this species. By feeding an otherwise adequate diet containing graded levels of lactalbumin, it was shown that diets containing 7.5% of the calories as protein were necessary for long-term weight maintenance. This estimate is compared to data obtained with young growing cebus monkeys in which 7% of the calories was sufficient for maximum growth, although it must be emphasized that due to its greater caloric intake/kg body weight, the protein intake/kg body weight of the younger animal is higher. Whereas a diet containing 9.34% protein supplied by dried bread crumbs (bread diet) was insufficient for weight maintenance of the adults, additions of 4 g lysine/kg bread crumbs and 1.5 g each methionine and threonine/kg bread crumbs produced a diet indistinguishable from the control diet (4.7% bread protein + 4.7% lactalbumin). When wheat gluten was added to the bread diet elevating the protein content to 16.2% of the calories, the amount of lysine necessary to improve the diet to weight maintenance levels increased when expressed/100 dietary kcal as compared to the bread diet alone, although the amounts in both diets were similar when expressed/g of dietary protein.

  5. Effects of octenidine on dental plaque and gingivitis in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shern, R J; Little, W A; Kennedy, J B; Mirth, D B

    1987-09-01

    This investigation monitored the effects of daily oral rinses with octenidine on plaque and gingivitis in five monkeys. Formulations containing 0.5% or 1.0% octenidine or the rinse vehicle placebo were provided daily for 2 weeks. Each week the dentition of each monkey was examined, photographed, and sampled for plaque. All responses exhibited a numerical decrease in mean scores following treatments with each concentration of octenidine, whereas the placebo treatment exerted negligible effects. Decreases in plaque mass were observed after 2 weeks of treatment with 1% octenidine (58%) or 0.5% octenidine (55%) compared with the corresponding baseline values. Similar trends were noted in the extent and thickness of supragingival plaque and its ability to decrease the pH of a sucrose solution. Octenidine treatments reduced the proportions of motile forms in samples of subgingival plaque and also restricted its ability to produce H2S. Slight numerical decreases were seen in the Gingival Index and flow rate of the crevicular fluid. These consistent protective trends suggest that octenidine decreases the pathogenic potential of established plaque.

  6. Developmental competence of oocytes after ICSI in the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusser, K D; Mitalipov, S; Widmann, A; Gerami-Naini, B; Yeoman, R R; Wolf, D P

    2001-01-01

    Oocyte quantity and quality are critical to assisted reproductive technology (ART), yet few assessments beyond counting metaphase II (MII) oocytes exist. In this study, 30 +/- 2 oocytes per cycle were recovered from rhesus monkeys subjected to follicular stimulation with human gonadotrophins, of which 15 +/- 1 were MII. Oocyte quality was investigated by monitoring the developmental potential of oocytes subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Despite uniform fertilization rates (71 +/- 4%), progression of embryos to blastocysts varied when expressed as a monthly average, from 20 to 85%, with lows from February to April and again in October, which could be attributed to developmental failure of a significant number of oocyte cohorts (14 of 55). Blastocyst rates, after elimination of failed cohorts, were uniform over time (59 +/- 4%). Neither culture conditions, the number of follicular stimulations, nor the individual sperm or oocyte donor were associated specifically with developmental failure, suggesting that intrinsic differences between stimulation cycles account for the observed variation in developmental potential. The in-vivo developmental competence of ICSI-produced embryos grown to blastocysts in vitro was also assessed. Two ongoing pregnancies and the birth of a normal female, 'Blastulina', represent landmarks in efforts to expand the use of ART in the rhesus monkey.

  7. Folic acid in the monkey brain: an immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, A; Coveñas, R; Geffard, K; Geffard, M; Marcos, P; Insausti, R; Dabadie, M P

    2004-05-27

    The present report describes the first visualization of folic acid-immunoreactive fibers in the mammalian central nervous system using a highly specific antiserum directed against this vitamin. The distribution of folic acid-immunoreactive structures was studied in the brainstem and thalamus of the monkey using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. We observed fibers containing folic acid, but no folic acid-immunoreactive cell bodies were found. In the brainstem, no immunoreactive structures were visualized in the medulla oblongata, pons, or in the medial-caudal mesencephalon, since at this location immunoreactive fibers containing folic acid were only found at the rostral level in the dorsolateral mesencephalon (in the mesencephalic-diencephalic junction). In the thalamus, the distribution of folic acid-immunoreactive structures was more widespread. Thus, we found immunoreactive fibers in the midline, in nuclei close to the midline (dorsomedial nucleus, centrum medianum/parafascicular complex), in the ventral region of the thalamus (ventral posteroinferior nucleus, ventral posteromedial nucleus), in the ventrolateral thalamus (medial geniculate nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus, inferior pulvinar nucleus) and in the dorsolateral thalamus (lateral posterior nucleus, pulvinar nucleus). The highest density of fibers containing folic acid was observed in the dorsolateral mesencephalon and in the pulvinar nucleus. The distribution of folic acid-immunoreactive structures in the monkey brain suggests that this vitamin could be involved in several mechanisms, such as visual, auditory, motor and somatosensorial functions.

  8. Action observation activates neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Luciano; Bimbi, Marco; Rodà, Francesca; Fogassi, Leonardo; Rozzi, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex is crucial for exploiting contextual information for the planning and guidance of behavioral responses. Among contextual cues, those provided by others’ behavior are particularly important, in primates, for selecting appropriate reactions and suppressing the inappropriate ones. These latter functions deeply rely on the ability to understand others’ actions. However, it is largely unknown whether prefrontal neurons are activated by action observation. To address this issue, we recorded the activity of ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPF) neurons of macaque monkeys during the observation of videos depicting biological movements performed by a monkey or a human agent, and object motion. Our results show that a population of VLPF neurons respond to the observation of biological movements, in particular those representing goal directed actions. Many of these neurons also show a preference for the agent performing the action. The neural response is present also when part of the observed movement is obscured, suggesting that these VLPF neurons code a high order representation of the observed action rather than a simple visual description of it. PMID:28290511

  9. Wound healing after excimer laser keratomileusis (photorefractive keratectomy) in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantes, F E; Hanna, K D; Waring, G O; Pouliquen, Y; Thompson, K P; Savoldelli, M

    1990-05-01

    Laser myopic keratomileusis (photorefractive keratectomy) was performed on 29 rhesus monkey corneas with an argon fluoride (193-nm) excimer laser and a computer-controlled, moving slit delivery system. The 4-mm-diameter central ablation zone ranged in depth from 11 microns (-2 diopters effect) to 46 microns (-8 diopters effect). Corneas were studied for the 9 months postoperatively by clinical slit-lamp microscopy, and periodically with light and transmission electron microscopy. By 6 weeks, mild to moderate subepithelial haze was apparent in 93% of the corneas, with considerable variability in density. Progressive clearing occurred so that by 6 to 9 months 12 of 13 surviving corneas (92%) were either completely clear (4 corneas) or trace hazy (8 corneas). The epithelium was thickened at 21 days after ablation and returned to normal thickness by 3 months. At 3 weeks, subepithelial fibroblasts were three times the density of normal keratocytes and returned to nearly normal numbers by 9 months. We concluded that the anterior monkey cornea demonstrated a mild, typical wound healing response after excimer laser keratomileusis.

  10. Mirror Neurons in a New World Monkey, Common Marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Wataru; Banno, Taku; Miyakawa, Naohisa; Abe, Hiroshi; Goda, Naokazu; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    Mirror neurons respond when executing a motor act and when observing others' similar act. So far, mirror neurons have been found only in macaques, humans, and songbirds. To investigate the degree of phylogenetic specialization of mirror neurons during the course of their evolution, we determined whether mirror neurons with similar properties to macaques occur in a New World monkey, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The ventral premotor cortex (PMv), where mirror neurons have been reported in macaques, is difficult to identify in marmosets, since no sulcal landmarks exist in the frontal cortex. We addressed this problem using "in vivo" connection imaging methods. That is, we first identified cells responsive to others' grasping action in a clear landmark, the superior temporal sulcus (STS), under anesthesia, and injected fluorescent tracers into the region. By fluorescence stereomicroscopy, we identified clusters of labeled cells in the ventrolateral frontal cortex, which were confirmed to be within the ventrolateral frontal cortex including PMv after sacrifice. We next implanted electrodes into the ventrolateral frontal cortex and STS and recorded single/multi-units under an awake condition. As a result, we found neurons in the ventrolateral frontal cortex with characteristic "mirror" properties quite similar to those in macaques. This finding suggests that mirror neurons occur in a common ancestor of New and Old World monkeys and its common properties are preserved during the course of primate evolution.

  11. Movement Limitation and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-alpha (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CDB+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  12. Thymic immunopathology and progression of SIVsm infection in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S L; Kaaya, E E; Ordónez, C; Ekman, M; Feichtinger, H; Putkonen, P; Böttiger, D; Biberfeld, G; Biberfeld, P

    1995-05-01

    Thymuses from 22 cynomolgus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsm) developed characteristic cortical and medullary changes including formation of B-cell follicles (8/21) and accumulation of virus immune complexes. Advanced thymic histopathology was correlated with more pronounced immunodeficiency. SIVsm provirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in most (16/18) thymuses and spliced viral env mRNA in 3 (3/7) thymuses with advanced histopathologic changes indicative of thymic SIVsm replication. By combined in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry, viral RNA was localized mainly to the follicular dendritic network, macrophages, multinucleated giant cells, and lymphocytes of the medullary regions. Latent infection by an Epstein-Barr-related herpesvirus (HVMF1) was also found by PCR and by ISH in medullary regions of three (3 of 8) thymuses with B-cell follicles, suggestive of an inductive role for B-cell proliferation in these thymuses. In a control group of HIV-2-infected nonimmunosuppressed monkeys, no comparable thymic changes were observed. Our results indicate that SIV, and probably by analogy HIV, can have direct and diverse pathogenic effects on the thymus that are important in the development of simian (human) AIDS.

  13. Bimatoprost Effects on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Monkeys

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    David F. Woodward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bimatoprost on aqueous humor dynamics were quantified in monkey eyes. Uveoscleral outflow was measured by the anterior chamber perfusion method, using FITC-dextran. Total outflow facility was determined by the two-level constant pressure method. Aqueous flow was measured with a scanning ocular fluorophotometer. Uveoscleral outflow was 0.96±0.19 L min−1 in vehicle-treated eyes and 1.37±0.27 L min−1 (=6; <.05 in eyes that received bimatoprost 0.01% b.i.d. × 5 days. Bimatoprost had no effect on total outflow facility, which was 0.42±0.05 L min−1 at baseline and 0.42±0.04 L min−1 after bimatoprost treatment. Bimatoprost had no significant effect on aqueous humor flow. This study demonstrates that bimatoprost increases uveoscleral outflow but not total outflow facility or aqueous humor flow, indicating that it lowers intraocular pressure in ocular normotensive monkeys by a mechanism that exclusively involves uveoscleral outflow.

  14. Stiripentol in acute/chronic efficacy tests in monkey model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, J S; Levy, R H; Rhodes, P H; Moore, D F

    1985-01-01

    Acute and chronic efficacy tests of stiripentol (4,4-dimethyl-1-[3,4-(methylenedioxy)-phenyl]-1-penten-3-ol) were conducted in alumina-gel rhesus monkeys. In the acute study (n = 6), discrete serial seizures precipitated by 150 mg/kg of 4-deoxypyridoxine hydrochloride were challenged by intravenous administration of stiripentol and the data compared with those obtained with valproate similarly tested in other monkeys (reported here) and with those from four other standard anticonvulsants (phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and diazepam--data published previously). In the acute challenge (Study 1), stiripentol performed comparably to valproate by delaying the onset of seizures but not eliminating them as did the other four drugs. In two separate chronic studies (at different doses, n = 6 each), stiripentol was given every 4 h by gastric catheter for 4 weeks, preceded and followed by 4 weeks of baseline. In these studies, stiripentol significantly reduced EEG interictal spike rates at mean plasma concentrations from 20 to 27 micrograms/ml in Study 2 and 11 to 14 micrograms/ml in Study 3. From these results, and those evinced in other studies, it appears that stiripentol should be evaluated for absence epilepsy and possible synergistic effects in polytherapy.

  15. Cell tropism and pathogenesis of measles virus in monkeys

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    Sei-ich eKato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MV is an enveloped negative strand RNA virus belonging to the family of Paramyxoviridae, genus Morbillivirus, and causes one of the most contagious diseases in humans. Experimentally infected non-human primates are used as animal models for studies of the pathogenesis of human measles. We established a reverse genetics system based on a highly pathogenic wild-type MV (IC-B strain. Infection of monkeys with recombinant MV strains generated by reverse genetics enabled analysis of the molecular basis of MV pathogenesis. In addition, recombinant wild-type MV strains expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein enable visual tracking of MV-infected cells in vitro and in vivo. To date, 3 different molecules have been identified as receptors for MV. Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, also called CD150, expressed on immune cells, is a major receptor for MV. CD46, ubiquitously expressed in all nucleated cells in humans and monkeys, is a receptor for vaccine and laboratory strains of MV. The newly identified nectin-4 (also called PVRL4 is an epithelial cell receptor for MV. The impact of MV receptor usage in vivo on disease outcomes is now under investigation.

  16. Color Discrimination in the Tufted Capuchin Monkey, Sapajus spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Paulo Roney Kilpp; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Galvão, Olavo de Faria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an “ML protanope.” For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u′v′ diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the “classic” protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the “classic” and “ML” protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats. PMID:23620819

  17. Merging functional and structural properties of the monkey auditory cortex

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    Olivier eJoly

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies in primates aim to define the functional properties of auditory cortical areas, especially areas beyond A1, in order to further our understanding of the auditory cortical organization. Precise mapping of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI results and interpretation of their localizations among all the small auditory subfields remains challenging. To facilitate this mapping, we combined here information from cortical folding, micro-anatomy, surface-based atlas and tonotopic mapping. We used for the first time, phase-encoded fMRI design for mapping the monkey tonotopic organization. From posterior to anterior, we found a high-low-high progression of frequency preference on the superior temporal plane. We show a faithful representation of the fMRI results on a locally flattened surface of the superior temporal plane. In a tentative scheme to delineate core versus belt regions which share similar tonotopic organizations we used the ratio of T1-weighted and T2-weighted MR images as a measure of cortical myelination. Our results, presented along a co-registered surface-based atlas, can be interpreted in terms of a current model of the monkey auditory cortex.

  18. Vitamin D Status in Monkey Candidates for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, S. B.; Wronski, T. J.; Koslovskeya, I.; Dotsenko, R.; Navidi, M.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In preparation for the Cosmos 2229 Biosatellite space flight experiments in Rhesus monkeys, we evaluated the status of vitamin D in animals of different origins: candidates for space flight raised in Moscow (IMBP) and animals housed at Ames Research Ctr. (ARC) for pilot studies. Diets at IMBP were natural foods found by analysis to contain 1.4% Ca, 2.8% P andmonkey chow with 0.9% Ca, 0.5% P and 6600 IU D3/kg. We measured body weights (BW), serum calcium (TCa), total protein (TP), phosphorus (Pi), alkaline phosphatase (AP), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) in 16 IMBP and 15 ARC male animals and indices of bone formation in cancellous bone obtained from iliac crest biopsy of 6 IMBP and 13 ARC animals. BW were the same in juveniles at IMBP as ARC although ARC monkeys were born a year later. Mean(1SD) TCa and TP were higher and 25D lower (1819 vs. 93+18 ng/ml,pmonkeys of the same BW (p<.05) Indices of bone formation were inversely related to 25D, not 1,25D. Of interest are similar 1,25D levels associated with a wide range of substrate and extensive osteoid in bone of D replete animals.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of cocaine in pregnant and nonpregnant rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhart, H M; Fogle, C M; Gillam, M P; Bailey, J R; Slikker, W; Paule, M G

    1993-01-01

    To determine pharmacokinetic parameters for cocaine in rhesus monkey plasma, samples were taken over several hours after i.m. administration of cocaine plus a tritiated cocaine tracer. Cocaine and its metabolites, benzoylecgonine and norcocaine, were isolated via HPLC and quantitated using liquid scintillation spectrometry. Pregnant subjects were dosed with cocaine at 0.3 (n = 3) or 1.0 (n = 3) mg/kg, whereas nonpregnant female subjects were dosed with 1.0 mg/kg (n = 3). For the pregnant subjects, pharmacokinetic studies were conducted on about gestational day 125 and areas under the concentration versus time curve (AUCs, ng/mL x h) were 64 +/- 26 (+/- SEM) and 143 +/- 12; half-lives (t1/2s, h) were 1.9 +/- 0.6 and 1.1 +/- 0.1 after 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg i.m., respectively. For nonpregnant subjects dosed acutely with 1.0 mg/kg, the AUC was 262 +/- 63 and the t1/2 was 1.4 +/- 0.3. There appear to be few differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters of cocaine and benzoylecgonine between pregnant and nonpregnant monkeys in this study.

  20. Meaningful gesture in monkeys? Investigating whether mandrills create social culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidre, Mark E

    2011-02-02

    Human societies exhibit a rich array of gestures with cultural origins. Often these gestures are found exclusively in local populations, where their meaning has been crafted by a community into a shared convention. In nonhuman primates like African monkeys, little evidence exists for such culturally-conventionalized gestures. Here I report a striking gesture unique to a single community of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) among nineteen studied across North America, Africa, and Europe. The gesture was found within a community of 23 mandrills where individuals old and young, female and male covered their eyes with their hands for periods which could exceed 30 min, often while simultaneously raising their elbow prominently into the air. This 'Eye covering' gesture has been performed within the community for a decade, enduring deaths, removals, and births, and it persists into the present. Differential responses to Eye covering versus controls suggested that the gesture might have a locally-respected meaning, potentially functioning over a distance to inhibit interruptions as a 'do not disturb' sign operates. The creation of this gesture by monkeys suggests that the ability to cultivate shared meanings using novel manual acts may be distributed more broadly beyond the human species. Although logistically difficult with primates, the translocation of gesturers between communities remains critical to experimentally establishing the possible cultural origin and transmission of nonhuman gestures.

  1. Taxon combinations, parsimony analysis (PAUP*), and the taxonomy of the yellow-tailed woolly monkey, Lagothrix flavicauda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Luke J; Rosenberger, Alfred L

    2008-11-01

    The classifications of primates, in general, and platyrrhine primates, in particular, have been greatly revised subsequent to the rationale for taxonomic decisions shifting from one rooted in the biological species concept to one rooted solely in phylogenetic affiliations. Given the phylogenetic justification provided for revised taxonomies, the scientific validity of taxonomic distinctions can be rightly judged by the robusticity of the phylogenetic results supporting them. In this study, we empirically investigated taxonomic-sampling effects on a cladogram previously inferred from craniodental data for the woolly monkeys (Lagothrix). We conducted the study primarily through much greater sampling of species-level taxa (OTUs) after improving some character codings and under a variety of outgroup choices. The results indicate that alternative selections of species subsets from within genera produce various tree topologies. These results stand even after adjusting the character set and considering the potential role of interobserver disagreement. We conclude that specific taxon combinations, in this case, generic or species pairings, of the primary study group has a biasing effect in parsimony analysis, and that the cladistic rationale for resurrecting the Oreonax generic distinction for the yellow-tailed woolly monkey (Lagothrix flavicauda) is based on an artifact of idiosyncratic sampling within the study group below the genus level. Some recommendations to minimize the problem, which is prevalent in all cladistic analyses, are proposed.

  2. Temporally-structured acquisition of multidimensional optical imaging data facilitates visualization of elusive cortical representations in the behaving monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, David B; Hildesheim, Rina; Grinvald, Amiram

    2013-11-15

    Fundamental understanding of higher cognitive functions can greatly benefit from imaging of cortical activity with high spatiotemporal resolution in the behaving non-human primate. To achieve rapid imaging of high-resolution dynamics of cortical representations of spontaneous and evoked activity, we designed a novel data acquisition protocol for sensory stimulation by rapidly interleaving multiple stimuli in continuous sessions of optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes. We also tested a new algorithm for the "temporally structured component analysis" (TSCA) of a multidimensional time series that was developed for our new data acquisition protocol, but was tested only on simulated data (Blumenfeld, 2010). In addition to the raw data, the algorithm incorporates prior knowledge about the temporal structure of the data as well as input from other information. Here we showed that TSCA can successfully separate functional signal components from other signals referred to as noise. Imaging of responses to multiple visual stimuli, utilizing voltage-sensitive dyes, was performed on the visual cortex of awake monkeys. Multiple cortical representations, including orientation and ocular dominance maps as well as the hitherto elusive retinotopic representation of orientation stimuli, were extracted in only 10s of imaging, approximately two orders of magnitude faster than accomplished by conventional methods. Since the approach is rather general, other imaging techniques may also benefit from the same stimulation protocol. This methodology can thus facilitate rapid optical imaging explorations in monkeys, rodents and other species with a versatility and speed that were not feasible before.

  3. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaobo; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Weise, Anja; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Tanomtong, Alongkoad; Pinthong, Krit; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Grothmann, Pierre; Liehr, Thomas; Oliveira, Edivaldo H C de

    2015-11-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs) using human multicolor banding (MCB) probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM) species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA), Callithrix jacchus (CJA), Cebus apella (CAP), Saimiri sciureus (SSC), and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE), respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs) among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107) NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99) NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA) and 66.3% (71/107) NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS). Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  4. Using SurveyMonkey® to teach safe social media strategies to medical students in their clinical years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramstedt, Katrina A; Ierna, Ben N; Woodcroft-Brown, Victoria K

    2014-01-01

    Social media is a valuable tool in the practice of medicine, but it can also be an area of 'treacherous waters' for medical students. Those in their upper years of study are off-site and scattered broadly, undertaking clinical rotations; thus, in-house (university lecture) sessions are impractical. Nonetheless, during these clinical years students are generally high users of social media technology, putting them at risk of harm if they lack appropriate ethical awareness. We created a compulsory session in social media ethics (Doctoring and Social Media) offered in two online modes (narrated PowerPoint file or YouTube video) to fourth- and fifth-year undergraduate medical students. The novelty of our work was the use of SurveyMonkey® to deliver the file links, as well as to take attendance and deliver a post-session performance assessment. All 167 students completed the course and provided feedback. Overall, 73% Agreed or Strongly Agreed the course session would aid their professionalism skills and behaviours, and 95% supported delivery of the curriculum online. The most frequent areas of learning occurred in the following topics: email correspondence with patients, medical photography, and awareness of medical apps. SurveyMonkey® is a valuable and efficient tool for curriculum delivery, attendance taking, and assessment activities.

  5. Reconstruction of movement-related intracortical activity from micro-electrocorticogram array signals in monkey primary motor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hidenori; Sato, Masa-aki; Suzuki, Takafumi; Nambu, Atsushi; Nishimura, Yukio; Kawato, Mitsuo; Isa, Tadashi

    2012-06-01

    Subdural electrode arrays provide stable, less invasive electrocorticogram (ECoG) recordings of neural signals than multichannel needle electrodes. Accurate reconstruction of intracortical local field potentials (LFPs) from ECoG signals would provide a critical step for the development of a less invasive, high-performance brain-machine interface; however, neural signals from individual ECoG channels are generally coarse and have limitations in estimating deep layer LFPs. Here, we developed a high-density, 32-channel, micro-ECoG array and applied a sparse linear regression algorithm to reconstruct the LFPs at various depths of primary motor cortex (M1) in a monkey performing a reach-and-grasp task. At 0.2 mm beneath the cortical surface, the real and estimated LFPs were significantly correlated (correlation coefficient (r); 0.66 ± 0.11), and the r at 3.2 mm was still as high as 0.55 ± 0.04. A time-frequency analysis of the reconstructed LFP showed clear transition between resting and movements by the monkey. These methods would be a powerful tool with wide-ranging applicability in neuroscience studies.

  6. Monkey-based research on human disease: the implications of genetic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jarrod

    2014-11-01

    Assertions that the use of monkeys to investigate human diseases is valid scientifically are frequently based on a reported 90-93% genetic similarity between the species. Critical analyses of the relevance of monkey studies to human biology, however, indicate that this genetic similarity does not result in sufficient physiological similarity for monkeys to constitute good models for research, and that monkey data do not translate well to progress in clinical practice for humans. Salient examples include the failure of new drugs in clinical trials, the highly different infectivity and pathology of SIV/HIV, and poor extrapolation of research on Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and stroke. The major molecular differences underlying these inter-species phenotypic disparities have been revealed by comparative genomics and molecular biology - there are key differences in all aspects of gene expression and protein function, from chromosome and chromatin structure to post-translational modification. The collective effects of these differences are striking, extensive and widespread, and they show that the superficial similarity between human and monkey genetic sequences is of little benefit for biomedical research. The extrapolation of biomedical data from monkeys to humans is therefore highly unreliable, and the use of monkeys must be considered of questionable value, particularly given the breadth and potential of alternative methods of enquiry that are currently available to scientists.

  7. The properties of B-form monoamine oxidase in mitochondria from monkey platelet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Toshio; Aomine, Masahiro

    The present study was examined the effect of the properties of monkey platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) based on inhibitor sensitivity. Monkey platelet showed a high MAO activity with beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA) as substrate and a very low A-form MAO activity with 5 hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) as substrate. Moreover, monkey platelet MAO was sensitive to the drugs deprenyl as B-form MAO inhibitor and less sensitive to clorgyline and harmaline as A form MAO inhibitor with beta-PEA as the B-form MAO substrate. B-form MAO from monkey platelet was more stable against heat treatment at 55 degrees C than B-form MAO in brain. After digestion with trypsin at 37 degrees C for 4 hrs, it was found that MAO from platelet was inhibited about 70% with beta-PEA as substrate with brain. The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine and nortriptyline inhibited B-form MAO activity more potency than B-form MAO in brain. However, when the noncyclic antidepressant nomifensine was used, monkey platelet B-form MAO activities were less potently inhibited. All these reagents were noncompetitive inhibitors of B form MAO in monkey platelet. The present studies demonstrated that monkey platelet MAO is a single of B-form MAO and sensitive to tricyclic antidepressants.

  8. Lethal canine distemper virus outbreak in cynomolgus monkeys in Japan in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kouji; Nagata, Noriyo; Ami, Yasushi; Seki, Fumio; Suzaki, Yuriko; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Tadaki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Otsuki, Noriyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Komase, Katsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Hasegawa, Hideki; Saijo, Masayuki; Takeda, Makoto; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has recently expanded its host range to nonhuman primates. A large CDV outbreak occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi Province, China, in 2006, followed by another outbreak in rhesus monkeys at an animal center in Beijing in 2008. In 2008 in Japan, a CDV outbreak also occurred in cynomolgus monkeys imported from China. In that outbreak, 46 monkeys died from severe pneumonia during a quarantine period. A CDV strain (CYN07-dV) was isolated in Vero cells expressing dog signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). Phylogenic analysis showed that CYN07-dV was closely related to the recent CDV outbreaks in China, suggesting continuing chains of CDV infection in monkeys. In vitro, CYN07-dV uses macaca SLAM and macaca nectin4 as receptors as efficiently as dog SLAM and dog nectin4, respectively. CYN07-dV showed high virulence in experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys and excreted progeny viruses in oral fluid and feces. These data revealed that some of the CDV strains, like CYN07-dV, have the potential to cause acute systemic infection in monkeys.

  9. Sporadic premature aging in a Japanese monkey: a primate model for progeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Oishi

    Full Text Available In our institute, we have recently found a child Japanese monkey who is characterized by deep wrinkles of the skin and cataract of bilateral eyes. Numbers of analyses were performed to identify symptoms representing different aspects of aging. In this monkey, the cell cycle of fibroblasts at early passage was significantly extended as compared to a normal control. Moreover, both the appearance of senescent cells and the deficiency in DNA repair were observed. Also, pathological examination showed that this monkey has poikiloderma with superficial telangiectasia, and biochemical assay confirmed that levels of HbA1c and urinary hyaluronan were higher than those of other (child, adult, and aged monkey groups. Of particular interest was that our MRI analysis revealed expansion of the cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles probably due to shrinkage of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, the conduction velocity of a peripheral sensory but not motor nerve was lower than in adult and child monkeys, and as low as in aged monkeys. However, we could not detect any individual-unique mutations of known genes responsible for major progeroid syndromes. The present results indicate that the monkey suffers from a kind of progeria that is not necessarily typical to human progeroid syndromes.

  10. Sporadic premature aging in a Japanese monkey: a primate model for progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Takao; Imai, Hiroo; Go, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Masanori; Hirai, Hirohisa; Takada, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    In our institute, we have recently found a child Japanese monkey who is characterized by deep wrinkles of the skin and cataract of bilateral eyes. Numbers of analyses were performed to identify symptoms representing different aspects of aging. In this monkey, the cell cycle of fibroblasts at early passage was significantly extended as compared to a normal control. Moreover, both the appearance of senescent cells and the deficiency in DNA repair were observed. Also, pathological examination showed that this monkey has poikiloderma with superficial telangiectasia, and biochemical assay confirmed that levels of HbA1c and urinary hyaluronan were higher than those of other (child, adult, and aged) monkey groups. Of particular interest was that our MRI analysis revealed expansion of the cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles probably due to shrinkage of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, the conduction velocity of a peripheral sensory but not motor nerve was lower than in adult and child monkeys, and as low as in aged monkeys. However, we could not detect any individual-unique mutations of known genes responsible for major progeroid syndromes. The present results indicate that the monkey suffers from a kind of progeria that is not necessarily typical to human progeroid syndromes.

  11. Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences parallel those of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Janice M; Siebert, Erin R; Wallen, Kim

    2008-08-01

    Sex differences in toy preferences in children are marked, with boys expressing stronger and more rigid toy preferences than girls, whose preferences are more flexible. Socialization processes, parents, or peers encouraging play with gender-specific toys are thought to be the primary force shaping sex differences in toy preference. A contrast in view is that toy preferences reflect biologically-determined preferences for specific activities facilitated by specific toys. Sex differences in juvenile activities, such as rough-and-tumble play, peer preferences, and infant interest, share similarities in humans and monkeys. Thus if activity preferences shape toy preferences, male and female monkeys may show toy preferences similar to those seen in boys and girls. We compared the interactions of 34 rhesus monkeys, living within a 135 monkey troop, with human wheeled toys and plush toys. Male monkeys, like boys, showed consistent and strong preferences for wheeled toys, while female monkeys, like girls, showed greater variability in preferences. Thus, the magnitude of preference for wheeled over plush toys differed significantly between males and females. The similarities to human findings demonstrate that such preferences can develop without explicit gendered socialization. We offer the hypothesis that toy preferences reflect hormonally influenced behavioral and cognitive biases which are sculpted by social processes into the sex differences seen in monkeys and humans.

  12. Reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Shaw, Gillian; Mattos, Bianca Chaim; Russ, Heloisa Helena Abil; Vilani, Ricardo G D'O C

    2008-01-01

    To perform selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in healthy capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with the aim of establishing normal physiological reference values for this species. A total of 15 healthy, capuchin monkeys were used to test most of the parameters in this investigation. Five of the 15 monkeys were used for the evaluation of normal conjunctival flora. Ages varied from 6 to 20 years of age. Selected diagnostic ocular tests were performed including Schirmer tear test (STT), tonometry using an applanation tonometer (Tonopen), central corneal thickness (CCT) using an ultrasonic pachymeter (Sonomed, Micropach), Model 200P+) and culture of the normal conjunctival bacterial flora. Results for selected ocular diagnostic tests investigated here for the capuchin monkey eye were as follows: IOP: 18.4 +/- 3.8 mmHg; STT: 14.9 +/- 5.1 mm/min; CCT: 0.46 +/- 0.03 mm. No statistically significant differences between ages or genders were found for any of the results. Streptococcus sp. and Corynebacterium sp. were isolated from healthy conjunctival and eyelid margins, suggesting they are normal constituents of the conjunctival flora of the capuchin monkey. The data obtained in this investigation will help veterinary ophthalmologists and laboratory animal medicine specialists to more accurately diagnose ocular diseases in the capuchin monkey. These ophthalmic reference values will be particularly useful to diagnose discrete or unusual pathological changes of the capuchin monkey eye.

  13. Monkey liver cytochrome P450 2C19 is involved in R- and S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Yoshio; Uno, Yasuhiro; Murayama, Norie; Fujino, Hideki; Shukuya, Mitsunori; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Shimizu, Makiko; Utoh, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2012-12-15

    Cynomolgus monkeys are widely used as primate models in preclinical studies. However, some differences are occasionally seen between monkeys and humans in the activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes. R- and S-warfarin are model substrates for stereoselective oxidation in humans. In this current research, the activities of monkey liver microsomes and 14 recombinantly expressed monkey cytochrome P450 enzymes were analyzed with respect to R- and S-warfarin 6- and 7-hydroxylation. Monkey liver microsomes efficiently mediated both R- and S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation, in contrast to human liver microsomes, which preferentially catalyzed S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation. R-Warfarin 7-hydroxylation activities in monkey liver microsomes were not inhibited by α-naphthoflavone or ketoconazole, and were roughly correlated with P450 2C19 levels and flurbiprofen 4-hydroxylation activities in microsomes from 20 monkey livers. In contrast, S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation activities were not correlated with the four marker drug oxidation activities used. Among the 14 recombinantly expressed monkey P450 enzymes tested, P450 2C19 had the highest activities for R- and S-warfarin 7-hydroxylations. Monkey P450 3A4 and 3A5 slowly mediated R- and S-warfarin 6-hydroxylations. Kinetic analysis revealed that monkey P450 2C19 had high V(max) and low K(m) values for R-warfarin 7-hydroxylation, comparable to those for monkey liver microsomes. Monkey P450 2C19 also mediated S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation with V(max) and V(max)/K(m) values comparable to those for recombinant human P450 2C9. R-warfarin could dock favorably into monkey P450 2C19 modeled. These results collectively suggest high activities for monkey liver P450 2C19 toward R- and S-warfarin 6- and 7-hydroxylation in contrast to the saturation kinetics of human P450 2C9-mediated S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation.

  14. Some comments on high precision study of neutrino oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenky, S. M.

    2015-07-01

    I discuss here some problems connected with the high precision study of neutrino oscillations. In the general case of n-neutrino mixing I derive a convenient expression for transition probability in which only independent terms (and mass-squared differences) enter. For three-neutrino mixing I discuss a problem of a definition of a large (atmospheric) neutrino mass-squared difference. I comment also possibilities to reveal the character of neutrino mass spectrum in future reactor neutrino experiments.

  15. Pattern of maternal circulating CRH in laboratory-housed squirrel and owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, M L; Williams, L E; Gibson, S V; Schulkin, J; Helfers, J; Zorrilla, E P

    2010-11-01

    The anthropoid primate placenta appears to be unique in producing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Placental CRH is involved in an endocrine circuit key to the production of estrogens during pregnancy. CRH induces cortisol production by the maternal and fetal adrenal glands, leading to further placental CRH production. CRH also stimulates the fetal adrenal glands to produce dehydroepiandrostendione sulfate (DHEAS), which the placenta converts into estrogens. There are at least two patterns of maternal circulating CRH across gestation among anthropoids. Monkeys examined to date (Papio and Callithrix) have an early-to-mid gestational peak of circulating CRH, followed by a steady decline to a plateau level, with a possible rise near parturition. In contrast, humans and great apes have an exponential rise in circulating CRH peaking at parturition. To further document and compare patterns of maternal circulating CRH in anthropoid primates, we collected monthly blood samples from 14 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) and ten owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) during pregnancy. CRH immunoreactivity was measured from extracted plasma by using solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Both squirrel and owl monkeys displayed a mid-gestational peak in circulating CRH: days 45-65 of the 152-day gestation for squirrel monkeys (mean±SEM CRH=2,694±276 pg/ml) and days 60-80 of the 133-day gestation for owl monkeys (9,871±974 pg/ml). In squirrel monkeys, circulating CRH declined to 36% of mean peak value by 2 weeks before parturition and then appeared to increase; the best model for circulating CRH over gestation in squirrel monkeys was a cubic function, similar to previous results for baboons and marmosets. In owl monkeys, circulating CRH appeared to reach plateau with no subsequent significant decline approaching parturition, although a cubic function was the best fit. This study provides additional evidence for a mid-gestational peak of maternal circulating CRH in ancestral

  16. Social Status in Monkeys: Effects of Social Confrontation on Brain Function and Cocaine Self-Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert W; Czoty, Paul W; Porrino, Linda J; Nader, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Individual differences in response to social stress and environmental enrichment may contribute to variability in response to behavioral and pharmacological treatments for drug addiction. In monkeys, social status influences the reinforcing effects of cocaine and the effects of some drugs on cocaine self-administration. In this study, we used male cynomolgus macaques (n=15) living in established social groups to examine the effects of social confrontation on the reinforcing effects of cocaine using a food-drug choice procedure. On the test day, a dominant or subordinate monkey was removed from his homecage and placed into another social pen; 30 min later he was studied in a cocaine-food choice paradigm. For the group, following social confrontation, sensitivity to cocaine reinforcement was significantly greater in subordinate monkeys compared with dominant animals. Examining individual-subject data revealed that for the majority of monkeys (9/15), serving as an intruder in another social group affected cocaine self-administration and these effects were dependent on the social rank of the monkey. For subordinate monkeys, sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of cocaine increased while sensitivity decreased in dominant monkeys. To investigate potential mechanisms mediating these effects, brain glucose metabolism was studied in a subset of monkeys (n=8) using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) with positron emission tomography. Dominant and subordinate monkeys displayed distinctly different patterns of brain glucose metabolism in their homecage, including areas associated with vigilance and stress/anxiety, respectively, and during social confrontation. These data demonstrate that, depending on an individual's social status, the same social experience can have divergent effects on brain function and cocaine self-administration. These phenotypic differences in response to social conditions support a personalized treatment approach to cocaine addiction.

  17. Comparison of delayed matching-to-sample performance in monkeys and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelonis, John J; Cox, Andrew R; Karr, Michael J; Prunty, Patricia K; Baldwin, Ronald L; Paule, Merle G

    2014-03-01

    Although research has consistently demonstrated that accuracy on a variety of memory tasks decreases as delay increases, relatively little research has been conducted to quantify this relationship across development in humans or directly compare rates of forgetting between humans and monkeys. This study utilized a delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) task to compare the relative contributions of proactive interference and attention on the rate of forgetting in monkeys and children. The performance of 1125 children from four to fourteen years of age and 10 adult rhesus monkeys was compared. For this DMTS task, a shape was displayed on the center one of three press-plates. After a delay, the subjects were required to match the original shape with one of three choice shapes to receive a banana-flavored food pellet for monkeys, or a nickel for children. A modified power function provided an excellent fit for the data for monkeys and children. The forgetting rates in children decreased with age, and the forgetting rates for monkeys were most comparable to those of younger children. The data also suggest that proactive interference did not significantly contribute to the forgetting rates for monkeys or younger children. Further, the monkeys appeared to attend to the task at a level similar to that of younger children as evidenced by the similarities in response latencies. The results from this study indicate that the rate of forgetting in monkeys, as well as the mechanisms underlying this rate, appears to share more similarities with that of younger children than of older children.

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ...

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: ... Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview Images related ...

  20. Swine Influenza Virus Vaccine: Potentiation of Antibody Responses in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    and of polyllUCI. Monkeys given the vac- Fever was not observed in monkeys carboxymethylcellulose lpoly(ICL.C)l cine-adjuvant combinations were gisen...1ICL0 - - ~ - __C D unit antigen prepared from the AINJ/76 k 0 7142425lO (New Jersey; swine) strain of virus. when ug) 0 7- 142Q10 5 tested in monkeys...7) (12) (34) (M0) (40) prepared as described previously (3). 100 < < 20 40 160 80 20 was 10or .00 Ag/kg in the first study 100 < ម 40 320 320 64

  1. The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior of captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Mikkelsen, L F; Hau, J

    2010-01-01

    The authors provided different forms of environmental enrichment to six old laboratory male tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and studied the behavior of the monkeys during a baseline period and during three enrichment periods. Each observation period lasted 5 d, with an interval of 6 d...... Buster cubes, wood cylinders and bark shavings. When provided with enrichment, the monkeys engaged in natural, species-specific activities and began to exhibit behavioral profiles that more closely resembled those of their natural counterparts. This suggests that their psychological well-being had...

  2. Application and Assessment of Ketamine-Xylidinothiazoline Combinations for Anaesthesia in Rhesus Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jianhua; GAO Li; Liu Huanqi; FAN Honggang; MA Haikun; LIU Yun; WANG Hongbin

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative anaesthesia assessment technique was used to evaluate the effectiveness of ketamine, ketaminexylidinothiazoline in rhesus monkey. Total 20 healthy adult rhesus monkeys were divided into two groups and anaesthetized anaesthesia rectal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, saturation of blood oxygen and blood pressure were recorded. The degree of sedation, analgesia, muscle relaxation were monitored either. The results showed that ketamine alone did not produce adequate anaesthesia, and the combination of xylidinothiazoline and ketamine provided adequate anesthesia for rhesus monkeys with no significant side effects and little effects on respiration and circulation.

  3. Comments on UN Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangHongxi; ZhangYaowu

    2004-01-01

    On October 9-13 2004, United Nations SecretaryGeneral Kofi Annan paid an official visit to China.During his stay, he had discussions with Chinese leaders on UN reform and changes in the international situation and etc. In recent 59th UN General Assembly Session, UN reform was also one of the hot topics.

  4. A Comment on Entropy and Area

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, D

    1994-01-01

    For an arbitrary quantum field in flat space with a planar boundary, an entropy of entanglement, associated with correlations across the boundary, is present when the field is in its vacuum state. The vacuum state of the same quantum field appears thermal in Rindler space, with an associated thermal entropy. We show that the density matrices describing the two situations are identical, and therefore that the two entropies are equal. We comment on the generality and significance of this result, and make use of it in analyzing the area and cutoff dependence of the entropy. The equivalence of the density matrices leads us to speculate that a planar boundary in Minkowski space has a classical entropy given by the Bekenstein--Hawking formula.

  5. Tahyna virus genetics, infectivity, and immunogenicity in mice and monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tahyna virus (TAHV is a human pathogen of the California encephalitis virus (CEV serogroup (Bunyaviridae endemic to Europe, Asia, and Africa. TAHV maintains an enzootic life cycle with several species of mosquito vectors and hares, rabbits, hedgehogs, and rodents serving as small mammal amplifying hosts. Human TAHV infection occurs in summer and early fall with symptoms of fever, headache, malaise, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and nausea. TAHV disease can progress to CNS involvement, although unlike related La Crosse virus (LACV, fatalities have not been reported. Human infections are frequent with neutralizing antibodies present in 60-80% of the elderly population in endemic areas. Results In order to determine the genomic sequence of wild-type TAHV, we chose three TAHV isolates collected over a 26-year period from mosquitoes. Here we present the first complete sequence of the TAHV S, M, and L segments. The three TAHV isolates maintained a highly conserved genome with both nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity greater than 99%. In order to determine the extent of genetic relatedness to other members of the CEV serogroup, we compared protein sequences of TAHV with LACV, Snowshoe Hare virus (SSHV, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV, and Inkoo virus (INKV. By amino acid comparison, TAHV was most similar to SSHV followed by LACV, JCV, and INKV. The sequence of the GN protein is most conserved followed by L, N, GC, NSS, and NSM. In a weanling Swiss Webster mouse model, all three TAHV isolates were uniformly neurovirulent, but only one virus was neuroinvasive. In rhesus monkeys, the virus was highly immunogenic even in the absence of viremia. Cross neutralization studies utilizing monkey immune serum demonstrated that TAHV is antigenically distinct from North American viruses LACV and JCV. Conclusions Here we report the first complete sequence of TAHV and present genetic analysis of new-world viruses, LACV, SSHV, and JCV with old

  6. Cardiac arrhythmias induced by chloral hydrate in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pengfei; Song, Haibo; Yang, Pingliang; Xie, Huiqi; Kang, Y James

    2011-06-01

    Chloral hydrate has been long used as a safe sedative and hypnotic drug in humans. However, reports on its cardiovascular adverse effects have been published from time to time. The present study was undertaken to use Rhesus monkeys as a model to define the dose regiment of chloral hydrate at which cardiac arrhythmias can be induced and the consequences of the cardiac events. Male Rhesus monkeys of 2-3 years old were intravenously infused with chloral hydrate starting at 50 mg/kg with an increasing increment of 25 mg/kg until the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias. In addition, a traditional up-and-down dosing procedure was applied to define a single dose level at which cardiac arrhythmias can be induced. The data obtained showed that when the sequentially escaladed dose reached 125 mg/kg, cardiac arrhythmias occurred in all monkeys tested. The single effective dose to cause cardiac arrhythmias calculated from the crossover analysis was 143 ± 4 mg/kg. This value would be equivalent to 68.6 ± 1.9 mg/kg for children and 46.4 ± 1.3 mg/kg for adults in humans. Under either multiple or single dose condition, cardiac arrhythmias did not occur before 40 min after the onset of anesthesia induced by chloral hydrate. Cardiac arrhythmias were recovered without help at the end of the anesthesia in most cases, but also continued after the regain of consciousness in some cases. The cardiac arrhythmias were accompanied with compromised cardiac function including suppressed fractional shortening and ejection fraction. This study thus suggests that cautions need to be taken when chloral hydrate is used above certain levels and beyond a certain period of anesthesia, and cardiac arrhythmias induced by chloral hydrate need to be closely monitored because compromised cardiac function may occur simultaneously. In addition, patients with cardiac arrhythmias induced by chloral hydrate should be monitored even after they are recovered from the anesthesia.

  7. A Pig in a Suit Is Still A Pig: A Comment on "Modifying the C Index for Use With Holland Codes of Unequal Length"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.

    2006-01-01

    In this comment the author reviews briefly the evidence documenting the failure of Holland's (1997) hexagonal congruence model to predict meaningful vocational outcomes, considers the excuses generally offered for the failure of Holland's system, and comments briefly on Eggerth and Andrew's (2006 [this issue]) proposed modification of the C index.…

  8. A Pig in a Suit Is Still A Pig: A Comment on "Modifying the C Index for Use With Holland Codes of Unequal Length"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.

    2006-01-01

    In this comment the author reviews briefly the evidence documenting the failure of Holland's (1997) hexagonal congruence model to predict meaningful vocational outcomes, considers the excuses generally offered for the failure of Holland's system, and comments briefly on Eggerth and Andrew's (2006 [this issue]) proposed modification of the C index.…

  9. Modification of the Fc Region of a Human Anti-oncostatin M Monoclonal Antibody for Higher Affinity to FcRn Receptor and Extension of Half-life in Cynomolgus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnane, Ivo P; Han, Chao; Jiao, Qun; Tam, Susan H; Davis, Hugh M; Xu, Zhenhua

    2017-01-28

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of anti-oncostatin M (OSM) IgG1 monoclonal antibodies, CNTO 1119 and its Fc variant (CNTO 8212), which incorporates the LS(Xtend) mutation to extend terminal half-life (T1/2 ), after a single intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) administration in cynomolgus monkeys, and to predict human PK. In study 1, single doses of CNTO 1119 and CNTO 8212 were administered IV or SC at 3 mg/kg to cynomolgus monkeys (n = 3 per group). In study 2, single doses of CNTO 8212 were administered IV at 1, 5 or 20 mg/kg, or SC at 5 mg/kg to cynomolgus monkeys (n = 5 per group). Serial blood samples were collected for assessment of serum concentrations of CNTO 1119 and/or CNTO 8212. A two-compartment population PK model with first-order elimination was utilized to simultaneously describe the serum concentrations of CNTO 1119 and CNTO 8212 over time after IV and SC administration in cynomolgus monkeys. The typical population PK parameter estimates for CNTO 1119 in cynomolgus monkeys were clearance (CL) = 2.81 mL/day/kg, volume of distribution of central compartment (V1 ) = 31.3 mL/kg, volume of distribution of peripheral compartment (V2 ) = 23.3 mL/kg, absolute bioavailability (F) = 0.84 and T1/2 = 13.4 days. In comparison, the typical population PK parameter estimates for CNTO 8212 in cynomolgus monkeys were CL = 1.41 mL/day/kg, V1 = 39.8 mL/kg, V2 = 32.6 mL/kg, F = 0.75 and T1/2 = 35.7 days. The mean CL of CNTO 8212 was ~50% lower compared with that for CNTO 1119 in cynomolgus monkeys. The overall volume of distribution (V1 +V2 ) for CNTO 8212 was about 32% larger compared with that for CNTO 1119, but generally similar to the vascular volume in cynomolgus monkeys. The T1/2 of CNTO 8212 was significantly (p monkeys. Thus, the modification of the Fc portion of an anti-OSM IgG1 mAb for higher FcRn binding affinity resulted in lower systemic clearance and a longer terminal half-life in cynomolgus monkeys. CNTO 8212

  10. 78 FR 79660 - Enhancing Agricultural Coexistence; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    .... APHIS-2013-0047] Enhancing Agricultural Coexistence; Extension of Comment Period ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: We are extending the comment period for a request for information... persons additional time to prepare and submit comments. DATES: The comment period for the notice published...

  11. 78 FR 54362 - Data Collection Available for Public Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Data Collection Available for Public Comments ACTION: 60-day notice and request for comments... for public comment in response to the notice. This notice complies with that requirement. DATES...) Solicitation of Public Comments SBA is requesting comments on (a) Whether the collection of information...

  12. Representations of the body surface in areas 3b and 1 of postcentral parietal cortex of Cebus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felleman, D J; Nelson, R J; Sur, M; Kaas, J H

    1983-05-23

    The somatotopic organization of postcentral parietal cortex was determined with microelectrode mapping methods in a New World monkey, Cebus albifrons. As in previous studies in macaque, squirrel and owl monkeys, two separate representations of the body surface were found in regions corresponding to the architectonic fields 3b and 1. The two representations were roughly mirror-images of each other, with receptive field locations matched for recording sites along the common border. As in other monkeys, the glabrous digit tips of the hand and foot pointed rostrally in the Area 3b representation and caudally in the Area 1 representation. Both representations proceeded in parallel from the tail on the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere to the teeth and tongue in lateral cortex along the Sylvian fissure. Compared with the other monkeys, the tail of the cebus monkey, which is prehensile, was represented in a very large region of cortex in Areas 3b and 1. Like its close relative, the squirrel monkey, the representation of the trunk and parts of the limbs were reversed in orientation in both Area 3b and Area 1 in cebus monkeys as compared to owl and macaque monkeys. The reversals of organization for some but not all parts of the representations in cebus and squirrel monkeys suggest that one line of New World monkeys acquired a unique but functionally adequate pattern of somatotopic organization for the two adjoining fields.

  13. Interference in Time: A Comment

    CERN Document Server

    Horwitz, L P

    2005-01-01

    I comment on the interpretation of a recent experiment showing quantum interference in time. It is pointed out that the standard nonrelativistic quantum theory, used by the authors in their analysis, cannot account for the results found, and therefore that this experiment has fundamental importance beyond the technical advances it represents.

  14. Pharmacokinetic studies on quinacrine following intrauterine administration to cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, N H; Blake, D A; DiBlasi, M C; Parmley, T H; King, T M

    1982-12-01

    Recent efforts have been made to develop a chemical oviductal occluding agent. Intrauterine quinacrine has been used in certain areas of the world with moderate success in effected tubal closure. This report presents the pharmacokinetics of a quinacrine solution (30 mg) as administered to cynomolgus monkeys via the intrauterine route, compared with intravascular injection. The data show rapid transfer of the drug from the uterine to the vascular compartment and uptake by almost all tissues examined. Although plasma concentrations disappear within 24 hours, levels can be detected in most tissues for at least 1 week following intrauterine injection. After 28 days, however, tissue levels of the drug are absent or near the limit of detection.

  15. Dynamics of 3D view invariance in monkey inferotemporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratan Murty, N Apurva; Arun, Sripati P

    2015-04-01

    Rotations in depth are challenging for object vision because features can appear, disappear, be stretched or compressed. Yet we easily recognize objects across views. Are the underlying representations view invariant or dependent? This question has been intensely debated in human vision, but the neuronal representations remain poorly understood. Here, we show that for naturalistic objects, neurons in the monkey inferotemporal (IT) cortex undergo a dynamic transition in time, whereby they are initially sensitive to viewpoint and later encode view-invariant object identity. This transition depended on two aspects of object structure: it was strongest when objects foreshortened strongly across views and were similar to each other. View invariance in IT neurons was present even when objects were reduced to silhouettes, suggesting that it can arise through similarity between external contours of objects across views. Our results elucidate the viewpoint debate by showing that view invariance arises dynamically in IT neurons out of a representation that is initially view dependent.

  16. Collateral branching of long-distance cortical projections in monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockland, Kathleen S

    2013-12-15

    Collateralization of individual cortical axons is well documented for rodents but less so for monkeys, where double retrograde tracer experiments have tended to find only small numbers of neurons projecting to two different injection sites. Evidence from both double label and single axon studies, however, suggests that in specific projection systems the number of neurons with collateralized axons can be 10% or greater. These include feedback projections from temporal areas (but less so those from V4 and MT/V5). Single-axon analyses show that many parietal neurons branch to multiple targets. Except for giant Meynert cells in area V1, feedforward projections from early visual areas have only a small number of neurons with branching axons. Why only some neurons collateralize, what determines branch points and projection foci, and how this impacts network organization are largely unknown. Deciphering the branching code might offer new perspectives on space-time organization at the network level.

  17. Vocalization-correlated respiratory movements in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, U

    2000-10-01

    Respiratory abdominal movements associated with vocalization were recorded in awake squirrel monkeys. Several call types, such as peeping, trilling, cackling, and err-chucks, were accompanied by large vocalization-correlated respiratory movements (VCRM) that started before vocalization. During purring, in contrast, only small VCRM were recorded that started later after vocal onset. VCRM during trill calls, a vocalization type with repetitive frequency modulation, showed a modulation in the rhythm of the frequency changes. A correlation with amplitude modulation was also present, but more variable. As high frequencies need a higher lung pressure for production than low frequencies, the modulation of VCRM seems to serve to optimize the lung pressure in relation to the vocalization frequency. The modulation, furthermore, may act as a mechanism to produce different trill variants. During err-chucks and staccato peeps, which show a large amplitude modulation, a nonmodulated VCRM occurred. This indicates the existence of a laryngeal amplitude-controlling mechanism that is independent from respiration.

  18. Auditory list memory and interference processes in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A A

    1999-07-01

    Memory of 2 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) was tested in a serial probe recognition task with lists of 4 natural or environmental sounds, different retention intervals, and different manipulations of interference. At short retention intervals, increasing the separation of list items reduced the primacy effect and produced a recency effect. Similar results were shown by increasing interference across lists through item repetitions or making the first 2 list items high-interference items. These results indicated that decreasing first-item performance reduced proactive interference on memory of the last list items. At long (20 s) retention intervals, making the last list items of high interference reduced the recency effect, reduced retroactive interference, and produced a primacy effect. Taken together, interference plays a role in determining the primacy and recency effects of the serial-position function.

  19. Statistical learning of visual transitions in monkey inferotemporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Travis; Olson, Carl R

    2011-11-29

    One of the most fundamental functions of the brain is to predict upcoming events on the basis of the recent past. A closely related function is to signal when a prediction has been violated. The identity of the brain regions that mediate these functions is not known. We set out to determine whether they are implemented at the level of single neurons in the visual system. We gave monkeys prolonged exposure to pairs of images presented in fixed sequence so that each leading image became a strong predictor for the corresponding trailing image. We then monitored the responses of neurons in the inferotemporal cortex to image sequences that obeyed or violated the transitional rules imposed during training. Inferotemporal neurons exhibited a transitional surprise effect, responding much more strongly to unpredicted transitions than to predicted transitions. Thus, neurons even in the visual system make experience-based predictions and react when they fail.

  20. Spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during fetal monkey brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, D Eugene; Zhao, Ji-Liang; Randall, Jeffry D; Eklund, Aron C; Eusebi, Leonard O V; Roth, Robert H; Gullans, Steven R; Jensen, Roderick V

    2003-12-19

    Human DNA microarrays are used to study the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during the course of fetal monkey brain development. The 444 most dynamically expressed genes in four major brain areas are reported at five different fetal ages. The spatiotemporal profiles of gene expression show both regional specificity as well as waves of gene expression across the developing brain. These patterns of expression are used to identify statistically significant clusters of co-regulated genes. This study demonstrates for the first time in the primate the relevance, timing, and spatial locations of expression for many developmental genes identified in other animals and provides clues to the functions of many unknowns. Two different microarray platforms are used to provide high-throughput cross validation of the most important gene expression changes. These results may lead to new understanding of brain development and new strategies for treating and repairing disorders of brain function.

  1. Dyscoria associated with herpesvirus infection in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Montoya, Enrique J.; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-08-16

    Abstract Dyscoria was observed in a female owl monkey and her two offspring. A third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two males paired with the female died, one of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all three animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring were positive for Herpesvirus simplex antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The clinical history, gross and microscopic lesions, and serology results suggests a herpesviral etiology, possibly, H. simplex or H. saimiri-1. This report underscores the risks associated with introducing animals into breeding or research colonies that were previously kept as pets or those from unknown origin that could carry asymptomatic pathogenic Herpesvirus infections. In addition, herpesviral infection should be considered among the differential diagnoses if dyscoria is observed in nonhuman primates.

  2. Discrimination of luminance and chromaticity differences by dichromatic and trichromatic monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G H

    1990-01-01

    Dichromatic and trichromatic representatives from two genera of platyrrhine monkeys that show widespread color vision polymorphism (Saguinus--tamarins, Saimiri--squirrel monkeys) were tested for their abilities to make increment-threshold and flicker discriminations based on luminance and chromaticity differences. The details of these tests were arranged to attempt to emphasize the relative contributions to visual behavior of non-opponent and spectrally-opponent neural mechanisms. The results indicate that dichromatic and trichromatic monkeys differ only trivially on tests where performance is based on the contributions of non-opponent mechanisms, that the contribution of spectrally opponent mechanisms to the "brightness signal" is very similar in trichromatic and dichromatic monkeys, and that in increment-threshold discriminations where there are both chromaticity and luminance cues some test wavelengths yield superior performance for trichromats while others appear to favor the dichromat.

  3. A brain MRI atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Schilling, Kurt G.; Khare, Shweta P.; Panda, Swetasudha; Choe, Ann S.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Li, Xia; Ding, Zhoahua; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-03-01

    The common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, is a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. It is one of the most commonly used South American primates in biomedical research. Unlike its Old World macaque cousins, no digital atlases have described the organization of the squirrel monkey brain. Here, we present a multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections.

  4. Mirror neurons differentially encode the peripersonal and extrapersonal space of monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Vittorio; Fogassi, Leonardo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Thier, Peter; Casile, Antonino

    2009-04-17

    Actions performed by others may have different relevance for the observer, and thus lead to different behavioral responses, depending on the regions of space in which they are executed. We found that in rhesus monkeys, the premotor cortex neurons activated by both the execution and the observation of motor acts (mirror neurons) are differentially modulated by the location in space of the observed motor acts relative to the monkey, with about half of them preferring either the monkey's peripersonal or extrapersonal space. A portion of these spatially selective mirror neurons encode space according to a metric representation, whereas other neurons encode space in operational terms, changing their properties according to the possibility that the monkey will interact with the object. These results suggest that a set of mirror neurons encodes the observed motor acts not only for action understanding, but also to analyze such acts in terms of features that are relevant to generating appropriate behaviors.

  5. Limited Susceptibility of Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to Leprosy after Experimental Administration of Mycobacterium leprae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gerald P.; Dela Cruz, Eduardo C.; Abalos, Rodolfo M.; Tan, Esterlina V.; Fajardo, Tranquilino T.; Villahermosa, Laarni G.; Cellona, Roland V.; Balagon, Maria V.; White, Valerie A.; Saunderson, Paul R.; Walsh, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for human tuberculosis, but susceptibility to M. leprae is unknown. A cynomolgus model of leprosy could increase understanding of pathogenesis—importantly, neuritis and nerve-damaging reactions. We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1–19 years) involving biopsies, nasal smears, antiphenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody serology, and lepromin skin testing. Most developed evanescent papules at intradermal M. leprae inoculation sites that, on biopsy, showed a robust cellular immune response akin to a lepromin skin test reaction; many produced PGL-1 antibodies. At necropsy, four monkeys, without cutaneous or gross neurological signs of leprosy but with elevated PGL-1 antibodies, including three with nasal smears (+) for acid fast bacilli (AFB), showed histological features, including AFB, suggestive of leprosy at several sites. Overall, however, cynomolgus monkeys seem minimally susceptible to leprosy after experimental M. leprae administration. PMID:22855766

  6. Effects of age on latency and variability of visual response in monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shan; WANG Xiusong; FU Yu; ZHANG Jie; MA Yuanye; WANG Yongchang; ZHOU Yifeng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Visual function declines during normal aging[1]. The neural mechanisms underlying age-related changes have retinal ganglion cells and cells in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus(dLGN)in old monkeys are relatively normal[1,2].

  7. Genetic diversity and distinctiveness of the proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) of the Klias Peninsula, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi-South, Jason; Bernard, Henry

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced a partial segment of the mitochondrial control region from 21 proboscis monkeys of the Klias peninsula, the last large population remaining on the west coast of Sabah, Malaysia. Our results showed that this population retains substantial genetic variation, and subpopulations from different river systems in the central and southern portions of the Klias share multiple haplotypes. We also compared our data with previously generated sequences from 2 eastern populations of proboscis monkeys in Sabah and found little evidence of regional genetic structure. Based on these results, we argue that conservation efforts should focus on restoring connectivity between central and southern Klias peninsula proboscis monkeys and discuss future analyses needed to better understand the mitochondrial structure of proboscis monkeys in Sabah.

  8. Chinese Cultural Images Represented in Tripmaster Monkey:His Fake Book

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙远用; 甘志连

    2016-01-01

    his paper analyzes the Chinese cultural images represented in Tripmaster Monkey: His Fake Book, and the reasons of the differences between Chinese traditional cultural images in Chinese Four Great Classical Novels and those mentioned in this book.

  9. A brain MRI atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Khare, Shweta P; Panda, Swetasudha; Choe, Ann S; Stepniewska, Iwona; Li, Xia; Ding, Zhoahua; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A

    2014-03-13

    The common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, is a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. It is one of the most commonly used South American primates in biomedical research. Unlike its Old World macaque cousins, no digital atlases have described the organization of the squirrel monkey brain. Here, we present a multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. In vivo MRI acquisitions include T2 structural imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include T2 structural imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections.

  10. Pentatrichomonas hominis: prevalence and molecular characterization in humans, dogs, and monkeys in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Chao; Ying, Meng; Gong, Peng-Tao; Li, Jian-Hua; Yang, Ju; Li, He; Zhang, Xi-Chen

    2016-02-01

    Pentatrichomonas hominis is an anaerobic amitochondrial flagellated protist that primarily colonizes the large intestines of a number of species, including cats, dogs, nonhuman primates, and humans. The prevalence of this parasite in dogs, monkeys, and humans is, however, poorly understood. In this study, a total of 362 fecal samples including 252 dogs, 60 monkeys, and 50 humans from northern China were collected for an epidemiological survey of P. hominis infection.The average prevalence of P. hominis infection determined by nested PCR was 27.38% (69/252), 4.00% (2/50), and 46.67% (28/60) in dogs, humans, and monkeys, respectively. The prevalence was significantly higher in 6-month-old dogs (41.53%) and children (7.69%) than in older dogs (14.39%) and adults (0%) (P monkeys, and humans, especially in children and young dogs. Given the infection prevalence, P. hominis may pose a risk of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission.

  11. Male blue monkeys alarm call in response to danger experienced by others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papworth, Sarah; Böse, Anne-Sophie; Barker, Jessie

    2008-01-01

    Male blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni) of Budongo Forest, Uganda, produce two acoustically distinct alarm calls: hacks to crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and pyows to leopards (Panthera pardus) and a range of other disturbances. In playback experiments, males responded...

  12. Do Right- and Left-Handed Monkeys Differ on Cognitive Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Twelve left- and 14 right-handed monkeys were compared on 6 measures of cognitive performance (2 maze-solving tasks, matching-to-sample, delayed matching-to-sample, delayed response using spatial cues, and delayed response using form cues). The dependent variable was trials-to-training criterion for each of the 6 tasks. Significant differences were found between left- and right-handed monkeys on the 2 versions of the delayed response task. Right-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on the form cue version of the task, whereas left-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on delayed response for spatial position (p less than .05). The results suggest that sensitive hand preference measures of laterality can reveal differences in cognitive performance, which in turn may reflect underlying laterality in functional organization of the nervous system.

  13. The comparative psychology of same-different judgments by humans (Homo sapiens) and monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Redford, Joshua S; Haas, Sarah M; Coutinho, Mariana V C; Couchman, Justin J

    2008-07-01

    The authors compared the performance of humans and monkeys in a Same-Different task. They evaluated the hypothesis that for humans the Same-Different concept is qualitative, categorical, and rule-based, so that humans distinguish 0-disparity pairs (i.e., same) from pairs with any discernible disparity (i.e., different); whereas for monkeys the Same-Different concept is quantitative, continuous, and similarity-based, so that monkeys distinguish small-disparity pairs (i.e., similar) from pairs with a large disparity (i.e., dissimilar). The results supported the hypothesis. Monkeys, more than humans, showed a gradual transition from same to different categories and an inclusive criterion for responding Same. The results have implications for comparing Same-Different performances across species--different species may not always construe or perform even identical tasks in the same way. In particular, humans may especially apply qualitative, rule-based frameworks to cognitive tasks like Same-Different.

  14. The rhesus monkey as a model for testing the immunological effects of space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Schaffar, L.; Schmitt, D. A.; Peres, C.; Miller, E. S.

    1994-08-01

    The Rhesus monkey has been proposed as a model for the effects of space flight on immunity. In order to determine the feasibility of the use of the Rhesus monkey as a model, we studied the use of Rhesus monkey cells for immunological procedures that have been shown to be affected by space flight in both rodents and humans. We have shown that both lymph node cells and peripheral blood leukocytes can be stained with monoclonal antibodies to detect the following surface markers: CD4, CD-8, Ia and surface immunoglobulin. Also, the level of Ia antigen expression was increased by treatment of the cells with human interferon-gamma. In addition, cells were induced to produce interferons and interleukins. Isolated neutrophils also demonstrated increased oxidative burst. These data indicate that the Rhesus monkey will be a useful model for space flight studies of immunity.

  15. Detection of cynomolgus monkey anti-protein XYZ antibody using immunocapture-LC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Roos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and electrochemiluminescence (ECL immunoassays are the most widely used platform for ADA detection, they may be compromised by drug interference. We describe here an alternate, free of drug interference, immunocapture-LC/MS methodology for detecting anti-protein XYZ antibody in cynomolgus monkey plasma. In our approach, ADA-protein XYZ complexes are captured by a mouse monoclonal anti-drug antibody on streptavidin magnetic beads and separated from monkey plasma by a magnet. After elution, ADA are digested with trypsin and detected by LC/MS using a surrogate peptide common to monkey IgG subclasses 1-4. The immunocapture-LC/MS assay was applied to support a toxicology study and results were in close agreement with those from a modified ECL immunoassay. To our knowledge, this is the first application of using LC/MS for monkey ADA detection.

  16. Protective efficacy of multiple vaccine platforms against Zika virus challenge in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbink, Peter; Larocca, Rafael A; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Bricault, Christine A; Moseley, Edward T; Boyd, Michael; Kirilova, Marinela; Li, Zhenfeng; Ng'ang'a, David; Nanayakkara, Ovini; Nityanandam, Ramya; Mercado, Noe B; Borducchi, Erica N; Agarwal, Arshi; Brinkman, Amanda L; Cabral, Crystal; Chandrashekar, Abishek; Giglio, Patricia B; Jetton, David; Jimenez, Jessica; Lee, Benjamin C; Mojta, Shanell; Molloy, Katherine; Shetty, Mayuri; Neubauer, George H; Stephenson, Kathryn E; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Misamore, Johnathan; Finneyfrock, Brad; Lewis, Mark G; Alter, Galit; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Jarman, Richard G; Eckels, Kenneth H; Michael, Nelson L; Thomas, Stephen J; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-09-09

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is responsible for a major ongoing epidemic in the Americas and has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly. The development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is therefore an urgent global health priority. Here we demonstrate that three different vaccine platforms protect against ZIKV challenge in rhesus monkeys. A purified inactivated virus vaccine induced ZIKV-specific neutralizing antibodies and completely protected monkeys against ZIKV strains from both Brazil and Puerto Rico. Purified immunoglobulin from vaccinated monkeys also conferred passive protection in adoptive transfer studies. A plasmid DNA vaccine and a single-shot recombinant rhesus adenovirus serotype 52 vector vaccine, both expressing ZIKV premembrane and envelope, also elicited neutralizing antibodies and completely protected monkeys against ZIKV challenge. These data support the rapid clinical development of ZIKV vaccines for humans.

  17. Molecular characterization of the first polyomavirus from a New World primate: squirrel monkey polyomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoor, Ernst J; Groenewoud, Marlous J; Fagrouch, Zahra; Kewalapat, Aruna; van Gessel, Sabine; Kik, Marja J L; Heeney, Jonathan L

    2008-01-01

    DNA samples from a variety of New World monkeys were screened by using a broad-spectrum PCR targeting the VP1 gene of polyomaviruses. This resulted in the characterization of the first polyomavirus from a New World primate. This virus naturally infects squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sp.) and is provisionally named squirrel monkey polyomavirus (SquiPyV). The complete genome of SquiPyV is 5,075 bp in length, and encodes the small T and large T antigens and the three structural proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3. Interestingly, the late region also encodes a putative agnoprotein, a feature that it shares with other polyomaviruses from humans, baboons and African green monkeys. Comparison with other polyomaviruses revealed limited sequence similarity to any other polyomavirus, and phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene confirmed its uniqueness.

  18. Differentiation of monkey embryonic stem cells into neural lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hung-Chih; Pau, K-Y Francis; Yeoman, Richard R; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Okano, Hideyuki; Wolf, Don P

    2003-05-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are self-renewing, pluripotent, and capable of differentiating into all of the cell types found in the adult body. Therefore, they have the potential to replace degenerated or damaged cells, including those in the central nervous system. For ES cell-based therapy to become a clinical reality, translational research involving nonhuman primates is essential. Here, we report monkey ES cell differentiation into embryoid bodies (EBs), neural progenitor cells (NPCs), and committed neural phenotypes. The ES cells were aggregated in hanging drops to form EBs. The EBs were then plated onto adhesive surfaces in a serum-free medium to form NPCs and expanded in serum-free medium containing fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 before neural differentiation was induced. Cells were characterized at each step by immunocytochemistry for the presence of specific markers. The majority of cells in complex/cystic EBs expressed antigens (alpha-fetal protein, cardiac troponin I, and vimentin) representative of all three embryonic germ layers. Greater than 70% of the expanded cell populations expressed antigenic markers (nestin and musashi1) for NPCs. After removal of FGF-2, approximately 70% of the NPCs differentiated into neuronal phenotypes expressing either microtubule-associated protein-2C (MAP2C) or neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), and approximately 28% differentiated into glial cell types expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein. Small populations of MAP2C/NeuN-positive cells also expressed tyrosine hydroxylase (approximately 4%) or choline acetyltransferase (approximately 13%). These results suggest that monkey ES cells spontaneously differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, can be induced and maintained as NPCs, and can be further differentiated into committed neural lineages, including putative neurons and glial cells.

  19. Three-dimensional kinematics of capuchin monkey bipedalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demes, Brigitte

    2011-05-01

    Capuchin monkeys are known to use bipedalism when transporting food items and tools. The bipedal gait of two capuchin monkeys in the laboratory was studied with three-dimensional kinematics. Capuchins progress bipedally with a bent-hip, bent-knee gait. The knee collapses into flexion during stance and the hip drops in height. The knee is also highly flexed during swing to allow the foot which is plantarflexed to clear the ground. The forefoot makes first contact at touchdown. Stride frequency is high, and stride length and limb excursion low. Hind limb retraction is limited, presumably to reduce the pitch moment of the forward-leaning trunk. Unlike human bipedalism, the bipedal gait of capuchins is not a vaulting gait, and energy recovery from pendulum-like exchanges is unlikely. It extends into speeds at which humans and other animals run, but without a human-like gait transition. In this respect it resembles avian bipedal gaits. It remains to be tested whether energy is recovered through cyclic elastic storage and release as in bipedal birds at higher speeds. Capuchin bipedalism has many features in common with the facultative bipedalism of other primates which is further evidence for restrictions on a fully upright striding gait in primates that transition to bipedalism. It differs from the facultative bipedalism of other primates in the lack of an extended double-support phase and short aerial phases at higher speeds that make it a run by kinematic definition. This demonstrates that facultative bipedalism of quadrupedal primates need not necessarily be a walking gait.

  20. Differences in Mechanical Properties of the Human and Monkey Tibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Bakulin, A. V.; Rahkmanov, A. S.; Steele, C. R.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    A method which uses an instrument that detects the response of a long bone to a vibratory stimulus to quantify mechanical properties non-invasively was revised and validated for use in the tibia. Stored data from healthy men was reanalyzed and compared with values from non-human primates. The analysis uses the relationship K(sub b) = 48 EI/L(sup 3) where K(sub b) is the lateral stiffness of a beam with force applied midspan, E is the elastic modulus, I the geometric moment of inertia and L, the limb length. Values for stiffness (EI, Nm(sup2)), the Euler buckling load (P(sub cr) = EI (pi/L)(sup 2)), and bone sufficiency (S) which represents the axial load the bone can support, adjusted to BW (S=P(sub cr)/BW) were obtained. The interest precision of the method in relaxed men, 5.8%, and in sedated male monkeys, 4.3%, was based on repeated measures in the same subjects at 1 month intervals. The R tibias of 40 men, aged 38.6 +/- 7.3 yrs with BW 78.9 +/- 7.9 kg, showed average (+/- SD) L to be 35 +/- 2 cm, EI 222 +/- 71 Nm(sup 2), P(sub cr) 18.1 +/- 4.9 kN, and S 23.4 +/- 5.7 N. The R tibias of 24 Rhesus monkeys ranging in age from 2-12 years, BW 4.9 +/- 3 kg, showed L to be 14.7 +/- 1.9 cm, EI 6.0 +/- 4.8 Nm(sup 2), P(sub cr) 2.51 +/- 1.2 kN and S 57.3 N. These measurements indicate that the tibia of a terrestrial non-human primate, M. mulatta, has higher load carrying capacity for the level of body weights in the species than the human bone.