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Sample records for monkeys cebus olivaceus

  1. Behavioural Repertoires and Time Budgets of Semi-Free-Ranging and Captive Groups of Wedge-Capped Capuchin Monkeys, Cebus olivaceus, in Zoo Exhibits in Venezuela.

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    Tárano, Zaida; López, Marie Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The behavioural repertoires and time budgets of 2 captive groups and 1 semi-free-ranging group of Cebus olivaceus were determined with the aim to assess the impact of the zoo environment on behaviour. The repertoires were qualitatively similar between groups and to those reported for wild troops, but the captive groups showed self-directed and stereotyped behaviours not reported in the wild. The differences in repertoires between groups were easily associated with the opportunity to interact directly with the visitors, with particularities of the enclosure and with the severity of confinement. Overall, females spent more time foraging than males in the 2 captive groups, and adults rested and watched more than subadults in all the groups. Time budgets were dominated by foraging, resting, movement and affiliative interactions, but their relative importance varied between groups, with foraging being especially prominent in the most confined group. The time budgets also varied qualitatively from those reported for wild troops. We conclude the species is behaviourally able to adjust to captivity, but the slight differences along the continuum from wild to semi-free to captive are suggestive of mild stress or social tension probably due to unstimulating environmental conditions, high visitor pressure and deviations from typical sex-age group composition.

  2. Protein requirements of adult cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons).

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    Ausman, L M; Hegsted, D M

    1980-12-01

    Twenty-nine adult cebus monkeys (18 males and 11 females) were used in long-term feeding experiments designed to study the protein requirements of this species. By feeding an otherwise adequate diet containing graded levels of lactalbumin, it was shown that diets containing 7.5% of the calories as protein were necessary for long-term weight maintenance. This estimate is compared to data obtained with young growing cebus monkeys in which 7% of the calories was sufficient for maximum growth, although it must be emphasized that due to its greater caloric intake/kg body weight, the protein intake/kg body weight of the younger animal is higher. Whereas a diet containing 9.34% protein supplied by dried bread crumbs (bread diet) was insufficient for weight maintenance of the adults, additions of 4 g lysine/kg bread crumbs and 1.5 g each methionine and threonine/kg bread crumbs produced a diet indistinguishable from the control diet (4.7% bread protein + 4.7% lactalbumin). When wheat gluten was added to the bread diet elevating the protein content to 16.2% of the calories, the amount of lysine necessary to improve the diet to weight maintenance levels increased when expressed/100 dietary kcal as compared to the bread diet alone, although the amounts in both diets were similar when expressed/g of dietary protein.

  3. Cebus phylogenetic relationships: a preliminary reassessment of the diversity of the untufted capuchin monkeys.

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    Boubli, Jean P; Rylands, Anthony B; Farias, Izeni P; Alfaro, Michael E; Alfaro, Jessica Lynch

    2012-04-01

    The untufted, or gracile, capuchin monkeys are currently classified in four species, Cebus albifrons, C. capucinus, C. olivaceus, and C. kaapori, with all but C. kaapori having numerous described subspecies. The taxonomy is controversial and their geographic distributions are poorly known. Cebus albifrons is unusual in its disjunct distribution, with a western and central Amazonian range, a separate range in the northern Andes in Colombia, and isolated populations in Trinidad and west of the Andes in Ecuador and northern Peru. Here we examine previous morphological and molecular hypotheses of the taxonomy and phylogeny of Cebus. We construct a time-calibrated phylogeny based upon mitochondrial DNA sequences from 50 Cebus samples from across their range. Our data indicate that untufted capuchins underwent a radiation at about 2 Ma, and quickly diversified in both the Andes and the Amazon. We provide a provisional reassessment for the taxonomy of untufted capuchins in the Amazon, the Llanos, the Andes, Trinidad, and Central America, splitting currently paraphyletic taxa into several species, including: at least two Amazonian species (C. yuracus and C. unicolor); a species from the Guiana Shield (most likely the same as Humboldt's C. albifrons); two northern Andean species, C. versicolor, C. cesarae; C. brunneus (with trinitatis a junior synonym) on the Venezuelan coast, and C. adustus in the region of Lake Maracaibo; C. capucinus in northwestern Ecuador and Colombia, and Panama; C. imitator in Central America; C. olivaceus and C. castaneus occupying a large part of the Guiana Shield; and C. kaapori in the eastern Amazon, south of the Rio Amazonas. More intensive and extensive geographic sampling is needed, including that for some subspecies not represented here. Taxa from the southwestern Amazon (yuracus, cuscinus, and unicolor) and the phylogenetic position of Humboldt's Simia albifrons from the Orinoco remain particularly poorly defined. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals

  4. Postconflict behaviour in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

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    Daniel, João R; Santos, António J; Cruz, Mónica G

    2009-01-01

    Postconflict affiliation has been mostly studied in Old World primates, and we still lack comparative research to understand completely the functional value of reconciliation. Cebus species display great variability in social characteristics, thereby providing a great opportunity for comparative studies. We recorded 190 agonistic interactions and subsequent postconflict behaviour in a captive group of brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Only 26.8% of these conflicts were reconciled. Reconciliation was more likely to occur between opponents that supported each other more frequently and that spent more time together. Postconflict anxiety was mostly determined by conflict intensity, and none of the variables thought to measure relationship quality had a significant effect on postconflict stress.

  5. How different are robust and gracile capuchin monkeys? An argument for the use of sapajus and cebus.

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    Alfaro, Jessica W Lynch; Silva, José D E Sousa E; Rylands, Anthony B

    2012-04-01

    Capuchin monkey behavior has been the focus of increasing numbers of captive and field studies in recent years, clarifying behavioral and ecological differences between the two morphological types: the gracile and the robust capuchins (also referred to as untufted and tufted). Studies have tended to focus on the gracile species Cebus capucinus (fewer data are available for C. albifrons, C. olivaceus, and C. kaapori) and on Cebus apella, a name that has encompassed all of the robust capuchins since the 1960s. As a result, it is difficult to ascertain the variation within either gracile or robust types. The phylogenetic relationships between gracile and robust capuchins have also, until now, remained obscure. Recent studies have suggested two independent Pliocene radiations of capuchins stemming from a common ancestor in the Late Miocene, about 6.2 millions of years ago (Ma). The present-day gracile capuchins most likely originated in the Amazon, and the robust capuchins in the Atlantic Forest to the southeast. Sympatry between the two types is explained by a recent expansion of robust capuchins into the Amazon (ca. 400,000 years ago). Morphological data also support a division of capuchins into the same two distinct groups, and we propose the division of capuchin monkeys into two genera, Sapajus Kerr, 1792, for robust capuchins and Cebus Erxleben, 1777, for gracile capuchins, based on a review of extensive morphological, genetic, behavioral, ecological, and biogeographic evidence. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Protein deficiency and energy restriction in young cebus monkeys.

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    Samonds, K W; Hegsted, D M

    1978-03-01

    Infant cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) were fed liquid formulas that were limited in protein, energy, or a combination of the two restrictions. Weight gain, food intake, hematological development, and plasma protein and cholesterol levels were monitored over a 20-week period. The animals restricted in protein developed the classical signs of protein deficiency--reductions in plasma albumin, a mild anemia, accumulation of fat in the liver, and, in a few cases, facial edema. These animals maintained a relatively high energy intake, and apparently wasted energy when compared to similarly non-growing energy-restricted animals. Energy-restricted animals did not exhibit these symptoms, even when their daily protein intake was reduced to match that of protein-restricted monkeys. It is concluded that an energy restriction superimposed upon a limited protein intake did not increase protein requirements or precipitate protein deficiency.

  7. Infection of capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons) with Herpesvirus saimiri.

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    Rabin, H; Pearson, G R; Wallen, W C; Neubauer, R H; Cicmanec, J L; Orr, T W

    1975-03-01

    Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) induced persistent, clinically inapparent infections of long-term duration in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons). The infections were characterized by development of antibody to HVS-associated antigens and recovery of low levels of virus-genome-carrying lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Peripheral lymphocyte counts remained in low-normal to normal ranges and no physical signs of lymphoma were evident. Prednisolone treatment caused immunosuppression in one monkey; this was accompanied by a progressive loss of humoral antibody to HVS-associated antigens, but neoplastic disease did not develop.

  8. Assessment of the efficiency of nitrogen utilization in the infant cebus monkey (Cebus albifrons) by nitrogen balance.

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    Gallina, D L; Ausman, L M

    1986-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) balance and growth were utilized to assess the efficiency of N utilization in the infant cebus monkey (Cebus albifrons). The efficiency of N utilization as calculated from N balance data was 35%. The efficiency of N utilization for growth was 37% as determined by weight change over a 28-day trial and by body composition data from the literature. These results indicate, therefore, that growth and N balance are comparable indicators of N utilization in these primates.

  9. Physical growth of cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) during the first year of life.

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    Fleagle, J G; Samonds, K W

    1975-03-01

    Infannt cebus monkeys, removed from their mothers shortly after birth, were reared in a primate nursery on diets of controlled nutritional quality. At regular intervals between birth and one year of age, each monkey was anesthetized, measured, and radiographed. Measurements were fitted to functions of the animal's age in days; a linear function for the first 6 to 8 weeks and a logarithmic function for the remainder of the first year. Mean constant curves have been calculated for each measure and estimates of animal variability have been obtained by interpolating sizes at given ages from regression lines fitted to the data for each animal. The maximum rate of growth was attained soon after birth. Cranial-caudal and distal-proximal maturity gradients in size attainment were observed.

  10. Physical growth of cebus monkeys, Cebus albifrons, during protein or calorie deficiency.

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    Fleagle, J G; Samonds, K W; Hegsted, D M

    1975-03-01

    Infant cebus monkey (Cebus albifrons) on experimental diets providing low-protein (2.8% of calories) or low-calorie (67% of ad libitum intake) levels for 20 weeks beginning at 8 weeks of age showed marked changes in their patterns of physical growth. Significant size differences between the malnourished animals and the control group appeared within 4 weeks. Although rates of growth were significantly reduced in all measurements, all of the malnourished monkeys, including low-protein animals showing zero weight gain, continued skeletal growth (except in skull measurements) at low levels for the duration of experiment. Both the protein- and calorie-restricted animals developed a thin, emaciated appearance often associated with marasmus, not by the continuous loss of tissue byt by the redistribution of the tissue over a slowly expanding skeleton. For many skeletal proportions, the pattern and shape development in the malnourished animals differed from that of the control animals. Growth during malnutrition was most affected in those parts of the skeleton which were more advanced in relative size.

  11. Chronic experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in Cebus apella monkeys

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    A. Riarte

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young male Cebus apella monkeys were infected with CAl Trypanosoma cruzi strain and reinfected with CA l or Tulahuen T.cruzi strains, with different doses and parasite source. Subpatent parasitemia was usually demonstrated in acute and chronic phases. Patent parasitemia was evident in one monkey in the acute phase and in four of them in the chronic phase after re-inoculations with high doses of CAl strain. Serological conversion was observed in all monkeys; titers were low, regardless of the methods used to investigate anti-T. cruzi specific antibodies. Higher titers were induced only when re-inoculations were perfomed with the virulent Tulahuén strain or high doses of CAl strain. Clinical electrocardiographic and ajmaline test evaluations did not reveal changes between infected and control monkeys. Histopathologically, cardiac lesions were always characterized by focal or multifocal mononuclear infiltrates and/or isolated fibrosis, as seen during the acute and chronic phases; neither amastigote nests nor active inflammation and fibrogenic processes characteristic of human acute and chronic myocarditis respectively, were observed. These morphological aspects more closely resemble those found in the "indeterminate phase" and contrast with the more diffuse and progressive pattern of the human chagasic myocarditis. All monkeys survived and no mortality was observed.

  12. Lack of platelet monoamine oxidase activity in Cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons).

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    Heintz, R; Richardson, M A; Perumal, A S; Casey, D E

    1989-01-01

    1. Recent evidence suggests that monoamine oxidase (MAO) plays an important role modulating the extrapyramidal syndromes produced by neuroleptic drugs in both human and nonhuman primates. 2. To evaluate the possibility of using peripheral blood platelet MAO-B levels as indices of central nervous system MAO-B effects, we measured platelet MAO-B levels in Cebus monkeys that were previously tested with neuroleptics (N = 36) or drug naive (N = 6). 3. No platelet MAO-B was consistently detectable in these blood samples. 4. Thus platelet measures of MAO-B do not reliably reflect brain MAO-B function in nonhuman primates and do not offer a useful model for studying blood-brain MAO-B relationships.

  13. Comportamiento social del mono capuchino común Cebus olivaceus (Primates: Cebidae en tres exhibiciones zoológicas de Caracas, Venezuela

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    Marie Charlotte López

    2008-09-01

    repulsiones entre individuos, pero algunos aspectos de la dinámica social están alterados. Los rangos de dominancia no fueron claros, el macho alfa no dominaba a la hembra de mayor rango, los dominantes no interactuaban afiliativamente más que otros individuos, y las hembras no se afiliaban preferentemente con otras hembras. Estas observaciones son contrarias a lo descrito en la naturaleza. Globalmente C. olivaceus tolera bien el cautiverio porque presenta un repertorio de conductas similar al observado en la naturaleza y no muestra conductas anormales (auto agresión, movimientos estereotipados; sin embargo la dinámica social es afectada.Social behavior of the Wedge-capped Capuchin Monkey Cebus olivaceus (Primates: Cebidae in three zoological exhibits of Caracas, Venezuela. Captivity represents an extreme situation for primates, especially for those with large home ranges, and its effect on their behavior might be considerable. The Wedge-capped Capuchin Monkey Cebus olivaceus is the most common primate in Venezuelan zoos. To estimate the effect of confinement on C. olivaceus behavior, we analyzed the social behavior of three groups that differed in captivity conditions, in zoological exhibits in Caracas (Caricuao, Parque del Este, El Pinar. Caricuao’s group moved freely over a non-fenced area of 15 ha, Parque del Este’s and El Pinar’s groups lived in relatively small outdoor enclosures. Social behaviors were described using focal-animal sampling, group scans and ad libitum sampling. The frequency, duration and time devoted to each behavior (per focal period per individual were estimated. Relative dominance between pairs of individuals was established as well as affiliative associations. The repertory of social behaviors was similar between groups and to which has been observed in nature, but the duration and frequency of affiliative and agonistic interactions differed between groups. Affiliative behaviors were less frequent but longer in Caricuao than in the other

  14. Sleeping site preferences in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus).

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    Di Bitetti, M S; Vidal, E M; Baldovino, M C; Benesovsky, V

    2000-04-01

    The characteristics and availability of the sleeping sites used by a group of 27 tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus) were studied during 17 months at the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. We tested different hypotheses regarding possible ultimate causes of sleeping-site selection. Most sleeping sites were located in areas of tall, mature forest. Of the 34 sleeping sites the monkeys used during 203 nights, five were more frequently used than the others (more than 20 times each, constituting 67% of the nights). Four species of tree (Peltophorum dubium, Parapiptadenia rigida, Copaifera langsdorfii and Cordia trichotoma) were the most frequently used. They constituted 82% of all the trees used, though they represent only 12% of the trees within the monkeys' home range which had a diameter at breast height (DBH) > 48.16 cm (1 SD below the mean DBH of sleeping trees). The sleeping trees share a set of characteristics not found in other trees: they are tall emergent (mean height +/- SD = 31.1+/-5.2 m) with large DBH (78.5+/-30.3 cm), they have large crown diameter (14+/-5.5 m), and they have many horizontal branches and forks. Adult females usually slept with their kin and infants, while peripheral adult males sometimes slept alone in nearby trees. We reject parasite avoidance as an adaptive explanation for the pattern of sleeping site use. Our results and those from other studies suggest that predation avoidance is a predominant factor driving sleeping site preferences. The patterns of aggregation at night and the preference for trees with low probability of shedding branches suggest that social preferences and safety from falling during windy nights may also affect sleeping tree selection. The importance of other factors, such as seeking comfort and maintaining group cohesion, was not supported by our results. Other capuchin populations show different sleeping habits which can be explained by differences in forest structure and by demographic differences.

  15. Dietary fat unsaturation enhances drug metabolism in cebus but not in squirrel monkeys.

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    Meydani, M; Blumberg, J B; Hayes, K C

    1985-05-01

    Antipyrine disappearance and sleeping time following barbiturate anesthesia were assessed to evaluate the effects of dietary corn oil and coconut oil on the drug-metabolizing enzyme systems (DMES) in cebus (Cebus albifrons) and squirrel (Saimiri sciureus) monkeys. Plasma antipyrine clearance (half-life) was measured in both species before and after induction of DMES by i.v. injection of barbiturates on two consecutive days. Sleeping time was measured after administration of either pentobarbital or hexobarbital and proved to be the most demonstrable measure of diet-drug interaction. In neither cebus nor squirrel monkeys was antipyrine half-life significantly affected by dietary fat. Sleeping time for the coconut oil-fed squirrel monkeys was shorter than for those fed corn oil, whereas corn oil-fed cebus awoke sooner than the coconut oil-fed cebus. Thus, barbiturate but not antipyrine metabolism in monkeys can be influenced by dietary fat unsaturation, and the effect appears to be species dependent. Genetic differences in phospholipid metabolism are thought to underlie this difference.

  16. The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior of captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

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    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Mikkelsen, L F; Hau, J

    2010-01-01

    The authors provided different forms of environmental enrichment to six old laboratory male tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and studied the behavior of the monkeys during a baseline period and during three enrichment periods. Each observation period lasted 5 d, with an interval of 6 d...... Buster cubes, wood cylinders and bark shavings. When provided with enrichment, the monkeys engaged in natural, species-specific activities and began to exhibit behavioral profiles that more closely resembled those of their natural counterparts. This suggests that their psychological well-being had...

  17. Representations of the body surface in areas 3b and 1 of postcentral parietal cortex of Cebus monkeys.

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    Felleman, D J; Nelson, R J; Sur, M; Kaas, J H

    1983-05-23

    The somatotopic organization of postcentral parietal cortex was determined with microelectrode mapping methods in a New World monkey, Cebus albifrons. As in previous studies in macaque, squirrel and owl monkeys, two separate representations of the body surface were found in regions corresponding to the architectonic fields 3b and 1. The two representations were roughly mirror-images of each other, with receptive field locations matched for recording sites along the common border. As in other monkeys, the glabrous digit tips of the hand and foot pointed rostrally in the Area 3b representation and caudally in the Area 1 representation. Both representations proceeded in parallel from the tail on the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere to the teeth and tongue in lateral cortex along the Sylvian fissure. Compared with the other monkeys, the tail of the cebus monkey, which is prehensile, was represented in a very large region of cortex in Areas 3b and 1. Like its close relative, the squirrel monkey, the representation of the trunk and parts of the limbs were reversed in orientation in both Area 3b and Area 1 in cebus monkeys as compared to owl and macaque monkeys. The reversals of organization for some but not all parts of the representations in cebus and squirrel monkeys suggest that one line of New World monkeys acquired a unique but functionally adequate pattern of somatotopic organization for the two adjoining fields.

  18. Papillary carcinoma of apocrine sweat glands in a capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons).

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    Cameron, A M; Conroy, J D

    1976-01-01

    A tumor removed from the skin of the right pectoral region of a 19-year-old male Capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons) was morphologically classified as a papillary carcinoma of apocrine sweat gland origin. The designation of malignancy was based primarily on cellular pleomorphism and stromal invasion. This is believed to be the first report of this neoplasm in nonhuman primates. There has been no evidence of recurrence nor metastasis in the 12 months following excision.

  19. Two-dimensional map of direction selectivity in cortical visual area MT of Cebus monkey

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    ANTONIA CINIRA M. DIOGO; Soares, Juliana G. M.; Albright, Thomas D.; RICARDO GATTASS

    2002-01-01

    We studied the spatial organization of direction of motion in visual area MT of the Cebus apella monkey. We used arrays of 6 (700 µm apart) parallel electrodes in penetrations tangential to the cortical layers to record multi-unit responses to moving bars, at 200 µm steps. We determined the direction selectivity at each recording site. The data from single penetrations showed cyclic and gradual changes in the direction selectivity of clusters of cells, intermixed with abrupt 180º discontinuit...

  20. Discrimination Reversal Learning in Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

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    Beran, Michael J.; Klein, Emily D.; Evans, Theodore A.; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M.; Harris, Emily H.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning styles in capuchin monkeys were assessed with a computerized reversal-learning task called the mediational paradigm. First, monkeys were trained to respond with 90% accuracy on a two-choice discrimination (A+B-). Then the authors examined differences in performance on three different types of reversal trials (A-B+, A-C+, B+C-), each of…

  1. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

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    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic

  2. Reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella).

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    Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Shaw, Gillian; Mattos, Bianca Chaim; Russ, Heloisa Helena Abil; Vilani, Ricardo G D'O C

    2008-01-01

    To perform selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in healthy capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with the aim of establishing normal physiological reference values for this species. A total of 15 healthy, capuchin monkeys were used to test most of the parameters in this investigation. Five of the 15 monkeys were used for the evaluation of normal conjunctival flora. Ages varied from 6 to 20 years of age. Selected diagnostic ocular tests were performed including Schirmer tear test (STT), tonometry using an applanation tonometer (Tonopen), central corneal thickness (CCT) using an ultrasonic pachymeter (Sonomed, Micropach), Model 200P+) and culture of the normal conjunctival bacterial flora. Results for selected ocular diagnostic tests investigated here for the capuchin monkey eye were as follows: IOP: 18.4 +/- 3.8 mmHg; STT: 14.9 +/- 5.1 mm/min; CCT: 0.46 +/- 0.03 mm. No statistically significant differences between ages or genders were found for any of the results. Streptococcus sp. and Corynebacterium sp. were isolated from healthy conjunctival and eyelid margins, suggesting they are normal constituents of the conjunctival flora of the capuchin monkey. The data obtained in this investigation will help veterinary ophthalmologists and laboratory animal medicine specialists to more accurately diagnose ocular diseases in the capuchin monkey. These ophthalmic reference values will be particularly useful to diagnose discrete or unusual pathological changes of the capuchin monkey eye.

  3. Hippocampus and dentate gyrus of the Cebus monkey: architectonic and stereological study.

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    Guerreiro-Diniz, Cristovam; de Melo Paz, Roberta Bentes; Hamad, Mayra Hermínia Simões; Filho, Carlos Santos; Martins, Adriano Augusto Vilhena; Neves, Heitor Bastos; de Souza Cunha, Elane Domenica; Alves, Gisele Cristina; de Sousa, Lia Amaral; Dias, Ivanira Amaral; Trévia, Nonata; de Sousa, Aline Andrade; Passos, Aline; Lins, Nara; Torres Neto, João Bento; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2010-10-01

    Behavioral, electrophysiological, and anatomical assays of non-human primates have provided substantial evidence that the hippocampus and dentate gyrus are essential for memory consolidation. However, a single anatomical and stereological investigation of these regions has been done in New World primates to complement those assays. The aim of the present study was to describe the cyto-, myelo-, and histochemical architecture of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, and to use the optical fractionator method to estimate the number of neurons in the hippocampal pyramidal and granular neurons in the dentate gyrus of the Cebus monkey. NeuN immunolabeling, lectin histochemical staining with Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), enzyme-histochemical detection of NADPH-diaphorase activity and Gallyas silver staining were used to define the layers and limits of the hippocampal fields and dentate gyrus. A comparative analysis of capuchin (Cebus apella) and Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys revealed similar structural organization of these regions but significant differences in the regional distribution of neurons. C. apella were found to have 1.3 times fewer pyramidal and 3.5 times fewer granular neurons than M. mulatta. Taken together the architectonic and stereological data of the present study suggest that hippocampal and dentate gyrus neural networks in the C. apella and M. mulatta may contribute to hippocampal-dentate gyrus-dependent tasks in different proportions.

  4. Visual area MT in the Cebus monkey: location, visuotopic organization, and variability.

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    Fiorani, M; Gattass, R; Rosa, M G; Sousa, A P

    1989-09-01

    The representation of the visual field in the dorsal portion of the superior temporal sulcus (ST) was studied by multiunit recordings in eight Cebus apella, anesthetized with N2O and immobilized with pancuronium bromide, in repeated recording sessions. On the basis of visuotopic organization, myeloarchitecture, and receptive field size, area MT was distinguished from its neighboring areas. MT is an oval area of about 70 mm2 located mainly in the posterior bank of the superior temporal sulcus. It contains a visuotopically organized representation of at least the binocular visual field. The representation of the vertical meridian forms the dorsolateral, lateral, and ventrolateral borders of MT and that of the horizontal meridian runs across the posterior bank of ST. The fovea is represented at the lateralmost portion of MT, while the retinal periphery is represented medially. The representation of the central visual field is magnified relative to that of the periphery in MT. The cortical magnification factor in MT decreases with increasing eccentricity following a negative power function. Receptive field size increases with increasing eccentricity. A method to evaluate the scatter of receptive field position in multiunit recordings based on the inverse of the magnification factor is described. In MT, multiunit receptive field scatter increases with increasing eccentricity. As shown by the Heidenhain-Woelcke method, MT is coextensive with two myeloarchitectonically distinct zones: one heavily myelinated, located in the posterior bank of ST, and another, less myelinated, located at the junction of the posterior bank with the anterior bank of ST. At least three additional visual zones surround MT: DZ, MST, and FST. The areas of the dorsal portion of the superior temporal sulcus in the diurnal New World monkey Cebus are comparable to those described for the diurnal Old World monkey, Macaca. This observation suggests that these areas are ancestral characters of the simian

  5. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

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    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects......, stereotypies and arousal as well as apomorphine-induced stereotypies and arousal in drug-naive Cebus apella monkeys. Xanomeline did not induce EPS but vomiting occurred in some monkeys at high doses, in accordance with emetic events observed in Alzheimer patients following xanomeline administration. Even when...... that xanomeline inhibits D-amphetamine- and (-)-apomorphine-induced behavior in Cebus apella monkeys at doses that do not cause EPS. These data further substantiate that muscarinic receptor agonists may be useful in the pharmacological treatment of psychosis....

  6. The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M B; Fuxe, K; Werge, T

    2002-01-01

    and lack of EPS in rodents could also be observed in non-human primates. We investigated the effects of CGS 21680 on behaviours induced by D-amphetamine and (-)-apomorphine in EPS-sensitized Cebus apella monkeys. CGS 21680 was administered s.c. in doses of 0.01, 0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg, alone...... and in combination with D-amphetamine and (-)-apomorphine. The monkeys were videotaped after drug administration and the tapes were rated for EPS and psychosis-like symptoms. CGS 21680 decreased apomorphine-induced behavioural unrest, arousal (0.01-0.05 mg/kg) and stereotypies (0.05 mg/kg) while amphetamine...... showed a functional anti-dopaminergic effect in Cebus apella monkeys without production of EPS. This further substantiates that adenosine A2A receptor agonists may have potential as antipsychotics with atypical profiles....

  7. Degrees of sexual dimorphism in Cebus and other New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, T J; Hartwig, W C

    1998-11-01

    Sexual dimorphism in primate species expresses the effects of phylogeny, life history, behavior, and ontogeny. The causes and implications of sexual dimorphism have been studied in several different primates using a variety of morphological databases such as body weight, canine length, and coat color and ornamentation. In addition to these different patterns of dimorphism, the degree to which a species is dimorphic results from a variety of possible causes. In this study we test the general hypothesis that a species highly dimorphic for one size-based index of dimorphism will be equally dimorphic (relative to other species) for other size-based indices. Specifically, the degree and pattern of sexual dimorphism in Cebus and several other New World monkey species is measured using craniometric data as a substitute for the troublesome range of variation in body weight estimates. In general, the rank ordering of species for dimorphism ratios differs considerably across neural vs. non-neural functional domains of the cranium. The relative degree of sexual dimorphism in different functional regions of the cranium is affected by the independent action of natural selection on those regions. Regions of the cranium upon which natural selection is presumed to have acted within a species show greater degrees of dimorphism than do the same regions in closely related taxa. Within Cebus, C. apella is consistently more dimorphic than other Cebus species for facial measurements, but not for neural or body weight measurements. The pattern in C. apella indicates no single best measurement of the degree of dimorphism in a species; rather, the relative degree of dimorphism applies only to the region being measured and may be enhanced by other selective pressures on morphology.

  8. Morphology, dendritic field size, somal size, density, and coverage of M and P retinal ganglion cells of dichromatic Cebus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, E S; Silveira, L C; Perry, V H

    1996-01-01

    Male Cebus monkeys are all dichromats, but about two thirds of the females are trichromats. M and P retinal ganglion cells were studied in the male Cebus monkey to investigate the relationship of their morphology to retinal eccentricity. Retinal ganglion cells were retrogradely labeled after optic nerve deposits of biocytin to reveal their entire dendritic tree. Cebus M and P ganglion cell morphology revealed by biocytin retrograde filling is similar to that described for macaque and human M and P ganglion cells obtained by in vitro intracellular injection of HRP and neurobiotin. We measured 264 and 441 M and P ganglion cells, respectively. M ganglion cells have larger dendritic field and cell body size than P ganglion cells at any comparable temporal or nasal eccentricity. Dendritic trees of both M and P ganglion cells are smaller in the nasal than in the temporal region at eccentricities greater than 5 mm and 2 mm for M and P ganglion cells, respectively. The depth of terminal dendrites allows identification of both inner and outer subclasses of M and P ganglion cells. The difference in dendritic tree size between inner and outer cells is small or absent. Comparison between Cebus and Macaca shows that M and P ganglion cells have similar sizes in the central retinal region. The results support the view that M and P pathways are similarly organized in diurnal dichromat and trichromat primates.

  9. Plasmid profile in oral Fusobacterium nucleatum from humans and Cebus apella monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcia O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium nucleatum is a strict anaerobe and is indigenous of the human oral cavity. This organism is commonly recovered from different monomicrobial and mixed infections in humans and animals. In this study, the plasmid profile, the plasmid stability and the penicillin-resistance association in oral F. nucleatum isolated from periodontal patients, healthy subjects and Cebus apella monkeys were evaluated. Forty-five F. nucleatum strains from patients, 38 from healthy subjects and seven from C. apella were identified and analyzed. Plasmid extraction was performed in all the isolated strains. These elements were found in 26.7% strains from patients and one strain from C. apella. Strains from healthy subjects did not show any plasmid. Most of strains showed two plasmid bands ranging from 4 to 16 Kb, but digestions with endonucleases showed that they belonged to a single plasmid. The plasmid profile was similar and stable in human and monkey strains. Also, plasmids were classified into three groups according to size. Two strains were positive to beta-lactamase production and no plasmid DNA-hybridization with a beta-lactamase gene probe was observed, suggesting a chromosomal resistance.

  10. Tail growth tracks the ontogeny of prehensile tail use in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and C. apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Young, Jesse W

    2011-11-01

    Physical anthropologists have devoted considerable attention to the structure and function of the primate prehensile tail. Nevertheless, previous morphological studies have concentrated solely on adults, despite behavioral evidence that among many primate taxa, including capuchin monkeys, infants and juveniles use their prehensile tails during a greater number and greater variety of positional behaviors than do adults. In this study, we track caudal vertebral growth in a mixed longitudinal sample of white-fronted and brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella). We hypothesized that young capuchins would have relatively robust caudal vertebrae, affording them greater tail strength for more frequent tail-suspension behaviors. Our results supported this hypothesis. Caudal vertebral bending strength (measured as polar section modulus at midshaft) scaled to body mass with negative allometry, while craniocaudal length scaled to body mass with positive allometry, indicating that infant and juvenile capuchin monkeys are characterized by particularly strong caudal vertebrae for their body size. These findings complement previous results showing that long bone strength similarly scales with negative ontogenetic allometry in capuchin monkeys and add to a growing body of literature documenting the synergy between postcranial growth and the changing locomotor demands of maturing animals. Although expanded morphometric data on tail growth and behavioral data on locomotor development are required, the results of this study suggest that the adult capuchin prehensile-tail phenotype may be attributable, at least in part, to selection on juvenile performance, a possibility that deserves further attention. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Remember Future Responses in a Computerized Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Klein, Emily D.; Einstein, Gilles O.

    2012-01-01

    Planning is an important aspect of many daily activities for humans. Planning involves forming a strategy in anticipation of a future need. However, evidence that nonhuman animals can plan for future situations is limited, particularly in relation to the many other kinds of cognitive capacities that they appear to share with humans. One critical aspect of planning is the ability to remember future responses, or what is called prospective coding. Two monkey species performed a series of computerized tasks that required encoding a future response at the outset of each trial. Monkeys of both species showed competence in all tests that were given, providing evidence that they anticipated future responses, and that they appropriately engaged in those responses when the time was right for such responses. In addition, some tests demonstrated that monkeys even remembered future responses that were not as presently motivating as were other aspects of the task environment. These results indicated that monkeys can anticipate future responses and retain and implement those responses when appropriate. PMID:22545901

  12. Conformism in the food processing techniques of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Susan

    2009-09-01

    Researchers of "culture" have long been interested in the role of social learning in establishing patterns of behavioral variation in wild animals, but very few studies examine this issue using a developmental approach. This 7-year study examines the acquisition of techniques used to process Luehea candida fruits in a wild population of white-faced capuchin monkeys, Cebus capucinus, residing in and near Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. The two techniques for extracting seeds (pounding or scrubbing) were approximately equal in efficiency, and subjects experimented with both techniques before settling on one technique-typically the one they most frequently observed. In a sample of 106 subjects that had already settled on a preferred technique, the females adopted the maternal technique significantly more often than expected by chance, but the males did not. Using a longitudinal approach, I examined the acquisition of Luehea processing techniques during the first 5 years of life. Regression analysis revealed that the technique most frequently observed (measured as proportion of Luehea processing bouts observed that used pounding as opposed to scrubbing) significantly predicted the technique adopted by female observers, particularly in the second year of life; the amount of impact of the observed technique on the practiced technique was somewhat less significant for male observers. These results held true for (a) observations of maternal technique only, (b) observations of technique used by all individuals other than the mother, and (c) observations of maternal and non-maternal techniques combined.

  13. The effects of long-term soy protein and milk protein feeding on the pancreas of Cebus albifrons monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, L M; Harwood, J P; King, N W; Sehgal, P K; Nicolosi, R J; Hegsted, D M; Liener, I E; Donatucci, D; Tarcza, J

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-seven 2- to 4-yr-old cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) were fed from infancy purified diets containing lactalbumin, soy isolate, casein or soy concentrate as the sole protein source. Hematologic and clinical chemistry values were similar for all groups. Head and tail portions of each pancreas were surgically removed for histopathologic evaluation and determination of protein, RNA and DNA content, and for trypsin and chymotrypsin activity. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from 26 of 27 monkeys showed normal pancreatic tissue with occasional acinar vacuolation in all diet groups. The remaining animal, one of only two fed soy concentrate, had diffuse interstitial fibrosis of the pancreas associated with mild to moderate atrophy of acinar tissue. Biochemical analyses of the pancreatic biopsies indicated no group differences among animals fed lactalbumin, soy isolate or casein. One of two monkeys in the soy concentrate group showed decreased pancreatic protein, RNA and trypsin concentrations; this was probably due to the fibrosis in this animal. No evidence of pancreatic hypertrophy or hyperplasia, as measured by RNA/DNA and protein/DNA ratios, respectively, was seen in any diet group.

  14. Effect of long-term feeding of soy-based diets on the pancreas of Cebus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, J P; Ausman, L M; King, N W; Sehgal, P K; Nicolosi, R J; Liener, I E; Donatucci, D; Tarcza, J

    1986-01-01

    Feeding soy-based protein containing trypsin inhibitor causes pancreatic hypertrophy in the rat, and long-term feeding (up to 2 years) has revealed a high incidence of adenoma following hypertrophy. It was therefore of interest to determine whether the ingestion of soy-based protein has any adverse effects on the primate pancreas. A resource of 27 Cebus albifrons monkeys, previously used to evaluate the protein quality of several soy and milk proteins, has been maintained on semi-synthetic diets for 3 to 4 years; the protein sources for the diets were casein, lactalbumin, soy isolate and soy concentrate. In general the monkeys were in good physical health and their weights were appropriate for age and sex. Serum biochemical and hematological profiles were normal and there were no major differences between the groups. A pancreatic biopsy from both the head and tail region of the pancreas was taken from each monkey. Visual observation of the pancreas revealed no overt pathology; two independent histological examinations indicated no diet-related differences between groups, and biochemical analyses of trypsin, chymotrypsin, protein, DNA and RNA revealed no differences. It is concluded that feeding low level trypsin inhibitor-containing diets for up to 4 years caused no adverse effects in the pancreas of the Cebus nonhuman primate.

  15. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects ...... that xanomeline inhibits D-amphetamine- and (-)-apomorphine-induced behavior in Cebus apella monkeys at doses that do not cause EPS. These data further substantiate that muscarinic receptor agonists may be useful in the pharmacological treatment of psychosis....

  16. CANDIDÍASE CUTÂNEA EM CEBUS APELLA (MACACO PREGO CUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS IN A CEBUS APELLA (CAPUCHINS MONKEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Oliveira Fonseca

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Leveduras do gênero Candida têm sido freqüentemente isoladas de animais domésticos e silvestres, entretanto, candidíase não tem sido reportada em primatas. Encaminhou-se à Faculdade de Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Animal, um macaco-prego (Cebus apella para necropsia, que vinha apresentando emagrecimento profundo e lesões ulcerativas de pele e mucosas. Fragmentos de pele e órgãos foram processados para histologia e corados com H.E. e Groccot. Para micologia, coletaram-se fragmentos de órgãos, exsudato e crostas da pele, sendo realizado exame direto e cultivo a 37oC. Macroscopicamente, o animal apresentava alopecia, caquexia e ulcerações cutâneas de 1-4 cm. Histologicamente, nas ulcerações, a derme continha infiltrado de mononucleares e proliferação fibroblástica. Mediante utilização de Groccot, encontraram-se hifas e/ou pseudo-hifas e blastoconídeos intralesionais. Em cultivos de crostas e exsudato, observaram-se colônias brilhantes, com superfície lisa e coloração branca a creme. A microscopia das colônias revelou células leveduriformes ovaladas ou alongadas, com brotamento unipolar, gram-positivas. No microcultivo em fubá, observaram-se blastoconídeos globosos terminais, com parede espessa e pseudomicélio abundante e ramificado, com formação de tubo germinativo em albumina de ovo, sendo a levedura classificada como Candida albicans. O estudo aborda o risco da infecção por micoses oportunistas como a candidíase em animais silvestres em cativeiro.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Candidiasis, Candida albicans, pele, Cebus apella.

    Candida spp has been frequently isolated from domestic and sylvan animals, however, Candidiasis has not been reported in primates. One Cebus apella, with progressive thinning and ulcerative skin lesions and mucous, was

  17. Anatomy of the arteries of the arm of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000 monkeys = Anatomia das artérias do braço do macaco Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário de Souza Lima-e-Silva

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cebus monkey displays a high capacity for adaptation to urbanenvironments, and its high level of encephalization has generated great interest by scientific community to study it. The study of the vascularization of the arm of Cebus is important because of its arboreal habits. Twenty-four animals donated by Ibama (Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources from the city of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and housed in the anatomy collections of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU and the Federal University of Goiás (UFG were used. The arterialsystem of these animals was injected with coloring latex, after which the arteries were dissected using stereoscopic microscope or the naked eye. In general terms, the findings on the brachial vessels of the Cebus monkey are identical to those found in humans and inother primates. In specific terms, the most outstanding variation was the small size or the absence of the brachial artery in Cebus. The arterial model of Cebus corroborates its arboreal behavior and constant use of its thoracic limbs.O macaco Cebus possui alta capacidade de adaptação em ambientes urbanos e o seu elevado índice de encefalização tem gerado grande interesse por parte da comunidade científica em estudá-lo. A importância do estudo da vascularização do braço desses animais éem virtude do seu hábito arbóreo. Foram usados 24 animais doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (Ibama de Sete Lagoas, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, depositados nas coleções anatômicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU e Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG. O sistema arterial dos espécimes foi injetado com látex corado e, posteriormente, as artérias foram dissecadas com o auxílio de microscópico estereoscópico ou a olhos desarmados. Em termos gerais, os achados em Cebus acerca de vasos braquiais são idênticos aos encontrados em humanos e outros primatas. Em termos

  18. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals.

  19. Morphology of the walls of the cavernous sinus of Cebus apella (tufted capuchin monkey Morfologia das paredes do seio cavernoso em Cebus apella (macaco-prego

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    ROBSON JOSÉ DE SOUSA DOMINGUES

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the dura mater and its relationship with the structures of the cavernous sinus were analyzed in five tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella using histological sections, showing that the walls of the cavernous sinus of this species are similar to those of other primates, including man. Except for the medial wall of the cavernous sinus, the remaining walls consist of two distinct dura mater layers. The deep layer of the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus is contiguous to the sheath of the oculomotor, trochlear and ophthalmic nerves. Arterioles, venules, venous spaces, neuronal bodies and nervous fiber bundles are found on this lateral wall.A morfologia da dura-máter e sua relação com as estruturas do seio cavernoso, analisadas em cinco macacos-prego (Cebus apella através de cortes histológicos, mostrou que as paredes do seio cavernoso nessa espécie são semelhantes a de outros primatas, inclusive o homem. Com exceção da parede medial do seio cavernoso as demais paredes são formadas de duas camadas distintas de dura-máter. A camada profunda da parede lateral do seio cavernoso está em continuidade com a bainha dos nervos oculomotor, troclear e oftálmico. Nesta parede lateral são encontradas arteríolas, vênulas, espaços venosos, corpos de neurônios e feixes de fibras nervosas.

  20. Cortical afferents of visual area MT in the Cebus monkey: possible homologies between New and Old World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, M G; Soares, J G; Fiorani, M; Gattass, R

    1993-01-01

    Cortical projections to the middle temporal (MT) visual area were studied by injecting the retrogradely transported fluorescent tracer Fast Blue into MT in adult New World monkeys (Cebus apella). Injection sites were selected based on electrophysiological recordings, and covered eccentricities from 2-70 deg, in both the upper and lower visual fields. The position and laminar distribution of labeled cell bodies were correlated with myeloarchitectonic boundaries and displayed in flat reconstructions of the neocortex. Topographically organized projections were found to arise mainly from the primary, second, third, and fourth visual areas (V1, V2, V3, and V4). Coarsely topographic patterns were observed in transitional V4 (V4t), in the parieto-occipital and parieto-occipital medial areas (PO and POm), and in the temporal ventral posterior area (TVP). In addition, widespread or nontopographic label was found in visual areas of the superior temporal sulcus (medial superior temporal, MST, and fundus of superior temporal, FST), annectent gyrus (dorsointermediate area, DI; and dorsomedial area, DM), intraparietal sulcus (lateral intraparietal, LIP; posterior intraparietal, PIP; and ventral intraparietal, VIP), and in the frontal eye field (FEF). Label in PO, POm, and PIP was found only after injections in the representation of the peripheral visual field (> 10 deg), and label in V4 and FST was more extensive after injections in the central representation. The projections from V1 and V2 originated predominantly from neurons in supragranular layers, whereas those from V3, V4t, DM, DI, POm, and FEF consisted of intermixed patches with either supragranular or infragranular predominance. All of the other projections were predominantly infragranular. Invasion of area MST by the injection site led to the labeling of further pathways, including substantial projections from the dorsal prelunate area (DP) and from an ensemble of areas located along the medial wall of the hemisphere

  1. The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M B; Fuxe, K; Werge, T;

    2002-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 has shown effects similar to dopamine antagonists in behavioural assays in rats predictive for antipsychotic activity, without induction of extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS). In the present study, we examined whether this functional dopamine antagonism...... and lack of EPS in rodents could also be observed in non-human primates. We investigated the effects of CGS 21680 on behaviours induced by D-amphetamine and (-)-apomorphine in EPS-sensitized Cebus apella monkeys. CGS 21680 was administered s.c. in doses of 0.01, 0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg, alone...... and in combination with D-amphetamine and (-)-apomorphine. The monkeys were videotaped after drug administration and the tapes were rated for EPS and psychosis-like symptoms. CGS 21680 decreased apomorphine-induced behavioural unrest, arousal (0.01-0.05 mg/kg) and stereotypies (0.05 mg/kg) while amphetamine...

  2. The substituted (S)-3-phenylpiperidine (-)-OSU6162 reduces apomorphine- and amphetamine-induced behaviour in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt-Christensen, M; Andersen, M B; Fink-Jensen, A

    2006-01-01

    -amphetamine-induced behaviours in EPS sensitised Cebus apella monkeys. (-)-OSU6162 was administered subcutaneously in doses of 1, 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg alone and in combination with (-)-apomorphine (0.25 mg/kg) or d-amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg). (-)-OSU6162 inhibited (-)-apomorphine-(1-9 mg/kg) as well as d-amphetamine (3-9 mg....../kg)-induced arousal and stereotypy. EPS did not occur when (-)-OSU6162 was administered in combination with (-)-apomorphine or d-amphetamine. However, when (-)-OSU6162 was administered alone, dystonia was observed at high doses (6 and 9 mg/kg) in two out of six monkeys. The present study shows that (-)-OSU6162 can...

  3. Two-dimensional map of direction selectivity in cortical visual area MT of Cebus monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIA CINIRA M. DIOGO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the spatial organization of direction of motion in visual area MT of the Cebus apella monkey. We used arrays of 6 (700 µm apart parallel electrodes in penetrations tangential to the cortical layers to record multi-unit responses to moving bars, at 200 µm steps. We determined the direction selectivity at each recording site. The data from single penetrations showed cyclic and gradual changes in the direction selectivity of clusters of cells, intermixed with abrupt 180º discontinuities along the electrode track. In order to obtain maps of direction of motion selectivity, we examined the spatial distribution of direction of motion in MT and we applied a method to determine the location of the centers of radial arrangements of direction selectivity. This tangential organization is characterized by slow continuous changes in direction of motion, interrupted by discontinuities. The changes in direction selectivity are organized radially in a pinwheel fashion and in slabs of linear variation. The pinwheel arrangements have 800-1400 µm in diameter. The size of the radial arrangement is comparable to the point image size in area MT at each eccentricity.Estudamos a organização espacial da seletividade ao sentido do movimento na área visual MT do macaco Cebus apella. Utilizamos um arranjo de 6 eletródios paralelos (separados por 700µm em penetrações tangenciais às camadas corticais para registrar, a cada 200µm, a atividade multi-unitária em resposta a barras em movimento. Determinamos a seletividade ao sentido de movimento em cada sítio de registro. Os dados captados por um único eletródio mostraram uma mudança cíclica e gradual na seletividade ao sentido de movimento dos grupos de neurônios registrados ao longo da trajetória do eletródio, interrompida por mudanças abruptas de 180º ocasionando descontinuidades na seletividade ao sentido do movimento. Para obter mapas de seletividade ao sentido do movimento, examinamos a

  4. Microscopic pathology of liver of capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons) infected with Athesmia foxi (dicrocoelidae : trematoda) : a pictorial illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; De Meurichy, W; Van Peer, L

    1980-10-01

    Histopathological changes in the livers of two white fronted capuchin monkeys, Cebus albifrons, associated with Athesmia foxi (Dicrocoelidae : Trematoda) infection are illustrated through photomicrographic plates. The lesions are confined in and around the hepatic biliary system. The bile ducts are greatly distended and thickened because of fibroblastic activity and collagen deposit in its walls. In one of the livers desquamative, necrotic and reorganizational changes are found to be well marked. At places the bile duct lumen contains infiltrating inflammatory cells and shed pieces of biliary epithelia mixed in a scanty necrotic tissue while elsewhere the necrotic changes are more pronounced and the bile duct contents are presented only by homogeneous amorphous debris. The overall picture is that of chronic cholangitis coupled with cholangiectasis.

  5. Older, sociable capuchins (Cebus capucinus) invent more social behaviors, but younger monkeys innovate more in other contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Susan E; Barrett, Brendan J; Godoy, Irene

    2017-07-24

    An important extension to our understanding of evolutionary processes has been the discovery of the roles that individual and social learning play in creating recurring phenotypes on which selection can act. Cultural change occurs chiefly through invention of new behavioral variants combined with social transmission of the novel behaviors to new practitioners. Therefore, understanding what makes some individuals more likely to innovate and/or transmit new behaviors is critical for creating realistic models of culture change. The difficulty in identifying what behaviors qualify as new in wild animal populations has inhibited researchers from understanding the characteristics of behavioral innovations and innovators. Here, we present the findings of a long-term, systematic study of innovation (10 y, 10 groups, and 234 individuals) in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica. Our methodology explicitly seeks novel behaviors, requiring their absence during the first 5 y of the study to qualify as novel in the second 5 y of the study. Only about 20% of 187 innovations identified were retained in innovators' individual behavioral repertoires, and 22% were subsequently seen in other group members. Older, more social monkeys were more likely to invent new forms of social interaction, whereas younger monkeys were more likely to innovate in other behavioral domains (foraging, investigative, and self-directed behaviors). Sex and rank had little effect on innovative tendencies. Relative to apes, capuchins devote more of their innovations repertoire to investigative behaviors and social bonding behaviors and less to foraging and comfort behaviors.

  6. Older, sociable capuchins (Cebus capucinus) invent more social behaviors, but younger monkeys innovate more in other contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Susan E.; Godoy, Irene

    2017-01-01

    An important extension to our understanding of evolutionary processes has been the discovery of the roles that individual and social learning play in creating recurring phenotypes on which selection can act. Cultural change occurs chiefly through invention of new behavioral variants combined with social transmission of the novel behaviors to new practitioners. Therefore, understanding what makes some individuals more likely to innovate and/or transmit new behaviors is critical for creating realistic models of culture change. The difficulty in identifying what behaviors qualify as new in wild animal populations has inhibited researchers from understanding the characteristics of behavioral innovations and innovators. Here, we present the findings of a long-term, systematic study of innovation (10 y, 10 groups, and 234 individuals) in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica. Our methodology explicitly seeks novel behaviors, requiring their absence during the first 5 y of the study to qualify as novel in the second 5 y of the study. Only about 20% of 187 innovations identified were retained in innovators’ individual behavioral repertoires, and 22% were subsequently seen in other group members. Older, more social monkeys were more likely to invent new forms of social interaction, whereas younger monkeys were more likely to innovate in other behavioral domains (foraging, investigative, and self-directed behaviors). Sex and rank had little effect on innovative tendencies. Relative to apes, capuchins devote more of their innovations repertoire to investigative behaviors and social bonding behaviors and less to foraging and comfort behaviors. PMID:28739946

  7. Ontogeny of long bone geometry in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella): implications for locomotor development and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jesse W; Fernández, David; Fleagle, John G

    2010-04-23

    Studies of a diverse array of animals have found that young individuals often have robust bones for their body size (i.e. augmented cross-sectional dimensions), limiting fracture risk despite general musculoskeletal immaturity. However, previous research has focused primarily on precocial taxa (e.g. rodents, lagomorphs, bovids, goats and emu). In this study, we examined the ontogenetic scaling of humeral and femoral cross-sectional robusticity in a mixed-longitudinal sample of two slow-growing, behaviourally altricial capuchin monkeys. Results showed that, when regressed against biomechanically appropriate size variables (i.e. the product of body mass and bone length), humeral and femoral bending strengths generally scale with negative allometry, matching the scaling patterns observed in previous studies of more precocial mammals. Additionally, bone strength relative to predicted loads (e.g. 'safety factors') peaks at birth and rapidly decreases during postnatal growth, falling to less than 5 per cent of peak values by weaning age. We suggest that increased safety factors during early ontogeny may be an adaptation to mitigate injury from falling during initial locomotor efforts. Overall, the results presented here suggest that ontogenetic declines in relative long bone strength may represent a common pattern among mammals that is perhaps preadaptive for different purposes among different lineages.

  8. The apo E/apo CIII molar ratio affects removal of cholesterol ester from modified human lipoproteins injected into cebus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Z F; Gibson, J C; Hayes, K C

    1986-04-14

    The removal of postprandial (PP) and postabsorptive (PA) human LDL and HDL cholesterol was examined in cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) following in vitro labelling of these lipoproteins by 3H-cholesterol in the presence or absence of DTNB. The removal of LDL cholesteryl ester was 3.5 and 2 times greater than that of HDL in male and female monkeys, respectively. Incubation with DTNB reduced cholesteryl ester removal by 45 and 52% for LDL and HDL, respectively. Cholesteryl ester from PA lipoproteins was removed 80% faster than that PP particles only when plasma was incubated without DTNB. Cholesterol removal from these lipoproteins was positively (r = 0.941) and significantly (P less than 0.001) correlated with the molar apo E/apo CIII ratio. The data suggest that density of lipoproteins was less important than their apoprotein composition in dictating their removal from circulation.

  9. Long-term effect of low dietary calcium:phosphate ratio on the skeleton of Cebus albifrons monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M P; Hunt, R D; Griffiths, H J; McIntyre, K W; Zimmerman, R E

    1977-05-01

    Wildcaught cinnamon ringtail monkeys, Cebus albifrons, were fed diets with Ca:P ratios of 1:4 1:2.1 1:0,4, and 1:0.5 for 3 to 88 months. Monkeys fed the diet with Ca:P ratios of 1:4 and 1:21 C ratios similar to that of human diets) had minor microscopic changes suggestive of osteoporosis when compared to other species of animals. The changes were not detected by conventional or magnification radiography or by 125I photon absorptiometry. These findings are in in striking contrast to studies in other animals where similar diets resulted in significant bone resorption within 6 weeks to 6 months. This study suggests that the non-human primate may be a more appropriate animal model for the investigation of nutritional osteopenia in man in whom bone resorption appears to be a slowly progressive process. In view of our findings, studies using lower animal species must be re-evaluated with respect to the hypothesis that high dietary phosphate is a significant etiologic factor in senile osteoporosis in man.

  10. MACROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THE FORELIMB MUSCULATURE IN THE WHITE FRONTED CAPUCHIN MONKEY (CEBUS ALBIFRONS)

    OpenAIRE

    Cribillero Ch., Nelly; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Sato S., Alberto; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Navarrete Z., Miluska; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Laboratorio de Patología Clínica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify and describe the muscular structures of the forelimb of the white fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons). Four male adult specimens were used. The standard techniques for embalming were used and the dissection of the muscles was made in the lateral and medial side of the forelimb. It is described 42 muscles, of which six muscles were in the shoulder girdle, six muscles in the region of the upper arm, 19 muscles in the region of the forearm where ...

  11. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) modulate their use of an uncertainty response depending on risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Perdue, Bonnie M; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2016-01-01

    Metacognition refers to thinking about thinking, and there has been a great deal of interest in how this ability manifests across primates. Based on much of the work to date, a tentative division has been drawn with New World monkeys on 1 side and Old World monkeys and apes on the other. Specifically, Old World monkeys, apes, and humans often show patterns reflecting metacognition, but New World monkeys typically do not, or show less convincing behavioral patterns. However, recent data suggest that this difference may relate to other aspects of some experimental tasks. For example, 1 possibility is that risk tolerance affects how capuchin monkeys, a New World primate species, tend to perform. Specifically, it has recently been argued that on tasks in which there are 2 or 3 options, the "risk" of guessing is tolerable for capuchins because there is a high probability of being correct even if they "know they do not know" or feel something akin to uncertainty. The current study investigated this possibility by manipulating the degree of risk (2-choices vs. 6-choices) and found that capuchin monkeys used the uncertainty response more on 6-choice trials than on 2-choice trials. We also found that rate of reward does not appear to underlie these patterns of performance, and propose that the degree of risk is modulating capuchin monkeys' use of the uncertainty response. Thus, the apparent differences between New and Old World monkeys in metacognition may reflect differences in risk tolerance rather than access to metacognitive states.

  12. Leptospira spp detection by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR in clinical samples of captive black-capped Capuchin monkey (Cebus apella

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    Scarcelli Eliana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a widely distributed zoonosis that affects domestic and wild animals, and that has the man as the end point of its epidemiological chain. Leptospirosis diagnosis in primates is more difficult than in other animal species, as clinical signs and lesions are less evident and antibody response is detected only for short periods. The aim of this article was to describe the detection of Leptospira spp using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, in clinical samples from one captive black-capped Capuchin monkey (Cebus apella, which presented characteristics compatible with leptospirosis (jaundice and haemorrhagic kdney in the macroscopic post-mortem examination. A friable kidney fragment and urine sample were cultured and submitted to experimental inoculation in guinea pigs and PCR using genus specific primer pair targeting the 16S rRNA region from Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola. Isolation of the agent was negative both in culture and experimental inoculation. The PCR amplification of the clinical samples showed a 330 pb amplified fragment that corresponds to the Leptospira genus. Based on these results PCR was considered an important tool for leptospira detection in nonhumam primates, more sensitive and specific than other techniques, especially considering that the viability of the pathogen was not possible. These advantages enable the detection of the leptospiras in urine and kidney, even when autolysed, frozen or badly conserved, which prevented the isolation and experimental inoculation from positive results.

  13. Grasping primate development: Ontogeny of intrinsic hand and foot proportions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Sapajus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jesse W; Heard-Booth, Amber N

    2016-09-01

    Young primates have relatively large hands and feet for their body size, perhaps enhancing grasping ability. We test the hypothesis that selection for improved grasping ability is responsible for these scaling trends by examining the ontogeny of intrinsic hand and foot proportions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Sapajus apella). If selection for improved grasping ability is responsible for the observed patterns of hand and foot growth in primates, we predicted that fingers and toes would be longer early in life and proportionally decline with age. We measured the lengths of manual and pedal metapodials and phalanges in a mixed-longitudinal radiographic sample. Bone lengths were (a) converted into phalangeal indices (summed non-distal phalangeal length/metapodial length) to test for age-related changes in intrinsic proportions and (b) fit to Gompertz models of growth to test for differences in the dynamics of phalangeal versus metapodial growth. Manual and pedal phalangeal indices nearly universally decreased with age in capuchin monkeys. Growth curve analyses revealed that metapodials generally grew at a faster rate, and for a longer duration, than corresponding phalanges. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that primates are under selection for increased grasping ability early in life. Relatively long digits may be functionally adaptive for growing capuchins, permitting a more secure grasp on both caregivers and arboreal supports, as well as facilitating early foraging. Additional studies of primates and other mammals, as well as tests of grasping performance, are required to fully evaluate the adaptive significance of primate hand and foot growth. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ontogeny of manipulative behavior and nut-cracking in young tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): a perception-action perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Resende, Briseida Dogo; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2008-11-01

    How do capuchin monkeys learn to use stones to crack open nuts? Perception-action theory posits that individuals explore producing varying spatial and force relations among objects and surfaces, thereby learning about affordances of such relations and how to produce them. Such learning supports the discovery of tool use. We present longitudinal developmental data from semifree-ranging tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to evaluate predictions arising from Perception-action theory linking manipulative development and the onset of tool-using. Percussive actions bringing an object into contact with a surface appeared within the first year of life. Most infants readily struck nuts and other objects against stones or other surfaces from 6 months of age, but percussive actions alone were not sufficient to produce nut-cracking sequences. Placing the nut on the anvil surface and then releasing it, so that it could be struck with a stone, was the last element necessary for nut-cracking to appear in capuchins. Young chimpanzees may face a different challenge in learning to crack nuts: they readily place objects on surfaces and release them, but rarely vigorously strike objects against surfaces or other objects. Thus the challenges facing the two species in developing the same behavior (nut-cracking using a stone hammer and an anvil) may be quite different. Capuchins must inhibit a strong bias to hold nuts so that they can release them; chimpanzees must generate a percussive action rather than a gentle placing action. Generating the right actions may be as challenging as achieving the right sequence of actions in both species. Our analysis suggests a new direction for studies of social influence on young primates learning sequences of actions involving manipulation of objects in relation to surfaces.

  15. Effects of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonism and antagonism on SKF81297-induced dyskinesia and haloperidol-induced dystonia in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten V; Peacock, Linda P; Werge, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    81297 (SKF) and acute dystonia induced by the dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist haloperidol in Cebus apella monkeys. The monkeys were sensitised to EPS by prior exposure to D(2) receptor antagonists. SKF (0.3 mg/kg) was administered alone and in combination with the CB(1) agonist CP55,940 (0.......0025-0.01 mg/kg) or the CB(1) antagonist SR141716A (0.25-0.75 mg/kg). Haloperidol (individual doses at 0.01-0.02 mg/kg) was administered alone and in combination with CP55,940 (0.005 or 0.01 mg/kg) or SR141716A (0.5 or 0.75 mg/kg). Subsequently, the monkeys were videotaped, and the recordings were rated...

  16. The elusive illusion: Do children (Homo sapiens) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) see the Solitaire illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Agrillo, Christian; Perdue, Bonnie M; Beran, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    One approach to gaining a better understanding of how we perceive the world is to assess the errors that human and nonhuman animals make in perceptual processing. Developmental and comparative perspectives can contribute to identifying the mechanisms that underlie systematic perceptual errors often referred to as perceptual illusions. In the visual domain, some illusions appear to remain constant across the lifespan, whereas others change with age. From a comparative perspective, many of the illusions observed in humans appear to be shared with nonhuman primates. Numerosity illusions are a subset of visual illusions and occur when the spatial arrangement of stimuli within a set influences the perception of quantity. Previous research has found one such illusion that readily occurs in human adults, the Solitaire illusion. This illusion appears to be less robust in two monkey species, rhesus macaques and capuchin monkeys. We attempted to clarify the ontogeny of this illusion from a developmental and comparative perspective by testing human children and task-naïve capuchin monkeys in a computerized quantity judgment task. The overall performance of the monkeys suggested that they perceived the numerosity illusion, although there were large differences among individuals. Younger children performed similarly to the monkeys, whereas older children more consistently perceived the illusion. These findings suggest that human-unique perceptual experiences with the world might play an important role in the emergence of the Solitaire illusion in human adults, although other factors also may contribute.

  17. Gastric acid secretion response in the Cebus apella: a monkey model of chronic Chagas disease Respuesta secretora acida gastrica en el Cebus apella, un modelo animal de la enfermedad de Chagas cronica

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    Carlos Alberto Falasca

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the secretory pattern, both basal and stimulated either by histamine (0.1 mg/kg or pentagastrin (64 ug/kg in eighteen Cebus apella monkeys chronically infected with different T. cruzi strains (CA1, n=10; Colombian, n=4 and Tulahuen, n=4 and to describe the morphological findings in the gastrointestinal tract in twelve infected (6 sacrificed and 6 spontaneously dead and four healthy monkeys. All infected monkeys and 35 healthy ones were evaluated by contrast X-ray examination. No differences were observed in basal acid output between control and infected groups. Animals infected with the Tulahuen and Colombian strains showed significant lower values of peak acid output in response to histamine or pentagastrin (pEl objetivo fue estudiar la respuesta secretora basal y estimulada por histamina (0.1 mg/kg o pentagastrina (64 ug/kg en 18 monos Cebus apella cronicamente infectados con diferentes cepas de T. cruzi (CA1 n=10; Colombiana n=4 y Tulahuén n=4. Además se describieron los hallazgos morfológicos en el tracto gastrointestinal de 12 animales muertos (6 sacrificados y 6 espontaneamente. Se evaluó radiológicamente el tracto gastrointestinal de 35 Cebus sp. sanos (controles y 18 infectados crónicamente. Se estudiaron histopatologicamente 4 controles y 12 infectados. No hubo diferencias en la secreción basal ácida entre los grupos control e infectado. Los animales infectados con la cepa Tulahuén y Colombian tuvieron valores más bajos en el pico de secreción ácida, como respuesta a la histamina o a la pentagastrina (p<0.01 y p<0.05 respectivamente; test "t" con respecto a los controles. Los estudios con contraste de bario mostraron agrandamiento y dilatación del colon en 3 animales infectados. En las autopsias de los chagásicos se encontraron lesiones histologicas en el 75% de los casos (solo en colon, 33%; en colon y esofago, 42%. En el grupo CA1, la secreción ácida estuvo dentro de los parámetros normales

  18. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Katharine M; Schoof, Valérie A M; Sheller, Claire R; Rich, Catherine I; Klingelhofer, Peter P; Ziegler, Toni E; Fedigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage.

  19. Social facilitation of exploratory foraging behavior in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindo, Marietta; Whiten, Andrew; de Waal, Frans B M

    2009-05-01

    Much of the research on animal social learning focuses on complex cognitive functions such as imitation and emulation. When compelling evidence for such processes is not forthcoming, simpler processes are often assumed but rarely directly tested for. In this study we address the phenomenon of social facilitation, whereby the presence of a feeding conspecific is hypothesized to affect the motivation and behavior of the subject, elevating the likelihood of exploration and discovery in relation to the task at hand. Using a novel foraging task, sufficiently challenging that only just over half the subjects successfully gained food from it, we compared the performance of capuchin monkeys working either alone, or in a "social" condition where an actively feeding conspecific was in an adjacent chamber. Although similar numbers of subjects in these conditions were eventually successful during the 20 trials presented, the latency to successful solution of the task was over three times faster for monkeys in the social condition. The minority of monkeys that failed to learn (9/23) were then exposed to a proficient model. Only those older than 5 years provided evidence of learning from this. Accordingly, we obtained evidence for the social facilitation the study was designed to test for, and limited supplementary evidence for social learning in the older individuals who had not learned individually. These results are discussed in relation to other recent evidence for social learning in monkeys. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Serial learning with wild card items by monkeys (Cebus apella): implications for knowledge of ordinal position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, M R; Colombo, M

    1989-09-01

    We investigated monkeys' knowledge of the ordinal positions of stimuli that formed a 5-item serial list, ABCDE, by means of wild card items (W) that could substitute for items in the original series. In Experiment 1, training with wild cards was given on 3-, 4-, and 5-item series. In the last of these series, the wild card substitutions created five wild card sequences, WBCDE through ABCDW. During the final 10 sessions of training with each of two different wild cards (Items x and Y), the 3 subjects were able to successfully complete almost 60% of the wild card sequences. In Experiment 2, the two wild cards were presented on the same trial in 10 different double wild card sequences (e.g., AXCDY). The 2 monkey subjects correctly completed about 59% of the double wild card sequences during the final two training sessions. The performance levels achieved on single and on double wild card sequences, although well below that observed on the baseline sequence ABCDE (90% or better), support the view that the monkeys possessed some knowledge regarding the ordinal position of each baseline item. Consequently, an associative chain interpretation, which does not provide for knowledge of ordinal position, falls short as a complete account of the monkey's capacity for serial learning.

  1. Effect of dietary fat saturation and cholesterol on low density lipoprotein degradation by mononuclear cells of Cebus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, P C; Rudd, M A; Nicolosi, R; Loscalzo, J

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism by which dietary unsaturated fatty acids lower low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is unknown. Unsaturated fatty acids incorporated into the cell membrane can increase membrane fluidity and, as a result, dramatically alter membrane-dependent cell functions. Therefore, we examined the effect of long-term dietary consumption of corn oil and coconut oil with and without cholesterol in amounts equivalent to those of a typical Western diet on the degradation of human LDL by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in Cebus albifrons monkeys. Cellular LDL degradation was dramatically enhanced in the mononuclear cells isolated from animals fed corn oil in comparison with those from animals fed coconut oil. The addition of cholesterol to the diets resulted in a slight attenuation of LDL degradation in the corn oil group while no effect was noted in the coconut oil group. Crossover LDL binding and degradation experiments with LDL isolated from animals fed corn oil diets and coconut oil diets demonstrated increased binding and degradation of LDL in mononuclear cells from animals fed corn oil diets. Enhanced mononuclear cell LDL degradation was accompanied by increased cellular cis-unsaturated fatty acyl content, increased membrane fluidity, and decreased plasma cholesterol. Increased cellular cis-unsaturated fatty acyl content with its concomitant increase in membrane fluidity mirrored the dietary lipid profile of the host animal. A linear relationship was observed between cellular LDL degradation and both cellular cis-unsaturated fatty acyl content and membrane fluidity. These observations parallel results noted in whole-animal LDL catabolic studies with these same animals described elsewhere. These data suggest a novel mechanism by which dietary unsaturated fatty acids exert their LDL-lowering effect.

  2. Antischistosomal activity of acridanone- hydrazones in Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with the SJ strain of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four compounds were utilized at the dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight, p.o., to treat Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with about 200 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ strain, via transcutaneous route. The oograms performed with rectal snips, as well as stool examinations carried out periodically, showed no viable eggs of the parasite, from day 29 to 226post-treatment. The perfusion undertaken after killing the animals showed absence of worms in the treated monkeys, whereas 83 worms were recovered from the control, thus corroborating the results obtained by means of oograms and coproscopy. These results confirm the efficacy of 9-acridanone- hydrazones previously tested against the LE strain of S. mansoni. The low curative dose and apparent absence of toxicity render these dmgs an important therapeutic reserve, taking into consideration the reports on the resistance of S. mansoni to the modern drugs oxamniquine and praziquantel.No presente trabalho, quatro compostos foram utilizados na dose de 12,5mg/kg de peso, por via oral, em macacos infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 200 cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni. Os oogramas realizados com fragmentos de mucosa retal e os exames de fezes realizados, periodicamente, demonstraram a ausência de ovos viáveis do parasito a partir do 29- até o 226a dia pós-tratamento. A perfusão, apôs sacrifício dos animais tratados, não detectou vermes, enquanto que do macaco cotztrole 83 vermes foram recuperados, confirmando assim os resultados dos oogramas e da coproscopia. Estes resultados confirmam a eficácia das 9-acridanonas- hydrazonas já observada anteriormente contra a cepa LE de S. mansoni. A baixa dosagem curativa e aparente ausência de toxicidade colocam estas drogas como uma reserva terapêutica importante, tendo em vista o relato de resistência do S. mansoni às drogas modernas oxamniquína e praziquantel.

  3. Comparative distribution of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the hypothalamus of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Judney Cley; Cândido, Paulo Laino; Sita, Luciane Valéria; do Nascimento, Expedito Silva; Cavalcante, Jeferson de Souza; de Oliveira Costa, Miriam Stela Maris; Bittencourt, Jackson Cioni; Elias, Carol Fuzeti

    2011-11-24

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is widely distributed in the brain of many species. In the hypothalamus, CART neurotransmission has been implicated in diverse functions including energy balance, stress response, and temperature and endocrine regulation. Although some studies have been performed in primates, very little is known about the distribution of CART neurons in New World monkeys. New World monkeys are good models for systems neuroscience, as some species have evolved several behavioral and anatomical characteristics shared with humans, including diurnal and social habits, intense maternal care, complex manipulative abilities and well-developed frontal cortices. In the present study, we assessed the distribution of CART mRNA and peptide in the hypothalamus of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). We found that the distribution of hypothalamic CART neurons in these monkeys is similar to what has been described for rodents and humans, but some relevant differences were noticed. Only in capuchin monkeys CART neurons were observed in the suprachiasmatic and the intercalatus nuclei, whereas only in marmoset CART neurons were observed in the dorsal anterior nucleus. We also found that the only in marmoset displayed CART neurons in the periventricular preoptic nucleus and in an area seemingly comprising the premammillary nucleus. These hypothalamic sites are both well defined in rodents but poorly defined in humans. Our findings indicate that CART expression in hypothalamic neurons is conserved across species but the identified differences suggest that CART is also involved in the control of species-specific related functions.

  4. Histochemistry profile of the biceps brachii muscle fibres of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, Linnaeus, 1758

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    CHF Bortoluci

    Full Text Available A general analysis of the behaviour of “Cebus” shows that when this primate moves position to feed or perform another activity, it presents different ways of locomotion. This information shows that the brachial biceps muscle of this animal is frequently used in their locomotion activities, but it should also be remembered that this muscle is also used for other development activities like hiding, searching for objects, searching out in the woods, and digging in the soil. Considering the above, it was decided to research the histoenzimologic characteristics of the brachial biceps muscle to observe whether it is better adpted to postural or phasic function. To that end, samples were taken from the superficial and deep regions, the inserts proximal (medial and lateral and distal brachial biceps six capuchin monkeys male and adult, which were subjected to the reactions of m-ATPase, NADH-Tr. Based on the results of these reactions fibres were classified as in Fast Twitch Glycolitic (FG, Fast Twitch Oxidative Glycolitic (FOG and Slow Twitc (SO. In general, the results, considering the muscle as a whole, show a trend of frequency FOG> FG> SO. The data on the frequency were studied on three superficial regions FOG=FG>SO; the deep regions of the inserts proximal FOG=FG=SO and inserting the distal FOG>FG=SO. In conclusion, the biceps brachii of the capuchin monkey is well adapted for both postural and phasic activities.

  5. When size makes a difference: allometry, life-history and morphological evolution of capuchins (Cebus and squirrels (Saimiri monkeys (Cebinae, Platyrrhini

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    Marroig Gabriel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How are morphological evolution and developmental changes related? This rather old and intriguing question had a substantial boost after the 70s within the framework of heterochrony (changes in rates or timing of development and nowadays has the potential to make another major leap forward through the combination of approaches: molecular biology, developmental experimentation, comparative systematic studies, geometric morphometrics and quantitative genetics. Here I take an integrated approach combining life-history comparative analyses, classical and geometric morphometrics applied to ontogenetic series to understand changes in size and shape which happen during the evolution of two New World Monkeys (NWM sister genera. Results Cebus and Saimiri share the same basic allometric patterns in skull traits, a result robust to sexual and ontogenetic variation. If adults of both genera are compared in the same scale (discounting size differences most differences are small and not statistically significant. These results are consistent using both approaches, classical and geometric Morphometrics. Cebus is a genus characterized by a number of peramorphic traits (adult-like while Saimiri is a genus with paedomorphic (child like traits. Yet, the whole clade Cebinae is characterized by a unique combination of very high pre-natal growth rates and relatively slow post-natal growth rates when compared to the rest of the NWM. Morphologically Cebinae can be considered paedomorphic in relation to the other NWM. Geometric morphometrics allows the precise separation of absolute size, shape variation associated with size (allometry, and shape variation non-associated with size. Interestingly, and despite the fact that they were extracted as independent factors (principal components, evolutionary allometry (those differences in allometric shape associated with intergeneric differences and ontogenetic allometry (differences in allometric shape

  6. Delay Choice vs. Delay Maintenance: Different Measures of Delayed Gratification in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Macchitella, Luigi; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification involves two components: (i) delay choice (selecting a delayed reward over an immediate one), and (ii) delay maintenance (sustaining the decision to delay gratification even if the immediate reward is available during the delay). In primates, two tasks most commonly have explored these components, the Intertemporal choice task and the Accumulation task. It is unclear whether these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. Here, we compared the performance of the same capuchin monkeys, belonging to two study populations, between these tasks. We found only limited evidence of a significant correlation in performance. Consequently, in contrast to what is often assumed, our data provide only partial support to the hypothesis that these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. PMID:23544770

  7. Anatomia das artérias do braço do macaco Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.473 Anatomy of the arteries of the arm of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000 monkeys - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.473

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    Zenon Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O macaco Cebus possui alta capacidade de adaptação em ambientes urbanos e o seu elevado índice de encefalização tem gerado grande interesse por parte da comunidade científica em estudá-lo. A importância do estudo da vascularização do braço desses animais é em virtude do seu hábito arbóreo. Foram usados 24 animais doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (Ibama de Sete Lagoas, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, depositados nas coleções anatômicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU e Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG. O sistema arterial dos espécimes foi injetado com látex corado e, posteriormente, as artérias foram dissecadas com o auxílio de microscópico estereoscópico ou a olhos desarmados. Em termos gerais, os achados em Cebus acerca de vasos braquiais são idênticos aos encontrados em humanos e outros primatas. Em termos específicos, o fato marcante foi a ocorrência de uma curta artéria braquial, que em alguns casos pode estar ausente, nos Cebus. O modelo arterial braquial em Cebus corrobora seu comportamento arbóreo e constante uso dos membros torácicos.The Cebus monkey displays a high capacity for adaptation to urban environments, and its high level of encephalization has generated great interest by scientific community to study it. The study of the vascularization of the arm of Cebus is important because of its arboreal habits. Twenty-four animals donated by Ibama (Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources from the city of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and housed in the anatomy collections of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU and the Federal University of Goiás (UFG were used. The arterial system of these animals was injected with coloring latex, after which the arteries were dissected using stereoscopic microscope or the naked eye. In general terms, the findings on the brachial vessels of the Cebus monkey are identical to those found in humans

  8. Individual differences in responses toward a mirror by captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella / Differenze individuali nelle risposte allo specchio nei cebi dai cornetti (Cebus apella

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    M. Cristina Riviello

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study examines the responses directed toward a mirror by capuchin monkeys tested both individually (Phases I-III and in group (Phase IV. Subjects were four laboratory-born and tool-using Cebus apella. Manipulative responses decreased over phases for all subjects, whereas social responses decreased in the two adult monkeys and increased in the two juveniles. In addition, one subject preformed peculiar manipulations of the mirror, and the adult male showed reactions typical of psychological distress. No evidence of self-recognition was found. Riassunto Questo studio esamina i comportamenti diretti allo specchio di alcuni cebi dai cornetti testati sia individualmente (Fase I-III sia in gruppo (Fase IV allo scopo di investigare capacità di autoriconoscimento in questa specie. Sono stati osservati 4 soggetti appartenenti a differenti classi di età. Le risposte allo specchio sono state di tipo sociale e manipolativo. Durante il corso delle osservazioni le risposte manipolative sono diminuite in tutti i soggetti presi in esame mentre quelle sociali sono aumentate nei giovani e diminuite negli adulti. Nel corso dell'esperimento i cebi non hanno mostrato capacità di autoriconoscimento.

  9. Scanning electron microscopy study of the choroid plexus in the monkey (Cebus apella apella Estudo do plexo coróide no macaco (Cebus apella apella ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura

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    OISENYL JOSÉ TAMEGA

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The cells of the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles of the monkey Cebus apella apella were examined through scanning electron microscopy at contributing to the description of such structures in primates. The animals were anesthetized previously with 3% hypnol intraperitoneally and after perfusion with 2.5% glutaraldehyde, samples of the choroid plexus were collected after exhibition of the central portion and inferior horn of the lateral ventricles. The ventricular surface of those cells presents globose form as well as fine interlaced protrusions named microvilli. Among those, it is observed the presence of some cilia. Resting on the choroid epithelial cells there is a variable number of free cells, with fine prolongations which extend from them. They are probably macrophages and have been compared to Kolmer cells or epiplexus cells, located on choroid epithelium. The choroid plexus of the encephalic lateral ventricles of the monkey Cebus apella apella at scanning electron microscopy is similar to that of other primates, as well as to that of other species of mammals mainly cats and rats, and also humans.As células do plexo coróide dos ventrículos laterais do macaco-prego (Cebus apella apella foram examinadas ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura com o objetivo de melhor descrever e comparar este órgão ao de outras espécies de mamíferos, principalmente o homem. Inicialmente, os animais foram previamente anestesiados com hipnol a 3% intraperitonealmente e após perfusão com glutaraldeído 2,5%, amostras dos plexos coróides foram coletadas após exibição da porção central e corno inferior dos ventrículos laterais. A superfície ventricular dessas células apresenta forma globosa e a presença de finas protrusões entrelaçadas denominadas microvilosidades. Entre estas, observam-se alguns cílios. Repousando sobre as células epiteliais coróides está presente um número variável de células livres com finos prolongamentos

  10. Prearcuate cortex in the Cebus monkey has cortical and subcortical connections like the macaque frontal eye field and projects to fastigial-recipient oculomotor-related brainstem nuclei.

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    Leichnetz, G R; Gonzalo-Ruiz, A

    1996-01-01

    The cortical and subcortical connections of the prearcuate cortex were studied in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, albifrons) using the anterograde and retrograde transport capabilities of the horseradish peroxidase technique. The findings demonstrate remarkable similarities to those of the macaque frontal eye field and strongly support their homology. The report then focuses on specific prearcuate projections to oculomotor-related brainstem nuclei that were shown in a companion experiment to entertain connections with the caudal oculomotor portion of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus. The principal corticocortical connections of the cebus prearcuate cortex were with dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, lateral intraparietal sulcal cortex, posterior medial parietal cortex, and superior temporal sulcal cortex, which were for the most part reciprocal and columnar in organization. The connections of the dorsal prearcuate region were heavier to the dorsomedial prefrontal and posterior medial parietal cortices, and those of the ventral region were heavier to the superior temporal sulcal cortex. The prearcuate cortex projects to several brainstem areas which also receive projections from the caudal fastigial nucleus, including the supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray matter, superior colliculus, medial nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, dorsomedial basilar pontine nucleus, dorsolateral basilar pontine nucleus, nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis, pontine raphe, and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. The findings define a neuroanatomical framework within which convergence of prearcuate (putative frontal eye field) and caudal fastigial nucleus connections might occur, facilitating their potential interaction in saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movement.

  11. Agricultural crops in the diet of bearded capuchin monkeys, Cebus libidinosus Spix (Primates: Cebidae, in forest fragments in southeast Brazil Cultivares na dieta de macacos-prego barbados, Cebus libidinosus Spix (Primates: Cebidae, em fragmentos florestais no sudeste do Brasil

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    Carlos Henrique de Freitas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Capuchin monkeys occupy a wide range of habitats where they feed on fruits, arthropods, and vertebrates. Their large home ranges (80-900 ha suggest that living in forest fragments may challenge their adaptability. We identified and quantified the main food items of Cebus libidinosus Spix, 1823 in forests fragments (100 ha in southeastern Brazil. We recorded the feeding activities of two groups using scan sampling over a 13-month period. The diet was composed of fruits, crops, animal prey, seeds, plant matter and undetermined. Fruit was eaten more in the wet season than in the dry season, and maize and sugar cane consumption peaked in the early dry season. The proportion of fruit in the diet was positively correlated with fruiting intensity of zoochorous trees. The plant diet included 54 species, with maize, Rhamnidium elaeocarpus, Acrocomia aculeata, Guazuma ulmifolia and Cariniana, being most important. Although dietary composition and diversity were similar to capuchins in larger forest fragments, feeding on crops attained higher percentages at times when zoochorous fruit production was low in fragments.Macacos-prego ocupam uma vasta gama de ambientes onde alimentam-se de frutos, artrópodes e vertebrados. Suas grandes áreas de vida (80-900 ha sugerem que viver em fragmentos florestais pode ser um desafio a sua adaptabilidade. Foram identificados e quantificados os principais itens alimentares de Cebus libidinosus Spix, 1823 em fragmentos florestais (100 ha no sudeste do Brasil. Registraram-se as atividades alimentares de dois grupos usando a varredura instantânea durante um período de 13 meses. A dieta compôs-se de frutos, presas animais, cultivares, sementes, material vegetal e indeterminado. Os frutos foram consumidos mais na estação chuvosa do que na estação seca e o consumo de milho e cana atingiu um pico no início da estação seca. A proporção de frutos na dieta foi positivamente correlacionada com a intensidade de frutifica

  12. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Costa da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite protozoan. A large percentage of animals presents specific antibodies caused by a previous exposition, resulting in a chronic infection. Felides are the definitive hosts and the other warm-blooded animals, including primates, are the intermediate hosts. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in free-living tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station located on Mata de Santa Teresa, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. T. gondii antibodies were analyzed by modified agglutination test (MAT in serum samples of 36 tufted capuchin monkeys, considering eight as cut-off titer. From the studied animals, 3/36 (8.33%; CI95% 3.0-21.9% presented T. gondii antibodies, all with titer 32. No significative difference was observed relating to the sex (1/3 male and 2/3 female, and to the age (1/3 young and 2/3 adult (P>0.05. Thus, these results demonstrate the presence of T. gondii antibodies in primates from São Paulo state.

  13. Social influences on the acquisition of sex-typical foraging patterns by juveniles in a group of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus).

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    Agostini, Ilaria; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2005-04-01

    Foraging traditions in primates are becoming the subject of increasing debate. Recent evidence for such a phenomenon was recently provided for wild Cebus capucinus [Fragaszy & Perry, 2003]. To better understand the bases of animal traditions, one should examine intrapopulation behavioral variability and the influence of social context on within-group transmission of specific foraging patterns. We studied the variability of foraging patterns across age and sex classes, and the proximity patterns of juveniles to adults of both sexes in a group of wild tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus nigritus) living in the Iguazu National Park, Argentina. Foraging activity was examined for a period of 9 months in terms of proportions of focal samples devoted to foraging on certain food targets, microhabitats, and supports, and using specific foraging patterns. Proximity analyses were performed to reveal patterns of association between juveniles and adults. Sex differences in foraging behavior were present and overrode age differences. Overall, males ate more animal foods, foraged more for invertebrates on woody microhabitats (especially large branches), palms, and epiphytes, and used lower and larger supports than females. Females ate more fruits, foraged more on leaves and bamboo microhabitats, and used smaller supports than males. Juveniles were similar to adults of the same sex in terms of food targets, foraging substrates, and choice of supports, but were less efficient than adults. Proximity patterns indicated that juvenile males stayed in close spatial association with adult males and preferentially focused their "food interest" on them. This phenomenon was less evident in juvenile females. The degree to which juveniles, especially males, showed some of the sex-typical foraging patterns correlated positively with their proximity to adults of the same sex. These findings suggest that the acquisition of foraging behaviors by juvenile males is socially biased by their closeness to

  14. Isolation of Madre de Dios Virus (Orthobunyavirus; Bunyaviridae), an Oropouche Virus Species Reassortant, from a Monkey in Venezuela.

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    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Hernandez, Rosa; Auguste, Albert J; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C; Montañez, Humberto; Liria, Jonathan; Lima, Anderson; Travassos da Rosa, Jorge Fernando Soares; da Silva, Sandro P; Vasconcelos, Janaina M; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Vianez, João L S G; Nunes, Marcio R T

    2016-08-03

    Oropouche virus (OROV), genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an important cause of human illness in tropical South America. Herein, we report the isolation, complete genome sequence, genetic characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of an OROV species reassortant, Madre de Dios virus (MDDV), obtained from a sick monkey (Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk) collected in a forest near Atapirire, a small rural village located in Anzoategui State, Venezuela. MDDV is one of a growing number of naturally occurring OROV species reassortants isolated in South America and was known previously only from southern Peru.

  15. Isolation of Madre de Dios Virus (Orthobunyavirus; Bunyaviridae), an Oropouche Virus Species Reassortant, from a Monkey in Venezuela

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    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Hernandez, Rosa; Auguste, Albert J.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Montañez, Humberto; Liria, Jonathan; Lima, Anderson; da Rosa, Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos; da Silva, Sandro P.; Vasconcelos, Janaina M.; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Vianez, João L. S. G.; Nunes, Marcio R. T.

    2016-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV), genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an important cause of human illness in tropical South America. Herein, we report the isolation, complete genome sequence, genetic characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of an OROV species reassortant, Madre de Dios virus (MDDV), obtained from a sick monkey (Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk) collected in a forest near Atapirire, a small rural village located in Anzoategui State, Venezuela. MDDV is one of a growing number of naturally occurring OROV species reassortants isolated in South America and was known previously only from southern Peru. PMID:27215299

  16. Morphology of horizontal cells in the retina of the capuchin monkey, Cebus apella: how many horizontal cell classes are found in dichromatic primates?

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    dos Reis, José Wesley L; de Carvalho, Walther Augusto; Saito, Cézar A; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L

    2002-02-04

    The morphology of horizontal cells was studied in the retina of dichromatic capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. The cells were labeled with the carbocyanine dye, 1,1',dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), and the labeling was then photoconverted to a stable product by using a diaminobenzidine reaction. The sizes of cell body, dendritic field, and axon terminal, as well as the number of dendritic clusters and cone convergence, were measured at increasing distance from the fovea. Three distinct morphological classes of horizontal cells were identified. Their dendritic and axonal morphology resembles those of H1, H2, and H3 cells described in trichromatic primates. The size of the cell bodies, dendritic fields, and axon terminals of all cell classes increases towards retinal periphery. H3 cells have larger dendritic fields and more dendritic clusters than H1 cells. All labeled horizontal cells located in selected patches of retina were further analyzed to quantify the differences between H1 and H3 cells. H1 cells have smaller dendritic field area, smaller total length of primary dendrites, more dendritic branching points, and larger fractal dimension than H3 cells. We have distinguished H1 and H3 cells based solely in morphological criteria. Their physiology should be further analyzed with detail, but their presence in both dichromatic and trichromatic primates suggests that neither of them have a specialized role in the red-green color opponent channel of color vision.

  17. Effects of platelet-rich plasma on healing of alveolar socket: Split-mouth histological and histometric evaluation in Cebus apella monkeys

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    Pessoa Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The prediction of implant treatment is directly influenced by the quality of the remaining bone after tooth extraction. Aims : The purpose of this experimental study was to, histologically and histometrically, evaluate the bone repair process in the central areas of extraction sockets filled with platelet-rich plasma. Materials and Methods: Four young adult male Cebus apella monkeys were used. The extraction of both right and left inferior second premolars was accomplished. After extraction, in one of the extraction sockets, coagulum was maintained while in the other it was removed; the alveolus was dried with gauze compress and filled up with platelet concentrate. For PRP production, Sonnleitner′s protocol was followed. The specimens for histological and histometric assessment were obtained in 30, 90, 120 and 180 days intervals. Results: In 30 days new bone formation was intense in both experimental and control sockets and no significant differences were observed between the two groups. After 90 days of the extraction, while the control group showed signs of decrease in osteogenesis, in the experimental unit, the process of bone formation and fibroblast-like cell proliferation remained intense. After 120 days, the PRP treated socket was occupied by large trabeculae of bone. After 180 days, the control unit was occupied mostly with bone marrow. The experimental unit remained occupied with large amounts of bone tissue. Conclusions: It was possible to conclude that bone repair was enhanced by the use of platelet- rich plasma in alveolar sockets.

  18. [Intestinal parasites in white-faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae) inhabiting a protected area in the Limón province of Northeastern Costa Rica].

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    Chinchilla, Misael; Urbani, Bernardo; Valerio, Idalia; Vanegas, Juan Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an ecologically undisturbed area. To asses this relationship, we analyzed parasite occurrence in their intestines. The study was conducted at the Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS), Limón, Costa Rica. The group of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) was observed between March and December of 2006. A total of 75 feces samples were obtained. Once a sample was collected, the eaten plant type was identified to family and species level, and feces were processed in the laboratory to determine parasite incidence. Results showed that Moraceae was the most represented family in the samples. Among parasites, Strongyloides spp. and Acanthocephala were the most common. Positive prevalence of parasites was found similar and independent of sex and age of capuchin individuals. Microsporids were mainly reported in feces associated with Piperaceae. A low presence of these parasites was found in samples associated with Myrtaceae, with possible anti-parasite active components. The occurrence of parasites was relatively high in EBLS, when compared to other regions in Costa Rica. The higher occurrence of parasites observed in capuchins at EBLS may be due to the fact that this rain forest is surrounded by areas affected by human activities. We suggest the promotion of research in neotropical primates parasitology, for a better comprehension of the parasite-host relationship, and in a long term, being able to understand the ecosystems where they coexist, and consequently, preserve the biodiversity of the whole region.

  19. Ricinus communis biocompatibility histological study in the nose of Cebus apella monkeys Avaliação histológica da biocompatibilidade do polímero da mamona no dorso nasal de macacos-pregos (Cebus apella

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    Paulo Cesar de Jesus Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue lesions can be caused by congenital and acquired factors, and result in nasal deformities with cosmetic and functional repercussion. Surgical treatment in these cases frequently requires complex reconstructions and the use of biomaterials. The polyurethane derived from castor beans (Ricinus communis has a favorable formulation in terms of ease of processing, flexibility, no emission of toxic vapors and low cost. Nonetheless, despite favorable results, studies about the use of castor beam polymer (Ricinus communis assessing tissue reaction on the nasal dorsum are still missing in the literature. AIM: the goal of the present investigation is to histologically assess the Ricinus communis polymer implant biocompatibility with the nasal dorsum. STUDY DESING: experimental. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we used four Cebus appela monkeys, in which we created a nasal dorsal defect in all the animals and there we placed the aforementioned implant. The animals were sacrificed 270 days after surgery and the samples were submitted to histological study. RESULTS: in the histology analysis we did not observe the presence of foreign body granulomas or phagocytic cells. We also observed a progressive bone formation and maturation. CONCLUSION: macroscopic and microscopic results showed that the castor oil polymer implant was biocompatible.Lesões do tecido ósseo podem ser causadas por fatores congênitos e adquiridos e resultar em deformidade nasal com repercussão estética e funcional. O tratamento cirúrgico desses casos requer reconstruções complexas e frequentemente o uso de biomateriais. O poliuretano derivado do óleo da mamona apresenta uma fórmula com aspectos favoráveis de processabilidade, flexibilidade de formulação, ausência de emissão de vapores tóxicos e baixo custo. Entretanto, a despeito dos resultados favoráveis, estudos referentes ao uso do polímero de mamona, avaliando a reação tecidual no dorso nasal, ainda não foram

  20. Effect of dietary fat saturation and cholesterol on LDL composition and metabolism. In vivo studies of receptor and nonreceptor-mediated catabolism of LDL in cebus monkeys.

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    Nicolosi, R J; Stucchi, A F; Kowala, M C; Hennessy, L K; Hegsted, D M; Schaefer, E J

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which polyunsaturated fats reduce low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B were investigated in 20 cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) fed diets containing corn oil or coconut oil as fat (31% of calories) with or without dietary cholesterol (0.1% by weight) for 3 to 10 years. Coconut-oil feeding compared to corn-oil feeding resulted in significant increases in levels of plasma total cholesterol (176%), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-LDL cholesterol (236%), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (148%), apo B (78%), and apo A-I (112%). The addition of dietary cholesterol to corn oil compared to corn oil alone resulted in smaller, but significant, increases in levels of total cholesterol (44%), HDL cholesterol (40%), and apo A-I (33%). Although the increases in VLDL-LDL cholesterol were of similar magnitude (52%), they barely failed to reach statistical significance (p less than 0.08), while the changes in apo B levels were negligible. The addition of dietary cholesterol to coconut oil, compared to coconut oil alone, resulted in no significant changes in lipoprotein cholesterol or apoproteins, although levels of VLDL-LDL cholesterol and apo B values increased 22% and 16%, respectively. Although hepatic free cholesterol content was not altered by diet, coconut-oil compared to corn-oil feeding resulted in significant increases in hepatic cholesteryl esters (236%) and triglycerides (325%), the latter increasing still further when dietary cholesterol was added to coconut oil (563%). To further assess the effects of these dietary changes on LDL metabolism, radioiodinated normal and glucosylated LDL kinetics were performed. The production rate of LDL apo B was not altered by diet. With corn-oil feeding, 63% of LDL catabolism was via the receptor-mediated pathway. Coconut-oil compared to corn-oil feeding resulted in a 50% decrease in receptor-mediated LDL apo B fractional catabolic rate (FCR) and a 27% reduction in

  1. Looking ahead? Computerized maze task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and human children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Futch, Sara E; Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M

    2015-05-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and-at least to an extent-anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future-oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques), a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys), and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to "plan ahead" to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future-oriented cognition in primates.

  2. Ontogeny of Manipulative Behavior and Nut-Cracking in Young Tufted Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus Apella"): A Perception-Action Perspective

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    de Resende, Briseida Dogo; Ottoni, Eduardo B.; Fragaszy, Dorothy M.

    2008-01-01

    How do capuchin monkeys learn to use stones to crack open nuts? Perception-action theory posits that individuals explore producing varying spatial and force relations among objects and surfaces, thereby learning about affordances of such relations and how to produce them. Such learning supports the discovery of tool use. We present longitudinal…

  3. Semen coagulum liquefaction, sperm activation and cryopreservation of capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) semen in coconut water solution (CWS) and TES-TRIS.

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    Oliveira, Karol G; Miranda, Stefania A; Leão, Danuza L; Brito, Adriel B; Santos, Regiane R; Domingues, Sheyla F S

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to test the effect of coconut water solution and TES-TRIS on the seminal coagulum liquefaction, sperm activation in fresh diluted semen, and on the cryopreservation of semen from capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Semen was collected from six males by electro-ejaculation, diluted in TES-TRIS or coconut water solution (CWS), and incubated at 35°C until the coagulated fraction of the semen was completely liquefied. In the experiment I, after liquefaction, samples were diluted in TES-TRIS or CWS, plus 6 and 10mM/mL of caffeine. Sperm motility and vigor were evaluated during 5h. For experiment II, after liquefaction, semen samples were extended in TES-TRIS (3.5% glycerol in the final solution) or CWS (2.5% glycerol in the final solution), cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen for 1 week. The seminal coagulum was liquefied in (mean±SDM) 4.5±1.7 and 2.8±1.1h in TES-TRIS and CWS, respectively. Sperm were motile in TES-TRIS and CWS for 5.0±1.4 and 1.0±0.5h, respectively. The mean motility in this period was 38±22% (TES-TRIS) and 22.0±16.0 (CWS). Motility increased after caffeine addition only in samples diluted in CWS containing 6mM (22.5±16.0) or 10mM (28.0±19.0) caffeine. Post-thaw live sperm percentage was 26.2% in TES-TRIS and 13.2% in CWS. For cryopreservation of semen from C. apella TES-TRIS (3.5% glycerol) was more appropriate than CWS (2.5% glycerol). CWS+caffeine potentially increase sperm motility and may be useful in artificial insemination of fresh diluted semen.

  4. Activity budget, diet, and habitat use in the critically endangered Ka'apor capuchin monkey (Cebus kaapori) in Pará State, Brazil: a preliminary comparison to other capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, S G; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Veiga, Liza M

    2014-10-01

    The Ka'apor capuchin, Cebus kaapori, is perhaps the most endangered primate of the Brazilian Amazon. Endemic to a region with extreme intensification of habitat-degrading activities, it survives in remnant populations in a completely fragmented landscape. Before now, the only data available were isolated observations of feeding, locality records, and information on population densities and group size obtained during census. Here we present the first data on the activity budget, diet, and daily path length of the species, and compare our preliminary results with those for other capuchin monkeys. A group of nine Ka'apor capuchins was monitored over a period of four months during the dry season in the Goianésia do Pará municipality, Pará, Brazil. We used instantaneous scan sampling (n = 4,647 scans) to construct an activity budget for the monkeys, and we identified the plants in their diet to species level (n = 41 plant taxa), allowing us to compare dietary overlap with other gracile capuchin species, as well as with the robust capuchin (Sapajus spp.), a potential competitor present throughout the range of the Ka'apor capuchin. Like other species of gracile capuchins, C. kaapori was highly frugivorous, with the vast majority of the feeding records of arils and fruit pulp (74%), supplemented by arthropods (13%) and seeds (10%), although diet composition was highly variable across months. The group used a total area of 62.4 ha during the study period, and average daily path length was 2,173 m (±400 m), with the entire home range utilized in every month of the study. We found significant overlap in the diet of the Ka'apor capuchin and Sapajus, highlighting the urgency to increase knowledge of the ecological needs of C. kaapori and understand synergistic effects of sympatry with competitive species, increasing forest fragmentation, and widespread human impact on C. kaapori sustainability.

  5. Avaliação ultra-sonográfica do sistema urinário, figado e útero do macaco-prego, Cebus apella Ultrasonographic evaluation of the urinary system, liver and uterus of Cebus apella monkey

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    Flávio R. Alves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O macaco-prego, Cebus apella, é muito difundido no norte e sul da Amazônia Legal Brasileira e no Cerrado. Estes animais encontram-se rotineiramente submetidos à caça predatória, aumentando assim a necessidade de preservação desta espécie silvestre. Realizou-se um estudo ultra-sonográfico de 10 macacos-prego como forma de descrever a anatomia ultra-sonográfica normal de sua cavidade abdominal. A vesícula urinária apresentou parede com espessura média 0,2cm e em posição anatômica cuja topografia permitiu contato com as paredes do corpo do útero e cólon descendente. À varredura abdominal caudal foi visualizada a aorta, veia cava caudal e veia ilíaca direita. O fígado foi visto em varredura sagital e transversal, possibilitando a observação da vesícula biliar e vasos hepáticos. A varredura renal demonstrou com precisão a pelve, seio renal e relação cortico-medular. O comprimento médio de ambos os rins foi de 6,24±0,31cm, não existindo diferença estatística entre o rim direito e esquerdo (Teste t de Student e ANOVA. O volume renal foi 2,37±0,18cm³. Os coeficientes de Correlação de Pearson entre os comprimentos renais direito e esquerdo e entre volumes renais direito e esquerdo foram dispostos como r = 0,74 e 0,51. As espessuras médias para a região cortical e medular foram 0,75±0,11cm e 0,39±0,06cm, respectivamente. O coeficiente de correlação para a relação cortico-medular entre os rins direito e esquerdo foi de r = 0,19. O exame ultrasonográfico mostrou-se como uma técnica eficiente, nãoinvasiva, rápida e reprodutível, que provê dados importantes aos profissionais da área de clínica e cirurgia de animais silvestres.The Brown Capuchin, Cebus apella, has a wide distribution in the northern and southern Brazilian Amazon region and in the Cerrado (savanna. These monkeys are usually submitted to predatory chase, increasing the need for preservation of this wild animal species. An ultrasonographic

  6. Ontogeny of Foraging Competence in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus capucinus) for Easy versus Difficult to Acquire Fruits: A Test of the Needing to Learn Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Elizabeth Christine

    2015-01-01

    Which factors select for long juvenile periods in some species is not well understood. One potential reason to delay the onset of reproduction is slow food acquisition rates, either due to competition (part of the ecological risk avoidance hypothesis), or due to a decreased foraging efficiency (a version of the needing to learn hypothesis). Capuchins provide a useful genus to test the needing to learn hypothesis because they are known for having long juvenile periods and a difficult-to-acquire diet. Generalized, linear, mixed models with data from 609 fruit forage focal follows on 49, habituated, wild Cebus capucinus were used to test two predictions from the needing-to-learn hypothesis as it applies to fruit foraging skills: 1) capuchin monkeys do not achieve adult foraging return rates for difficult-to-acquire fruits before late in the juvenile period; and 2) variance in return rates for these fruits is at least partially associated with differences in foraging skill. In support of the first prediction, adults, compared with all younger age classes, had significantly higher foraging return rates when foraging for fruits that were ranked as difficult-to-acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.30-0.41, p-value range 0.008-0.016), indicating that the individuals in the group who have the most foraging experience also achieve the highest return rates. In contrast, and in support of the second prediction, there were no significant differences between age classes for fruits that were ranked as easy to acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.97-1.42, p-value range 0.086-0.896), indicating that strength and/or skill are likely to affect return rates. In addition, fruits that were difficult to acquire were foraged at nearly identical rates by adult males and significantly smaller (and presumably weaker) adult females (males relative to females: 1.01, p = 0.978), while subadult females had much lower foraging efficiency than the similarly-sized but more experienced

  7. How to spend a token? Trade-offs between food variety and food preference in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Mancini, Alessandra; Crescimbene, Lara; Ariely, Dan; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2010-03-01

    Humans and non-human animals often choose among different alternatives by seeking variety. Here we assessed whether variety-seeking, i.e. the tendency to look for diversity in services and goods, occurs in capuchin monkeys--South-American primates which--as humans--are omnivorous and susceptible to food monotony. Capuchins chose between a Variety-token, that allowed to select one among 10 different foods (one more-preferred and nine less-preferred) and a Monotony-token, that--upon exchange with the experimenter--either allowed to select one among 10 units of the same more-preferred food or gave access to one unit of the more-preferred food. To examine how food preference affects variety-seeking, in the B-condition we presented nine moderately preferred foods, whereas in the C-condition we presented nine low-preferred foods. Overall, capuchins preferred the Variety-token over the Monotony-token and often selected one of the less-preferred foods. These results suggest that variety-seeking is rooted in our evolutionary history, and that it satisfies the need of experiencing stimulation from the environment; at the ultimate level, variety-seeking may allow the organism to exploit novel foods and obtain a correct nutritional intake. Finally, variety-seeking could have contributed to the transition from barter to money in many human cultures. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF DENTINAL TUBULES IN MONKEY DENTIN SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF DENTINAL TUBULES IN Cebus apella DENTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Humberto Antoniazzi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the study was to investigate the number and diameter of the Cebus apella dentinal tubules. The roots of the Cebus apella teeth were examined in specific tooth locations: the apical, middle and cervical dentin. The calculations were based on the scanning electron microscope photographs of the fractured surfaces. The results showed that the average number of dentinal tubules for each location was: 74,800 tubules/mm2 for apical root dentin, 90,000 tubules/mm2 for mid-root dentin, 91,600 tubules/mm2 for cervical root dentin. The average diameter was the following: apical root dentin, 4,30µm; mid-root dentin, 4,37µm; cervical root dentin,  5,23µm. These findings demonstrate that the Cebus apella teeth are a suitable substitute for human in endodontics studies. 

    KEY WORDS: Dentin, dentinal tubules, teeth.
    The aim of the study was to investigate the number and diameter of the Cebus apella dentinal tubules. The roots of the Cebus apella teeth were examined in specific tooth locations: the apical, middle and cervical dentin. The calculations were based on the scanning electron microscope photographs of the fractured surfaces. The results showed that the average number of dentinal tubules for each location was: 74,800 tubules/mm2 for apical root dentin, 90,000 tubules/mm2 for mid-root dentin, 91,600 tubules/mm2 for cervical root dentin. The average diameter was the following: apical root dentin, 4,30µm; mid-root dentin, 4,37µm; cervical root dentin,  5,23µm. These findings demonstrate that the Cebus apella teeth are a suitable substitute for human in endodontics studies. 

    KEY WORDS: Dentin, dentinal tubules, teeth.

  9. Proposal of anatomical terminology to call the arteries of the base of the encephalon in the monkey (Cebus paella L., 1766 Nomenclatura proposta para denominar as artérias da base do encéfalo do macaco-prego (Cebus apella L., 1766

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    Jussara Rocha Ferreira

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Arteries of the encephalon basis of 30 monkeys (Cebus paella were studied. Arteries were injected with colored latex, fixed in formaldehyde solution at 10% and dissected under magnifying lenses. Since the animals died from natural causes they had been previously used in other experiments. Human and veterinary anatomical terminology and literature were used as a reference for the determination of vessels studied in the primates. Arteries of the encephalon base represent division branches of three vascular pedicules: the right and left internal carotid arteries and the basilar system. Vessels in the basilar system of the animal were called vertebral arteries; anterior spinal artery; anterior and posterior cerebelar arteries; pontine arteries; satellite cerebelar arteries; caudal and cranial cerebelar arteries. The basilar artery bifurcates into two posterior cerebral arteries (100%. The caudal area of the encephalon’s arterial circuit is thus constituted. Linking between the vertebro-basilar and the carotid segments is done by the posterior communicating artery, that caudally anastomizes (100% with the posterior cerebral artery. The internal carotid artery gives origin to the posterior communicating artery. The right and left internal carotid artery (intracranial portion compounds the carotid system. The following vessels were identified: middle cerebral artery; anterior cerebral artery; interhemispheric artery; olfactory arteries. Results report that Cebus paella presents an arterial pattern of relative morphological stabilityEstudaram-se as artérias da base do encéfalo do Cebus apella em 30 animais, vindos a óbito por morte natural no Zoológico de São Paulo e coletados durante 10 anos. O material recebeu injeção de látex corado, fixado em formol a 10%, e foi dissecado sob lupa. Encontramos dificuldade e denominar estes vasos. As terminologias anatômicas humana e veterinária e a recuperação da literatura nos serviram de base para

  10. Phylogenetic studies of the genus Cebus (Cebidae-Primates) using chromosome painting and G-banding

    OpenAIRE

    Pissinatti A; De Oliveira EHC; Finotelo LFM; Amaral PJS; Nagamachi CY; Pieczarka JC

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Chromosomal painting, using whole chromosome probes from humans and Saguinus oedipus, was used to establish karyotypic divergence among species of the genus Cebus, including C. olivaceus, C. albifrons, C. apella robustus and C. apella paraguayanus. Cytogenetic studies suggested that the species of this genus have conservative karyotypes, with diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 to 2n = 54. Results Banding studies revealed morphological divergence among some chromosomes, o...

  11. Phylogenetic studies of the genus Cebus (Cebidae-Primates using chromosome painting and G-banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pissinatti A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal painting, using whole chromosome probes from humans and Saguinus oedipus, was used to establish karyotypic divergence among species of the genus Cebus, including C. olivaceus, C. albifrons, C. apella robustus and C. apella paraguayanus. Cytogenetic studies suggested that the species of this genus have conservative karyotypes, with diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 to 2n = 54. Results Banding studies revealed morphological divergence among some chromosomes, owing to variations in the size of heterochromatic blocks. This analysis demonstrated that Cebus species have five conserved human associations (i.e., 5/7, 2/16, 10/16, 14/15, 8/18 and 3/21 when compared with the putative ancestral Platyrrhini karyotype. Conclusion The autapomorphies 8/15/8 in C. albifrons and 12/15 in C. olivaceus explain the changes in chromosome number from 54 to 52. The association 5/16/7, which has not previously been reported in Platyrrhini, was also found in C. olivaceus. These data corroborate previous FISH results, suggesting that the genus Cebus has a very similar karyotype to the putative ancestral Platyrrhini.

  12. Phylogenetic studies of the genus Cebus (Cebidae-Primates) using chromosome painting and G-banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, P J S; Finotelo, L F M; De Oliveira, E H C; Pissinatti, A; Nagamachi, C Y; Pieczarka, J C

    2008-06-05

    Chromosomal painting, using whole chromosome probes from humans and Saguinus oedipus, was used to establish karyotypic divergence among species of the genus Cebus, including C. olivaceus, C. albifrons, C. apella robustus and C. apella paraguayanus. Cytogenetic studies suggested that the species of this genus have conservative karyotypes, with diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 to 2n = 54. Banding studies revealed morphological divergence among some chromosomes, owing to variations in the size of heterochromatic blocks. This analysis demonstrated that Cebus species have five conserved human associations (i.e., 5/7, 2/16, 10/16, 14/15, 8/18 and 3/21) when compared with the putative ancestral Platyrrhini karyotype. The autapomorphies 8/15/8 in C. albifrons and 12/15 in C. olivaceus explain the changes in chromosome number from 54 to 52. The association 5/16/7, which has not previously been reported in Platyrrhini, was also found in C. olivaceus. These data corroborate previous FISH results, suggesting that the genus Cebus has a very similar karyotype to the putative ancestral Platyrrhini.

  13. Anatomical and radiographic appearance of the capuchin monkey thoracic cavity (Cebus apella Aparência anatômica e radiográfica da cavidade torácica do macaco-prego (Cebus apella

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    Flávio R. Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The capuchin monkey is widespread both north and south of the Legal Amazon and in the Brazilian cerrado. Ten clinically healthy capuchin monkeys were submitted to an anatomical and radiographic study of their thoracic cavities. The radiographic evaluation allowed the description of biometric values associated with the cardiac silhouette and thoracic structures. Application of the VHS (vertebral heart size method showed positive correlation (PO macaco-prego é muito comum tanto no norte, quanto no sul da Amazônia Legal e no cerrado brasileiro. Dez macacos-prego clinicamente saudáveis foram submetidos a um estudo anatômico e radiográfico de suas cavidades torácicas. A avaliação radiográfica permitiu a descrição de valores biométricos associados à silhueta cardíaca e estruturas torácicas. A aplicação do método de VHS (vertebral heart size demonstrou correlação positiva (P <0,05 com a profundidade da cavidade torácica, assim como entre o comprimento do corpo de vértebras T3, T4, T5 e T6 e do comprimento e largura cardíaca. Os campos pulmonares apresentaram padrão intersticial difuso, mais visível nos lobos pulmonares caudais e um padrão brônquial em lobo pulmonar médio e cranial. O exame radiográfico permitiu inferências preliminares a serem realizadas no âmbito da sintopia das estruturas torácicas e de modificação dos padrões pulmonares e anatomia cardíaca para o macaco-prego.

  14. Analysis of the heterochromatin of Cebus (Primates, Platyrrhini) by micro-FISH and banding pattern comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, Mariela; De Oliveira, Edivaldo H C; Amaral, Paulo J S; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y; Pieczarka, Julio C; Mühlmann, María C; Mudry, Marta D

    2011-04-01

    The karyotype of the neotropical primate genus Cebus (Platyrrhini: Cebidae), considered the most ancestral one, shows the greatest amount of heterochromatin described among Platyrrhini genera. Banding techniques and restriction enzyme digestion have previously revealed great variability of quantity and composition of heterochromatin in this genus. In this context, we use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to analyse this genomic region and discuss its possible role in the diversification of Cebus.We used a heterochromatin probe for chromosome 11 of Cebus libidinosus (11qHe+ CLI probe), obtained by chromosome microdissection. Twenty-six specimens belonging to the families Atelidae, Cebidae, Callitrichidae and Pithecidae (Platyrrhini) were studied. Fourteen out of 26 specimens were Cebus (Cebidae) individuals of C. libidinosus, C. xanthosternos, C. apella, C. nigritus, C. albifrons, C. kaapori and C. olivaceus. In Cebus specimens, we found 6 to 22 positive signals located in interstitial and telomeric positions along the different species. No hybridization signal was observed among the remaining Ceboidea species, thus reinforcing the idea of a Cebus-specific heterochromatin composed of a complex system of repetitive sequences.

  15. Analysis of the heterochromatin of Cebus (Primates, Platyrrhini) by micro-FISH and banding pattern comparisons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mariela Nieves; Edivaldo H. C. De Oliveira; Paulo J. S. Amaral; Cleusa Y. Nagamachi; Julio C. Pieczarka; María C. Mühlmann; Marta D. Mudry

    2011-04-01

    The karyotype of the neotropical primate genus Cebus (Platyrrhini: Cebidae), considered the most ancestral one, shows the greatest amount of heterochromatin described among Platyrrhini genera. Banding techniques and restriction enzyme digestion have previously revealed great variability of quantity and composition of heterochromatin in this genus. In this context, we use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to analyse this genomic region and discuss its possible role in the diversification of Cebus. We used a heterochromatin probe for chromosome 11 of Cebus libidinosus (11qHe+ CLI probe), obtained by chromosome microdissection. Twenty-six specimens belonging to the families Atelidae, Cebidae, Callitrichidae and Pithecidae (Platyrrhini) were studied. Fourteen out of 26 specimens were Cebus (Cebidae) individuals of C. libidinosus, C. xanthosternos, C. apella, C. nigritus, C. albifrons, C. kaapori and C. olivaceus. In Cebus specimens, we found 6 to 22 positive signals located in interstitial and telomeric positions along the different species. No hybridization signal was observed among the remaining Ceboidea species, thus reinforcing the idea of a Cebus-specific heterochromatin composed of a complex system of repetitive sequences.

  16. Origem do plexo braquial do macaco Cebus apella

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    Adriana Rodrigues Ribeiro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The monkey Cebus apella, native to South American forests, is geographically distributed through the Brazilian land and presents satisfactory adaptation to the captive life showing great capacity of reproduction. Thus, we have described the origin of the brachial plexus in the monkey Cebus apella. The aim of this study was to add information for morphofunctional and comparative studies focusing on Cebus apella, humans and domestic animals. Twenty adult animals, 10 males and 10 females, belonging to the collection of Anatomy Laboratory of the Federal University of Uberlândia were obtained and prepared through fixation and dissection. In the dissected specimens, the brachial plexus of Cebus apella was comprised of nerve roots from C5 to T1 (55,00 ±± 11,12%, from C5 to T2 (25,00 ±± 9,68%, from C4 to T1 (15,00 ±± 7,98% and from C4 to T2 (5,00 ±± 4,87%. In addition, the occurrence of pre- and post- fixation of the plexus as well as its cranial and caudal extent have been discussed. In conclusion, the brachial plexus of Cebus apella is constituted by nerve roots from C5 to T1.

  17. Inference in a social context: A comparative study of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    Four species (capuchin monkeys, tree shrews, rats, and hamsters) performed an inference task situated in a social context. In Experiment 1, capuchin monkeys first explored food sites under 1 of 2 conditions: In 1 condition, food was refilled after it was eaten (replenished condition), whereas it was not refilled (depleted condition) in the other condition. Two food sites were presented for each condition. In the test phase, a subject watched a conspecific demonstrator visit 1 of the food sites in either the replenished or depleted condition. A screen placed in front of the sites prevented the subject from seeing the demonstrator actually eat the food. When the demonstrator was removed, the subject explored the cage. Three of 4 monkeys tended to go to the unvisited sites in the depleted condition, but tended to go to the visited site in the replenished condition. This suggests that they inferred that there was no food because the demonstrator had eaten it. In Experiment 2, using the same procedure, 2 nongroup-living species (tree shrews and hamsters) were indifferent to demonstrator behavior and visited sites only randomly, and group-living rats showed a strong tendency to follow demonstrators, irrespective of the type of food site. These tendencies were unchanged when olfactory information was added in Experiment 3 and when motivation to compete increased in Experiment 4. These results suggest that only capuchin monkeys have the ability to solve an inference task when cued by social information.

  18. Dieta y comportamiento alimentario de un grupo de mico maicero Cebus apella de acuerdo a la variación en la oferta de frutos y artrópodos, en la Amazonía colombiana Diet and feeding behavior of a group of brown capuchin monkeys Cebus apella according to fruits and arthropods availability, in the Colombian Amazon

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    Carolina Gómez-Posada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la relación entre la abundancia de artrópodos y frutos maduros, con el comportamiento alimentario y dieta de un grupo de Cebus apella en la Amazonía colombiana durante 1999. La oferta de frutos se midió por transectos fenológicos y la abundancia de artrópodos por capturas manuales. La oferta de ambos recursos varió a lo largo del año, lo que permitió establecer tres períodos de disponibilidad combinada: abundancia, oferta intermedia y escasez. Se completaron 708 horas de seguimiento al grupo y con el método de barrido lento se determinó una dieta omnívora, siendo principalmente insectívora - frugívora (48.8% - 42.9%. Los maiceros consumieron 96 especies de plantas y la diversidad mensual de frutos en la dieta, no se correlacionó con la oferta de los mismos. En los meses de abundancia de recursos, tanto frutos como artrópodos fueron consumidos en altas cantidades, y los frutos presentaron una distribución agrupada. Durante los períodos de escasez de recursos, la dieta incluyó pocas especies de frutos, considerados clave, de difícil manipulación, como Cariniana micrantha (Lecythidaceae, y fue complementada con partes vegetales. A diferencia de otros estudios, durante la escasez de frutos, no se presentó el mayor consumo de artrópodos, puesto que éstos igualmente escaseaban. Los maiceros mostraron una dieta generalista - oportunista y utilizaron los recursos en la proporción en la que estuvieron disponibles. Así por ejemplo, los valores de selectividad para frutos fueron muy bajos, y las tasas de éxito de captura de artrópodos se correlacionaron con la disponibilidad de los mismos.The relation between the abundance of fruits and arthropods, and the diet and feeding behavior of a group of Cebus apella was studied in the Colombian Amazon during 1999. Fruit availability was measured using phenological transects, and the abundance of arthropods by using manual captures. The abundance of both resources varied

  19. Predation on the black capuchin monkey Cebus nigritus (Primates: Cebidae by domestic dogs Canis lupus familiaris (Carnivora: Canidae, in the Parque Estadual Serra do Brigadeiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil Predação de macaco-prego Cebus nigritus (Primates: Cebidae por cães domésticos Canis lupus familiaris (Carnivora: Canidae, no Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Valeska B. de Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Predation on an adult male black capuchin monkey, Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809 by two domestic dogs was observed in the Parque Estadual Serra do Brigadeiro, in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Minas Gerais. Predation occurred in an area of well preserved native forest 800 m from the nearest forest edge. This is the first confirmed record of predation by domestic dogs in this reserve, yet data from a study in the same area indicates that the domestic dog is the most frequently recorded mammal species, which suggests that it is common in the area. The few published reports indicate that this problem occurs in other conservation units in Brazil and should, therefore, be treated with more rigor by the environmental agencies.A predação de um macho adulto de macaco-prego, Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809 por dois cães-domésticos é relatada no interior do Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro, localizado na Mata Atlântica do sudeste de Minas Gerais. A observação foi registrada em local de mata nativa bem preservada, a cerca de 800 m da borda mais próxima da reserva. Embora este seja o primeiro registro confirmado de predação por cão doméstico nesta unidade de conservação, dados de um estudo sobre a mastofauna local, usando parcelas de pegadas, indicam que o cão-doméstico é a espécie de mamífero mais freqüentemente registrada, sugerindo que sua presença é constante e amplamente distribuída na área. Os poucos relatos existentes na literatura indicam que este problema está presente em outras unidades de conservação e deveria, portanto, ser tratado com maior rigor pelas agências ambientais.

  20. A comparative study of neonatal skeletal development in Cebus and other primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, E S

    1990-01-01

    Comparisons of hand/wrist radiographs of neonatal Cebus albifrons (n = 14) and Cebus apella (n = 4) with those of Saimiri sciureus boliviensis (n = 9) and Macaca mulatta (n = 63) reveal that the cebid monkeys show much less skeletal ossification at birth than macaques. Differences in gestation time alone cannot account for the differences in skeletal maturity at birth in the two groups of monkeys. The skeletal precocity of the newborn macaques indicates that their ossification either begins earlier in gestation or proceeds at a more rapid rate, or both. This, in turn, raises questions about the timing of organogenesis and gestational comparability in cebid and cercopithecid monkeys. The advanced state of ossification seen in macaques at birth is not typical of other groups of anthropoid primates, including Cebus, Saimiri, Pan and Homo, and may represent an ontogenetic specialization.

  1. Cranial suture morphology and its relationship to diet in Cebus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Craig D

    2009-12-01

    Cranial sutures are complex morphological structures. Four Cebus species (C. albifrons, C. apella, C. capucinus, C. olivaceus) are used here to test the hypothesis that sagittal suture complexity is enhanced in animals that eat materially challenging foods. These primates are ideal for such comparative studies because they are closely related and some are known to exhibit differences in the material properties of the foods they ingest and masticate. Specifically, Cebus apella is notable among members of this genus for ingesting food items of high toughness as well as consistently demonstrating a relatively robust cranial morphology. Consistent with previous studies, C. apella demonstrates significantly more robust mandibular and temporal fossa morphology. Also, C. apella possesses sagittal sutures that are more complex than congenerics. These data are used to support the hypothesis that cranial suture complexity is increased in response to consuming diets with more obdurate material properties. One interpretation of this hypothesis is that, compared to non-apelloids, total strain in the apelloid cranial suture connective tissue environment is elevated due to increased jaw muscle activity by increases in either force magnitudes or the number of chewing events. It is argued that greater masticatory function enhances the growth and modeling of cranial suture interdigitation. These data show that cranial suture complexity is one more hard tissue feature from the skull that might be used to inform hypotheses of dietary functional morphology.

  2. Ultrastructure of quiescent oocytes of Cebus albifrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, B R; Hertig, A T

    1975-11-01

    Quiescent oocytes of the monkey Cebus albifrons were examined with the electron microscope. In many respects the ultrastructure of these cells was similar to that of other mammalian species. Elongate and oval mitochondria, lamellar Golgi complexes, small profiles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuolar organelles were randomly distributed around a round nucleus which usually contained a nucleolus and clumps of heterochromatin. Among the unusual morphological characteristics of these oocytes are 'membranous aggregates', membrane-bound organelles containing a complex of convoluted membranes, some very dense rod-like structures and a droplet of moderate density which resembles lipid. A similar droplet is frequently found in mitochondria. Rough endoplasmic reticulum is abundant in many of these oocytes, forming parallel arrays and concentric rings around the nucleus. Folded membrane complexes, apparent elaborations of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, are frequently found in the cytoplasm in continuity with cisternae of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and associated with vesicles which often contain flocculent material. The morphology of Cebus oocytes suggests a greater rate of steroid and protein synthesis, transport, and storage than is usually indicated by the ultrastructure of other mammalian oocytes.

  3. Movement disorders induced in monkeys by chronic haloperidol treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.; Santelli, S.; Lusink, G.

    1977-01-01

    After several months of treatment, Cebus apella, Cebus albifrons, and Saimiri sciurea monkeys maintained on haloperidol, in doses of 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg orally 5 days per week, began to display severe movement disorders, typically 1 to 6 h post-drug. Cebus monkeys exhibited violent, uncontrolled movements that flung the animals about the cage. Such episodes usually lasted only a few minutes, recurring several times during the period following drug ingestion. Writhing and bizarre postures dominated the response in S. sciurea. Cessation of drug treatment produced no distinctive after-effects. When tested as long as 508 days after the last administration, however, Cebus monkeys responded to haloperidol with several episodes of hyperkinesis, even at challenge doses considerably lower than those in the original treatment.

  4. Movement disorders induced in monkeys by chronic haloperidol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B; Santelli, S; Lusink, G

    1977-08-16

    After several months of treatment, Cebus apella, Cebus albifrons, and Saimiri sciurea monkeys maintained on haloperidol, in doses of 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg orally 5 days per week, began to display severe movement disorders, typically 1-6 h post-drug. Cebus monkeys exhibited violent, uncontrolled movements that flung the animals about the cage. Such episodes usually lasted only a few minutes, recurring several times during the period following drug ingestion. Writhing and bizarre postures dominated the response in S. sciurea. Cessation of drug treatment produced no distinctive after-effects. When tested as long as 508 days after the last administration, however, Cebus monkeys responded to haloperidol with several episodes of hyperkinesis, even at challenge doses considerably lower than those in the original treatment.

  5. The effect of dietary adaption on cranial morphological integration in capuchins (order Primates, genus Cebus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedonska, Jana; Wright, Barth W; Strait, David S

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental challenge of morphology is to identify the underlying evolutionary and developmental mechanisms leading to correlated phenotypic characters. Patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and their association with environmental variables are essential for understanding the evolution of complex phenotypes, yet the nature of the relevant selective pressures remains poorly understood. In this study, the adaptive significance of morphological integration was evaluated through the association between feeding mechanics, ingestive behavior and craniofacial variation. Five capuchin species were examined, Cebus apella sensu stricto, Cebus libidinosus, Cebus nigritus, Cebus olivaceus and Cebus albifrons. Twenty three-dimensional landmarks were chosen to sample facial regions experiencing high strains during feeding, characteristics affecting muscular mechanical advantage and basicranial regions. Integration structure and magnitude between and within the oral and zygomatic subunits, between and within blocks maximizing modularity and within the face, the basicranium and the cranium were examined using partial-least squares, eigenvalue variance, integration indices compared inter-specifically at a common level of sampled population variance and cluster analyses. Results are consistent with previous findings reporting a relative constancy of facial and cranial correlation patterns across mammals, while covariance magnitudes vary. Results further suggest that food material properties structure integration among functionally-linked facial elements and possibly integration between the face and the basicranium. Hard-object-feeding capuchins, especially C. apella s.s., whose faces experience particularly high biomechanical loads are characterized by higher facial and cranial integration especially compared to C. albifrons, likely because morphotypes compromising feeding performance are selected against in species relying on obdurate fallback foods. This is the

  6. The effect of dietary adaption on cranial morphological integration in capuchins (order Primates, genus Cebus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Makedonska

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge of morphology is to identify the underlying evolutionary and developmental mechanisms leading to correlated phenotypic characters. Patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and their association with environmental variables are essential for understanding the evolution of complex phenotypes, yet the nature of the relevant selective pressures remains poorly understood. In this study, the adaptive significance of morphological integration was evaluated through the association between feeding mechanics, ingestive behavior and craniofacial variation. Five capuchin species were examined, Cebus apella sensu stricto, Cebus libidinosus, Cebus nigritus, Cebus olivaceus and Cebus albifrons. Twenty three-dimensional landmarks were chosen to sample facial regions experiencing high strains during feeding, characteristics affecting muscular mechanical advantage and basicranial regions. Integration structure and magnitude between and within the oral and zygomatic subunits, between and within blocks maximizing modularity and within the face, the basicranium and the cranium were examined using partial-least squares, eigenvalue variance, integration indices compared inter-specifically at a common level of sampled population variance and cluster analyses. Results are consistent with previous findings reporting a relative constancy of facial and cranial correlation patterns across mammals, while covariance magnitudes vary. Results further suggest that food material properties structure integration among functionally-linked facial elements and possibly integration between the face and the basicranium. Hard-object-feeding capuchins, especially C. apella s.s., whose faces experience particularly high biomechanical loads are characterized by higher facial and cranial integration especially compared to C. albifrons, likely because morphotypes compromising feeding performance are selected against in species relying on obdurate fallback

  7. Conservação do sêmen e liquefação do coágulo seminal de macaco-prego (Cebus apella em água de coco em pó (ACP-118®, em diferentes temperaturas Semen conservation and seminal clot liquefaction of capuchin monkey (Cebus apella in powdered coconut water extender (PCW at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Guimarães Oliveira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a água de coco em pó (ACP na conservação do sêmen e liquefação do coágulo seminal de Cebus apella. O sêmen de seis machos adultos foi coletado por eletroejaculação (EEJ, diluído em solução à base de ACP-118® e submetido à incubação em banho-maria a 33, 35 e 37°C, por 24 horas. Avaliou-se a integridade espermática por meio da coloração eosina-nigrosina a cada uma hora durante as seis horas iniciais e após 24 horas de incubação. Os volumes médios e as concentrações espermáticas das frações coagulada e líquida foram de 0,20±0,02 e 0,20±0,10mL; 1,1±0,3x10(8 e 1,3±0,9x10(7 espermatozoides mL-1, respectivamente. Somente em uma amostra da fração líquida foram verificados espermatozoides com motilidade (20% e vigor (4, perdurando por 40 minutos. A maior parte do coágulo liquefez em ACP-118® após 12 horas de incubação. O melhor tratamento observado foi sob 33°C, por manter até 47±12,8% de espermatozoides vivos após 24 horas. Conclui-se que o diluente à base de ACP é eficiente na liquefação do coágulo seminal e na manutenção da integridade espermática até 24 horas após a EEJ, nas temperaturas de 33, 35 e 37°C.The aim of this study was to evaluate the powdered coconut water (PCW in the semen conservation and seminal clot liquefaction. The semen of six adult male Cebus apella was collected by electroejaculation (EEJ, diluted in ACP-118® extender and stayed in water bath at 33, 35 and 37°C for 24 hours. The sperm integrity was evaluated by eosin-nigrosine staining every one hour during the six initial hours and after 24 hours of incubation. The average volumes and sperm concentrations of clotted and liquid fractions were 0.20±0.02 and 0.20±0.10mL, 1.1±0.3x108 and 1.3±0.9x107 sperm mL-1, respectively. Immediately after collection, only in a sample of liquid fraction was observed 20% motility and vigor 4, which stopped after 40 minutes. Most of the clot was

  8. Dyskinesias evoked in monkeys by weekly administration of haloperidol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.; Santelli, S.

    1978-05-19

    In two cebus (Cebus albifrons) monkeys given weekly oral doses of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram, movement disorders appeared 1 to 8 hours after drug administration following the tenth weekly dose. These disorders included oral movements, peculiar postures, writhing, and stretching. Such reactions faded in intensity after the next two doses. Increasing the dose to 0.5 milligram per kilogram has elicited the disorders reliably after each weekly dose for almost 2 years. Similar reactions also developed in a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) treated weekly with haloperidol and in a third cebus monkey previously maintained for a year on a regimen of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram on 5 days per week. These findings suggest an experimental model for determining the etiology of drug-induced movement disorders. They also suggest an unrecognized clinical problem.

  9. Dyskinesias evoked in monkeys by weekly administration of haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B; Santelli, S

    1978-05-19

    In two cebus (Cebus albifrons) monkeys given weekly oral doses of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram, movement disorders appeared 1 to 8 hours after drug administration following the tenth weekly dose. These disorders included oral movements, peculiar postures, writhing, and stretching. Such reactions faded in intensity after the next two doses. Increasing the dose to 0.5 milligram per kilogram has elicited the disorders reliably after each weekly dose for almost 2 years. Similar reactions also developed in a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) treated weekly with haloperidol and in a third cebus monkey previously maintained for a year on a regimen of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram on 5 days per week. These findings suggest an experimental model for determining the etiology of drug-induced movement disorders. They also suggest an unrecognized clinical problem.

  10. ANATOMICAL DESCRIPTION OF MUSCLES IN THE HIND LIMB AND TAIL OF CEBUS ALBIFRONS

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo U., Miriam; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Cisneros S., Jannet; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Navarette Z., Miluska; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Torres G., Juan Pablo; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Sato S., Alberto; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform the anatomic description of the muscles located in the hind limb and tail of Cebus albifrons. Four adult monkeys older than 3 years of age and castrated were used. The animals were euthanized and embalmed; then, after six days, the dissection of the hind limb and tail was carried out. Muscles were described in comparison with the Rhesus monkey (Maccaca mullata). The pelvis and thigh, leg and foot region presented 18, 12 and 11 muscles respectively. P...

  11. Postnatal growth allometry of the extremities in Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella: a longitudinal and comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungers, W L; Fleagle, J G

    1980-11-01

    Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella, partially sympatric capuchin monkeys from South America, are known to differ substantially in adult body mass and bodily proportions. C. apella possesses a robust, stocky build in contrast to the more gracile, relatively longer limbed body design of C. alblfrons. Average birth weights and adult body lengths of these two congeners, however, are remarkably similar and do not serve to distinguish them. This study examines longitudinal growth rates and patterns of ontogenetic scaling in the extremities (humerus, radius, hand, femur, tibia, foot) in order to document the nature and magnitude of skeletal changes associated with increasing age and body mass. Our data indicate that the growth rates of the six skeletal components of the limbs differ only slightly and somewhat inconsistently between the two species. Body mass, however, increases at a consistently faster rate in C. apella. Relative to body mass, therefore, the extremities of C. albifrons scale much faster than those of C. apella. This implies that at any given postnatal body mass, C. alblfrons is longer limbed that C. apella. Conversely, C. apella is heavier than C. albifrons at any given limb length or age. We suggest that such differences in body mass distribution are causally related to differences in locomotor behavior and foraging strategies. Specifically, the relatively long-limbed C. albifrons is probably more cursorial and tends to travel longer distances each day than C. apella. C. apella is a much more deliberate quadruped and is also characterized by especially vigorous and powerful foraging and feeding behaviors. We also compare our results to other (mostly cross-sectional) studies of skeletal growth allometry in nonhuman primates.

  12. Tool use in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons trinitatis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, K A

    1998-01-01

    White-fronted capuchins were observed to use leaves as cups to retrieve water from tree cavities. On multiple occasions several individuals performed this behavior. Thus, these capuchins engage in habitual tool use, as defined by McGrew's classificatory scheme of tool using behavior.

  13. Sample Stimulus Control Shaping and Restricted Stimulus Control in Capuchin Monkeys: A Methodological Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brino, Ana Leda F., Barros, Romariz S., Galvao, Ol; Garotti, M.; Da Cruz, Ilara R. N.; Santos, Jose R.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports use of sample stimulus control shaping procedures to teach arbitrary matching-to-sample to 2 capuchin monkeys ("Cebus apella"). The procedures started with identity matching-to-sample. During shaping, stimulus features of the sample were altered gradually, rendering samples and comparisons increasingly physically dissimilar. The…

  14. ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DAS ARTÉRIAS DO OMBRO DE Cebus libidinosus (RYLANDS, 2000; PRIMATES – CEBIDAE ANATOMIC STUDY OF ARTERIES OF SHOULDER Cebus libidinosus (RYLANDS, 2000; PRIMATES - CEBIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandra Cássia Lobato do Prado

    2007-07-01

    (IBAMA, from Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil, and sacrificed according to recommendations of the “Brazilian College of Animal Experimentation” (COBEA, keeper in University Federal of Goiás and University Federal of Uberlândia. The arteries system these animals were injected with latex colored and afterward the arteries were dissected on stereoscopic microscopy. In large majority, number and distribution of arteries of Cebus are similar for humans, others primates and domestics animals, but the frequency and origin are different. In general terms the arteries of shoulders of Cebus monkey origin of common trunk of axilar arteries and no individual branches, differently in others animals studied, in the specific terms, ocurred variations in all structures study in the relationship others studed primates. KEY-WORDS: Anatomy, arteries,Cebus libidinosus, primates.

  15. Molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of the white-fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons; Cebidae, Primates) by means of mtCOII gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-García, M; Castillo, M I; Vásquez, C; Rodriguez, K; Pinedo-Castro, M; Shostell, J; Leguizamon, N

    2010-12-01

    A total of 696 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial COII gene were sequenced from 118 individuals of Cebus albifrons (plus an individual of Cebus olivaceus) sampled from diverse geographical areas of Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Brazil. These animals represented all of the C. albifrons's taxa described by Hershkovitz (1949) in Colombia and Peru (10 out of 13 subspecies are described by this author). The sequences analyzed demonstrate the existence of three well defined groups in northern Colombia (trans-Andean): malitosus, versicolor-pleei-cesarae and leucocephalus. They arose from at least, three distinct migrations from different Amazonian groups. Five different Amazonian and Eastern Llanos C. albifrons's groups (I, II, III, IV, and V) were also found. In many Amazonian localities, some of these groups live in sympatry probably by secondary expansion after their respective formations. Amazonian group I is closely related to the versicolor-pleei-cesarae group, malitosus is closely related to Amazonian group V, while leucocephalus is closely related to Amazonian group IV. Nevertheless, our genetic analysis could not resolve the genetic relationships among the main C. albifrons groups. The ρ-statistic applied to the median-joining network yielded that the major part of the temporal splits estimated occurred in the Pleistocene, reinforcing the importance of the Pleistocene refugia during the evolution of C. albifrons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  17. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  18. Gastrointestinal parasites in captive and free-ranging Cebus albifrons in the Western Amazon, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Solano, Sarah; Carrillo-Bilbao, Gabriel A; Ramirez, William; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Levecke, Bruno; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Losson, Bertrand

    2017-12-01

    Currently, there is a lack of surveys that report the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in the white-headed capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons). We therefore assessed the presence and richness (= number of different parasite genera) of parasites in C. albifrons in wildlife refuges (n = 11) and in a free-ranging group near a human village (n = 15) in the Ecuadorian Amazon. In the 78 samples collected (median of 3 samples per animal), we identified a total of 6 genera of gastrointestinal parasites, representing protozoa, nematodes, acanthocephalans and cestodes. We observed a high prevalence (84%) across the 26 individuals, with the most prevalent parasite being Strongyloides sp. (76.9%), followed by Hymenolepis sp. (38.5%) and Prosthenorchis elegans (11.5%). We found Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moskovskii/nuttalli and Capillaria sp. in only a minority of the animals (3.8%). In addition, we observed unidentified strongyles in approximately one-third of the animals (34.6%). We found a total of 6 parasite genera for the adult age group, which showed higher parasite richness than the subadult age group (5) and the juvenile age group (3). Faecal egg/cyst counts were not significantly different between captive and free-ranging individuals or between sexes or age groups. The free-ranging group had a higher prevalence than the captive group; however, this difference was not significant. The only genus common to captive and free-ranging individuals was Strongyloides sp. The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and the presence of Strongyloides in both populations support results from previous studies in Cebus species. This high prevalence could be related to the high degree of humidity in the region. For the free-ranging group, additional studies are required to gain insights into the differences in parasite prevalence and intensity between age and sex groups. Additionally, our study demonstrated that a serial sampling of each individual increases the

  19. [Genetic methods for the reintroduction of primates Saguinus, Aotus and Cebus (Primates: Cebidae) seized in Bogota, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Leguizamón, Norberto; Vásquez, Catalina; Rodríguez, Karen; Castillo, María Ignacia

    2010-09-01

    Primates are one of more confiscated taxa by the environmental authorities in Bogota, Colombia. During 2008, 133 monkeys were confiscated; samples from 115 of them were sequenced by the mitochondrial cythocrome oxidase II gene (mtCOII) and 112 sequences obtained were of high quality. These sequences were compared with those obtained by our research group from individuals directly sampled in the field, with precise geographic origin. So, a more specific geographic area of the Colombian territory could be considered for a correct rehabilitation treatment during the reintroduction of these confiscated animals. The main results with five primate species were: 1--For all the specimens analyzed of Saguinus leucopus, they could be liberated in any geographical area of its distribution range, since only one gene pool was found. 2--For the 14 Aotus sp. individuals sequenced from the SDA (Environmental District Secretariat), one of them (A. vociferans) was coming from the Amazon, seven exemplars belonged to A. griseimembra from the Magdalena Valley and the Colombian Caribbean coasts, four individuals represented to A. brumbacki from the Colombian Eastern Llanos, and two were associated to A. azarae azarae from Northern Argentina and Paraguay (which means that illegal traffic of animals is arriving to Colombia from other South-American countries). 3--Out 14 Cebus albifrons sequenced, two belonged to the geographical area of C. a. versicolor, one to C. a. pleei, 10 to C a. leucocephalus and one could be not assigned because its sequence yielded a great genetic divergence with respect to the other specimens sequenced of this species. 4--The two Cebus capucinus sequenced showed to be associated to a gene pool found in the Northern of Chocó, Sucre and Córdoba Departments. 5--Out 11 Cebus apella sequenced, 10 showed to belong to the gene pool presented in the Colombian Eastern Llanos and highly related (but differentiable) to Cebus apella apella from the French Guyana. It could

  20. Ontogeny of long bone geometry in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella): implications for locomotor development and life history

    OpenAIRE

    Young, J. W.; D Fernández; Fleagle, J. G.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of a diverse array of animals have found that young individuals often have robust bones for their body size (i.e. augmented cross- sectional dimensions), limiting fracture risk despite general musculoskeletal immaturity. However, previous research has focused primar- ily on precocial taxa (e.g. rodents, lagomorphs, bovids, goats and emu). In this study, we exam- ined the ontogenetic scaling of humeral and femoral cross-sectional robusticity in a mixed- longitudinal sample of two slow-...

  1. Figs Are More Than Fallback Foods: The Relationship between Ficus and Cebus in a Tropical Dry Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel A. Parr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many studies on primate feeding ecology, figs (Ficus spp. are characterized as fallback foods, utilized only when preferred sources of food are unavailable. However, for white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus living in northwestern Costa Rica, figs are a consistently important resource and may increase groupwide energy intake. We investigated whether visits to figs affect ranging and behavioural patterns of capuchins. Although daily range length and average travel speed do not differ on days when fig trees are visited, capuchins spend more time in directed travel and more time stationary on “fig days”. Capuchins also increase time spent foraging for fruit and decrease time spent foraging for invertebrates on days when figs trees are visited. Capuchins experience higher energy intake and lower energy output on “fig” days. Thus, the patterns of foraging for figs support an energy-maximization strategy and constitute an important nutritional resource for capuchins.

  2. Isolation and characterization of two new herpes-like viruses from capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M A; Frye, L D; Gibbs, C J; Chou, S M; Cutchins, E C; Gajdusek, D C; Ward, G

    1976-09-01

    Two herpes-like viruses were isolated from capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) brain and (Cebus albifrons) spleen cell cultures, respectively. Both isolates induced similar cytopathic effects consisting of rounded and ballooned cells in the original monkey cell cultures and in a wide range of permissive cell types. Neutralizing antibody to each virus was present in serum from the capuchin monkey from which it was isolated, but the two viruses did not cross-react by neutralization. Fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugates of hyperimmune rabbit serum to one of the isolates showed an antigenic cross relationship between the two isolates. By electron microscopy, herpes-like virus particles were observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected human diploid fibroblast cell cultures. Virus-infected cell cultures stained with acridine orange revealed small deoxyribonucleic acid-containing intranuclear inclusion bodies. Both viruses were inhibited by 5-fluorodeoxyuridine and inactivated by chloroform or exposure to 56 degrees C for 30 min. Antisera prepared against 16 prototype herpesviruses and cytomegaloviruses did not neutralize approximately 100 50% tissue culture infective doses of either capuchin isolate. Neutralizing antibody to the capuchin isolates was detected in sera from 8 of 17 capuchin monkeys but not in sera from 16 humans, 15 chimpanzees, and 10 spider, 6 rhesus, and 5 squirrel monkeys.

  3. Sexual dimorphism and interspecific cranial form in two capuchin species: Cebus albifrons and C. apella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, T J

    1997-12-01

    Ontogenetic patterns of sexual dimorphism and cranial form in two capuchin monkeys, Cebus albifrons and C. apella, are investigated by means of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistics. The analyses are based on 23 linear variables. Univariate analyses indicate that similar ontogenetic patterns of cranial sexual dimorphism are present; however, interspecific differences exist in timing. Ontogenetic scaling is present in both species' crania; however, it is more prevalent in C. albifrons. Several departures are present in cranial regions associated with orbital shape, the dental arcade, and the muscles of mastication. The latter two indicate that sexual differences in diet and/or foraging strategies may exist. Sexual selection is suggested as being the primary selective regime underlying the observed patterns of cranial sexual dimorphism in each species. Interspecific comparisons confirm that C. apella possesses a more dimorphic cranium than C. albifrons and that sexual dimorphism in C. apella begins earlier in development. Although interspecific ontogenetic scaling is present in some cranial variables, C. apella is not just a scaled-up version of C. albifrons. These sympatric congeners seem to be differentiated by variables related to the orbital region and the masticatory apparatus, as indicated by both departures from ontogenetic scaling and results of the discriminant function analysis. Ecological selection, rather than varying degrees of sexual selection, is likely to be responsible for this finding given that C. apella is known to consume hard-object foods. This is consistent with the predicted outcome of the competitive exclusion principle.

  4. Information seeking in capuchins (Cebus apella): a rudimentary form of metacognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Alexander Q; Marsh, Heidi L

    2015-05-01

    In previous research, great apes and rhesus macaques have demonstrated multiple apparently metacognitive abilities, whereas capuchin monkeys have not. The present experiment investigated whether at least a rudimentary form of metacognition might be demonstrated in capuchins if a simplified metacognitive task was used. Capuchins (Cebus apella) were required to locate a food reward hidden beneath one of two inverted cups that sat on a Plexiglas tray. In some conditions, the capuchins were shown where the food was hidden, in others they could infer its location, and in yet others they were not given information about the location of the food. On all trials, capuchins could optionally seek information about the food's location by looking up through the Plexiglas beneath the cups. In general, capuchins did this less often when they were shown the food reward, but not when they could infer the reward's location. These data suggest that capuchins-if metacognitive-only metacognitively control their information seeking in some conditions, particularly those in which information is presented in the visual domain. This may represent a rudimentary version of metacognitive control, in comparison with that seen in great apes and humans.

  5. Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Gilby, Ian C; Wikelski, Martin C; Kays, Roland W

    2008-01-15

    Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition.

  6. First skull of Antillothrix bernensis, an extinct relict monkey from the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Alfred L.; Cooke, Siobhán B.; Rímoli, Renato; Ni, Xijun; Cardoso, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The nearly pristine remains of Antillothrix bernensis, a capuchin-sized (Cebus) extinct platyrrhine from the Dominican Republic, have been found submerged in an underwater cave. This represents the first specimen of an extinct Caribbean primate with diagnostic craniodental and skeletal parts in association, only the second example of a skull from the region, and one of the most complete specimens of a fossil platyrrhine cranium yet discovered. Cranially, it closely resembles living cebines but is more conservative. Dentally, it is less bunodont and more primitive than Cebus, with crowns resembling Saimiri (squirrel monkeys) and one of the oldest definitive cebines, the late Early Miocene Killikaike blakei from Argentina. The tricuspid second molar also resembles the enigmatic marmosets and tamarins, whose origins continue to present a major gap in knowledge of primate evolution. While the femur is oddly short and stout, the ulna, though more robust, compares well with Cebus. As a member of the cebid clade, Antillothrix demonstrates that insular Caribbean monkeys are not monophyletically related and may not be the product of a single colonizing event. Antillothrix bernensis is an intriguing mosaic whose primitive characters are consistent with an early origin, possibly antedating the assembly of the modern primate fauna in greater Amazonia during the La Venta horizon. While most Greater Antillean primate specimens are quite young geologically, this vanished radiation, known from Cuba (Paralouatta) and Jamaica (Xenothrix) as well as Hispaniola, appears to be composed of long-lived lineages like several other mainland clades. PMID:20659936

  7. Grooming, rank, and agonistic support in tufted capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Studies investigating the relation between allogrooming and social rank in capuchin monkeys (genus Cebus) have yielded inconsistent results. In this study, we investigated the relation between grooming, agonistic support, aggression and social rank in a captive group of tufted capuchin monkeys (C. apella). Differently from most previous studies, we based our analyses on a relatively large database and studied a group with known genealogical relationships. Tufted capuchin females did not exchange grooming for rank-related benefits such as agonistic support or reduced aggression. Coherently with this picture, they did not groom up the hierarchy and did not compete for accessing high-ranking grooming partners. It is suggested that a small group size, coupled with a strong kin bias, may make the exchange of grooming for rank-related benefits impossible or unprofitable, thus eliminating the advantages of grooming up the hierarchy. We provide several possible explanations for the heterogeneity of results across capuchin studies that have addressed similar questions.

  8. Banding patterns of the chromosomes of Cebus albifrons. Comparative study with Cebur apella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M; Freitas, L; Miró, R; Egozcue, J

    1976-01-01

    Quinacrine- and Giemsa-banding studies of the chromosomes of Cebus albifrons permitted to obtain a pattern that characterizes the species. The topography of the bands has been compared with that of Cebus apella. Each chromosome pair of C. albifrons has a homologue in C. apella. The differences between the two karyotypes are the result of five pericentric inversions.

  9. Generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning: learning strategies and related issues in Macaca mulatta, Cebus apella, and Columba livia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2007-11-01

    The generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning was tested with a meta-analysis of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia) learning a same/different (S/D) task with expanding training sets. The generalization hypothesis states that as the number of training items increases, generalization from the training pairs will increase and could explain the subjects' accurate novel-stimulus transfer. By contrast, concept learning is learning the relationship between each pair of items; with more training items subjects learn more exemplars of the rule and transfer better. Having to learn the stimulus pairs (the generalization hypothesis) would require more training as the set size increases, whereas learning the concept might require less training because subjects would be learning an abstract rule. The results strongly support concept or rule learning despite severely relaxing the generalization-hypothesis parameters. Thus, generalization was not a factor in the transfer from these experiments, adding to the evidence that these subjects were learning the S/D abstract concept.

  10. Leishmaniose cutânea experimental: I - sobre a susceptibilidade do primata Cebus apella (Cebidae a infecção pela Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni Silveira, Shaw, Braga e Ishikawa, 1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando T. Silveira

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigada a susceptibilidade do primata Cebus apella (Cebidae à infecção experimental pela Leishmaiua (Viannia lainsoni, com o objetivo de estudara patogenia desse parasita, ainda pouco conhecido para o homem. Dessa forma, cinco espécimens jovens daquele primata, 2 machos e 3 fêmeas, foram inoculados, intraderme, em oito sítios diferentes da região dorsal da cauda com 3 x 10(6 de promastigotas do parasita (MHOMZBR/81/M6426, Benevides, Pará, obtidas de cultura da fase estacionária. Em seguida às inoculações, a infecção experimental nos animais foi comprovada, não só pela presença de amastigotas do parasita na pele dos animais inoculados, mas, também, pela concomitância desse achado associado ao desenvolvimento de lesão cutânea nos pontos da pele onde o parasita foi inoculado. Diante desses resultados, ficou demonstrada a susceptibilidade do primata Cebus apella à infecção experimental pela Leishmama lainsoni cujo período de infecção durou quase quatro meses, suficiente para testar drogas antileishmanióticas e estudar a patogênese da doença causada por este parasita.The susceptibility of the monkey Cebus apella (Cebidae to experimental infection by Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni has been investigated. For this purpose, five young monkeys, 2 males and 3 females, were intradermally, inoculated, in eight different places along the dorsal surface of the tail with 3 x 10(6 promastigotes of the parasite (MHOM/BR/81/M6426, Benevides, Pará, from stationary phase culture in Difco B45 medium. After inoculations, infection in the monkeys was indicated by the presence of amastigotes in the skin lesions produced in these animals at the points of inoculation, confirming the susceptibility of the monkey Cebus apella to experimental infection by Leishmania lainsoni, with an infection period of four months. This represents a suitable period for testing antileishmanial drugs or studying the pathogenesis of the disease caused by

  11. ASPM and the evolution of cerebral cortical size in a community of New World monkeys.

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    Fernando A Villanea

    Full Text Available The ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated gene has been proposed as a major determinant of cerebral cortical size among primates, including humans. Yet the specific functions of ASPM and its connection to human intelligence remain controversial. This debate is limited in part by a taxonomic focus on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we expand the comparative context of ASPM sequence analyses with a study of New World monkeys, a radiation of primates in which enlarged brain size has evolved in parallel in spider monkeys (genus Ateles and capuchins (genus Cebus. The primate community of Costa Rica is perhaps a model system because it allows for independent pairwise comparisons of smaller- and larger-brained species within two taxonomic families. Accordingly, we analyzed the complete sequence of exon 18 of ASPM in Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta palliata, Cebus capucinus, and Saimiri oerstedii. As the analysis of multiple species in a genus improves phylogenetic reconstruction, we also analyzed eleven published sequences from other New World monkeys. Our exon-wide, lineage-specific analysis of eleven genera and the ratio of rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (d(N/d(S on ASPM revealed no detectable evidence for positive selection in the lineages leading to Ateles or Cebus, as indicated by d(N/d(S ratios of <1.0 (0.6502 and 0.4268, respectively. Our results suggest that a multitude of interacting genes have driven the evolution of larger brains among primates, with different genes involved in this process in different encephalized lineages, or at least with evidence for positive selection not readily apparent for the same genes in all lineages. The primate community of Costa Rica may serve as a model system for future studies that aim to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive capacity and cortical size.

  12. VC11: an actinophage virulent to Streptomyces cattleya and Streptomyces olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, V E; Kirby, R

    1986-01-01

    Five soil samples were screened for the presence of a virulent actinophage. Phage VC11 was found to be virulent on Streptomyces olivaceus, S. cattleya, S. chartreusis, S. griseus (all important beta-lactam antibiotic producers), S. ambofaciens, S. parvulus, S. alboflavus, S. aureofaciens, and S. lividans TC10. Although restriction-modification systems have been observed in S. olivaceus and S. cattleya, the phage EOP on these hosts remained relatively constant, indicating that these systems do not affect VC11.

  13. Monkey Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  14. Monkey Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  15. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lm; Holmes, An; Williams, LE; Brosnan, Sf

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran "open diffusion" tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the "Slide-box"). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a 'ghost' display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys' learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this case, those

  16. Effects of sulpiride on persistent neuroleptic-induced dyskinesia in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, J E

    1984-01-01

    Five Cebus apella monkeys with persistent neuroleptic-induced dyskinesia were given a single dose of sulpiride (20 mg/kg i.m.). The dyskinesia was reduced in all five although four developed attacks of acute dystonia which had to be reversed by anticholinergic medication in three animals. In one monkey the administration of classic neuroleptics had earlier been shown to induce a typical sequence of events. First there was a similar reduction of dyskinesia as seen in the other monkeys, 1-2 days later there was noticed a rebound deterioration lasting for several days. Metoclopramide 0.5 mg/kg, caused such a rebound effect (for 2 days), whereas sulpiride did not.

  17. Comparative anatomy of the thigh nerves of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000

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    R.A.G.M.F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates have constituted an important group among animals subjected to various studies. Ethological, evolutionary and paleontological studies have revealed changes in anatomical structures linked to the evolution of primates, considered in studies on the comparative anatomy between Cebus libidinosus and other neotropical monkeys or those from the Old World, and the detailed knowledge on their anatomy may represent an important factor for their preservation and protection when the animals are brought to veterinary clinics after accidents or illnesses. In terms of veterinary importance, sometimes these animals arrive in the veterinary medical clinics after accidents, needing surgery or clinical treatment, but the little data available on anatomy has impaired the correct proceedings. The main justification for studies on C. libidinosus, is due to little information about the anatomy related to C. libidinosus in Brazilian and worldwide scientific literature. In this study, the distribution, enervation and path of the femoral and sciatic nerves of the pelvic limb (thigh of C. libidinosus were studied and these results were compared with literature on the anatomy of humans, chimpanzees and baboons. In general, the enervation model of the four primates is identical, but in specific terms, the differences in enervations indicate evolution convergence closer to the branch of baboons in the evolutionary tree, and these data corroborate other comparative studies in relation to the same primates to vessels, muscles and nerves. In conclusion, the nerve organization in the thigh of C. libidinosus is identical to baboon, chimpanzee and homo, but more similar to baboon. The specific differences found indicate an ancient phylogenic origin to C. libidinosus and baboons (data corroborated by other studies.

  18. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis social learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM Hopper

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran “open diffusion” tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23. Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the “Slide-box”. Two thirds (67% of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a ‘ghost’ display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions and paired controls (28% were successful but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys’ learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert

  19. Ontogeny of the Lymphoid Organs of Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun; JIANG Guoliang; ZHANG Shicui

    2004-01-01

    Histological study on the ontogeny of the lymphoid organs, kidney, thymus and spleen of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, from hatching to 40 d was carried out. The pronephric kidney duct appeared early in hatching although the primordial haemopoietic stem cells were observed within a week after hatching. The spleen was first seen after 8 d of hatching. The thymus appeared after 15 d, situated near the pronephric kidney. Small lymphoid cells appeared during the later phase of the post-larval stage in the sequence of thymus, kidney and spleen. During the 40 d of observations, there were no distinct inner or outer zones in thymus and no red or white pulp in spleen. These results suggest that the nonspecific defense immune system plays a very important role in the early larval stage of Japanese flounder.

  20. Histological Study on the Skin of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jie; ZHANG Xiumei; GAO Tianxiang

    2005-01-01

    Histological development of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus larval skin and ultrastructural difference of skin between reared normal and malpigmented Japanese flounder were studied with light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the skin develops slowly before the metamorphosis, while at the onset of metamorphosis, the skin develops quickly and becomes complete in structure till about 50 d after being hatched. Ultrastructural observation on the normal and malpigmented skins shows that the iridophore and melanophore are adjacent to each other. Profile and structure of the two kinds of pigment cells are more complete in the skin of normal ocular side than in the skin of pigmented blind side. The ultrastructure of typical chloride cell was observed in the skin of Japanese flounder larvae for the first time.

  1. Estudo anatômico do modelo arterial de vasos responsáveis pelo aporte sanguíneo da glândula submandibular de primatas neotropicais [Cebus apella, Linnaeus, 1766] Anatomic study of the arterial model of vessels responsible for the blood supply of neotropic primate´s submandile gland [Cebus apella, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Rocha Ferreira

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se aspectos anatômicos das artérias responsáveis pelo suprimento sangüíneo das glândulas salivares submandibulares do macaco prego Cebus apella. A técnica utilizada foi: canulação da aorta, injeção de látex, fixação, e dissecação de 30 antímeros (contendo 30 glândulas principais e mais 3 acessórias, em um total de 33 glândulas de macacos adultos oriundos da FMVZ/USP. A artéria facial penetra no trígono submandibular e fornece um ramo para a glândula. Em um espécime, dois ramos eram fornecidos para o antímero esquerdo (3,03%. A artéria emite de zero a cinco ramos colaterais no antímero esquerdo, e de zero a quatro no direito. Após emitir as colaterais, termina em ramo(s único(s (9,09%, em bifurcação (69,7%, em trifurcação (18,18% e em quadrifurcação (3,03%. A distribuição dos ramos no parênquima teve direção no sentido cranial, caudal, lateral, medial e recorrente. Os dados analisados permitiram traçar um padrão vascular para esta glândula no Cebus apellaAnatomic aspects of arteries responsible for Cebus apella salivary gland blood supply were studied. The technique utilized was cannulation of the aorta, injection of latex, fixation and dissection of 30 adult monkey antimeres (containing 30 main glands and 3 acessory glands, in a total of 33 glands belonging to the FMVZ/USP. The facial artery penetrates the mandibular trigon providing single branche to the gland. In one specimen two branches were provided to the left antimer (3,03%. A variety of zero to five collateral branches to the left antimer, and of zero to four to the right antimer were observed. The main artery ends in a single branch (9,09%, in bifurcation (69,7%, in trifurcation (18,18% and in quadrifurcation (3,03%. The distribution of the branches in the parenchyma had the following directions: cranial, caudal, lateral, medial and recurring. The data obtained permitted to trace a vascular pattern for this gland in Cebus apella

  2. AVALIAÇÃO DO PADRÃO COMPORTAMENTAL DE MACACOS-PREGO (Cebus apella MANTIDOS EM CATIVEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Nunes Araujo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify, describe and analyze the behavioral patterns of capuchin monkeys in captivity. Were observed seven individuals of the species Cebus apella, six males (four adults, one sub-adult and one juvenile and one adult female. Initially, observations were performed by using the ad libitum for preparing the ethogram; after, were used the scan sampling method to establish the behavioral patterns during four days over a period of 8 hours and 50 minutes consecutively, in the period from 7:00 a.m. to 16:00 p.m. Among the observed behaviors, Rest, Picking, Drinking Water, Foraging, Scratching, Displacement, Observation, Play and Use and/or handling of tools showed significant differences in the statistical analysis were the behaviors (P<0.05. The behaviors more frequent were Displacement (55%, Foraging (16%, Play (14.58%, Observation (14.29% and Scratching (13.39%. The Feeding behavior was not significantly different, and this change may have been influenced by the timing and amount of food provided.

  3. Ecotourism and primate habituation: Behavioral variation in two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Shasta E; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    The increase of ecotourism operations within Costa Rica during the last 20 yrs has brought more and more humans into close, direct contact with several wildlife species. One of these species is the white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinos), highly gregarious, and with exposure over time, willing to come into close vicinity of humans and their developments. Such contact has its advantages and disadvantages for the ecotourism industry. We observed white-faced monkeys in order to assess the impact of human presence and development on monkey behavior, with a focus on aggressive, affiliative, and foraging behaviors in Curú Wildlife Refuge (CWR), located in Puntarenas, Costa Rica, and to ascertain the degree of over-habituation of capuchin popula- tions at CWR. Though there exists no discrete behavioral parameters that measure over-habituation, it can be defined as an extreme state of habituation in which non-human primates not only lose fear of humans, but also actively include humans in social interactions or treat them as a food resource. We used instantaneous focal animal and group scan sampling during 8 wks in March and April 2012. Two groups (approximately 20-30 individuals each) of capuchins were observed; the first near the tourist development at the Southwestern area of CWR, representing a habituated population that regularly foraged, rested, and groomed in the presence of humans. The second, was observed in the Northeastern area of CWR, did not visit the center of human activity and exhibited fear of humans. The habituated group exhibited significantly fewer instances of threatened behavior in response to human presence (p ecotourism, increases. Over-habituation is a problem that affects capuchins in certain ecotourism sites in Costa Rica. It is critical that the consequences of habituation be studied more carefully, primarily in areas where ecotourism operations draw visitors to wildlife habitats.

  4. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

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    Rhia eCatapano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good’s price can have irrational effects on people’s preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased, we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human price effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling.

  5. Avaliação das características seminais de macacos pregos (Cebus apella mantidos em cativeiro, antes e após vasectomia bilateral

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    Regina Celia Rodrigues da Paz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bilateral vasectomy on the seminal characteristics were assessed in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella. Six adult male monkeys were housed separately in outdoor pens at the Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo. Semen samples were collected by electroejaculation, after anesthetized the animals, 15 days before and once a month from 1 to 5 months after vasectomy. Immediately after the ejaculation, semen was analyzed for volume (ml, pH, motility (%, vigour (0-5, concentration (cells/ml, defects (% and percentage of intact acrosoma (%. The percentage of intact acrossoma was analyzed only in the collection before the vasectomy and the concentration was done in only four males in these collection because have no semen enough for all analyses. One month after the vasectomy ejaculated spermatozoa were non-motilite and non-vigour in all vasectomized males. In addition the Mean/SEM of cells/ml before the vasectomy was 2.8±1.3 x10(6/ml and after two months of the vasectomy was 4.7±1.6 x10(6/ml, 0.8±0.7 x10(6/ml, respectively. Only after the thirty month the number of cells/ml was zero. Our results suggest that the vasectomized males may be back to the group, without risks of accidental fecundating, only 3 months after vasectomy.

  6. Establishment and characterization of a testicular Sertoli cell line from olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Limin; Zheng, Yuan; You, Feng; Wu, Zhihao; Zou, Yuxia; Zhang, Peijun

    2016-09-01

    The culture of Sertoli cells has become an indispensable resource in studying spermatogenesis. A new Sertoli cell line (POSC) that consisted predominantly of fibroblast-like cells was derived from the testis of the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and sub-cultured for 48 passages. Analysis of the mtDNA COI gene partial sequence confirmed that the cell line was from P. olivaceus. Cells were optimally maintained at 25°C in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, basic fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor. The growth curve of POSC showed a typical "S" shape. Chromosome analysis revealed that the cell line possessed the normal P. olivaceus diploid karyotype of 2n=48t. POSC expressed dmrt1 but not vasa, which was detected using RT-PCR and sequencing. Immunocytochemistry revealed that the cells exhibited the testicular Sertoli cell marker FasL. Therefore, POSC appeared to consist of testicular Sertoli cells. Bright fluorescent signals were observed after the cells were transfected with pEGFP-N3 plasmid, with the transfection efficiency reaching 10%. This research not only offers an ideal model for further gene expression and regulation studies on P. olivaceus, but also serves as valuable material in studying fish spermatogenesis, Sertoli cell-germ cell interactions, and the mechanism of growth and development of testis.

  7. Compensatory growth of juvenile brown flounder Paralichthys olivaceus following low temperature treatment for different periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yinhui; Liu, Xiujia; Huang, Guoqiang; Wei, Liuzhi; Zhang, Xiumei

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the effects of low temperature (8.5°C) on the growth and feeding rates and feed conversion efficiency of juvenile P. olivaceus with an average initial weight of 3.87 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SE). Fish were exposed to 8.5°C for 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, and then to 20°C for 10, 9, 8, 7 and 6 weeks, respectively. Low temperature clearly led to growth depression. The weight of fish exposed to low temperature for 1 week was restored to that of control, while that of fish exposed to low temperature longer was significantly decreased ( P 0.05). Feeding rate and feed conversion efficiency were reduced at low temperature in juvenile P. olivaceus. The compensatory growth of juvenile P. olivaceus may therefore be attributed to the improvement of feeding rate. Our results suggested that growth depression occurs when juvenile P. olivaceus are exposed to low temperature for more than one week.

  8. Ecotourism and primate habituation: Behavioral variation in two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasta E. Webb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of ecotourism operations within Costa Rica during the last 20yrs has brought more and more humans into close, direct contact with several wildlife species. One of these species is the white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus, highly gregarious, and with exposure over time, willing to come into close vicinity of humans and their developments. Such contact has its advantages and disadvantages for the ecotourism industry. We observed white-faced monkeys in order to assess the impact of human presence and development on monkey behavior, with a focus on aggressive, affiliative, and foraging behaviors in Curú Wildlife Refuge (CWR, located in Puntarenas, Costa Rica, and to ascertain the degree of over-habituation of capuchin populations at CWR. Though there exists no discrete behavioral parameters that measure over-habituation, it can be defined as an extreme state of habituation in which non-human primates not only lose fear of humans, but also actively include humans in social interactions or treat them as a food resource. We used instantaneous focal animal and group scan sampling during 8wks in March and April 2012. Two groups (approximately 20-30 individuals each of capuchins were observed; the first near the tourist development at the Southwestern area of CWR, representing a habituated population that regularly foraged, rested, and groomed in the presence of humans. The second, was observed in the Northeastern area of CWR, did not visit the center of human activity and exhibited fear of humans. The habituated group exhibited significantly fewer instances of threatened behavior in response to human presence (p<0.0001 than the non-habituated group, and spent significantly more time eating and foraging (p<0.0001. While the habituated monkeys at CWR may not be over-habituated, they could become that way as development, especially ecotourism, increases. Over-habituation is a problem that affects capuchins in certain ecotourism sites in Costa

  9. Transcriptional responses of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus to low temperature.

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    Jinwei Hu

    Full Text Available The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is an economically important flatfish in marine aquaculture with a broad thermal tolerance ranging from 14 to 23°C. Cold-tolerant flounder that can survive during the winter season at a temperature of less than 14°C might facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response to cold stress. In this study, the transcriptional response of flounder to cold stress (0.7±0.05°C was characterized using RNA sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform for the cold-tolerant (CT group, which survived under the cold stress; the cold-sensitive (CS group, which could barely survive at the low temperature; and control group, which was not subjected to cold treatment. In all, 29,021 unigenes were generated. Compared with the unigene expression profile of the control group, 410 unigenes were up-regulated and 255 unigenes were down-regulated in the CT group, whereas 593 unigenes were up-regulated and 289 unigenes were down-regulated in the CS group. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that signal transduction, lipid metabolism, digestive system, and signaling molecules and interaction were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes that were differentially expressed under cold stress. All these pathways could be assigned to the following four biological functions for flounder that can survive under cold stress: signal response to cold stress, cell repair/regeneration, energy production, and cell membrane construction and fluidity.

  10. Genus Cebus Q- and G-band karyotypes and natural hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres de Caballero, O M; Ramirez, C; Yunis, E

    1976-01-01

    The Q- and G-band analyses of Cebus capucinus, Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella are presented. The study is based on the results obtained from 18 specimens of the genus. For almost all of them, their exact locality is known. The data presented include the statement of two natural hybrids from C. capucinus and C. albifrons. On an evolutionary basis our results agree with the taxonomic concepts which postulate more similarity between C. capucinus and C. albifrons than between C. capucinus and C. apella. Furthermore, the comparative study of the Q- and G-band patterns indicates an independent chromosome evolution for C. albifrons and C. apella derived from a common ancestor more similar to C. capucinus.

  11. The effects of provisioning and crop-raiding on the diet and foraging activities of human-commensal white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Tracie

    2011-05-01

    Non-human primates are coming into increasingly frequent contact with humans and with human-modified environments. The potential for monkeys to survive in such modified landscapes is questionable, and is likely related to a species' behavioral plasticity, particularly as it relates to diet. In this study, I explore the ways in which white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) adjust their diet and foraging behaviors in response to anthropogenic impact. I compare a troop of human-commensal monkeys and a similar troop of wild-feeding monkeys living within the Curú Wildlife Refuge in western Costa Rica for differences in overall diet composition and activity budgets to evaluate the impact of habitat change in this context. The commensal-living white-faced capuchins rely on raided coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) crops and provisioned or stolen human foods for over one-half of their total diet. Regardless of this highly anthropogenic diet, the two study troops do not significantly differ in their activity budgets, and the human-commensal troop maintains wild-foraging activities consistent with those of the wild-feeding troop. These data suggest that the white-faced capuchins at this site are responding to anthropogenic disturbance primarily through the exploitation of human food resources, but they do not yet appear to have lost the foraging skills required to survive in this modified landscape on their own. This study adds to our growing body of knowledge on primate survival in matrix habitats, and will hopefully inform primate management plans throughout the Neotropics.

  12. Parasitosis intestinal en monos capuchinos cariblancos Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae de un área protegida en la provincia de Limón, noreste de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La deforestación de bosques tropicales está amenazando la biodiversidad de las especies de primates y su estado de salud, dependiente de un lugar ecológicamente equilibrado. Con el fin de evaluar esta relación, se analizó la presencia de parásitos en los intestinos de esta especie. El estudio se realizó en la Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS, Limón, Costa Rica. El grupo de monos capuchinos cariblancos (Cebus capucinus fue observado entre marzo y diciembre de 2006. Se recolectaron 75 muestras de heces a las que se les identificó las plantas ingeridas, y se procesaron en el laboratorio para evaluar la prevalencia de parásitos. Moraceae fue la familia de plantas más reportada. Strongyloides spp. y acantocéfalos fueron los más comunes. La distribución positiva de las mismas fue similar independientemente del sexo y la edad. Microsporidios se reportaron mayoritariamente en heces asociadas con la familia Piperaceae. Fue encontrada una baja existencia de éstos parásitos en muestras asociadas con Myrtaceae en cuyo género Psidium, se han reportado compuestos activos antiparasitarios. La aparición de parásitos fue relativamente mayor en la EBLS, comparado con muestras de otras regiones más secas de Costa Rica. Por lo tanto, esa expresión parasitaria puede deberse al hecho de ser la EBLS una selva lluviosa, además de estar rodeada por zonas con actividades antrópicas. Se sugiere incrementar las investigaciones de parasitología de campo en primates neotropicales con el fin de entender plenamente las relaciones parásitos-hospederos, para en un largo plazo poder comprender los ecosistemas donde conviven, y en consecuencia, preservar la diversidad biológica.Intestinal parasites in white-faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus Primates: Cebidae inhabiting a protected area in the Limón province of Northeastern Costa Rica. Deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an

  13. Independence of biomechanical forces and craniofacial pneumatization in Cebus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Todd C; Koppe, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Several different factors have been hypothesized as explanations of variation in primate paranasal sinus size. Biomechanical forces, particularly those associated with mastication, are frequently evoked to account for differences in primate craniofacial pneumatization. To test whether masticatory stresses are responsible for maxillary sinus volume diversity, two platyrrhine species of the genus Cebus (C. apella and C. albifrons) were examined. The former has been identified as a hard object feeder, and many morphological differences between the two species are attributable to differences in the mechanical properties of their respective diets. Sinus volumes were derived from serial coronal CT scans of the crania of adults. Several external cranial measurements were used to scale sinus volume relative to the size of the face. Relative measures of maxillary sinus volume were compared using standard statistical techniques. In all comparisons, the two capuchin species do not differ from one another significantly at P < 0.05. Thus, this "natural experiment" fails to support the interpretation that biomechanical forces acting on the facial skeleton substantially affect the degree of paranasal pneumatization in primates. This result suggests that it is unlikely that the maxillary sinus performs any function in relation to masticatory stress; other factors must be responsible for the variation in sinus volume among primates. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Color Discrimination in the Tufted Capuchin Monkey, Sapajus spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Paulo Roney Kilpp; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Galvão, Olavo de Faria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an “ML protanope.” For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u′v′ diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the “classic” protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the “classic” and “ML” protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats. PMID:23620819

  15. Comparative anatomical analyses of the forearm muscles of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al. 2000: manipulatory behavior and tool use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira

    Full Text Available The present study describes the flexor and extensor muscles in Cebus libidinosus' forearm and compares them with those from humans, chimpanzees and baboons. The data is presented in quantitative anatomical indices for similarity. The capuchin forearm muscles showed important similarities with chimpanzees and humans, particularly those that act on thumb motion and allow certain degree of independence from other hand structures, even though their configuration does not enable a true opposable thumb. The characteristics of Cebus' forearm muscles corroborate the evolutionary convergence towards an adaptive behavior (tool use between Cebus genus and apes.

  16. Same/different concept learning by capuchin monkeys in matching-to-sample tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Truppa

    Full Text Available The ability to understand similarities and analogies is a fundamental aspect of human advanced cognition. Although subject of considerable research in comparative cognition, the extent to which nonhuman species are capable of analogical reasoning is still debated. This study examined the conditions under which tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella acquire a same/different concept in a matching-to-sample task on the basis of relational similarity among multi-item stimuli. We evaluated (i the ability of five capuchin monkeys to learn the same/different concept on the basis of the number of items composing the stimuli and (ii the ability to match novel stimuli after training with both several small stimulus sets and a large stimulus set. We found the first evidence of same/different relational matching-to-sample abilities in a New World monkey and demonstrated that the ability to match novel stimuli is within the capacity of this species. Therefore, analogical reasoning can emerge in monkeys under specific training conditions.

  17. Copying without rewards: socially influenced foraging decisions among brown capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie, Kristin E; de Waal, Frans B M

    2007-07-01

    An individual's foraging activity can be influenced by the choices made by nearby conspecifics. The interest shown in the location and characteristics of a feeding patch may depend on the feeding success of a conspecific there, a process that needs to be distinguished from choices guided by rewards to the observer itself. We investigated how rewards for both self and others influence the foraging choices of captive capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Thirteen adult capuchins observed familiar female conspecific models explore one of three opaque boxes under three conditions. In the first, there were no rewards available to either monkey; in the second, rewards were available to the model only; and in the third, both monkeys could retrieve a reward. Under all conditions, subjects more often explored the same box as the model than was expected by chance. Thus, without ever receiving a reward themselves or without seeing another receive rewards, subjects' searches were directed at the box explored by another monkey. The tendency to match the model's choice increased if the subject was rewarded. We compared these results to control conditions in which the model was either absent, or present but not allowed to demonstrate. Subjects' located the reward less often in control conditions, than in the experimental conditions. We conclude that extrinsic rewards, while helpful, are not required for partners to influence the foraging choices of capuchins, and that the unrewarded copying of foraging choices demonstrated here may provide the basis for additional social influences on learning.

  18. Development and eruption of the mandibular cheek teeth in Cebus albifrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleagle, J G; Schaffler, M B

    1982-01-01

    The development and eruption of the mandibular cheek teeth of Cebus albifrons is described from a longitudinal series of whole body radiographs. Males are generally ahead of females in both development and eruption times. The dental development and eruption in C. albifrons is intermediate between the smaller New World primates and the larger catarrhines.

  19. mRNA/microRNA Profile at the Metamorphic Stage of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Caixia Xie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flatfish is famous for the asymmetric transformation during metamorphosis. The molecular mechanism behind the asymmetric development has been speculated over a century and is still not well understood. To date, none of the metamorphosis-related genes has been identified in flatfish. As the first step to screen metamorphosis-related gene, we constructed a whole-body cDNA library and a whole-body miRNA library in this study and identified 1051 unique ESTs, 23 unique miRNAs, and 4 snoRNAs in premetamorphosing and prometamorphosing Paralichthys olivaceus. 1005 of the ESTs were novel, suggesting that there was a special gene expression profile at metamorphic stage. Four miRNAs (pol-miR-20c, pol-miR-23c, pol-miR-130d, and pol-miR-181e were novel to P. olivaceus; they were characterized as highly preserved homologies of published miRNAs but with at least one nucleotide differed. Representative 24 mRNAs and 23 miRNAs were quantified during metamorphosis of P. olivaceus by using quantitative RT PCR or stem-loop qRT PCR. Our results showed that 20 of mRNAs might be associated with early metamorphic events, 10 of mRNAs might be related with later metamorphic events, and 16 of miRNAs might be involved in the regulation of metamorphosis. The data provided in this study would be helpful for further identifying metamorphosis-related gene in P. olivaceus.

  20. Cloning and expression of prion protein encoding gene of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Sun, Xiuqin; Zhang, Jinxing; Zan, Jindong

    2008-02-01

    The prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) was cloned. It was not interrupted by an intron. This gene has two promoters in its 5' upstream, indicating that its transcription may be intensive, and should have an important function. It was expressed in all 14 tissues tested, demonstrating that it is a house-keeping gene. Its expression in digestion and reproduction systems implies that the possible prions of fish may transfer horizontally.

  1. Induction of EROD activity in Paralichthys olivaceus by polychlorinated biphenyl CB- 28

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Juying; Huo Chuanlin; Han Gengchen; Guan Daoming; Yan Qilun

    2003-01-01

    The test organisms (Paralichthys olivaceus ) were exposed to CB- 28 with different spiked concentrations. After 72 h, EROD activities in livers of the test organisms were measured. It was found that EROD activities significantly mounted up with the increase of spiked quantity. Therefore, there existed a dose-response relationship between EROD activities and specific pollutant concentrations. In the meantime, the optimal conditions for the analysis of EROD activity were discussed. The limitation of EROD activities as a monitoring parameter was also analyzed.

  2. Evaluación de las Poblaciones de Cebus albifrons cf. aequatorialis en los Bosques Suroccidentales Ecuatorianos

    OpenAIRE

    Albuja Viteri, Luis Humberto; Arcos, Rodrigo

    2007-01-01

    En este estudio los resultados muestran que del total de localidades visitadas, tan solo en ocho se verificó la presencia de Cebus albifrons cf. aequatorialis y únicamente en dos de ellas se pudo tener contato con la especie.

  3. Interspecific infanticide and infant-directed aggression by spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a fragmented forest in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Pardo-Martinez, Alejandra; Montes-Rojas, Andres; Di Fiore, Anthony; Link, Andres

    2012-11-01

    Interspecific aggression amongst nonhuman primates is rarely observed and has been mostly related to scenarios of resource competition. Interspecific infanticide is even rarer, and both the ultimate and proximate socio-ecological factors explaining this behavior are still unclear. We report two cases of interspecific infanticide and five cases of interspecific infant-directed aggression occurring in a well-habituated primate community living in a fragmented landscape in Colombia. All cases were initiated by male brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) and were directed toward infants of either red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus: n = 6 cases) or white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons: n = 1 case). One individual, a subadult spider monkey male, was involved in all but one case of interspecific infanticide or aggression. Other adult spider monkeys participated in interspecific aggression that did not escalate into potentially lethal encounters. We suggest that competition for food resources and space in a primate community living in high population densities and restricted to a forest fragment of ca. 65 ha might partly be driving the observed patterns of interspecific aggression. On the other hand, the fact that all but one case of interspecific infanticide and aggression involved the only subadult male spider monkey suggests this behavior might either be pathological or constitute a particular case of redirected aggression. Even if the underlying principles behind interspecific aggression and infanticide are poorly understood, they represent an important factor influencing the demographic trends of the primate community at this study site. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the urohaze-goby Glossogobius olivaceus (Perciformes, Gobiidae) and structure comparison of light strand replication origin in Gobioidei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuena; Wei, Tao; Jin, Xiaoxiao; Qin, Yu; Xu, Tianjun

    2015-01-01

    The genome of Glossogobius olivaceus (G. olivaceus) was 16,568 bp in length with a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) and 2 non-coding region (the control region and origin of the light strand replication). The conserved motif 5'-GCCGG-3' was determined in the origin of light strand replication of G. olivaceus. The G. olivaceus mitogenome base composition was: T 25.65%, C 29.82% A 27.17% and G 17.36%, with a slight A+T bias of 52.82%, which was similar to most of the vertebrate mitogenomes. The mitochondrial genome of G. olivaceus had common features regarding gene arrangement and tRNA structures compared with those of other bony fishes.

  5. Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) perform self- and social anointing in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Jay P; Tapanes, Elizabeth; Evans, Sian

    2014-01-01

    Several species of primates, including owl monkeys (Aotus spp.), anoint by rubbing their fur with odiferous substances. Previous research has shown that capuchin monkeys (Cebus and Sapajus) anoint socially by rubbing their bodies together in groups of two or more while anointing. Owl monkeys housed at the DuMond Conservancy have been observed to anoint over the last 10 years, and we report detailed new information on the anointing behavior of this population, including descriptions of social anointing which occurs frequently. We first investigated the occurrence of self-anointing in 35 Aotus spp. presented with millipedes. Detailed descriptions regarding body regions anointed were obtained for all anointers (n = 28). The median duration for a self-anointing bout was 3.6 min (range from approx. 2 s to 14.15 min). While the latency and length of anointing bouts showed considerable interindividual differences, no statistically significant differences were found between sexes, wild- or captive-born owl monkeys or across age groups. However, we found the lower back and tail were anointed at a rate significantly greater than other body parts, but there were no differences in these patterns across sex or wild- or captive-born owl monkeys. More recently, social anointing was investigated in 26 Aotus spp. presented with millipedes, of which half were observed to anoint socially. The average duration for all social anointing bouts was 72.88 s, with a median duration of 30 s (range 5-322 s). A detailed ethogram was also generated that included behaviors that were performed while anointing, including facial expressions and vocalizations. The intraindividual variability for 8 monkeys used in both investigations is discussed. These findings extend our knowledge of anointing and confirm the existence of social anointing in another genus with a unique biology (nocturnal and socially monogamous) distinct from capuchins.

  6. Kenya's Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐天麒

    2004-01-01

    It's difficult to get close to patas monkeys(花脸猴). Clever and nervous, they run away at the sight of humans. The long-legged monkeys, clocked ( 记录 [ 速度 ] ) at 34 miles an hour, easily escaped from the zoologist Lynne Isbell when she arrived in Kenya in 1992.

  7. Comparative Anatomy of the Hind Limb Vessels of the Bearded Capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus with Apes, Baboons, and Cebus capucinus: With Comments on the Vessels' Role in Bipedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology.

  8. Métodos genéticos para la reintroducción de monos de los géneros Saguinus, Aotus y Cebus (Primates: Cebidae decomisados en Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz-García

    2010-09-01

    ético encontrado en el norte del Chocó, Sucre y Córdoba. 5- De 11 Cebus apella secuenciados, 10 mostraron pertenecer al acervo genético que se encuentra en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia y altamente relacionado a Cebus apella apella de la Guyana Francesa, aunque podrían representar un acervo propio de Colombia, C. a. fatuellus sensu Groves (2001. Un individuo no pudo ser relacionado con ningún grupo de los otros C. apella estudiados, ni con los taxones relacionados a la especie mencionada, pero, probablemente, con su propio estatus taxonómico (C. a. paraguayanus = C. cay, C. xanthosternos, C. nigritus.Genetic methods for the reintroduction of primates Saguinus, Aotus and Cebus (Primates: Cebidae seized in Bogota, Colombia. Primates are one of more confiscated taxa by the environmental authorities in Bogota, Colombia. During 2008, 133 monkeys were confiscated; samples from 115 of them were sequenced by the mitochondrial cythocrome oxidase II gene (mtCOII and 112 sequences obtained were of high quality. These sequences were compared with those obtained by our research group from individuals directly sampled in the field, with precise geographic origin. So, a more specific geographic area of the Colombian territory could be considered for a correct rehabilitation treatment during the reintroduction of these confiscated animals. The main results with five primate species were: 1- For all the specimens analyzed of Saguinus leucopus, they could be liberated in any geographical area of its distribution range, since only one gene pool was found. 2- For the 14 Aotus sp. individuals sequenced from the SDA (Environmental District Secretariat, one of them (A. vociferans was coming from the Amazon, seven exemplars belonged to A. griseimembra from the Magdalena Valley and the Colombian Caribbean coasts, four individuals represented to A. brumbacki from the Colombian Eastern Llanos, and two were associated to A. azarae azarae from Northern Argentina and Paraguay (which means that

  9. Utilisation des sécrétions de myriapodes chez les lémurs et les sapajous : fonction curative ou signalisation sociale ? Fur-rubbing with millipedes in lemurs and capuchin monkeys: social function or zoopharmacognosy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Simmen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available L’utilisation des myriapodes en friction sur le pelage et d’autres zones corporelles est documentée chez les primates en conditions naturelles, notamment à partir des observations récurrentes menées chez le genre Cebus. La typologie de ces comportements suggère différentes hypothèses, fonctionnelles (zoopharmacognosie, alimentaire, sociale ou non (sensorielle, auto-stimulation. Nous présentons des observations qualitatives comparées de l’utilisation non alimentaire de myriapodes diplopodes chez une forme hybride du genre Eulemur au Sud de Madagascar (occurrences en janvier 2005 et chez le sapajou Cebus apella en Guyane Française (occurrences en mars-avril 1996. L’application des sécrétions à benzoquinones sur une large partie du pelage chez Cebus contraste avec la friction exclusive de la zone périgénitale faisant suite au flairage du diplopode chez Eulemur qui manifeste en outre une réponse stéréotypée analogue au flehmen. Dans notre étude, l’imprégnation de fluides à forte intensité olfactive potentialiserait la signalisation de l’identité individuelle chez Eulemur alors que le "fur-rubbing" chez Cebus est compatible avec l’hypothèse commune d’une forme d’appropriation des défenses antiparasitaires de ces invertébrés. La sécrétion de ces défenses chimiques n’est pas automatiquement déclenchée par la manipulation des diplopodes. Le stress induit par les morsures légères (Eulemur et Cebus et l’arrachage des pattes sur plusieurs segments (Cebus augmente la probabilité de sécrétion, ce qui témoignerait d’un apprentissage d’autant plus efficace des conditions d’émission de ces fluides que l’usage est spécifique et très opportuniste.Body-rubbing with millipedes is repeatedly documented in primates living under natural conditions, mainly in capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp.. Various functional (zoopharmacognosy, ingestion, social and non-functional hypotheses (sensory, auto

  10. An enzootic outbreak of acute disease associated with pathogenic E. coli in Adler monkey colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, Boris A; Yakovleva, Lelita A; Dzhikidze, Eteri K; Gvozdik, Tatiana E; Agumava, Aslan A; Stasilevich, Zinaida K; Danilova, Irina G

    2015-12-01

    In spring 2009 in Adler colony of the Institute of Medical Primatology, a large enzootic outbreak of acute intestine infection associated with pathogenic E. coli occurred and caused 5% mortality of population (209 animals). The epidemiological analysis, bacteriological investigation, postmortem examination, histological analysis, and PCR were used to identify the infectious agent. Marked hemorrhagic diathesis, lethargy, dehydration, diarrhea with blood, wasting, and sometimes dystrophic changes in articular cartilages were noted. Morphologically, hemorrhagic enterocolitis and massive hemorrhages were found. PCR investigation of bacteriologically isolated E. coli characterized it as enteropathogenic and enteroinvasive E. coli. The outbreak in Adler colony slightly differed from similar outbreak in Florida in 2014 by more marked hemorrhagic diathesis and articular changes in some monkeys caused by polyavitaminosis developed in the course of infection. Sensitive to infection were M. mulatta, M. fascicularis, Cercopithecus aethiops, P. hamadryas and anubis, and Cebus capucinus. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A STUDY OF ROOT CANAL MORPHOLOGY OF Cebus apella TEETH ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DO CANAL RADICULAR DE DENTES DE Cebus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Rocha Afonso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo anatômico em dentes do Cebus apella, para análise da anatomia interna do canal radicular dessa espécie, normatizando seu uso como modelo experimental. Utilizaram-se doze animais adultos. Após a remoção do tecido orgânico, os dentes foram removidos, seccionados e fotografados, sendo analisados com um estereomicroscópio. Os resultados mostraram que os dentes apresentaram características semelhantes às dos seres humanos, mas com algumas peculiaridades, tais como: a anatomia do canal radicular variou de oval para circular; nos caninos inferiores, os canais são semelhantes a um rim, o que reflete o contorno externo da raiz; nos molares superiores, os canais mesiobucal e distobucal são ovais, seguindo o contorno geral do dente. Os autores concluem que esta espécie pode ser utilizada como modelo em pesquisas odontológicas, principalmente em estudos do tratamento do sistema de canal radicular.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anatomia, dentes, Cebus apella. An anatomic study of Cebus apella root teeth was performed to analyze the internal anatomy of permanent dentition, normalizing its use as experimental model endodontic research. Twelve adult animals were used in this study. After the removal of the organic tissue, the all teeth were removed, sectioned, analyzed and photographed with a stereomicroscope. The results showed that the anatomy of root canal of this species are similar to human dental anatomy, considering the shape, pathway and number of canals, but with some peculiarities, such as: the root canal anatomy varied from oval to circular; in the lower canines, the canals are resembled a kidney, reflecting the outside contour of the root; in the upper molars, the mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals are oval, following the general contour of the tooth. The authors conclude that this primate can be applied as models for study of root canal treatment in human beings, in special the upper central and lateral incisors

  12. a Maximum Entropy Model of the Bearded Capuchin Monkey Habitat Incorporating Topography and Spectral Unmixing Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. M.; Bernardes, S.; Nibbelink, N.; Biondi, L.; Presotto, A.; Fragaszy, D. M.; Madden, M.

    2012-07-01

    Movement patterns of bearded capuchin monkeys (Cebus (Sapajus) libidinosus) in northeastern Brazil are likely impacted by environmental features such as elevation, vegetation density, or vegetation type. Habitat preferences of these monkeys provide insights regarding the impact of environmental features on species ecology and the degree to which they incorporate these features in movement decisions. In order to evaluate environmental features influencing movement patterns and predict areas suitable for movement, we employed a maximum entropy modelling approach, using observation points along capuchin monkey daily routes as species presence points. We combined these presence points with spatial data on important environmental features from remotely sensed data on land cover and topography. A spectral mixing analysis procedure was used to generate fraction images that represent green vegetation, shade and soil of the study area. A Landsat Thematic Mapper scene of the area of study was geometrically and atmospherically corrected and used as input in a Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) procedure and a linear spectral unmixing approach was used to generate the fraction images. These fraction images and elevation were the environmental layer inputs for our logistic MaxEnt model of capuchin movement. Our models' predictive power (test AUC) was 0.775. Areas of high elevation (>450 m) showed low probabilities of presence, and percent green vegetation was the greatest overall contributor to model AUC. This work has implications for predicting daily movement patterns of capuchins in our field site, as suitability values from our model may relate to habitat preference and facility of movement.

  13. Mechanisms of action of light on circadian rhythms in the monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winget, C. M.; Rosenblatt, L. S.; DeRoshia, C. W.; Hetherington, N. W.

    1970-01-01

    Light is considered by many investigators to be the primary Zeitgeber for most physiologic rhythms. In order to study the effects on biorhythms of changing photoperiods and to provide information on the nature of the wave forms and the mechanisms of entrainment, unrestrained male monkeys (Cebus albifrons, Macaca nemestrina) were maintained in a sound-proofed environmental chamber. The Cebus was initially maintained on a 12L:12D schedule; it was subjected to a 180 degrees phase shift for 14 days, then returned to the original photoperiod. In two experiments (24 days; 27 days each) the same monkey was again maintained on a 12L:12D schedule which was gradually altered to a constant light environment. Deep body temperature (DBT) data were obtained with miniature radiotransmitters. Locomotor activity (LMA) was measured by strain gauges. Under the 12L:12D regimens the Macaca DBT cycles were uniform as to phase and wave form for over 60 weeks. These wave forms were analyzed by the use of periodogram and correlogram analyses and by fitting to the Volterra Integro-Differential Equation. Phase angle relationships between Zeitgeber and physiologic parameters were characterized. After the photoperiod phase shift the DBT cycle rephased in about 9 days. During the rephasing process the wave form changed. The shapes of the wave forms of DBT and activity were maintained with increasing light until an 18L:6D photoperiod was reached. The rhythms were entrained to the onset of darkness rather than lights on. Major and minor periods of LMA were detected. Hysteresis diagrams showed that DBT led the onset of major LA by 6 hr and the end of major activity by 2 hr.

  14. Cloning and expression of prion protein encoding gene of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhiwen; SUN Xiuqin; ZHANG Jinxing; ZAN Jindong

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was cloned.It was not interrupted by an intron.This gene has two promoters in its 5' upstream,indicating that its transcription may be intensive,and should have an important function.It was expressed in all 14 tissues tested,demonstrating that it is a house-keeping gene.Its expression in digestion and reproduction systems implies that the possible prions of fish may transfer horizontally.

  15. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus(Teleostei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 尤锋; 刘梦侠; 吴志昊; 文爱韵; 李军; 徐永立; 张培军

    2010-01-01

    Steroid sex hormones,such as estradiol-17β(E2)and testosterone(T),are important regulators of sex change in fish.In this study,we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay(RIA).Flounder larvae were divided into five groups(G0–G4),and fed with 0 (control),0.2,2,20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching(dph).Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not signific...

  16. Variations in sexual behavior among capuchin monkeys function for conspecific mate recognition: a phylogenetic analysis and a new hypothesis for female proceptivity in tufted capuchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Luke J

    2012-04-01

    Researchers of capuchin monkeys have noted stereotyped body postures, facial expressions, and vocalizations that accompany copulations in this genus. Notable variations in these sexual behaviors are observed across capuchin species. Although several hypotheses exist to explain variation in the duration and vigor of sexual behaviors across species, there is no proposed explanation for variation in the forms of these behaviors. I hypothesized that the forms of sexual behaviors function as recognition signals of conspecific mates. Such signals are adaptive when F1 hybrids exhibit reduced fitness compared with nonhybrid offspring. Recent evidence from nonprimate taxa supports the existence of species recognition signals during mating. Using newly observed sexual behaviors for Cebus albifrons and a recent phylogeny of capuchins, I found significant support for a key prediction of the conspecific mate recognition hypothesis: evolutionary changes in sexual behaviors were associated with speciation. Given the resultant best model for evolution of sexual behaviors, I reconstructed the ancestral pattern of sexual behaviors for extant capuchin species (genera Cebus and Sapajus). This reconstruction suggests that the extreme female proceptivity of tufted capuchin monkeys may function to increase female reproductive choices in the context of sperm-limited males (genus Sapajus). © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Behavioral assessment of pain detection and tolerance in monkeys1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Alexander A.; Vierck, Charles J.

    1973-01-01

    Cebus albifrons monkeys received electrical stimulation of the hindlimbs over a wide range of intensities. On trials signalled by a blue light, the animals were permitted to escape shock by pressing a disc, or shock was terminated after 8 sec (free escape). Escape force (disc pressure) was found to increase as stimulation intensity increased well beyond escape threshold, while shock duration curves reached plateau at the mid-range of intensities. The shock duration curves generated by free escape responses should be comparable to pain detection functions obtained by similar operations in humans, and the curves were stable over months of testing, as is generally found in pain-detection studies. On trials signalled by a red light, the animals received intense tail shock immediately after escape responses (punished escape), or, if they endured leg shock for 8 sec without escaping, then they could avoid tail shock with a panel press. The shock duration curves generated by punished escape responses should be comparable to pain tolerance functions as defined for human subjects, and the escape thresholds were considerably higher on red-light trials. As in human studies, the tolerance curves were not stable over repeated testing sessions, and some feature of the paradigm forced a progression toward extremely high levels of tolerance. PMID:4196268

  18. Behavioral assessment of pain detection and tolerance in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, A A; Vierck, C J

    1973-01-01

    Cebus albifrons monkeys received electrical stimulation of the hindlimbs over a wide range of intensities. On trials signalled by a blue light, the animals were permitted to escape shock by pressing a disc, or shock was terminated after 8 sec (free escape). Escape force (disc pressure) was found to increase as stimulation intensity increased well beyond escape threshold, while shock duration curves reached plateau at the mid-range of intensities. The shock duration curves generated by free escape responses should be comparable to pain detection functions obtained by similar operations in humans, and the curves were stable over months of testing, as is generally found in pain-detection studies. On trials signalled by a red light, the animals received intense tail shock immediately after escape responses (punished escape), or, if they endured leg shock for 8 sec without escaping, then they could avoid tail shock with a panel press. The shock duration curves generated by punished escape responses should be comparable to pain tolerance functions as defined for human subjects, and the escape thresholds were considerably higher on red-light trials. As in human studies, the tolerance curves were not stable over repeated testing sessions, and some feature of the paradigm forced a progression toward extremely high levels of tolerance.

  19. Effects of antinutritional factors on plasma lipoprotein levels in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J M; Mai, K S; Ai, Q H; Zhang, W B; Wang, X J; Xu, W; Liufu, Z G; Cai, Y H; Chen, W

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effects of four types of antinutritional factor (phytic acid, stachyose, soy saponins and soy isoflavones) on lipoprotein levels in plasma of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. A basal diet was prepared with fish meal as primary protein source, the other diets were supplemented with 0·2, 0·4 or 0·8% phytic acid, 0·4, 0·8 or 1·5% stachyose, 0·1, 0·35 or 0·7% soy saponins and 0·10, 0·35 or 0·70% soy isoflavones, by dry mass, in place of white flour in the basal diet. Total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in plasma of P. olivaceus were not affected by phytic acid or stachyose. In general, addition of 0·2-0·8% phytic acid or 0·4-1·5% stachyose decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, thereby increasing the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. By contrast, supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy saponins generally depressed plasma TC levels and the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. Supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy isoflavones, however, increased plasma TC and TG levels. These results indicate that soy saponins may be partly responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effects of soybean meal.

  20. Genetic variation of natural and cultured stocks of Paralichthys olivaceus by allozyme and RAPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Feng; ZHANG Peijun; WANG Keling; XIANG Jianhai

    2007-01-01

    Population genetics of the left-eyed flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, including natural and cultured stocks distributed in the coastal waters near Qingdao of eastern maritime China, was analyzed in allozyme and RAPD. The results showed that among total 29 gene loci of 15 isozymes, 9 and 7 were polymorphic in natural and cultured stocks, respectively. The status of genetic diversity in P olivaceus is low in terms of polymorphic loci in chi-square test and genetic departure index of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. More alleles in IDHP, CAT, GDH and Ldh-C allozymes were found in the fish, which could be used as markers in assortive breeding and distinguishing stock, population or species evolution. Total 88 and 86 RAPD bands ranging from 200 to 2 500 bp were recognized individually in average of 7.8-8.0 bands per primer. The genetic diversity in cultured stock is lower than that in natural ones showing an obviously decreasing genetic divergence. Therefore, effective countermeasures must be taken to protect genetic resources of marine cultured fishes. The 2 markers have their own pros and cons. Combining the 2 markers to investigate the genetic variation of populations is suggested. The results provide basic data of this flounder and they are useful for studying genetic improvement and genetic resources of the fish.

  1. Protective efficiency of an inactivated vaccine against Streptococcus iniae in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Yong-Uk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a causative agent of hemorrhagic septicemia in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, in Korea, resulting in serious economic losses. As a preventive measure, M VAC INIAE (Mastuken, Japan was prepared from the S. iniae F2K strain and tested against the SI-36 strain prevalent on flounder fish farms on Jeju Island, Korea. F2K had a serotype of 38 (− and SI-36 38 (+. The vaccine recognized both serotypes. It showed a very high effective immune response against S. iniae; the challenge test using the S. iniae SI-36 strain resulted in a relative percent survival (RPS of 85.7-87.0% 2 weeks after vaccination and 71.0-80.0% 6 months after vaccination. Field vaccination and clinical challenge tests were performed at local Jeju aquafarms with S. iniae SI-36. These showed significantly reduced cumulative mortality when compared to the control group with RPS rates that ranged between 71-80%. Hence, the present study suggests that this vaccine showed a significant immune response against S. iniae and could be applied in commercial aquafarms as a therapeutic agent against β-hemolytic streptococcosis in cultured P. olivaceus.

  2. Effect of Industrial Effluents on Embryos of Lefteye Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Keming; Chen Minshan; Ma Shaosai; Xin Fuyan

    2003-01-01

    The studies have been carried out in laboratory on the effect of dyeing,electroplating, pesticide effluents and their intermixture on embryos of lefteye flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus ). The main toxic substances in dying effluent are aniline ( 20 mg/L ) and phenol ( 24 mg/L ). The main toxic substances in electroplating effluent are Zn ( 1 970 mg/L ), Cu ( 9 mg/L ) and Pb ( 7.5 mg/L ). The main toxic substances in pesticide effluent are monocrotophos and phosphite. The test results indicate that the lowest concentrations of dyeing, electroplating, pesticide effluents and their intermixture, having significant effect on the hatch rate and development of P. olivaceus embryos, are 0.5 %,0.15 %, 0.25 % and 0.25 %, respectively; and the incipient LC50 of dyeing, electroplating,pesticide effluents and their intermixture are 3.38 % ( 2.29 % ~ 3.87 %), 0.81% ( 0.71%~ 0.92 % ), 1.57 % ( 1.37 % ~ 1.82 % ) and 1.48 % ( 1.24 % ~ 1.76 %). Based on the incipient LC50values, the toxicity sequence of the three industrial effluents is in the order of electroplating effluent > pesticide effluent > dyeing effluent.

  3. Conservation of replication chronology of homologous chromosome bands between four species of the genus Cebus and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, J; Dutrillaux, B

    1981-01-01

    Replication patterns after 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation are analyzed in chromosomes of four species of the genus Cebus (C. capucinus, C. albifrons, C. appella, and C. nigrivittatus). They are compared with those of man, taking as reference the banding analyses previously described. It was found that the high degree of conservation of chromosome structures between Cebus and man was accompanied by conservation of the DNA-replication sequence of the bands. It is assumed that this conservation during the course of evolution may apply to other mammals. Thus, replication patterns may be useful for ensuring interspecific comparisons. The only detected difference concerns late-replicating X chromosomes from normal female cells: The predominant lymphocyte pattern described in man is rare in Cebus, in which the usual lymphocyte pattern corresponds to that of human fibroblasts or to the minor human lymphocyte pattern.

  4. Infecção experimental de macacos cebus apella sp pelo Trypanosoma cruzi: avaliação clínica, eletrocardiqgráfica e anatomopatológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eros Antonio de Almeida

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Dos trinta e dois macacos capturados no interior do Estado de São Paulo e mantidos em laboratório em gaiolas individuais (24 a 25 C° e 70% de umidificação após vários xenodiagnósticos negativos, 12 foram infectados por via intraperitoneal com diferentes cepas de Trypanosoma cruzi, cujas formas tripomastigotas injetadas variaram de 1.10(5 a 5.10(6 Os 20 macacos restantes foram mantidos como controle. No período de 1 a 6 anos tanto os animais inoculados como os não inoculados, foram submetidos axenodiagnóstico e teste soro lógico de aglutinação direta, exame clínico e o eletrocardiograma. Posteriormente os macacos foram necropsiados e todos os órgãos submetidos a exame macro e microscópico. O exame clínico e o eletrocardiograma não revelaram alterações. Dos 12 macacos infectados, 4 apresentaram evidências de infecção ao exame histopatológico: utn com formas amastigotas nos tecidos e 3 com miocardite crônica de grau leve. A parasitemiafoi comprovada em 66,66% dos animais na fase aguda e a sorologia em 91,66% na fase crônica. Concluiu-se que os macacos Cebus não expressaram susceptibilidade ao desenvolvimento das lesões que caracterizam a fase . crônica da doença de Chagas mas poderiam ser usados para manter as cepas de T. cruzi e estudos de pesquisa sorológico a longo termo.Thirty two monkeys were captured and adapted to laboratory conditions captives isolated. They were submitted to multiple xenodiagnosis which were negative. Twelve were infected intraperitonealfy with different strains of T. cruzi (1.10(5 to 5.10(6. Twenty were the control group. Between on to six years both the control group and the infected monkeys, were submitted to xenodiagnosis, serological testing clinical examination and eletrocardigoraphy. The clinical examination and the eletrocardiogram were always normal. The monkey were autopsied and histological examination detected in the infected group four monkeys with evidence of disease: one with

  5. The substituted (S)-3-phenylpiperidine (-)-OSU6162 reduces apomorphine- and amphetamine-induced behaviour in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette; Andersen, M B; Fink-Jensen, A

    2006-01-01

    inhibit (-)-apomorphine-induced behaviours in non-human primates at doses that do not cause EPS. When (-)-OSU6162 was tested against d-amphetamine-induced behaviours a separation between dose levels that inhibit d-amphetamine effects and cause EPS was not observed. The data further substantiate a role...... for low affinity DA D2 antagonists in the pharmacological treatment of psychosis....

  6. White-faced monkey (Cebus capucinus ecology and management in neotropical agricultural landscapes during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E. Williams

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use by a C. capucinus troop was studied in an agricultural landscape during late dry season (March-April 1994 in northwest Costa Rica. Riparian forests, palm canals and living fence rows accounted for 82 % of observations, significantly more than the other six habitats present. The study troop consumed 24 species of plants and five animals. Feeding concentrated on the introduced African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis (33.6 % and mango (Mangifera indica (27.2 %, found mostly in palm canals and mango orchards respectively. The troop rested between 0930-1330 hr and fed and moved between 0530-0930 hr and 1330-1730 hr. Living fence rows were used as travel routes or corridors and less intensively for other activitiesSe estudió el uso de hábitat por una tropa de C. capucinus en una zona de agricultura durante la estación seca tardía (Marzo-Abril 1994 en el noroeste de Costa Rica. Los bosques riparios, canales de palmas y cercas de árboles vivos contaron con el 82 % de las observaciones, significantemente más que los otros seis hábitats presentes. La tropa de estudio consumió 24 especies de plntas y cinco animales. La alimentación se concentró en la palma de aceite Africana introducida (Elaeis guineensis (33.6 % y en mango (Mangifera indica (27.2 %, encontrados principalmente en los canales de palmas y huertos de mango respectivamente. La tropa descansó entre las 0930-1330 hr y se alimentó y movió entre las 0530-0930 hr y 1330-730 hr. Las cercas de árboles vivos fueron usadas como rutas de paso o corredores y menos intensamente para otras actividades

  7. White-faced monkey (Cebus capucinus) ecology and management in neotropical agricultural landscapes during the dry season

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Heather E; Vaughan, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Habitat use by a C. capucinus troop was studied in an agricultural landscape during late dry season (March-April 1994) in northwest Costa Rica. Riparian forests, palm canals and living fence rows accounted for 82 % of observations, significantly more than the other six habitats present. The study troop consumed 24 species of plants and five animals. Feeding concentrated on the introduced African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) (33.6 %) and mango (Mangifera indica) (27.2 %), found mostly in palm ...

  8. White-faced monkey (Cebus capucinus) ecology and management in neotropical agricultural landscapes during the dry season

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Heather E; Christopher Vaughan

    2001-01-01

    Habitat use by a C. capucinus troop was studied in an agricultural landscape during late dry season (March-April 1994) in northwest Costa Rica. Riparian forests, palm canals and living fence rows accounted for 82 % of observations, significantly more than the other six habitats present. The study troop consumed 24 species of plants and five animals. Feeding concentrated on the introduced African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) (33.6 %) and mango (Mangifera indica) (27.2 %), found mostly in palm ...

  9. The Genial Monkeys of Emei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOHONG

    2004-01-01

    MANY of China's beautiful mountainous areas are home to monkeys,the most famous monkey resort being Emei Mountain. Perhaps affected by the mountain's Buddhist atmosphere, Emei's monkeys are gentle and often approach tourists for food and play. Cute and impish, these delightful creatures are the main attraction for many visitors.

  10. Can old-world and new-world monkeys judge spatial above/below relations to be the same or different? Some of them, but not all of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Roger K R; Flemming, Timothy M; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2016-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of relational matching to sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether old world rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a spatial above/below relational matching task as reported for old world baboons (Papio papio). None of the rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that new-world capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match above/below relations. The capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of 'Clever Hans' controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract 'relations between relations' and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species.

  11. Can color vision variation explain sex differences in invertebrate foraging by capuchin monkeys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. MELIN, Linda M. FEDIGAN, Hilary C. YOUNG, Shoji KAWAMURA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrates are the main source of protein for many small-bodied monkeys. Prey vary in size, mobility, degree of protective covering, and use of the forest, i.e. canopy height, and whether they are exposed or embed themselves in substrates. Sex-differentiation in foraging patterns is well documented for some monkey species and recent studies find that color vision phenotype can also affect invertebrate foraging. Since vision phenotype is polymorphic and sex-linked in most New World monkeys - males have dichromatic vision and females have either dichromatic or trichromatic vision - this raises the possibility that sex differences are linked to visual ecology. We tested predicted sex differences for invertebrate foraging in white-faced capuchins Cebus capucinus and conducted 12 months of study on four free-ranging groups between January 2007 and September 2008. We found both sex and color vision effects. Sex: Males spent more time foraging for invertebrates on the ground. Females spent more time consuming embedded, colonial invertebrates, ate relatively more “soft” sedentary invertebrates, and devoted more of their activity budget to invertebrate foraging. Color Vision: Dichromatic monkeys had a higher capture efficiency of exposed invertebrates and spent less time visually foraging. Trichromats ate relatively more “hard” sedentary invertebrates. We conclude that some variation in invertebrate foraging reflects differences between the sexes that may be due to disparities in size, strength, reproductive demands or niche preferences. However, other intraspecific variation in invertebrate foraging that might be mistakenly attributed to sex differences actually reflects differences in color vision [Current Zoology 56 (3: 300–312, 2010].

  12. THE CLEVER MONKEYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付惠娟

    2004-01-01

    A man was walking through a forest. He had a few caps in his hands. In the forest there were a lot of monkeys. The day was hot, so he decided to have a rest under a tree. I-le put one cap on his head and lay down to sleep.

  13. Effects of ocean acidification on the larval growth of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.-S.; Shim, J. H.; Kim, S.

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about how marine fishes respond to the reduced pH condition caused by the increased CO2 in the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of CO2 concentration on the growth of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) larvae. Newly hatched larvae were reared in three different concentrations of CO2 (574, 988 and 1297 μatm CO2) in temperature-controlled water tanks until metamorphosis (4 weeks). Body lengths, weights, and the concentration of some chemical elements in larval tissue were measured at the completion of each experiment, and experiment was repeated three times in May, June, and July 2011. Results indicated that body length and weight of flounder larvae were significantly increased with increasing CO2 concentration (P statistical significance cannot be tested due to the single measurement. It suggests that there are enrichment processes of these cations in larval tissue in the low pH condition.

  14. In vitro acute cytotoxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid to gill cell line of flounder Paralichthy olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Feng; Zhang, Shicui; Li, Hongyan; Guo, Huarong

    2007-04-01

    In vitro acute cytotoxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) to the gill cell line of flounder (FG) that collected in the gill of Paralichthys olivaceus, was examined by 3 widely used endpoint bioassays: NR (neutral red), MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and TCP (total cell protein). The result shows that the IMI increased at concentrations ≥0.5 μg/ml. The IC50 value of NR. MTT, and TCP was 41.86, 38.46, and 39.08 μg/ml, respectively. The ultrastructural observation revealed that the mitochondria of the cells exposed to 60 μg/ml IMI for 48 h were severely damaged, swollen or disrupted, while their nuclei and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) remained normal. This would suggest that the mitochondria are probably the primary target of IMI.

  15. In vitro acute cytotoxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid to gill cell line of flounder Paralichthy olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Feng; ZHANG Shicui; LI Hongyan; GUO Huarong

    2007-01-01

    In vitro acute cytotoxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) to the gill cell line of flounder (FG) that collected in the gill of Paralichthys olivaceus, was examined by 3 widely used endpoint bioassays: NR (neutral red), MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and TCP (total cell protein). The result shows that the IMI increased at concentrations ≥0.5 μg/ml. The IC50 value of NR, MTT, and TCP was 41.86, 38.46, and 39.08 μg/ml, respectively. The ultrastructural observation revealed that the mitochondria of the cells exposed to 60 μg/ml IMI for 48 h were severely damaged, swollen or disrupted, while their nuclei and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) remained normal. This would suggest that the mitochondria are probably the primary target of IMI.

  16. The dnd RNA Identifies Germ Cell Origin and Migration in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study obtained a germ cell-specific marker dead end (dnd in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus named Podnd. The tissue-specific expressions of Podnd transcripts were present in testis and ovary but were not detectable in other somatic tissues detected. SISH showed that Podnd expressed only in germ cells at different developmental stages but not in surrounding somatic cells. The expression of Podnd during embryonic development at 16 different stages revealed that the relative expression of Podnd transcript fluctuated at a high level in the cleavage stages, gradually decreased through subsequent development, and reached the lowest at late gastrula stage till it was nearly undetectable. The Podnd transcripts localization and migration were similar to zebrafish. Further research on the specification migration mechanism of PGCs and the role of germ cell during gonadal development in olive flounder would improve our understanding of germline development.

  17. Gonadal Transcriptome Analysis of Male and Female Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofei Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is an important commercially cultured marine flatfish in China, Korea, and Japan, of which female grows faster than male. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of flounder sex determination and development, we used RNA-seq technology to investigate transcriptomes of flounder gonads. This produced 22,253,217 and 19,777,841 qualified reads from ovary and testes, which were jointly assembled into 97,233 contigs. Among them, 23,223 contigs were mapped to known genes, of which 2,193 were predicted to be differentially expressed in ovary and 887 in testes. According to annotation information, several sex-related biological pathways including ovarian steroidogenesis and estrogen signaling pathways were firstly found in flounder. The dimorphic expression of overall sex-related genes provides further insights into sex determination and gonadal development. Our study also provides an archive for further studies of molecular mechanism of fish sex determination.

  18. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  19. Mineral trioxide aggregate as a root canal filling material in reimplanted teeth. Microscopic analysis in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Holland, Roberto; de Souza, Valdir; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Pedrini, Denise

    2007-10-01

    This study analyzed mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a root canal filling material for the immediate reimplantation of monkey teeth. Four adult capuchin monkeys Cebus apella were used, which had their maxillary and mandibular lateral incisors on both sides extracted and reimplanted after 15 min. During the extra-alveolar period, the teeth were kept in saline solution and after reimplantation retention was performed with a stainless steel wire and composite resin for 14 days. After 7 days, the reimplanted teeth were submitted to endodontic treatment with biomechanics up to file n. 30 and irrigation with a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)(2)], and then divided into two study groups: group I - root canal filled with a Ca(OH)(2) paste, and group II - root canal filled with MTA. Radiographic follow up was performed at 30, 60 and 90 days postoperatively, and after 180 days the animals were killed and specimens were processed for histomorphological analysis. The results revealed that most specimens of both groups presented organized periodontal ligament with no inflammation. The resorptions observed were surface resorptions and were repaired by cementum. Both MTA and Ca(OH)(2) were good root canal filling materials for immediately reimplanted teeth, providing good repair and also allowing biological sealing of some lateral canals. There was no significant difference between the study groups (alpha = 29.60%).

  20. Simian malaria in the Brazilian Atlantic forest: first description of natural infection of capuchin monkeys (Cebinae subfamily) by Plasmodium simium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alvarenga, Denise Anete Madureira; de Pina-Costa, Anielle; de Sousa, Taís Nóbrega; Pissinatti, Alcides; Zalis, Mariano G; Suaréz-Mutis, Martha C; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Brasil, Patrícia; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves

    2015-02-18

    In Brazil, two species of Plasmodium have been described infecting non-human primates, Plasmodium brasilianum and Plasmodium simium. These species are morphologically, genetically and immunologically indistinguishable from the human Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium vivax parasites, respectively. Plasmodium simium has been observed naturally infecting monkeys of the genera Alouatta and Brachyteles in a restricted area of the Atlantic Forest in the south and southeast regions of Brazil. However, its reported geographical distribution and the diversity of its vertebrate hosts may be underestimated, since available data were largely based on analyses by microscopic examination of peripheral blood, a method with limited sensitivity, considering the potential sub-patent feature of these infections. The present study describes, for the first time, the natural infection of P. simium in capuchin monkeys from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Blood samples from 30 non-human primates belonging to nine species kept in the Primate Centre of Rio de Janeiro were collected. Fragments of spleen and liver from one dead monkey found in the neighborhoods of the Primate Centre were also analysed. Molecular diagnosis was performed by nested PCR (18SSU rRNA) and the amplified fragment was sequenced. Thirty per cent of the captive animals were infected with P. simium and/or P. brasilianum. The dead monkey tested positive for DNA of P. simium. For the first time, Cebinae primates (two specimens of genus Cebus and two of genus Sapajos) were found naturally infected by P. simium. The infection was confirmed by sequencing a small fragment of 18SSU rRNA. The results highlight the possibility of infection by P. simium in other species of non-human primates whose impact could be significant for the malaria epidemiology among non-human primates and, if it becomes clear that this P. simium is able to infect monkeys and, eventually, man, also for the maintenance of transmission of human malaria in

  1. De Novo assembly of the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus spleen transcriptome to identify putative genes involved in immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    Full Text Available Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is an economically important marine fish in Asia and has suffered from disease outbreaks caused by various pathogens, which requires more information for immune relevant genes on genome background. However, genomic and transcriptomic data for Japanese flounder remain scarce, which limits studies on the immune system of this species. In this study, we characterized the Japanese flounder spleen transcriptome using an Illumina paired-end sequencing platform to identify putative genes involved in immunity.A cDNA library from the spleen of P. olivaceus was constructed and randomly sequenced using an Illumina technique. The removal of low quality reads generated 12,196,968 trimmed reads, which assembled into 96,627 unigenes. A total of 21,391 unigenes (22.14% were annotated in the NCBI Nr database, and only 1.1% of the BLASTx top-hits matched P. olivaceus protein sequences. Approximately 12,503 (58.45% unigenes were categorized into three Gene Ontology groups, 19,547 (91.38% were classified into 26 Cluster of Orthologous Groups, and 10,649 (49.78% were assigned to six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Furthermore, 40,928 putative simple sequence repeats and 47, 362 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. Importantly, we identified 1,563 putative immune-associated unigenes that mapped to 15 immune signaling pathways.The P. olivaceus transciptome data provides a rich source to discover and identify new genes, and the immune-relevant sequences identified here will facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the immune response. Furthermore, the plentiful potential SSRs and SNPs found in this study are important resources with respect to future development of a linkage map or marker assisted breeding programs for the flounder.

  2. Population viability of Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae) and Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae) at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodríguez-Matamoros, Jorge; Villalobos-Brenes, Federico; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A

    2012-01-01

    .... The aim of this work was to study the effects of population fragmentation on the long term viability of Alouatta palliata and Cebus capucinus populations, at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí (RVSPN), Heredia...

  3. Relative brain size, gut size, and evolution in New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Walter; Rosenberger, Alfred L; Norconk, Marilyn A; Owl, Marcus Young

    2011-12-01

    The dynamics of brain evolution in New World monkeys are poorly understood. New data on brain weight and body weight from 162 necropsied adult individuals, and a second series on body weight and gut size from 59 individuals, are compared with previously published reports based on smaller samples as well as large databases derived from museum records. We confirm elevated brain sizes for Cebus and Saimiri and also report that Cacajao and Chiropotes have relatively large brains. From more limited data we show that gut size and brain mass have a strongly inverse relationship at the low end of the relative brain size scale but a more diffuse interaction at the upper end, where platyrrhines with relatively high encephalization quotients may have either relatively undifferentiated guts or similar within-gut proportions to low-EQ species. Three of the four main platyrrhine clades exhibit a wide range of relative brain sizes, suggesting each may have differentiated while brains were relatively small and a multiplicity of forces acting to maintain or drive encephalization. Alouatta is a likely candidate for de-encephalization, although its "starting point" is difficult to establish. Factors that may have compelled parallel evolution of relatively large brains in cebids, atelids and pitheciids may involve large social group sizes as well as complex foraging strategies, with both aspects exaggerated in the hyper-encephalized Cebus. With diet playing an important role selecting for digestive strategies among the seed-eating pitheciins, comparable in ways to folivores, Chiropotes evolved a relatively larger brain in conjunction with a moderately large and differentiated gut.

  4. The Elephant and the Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ Once an Elephant met a Monkey."Look how big and strong I am!"he said."I can break a tree.Can you break a tree?" "Look how quickly I can run and climb!"said the Monkey."Can you climb a tree?" The elephant was proud because he was so strong,and the Monkey Was proud because she was so quick.

  5. Antimicrobial effect of human serum on oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolates from humans and monkeys Atividade antimicrobiana do soro humano sobre isolados de Fusobacterium nucleatum obtidos de humanos e macacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elerson GAETTI-JARDIM JÚNIOR

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of eighty F. nucleatum isolates from periodontal patients, healthy subjects and Cebus apella monkeys to human pooled sera was tested. The resistance to serum bactericidal effects was observed in 46.9% of the isolates from periodontal patients, 28.6% of the healthy subjects and 40% of the monkeys. These results support the hypothesis that serum plays an ecological role by controlling the microbial population inside either the gingival crevice or periodontal pocket.Foi avaliada a susceptibilidade de oitenta isolados de F. nucleatum obtidos de pacientes com doença periodontal, indivíduos sadios e Cebus apella (macaco-prego frente ao soro humano. A resistência à atividade bactericida do soro foi observada em 46,9% das fusobactérias isoladas de pacientes com doença periodontal, 28,6% das obtidas de indivíduos sadios e em 40% das fusobactérias de primatas não humanos. Esses resultados suportam o conceito de que o soro possui um papel ecológico em controlar a população microbiana no interior do sulco gengival ou bolsa periodontal.

  6. Trypanosoma lambrechti n. sp. aislado de micos (cebus albifrons de Colombia Trypanosoma lambrechti n. sp. aislado de micos (cebus albifrons de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkelle C. J.

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio en sangre de micos colombianos, pertenecientes a 13 especies diferentes, 3 de 12 Cebus albifrons hospedaban en su sangre periférica un número muy bajo de Trypanosoma lambrechti n. sp.  La longitud promedio del tripanosoma, incluyendo la porción libre del fIagelo, es 34.9 micrones (30.1 - 43.2 micrones. EI cinetoplasto submarginal es muy pequeño y se sitúa en la cercanía del núcleo. EI núcleo es pequeño, oval o en forma de banda y ocupa la mayor parte de la anchura del cuerpo. Existe una zona clara anterior del núcleo. La parte anterior del cuerpo se colorea más intensamente que la parte posterior.  EI tripanosoma no infecta al Rhodnius prolixus, pero se multiplica facilmente en medio difásico de agar-sangre. Se da una tabla de diferenciación entre el nuevo tripanosoma y el polimorfo T. conorrhini. En un estudio en sangre de micos colombianos, pertenecientes a 13 especies diferentes, 3 de 12 Cebus albifrons hospedaban en su sangre periférica un número muy bajo de Trypanosoma lambrechti n. sp.  La longitud promedio del tripanosoma, incluyendo la porción libre del fIagelo, es 34.9 micrones (30.1 - 43.2 micrones. EI cinetoplasto submarginal es muy pequeño y se sitúa en la cercanía del núcleo. EI núcleo es pequeño, oval o en forma de banda y ocupa la mayor parte de la anchura del cuerpo. Existe una zona clara anterior del núcleo. La parte anterior del cuerpo se colorea más intensamente que la parte posterior.  EI tripanosoma no infecta al Rhodnius prolixus, pero se multiplica facilmente en medio difásico de agar-sangre. Se da una tabla de diferenciación entre el nuevo tripanosoma y el polimorfo T. conorrhini.

  7. Autonomic concomitants of discriminative avoidance and punishment training in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raich, M S; Kimmel, H D

    1979-01-01

    Two Cebus albifrons monkeys were trained to press a back-lighted panel to postpone a brief electric shock to the tail using a Sidman avoidance schedule (SS = 40 sec, RS = 40 sec). After 25 training sessions, a discriminative schedule was introduced, with the Sidman avoidance continuing in the presence of one discriminative stimulus and punishment introduced in the presence of the other. The discriminative stimuli were colors on the panel. Discriminative training also involved 25 sessions, each with a random sequence of 6 avoidance and 6 punishment segments, with 30 sec intervals between the segments. Plantar skin conductance and heart rate were recorded along with the panel-pressing behavior. The two monkeys adjusted to the discriminative schedule quite differently from one another. One animal responded at a high level and avoided very well (during avoidance) but was punished frequently (during punishment). The other animal responded less frequently and received many shocks during avoidance but almost none during punishment. The animal that showed less ability to inhibit responding (and received about four times as many shocks overall) appeared to have discriminated better temporally in spacing its responses during avoidance training. The monkey whose panel-pressing behavior resulted in more shocks also tended to show a higher tonic level of autonomic arousal. However, within-animal differences in shock frequency (between avoidance and punishment) were not similarly related to autonomic arousal. The animal that received fewer shocks overall (but more during avoidance) showed greater arousal during punishment. The animal that received more shocks overall (but fewer during avoidance) showed no arousal differences between avoidance and punishment.

  8. On the occurrence of Cebus flavius (Schreber 1774) in the Caatinga, and the use of semi-arid environments by Cebus species in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Norte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Renata G; Jerusalinsky, Leandro; Silva, Thiago César Farias; de Souza Fialho, Marcos; de Araújo Roque, Alan; Fernandes, Adalberto; Arruda, Fátima

    2009-10-01

    Cebus flavius is a recently rediscovered species and a candidate for the 25 most endangered primate species list. It was hypothesized that the distribution of C. flavius was limited to the Atlantic Forest, while the occurrence of C. libidinosus in the Rio Grande do Norte (RN) Caatinga was inferred, given its occurrence in neighboring states. As a result of a survey in ten areas of the RN Caatinga, this paper reports on four Cebus populations, including the first occurrence of C. flavius in the Caatinga, and an expansion of the northwestern limits of distribution for the species. This C. flavius population may be a rare example of a process of geographic distribution retraction, and is probably the most endangered population of this species. New areas of occurrence of C. libidinosus are also described. Tool use sites were observed in association with reports of the presence of both capuchin species.

  9. Trypanosoma lambrechti n. sp. aislado de micos (cebus albifrons) de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Marinkelle, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    En un estudio en sangre de micos colombianos, pertenecientes a 13 especies diferentes, 3 de 12 Cebus albifrons hospedaban en su sangre periférica un número muy bajo de Trypanosoma lambrechti n. sp.  La longitud promedio del tripanosoma, incluyendo la porción libre del fIagelo, es 34.9 micrones (30.1 - 43.2 micrones). EI cinetoplasto submarginal es muy pequeño y se sitúa en la cercanía del núcleo. EI núcleo es pequeño, oval o en forma de banda y ocupa la mayor parte de la anchura del cuerpo. E...

  10. Trypanosoma lambrechti n. sp. aislado de micos (cebus albifrons) de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Marinkelle, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    En un estudio en sangre de micos colombianos, pertenecientes a 13 especies diferentes, 3 de 12 Cebus albifrons hospedaban en su sangre periférica un número muy bajo de Trypanosoma lambrechti n. sp.  La longitud promedio del tripanosoma, incluyendo la porción libre del fIagelo, es 34.9 micrones (30.1 - 43.2 micrones). EI cinetoplasto submarginal es muy pequeño y se sitúa en la cercanía del núcleo. EI núcleo es pequeño, oval o en forma de banda y ocupa la mayor parte de la anchura del c...

  11. Padrões hematológicos em Cebus apella, anestesiados com quetamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de sangue foram colhidas de 124 macacos-prego (Cebus apella da Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo, anestesiados com quetamina (10 mg/kg, IM, com a finalidade de determinar os seguintes parâmetros hematológicos: contagens globais de hemácias e leucócitos, contagem diferencial de leucócitos, hematócrito, hemoglobina e índices hematimétricos (VCM, HCM e CHCM, expressos em média e desvio padrão. Estudou-se a influência do sexo e da idade sobre os referidos parâmetros.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphism of FSHβ gene associated with reproductive traits in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Yu, Dahui; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Chen, Caifang; Zhang, Jiaren; Jin, Guoxiong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Shi, Dan; Yang, Yanping

    2010-12-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone β (FSHβ) of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) plays a key role in the regulation of gonadal development. This study aimed to investigate molecular genetic characteristics of the FSHβ gene and elucidate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FSHβ on reproductive traits in Japanese flounder. We used polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and sequencing of the FSHβ gene in 60 individuals. We identified only an SNP (T/C) in the coding region of exon3 of FSHβ. The SNP (T/C) did not lead to amino acid changes at the position 340 bp of FSHβ gene. Statistical analysis showed that the SNP was significantly associated with testosterone (T) level and gonadosomatic index (GSI) ( P < 0.05). Individuals with genotype TC of the SNP had significantly higher serum T levels and GSI ( P < 0.05) than that of genotype CC. Therefore, FSHβ gene could be a useful molecular marker in selection for prominent reproductive trait in Japanese Flounder.

  13. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of FSHβ Gene Associated with Reproductive Traits in Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Feng; Shi Dan; Yang Yanping; WEN Haishen; YU Dahui; LI Jifang; SHI Bao; CHEN Caifang; ZHANG Jiaren; JIN Guoxiong; CHEN Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    Follicle stimulating hormone β(FSHβ)of Japanese flounder(Paralichthys olivaceus)plays a key role in the regulation of gonadal development.This study aimed to investigate molecular genetic characteristics of the FSHβ gene and elucidate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs)of FSHβ on reproductive traits in Japanese flounder.We used polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism(PCR-SSCP)and sequencing of the FSHβ gene in 60 individuals.We identified only an SNP(T/C)in the coding region of exon3 of FSHβ.The SNP(T/C)did not lead to amino acid changes at the position 340 bp of FSHβgene.Statistical analysis showed that the SNP was significantly associated with testosterone(T)level and gonadosomatic index(GSI)(P< 0.05).Individuals with genotype TC of the SNP had significantly higher serum T levels and GSI(P<0.05)than that of genotype CC.Therefore,FSHβ gene could be a useful molecular marker in selection for prominent reproductive trait in Japanese Flounder.

  14. Recombination-activating gene 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xianlei Wang; Xungang Tan; Pei-Jun Zhang; Yuqing Zhang; Peng Xu

    2014-12-01

    During the development of B and T lymphocytes, Ig and TCR variable region genes are assembled from germline V, D, and J gene segments by a site-specific recombination reaction known as V(D)J recombination. The process of somatic V(D)J recombination, mediated by the recombination-activating gene (RAG) products, is the most significant characteristic of adaptive immunity in jawed vertebrates. Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) RAG1 and RAG2 were isolated by Genome Walker and RT-PCR, and their expression patterns were analysed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization on sections. RAG1 spans over 7.0 kb, containing 4 exons and 3 introns, and the full-length ORF is 3207 bp, encoding a peptide of 1068 amino acids. The first exon lies in the 5′-UTR, which is an alternative exon. RAG2 full-length ORF is 1062 bp, encodes a peptide of 533 amino acids, and lacks introns in the coding region. In 6-month-old flounders, the expression of RAG1 and RAG2 was essentially restricted to the pronephros (head kidney) and mesonephros (truck kidney). Additionally, both of them were mainly expressed in the thymus. These results revealed that the thymus and kidney most likely serve as the primary lymphoid tissues in the flounder.

  15. Evolution history of duplicated smad3 genes in teleost: insights from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Du

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the two rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD during deuterosome evolution, a third genome duplication occurred in the ray-fined fish lineage and is considered to be responsible for the teleost-specific lineage diversification and regulation mechanisms. As a receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD, the function of SMAD3 was widely studied in mammals. However, limited information of its role or putative paralogs is available in ray-finned fishes. In this study, two SMAD3 paralogs were first identified in the transcriptome and genome of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus. We also explored SMAD3 duplication in other selected species. Following identification, genomic structure, phylogenetic reconstruction, and synteny analyses performed by MrBayes and online bioinformatic tools confirmed that smad3a/3b most likely originated from the teleost-specific WGD. Additionally, selection pressure analysis and expression pattern of the two genes performed by PAML and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR revealed evidence of subfunctionalization of the two SMAD3 paralogs in teleost. Our results indicate that two SMAD3 genes originate from teleost-specific WGD, remain transcriptionally active, and may have likely undergone subfunctionalization. This study provides novel insights to the evolution fates of smad3a/3b and draws attentions to future function analysis of SMAD3 gene family.

  16. Comparative Evolution of Duplicated Ddx3 Genes in Teleosts: Insights from Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongkai; Liu, Wei; Song, Huayu; Wang, Huizhen; Liu, Jinxiang; Zhao, Haitao; Du, Xinxin; Zhang, Quanqi

    2015-06-24

    Following the two rounds of whole-genome duplication that occurred during deuterostome evolution, a third genome duplication event occurred in the stem lineage of ray-finned fishes. This teleost-specific genome duplication is thought to be responsible for the biological diversification of ray-finned fishes. DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) belongs to the DEAD-box RNA helicase family. Although their functions in humans have been well studied, limited information is available regarding their function in teleosts. In this study, two teleost Ddx3 genes were first identified in the transcriptome of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). We confirmed that the two genes originated from teleost-specific genome duplication through synteny and phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, comparative analysis of genome structure, molecular evolution rate, and expression pattern of the two genes in Japanese flounder revealed evidence of subfunctionalization of the duplicated Ddx3 genes in teleosts. Thus, the results of this study reveal novel insights into the evolution of the teleost Ddx3 genes and constitute important groundwork for further research on this gene family.

  17. Occurrence, Development and Histochemical Characteristics of Lymphocystis in Cultured Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Xiuzhen(绳秀珍); Zhan Wenbin

    2004-01-01

    Occurrence and development of lymphocystis cells in flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, and some histochemical features are studied using light and electron microscopy and histochemical methods. Fibroblasts engulf virus particles forming phagocytosis vacuole in the cytoplasm. The infected cells proliferate and turn round and hypertrophied; basophilic inclusion bodies, Feulgen-positive, are present in the cytoplasm, and a hyaline capsule, containing acid ploysaccharide and protein, appears outside cell membrane. The mature lymphocystis cells possess numerous virus particles (200~220nm in diameter with a central core 120~140nm) and high electron-dense inclusions with budding virions at the surface in the cytoplasm, and show margination of chromatin. Moderate electron density particles (70~80nm in diameter) fill out perinuclear cisterna and arrange in crystalloid arrays in nucleus, liberated into the cytoplasm by rupture of nuclear membrane. No virus particles are observed in nucleus. Therefore, inclusion bodies are the sites of virus assembly and maturity, while replication processes of lymphocystis virus are involved in both nuclear and cytoplasmic phases. Besides, strongly basophilic link-like structures are present between adjacent cells or through connective tissue, and virus particles are observed in somewhere of the capsule, thus where may be the spread route of virus from one cell to another or to the environment. The senile lymphocystis cells release virus by the rupture of cells.

  18. Lectin histochemistry of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Jaeyoun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The localization of carbohydrate terminals in Kudoa septempunctata ST3-infected muscle of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus was investigated using lectin histochemistry to determine the types of carbohydrate sugar residues expressed in Kudoa spores. Twenty-one lectins were examined, i.e., N-acetylglucosamine (s-WGA, WGA, DSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL, mannose (Con A, LCA, PSA, galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (RCA12, BSL-I, VVA, DBA, SBA, SJA, Jacalin, PNA, ECL, complex type N-glycans (PHA-E and PHA-L, and fucose (UEA-I. Spores encased by a plasmodial membrane were labeled for the majority of these lectins, with the exception of LCA, PSA, PNA, and PHA-L. Four lectins (RCA 120, BSL-I, DBA, and SJA belonging to the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine group, only labeled spores, but not the plasmodial membrane. This is the first confirmation that various sugar residues are present in spores and plasmodial membranes of K. septempunctata ST3.

  19. Optimization of the Purification Methods for Recovery of Recombinant Growth Hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Xiaonan; ZHANG Xuecheng; MU Xiaosheng; LIU Bin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize the purification of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus.Recombinant flounder growth hormone (r-fGH) was expressed by Escherichia coli in form of inclusion body or as soluble protein under different inducing conditions.The inclusion body was renatured using two recovery methods,i.e.,dilution and dialysis.Thereafter,the refolded protein was purified by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography and r-fGH was obtained by cleavage of thrombin.For soluble products,r-fGH was directly purified from the lysates by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography.ELISA-receptor assay demonstrated that despite its low receptor binding activity,the r-fGH purified from refolded inclusion body had a higher yield (2.605 mg L-1) than that from soluble protein (1.964 mg L-1).Of the tested recovery methods,addition of renaturing buffer (pH 8.5) into denatured inclusion body yielded the best recovery rate (17.9%).This work provided an optimized purification method for high recovery of r-fGH,thus contributing to the application of r-fGH to aquaculture.

  20. The toxic mechanism of high lethality of herbicide butachlor in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huarong; Yin, Licheng; Zhang, Shicui; Feng, Wenrong

    2010-09-01

    The toxic mechanism of herbicide butachlor to induce extremely high lethality in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys Olivaceus, was analyzed by histopathological examination, antioxidant enzymes activities and ATP content assay. Histopathological examination of gill, liver and kidney of exposed fishes showed that gill was a target organ of butachlor. The butachlor seriously impaired the respiration of gills by a series of lesions such as edema, lifting and detachment of lamellar epithelium, breakdown of pillar cells, and blood congestion. The dysfunction of gill respiration caused suffocation to the exposed flounder with extremely high acute lethality. Antioxidant enzyme activity assay of the in vitro cultured flounder gill (FG) cells exposed to butachlor indicated that butachlor markedly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Furthermore, along with the decline of antioxidant enzyme activities, ATP content in the exposed FG cells decreased, too. This infers that the oxidative stress induced by butachlor can inhibit the production of cellular ATP. Similar decrease of ATP content was also observed in the exposed flounder gill tissues. Taken together, as in FG cells, butachlor possibly induced a short supply of ATP in pillar cells by inhibiting the antioxidant enzyme activities and then affecting the contractibility of the pillar cells, which in turn resulted in the blood congestion and suffocation of exposed flounder.

  1. A VIBRIO ANGUILLARUM STRAIN ASSOCIATED WITH SKIN ULCER ON CULTURED FLOUNDER, PARALICHTHYS OLIVACEUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫照兰; 谭训刚; 徐永立; 张培军

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of a bacterium strain M3, isolated from cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with remarkable external sign of skin ulcer during an epizootic outbreak, indicated that the bacterium belonged to the species Vibrio anguillarum. Challenge by I.M. ( intramuscular injection), bath, and oral administration with M3 showed that it was highly pathogenic for Paralichthys olivacues. The LD50 dose was 5. 144 × 103 CFU/per fish infection by I.M. injection. Recovered inoculated bacteria from the surviving fish revealed that the asymptomatic carriers could be a latent contagious source. Study of the effect of bacterial culture CFS (cell-free-supernatant) showed that the exotoxins produced by M3 play an important role in its pathogenicity for flounder. The resistance of M3 to 36 out of 41 antibiotics indicated that the bacterial disease outbreak was mainly attributable to the frequent and excessive use of antimicrobial agents; and that vaccination would be an effective precaution against bacterial disease.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF RETINAL STRUCTURE AND VISUAL ACUITY IN JAPANESE FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS OLIVACEUS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The retinal structure and visual acuity in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus at different stages of development were examined by light microscopy. The resolving power of the retina, the visual axis and the best visual field were estimated based on the distribution of cone cells in the retina. The visual system of the larvae appears poorly developed at hatching. The larvae with total length (TL) of less than 10 mm, have single cones only and the eyes were well pigmented. At 10-11 mm TL, most single cones fused to form double cones, with the single and double cones forming a mosaic pattern. From larvae to early juvenile the retina stretches, the cones increase in diameter and rods increase in number. Based on the highest density of the cones in the ventro-temporal region, the visual axis was orientated up-forward. The resolving power of the retina in 40-530 mm TL Japanese flounder was found to range from 25.1 to 11.5 min. The results indicated continual improvements in the visual system of the growing fish towards higher resolving power, visual acuity and sensitivity.

  3. Optimization of the purification methods for recovery of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng; Mu, Xiaosheng; Liu, Bin

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to optimize the purification of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus. Recombinant flounder growth hormone (r-fGH) was expressed by Escherichia coli in form of inclusion body or as soluble protein under different inducing conditions. The inclusion body was renatured using two recovery methods, i.e., dilution and dialysis. Thereafter, the refolded protein was purified by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography and r-fGH was obtained by cleavage of thrombin. For soluble products, r-fGH was directly purified from the lysates by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography. ELISA-receptor assay demonstrated that despite its low receptor binding activity, the r-fGH purified from refolded inclusion body had a higher yield (2.605 mg L-1) than that from soluble protein (1.964 mg L-1). Of the tested recovery methods, addition of renaturing buffer (pH 8.5) into denatured inclusion body yielded the best recovery rate (17.9%). This work provided an optimized purification method for high recovery of r-fGH, thus contributing to the application of r-fGH to aquaculture.

  4. Hybrids between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus: karyotype, allozyme and RAPD analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Feng; Wang, Wei; Xu, Dongdong; Zhu, Xiangping; Ni, Jing; Wu, Zhihao; Xu, Yongli; Wang, Xincheng; Zhang, Peijun

    2009-05-01

    The hybrid between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus was produced by artificial insemination of olive flounder eggs with stone flounder sperm. Sinistral and dextral are two types of hybrid progeny after metamorphosis. Karyotypes of both hybrid flounders are the same as those of the two parental species. Of the 22 loci examined from 12 allozymes, 12 confirmed hybridization of the paternal and maternal loci in hybrids and no difference was found in allozyme patterns of sinistral and dextral hybrid fishes. RAPD patterns of these specimens were also studied with 38 primers selected from 104 tested. Among them, the PCR products of 30 primers showed hybridization of the paternal and maternal bands. Genetic variation between hybrids and their parental stocks was analyzed by RAPD using 10 of the above 38 primers. The average heterozygosity and genetic distance were calculated. The results suggested that the filial generation could inherit a little more genetic materials from paternal fish than that from maternal fish.

  5. Hybrids between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus: karyotype, allozyme and RAPD analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Feng; WANG Wei; XU Dongdong; ZHU Xiangping; NI Jing; WU Zhihao; XU Yongli; WANG Xincheng; ZHANG Peijun

    2009-01-01

    The hybrid between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus was produced by artificial insemination of olive flounder eggs with stone flounder Sperm. Sinistral and dextral are two types of hybrid progeny after metamorphosis. Karyotypes of both hybrid flounders are the same as those of the two parental species. Of the 22 loci examined from 12 allozymes,12 confirmed hybridization of the paternal and matemal loci in hybrids and no difference was found in allozyme patterns of sinistral and dextral hybrid fishes. RAPD patterns of these specimens were also studied with 38 primers selected from 104 tested. Among them, the PCR products of 30 primers showed hybridization of the paternal and maternal bands. Genetic variation between hybrids and their parental stocks was analyzed by RAPD using 10 of the above 38 primers. The average heterozygosity and genetic distance were calculated. The results suggested that the filial generation could inherit a little more genetic materials from paternal fish than that from maternal fish.

  6. A Vibrio anguillarum strain associated with skin ulcer on cultured flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhao-Lan; Tan, Xun-Gang; Xu, Yong-Li; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2001-12-01

    The characteristics of a bacterium strain M3, isolated from cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with remarkable external sign of skin ulcer during an epizootic outbreak, indicated that the bacterium belonged to the species Vibrio anguillarum. Challenge by I.M. (intramuscular injection), bath, and oral administration with M3 showed that it was highly pathogenic for Paralichthys olivacues. The LD50 dose was 5.144×103 CFU/ per fish infection by I.M. injection. Recovered inoculated bacteria from the surviving fish revealed that the asymptomatic carriers could be a latent contagious source. Study of the effect of bacterial culture CFS (cell-free-supernatant) showed that the exotoxins produced by M3 play an important role in its pathogenicity for flounder. The resistance of M3 to 36 out of 41 antibiotics indicated that the bacterial disease outbreak was mainly attributable to the frequent and excessive use of antimicrobial agents; and that vaccination would be an effective precaution against bacterial disease.

  7. Tetroazolemycins A and B, Two New Oxazole-Thiazole Siderophores from Deep-Sea Streptomyces olivaceus FXJ8.012

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    Ying Huang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new oxazole/thiazole derivatives, named tetroazolemycins A (1 and B (2, have been isolated from the acetone extract of the mycelium of Streptomyces olivaceus FXJ8.012 derived from deep-sea water, together with three known compounds, spoxazomicins A–C (3–5, isolated from the fermentation supernatant. The planar structure and relative configuration of tetroazolemycins were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques, and showed to be new pyochelin-type antibiotics. Both compounds showed metal ion-binding activity and their Zn2+ complexes exhibited weak activity against pathogenic bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  8. Development of a multiplex PCR assay to detect Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus iniae in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Bin; Kwon, Kyoung; Cha, In Seok; Jang, Ho Bin; Nho, Seong Won; Fagutao, Fernand F; Kim, Young Kyu; Yu, Jong Earn; Jung, Tae Sung

    2014-01-01

    A multiplex PCR protocol was established to simultaneously detect major bacterial pathogens in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) including Edwardsiella (E.) tarda, Streptococcus (S.) parauberis, and S. iniae. The PCR assay was able to detect 0.01 ng of E. tarda, 0.1 ng of S. parauberis, and 1 ng of S. iniae genomic DNA. Furthermore, this technique was found to have high specificity when tested with related bacterial species. This method represents a cheaper, faster, and reliable alternative for identifying major bacterial pathogens in olive flounder, the most important farmed fish in Korea.

  9. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaobo; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Weise, Anja; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Tanomtong, Alongkoad; Pinthong, Krit; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Grothmann, Pierre; Liehr, Thomas; Oliveira, Edivaldo H C de

    2015-11-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs) using human multicolor banding (MCB) probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM) species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA), Callithrix jacchus (CJA), Cebus apella (CAP), Saimiri sciureus (SSC), and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE), respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs) among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107) NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99) NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA) and 66.3% (71/107) NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS). Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  10. Discrimination of functionally appropriate and inappropriate throwing tools by captive tufted capuchins (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore Avery; Westergaard, Gregory Charles

    2004-10-01

    A tool-throwing task was used to test whether capuchin monkeys understand the difference between functionally appropriate and functionally inappropriate tools. A group of monkeys was trained to obtain a sticky treat from a container outside their enclosure using a projectile attached to one end of an anchored line. Subsequently, these monkeys were given choice tests between functional and nonfunctional versions of tools used in training. A different feature of the tool was varied between alternatives in each choice test. The monkeys chose to use functional tools significantly more often than nonfunctional tools in early exposures to each choice test. A second experiment tested whether these subjects, as well as a second group of minimally trained participants, could distinguish between functional and nonfunctional tools that appeared different from those used in training. A new set of design features was varied between tools in these choice tests. All participants continued to choose functional tools significantly more often than nonfunctional tools, regardless of their tool-throwing experience or the novel appearance of the tools. These results suggest that capuchin monkeys, like chimpanzees studied in similar experiments, are sensitive to a variety of functionally relevant tool features.

  11. Molecular cloning and sexually dimorphic expression of wnt4 in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Shenda; You, Feng; Fan, Zhaofei; Wang, Lijuan; Wu, Zhihao; Zou, Yuxia

    2016-08-01

    WNT4 (wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 4) is regarded as a key regulator of gonad differentiation in mammalians. However, the potential role of wnt4 in teleosts during gonad differentiation and development is still unclear. The full-length cDNA sequence of wnt4 in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was obtained using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) technique. The wnt4 ORF contains 1059 nucleotides, encoding a protein with a signal peptide domain and a wnt family domain. Expression in tissues of adult flounders was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that wnt4 was widely expressed in multiple tissues of flounders, and the expression level was significantly higher in ovary than in testis. Then wnt4 expression pattern was investigated during gonadal differentiation period and at gonadal development stages (I-V). The results showed the expression levels were significantly higher in testis than in ovary during gonadal differentiation. Notably, wnt4 expression had a very significant increase before testis differentiation. At gonad different developmental stages, there was no expression signal at stage I or stage II, and the expression of wnt4 was much stronger in ovary than in testis at stage III and stage IV, followed by a faint expression in stage V in both sexes. Our results imply that cloned wnt4 could be wnt4a. It is a sex-related gene and its expression pattern in gonadal differentiation period of flounder is different from that in mammalians or other teleosts. Flounder wnt4 might play more important role in testis than in ovary during gonadal differentiation.

  12. Ueber den begriff "Kinoplasma" in der spermiogenese von Australorbis Glabratus Olivaceus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1960-11-01

    Full Text Available Zur Klaerung der Frage, ob der Begriff "Kinoplasma" fuer gewisse, von MERTON (1924,1926, 1930 beobachtete Bildungen an den reifenden Spermiden von pulmonaten Mollusken oder fuer Bestandteile des Cytoplasmas im Sinne von STRASBURGER und SCARTH zu verwenden ist, werden in der vorliegenden Mitteilung die Vorgaenge bei der Spermiohistogenese von Australorbis glabratus olivaceus untersucht. Es ergibt sich: 1. Das von MERTON bezeichnete "Kinoplasma" existiert nicht als solches, es handelt sich bei den von ihm dargestellten Protoplasmabildungen um kugelige, von den Spermiden abgeschnuerte Restkoerper nicht verwendeten Baumaterials, bestehend aus Protoplasma und einigen Mitochondrien. Sie werden von den Naehr- oder Bazalzellen phagozytiert. Der Ausdruck "Kinoplasma" kann nur fuer die submikroskopischen, geformten, faedigen Elemente des Cytoplasmas reserviert bleiben, die den geradlinigen Fall der uebrigen nicht geformten Komponenten bremst oder ablenkt; damit muss das Kinoplasma aber aus dem Begriff des Cytoplasmas herausgenommen werden, da es, wenn auch vermutlich reversibel, eine Differenzierung darstellt. 2. Der Spermienfaden wird von den Centriolen (Axialfilament und den Mitochondrien (zwei peripher gelegene Spiralfilamente, sowie einem Plasmamantel gebildet. 3. Nach Beendigung des Auswachsens der Spermiengeissel, die zu diesem Zeitpunkt nur aus dem Achsenfaden und dem Protoplasmazylinder besteht, setzt sich eine Protoplasmamasse vom Kopf in Richtung zum Geisselende in Bewegung. Sie fuehrt den Golgi-Koerper und sehr viele Mitochondrien mit sich. Aus diesen entwickeln sich Fibrillen, die sich zu den beiden Spiralfilamenten zusammenfuegen. Diese Masse entspricht der von MERTON in seiner Theorie als Kinoplasma bezeichneten Komponente. 4. Die Bewegung dieses Protoplasmateils wird auf den Schub zurueckgefuehrt, den die sich bildenden Fibrillen auf die Mitochondrien ausueben. 5. Die Rueckwaertsbewegung dieses Protoplasmakoerpers beruht wahrscheinlich auf

  13. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the STAT1 gene from olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Jongkyeong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1 is a critical component of interferon (IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma signaling. Although seven isoforms of STAT proteins have been reported from mammals, limited information is available for the STAT genes in fish. We isolated complementary DNA with high similarity to mammalian STAT1 from the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Results A DNA fragment containing the conserved SH2 domain was amplified by RT-PCR using degenerate primers designed based on the highly conserved sequences in the SH2 domains of the zebrafish and mammalian STAT1. The complete cDNA sequence was obtained by 5' and 3' RACE. The flounder STAT1 transcript consisted of 2,909 bp that encoded a polypeptide of 749 amino acids. The overall similarity between flounder STAT1 and other STATs was very high, with the highest amino acid sequence identity to snakehead (89%. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that flounder STAT1 is in the same monophyletic group with snakehead STAT1. Quantitative real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that STAT1 was expressed in almost all examined organs and tissues, with high expression in gill, spleen, kidney, and heart. The accumulation of STAT1 mRNA in different developmental stages, as determined by real time RT-PCR, increased with development. Conclusion Recent cloning of various cytokine genes and the STAT1 gene of olive flounder here suggest that fish also use the highly specialized JAK-STAT pathway for cytokine signaling. Identification of other STAT genes will elucidate in detail the signal transduction system in this fish.

  14. Post-release feeding and growth of hatchery-reared Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus: relevance to stocking effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, T; Watanabe, M; Kawata, G; Ebe, K

    2011-05-01

    The feeding and growth of hatchery-reared (HR) Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus of c. 100 mm total length (L(T) ) released off the coast of Fukushima, Japan, were investigated. From 2 to 15 days after release, the HR P. olivaceus frequently exhibited high empty-stomach frequency (>40%), low stomach-content mass (<1% of body mass), reduced somatic condition from release (c.-10%) and negligible growth. Thereafter, empty-stomach frequency decreased, the stomach-content mass of HR fish increased to 2-8% of body mass, the somatic condition recovered and growth rate increased to 0·5-1·5 mm day(-1) . Prey items were initially mysids, shifting thereafter to fishes such as the Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonica, as observed similarly in wild counterparts. The proportion of mysids decreased with time after release irrespective of size at release, indicating the importance of mysids for adaptation to natural food. Recapture rates at age 1 year, derived from fish market surveys, varied greatly among release years (4-11%). The variation in the recapture rates was largely accounted for by the post-release growth rates (r(2) = 0·5), suggesting a relationship between the post-release growth of HR fish and their survival and subsequent stocking effectiveness.

  15. Quantitative trait loci detection of Edwardsiella tarda resistance in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using bulked segregant analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Xu, Wenteng; Liu, Yang; Wang, Lei; Sun, Hejun; Wang, Lei; Chen, Songlin

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, Edwardsiella tarda has become one of the most deadly pathogens of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus), causing serious annual losses in commercial production. In contrast to the rapid advances in the aquaculture of P. olivaceus, the study of E. tarda resistance-related markers has lagged behind, hindering the development of a disease-resistant strain. Thus, a marker-trait association analysis was initiated, combining bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. Based on 180 microsatellite loci across all chromosomes, 106 individuals from the F1333 (♀: F0768 ×♂: F0915) (Nomenclature rule: F+year+family number) were used to detect simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and QTLs associated with E. tarda resistance. After a genomic scan, three markers (Scaffold 404-21589, Scaffold 404-21594 and Scaffold 270-13812) from the same linkage group (LG)-1 exhibited a significant difference between DNA, pooled/bulked from the resistant and susceptible groups (P CIM). These six QTLs, designated qE1-6, explained 16.0%-89.5% of the phenotypic variance. Two of the QTLs, qE-2 and qE-4, were located at the 66.7 cM region, which was considered a major candidate region for E. tarda resistance. This study will provide valuable data for further investigations of E. tarda resistance genes and facilitate the selective breeding of disease-resistant Japanese flounder in the future.

  16. Molecular Cloning, Promoter Analysis and Expression Profiles of the sox3 Gene in Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinning Gao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sox3, which belongs to the SoxB1 subgroup, plays major roles in neural and gonadal development. In the present study, Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus sox3 gene (Posox3 and its promoter sequence were isolated and characterized. The deduced PoSox3 protein contained 298 amino acids with a characteristic HMG-box domain. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses indicated that PoSox3 shares highly identical sequence with Sox3 homologues from different species. The promoter region of Posox3 has many potential transcription factor (TF binding sites. The expression profiles of Posox3 in different developmental stages and diverse adult tissues were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. Posox3 mRNA was maternally inherited, and maintained at a considerably high expression level between the blastula stage and the hatching stage during embryonic development. Posox3 was abundantly expressed in the adult brain and showed sexually dimorphic expression pattern. In situ hybridization (ISH was carried out to investigate the cellular distribution of Posox3 in the ovary, and results showed the uniform distribution of Posox3 throughout the cytoplasm of oogonia and stage I–III oocytes. These results indicate that Posox3 has potentially vital roles in embryonic and neural development and may be involved in the oogenesis process. Our work provides a fundamental understanding of the structure and potential functions of Sox3 in Paralichthys olivaceus.

  17. Pargyline reduces/prevents neuroleptic-induced acute dystonia in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, R; Casey, D E

    1987-01-01

    The neuropharmacologic mechanisms underlying neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS) were studied using a nonhuman primate model. Twenty-six Cebus albifrons monkeys were given weekly challenges of haloperidol (0.025 mg/kg IM), and half of the animals received the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor pargyline (5 mg/kg PO) daily for 17 consecutive days during the protocol. Pargyline caused no changes in baseline behaviors, but significantly reduced haloperidol-induced acute dystonia (AD) (-67%, P less than 0.002) and parkinsonism (-56%, P less than 0.005). The majority (8 of 13) of the experimental group had complete prevention of neuroleptic-induced EPS during cotreatment with pargyline. Behavioral scores returned to baseline levels after stopping pargyline, and did not show the further sensitization to haloperidol-induced AD that occurred in the control group. The possible mechanisms by which an MAO inhibitor might influence neuroleptic-induced AD were considered. The most likely explanation would appear to involve facilitation of striatal dopamine (DA) neurotransmission by inhibition of intra- and extraneuronal MAO, thus supporting the hypothesis that AD is due to decreased striatal DA function with secondary cholinergic hyperfunction.

  18. Molecular genetic analysis of the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey: recommendations for ex situ conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C G; Gaiotto, F A; Costa, M A; Martinez, R A

    2011-01-01

    The yellow-breasted capuchin monkey, Cebus xanthosternos, is one of the most endangered species of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. In situ conservation for this species is problematic due to habitat destruction; therefore, captive conservation has been considered as an alternative strategy. A Studbook for C. xanthosternos has been kept for more than 20 years; however, no genetic data has been collected. Our aim was to provide a preliminary assessment of the genetic variability of C. xanthosternos in captivity in Brazil and compare it with data from the wild. Microsatellite and mtDNA sequencing were carried out in 40 samples from five Brazilian institutions registered in the international Studbook and compared with 8 samples collected in a wild population from REBIO-Una/BA. DNA for analysis was extracted from hair, feces and blood. Our results showed that two of the five captive groups assessed had a genetic variability comparable to wild animals. However, the other three groups apparently require urgent management to improve its genetic variability. Considering that inbreeding effects are more pronounced in captivity due to lack of gene flow, our data indicate a need to increase population size by introducing newly rescued individuals into these captive groups. Our results are the first attempt to provide genetic information for captive C. xanthosternos in Brazil.

  19. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience.

  20. Rhesus monkey heart rate during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorge, J.; Thach, J. S., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Various schedules of reinforcement and their relation to heart rates of rhesus monkeys during exercise are described. All the reinforcement schedules produced 100 per cent or higher increments in the heart rates of the monkeys during exercise. Resting heart rates were generally much lower than those previously reported, which was attributed to the lack of physical restraint of the monkeys during recording.

  1. Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities across Senses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kerry E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys…

  2. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  3. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  4. Comparative anatomical study of the leg's nerves of Cebus (barbed capuchins with baboons, chimpanzees and modern humans Estudo anatômico comparativo dos nervos da perna de Cebus (macaco-prego com babuínos, chimpanzés e humanos modernos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá de Abreu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical comparative studies among the primates are important for the investigation of ethology, evolution, taxonomy, and comprehension of tools by hominoids. Especially the anatomical knowledge of Cebus contributes to conservation of the species, and to development of surgical procedures and clinical treatments of these animals, as they frequently are victims of automobile accidents. Recent anatomical studies came to a wrong conclusion regarding behavioral traits of Cebus, ascribed to few data available in previous literature. Therefore, to provide anatomical data and to support the other sciences related to anatomy, and to develop surgical and/or clinical procedures, we described the nerves of the legs of Cebus foccusing on their position and trajectory, as wll as innerved muscles, and compared these results with those of humans and other primates. Eight adult capuchin specimens were used for this study. The anatomical comparative study of the leg's nerves of Cebus demonstrated that, in general, structural organization of the nerves is similar among the four primates analyzed here (Cebus, chimpanzees, baboons and humans, which might be attributed to the fact that the all four primates have similar body structures. However, nerve trajectory and muscles innervation in Cebus was more similar to baboons.Os estudos anatômicos comparativos entre os primatas são importantes para pesquisas associadas com a etologia, evolução, taxonomia e compreensão dos usos de ferramentas pelos hominídeos. Especificamente, o conhecimento anatômico sobre Cebus contribui para sua própria conservação e para o desenvolvimento de procedimentos cirúrgicos e tratamentos clínicos destes animais, pois são frequentemente vítimas de acidentes automobilísticos. Recentemente, estudos sobre características comportamentais de Cebus indicaram conclusões erradas sobre sua anatomia, o que pode ser atribuído aos poucos dados disponíveis sobre a anatomia desses

  5. Monkeys in a prisoner's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ju; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-03-12

    Haroush and Williams trained pairs of monkeys to play in a prisoner's dilemma game, a model of social interactions. Recording from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), they find neurons whose activity reflects the anticipation of the opponent's yet unknown choice, which may be important in guiding animals' performance in the game.

  6. Modelling Social Learning in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Jeremy R.

    2008-01-01

    The application of modelling to social learning in monkey populations has been a neglected topic. Recently, however, a number of statistical, simulation and analytical approaches have been developed to help examine social learning processes, putative traditions, the use of social learning strategies and the diffusion dynamics of socially…

  7. Anatomical aspect of the hard palate of the Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1766 primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Luciana Martins Ramos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen hard palates of neotropical primates were studied (Cebus apella, fixed on formaldehyde (10% and preserved in ethylic alcohol (70%, collected according to the International Bioethics Committee. The animals were supplied by the Medicine College Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnica of the University of São Paulo in 1994. They originated from the São Paulo Zoo. They had died naturally. Measurement (in centimeters of the viscerocranium (8 adults and 6 young animals was made, including palatine length (PL, interpremolar distance (ID, intermolar distance (ID, interorbital distance (IDi, and midface height (MH. The palatine anatomy showed complete right crests (7.64 to 1.22, complete left crests (8.07 to 1.71, incomplete right crests (1.71 to 1.43, and incomplete left crests (1.64 to 1.3. The diasten between the lateral incisive teeth was the main anatomical landmark for the anterior end of the crest, and the landmark for the posterior end was the second molar teeth for all the specimens. The palate is very peculiar: mild concave, from the dental arcade to the median line, covered by the non-pigmented mucous tissue, with osseous structure composed of horizontal layers of the maxilar and palatine bones; sub mucous tissue attached to the periosteum and mucous tissue showing relatively prominent palatine crests. The crests appear as a rigid elevation of the mucous tissue, with some variations at the antimers. It may be concluded that the length of the hard palate is strongly related to the maturity of the animal, relative to the interorbital distance, and that the latter is also related to the length of the palate and the labial opening.

  8. Carcinoma mamário pouco diferenciado em macaco-prego, Cebus sp. (Cebidae

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    Liane Ziliotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As neoplasias mamárias são raras em primatas não humanos, enquanto que nas mulheres apresentam alta incidência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência e os resultados do tratamento de um Cebus sp. (fam. Cebidae fêmea, com carcinoma mamário pouco diferenciado encaminhado ao Serviço de Atendimento de Animais Selvagens da Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste. À inspeção o animal apresentava aumento de volume em região mamária direita e ao exame radiográfico foram observados três pontos de radiopacidade, característicos de projétil balístico de arma de pressão, com um deles alojado ao centro da massa de tecido mamário Após estabilização, a paciente foi submetida à exérese cirúrgica de aumento de volume e o material foi encaminhado para análise histopatológica. O diagnóstico obtido foi de carcinoma de alto grau, compatível com carcinoma adenoescamoso. Após a retirada dos pontos a paciente foi encaminhada ao convívio de outros animais. Mais de 20 meses após a terapia cirúrgica não há sinais de recidiva. A paciente alimenta-se bem, convive normalmente com o grupo, sugerindo que a terapia adotada foi eficiente até o momento em alcançar qualidade de vida e aumento de sobrevida do animal.

  9. Effects of calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia as a live food on the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2009-12-01

    Zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for fish larvae in the marine food web, and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and anostraca crustacean Artemia sp. were analyzed for fatty acid contents, and were used as live food for culturing larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The total content of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) in S. poplesia was significantly higher than that in the other two live foods ( Pdiet or Artemia only, and the ratio of EPA/ARA in larvae and juveniles of P. olivaceus fed with S. poplesia was lower than that in the case of feeding with a mixed diet or Artemia only. The present data showed that copepod is the best choice for feeding the larvae and juveniles of fish considering its effects on the survival, growth and nutrition composition of the fish.

  10. Effects of Calanoid Copepod Schmackeria poplesia as a Live Food on the Growth, Survival and Fatty Acid Composition of Larvae and Juveniles of Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guangxing; XU Donghui

    2009-01-01

    Zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for fish larvae in the marine food web, and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and anostraca crustacean Artemia sp. were analyzed for fatty acid contents, and were used as live food for culturing larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The total content of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) in S. poplesia was significantly higher than that in the other two live foods (P<0.01). Three live organisms were used for raising larvae and juveniles ofParalichthys olivaceus respectively for 15 and 10 d. Then the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of the larvae and juveniles were investigated. The results showed that the larvae and juveniles fed with copepods (S. poplesia) had significantly higher growth rate than thosc fed with the other two organisms (P<0.01). The survival of the flounder larvae fed with copepods was significantly higher than that of the others (P<0.01), and the survival of the juvenile fish fed with copepods was higher than that fed with Artemia (P<0.05). The contents of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) and the ratio of DHA/EPA in larval and juvenile flounder P. olivaceus were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of DHA, EPA and ARA in the larvae and juveniles fed with S. poplesia were higher than those fed with a mixed diet or Artemia only, and the ratio of EPA/ARA in larvae and juveniles of P. olivaceus fed with S. poplesia was lower than that in the case of feeding with a mixed diet or Artemia only. The present data showed that copepod is the best choice for feeding the larvae and juveniles of fish considering its effects on the survival, growth and nutrition composition of the fish.

  11. Behavioral sleep in captive owl monkey (Aotus azarae) and squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Kantha, Sachi; Suzuki, Juri; Hirai, Yuriko; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that activity-behavioral sleep parameters differ between nocturnallyactive owl monkeys and diurnally-active squirrel monkeys which are sympatric and of Bolivian origin. The total sleep time (TST) and sleep episode length (SEL) of 7 adult owl monkey siblings and 4 adult squirrel monkeys were quantitated by actigraphy for 7 days under captive conditions. The higher TST/24 h values and longer SEL/12 h quiescent phase quantitated for owl monkeys in comparison to that of squirrel monkeys clearly indicate that the behavioral sleep is markedly different between these two groups, though they are sympatric in wild. Significant differences noted in the sleep architecture between squirrel monkeys and owl monkeys can be attributed to the influences in the selected sleep niche, threat perception from predators, and disturbances from natural elements (especially rain) in the natural habitat.

  12. Cooperation and competition in two forest monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Eckardt, Winnie; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Putty-nosed monkeys, Cercopithecus nictitans stampflii, occur at various sites in West Africa, particularly in the transition zone between rainforest and savannah. The species is sometimes seen in primary rainforest, although at a curiously low density compared with that of other monkey species. We conducted a 24-month field study in the tropical rainforest of Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, and found that putty-nosed monkeys require an ecological niche almost identical to that of the Diana m...

  13. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S.; Swing, S.P.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box and toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box and toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n = 16) found that plasma

  14. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Macaque monkeys experience visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Erin A; Olson, Carl R

    2015-01-01

    In peripheral vision, objects that are easily discriminated on their own become less discriminable in the presence of surrounding clutter. This phenomenon is known as crowding.The neural mechanisms underlying crowding are not well understood. Better insight might come from single-neuron recording in nonhuman primates, provided they exhibit crowding; however, previous demonstrations of crowding have been confined to humans. In the present study, we set out to determine whether crowding occurs in rhesus macaque monkeys. We found that animals trained to identify a target letter among flankers displayed three hallmarks of crowding as established in humans. First, at a given eccentricity, increasing the spacing between the target and the flankers improved recognition accuracy. Second, the critical spacing, defined as the minimal spacing at which target discrimination was reliable, was proportional to eccentricity. Third, the critical spacing was largely unaffected by object size. We conclude that monkeys, like humans, experience crowding. These findings open the door to studies of crowding at the neuronal level in the monkey visual system.

  16. Effects of whole-body X-radiation on the neutrophils of the peripheral blood of the primate Cebus apella (weeping capuchin); Acao dos raios X corpo total sobre os neutrofilos do sangue periferico em primata Cebus apella (macaco prego)

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    Egami, Mizue Imoto; Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Paiva, Elias Rodrigues de; Segreto, Camilo [Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Diniz, Lilian Munao [Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The effects of ionizing radiation on the neutrophils of Primate Cebus apella were studied after whole-body x-radiation to a single exposure of 25.8 m C/kg (100 R 0), Wright`s stained preparations showed changes in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of neutrophils at 1,3 and 6 days after irradiation. during this period of time, the cytochemical methods revealed a considerable variation in the pattern of distribution of glycogen, sudanophilic and myeloperoxidase positive granules. Under these same experimental conditions the number of caryoschizes increased on the first and third day. On the ninetieth day post exposure, the morphological and cytochemical appearances of neutrophils as well as the number of caryoschized were similar to the controls. (author) 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Social facilitation of eating novel food in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): input provided by group members and responses affected in the observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, E; Visalberghi, E

    2001-11-01

    Learning about food palatability from watching what conspecifics eat might be one of the advantages of group living. A previous study investigated whether group members' presence or eating activity account for social facilitation of eating of foods never previously tasted. Capuchins encountered novel colored foods when (1) alone (Alone condition) or (2) with group members visible in the nearby cage (Group-present condition) or (3) with group members present and eating a familiar food that had not been colored (Group+food condition). Social facilitation of eating occurred when group members were eating, despite the difference in color between the familiar food eaten by them and the novel food presented to the experimental subject. To clarify what subjects learnt from group members when social facilitation occurred, we further analyze here the data from the previous study. The number of visual exposures to the colored novel food (as a group member) correlated with increased consumption of that novel food when encountered later (as experimental subject). In contrast, the number of times that an individual fed on the familiar food (as a group member) did not decrease its consumption of novel food (as experimental subject). Therefore, capuchins (1) habituated to the colors of the novel foods, and (2) did not take into account that seeing group members eating a food does not provide information about the palatability of a differently colored food. Since social facilitation of eating occurs when foods do not match in color, at least in capuchins, social facilitation of eating should not be considered as a way of learning about a safe diet, but rather as a way of overcoming neophobia.

  18. When size makes a difference: allometry, life-history and morphological evolution of capuchins (Cebus) and squirrels (Saimiri) monkeys (Cebinae, Platyrrhini)

    OpenAIRE

    Marroig Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background How are morphological evolution and developmental changes related? This rather old and intriguing question had a substantial boost after the 70s within the framework of heterochrony (changes in rates or timing of development) and nowadays has the potential to make another major leap forward through the combination of approaches: molecular biology, developmental expe...

  19. Humoral immune response in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella after vaccination with inactivated suckling mouse brain rabies vaccine: comparison of two schedules of immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevão de Camargo Passos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram vacinados contra a raiva, dois grupos de macacos-pregos adultos, com a vacina inativada preparada em cérebros de camundongos lactentes, administrada pela via intramuscular, na Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo. Os animais em momento algum haviam sido imunizados contra a raiva. O grupo I consistia de nove animais, que receberam três doses de 1,0 mL nos dias 0, 30 e uma dose de reforço aos 210 dias, e o grupo II continha 10 animais que receberam duas doses de 1,0 mL no dia 0 e uma dose de reforço aos 210 dias. As amostras de sangue foram colhidas aos 0, 30º, 60º, 90º, 150º, 210º, 240º, 300º e 365º dias, e os anticorpos neutralizantes titulados pela técnica simplificada da inibição de focos fluorescentes. A vacina induziu uma resposta imune de curta duração com títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes acima de 0.5 UI/mL em ambos os grupos; entretanto a resposta imune persistiu por apenas 54,9 + 57,0 e 36,1 + 60,2 dias nos Grupos I e II respectivamente após a primo vacinação, e, por apenas 62,6 + 74,0 e 86,4 + 61,5 dias nos Grupos I e II respectivamente após o reforço. Não houve diferença estatística significante entre os grupos estudados (p >; 0,05.

  20. Artificial Nursing Procedure Establishment for Infant Rhesus Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong; Si Wei; Zhou Yin; Chen Lixian

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus monkey can not achieve natural delivery due to various reasons,and cesarean section becomes an important midwifery to get infant monkeys. After caesarean section,the pregnant monkey is weak and postoperative wound pain,so it can not personally feed infant monkeys which must be artificially fed. Thus,establishing suitable feeding management program is very important for improving survival rate of infant rhesus monkey and maintaining good health. We summarized food preparation method for infant rhesus monkeys as well as temperature setting and light control,and established the nursing program for newborn infant monkey and daily management process for infant monkeys.

  1. Evaluation of dental pulp repair using low level laser therapy (688 nm and 785 nm) morphologic study in capuchin monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretel, H.; Oliveira, J. A.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Ramalho, L. T. O.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) 688 nm and 785 nm accelerate dentin barrier formation and repair process after traumatic pulp exposure. The sample consisted of 45 premolars of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with pulp exposure Class V cavities. All premolars were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), divided in groups of 15 teeth each, and analyzed on 7th, 25th, and 60th day. Group GI - only Ca(OH)2, GII - laser 688 nm, and GIII - laser 785 nm. Laser beam was used in single and punctual dose with the parameters: continuous, 688 nm and 785 nm wavelength, tip's area of 0.00785 cm2, power 50 mW, application time 20 s, dose 255 J/cm2, energy 2 J. Teeth were capped with Ca(OH)2, Ca(OH)2 cement and restored with amalgam. All groups presented pulp repair. On 25th day the thickness of the formed dentin barrier was different between the groups GI and GII (p < 0.05) and between groups GI and GIII (p < 0.01). On 60th day there was difference between GI and GIII (p < 0.01). It may be concluded that, LLLT 688 nm and 785 nm accelerated dentin barrier formation and consequently pulp repair process, with best results using infrared laser 785 nm.

  2. Levantamento soroepidemiológico para arbovírus em macaco-prego-galego (Cebus flavius de vida livre no estado da Paraíba e em macaco-prego (Cebus libidinosus de cativeiro do nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plautino O. Laroque

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve a primeira investigação de anticorpos para arbovírus em primatas não humanos do Novo Mundo no nordeste brasileiro. No período de março de 2008 a setembro de 2010 foram colhidos soros sanguíneos de 31 macacos-prego-galegos (Cebus flavius de vida livre na Paraíba e de 100 macacos-prego (Cebus libidinosus em cativeiro nos estados de Alagoas, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí e Rio Grande do Norte. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos utilizou-se o teste de inibição da hemaglutinação (IH, usando antígenos de 19 diferentes tipos de arbovírus, pertencentes aos gêneros Flavivirus,Alphavirus e Bunyavirus. As amostras de soro foram testadas nas diluições de 1:20 a 1:1280. Dentre as amostras examinadas, todas as de C. flavius foram negativas e 46% das de C. libidinosus em cativeiro apresentaram anticorpos para arbovírus. Foram detectados anticorpos para nove (9/19 arbovírus. Foram observadas 17 reações heterotípicas, para dois ou mais vírus, do gênero Flavivirus, e 15 para o gênero Alphavirus, com títulos variando de 1:20 a 1:1280. Quinze amostras apresentaram reação monotípica para ILHV (n=4, MAYV (n=6, SLEV (n=1, ROCV (n=2, OROV (n=1 e MUCV (n=1. Estes resultados sugerem que houve intensa circulação de arbovírus na população estudada de macacos-prego em cativeiro.

  3. Cup tool use by squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Christine L; Hyde, Shellie A; Parker, Karen J; Lyons, David M

    2015-12-01

    Captive-born male and female squirrel monkeys spontaneously 'invented' a cup tool use technique to Contain (i.e., hold and control) food they reduced into fragments for consumption and to Contain water collected from a valve to drink. Food cup use was observed more frequently than water cup use. Observations indicate that 68% (n = 39/57) of monkeys in this population used a cup (a plastic slip cap) to Contain food, and a subset of these monkeys, 10% (n = 4/39), also used a cup to Contain water. Cup use was optional and did not replace, but supplemented, the hand/arm-to-mouth eating and direct valve drinking exhibited by all members of the population. Strategies monkeys used to bring food and cups together for food processing activity at preferred upper-level perching areas, in the arboreal-like environment in which they lived, provides evidence that monkeys may plan food processing activity with the cups. Specifically, prior to cup use monkeys obtained a cup first before food, or obtained food and a cup from the floor simultaneously, before transporting both items to upper-level perching areas. After food processing activity with cups monkeys rarely dropped the cups and more often placed the cups onto perching. Monkeys subsequently returned to use cups that they previously placed on perching after food processing activity. The latter behavior is consistent with the possibility that monkeys may keep cups at preferred perching sites for future food processing activity and merits experimental investigation. Reports of spontaneous tool use by squirrel monkeys are rare and this is the first report of population-level tool use. These findings offer insights into the cognitive abilities of squirrel monkeys and provide a new context for behavior studies with this genus and for comparative studies with other primates.

  4. Strongyloides cebus (Nematoda: Strongyloididae) in Lagothrix cana (Primates: Atelidae) from the Brazilian Amazon: aspects of clinical presentation, anatomopathology, treatment, and parasitic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Ferreira Junior, Francisco Carlos; Pinto, Hudson Alves; de Melo, Alan Lane

    2013-12-01

    Abstract :  Seven cases of parasitism by Strongyloides cebus were identified in Lagothrix cana from Brazil. Aspects of the clinical presentation, treatment, pathology, and parasitic biology of these infections are described. Moderate to severe disease was observed, requiring hospitalization of 3 primates, and diarrhea was the most common clinical sign described. One L. cana individual died, for which ulcerative enteritis was the major finding upon histopathological analysis. The use of ivermectin in these atelids was safe and effective against the parasite. Parallel attempts to experimentally infect gerbils with the parasite failed. Lagothrix cana is presented as a new host for S. cebus. The evidence that Strongyloides infections are common in nonhuman primates under free-living conditions, and even more prevalent in captive animals, likely represents a neglected problem.

  5. Scream-embrace displays in wild black-horned capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica

    2008-06-01

    Reintroduction of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) into their social group in captivity can elicit sirena screams and embraces. Captive scream-embrace displays are male biased, and females never perform sirena screams. One hypothesis is that scream-embrace displays serve a tension-reduction or reconciliatory function between males with conflicting interests. Alternatively, these displays may function to maintain strong affiliative bonds between friendly male dyads. Scream and/or embrace displays in wild Brazilian black-horned capuchins were analyzed for social and ecological contexts, behavioral components, and individuals involved. Seventy-two displays were observed during the 199-day study period. Among the 66 displays for which both members could be identified by sex, there were 42 occurrences of male-male dyads, 17 of male-female dyads, and seven of female-female dyads. Scream-embrace dyads were male-male pairs significantly more often than expected from group membership, and the alpha male was the only male to engage in scream-embrace displays with females. Female-female pairs did embrace, but never emitted sirena screams. Displays most commonly occurred in "reunion" contexts, primarily the reuniting of subgroups after hours or days out of contact, but also after intergroup encounters, and across groups in "intergroup" displays. Displays were rare, but socially contagious, and subgroup reunions could elicit multiple displays in rapid succession. Although the occurrence of screams and embraces was positively correlated, both behaviors also occurred independently, and their functions may be different. Male sirena screams may be honest advertisements of united alliances, directed toward a third party, whereas the embrace may be a risky affiliative signal, directed primarily within the dyad.

  6. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  7. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  8. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  9. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  10. Spatial information processing in humans and monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis a series of experiments are described on human volunteers and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in the context of spatial information processing. In the first single-unit recording experiments in monkeys a spatial summation algorithm was investigated. The responses of single neurons to

  11. Prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Cebus spp in the Santa Fe Zoological Park of Medellín, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid, A P; Cañas, L; Estrada, J J; Ramirez, L E

    1991-07-01

    The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was studied in 47 nonhuman primates of the Cebus species in the Santa Fe Zoological Park in Medellín, Colombia. Specific IgG titers (greater than 1/64) were detected in 40.9% of C. albifrons studied (n = 22), 13.3% of C. capucinus (n = 15), and 0% of C. apella (n = 10). Specific IgM was not detected in any of the animals studied.

  12. Disruption of the thyroid system by the thyroid-disrupting compound Aroclor 1254 in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Dong

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a group of persistent organochlorine compounds that have the potential to disrupt the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs in fish, particularly juveniles. In this study, thyroid histology, plasma TH levels, and iodothyronine deiodinase (IDs, including ID1, ID2, and ID3 gene expression patterns were examined in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus following 25- and 50-day waterborne exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (10, 100, and 1000 ng/L with two-thirds of the test solutions renewed daily. The results showed that exposure to Aroclor 1254 for 50 d increased follicular cell height, colloid depletion, and hyperplasia. In particular, hypothyroidism, which was induced by the administration of 1000 ng/L Aroclor 1254, significantly decreased plasma TT4, TT3, and FT3 levels. Profiles of the changes in mRNA expression levels of IDs were observed in the liver and kidney after 25 and 50 d PCB exposure, which might be associated with a reduction in plasma THs levels. The expression level of ID2 mRNA in the liver exhibited a dose-dependent increase, indicating that this ID isotype might serve as sensitive and stable indicator for thyroid-disrupting chemical (TDC exposure. Overall, our study confirmed that environmentally relevant concentrations of Aroclor 1254 cause significant thyroid disruption, with juvenile Japanese flounder being suitable candidates for use in TDC studies.

  13. Tissue-specific bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) exposed to mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Lin, Longshan; Chen, Quanzhen; Dou, Shuozeng

    2012-07-01

    To understand mercury (Hg) toxicity in marine fish, we measured Hg accumulation in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and assessed the effects on growth and antioxidant responses. After Hg exposure (control, 5, 40, and 160 μg/L Hg) for 28 d, fish growth was significantly reduced. The accumulation of Hg in fish was dose-dependent and tissue-specific, with the maximum accumulation in kidney and liver, followed by gills, bone, and muscle. Different antioxidants responded differently to Hg exposure to cope with the induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO), which was also tissue-specific and dosedependent. As Hg concentration increased, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased significantly, whereas glutathione S -transferase (GST) activity and glutathione (GSH) levels decreased significantly in the gills. SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and the GSH level increased significantly in the liver. SOD activity and GSH levels increased significantly, but CAT activity decreased significantly with an increase in Hg concentration in the kidney. LPO was induced significantly by elevated Hg in the gills and kidney but was least affected in the liver. Therefore, oxidative stress biomarkers in gills were more sensitive than those in the liver and kidney to Hg exposure. Thus, the gills have potential as bioindicators for evaluating Hg toxicity in juvenile flounder.

  14. First isolation and characterization of a new species of Vibrio from diseased flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus Temminck et Schlegel)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaojun; FANG Hai; CHEN Cuizhen; ZHAN Wenbin; JIN Xiaomin; WANG Xiuyun

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate pathogenic bacteria were isolated from diseased (or dead) flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus L) occurring in a mariculture farms of Qinhuangdao, which all diseased fishes expressed bacterial septieaemia. The phenotypic information of the 12 pure cultures was studied extensively, including morphological characteristics, colony characteristics in different media, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and the mole fraction G+C ratio of the DNA for representative strain. The results show that the isolates belong to a new species of Vibrio, and are designated as Vibrio qinhuangdaora sp.nov. by the area from which the diseased flounders are collected (Qinhuangdao) based on its biological properties following Rules of International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. At the same time,studies on the serum homology of isolates, and pathogenicity of isolates were conducted by experimental infection. The results show that all the isolates are of serologic similarity, and the isolates have strong pathogenicity to flounder. The studies can extensively reflect the main biological properties of this new species of Vibrio.

  15. Cytogenetic characterization of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus: DNA content, karyotype, AgNORs and location of major ribosomal genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xubo; ZHANG Quanqi; CHEN Yanjie; QI Jie; WANG Zhigang; WANG Xinglian

    2009-01-01

    A cytogenetic analysis of Paralichthys olivaceus was carried out using the flow cytometry method for DNA content, silver staining for the nucleolus organizer region (AgNORs) identification and one-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosomal mapping of major ribosomal genes. Nuclear DNA content was estimated by flow cytometry method using Gallus domesticus erythrocytes as the internal reference standard. The C-value of this species was (0.737±0.024) pg, and the DNA contents of each chromosome were estimated to be 16.51 Mb to 39.50 Mb after paired according to the average relative length. The FISH probe was made by PCR amplification of a DNA fragment containing internal transcribed spacers ITS1 between 18S and 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and labeled by PCR incorporation of bio-16-dUTP. FISH signals and AgNORs were both located on the secondary constrictions of chromosome 1. These results will provide a better understanding of the cytogenetic information of this species and would help for further research of the karyotype evolution in the order Pleuronectiformes.

  16. The effects of temperature and substrate on ontogenetic behavior of bastard halibut, Paralichthys olivaceus (T. et S.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong; XIAN Weiwei; ZHU Xinhua

    2005-01-01

    The effects of temperature and substrate on ontogenetic patterns and settlement behavior of bastard halibut, Paralichthys olivaceus (T. et S.) were studied in a series of laboratory experiments. Analysis on stage-based data revealed that except for settlement, and compared to the substrate, the ambient temperature dominantly controlled the hatch success and subsequent development of the species. The oosperm optimum survival rate of 60% during hatching occurred at 20℃, and survival rate of 29%, at 18℃ for larval rearing. The survival rate of larvae reared under variable temperature of 3.5-4.5℃ was higher than that of those reared under stable temperature. The maximum survival rate of 29%, corresponded to variation at temperature of 4℃. With increase in age newly settled juveniles preferred to lie on the fine substrate and gradually moved on the coarse substrate. GLM (general linear model) analysis showed that the combination of temperature and substrate had no significant impact on the survival of settling larvae, but definitely affected the duration of settlement.

  17. Tissue-specific bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) exposed to mercury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; CAO Liang; YE Zhenjiang; LIN Longshan; CHEN Quanzhen; DOU Shuozeng

    2012-01-01

    To understand mercury (Hg) toxicity in marine fish,we measured Hg accumulation in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and assessed the effects on growth and antioxidant responses.After Hg exposure (control,5,40,and 160 μg/L Hg) for 28 d,fish growth was significantly reduced.The accumulation of Hg in fish was dose-dependent and tissue-specific,with the maximum accumulation in kidney and liver,followed by gills,bone,and muscle.Different antioxidants responded differently to Hg exposure to cope with the induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO),which was also tissue-specific and dosedependent.As Hg concentration increased,superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased significantly,whereas glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and glutathione (GSH) levels decreased significantly in the gills.SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and the GSH level increased significantly in the liver.SOD activity and GSH levels increased significantly,but CAT activity decreased significantly with an increase in Hg concentration in the kidney.LPO was induced significantly by elevated Hg in the gills and kidney but was least affected in the liver.Therefore,oxidative stress biomarkers in gills were more sensitive than those in the liver and kidney to Hg exposure.Thus,the gills have potential as bioindicators for evaluating Hg toxicity in juvenile flounder.

  18. Effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Yanjiao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Wenbing

    2012-12-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feeding intake, growth performance, and digestion of juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Four isonitrogenous (49% crude protein) and isoenergetic (20.1 MJ kg-1) diets were formulated to contain four graded levels of soy isoflavones, namely, 0, 1, 4 and 8 g soy isoflavones in 1 kg of diet. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate tanks of fish (Initial average weight: 2.58 g ± 0.01 g), and each tank was stocked with 35 fish. No significant difference was observed among diets with levels of 0, 1 and 4 g kg-1 soy isoflavones in feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio (FER), proximate composition of fish whole body and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy ( P>0.05). However, high dietary soy isoflavones level (8 g kg-1) significantly depressed weight gain, FER, whole-body crude lipid content of fish and ADC of nutrients ( PJapanese flounder. However, as the content of soy isoflavones in soybean meal is around 1 to 3 g kg-1, the adverse effects might be neglected when soybean products are used as a fish feed ingredient.

  19. Immunization of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) with an auxotrophic Edwardsiella tarda mutant harboring the VHSV DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Ki Hong

    2012-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to find more powerful promoter for DNA vaccines in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and to evaluate the availability of the auxotrophic Edwardsiella tarda mutant (Δalr Δasd E. tarda) as a delivery vehicle for DNA vaccine against VHSV in olive flounder. The marine medaka (Oryzias dancena) β-actin promoter was clearly stronger than cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter when the vectors were transfected to Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells or injected into the muscle of olive flounder, suggesting that marine medaka β-actin promoter would be more appropriate promoter for DNA vaccines in olive flounder than CMV promoter. Olive flounder immunized with the Δalr Δasd E. tarda harboring viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) DNA vaccine vector driven by the marine medaka β-actin promoter showed significantly higher serum neutralization titer and higher survival rates against challenge with VHSV than fish immunized with the bacteria carrying VHSV DNA vaccine vector driven by CMV promoter. These results indicate that auxotrophic E. tarda mutant harboring marine medaka β-actin promoter-driven DNA vaccine vectors would be a potential system for prophylactics of infectious diseases in olive flounder.

  20. Efficient detection of pathogen virus in sand dabs,Paralichthys olivaceus using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HWANG Jinik; PARK So Yun; SUH Sung-Suk; PARK Mirye; LEE Sukchan; LEE Taek-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and marine birnavirus (MABV) are the causative pathogens for some of the most explosive epidemics of emerging viral diseases in many Asian countries, leading to huge economic losses in aquaculture. Rapid molecular detection for surveillance or diagnosis has been a critical component in reducing the prevalence of pathogen infection. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of DNA is currently one of the most commonly used molecular diagnostic tools, as it is simple, quick, and easy to amplify target DNA under isothermal conditions. In the present study, a novel and highly specific LAMP assay for the sensitive and rapid detection of VHSV and MABV infection in fish was developed. Using a set of synthesized primers matching a specific region of the genome, the efficiency and specificity of the LAMP assay were optimized in terms of the reaction temperature and DNA polymerase concentration, as they are the main determinants of the sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay. In particular, we demonstrated that our assay could be applied to efficient detection of VHSV and MABV infection in the wild fish,Paralichthys olivaceus. Our results demonstrate the simplicity and convenience of this method for the detection of viral infection in aquatic organisms.

  1. Development of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tetsuya; Kawai, Takao; Sato, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Kumeda, Yuko

    2012-05-15

    Kudoa septempunctata is a newly identified myxosporean parasite that infects the trunk muscles of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and a causative agent of the increasing number of foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks with unknown etiology which have occurred in Japan over the last few years. Here, we developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) assay for the detection of K. septempunctata 18S rDNA in olive flounder muscle tissue samples. Additionally, we compared the relative efficacy of four DNA extraction methods, including two commercial kits, and assessed intrafish variability in the distribution of K. septempunctata spores in flounder using this QPCR method in order to establish a more accurate quantitative measurement. Our QPCR assay displayed high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, and had good correlation with a microscopic detection method. Our data also indicated that the DNeasy® Blood & Tissue Kit was more efficient method for the extraction of K. septempunctata DNA than the three other methods (heating, alkaline lysis, and FastDNA® SPIN Kit method). We believe that our method would be useful for investigating foodborne outbreaks caused by K. septempunctata and for the monitoring and quantification of this parasite in retail or aquacultured olive flounders to prevent such outbreaks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cloning and characterization of hypusine-containing protein eIF5A from the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hee Jeong; Hong, Gyeong-Eun; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ok; Nam, Bo-Hye; Lee, Chang Hoon; Do, Jeong Wan; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Jun; Kim, Kyung-Kil

    2009-07-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only protein in eukaryotic cells that contains the unusual amino acid hypusine (N(epsilon)-(4-amino-2(R)-hydroxybutyl)-lysine). We isolated a 1385-bp eIF5A cDNA containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 468 bp, which encodes a protein of 155 amino acids with a conserved hypusine modification site, from the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Pairwise alignments revealed that flounder eIF5A had a high sequence identity with those of other known species including mammals. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed the expression of eIF5A mRNA was constitutively detected in various tissues of healthy flounder. In HINAE cells or flounder kidney infected with the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), the expression of eIF5A mRNA was slightly increased before cells showed cytopathic effects and then decreased when cells showed cytopathic effects. Treatment of N-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane (GC-7), a potent inhibitor of eIF5A hypusination, inhibited the expression of VHSV G protein in a dose-dependent manner suggesting a potential role for eIF5A and its hypusination in viral protein expression.

  3. Immigration, settlement and mortality of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) larvae and juveniles in a nursery ground, Shijiki bay, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, M.; Goto, T.; Tomiyama, M.; Sudo, H.

    The occurrence, distribution and abundance of larvae and juveniles of a Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, were investigated in Shijiki Bay, south-western Japan, from 1982 through 1987, with special reference to immigration, settlement and mortality in this nursery ground. Sampling for pelagic larvae and settling and settled juveniles revealed that immigration and settlement occur during the late phase of metamorphosis, when flounders immigrate from coastal waters and settle in the near-shore sandy nursery area. Immigration of metamorphosing larvae begins in early April and continues until early June. The recruitment of flounders into the nursery ground was found to occur in several distinct phases, coinciding with spring tides. The semi-lunar periodicity found in the immigration of flounders may be due to the combination of landward tidal currents during spring tides and the tide-related vertical movements of metamorphosing flounders. Population size appeared to decrease rapidly during the first week after settlement, when lengths ranged from 11 to 14 mm. Field evidence demonstrated that heavy mortality may occur during the early phases of settlement, the extent depending on annual flounder densities and food abundance. Cannibalism of early-settled larger flounders on late-settled smaller flounders seemed to occur frequently in the nursery ground, and was more likely to occur under conditions of food deficiency and higher population densities. Thus, predation related t starvation could be one of the most important future research targets in determining recruitment dynamics in nursery areas.

  4. Effects of dietary soybean stachyose and phytic acid on gene expressions of serine proteases in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Haifeng; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Wu, Chenglong; Cai, Yinghua

    2011-09-01

    Soybean stachyose (SBS) and phytic acid (PA) are anti-nutritional factors (ANF) which have deleterious effects on the growth and digestibility in fish. The present research studied the effects of dietary SBS and PA on the expression of three serine protease genes in the liver of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). These genes are trypsinogen 1 (poTRY), elastase 1 (poEL) and chymotrypsinogen 1 (poCTRY). Eight artificial diets with graded levels of supplemented ANFs were formulated to 4 levels of SBS (0.00, 0.40, 0.80 and 1.50%), 4 levels of PA (0.00, 0.20, 0.40 and 0.80), respectively. Japanese flounder (initial weight 2.45 g ± 0.01 g) were fed with these diets for 10 weeks with three replications per treatment. At the end of 10 weeks, supplementation of 0.40% of dietary SBS or PA significantly increased the gene expression of poTRY and poCTRY ( P0.05). These results suggested that dietary SBS and dietary PA could directly affect the serine protease genes at the transcriptional level in Japanese flounder, and these genes' expression was more sensitive to dietary PA than to SBS under the current experimental conditions.

  5. The stimulatory effect of neuropeptide Y on growth hormone expression, food intake, and growth in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meijie; Tan, Xungang; Sui, Yulei; Jiao, Shuang; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Lijuan; You, Feng

    2017-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid peptide known to be a strong orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) factor in many species. In this study, we investigated the effect of NPY on food intake and growth in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Recombinant full-length NPY was injected intraperitoneally into olive flounder at the dose of 1 μg/g body weight; phosphate buffered saline was used as the negative control. In a long-term experiment, NPY and control groups were injected every fifth day over a period of 30 days. In a short-term experiment, NPY and control groups were given intraperitoneal injections and maintained for 24 h. Food intake and growth rates were significantly higher in fish injected with recombinant NPY than in the control fish (P growth hormone (GH) and NPY mRNA transcript levels were observed in both experiments, indicating a stimulatory effect of NPY on GH release. These findings demonstrate that NPY is an effective appetite-stimulating factor in olive flounder with the potential to improve the growth of domestic fish species and enhance efficiency in aquaculture.

  6. Effects of Dietary Soy Isoflavones on Feed Intake, Growth Performance and Digestibility in Juvenile Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Yanjiao; CHEN Wei; XU Wei; AI Qinghui; ZHANG Wenbing

    2012-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feeding intake,growth performance,and digestion of juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).Four isonitrogenous (49% crude protein) and isoenergetic (20.1 MJkg-1) diets were formulated to contain four graded levels of soy isoflavones,namely,0,1,4 and 8 g soy isoflavones in 1 kg of diet.Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate tanks of fish (Initial average weight:2.58g±0.01 g),and each tank was stocked with 35 fish.No significant difference was observed among diets with levels of 0,1 and 4gkg-1 soy isoflavones in feed intake,weight gain,feed efficiency ratio (FER),proximate composition of fish whole body and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy (P>0.05).However,high dietary soy isoflavones level (8 gkg-1) significantly depressed weight gain,FER,whole-body crude lipid content of fish and ADC of nutrients (P<0.05).These results indicate that high level of dietary soy isoflavones (above 4 g kg-1) significantly depresses growth responses and FER of Japanese flounder.However,as the content of soy isoflavones in soybean meal is around 1 to 3 gkg-1,the adverse effects might be neglected when soybean products are used as a fish feed ingredient.

  7. Edwardsiella tarda Outer Membrane Protein C: An Immunogenic Protein Induces Highly Protective Effects in Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus against Edwardsiellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuguo Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Outer membrane protein C of Edwardsiella tarda is a major cell surface antigen and it was identified to be an immunogenic protein by Western blot using flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus anti-recombinant OmpC (rOmpC, and anti-E. tarda antibodies. rOmpC tested the immune protective effect against E. tarda challenge in a flounder model and produced a relative percentage of survival rate of 85%. The immune response of flounder induced by rOmpC was investigated, and the results showed that: (1 the levels of specific serum antibodies induced by rOmpC were significantly higher than the control group after the second week after immunization, and the peak level occurred at week five after immunization; (2 rOmpC could induce the proliferation of sIg+ lymphocytes, and the peak levels of sIg+ lymphocytes in blood, spleen, and pronephros occurred at 4–5 weeks after immunization; and (3 the MHCIIα, CD4-1, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α genes were significantly induced after being injected with rOmpC. Taken together, these results demonstrated that rOmpC could evoke highly protective effects against E. tarda challenge and induce strong innate immune response and humoral immune response of flounder, which indicated that OmpC was a promising vaccine candidate against E. tarda infection.

  8. Comparison of antigenic proteins from Lactococcus garvieae KG- and KG+ strains that are recognized by olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gee-Wook; Nho, Seong-Won; Park, Seong-Bin; Jang, Ho-Bin; Cha, In-Seok; Ha, Mi-Ae; Kim, Young-Rim; Dalvi, Rishikesh S; Joh, Seong-Joon; Jung, Tae-Sung

    2009-10-20

    Lactococcus garvieae is an important etiological agent of lactococcosis in various fish species including olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). In this study, proteomic and immunoproteomic analyses were employed to compare the antigenic profiles of strains KG9408, MS93003, and NSS9310 strains of L. garvieae. Proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed differences in five protein spots among the different L. garvieae strains. In immunoproteomic analysis, there was a significant difference in the 2-DE immunoblot profiles of the L. garvieae strains using sera collected from fish surviving infection with either L. garvieae strains KG9408 or NSS9310. These sera reacted with 8 and 7 unique antigenic protein spots, respectively. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and DNA-directed RNA polymerase were among the specific antigens recognized by the anti-NSS9310 serum. In addition, the anti-NSS9310 and anti-KG9408 olive flounder sera reacted with 25 common antigenic protein spots of all the L. garvieae strains, which included elongation factor (EF)-Tu, arginine deiminase (AD), inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphomannomutase (PMM), L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH), 6-phosphofructokinase and UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (UDP-galactose). Based on the present results, the 8 antigens recognized by the anti-KG9408 serum and the 25 common antigens recognized by both sera may serve as potential markers for developing an effective vaccine against this bacterium.

  9. Pluripotent hybrid stem cells from transgenic Huntington's disease monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laowtammathron, Chuti; Chan, Anthony W S

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating disease that currently has no cure. Transgenic HD monkeys have developed key neuropathological and cognitive behavioral impairments similar to HD patients. Thus, pluripotent stem cells derived from transgenic HD monkeys could be a useful comparative model for clarifying HD pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic approaches, which could be validated in HD monkeys. In order to create personal pluripotent stem cells from HD monkeys, here we present a tetraploid technique for deriving pluripotent hybrid HD monkey stem cells.

  10. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly.

  11. Estudo anatômico de músculos profundos do antebraço de Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1766 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1351 Anatomical study of the forearm deep muscles in Cebus paella (Linnaeus, 1766 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1351

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Gouvêa-e-Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho utilizou 8 espécimes adultos de Cebus apella para caracterização anatômica de músculos do antebraço. Os animais foram doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e Recursos Naturais Renováveis (Ibama, de Sete Lagoas, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, e sacrificados segundo as recomendações do Colégio Brasileiro de Experimentação Animal (Cobea. O trabalho foi aprovado pelo comitê de ética da UFU. Foram estudados os músculos (1 pronador quadrado, (2 flexor profundo dos dedos e (3 flexor longo do polegar. Em relação aos humanos, os músculos profundos do antebraço de Cebus apella apresentaram características gerais comuns, mas com algumas diferenças na forma, na vascularização e na inervação, diferenças que devem refletir as especializações funcionais daqueles músculos entre as duas espécies. O músculo flexor profundo do polegar privilegia a habilidade de movimentação dos dedos em humanos, e a força da mão em Cebus apella mostra-se necessária nessa espécie, em função de seus hábitos arbóreosEight adult specimens of Cebus paella were used for anatomical muscles characterization. The animals were donated by the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Recyclable Natural Resources (Ibama – Instituto Brasileiro de Meio – Ambiente, from Sete Lagoas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and sacrificed according to the recommendations of Brazilian College of Animal Experimentation (Cobea – Colégio Brasileiro de Experimentação Animal. This work was approved by ethics committee from UFU (Federal University of Uberlândia. The muscles (1 squared pronator, (2 deep fingers flexor and (3 long thumb flexor were studied. In human beings, the deep muscles of Cebus paella have some general common characteristics, but differ in form, vascularization and innervation. These differences should reflect the functional specialization of those muscles between the two species. The long thumb flexor muscle is

  12. Morfologia da artéria cerebelar superior do macaco prego (Cebus apella L., 1766: divisões e anastomoses Morphology of the superior cerebellar artery of the “macaco prego” (Cebus paella L., 1766: divisions and anastomoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Alves da Silva

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Dando continuidade a estudos já existentes na área de mapeamento da vascularização cerebral do Cebus apella e considerando a semelhança desse animal com outros primatas descritos, inclusive os humanos, estudou-se a morfologia das artérias cerebelares superiores, que destinam a irrigar a superfície superior do cerebelo. 57 hemisférios cerebelares foram injetados com látex corado e fixados em solução de formol a 10%, dissecados sob mesoscopia de luz com microdissecações. As artérias cerebelares superiores são simétricas em 84,21% e assimétricas em 7,01%, ramificam-se em 4 ramos: sendo 1 para o mesencéfalo e 3 troncos principais para a superfície superior do cerebelo e regiões anterior dessa superfície. Estas artérias terminam na fissura póstero-superior ou pós-semilunar após emitir vários ramos colaterais de hierarquia decrescente de calibreIn order to continue studies already done in the area of mapping the cerebral vascularization of Cebus paella and taking into consideration the resemblance of this animal with other primates described, humans included, we studied the morphology of the superior cerebellar arteries determined to perfuse the superior surface of the cerebellum. Fifty-seven cerebellar hemispheres were injected with stained latex, fixed in 10% formol solution and dissected under light mesoscopy. The superior cerebellar arteries are symmetrical in 84,21% and asymmetrical in 7,01%, and give off four branches, one to the mesencephalon and three mains branches to the upper surface of the cerebellum and its anterior portion. These arteries end in the posterior superior or post-semilunar fissure, after giving off many collaterals of decreasing diameter

  13. Manejo de primates en cautiverio: interpretación de marcadores etológicos de adaptación en Cebus libidinosus juveniles Management of Captive Primates: Ethological Bookmarks in Cebus libidinosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Giudice

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los primates mantenidos en cautiverio, evidencian la necesidad de estimular su comportamiento natural y de promover su bienestar. Esta contribución describe los cambios en los marcadores etológicos en Cebus libidinosus (CLI juveniles (1 macho y 2 hembras mantenidos en cautiverio (ECAS, Berazategui, Argentina, bajo dos condiciones de alojamiento. Se utilizó el muestreo de barrido. Se evaluó la conducta "locomoción estereotipada". El tiempo total de observación fue de 290 horas. El nivel de locomoción estereotipada descendió y la jeraquía social se modifico. CLI mantenidos en cautiverio muestran: incremento en el comportamiento de interacción ambiente físico-social luego del cambio de recinto y la frecuencia de locomoción estereotipada se relacionó con las tareas de mantenimiento. Debido a la condición social de las especies de primates, el mantener grupos sociales formados según su estructura social en vida libre, resulta en un aumento de bienestar mayor que cambios en las condiciones físicas del alojamiento.The primates maintained in captivity, highlight the need to encourage their natural behavior and promote their welfare. In this paper we describe the changes in the ethological markers in Cebus libidinosus (CLI juvenile (1 male and 2 females kept in captivity (ECAS, Berazategui, Argentine, under two housing conditions. We used scan sampling. We evaluated the behavior "stereotyped locomotion". The total observing time was 290 hours. Stereotyped locomotion level decrease and the social hierarchy was modified. CLI maintained in captivity shows: an increase in the behavior of the physical environment and social interaction after the change of enclosure and frequency of stereotyped locomotion was associated with maintenance. Because the social status of the species of primates, maintaining in groups formed according to their social structure in the wild, resulting in a greater welfare benefit that changes in the physical conditions

  14. Generation of chimeric rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Ramsey, Cathy; Ma, Hong; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2012-01-20

    Totipotent cells in early embryos are progenitors of all stem cells and are capable of developing into a whole organism, including extraembryonic tissues such as placenta. Pluripotent cells in the inner cell mass (ICM) are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into any cell type of a body except extraembryonic tissues. The ability to contribute to chimeric animals upon reintroduction into host embryos is the key feature of murine totipotent and pluripotent cells. Here, we demonstrate that rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and isolated ICMs fail to incorporate into host embryos and develop into chimeras. However, chimeric offspring were produced following aggregation of totipotent cells of the four-cell embryos. These results provide insights into the species-specific nature of primate embryos and suggest that a chimera assay using pluripotent cells may not be feasible.

  15. Vitreal syneresis in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, B E; Talsma, D M; Beatrice, E S

    1977-11-01

    The eyes of 15 rhesus monkeys were evaluated. Various degrees of vitreal syneresis were observed in 28 of the 30 eyes. The observed vitreal structures varied from fine strands randomly spaced throughout the vitreous to thick, intertwining, fibrous networks with some clumping of the collagenous condensate at the fiber junctions. Qualitatively, the degree of syneresis was slightly more extensive in the eight older mature males than in the seven younger animals. In all animals a clear view of the fundus could be obtained with the ophthalmoscope. The vitreous structures may be one cause of variability in ocular dose-response relationships for exposure to laser radiation. The effect on retinal exposure experiments of the finer vitreal structure is considered minimal.

  16. 3 Zika Vaccines Effective in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160252.html 3 Zika Vaccines Effective in Monkeys Human trial set to ... In another key step toward a vaccine against Zika virus, scientists have found that three different experimental ...

  17. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  18. Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P < 0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG. SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-II gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  19. Effects of extruded pellet and moist pellet on growth performance, body composition, and hematology of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghan Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two different sizes of extruded pellets (EP (EP1 - 3 mm or EP2 - 5 mm and a moist pellet (MP in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, reared in semi-recirculation system. A total of 450 fish with an average initial weight of 5.0 ± 0.2 g (mean ± SD were fed one of the three experimental diets in triplicate groups. At the end of a 6-week feeding trial, weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed efficiency of fish fed EP diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed MP (P < 0.05. Water quality parameters like turbidity, total ammonia nitrogen, and total phosphorous from tanks of fish fed EP1 and EP2 were significantly lower than those from tanks of fish fed MP. Blood plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glucose concentration were significantly higher in fish fed MP diet compared to fish fed EP diets (P < 0.05. Whole body crude protein contents in fish fed EP diets were higher than those from the fish fed MP diet. Whole body amino acid content like threonine, aspartic acid, serine, tyrosine, and cystine were found to be significantly higher in fish fed EP diets than those in fish fed MP diet. In considering overall performance of olive flounder, EP2 diet could be recommended for the successful aquaculture of this important fish species.

  20. Toll-like receptors and interferon associated immune factors in viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus-infected olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avunje, Satheesha; Kim, Wi-Sik; Park, Chang-Su; Oh, Myung-Joo; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2011-09-01

    Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) toll-like receptors (TLRs), antiviral agent interferon (IFN) and the effector IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) play pivotal role in antiviral innate immunity of a host. The present in-vivo experiment was conducted to investigate the role of these innate immune factors in early phase as well as during recovery of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) infection by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A less lethal VHSV infection was generated in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and was sampled at 3, 6, and 12h post infection (hpi), and 1, 2, 4, and 7 days post infection (dpi). At 3 hpi, the VHSV N gene was detected in three out of five fish and all five fish showed a relative fold increase of TLR 2, TLR 7, interleukin 8 (IL 8), IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF 3), IRF 7, and ISG 15. Viral copies rapidly increased at 12 hpi then remained high until 2 dpi. When viral copy numbers were high, a higher expression of immune genes IL 1β, IRF 3, IRF 7, Type I IFN, ISG 15 and Mx was observed. Viral copies were drastically reduced in 4 and 7 dpi fish, and also the immune response was considerably reduced but remained elevated, except for ISG 15 which found equal to control in 7 dpi fish. A high degree of correlation was observed between immune genes and viral copy number in each of the sampled fish at 12 hpi. A fish with ascites sampled at 7 dpi displayed high viral copy but under-expressed immune genes except for Mx. When viral copies were high at 1 and 2 dpi, both TLR 2 and TLR 7 were down-regulated, perhaps indicating immune suppression by the virus. The quick and prolonged elevated expression of the immune genes indicates their crucial role in survival of host against VHSV.

  1. Mutations in Exons of the CYP17- Ⅱ Gene Affect Sex Steroid Concentration in Male Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ruiqin; HU Jian; HAN Weiguo; ZHANG Jianan; WANG Qingqing; YUAN Yuren; LIU Qun; HE Feng; WEN Haishen; LI Jifang; SHI Bao; SHI Dan; LIU Miao; MU Weijie; ZHANG Yuanqing

    2012-01-01

    As a specific gene of fish,cytochrome P450c 17-Ⅱ (CYP17-Ⅱ) gene plays a key role in the growth,development and reproduction level of fish.In this study,the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17- Ⅱ gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-Ⅱ gene of Japanese flounder.They were c.G594A (p.G188R),c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D).SNP1 (c.G594A),located in exon 4 of CYP17-Ⅱ gene,was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI).Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI (P<0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG.SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-Ⅱ gene.The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6.Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG.The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder.However,the SNP3 (c.G 1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits.This study showed that CYP17-Ⅱgene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  2. Effects of Dietary Soybean Stachyose and Phytic Acid on Gene Expressions of Serine Proteases in Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Haifeng; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Wenbing; WU Chenglong; CAI Yinghua

    2011-01-01

    Soybean stachyose (SBS) and phytic acid (PA) are anti-nutritional factors (ANF) which have deleterious effects on the growth and digestibility in fish.The present research studied the effects of dietary SBS and PA on the expression of three serine protease genes in the liver of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).These genes are trypsinogen 1 (poTRY),elastase 1 (poEL) and chymotrypsinogen 1 (poCTRY).Eight artificial diets with graded levels of supplemented ANFs were formulated to 4 levels of SBS (0.00,0.40,0.80 and 1.50%),4 levels of PA (0.00,0.20,0.40 and 0.80),respectively.Japanese flounder (initial weight 2.45 g±0.01 g)were fed with these diets for 10 weeks with three replications per treatment.At the end of 10 weeks,supplementation of 0.40% of dietary SBS or PA significantly increased the gene expression ofpoTRY and poCTRY (P<0.05).The same level of dietary SBS significantly decreased the gene expression of poEL.In comparison with the control group (ANF-free),dietary PA (0.2% and 0.8%)significantly decreased the gene expression ofpoTRY,poCTRY and poEL (P<0.05).However,excessive supplement of dietary SBS (1.5%) has no significant effects on these gene expressions (P>0.05).These results suggested that dietary SBS and dietary PA could directly affect the serine protease genes at the transcriptional level in Japanese flounder,and these genes' expression was more sensitive to dietary PA than to SBS under the current experimental conditions.

  3. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  4. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V.

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultras...

  5. Molecular cloning and expression of PoIR2, a novel gene involved in immune response in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Li, Chunmei; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Zhipeng; Zhai, Teng; Zhang, Quanqi

    2010-03-01

    A novel immune-related gene was expressed in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) injected with Vibrio anguillarum. The complete cDNA contained a 169 bp 5’UTR, a 336 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 111 amino acids and a 556bp 3’UTR. Six exons and five introns were identified in the PoIR2 gene. Blastp similarity comparison showed its encoding protein had 50% similarity to Danio rerio neuromedin S (NMS), but further alignment indicated they did not have NMS C-terminal conservational signature domain. So it was not defined as an NMS homologue. Protein structure analysis indicated it had a 26aa signal peptide and was a secretory pathway protein. RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of PoIR2 was quickly induced and drastically increased in liver, kidney, spleen, gills, intestine, heart, and skeletal muscle after infected with V. anguillarum. These results indicated that the PoIR2 might play some important role in Japanese flounder immune response system. This gene was named PoIR2 ( P.olivaceus immune-related gene 2, GenBank accession number: EU224372). The mature PoIR2 peptide was expressed in BL21(DE3) pLysS using pET-32a(+) vector and a great part of the recombinant mature peptide existed as soluble type.

  6. Suppression subtractive hybridization coupled with microarray analysis to examine differential expression of genes in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus leucocytes during Edwardsiella tarda and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Tomomasa; Fujiwara, Atushi; Takano, Tomokazu; Nakayasu, Chihaya

    2011-10-01

    Transcriptional changes in the peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus challenged by Edwardsiella tarda and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) were investigated using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) coupled with cDNA microarray analysis. First, we constructed an SSH cDNA library using mRNA samples isolated from PBL of P. olivaceus that had been experimentally infected with E. tarda. We then examined the transcriptional changes occurring in the PBL due to E. tarda and VHSV infection using a cDNA microarray produced using clones produced from the SSH library. A total of 565 and 180 cDNA sequences corresponding to mRNA species that are either up- or down-regulated by E. tarda infection were isolated by SSH. While host gene expression responses in response to E. tarda and VHSV infection share several response elements, distinct patterns of gene expression were also observed. Specifically, E. tarda infection enhanced the expression of cell adhesion molecules while VHSV enhanced the expression of interferon and proteasome-related genes. In challenge trials of the two infectious agents, expression profiles of chemokines were also observed to differ. The results indicated that distinguishing between viral and bacterial infection is possible based on the RNA expression profiles of PBL from infected fish.

  7. Personality and facial morphology: Links to assertiveness and neuroticism in capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, V.; Lefevre, C. E.; Morton, F. B.; Brosnan, S. F.; Paukner, A.; Bates, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Personality has important links to health, social status, and life history outcomes (e.g. longevity and reproductive success). Human facial morphology appears to signal aspects of one’s personality to others, raising questions about the evolutionary origins of such associations (e.g. signals of mate quality). Studies in non-human primates may help to achieve this goal: for instance, facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) in the male face has been associated with dominance not only in humans but also in capuchin monkeys. Here we test the association of personality (assertiveness, openness, attentiveness, neuroticism, and sociability) with fWHR, face width/lower-face height, and lower face/face height ratio in 64 capuchins (Sapajus apella). In a structural model of personality and facial metrics, fWHR was associated with assertiveness, while lower face/face height ratio was associated with neuroticism (erratic vs. stable behaviour) and attentiveness (helpfulness vs. distractibility). Facial morphology thus appears to associate with three personality domains, which may act as a signal of status in capuchins. PMID:24347756

  8. Personality and facial morphology: Links to assertiveness and neuroticism in capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, V; Lefevre, C E; Morton, F B; Brosnan, S F; Paukner, A; Bates, T C

    2014-02-01

    Personality has important links to health, social status, and life history outcomes (e.g. longevity and reproductive success). Human facial morphology appears to signal aspects of one's personality to others, raising questions about the evolutionary origins of such associations (e.g. signals of mate quality). Studies in non-human primates may help to achieve this goal: for instance, facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) in the male face has been associated with dominance not only in humans but also in capuchin monkeys. Here we test the association of personality (assertiveness, openness, attentiveness, neuroticism, and sociability) with fWHR, face width/lower-face height, and lower face/face height ratio in 64 capuchins (Sapajus apella). In a structural model of personality and facial metrics, fWHR was associated with assertiveness, while lower face/face height ratio was associated with neuroticism (erratic vs. stable behaviour) and attentiveness (helpfulness vs. distractibility). Facial morphology thus appears to associate with three personality domains, which may act as a signal of status in capuchins.

  9. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  10. Squirrel monkey cytomegalovirus antibodies in free-ranging black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya), Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Argibay, Hernan; Rinas, Miguel A; Uhart, Marcela

    2012-04-01

    Serum from four black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) was screened for antibodies to seven viruses by dot immunoassay. Cytomegalovirus antibodies were detected in three of four individuals and provide the first evidence of exposure by black howler monkeys to this virus.

  11. DNA-Based Vaccine Guards Against Zika in Monkey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161106.html DNA-Based Vaccine Guards Against Zika in Monkey Study ... THURSDAY, Sept. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental DNA-based vaccine protected monkeys from infection with the ...

  12. Atlas-Guided Segmentation of Vervet Monkey Brain MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoxing; Pohl, Kilian M.; Styner, Martin; Addicott, Merideth; Wyatt, Chris; Daunais, James B.; Fedorov, Andriy; Bouix, Sylvain; Wells, William Mercer; Kikinis, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI anal...

  13. A Paradoxical Property of the Monkey Book

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Minnhagen, Petter

    2011-01-01

    A "monkey book" is a book consisting of a random distribution of letters and blanks, where a group of letters surrounded by two blanks is defined as a word. We compare the statistics of the word distribution for a monkey book with the corresponding distribution for the general class of random books, where the latter are books for which the words are randomly distributed. It is shown that the word distribution statistics for the monkey book is different and quite distinct from a typical sampled book or real book. In particular the monkey book obeys Heaps' power law to an extraordinary good approximation, in contrast to the word distributions for sampled and real books, which deviate from Heaps' law in a characteristics way. The somewhat counter-intuitive conclusion is that a "monkey book" obeys Heaps' power law precisely because its word-frequency distribution is not a smooth power law, contrary to the expectation based on simple mathematical arguments that if one is a power law, so is the other.

  14. Somatosensory thresholds in monkeys exposed to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurissen, J.P.J.; Weiss, B.; Davis, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    Six monkeys were trained to report detection of a vibratory or electrical stimulus applied to the fingertip. The vibratory stimuli were presented at two frequencies (40 and 150 Hz). Thresholds were determined with a tracking procedure before, during, and after dosing. Each monkey served as its own control. Four monkeys were dosed orally with 10 mg/kg of acrylamide 5 days a week until the appearance of toxic signs. The total administered dose varied between 320 and 450 mg/kg. The other two monkeys served as time-matched controls. All the monkeys were observed 5 days a week. They were also weighed and presented with a visuomotor task twice a week. Weight loss usually preceded the onset of gross behavioral disturbances, such as loss of balance, tremor, or decreased activity. Impaired coordination, as revealed with the pickup test, paralleled weight loss. Electrical sensitivity was not affected. Vibration sensitivity, however, fell during dosing and remained impaired for several months after dosing ended. These data indicate that vibration sensitivity testing can trace the time course of intoxication and recovery in toxic peripheral neuropathies. Furthermore, the differential results obtained with vibratory and electrical stimulation are consonant with a primary effect on end-organ receptors.

  15. Oral immunization of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) with recombinant live viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) induces protection against VHSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2011-08-01

    A recombinant viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP) that has enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene instead of NV gene was previously generated using reverse genetics technology. In this study, potential of the rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP to be used as a live oral vaccine candidate was assessed. The presence of the recombinant virus in internal organs of orally administered olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Although the recombinant VHSV-specific band was detected only when the number of PCR cycle was increased to 35, the band was detected from internal organs, such as kidney, spleen, and liver of fish that were reared at either 15 °C or 20 °C till even 20 days, suggesting that a few orally administered rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP might be transported to internal organs, and might keep weak replication ability in the organs. VHSV-neutralizing activity was induced by oral immunization of olive flounder with the NV gene knock-out recombinant VHSV not only in skin and intestinal mucus but also in serum, suggesting that mucosal and systemic adaptive immune responses were elicited by oral immunization. In challenge experiment, groups of fish immunized with 10⁴, 10⁵, and 2 × 10⁵ PFU of rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP/fish showed 25%, 50%, and 70% of relative percent survival (RPS), respectively. The RPSs were elevated to 60%, 75%, and 90% by a boost immunization in fish boost immunized with 10⁴, 10⁵, and 2 × 10⁵ PFU of rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP, respectively. The cumulative mortality of fish in the control groups was 100%. Conclusionly, the present results demonstrate that the NV gene knock-out recombinant VHSV administered orally to olive flounder can induce dose- and boosting-dependent VHSV-neutralizing antibody in mucus and serum, and can provide a high protection in olive flounder against a virulent VHSV challenge.

  16. Development of snake-directed antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: I. Snake-species discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meno, Whitney; Coss, Richard G; Perry, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Young animals are known to direct alarm calls at a wider range of species than adults. Our field study examined age-related differences in the snake-directed antipredator behavior of infant, juvenile, and adult white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in terms of alarm calling, looking behavior, and aggressive behavior. In the first experiment, we exposed infant and juvenile white-faced capuchins to realistic-looking inflatable models of their two snake predators, the boa constrictior (Boa constrictor) and neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) and a white airplane as a novel control. In the second experiment, infants, juveniles, and adults were presented photographic models of a coiled boa constrictor, rattlesnake, indigo snake (Drymarchon corais), a noncapuchin predator, and a white snake-like model. We found that antipredator behavior changed during the immature stage. Infants as young as 4 months old were able to recognize snakes and display antipredator behavior, but engaged in less snake-model discrimination than juveniles. All age classes exhibited a lower response to the white snake-like model, indicating that the absence of color and snake-scale patterns affected snake recognition. Infants also showed a higher level of vigilance after snake-model detection as exhibited by a higher proportion of time spent looking and head cocking at the models. Aggressive antipredator behavior was found in all age classes, but was more prevalent in juveniles and adults than infants. This study adds to the knowledge of development of antipredator behavior in primates by showing that, although alarm calling behavior and predator recognition appear at a very young age in capuchins, snake-species discrimination does not become apparent until the juvenile stage.

  17. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A

    2014-08-06

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of fMRI experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category- and feature-selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging.

  18. Default mode of brain function in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Gerits, Annelis; Nelissen, Koen; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Joly, Olivier; Simone, Luciano; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Wardak, Claire; Orban, Guy A; Buckner, Randy L; Vanduffel, Wim

    2011-09-07

    Human neuroimaging has revealed a specific network of brain regions-the default-mode network (DMN)-that reduces its activity during goal-directed behavior. So far, evidence for a similar network in monkeys is mainly indirect, since, except for one positron emission tomography study, it is all based on functional connectivity analysis rather than activity increases during passive task states. Here, we tested whether a consistent DMN exists in monkeys using its defining property. We performed a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in 10 awake monkeys to reveal areas in which activity consistently decreases when task demands shift from passive tasks to externally oriented processing. We observed task-related spatially specific deactivations across 15 experiments, implying in the monkey a functional equivalent of the human DMN. We revealed by resting-state connectivity that prefrontal and medial parietal regions, including areas 9/46d and 31, respectively, constitute the DMN core, being functionally connected to all other DMN areas. We also detected two distinct subsystems composed of DMN areas with stronger functional connections between each other. These clusters included areas 24/32, 8b, and TPOC and areas 23, v23, and PGm, respectively. Such a pattern of functional connectivity largely fits, but is not completely consistent with anatomical tract tracing data in monkeys. Also, analysis of afferent and efferent connections between DMN areas suggests a multisynaptic network structure. Like humans, monkeys increase activity during passive epochs in heteromodal and limbic association regions, suggesting that they also default to internal modes of processing when not actively interacting with the environment.

  19. 牙鲆鱼白化病因的研究进展%Research developments on the Albinism of Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 侯林; 姚锋; 高岩; 吕红丽

    2004-01-01

    牙鲆鱼(Paralichthys olivaceus)在我国俗称比目鱼、偏口,属于鲽形目,鲽总科,鲆科,牙鲆属。该鱼肉细嫩、口感好、营养高,在我国是一种很受欢迎的经济鱼类。分布于干岛群岛至香港之间,我国的渤海、黄海、东海、日本沿海、朝鲜半岛西岸均有分布。牙鲆是冷水性、底栖、肉食性经济鱼类,也是重要的海水养殖鱼类。在国外,日本最早于50年代就开始进行牙鲆人

  20. IN VITRO STUDY ON CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF THE ORGANOPHO-SPHOROUS PESTICIDE PROFENOFOS ON THE GILL CELL LINE, FG-9307, OF THE FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS OLIVACEUS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The FG-9307 cell line derived from the gill of flounder Paralichthys olivaceus was used in the present study to determine the acute cytotoxic effects of the organophosphorous pesticide, profenofos. It was found that the cell growth rate was markedly reduced by profenofos at the concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L tested; and that the fine structures of the cells were also altered by profenofos, as evidenced by dilation of nuclear membranes and mitochondria cristae, and presence of enlarged lysosomes with engulfed organelles and numerous vacuoles in the cytoplasm. Probably, mitochondria, the cell energy-generating sites, are the most prominent sites of profenofos cytotoxity in the cells. This seems to be the first report of the use of marine fish cell line for evaluation of the acute in vitro cytotoxicity of organophosphorus pesticide.

  1. Metabolic products of microorganisms. 225. Elloramycin, a new anthracycline-like antibiotic from Streptomyces olivaceus. Isolation, characterization, structure and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drautz, H; Reuschenbach, P; Zähner, H; Rohr, J; Zeeck, A

    1985-10-01

    Elloramycin (1), a new antibiotic produced by Streptomyces olivaceus strain Tü 2353, was detected by chemical screening. The dark yellow compound, molecular formula C32H36O15, is weakly active against a variety of Gram-positive bacteria, especially streptomycetes and against stem cells of L-1210 leukemia. Acidic hydrolysis of the antibiotic liberated elloramycinone (3) as aglycone and 2,3,4-tri-O-methyl-L-rhamnose, which was identified as methyl glycoside 5b. The structure of elloramycin was established by comparison of the spectra (UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR) with those of the known tetracenomycin C (2), 3 and the fact that 2 and 3 gave the same tetramethyl ether after permethylation. Elloramycin is an anthracycline-like antibiotic, the aglycone resembles tetracenomycin C, the sugar is connected in a phenolic alpha-glycosidic linkage.

  2. A Study on the Meat and Bone Meal or Poultry By-product Meal as Protein Substitutes of Fishmeal in Concentrated Diets for Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fishmeal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The experimental diets included 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% MBM or PBM replacement of total fishmeal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric. The results showed that there are no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth performance among the treatments fed with 0%-60% MBM replacement of fishmeal, while the percent weight gain (WG,%), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decrease when fishmeal is replaced by 80% MBM. The result showed also that there are no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all treatments fed with the diets with 0%-80% replacements of fishmeal with PBM.

  3. A study on the meat and bone meal or poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fishmeal in concentrated diets for Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Hu, Yangjiang; Yu, Yu

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fishmeal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). The experimental diets included 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% MBM or PBM replacement of total fishmeal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric. The results showed that there are no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among the treatments fed with 0% 60% MBM replacement of fishmeal, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decrease when fishmeal is replaced by 80% MBM. The result showed also that there are no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all treatments fed with the diets with 0% 80% replacements of fishmeal with PBM.

  4. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultrasound signal attenuation and distortion caused by a relatively thick skull.

  5. [Cycloferon therapy of cytomegalovirus infection in monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezentseva, M V; Agrba, V Z; Karal-ogly, D D; Agumava, A A

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a wide-spread disease throw humans and monkeys, which and associated with various diseases. The development of this infection in human organism is much like that in rhesus macaque, which makes CMV-infected monkeys adequate model for studying and elaborating prophylactic and therapeutic measures against this disease in humans. This article presents data on the efficiency of cycloferon action on animals with the M. mulatta CMV infection. Cycloferon stimulated an increase in the IFN-alpha production and promoted the period of remission in CMV-infected animals.

  6. Effects of Fragment and Vegetation Structure on the Population Abundance of Ateles hybridus, Alouatta seniculus and Cebus albifrons in Magdalena Valley, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Christopher; Link, Andres; King-Bailey, Gillian; Donati, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Many primate species currently subsist in fragmented and anthropogenically disturbed habitats. Different threats arise depending on the species' life history strategy, dietary requirements and habitat preference. Additionally, anthropogenic disturbance is far from uniform and may affect individual forest fragments in a single landscape in differing ways. We studied the effects of fragmentation on three species of diurnal primate, Cebus albifrons, Alouatta seniculus and Ateles hybridus, in Magdalena Valley, Colombia. We tested the assumption that generalist species are more resilient than specialist species to habitat degradation by examining the fragments' vegetation and spatial structure and how these affected primate presence and abundance patterns. We found C. albifrons, a generalist, to be the most abundant species in 9 of 10 forest fragments, regardless of the level of habitat disturbance. A. hybridus, a large-bodied primate with a specialist diet, was either absent or low in abundance in fragments that had experienced recent disturbances and was found only in higher-quality fragments, regardless of the fragment size. A. seniculus, a species considered to have a highly flexible diet and the ability to survive in degraded habitat, was found in intermediate abundances between those of Cebus spp. and Ateles spp., and was more frequently found in high-quality fragments. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. O SISTEMA CARÓTICO DO ENCÉFALO DE PRIMATA NEOTROPICAL, ANATOMIA DA ARTÉRIA INTER-HEMISFÉRICA (Cebus apella, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soares Pires

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Trinta hemisférios cerebrais do primata Cebus apella foram estudados. Os cérebros foram injetados com solução de látex corado (neoprene 450 e sulvinil corante, fixados em formaldeído a 10% e dissecados sob lupa óptica para fins de estudo da morfologia da artéria inter-hemisférica e destino de seus ramos. A artéria representa o resultado da anastomose da artéria cerebral rostral dos antímeros direito e esquerdo, após sua penetração na fenda inter-hemisférica. Originam-se da artéria inter-hemisférica ramos em diferentes disposições para as regiões cerebrais: pré-frontal; frontopolar; fronto-superior, pré-central e pós-central. A análise morfológica do aporte sangüíneo dessas regiões cerebrais é indicativa do abundante suprimento dessas regiões corticais cerebrais responsáveis por movimentos voluntários típicos deste primata. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Artéria cerebral anterior, Cebus apella, primata, sistema carotídico

  8. Evolutionary Conservation of pou5f3 Genomic Organization and Its Dynamic Distribution during Embryogenesis and in Adult Gonads in Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinning Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4 is a member of POU (Pit-Oct-Unc transcription factor family Class V that plays a crucial role in maintaining the pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Though it has been deeply investigated in mammals, its lower vertebrate homologue, especially in the marine fish, is poorly studied. In this study, we isolated the full-length sequence of Paralichthys olivaceus pou5f3 (Popou5f3, and we found that it is homologous to mammalian Oct4. We identified two transcript variants with different lengths of 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs generated by alternative polyadenylation (APA. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization (ISH and immunohistochemistry (IHC were implemented to characterize the spatial and temporal expression pattern of Popou5f3 during early development and in adult tissues. Our results show that Popou5f3 is maternally inherited, abundantly expressed at the blastula and early gastrula stages, then greatly diminishes at the end of gastrulation. It is hardly detectable from the heart-beating stage onward. We found that Popou5f3 expression is restricted to the adult gonads, and continuously expresses during oogenesis while its dynamics are downregulated during spermatogenesis. Additionally, numerous cis-regulatory elements (CRE on both sides of the flanking regions show potential roles in regulating the expression of Popou5f3. Taken together, these findings could further our understanding of the functions and evolution of pou5f3 in lower vertebrates, and also provides fundamental information for stem cell tracing and genetic manipulation in Paralichthys olivaceus.

  9. Evolutionary Conservation of pou5f3 Genomic Organization and Its Dynamic Distribution during Embryogenesis and in Adult Gonads in Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinning; Wang, Xubo; Zhang, Quanqi

    2017-01-01

    Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) is a member of POU (Pit-Oct-Unc) transcription factor family Class V that plays a crucial role in maintaining the pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Though it has been deeply investigated in mammals, its lower vertebrate homologue, especially in the marine fish, is poorly studied. In this study, we isolated the full-length sequence of Paralichthys olivaceus pou5f3 (Popou5f3), and we found that it is homologous to mammalian Oct4. We identified two transcript variants with different lengths of 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs) generated by alternative polyadenylation (APA). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were implemented to characterize the spatial and temporal expression pattern of Popou5f3 during early development and in adult tissues. Our results show that Popou5f3 is maternally inherited, abundantly expressed at the blastula and early gastrula stages, then greatly diminishes at the end of gastrulation. It is hardly detectable from the heart-beating stage onward. We found that Popou5f3 expression is restricted to the adult gonads, and continuously expresses during oogenesis while its dynamics are downregulated during spermatogenesis. Additionally, numerous cis-regulatory elements (CRE) on both sides of the flanking regions show potential roles in regulating the expression of Popou5f3. Taken together, these findings could further our understanding of the functions and evolution of pou5f3 in lower vertebrates, and also provides fundamental information for stem cell tracing and genetic manipulation in Paralichthys olivaceus. PMID:28124980

  10. Measurement of fetal biparietal diameter in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, A Michele; Brady, Alan G; Tustin, George W; Parks, Virginia L; Morris, Chris G; Abee, Christian R

    2010-09-01

    Owl monkeys are New World primates frequently used in biomedical research. Despite the historical difficulty of breeding owl monkeys in captivity, several productive owl monkey breeding colonies exist currently. The animals in the colony we describe here are not timed-pregnant, and determination of gestational age is an important factor in prenatal care. Gestational age of human fetuses is often determined by using transabdominal measurements of fetal biparietal diameter. The purpose of this study was to correlate biparietal diameter measurements with gestational age in owl monkeys. We found that biparietal diameter can be used to accurately predict gestational age in owl monkeys.

  11. Molecular detection of Yaba monkey tumour virus from a vervet monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Brettschneider

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Yaba monkey tumour virus (YMTV was first diagnosed in a colony of captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Yaba, Nigeria. It has been implicated as the cause of cutaneous nodules in wild baboons (Papio species, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis. This article reports a case of cutaneous pox lesions caused by YMTV in a  free-ranging  adult  female  vervet  monkey  (Chlorocebus  pygerythrus  from  the  Umkomaas coastal area in South Africa. The virus was identified by molecular sequencing from fragments of the insulin metalloprotease-like protein and intracellular mature virion membrane protein as well as the DNA polymerase genes. Phylogenetic analyses of these gene regions revealed a 99% similarity of the sample to YMTV. Although human disease caused by YMTV is normally mild,  it  is  recommended  that  persons  in  contact  with  non-human  primates  in  the  area  of Umkomaas who develop cutaneous lesions should inform their doctors of the possibility of this infection. The extent and significance of the virus to human and non-human primates in South Africa are not known. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first diagnosis of YMTV in South Africa and in vervet monkeys.

  12. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Byun, Yoon Woo; Zhuang, Katie Z; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2015-07-09

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

  13. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  14. OBSERVATIONS ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF VERVET MONKEYS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an order is admittedly more difficult to evaluate in the Cercopithecus monkeys ... being offered; if, on the other hand, the relationship is in doubt, competition will result ... The fact that size alone is not a significant factor in dominance was well ...

  15. Japanese monkeys perceive sensory consonance of chords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, A

    2000-12-01

    Consonance/dissonance affects human perception of chords from early stages of development [e.g., Schellenberg and Trainor, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3321-3328 (1996)]. To examine whether consonance has some role in audition of nonhumans, three Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) were trained to discriminate simultaneous two-tone complexes (chords). The task was serial discrimination (AX procedure) with repetitive presentation of background stimuli. Each tone in a chord was comprised of six harmonics, and chords with complex ratios of fundamental frequency (e.g., frequency ratio of 8:15 in major seventh) resulted in dissonance. The chords were transposed for each presentation to make monkeys attend to cues other than the absolute frequency of a component tone. Monkeys were initially trained to detect changes from consonant (octave) to dissonant (major seventh). Following the successful acquisition of the task, transfer tests with novel chords were conducted. In these transfer tests, the performances with detecting changes from consonant to dissonant chords (perfect fifth to major seventh; perfect fourth to major seventh) were better than those with detecting reverse changes. These results suggested that the consonance of chords affected the performances of monkeys.

  16. Cell-Type-Specific Optogenetics in Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-09-08

    The recent advent of technologies enabling cell-type-specific recording and manipulation of neuronal activity spurred tremendous progress in neuroscience. However, they have been largely limited to mice, which lack the richness in behavior of primates. Stauffer et al. now present a generalizable method for achieving cell-type specificity in monkeys.

  17. Transcranial photoacoustic tomography of the monkey brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Liming; Huang, Chao; Guo, Zijian; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    A photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using a virtual point ultrasonic transducer was developed for transcranial imaging of monkey brains. The virtual point transducer provided a 10 times greater field-of-view (FOV) than finiteaperture unfocused transducers, which enables large primate imaging. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through up to two skulls ranging from 4 to 8 mm in thickness. The mass density and speed of sound distributions of the skull were estimated from adjunct X-ray CT image data and utilized with a timereversal algorithm to mitigate artifacts in the reconstructed image due to acoustic aberration. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. Our experimental results demonstrate that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull, and the imaging aberration caused by skull can be corrected to a great extent.

  18. Mycobacterium marinum Infection from Sea Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn LeBlanc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection acquired from Artemia nyos (sea monkeys is presented. The infection was unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapies. A biopsy of a lesion revealed granulomatous inflammation with cultures that subsequently grew M marinum. A three-month course of clarithromycin provided complete resolution.

  19. The pattern of the arterial supply of the pancreas in anthropoid apes, catarrhine monkeys and platyrrhine monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawuti, Alimujiang; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Saito, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2009-11-01

    To get the full understanding of the arterial distribution to the pancreas, the analysis of the distribution of the variety of monkey species would be helpful. In this study, we studied the layout of the pancreatic artery in anthropoids (1 gorilla, 3 chimpanzees and 2 white-handed gibbons), in catarrhine monkeys (1 hamadryas baboon, 2 anubid baboons, 10 savannah monkeys) and in platyrrhine monkeys (6 squirrel monkeys). The pancreas of the monkeys was supplied by the arteries originating from the celiac trunk and/or superior mesenteric artery. There were three patterns in the arterial distribution; (1) the celiac artery supplied the major area of the pancreas. (2) the superior mesenteric artery supplied the major area of the pancreas. (3) the celiac artery supplied the whole pancreas. The pattern of the arterial distribution to the monkey pancreas had a wide variety. The result would be helpful for the elucidation of the development of the vascular distribution in the pancreas.

  20. Simpatria e dieta de Callithrix penicillata (Hershkovitz (Callitrichidae e Cebus libidinosus (Spix (Cebidae em matas de galeria do Distrito Federal, Brasil Sympatry and diet of Callithrix penicillata (Hershkovitz (Callitrichidae and Cebus libidinosus (Spix (Cebidae in gellery forests from Distrito Federal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinara L. Vilela

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Primatas conseguem viver em simpatria diferenciando o uso do habitat, recursos alimentares, estrato vertical e técnicas de forrageamento. Um grupo de Callithrix penicillata (Hershkovitz, 1977 e um grupo de Cebus libidinosus (Spix, 1823 foram observados em matas de galeria do Distrito Federal (DF com o objetivo de detectar a influência da dieta na simpatria destas duas espécies. O clima no DF é bem definido, com uma estação seca de maio a setembro e outra chuvosa de outubro a abril. As observações feitas sobre as espécies vegetais utilizadas como alimento por cada gênero de primata forneceram dados sobre a porcentagem de utilização dos alimentos, elucidando as diferenças no consumo dos itens nas duas estações do ano. Apenas duas espécies vegetais tiveram seus frutos consumidos pelos dois grupos de primatas, Sacoglottis guianensis Benth. (Humiriaceae e Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers A.C.Sm. (Hippocrateaceae. As diferenças no consumo dos alimentos ingeridos por Callithrix e Cebus nas duas estações climáticas elucidam que algumas espécies vegetais e alguns invertebrados são preferenciais, enriquecendo a dieta nos períodos de menor disponibilidade de recursos.Primates are able to live in simpatry distinguishing the use of habitat, food resources, vertical stratum and foraging techniques. A group of Callithrix penicillata (Hershkovitz, 1977 and a group of Cebus libidinosus (Spix, 1823 were observed in the gallery forests of the Distrito Federal (DF with the objective of detecting diet influence on the simpatry of these two species. The climate in the DF is well defined, with one dry season from May to September and another rainy season from October to April. The observations made over the plant species used as food for each primate genus provided data on the percentage of food utilization, elucidating the differences on the consumption of the items in both seasons of the studied year. Only two vegetal species had their fruits

  1. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  2. Avaliação ultra-sonográfica do sistema urinário, figado e útero do macaco-prego, Cebus apella

    OpenAIRE

    Alves,Flávio R.; Francisco B. Costa; Arouche,Mirela M.S.; Barros,Ana C.E.; Miglino,Maria A.; Vulcano, Luiz C; Porfírio C. Guerra

    2007-01-01

    O macaco-prego, Cebus apella, é muito difundido no norte e sul da Amazônia Legal Brasileira e no Cerrado. Estes animais encontram-se rotineiramente submetidos à caça predatória, aumentando assim a necessidade de preservação desta espécie silvestre. Realizou-se um estudo ultra-sonográfico de 10 macacos-prego como forma de descrever a anatomia ultra-sonográfica normal de sua cavidade abdominal. A vesícula urinária apresentou parede com espessura média 0,2cm e em posição anatômica cuja topografi...

  3. Estudo da anatomia descritiva e topográfica do músculo digástrico em primatas (Cebus apella, Linnaeus, 1766)

    OpenAIRE

    Jussara Rocha Ferreira; Norival Pinto Júnior; Daissuke Kajita; Denise Soares de Cirqueira; Douglas José Nogueira

    2005-01-01

    Neste estudo utilizamos 18 (dezoito) cabeças de macacos prego (Cebus apella) cedidos pelo Departamento de Cirurgia da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo, e provenientes do Zoológico da cidade de São Paulo, vindos a óbito naturalmente. O método incluiu técnica de mesoscopia de luz, sendo a rotina técnica: canulação da aorta no sentido cranial; perfusão com água morna (40°C); injeção do sistema arterial com solução de látex (Neoprene 450) corado (sulvinil...

  4. Uniformity of colour vision in Old World monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, G.H.; Deegan, J F

    1999-01-01

    It is often assumed that all Old World monkeys share the same trichromatic colour vision, but the evidence in support of this conclusion is sparse as only a small fraction of all Old World monkey species have been tested. To address this issue, spectral sensitivity functions were measured in animals from eight species of Old World monkey (five cercopithecine species and three colobine species) using a non-invasive electrophysiological technique. Each of the 25 animals examined had spectrally ...

  5. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S.; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A.; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L.; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M.; Swanbeck, Sonja N.; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection...

  6. Anatomic brain asymmetry in vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fears, Scott C; Scheibel, Kevin; Abaryan, Zvart; Lee, Chris; Service, Susan K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Woods, Roger P

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetry is a prominent feature of human brains with important functional consequences. Many asymmetric traits show population bias, but little is known about the genetic and environmental sources contributing to inter-individual variance. Anatomic asymmetry has been observed in Old World monkeys, but the evidence for the direction and extent of asymmetry is equivocal and only one study has estimated the genetic contributions to inter-individual variance. In this study we characterize a range of qualitative and quantitative asymmetry measures in structural brain MRIs acquired from an extended pedigree of Old World vervet monkeys (n = 357), and implement variance component methods to estimate the proportion of trait variance attributable to genetic and environmental sources. Four of six asymmetry measures show pedigree-level bias and one of the traits has a significant heritability estimate of about 30%. We also found that environmental variables more significantly influence the width of the right compared to the left prefrontal lobe.

  7. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Justin D.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; Ryu, Stephen I.; Meng, Teresa H.; Murmann, Boris; Black, Michael J.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. Approach. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Main results. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Significance. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic

  8. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Justin D; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; I Ryu, Stephen; H Meng, Teresa; Murmann, Boris; J Black, Michael; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2014-08-01

    Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic motor neuroscience and for the successful

  9. Monkey King —Prime Candidate for 2008 Olympics Mascot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDAOYING; YOUZHENGJUN; LIWUZHOU

    2003-01-01

    IS the monkey an appropriate 2008 Olympic mascot? No one will know for sure until next year. Now that the Chinese Seal has been officially des-ignated as the 2008 Olympics emblem,the games'' mascot has taken over as hot topic. Animal images like the panda, dragon, lion, tiger, Tibetan ante-lope, and rabbit are also under consid-eration, but monkeyking2008.com, a website promoting the Monkey King as 2008 Olympics mascot, reports that 89 percent of its visitors want the monkey. Results of a survey conducted by China''s largest portal site, Sina.com, also indicate the Monkey King as hot favorite for mascot.

  10. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood smear and was subsequently diagnosed with symptomatic malaria. In this animal, congestion and accumulation of hemozoin (malaria pigment) in macrophages were noted in the enlarged and darkly discolored spleen. As a follow-up for the experience, spleen sections from 800 cynomolgus monkeys in toxicity studies conducted between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively examined for hemozoin deposition as a marker of Plasmodium infection. The origin of the animals included Cambodia, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Hemozoin deposition was confirmed in 44% of all examined monkeys. Monkeys from Indonesia showed the highest incidence of hemozoin deposition (approx. 80%). A high prevalence of Plasmodium infection in laboratory monkeys was also confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using Plasmodium genus-specific primers. Although Japan is not a country with endemic malaria, it is important to be aware of the prevalence and potential impact of background infection with Plasmodium spp. and recrudescence of symptomatic malaria in imported laboratory monkeys on pharmaceutical toxicity studies.

  11. Spaceflight and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    In the grant period, we perfected techniques for determination of interleukin production and leukocyte subset analysis of rhesus monkeys. These results are outlined in detail in publication number 2, appended to this report. Additionally, we participated in the ARRT restraint test to determine if restraint conditions for flight in the Space Shuttle could contribute to any effects of space flight on immune responses. All immunological parameters listed in the methods section were tested. Evaluation of the data suggests that the restraint conditions had minimal effects on the results observed, but handling of the monkeys could have had some effect. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 3, appended to this report. Additionally, to help us develop our rhesus monkey immunology studies, we carried out preliminary studies in mice to determine the effects of stressors on immunological parameters. We were able to show that there were gender-based differences in the response of immunological parameters to a stressor. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 4, appended to this report.

  12. Intraspecific differences in metabolic rate of Chroeomys olivaceus (Rodentia: Muridae: the effect of thermal acclimation in arid and mesic habitats Diferencias intraespecíficas en la tasa metabólica de Chroeomys olivaceus (Rodentia: Muridae: efecto de la aclimatación térmica en hábitat áridos y mésicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fernando Novoa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of metabolic capacities in rodents have been largely studied at an inter-specific levels, but physiological capacities of populations belonging to the same species have received lesser attention. Here we studied the maximum and basal metabolic rates of two populations of the rodent Chroeomys olivaceus dwelling in habitats with contrasting temperature and rainfall regimes, and to test if differences in metabolic capacities are due to local adaptation or acclimatization effect. After four weeks of acclimation to 25 ºC and 10 ºC, the BMR and MMR were determined in individuals from the northern population of Caleta Loa, and the southern population of La Picada. Individuals from ‘La Picada’ population were heavier than those from Caleta Loa. MMR and BMR exhibited higher values in cold acclimated animals compared with warm-acclimated animals. Besides, BMR, but not MMR, was lower in Caleta Loa individuals, in spite of the acclimation treatment. Hence, the differences in the metabolic capacities and the response to acclimation of C. olivaceus populations appear to be an evolutionary response to the environmental cuesLas capacidades metabólicas en roedores han sido ampliamente estudiadas en un nivel ínterespecífico, pero los atributos fisiológicos de las poblaciones que pertenecen a una misma especie, han recibido menos atención. Aquí estudiamos las tasas metabólicas máximas y basales de dos poblaciones del roedor Chroeomys olivaceus que viven en habitats con temperaturas y regímenes de precipitaciones contrastantes y se analiza si las diferencias en las capacidades metabólicas se deben a diferenciación local o a efectos de aclimatación. Después de cuatro semanas de aclimatación a 25 ºC y 10 ºC, el BMR y MMR fueron determinados en individuos de la población norteña de Caleta Loa y en la población sureña de "La Picada". Los individuos de la población "La Picada" presentaron mayor masa corporal que los de Caleta Loa. Los

  13. Aged monkeys as a partial model for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, P J; Elsworth, J D; Whittaker, M C; Roth, R H; Redmond, D E

    2011-09-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the natural aging process share a number of biochemical mechanisms, including reduced function of dopaminergic systems. The present study aims to determine the extent that motor and behavioral changes in aged monkeys resemble parkinsonism induced by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. The behavioral and physiological changes in PD are believed to result largely from selective depletion of dopamine in the nigrostriatal system. In the present study, ten aged female monkeys were compared with three groups: 9 untreated young adult female monkeys, 10 young adult male monkeys and 13 older male monkeys that had been exposed to MPTP. Trained observers, blind as to age and drug condition and without knowledge of the hypotheses, scored the monkeys using the Parkinson's factor score (Parkscore), which has been validated by a high correlation with post mortem striatal dopamine (DA) concentrations. The aged animals had higher scores on the Parkscore compared with the young adults, with most of its component behavioral items showing significance (tremor, Eating Problems, Delayed initiation of movement, and Poverty of Movement). L-Dopa and DA-agonists did not clearly reverse the principal measure of parkinsonism. DA concentrations post mortem were 63% lower in 3 aged monkeys in the ventral putamen compared with 4 young adults, with greater reductions in putamen than in caudate (45%). We conclude that aged monkeys, unexposed to MPTP, show a similar profile of parkinsonism to that seen after the neurotoxin exposure to MPTP in young adult monkeys. The pattern of greater DA depletion in putamen than in caudate in aged monkeys is the same as in human Parkinson's disease and contrasts with the greater depletion in caudate seen after MPTP. Aged monkeys of this species reflect many facets of Parkinson's disease, but like older humans do not improve with standard dopamine replacement pharmacotherapies.

  14. Changes of cytochrome P4501A mRNA expression and physiology responses in the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, exposed to benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.Y.; An, K.W.; Shin, H.S.; An, M.I.; Jo, P.G. [Korean Maritime University, Pusan (Republic of Korea). Division of Marine Environmental and Bioscience

    2008-07-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is generated by the incomplete combustion of organic substances such as oil and coal, and is a widespread organic environmental contaminant in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To determine the effects of BaP on organisms, we investigated its time- and dose-related effects on the levels of cytochrome P4501A (P4501A) mRNA in the liver and gills of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and measured the plasma glucose, cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The full-length olive flounder P4501A cDNA consists of 1566 nucleotides and encodes a 521-amino-acid protein. In the liver and gills, the expression of P4501A mRNA was highest 6 h after exposure to both 10 and 30 gl{sup -1} BaP, and then decreased. In addition, the plasma parameters increased with exposure. These results suggest that P4501A plays an important role in the detoxification of BaP, which stressed the olive flounder. Therefore, these physiological parameters may be indicators of BaP-induced stress responses.

  15. Generation of G gene-deleted viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and evaluation of its vaccine potential in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Park, Ji Sun; Kim, Ki Hong

    2015-08-01

    Generation of recombinant viruses lacking an essential gene for the production of infective viral particles would be a way to produce safety-enhanced live viral vaccines. The rhabdoviral envelope-spiked glycoprotein (G) plays critical roles in the attachment of viruses on the cell surface receptor and in the transfer of endocytosed viruses to the cytoplasm by fusion to the endosomal membrane. In the present study, we produced a G gene-lacking recombinant viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (rVHSV-ΔG) that has no ability to form plaques in the cells without a trans-supply of the G protein, which suggests that rVHSV-ΔG is a single cycle virus and progenies of rVHSV-ΔG are not infectious. One of the major advantages of attenuated vaccines is the maintenance of replication ability in the host, which enforces the adaptive immune responses. However, in spite of lacking an ability to produce infective viral particles, immunization with the present rVHSV-ΔG induced significantly higher serum neutralization titers and survival rates against virulent VHSV challenge in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) fingerlings, indicating that the present rVHSV-ΔG has a high potential as a prophylactic vaccine.

  16. Changes in microRNAs expression profile of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Abdellaoui; Kim, Min Sun; Choi, Seung Hyuk; Kang, Yue Jai; Kim, Ki Hong

    2016-04-01

    To know the effect of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection on the cellular microRNA expression profile in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), fish were infected with VHSV, and cellular microRNAs expression was analyzed at 0 (control), 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection (h.p.i.) by the high-throughput sequencing. A total of 372 mature miRNAs were identified, and, among them, 63 miRNAs were differentially expressed during VHSV infection. The differentially expressed microRNAs number was greatly increased from 24 h.p.i. compared to the number at 6 and 12 h.p.i., suggesting that the alteration of microRNAs expression by VHSV infection may be related to the progression of VHSV disease. The target prediction analysis, the GO enrichment analysis, and the KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted target genes showed that various biological pathways could be affected by VHSV infection through the down-regulation or up-regulation of host miRNAs. The present results provide a basic information on the microRNAs related to VHSV infection in olive flounder. Considering broad effects of microRNAs on various biological pathways, data in this study can be used to interpret the mechanism of VHSV pathogenesis, which, vice versa, can be used to develop control measures against VHSV.

  17. Identification and Expression Analysis ofemx1from Paralichthys olivaceus%牙鲆emx1基因的克隆及表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文慧; 张俊玲; 施志仪; 孙近近; 向玉婷; 陈晓武

    2016-01-01

    To explore the function of the empty spiracles homeobox 1(emx1)gene in the development of Paralichthys olivaceus,the emx1 was cloned by PCR,the sequence feature was analyzed by BioEdit and MEGA software,and the expression in early development and adult tissues was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. The obtained emx1 cDNA was 1 127 bp,including a 708 bp open reading frame(ORF), encoding a polypeptide of 235 amino acids. The alignment analysis of amino acid sequence discovered that the emx1 from P. olivaceusshowed the highest 95% homology with that of Stegastes partitus and Poecilia formosa,the sequence similarities between P. olivaceus and Danio rerio, Astyanax mexicanus,Xenopus tropicalis,Gallus gallus,Mus musculusand Homo sapiens,were 87%,84%,83%,80%,72% and 72%, respectively. The Emx1 protein was highly homologous with that in other fish through phylogenic analysis. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the emx1mRNA was expressed in all detected tissues of P. olivaceus. The expression of emx1was the highest in the ovary and secondly highest in the testis,while relatively low in other tissues. In early development stage,i.e.,from gastrula to 10 d after hatching,a relatively high expression of the emx1 mRNA was also observed,and the highest expression occurred in the blastopore stage and heart-beating stage. The findings indicated that the emx1 played an important role in early development and gonad development stages of P. olivaceus.%为阐述空通气孔同源框1(empty spiracles homeobox 1,emx1)基因在牙鲆发育中的作用,通过PCR技术克隆牙鲆emx1基因,运用BioEdit、MEGA等软件分析其序列结构特征,并采用荧光定量PCR技术分析其在牙鲆早期发育和组织分布中的表达情况。结果成功获得一长度为1127bp的牙鲆emx1 cDNA序列,其中包括708bp的开放阅读框,编码235个氨基酸。同源性比对发现,牙鲆emx1基因的氨基酸序列与雀鲷和花鳉同源性最高,为95%,

  18. STUDY ON EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT AND EARLY GROWTH OF TRIPLOID AND GYNOGENETIC DIPLOID LEFT-EYED FLOUNDER, PARALICHTHYS OLIVACEUS(T. et S.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The early effects of chromosomal manipulation of eggs and sperm on the yields of triploid and gynogenetic diploid larvae of Paralichthys olivaceus were investigated. Triploidy was achieved by cold shocking fertilized eggs at 0-2℃ for 45 minutes duration 5 minutes after fertilization, and the induced triploidy rates were 31.2%-50% and the relative hatching rates were 53.3%-99%. Gynogenetic diploids were obtained when eggs were inseminated with irradiated sperm and cold shocked at 0-2℃ for 45 minutes duration 5 minutes after fertilization. The induced gynogenetic diploid rates and the relative hatching rates were 94%-96% and 48.5%-68.5% respectively. The embryonic development of the triploid experimental group and of the gynogenetic diploid experimental group was delayed at first compared with the control group. But from the gastrula stage, it was not delayed anymore. There were no significant differences in the growth of the triploid experimental group larvae and the control group larvae, and in the growth of the gynogenetic diploid experimental group larvae and the control group larvae according to Student's t-test (α=0.05). The relationship between the early growth of the triploid experimental group larvae and that of gynogenetic diploid experimental group larvae was also studied.

  19. STUDY ON EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT AND EARLY GROWTH OF TRIPLOID AND GYNOGENETIC DIPLOID LEFI—EYED FLOUNDER, PARALICHTHYS OLIVACEUS (T. et S. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤锋; 刘静; 王新成; 徐永立; 黄瑞东; 张培军

    2001-01-01

    The early effects of chromosomal manipulation of eggs and sperm on the yields of trip-loid and gynogenefic diploid larvae of Paralichthys olivaceus were investigated. Triploidy was achieved by cold shocking fen.ilized eggs at 0 - 2℃ for 45 minutes duration 5 minutes after fen.ilization, and the in-duced triploidy rates were 31.2% - 50% and the relative hatching rates were 53.3% - 99%. Gynnge-aetic diploids were obtained when eggs were inseminated with irradiated sperm and cold shocked at 0 -2℃ for 45 minutes duration 5 minutes after fertihzation. The induced gynogenetic diploid rates and the relative hatching rates were 94 % - 96 % and 48.5 % - 68.5 % respectively. The embryonic development of the triploid experimental group and of the gynogenetic diploid experimental group was delayed at first compared with the control group. But from the gastrula stage, it was not delayed anymore. There were no significant differences in the growth of the triploid experimental group larvae and the control group larvae, and in the growth of the gynogenetic diploid experimental group larvae and the control group larvae ac-cording to Student's t-test (α = 0.05). The relationship between the early growth of the triploid experi-mental group larvae and that of gynogenetic diploid experimental group larvae was also studied.

  20. Detection of Kudoa septempunctata 18S ribosomal DNA in patient fecal samples from novel food-borne outbreaks caused by consumption of raw olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tetsuya; Kawai, Takao; Jinnai, Michio; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumeda, Yuko

    2012-09-01

    Kudoa septempunctata is a newly identified myxosporean parasite of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and a suspected causative agent of several food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks in Japan. Here, we report the detection of K. septempunctata 18S ribosomal DNA in fecal samples of outbreak patients using an efficient method based on real-time PCR. We first performed a spiking experiment to assess whether our previously developed real-time PCR assay was applicable to detect K. septempunctata in feces. Simultaneously, we compared the relative extraction efficacy of K. septempunctata DNA using three commercial kits. Finally, our detection method was validated by testing 45 clinical samples obtained from 13 food-borne outbreaks associated with the consumption of raw flounder and 41 fecal samples from diarrhea patients epidemiologically unrelated to the ingestion of raw fish. We found that the FastDNA Spin Kit for Soil (MP Biomedicals) was the most efficient method for extracting K. septempunctata DNA from fecal samples. Using this kit, the detection limit of our real-time PCR assay was 1.6 × 10(1) spores per g of feces, and positive results were obtained for 21 fecal and 2 vomitus samples obtained from the food-borne outbreaks. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the detection of K. septempunctata DNA in patient fecal samples. We anticipate that our detection method will be useful for confirming food-borne diseases caused by K. septempunctata in laboratory investigations.

  1. Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Burns, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansen, W.L.; Ferket, P.R.; Heugten, E.

    2007-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions. Six woolly monkeys with known hypertension problems were tested to determine if diabetes mellitus and current dai

  2. Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Burns, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansen, W.L.; Ferket, P.R.; Heugten, E.

    2007-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions. Six woolly monkeys with known hypertension problems were tested to determine if diabetes mellitus and current dai

  3. Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the primate family, their physiology, and habits. Topics described include: (1) kinds of monkeys, including lemur, chimpanzee, gorilla, squirrel monkey, and marmoset; (2) behaviors when…

  4. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  5. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Numerical Ordering in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how within-stimulus heterogeneity affects the ability of rhesus monkeys to order pairs of the numerosities 1 through 9. Two rhesus monkeys were tested in a touch screen task where the variability of elements within each visual array was systematically varied by allowing elements to vary in color, size, shape, or any combination of…

  6. "Mohandas Fire" Year of the Fire Monkey (Chinese Zodiac)

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Exhibition of cartoons on the theme of the Fire Monkey - Chinese New Year at the Museo de Humor Grafico Diodenes Taborda, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Only British artist involved, with two works. 29 different nations entered and 51 artists involved. All works different approaches to the year of the Fire Monkey.

  7. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations o

  8. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  9. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. Zihlman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas’ larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys’ basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas.

  10. Monkeying around: Use of Survey Monkey as a Tool for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massat, Carol Rippey; McKay, Cassandra; Moses, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of an online survey tool called Survey Monkey, which can be used by school social workers and school social work educators for evaluation of practice, needs assessment, and program evaluation. Examples of questions are given. Principles of writing good survey questions are described. (Contains 2 tables and 1…

  11. 褐牙鲆、夏鲆及其杂交子代核型与DAPI带型分析%Karyotypes and DAPI staining of Paralichthys olivaceus, Paralichthys dentatus and their hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋娟; 马道远; 肖志忠; 徐世宏; 肖永双; 武宁宁; 刘清华; 李军

    2014-01-01

    为了深入剖析褐牙鲆与夏鲆杂交后代的染色体结构,本研究利用秋水仙素-低渗-空气干燥法制备胚胎染色体和 DAPI (4’,6’-diamidino-2-phenylindole)荧光染色的方法,对褐牙鲆(Paralichthys olivaceus)、夏鲆(Paralichthys dentatus)及其正反交子代胚胎细胞的染色体组型和染色质的分布进行了研究。结果表明,褐牙鲆、夏鲆及其正交子代(褐牙鲆♀×夏鲆♂)染色体组均含有48条端部着丝粒染色体,染色体组型公式均为2n=48t,组内染色体长度分布连续,三者核型相似。反交子代(夏鲆♀×褐牙鲆♂)为46条端部着丝粒染色体,比亲本及正交子代少了两条染色体。DAPI荧光染色显示,褐牙鲆1号染色体中的一条染色体有较明显的次缢痕,夏鲆及正反交子代染色体中未见明显次缢痕。褐牙鲆与正交子代染色体着色较为均一,而夏鲆与反交子代着丝粒区域亮度明显增强。%In order to study the chromosomal structure of the interspecific hybrids between P. olivaceus and P. den-tatus, the chromosomes were obtained from the embryos of Paralichthys olivaceus, Paralichthys dentatus and their reciprocal crosses were prepared using Colchine-hypotonic-air drying methods and stained with gluorescence dye DAPI (4’, 6’-diamidino-2-phenylindole). The results showed that P. olivaceus, P. dentatus and the original hybrids (P. olivaceus♀× P. dentatus♂, Fo) were consisted of 48 telocentromerie chromosomes and their karyotype formula was 2n = 48t, with continuous length intragenomes and similar karyotype. Two chromosomes were missing in the reciprocal hybrids (P. dentatus♀× P. olivaceus♂, Fr). The DAPI banding patterns showed that the distinctive sec-ondary constriction was assigned to one homologue of chromosome 1 in P. olivaceus. The chromosomes were all uniformly stained in P. olivaceus and Fo, except strongly positive staining at the centromere of all chromosomes in P. dentatus and Fr.

  12. Outbreak of pasteurellosis in captive Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOSHINO, Mizuki; SASAKI, Jun; KURAMOCHI, Konomi; IKEZAWA, Mitsutaka; MUKAIZAWA, Natsuko; GORYO, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    In September 2012, five Bolivian squirrel monkeys housed in a zoological park died within sequential several days without obvious clinical signs. In a necrospy, one monkey presented swelling of the kidney with multifocal white nodules in the parenchyma, and other two had pulmonary congestion. Histopathologically, multifocal bacterial colonies of gram-negative coccobacillus were found in the sinusoid of the liver in all monkeys examined (Nos.1−4). Additionally, purulent pyelonephritis, pneumonia and disseminated small bacterial colonies in blood vessels were observed. Immunohistochemically, the bacterial colonies from two monkeys were positive for P. multocida capsular serotype D. Based on these findings, these monkeys were diagnosed as septicemia caused by acute P. multocida infection. PMID:28190821

  13. Vestibular adaptation to space in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, M.; Raphan, T.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Cohen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Otolith-induced eye movements of rhesus monkeys were studied before and after the 1989 COSMOS 2044 and the 1992 to 1993 COSMOS 2229 flights. Two animals flew in each mission for approximately 2 weeks. After flight, spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was altered. In one animal the time constant of postrotatory nystagmus, which had been shortened by head tilts with regard to gravity before flight, was unaffected by the same head tilts after flight. In another animal, eye velocity, which tended to align with a gravitational axis before flight, moved toward a body axis after flight. This shift of orientation disappeared by 7 days after landing. After flight, the magnitude of compensatory ocular counter-rolling was reduced by about 70% in both dynamic and static tilts. Modulation in vergence in response to naso-occipital linear acceleration during off-vertical axis rotation was reduced by more than 50%. These changes persisted for 11 days after recovery. An up and down asymmetry of vertical nystagmus was diminished for 7 days. Gains of the semicircular canal-induced horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes were unaffected in both flights, but the gain of the roll angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was decreased. These data indicate that there are short- and long-term changes in otolith-induced eye movements after adaptation to microgravity. These experiments also demonstrate the unique value of the monkey as a model for studying effects of vestibular adaptation in space. Eye movements can be measured in three dimensions in response to controlled vestibular and visual stimulation, and the results are directly applicable to human beings. Studies in monkeys to determine how otolith afferent input and central processing is altered by adaptation to microgravity should be an essential component of future space-related research.

  14. Early life stress and novelty seeking behavior in adolescent monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J; Rainwater, Kimberly L; Buckmaster, Christine L; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lindley, Steven E; Lyons, David M

    2007-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to mild stress promotes the development of novelty seeking behavior. Here we test this hypothesis in squirrel monkeys and investigate whether novelty seeking behavior is associated with differences in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA), the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG), and the neuropeptide corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF). Monkeys were randomized early in life to either mild intermittent stress (IS) or no stress (NS) conditions, and subsequently presented with opportunities to interact with a familiar or novel object in a test box that was connected to each monkey's home cage. To further minimize the potentially stressful nature of the test situation, monkeys were acclimated to the test procedures prior to study initiation. Post-test plasma levels of cortisol in IS and NS monkeys did not differ significantly from baseline levels measured in undisturbed conditions. During testing, more IS than NS monkeys voluntarily left the home cage, and IS monkeys spent more time in the test box compared to NS monkeys. More IS than NS monkeys engaged in object exploration in the test box, and IS monkeys preferred to interact with the novel vs. familiar object. Novelty seeking was not associated with differences in 5HIAA, HVA, MHPG, or CRF, but correlated with differences in object exploration observed in a different test situation at an earlier age. These trait-like differences in novelty seeking appear to reflect mild early stress-induced adaptations that enhance curiosity and resilience.

  15. ARCTIC MONKEYS:猴子凶猛!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青鸟

    2007-01-01

    @@ 我不是成长于星条旗下的美利坚自由人民,所以英国乐队Arctic Monkeys在我跟前很能吃得开,打从我听到他们的第一个音符起.这或许是我从小看多了充满暴力的电视剧《西游记》,并对猴子产生了偏爱的缘故,而对Arctic Monkeys,来自北极的猴子,更是充满了好奇.

  16. Do wild titi monkeys show empathy?

    OpenAIRE

    Clyvia, A; Kaizer, M. C.; Santos,R.V.; Young, R.J.; C. Cäsar

    2014-01-01

    We observed a putative case of empathy among wild black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons)\\ud from two different groups (D and R). In over 10 years of behavioural observations of five habituated\\ud groups of this species, only low levels of inter-group tolerance have been observed. However, on one day, we\\ud encountered the adult male from group D limping (poor hind limb motor coordination) as he travelled alone\\ud along the ground. Interestingly, we observed that members of group R...

  17. 牙鲆(Paralichthys olivaceus) Activin 基因两种β亚基的启动子克隆及生物信息学分析%Bioinformatic Characterization of Promoters of Two Activin-βSubunit Genes in Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蒙蒙; 王晶; 高金宁; 马丽曼; 张全启

    2015-01-01

    Activin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family and regulates sex hormones. It was originally discovered in pig ovarian follicular fluid. Activin contains two β subunits and plays a vital role in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis (HPG). It regulates the secretion of pituitary gonadotropin, the production of steroid hormones and the maturation of oocyte in ovary. Paralichthys olivaceus is a type of important commercial fish species that has advantageous traits in aquaculture such as the fast growth rate. Better understanding of its reproduction mechanism is essential for the guidance of the breeding of P. olivaceus. In this study, we analyzed the expression and regulation of Activin gene related to the reproductive endocrinology of P. olivaceus. Our data should provide important information for future studies on biological functions of Activin and for the practice in the culture of P. olivaceus. We used the genome walking method to obtain the partial sequence of promoters located in the upstream of Activin βA and βB genes of P. olivaceus, and predicted the binding sites of transcriptional regulation elements using the bioinformatical method. The promoters of these two genes were 2.7 kb and 2.4 kb in length respectively. The results showed that the TATA box of Activin βB was located at 31 bp in the upstream region of the transcription initiation site, however this structure was not found in Activin βA. We found in the two promoters a number of binding sites of the transcription factors including Sp1, Oct-1, C/EBP, CREB, GATA-1, c-Jun, HNF-3, HNF-1, and USF. Moreover, we also found multiple transcription binding sites of endocrine-related factors such as Pit-1, ER, PR, GR, RAR, and RXR. However, the binding sites of MyoD, myogenin and SRY were only found in Activin βA. In conclusion, the bioinformatical analysis suggested that the basic and hormone-inducing expression of both Activin βA and βB was regulated by a variety of factors

  18. Spaceflight and immune responses of rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-a (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CD8+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  19. Explicit information reduces discounting behavior in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePearson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals are notoriously impulsive in common laboratory experiments, preferring smaller, sooner rewards to larger, delayed rewards even when this reduces average reward rates. By contrast, the same animals often engage in natural behaviors that require extreme patience, such as food caching, stalking prey, and traveling long distances to high quality food sites. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that standard laboratory delay discounting tasks artificially inflate impulsivity by subverting animals’ common learning strategies. To test this idea, we examined choices made by rhesus macaques in two variants of a standard delay discounting task. In the conventional variant, post-reward delays were uncued and adjusted to render total trial length constant; in the second, all delays were cued explicitly. We found that measured discounting was significantly reduced in the cued task, with discount rates well below those reported in studies using the standard uncued design. When monkeys had complete information, their decisions were more consistent with a strategy of reward rate maximization. These results indicate that monkeys, and perhaps other animals, are more patient than is normally assumed, and that laboratory measures of delay discounting may overstate impulsivity.

  20. Predicting rhesus monkey eye movements during natural-image search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Mark A; Kuo, Emory; Caddigan, Sara; Berthiaume, Emily A; Kording, Konrad P

    2017-03-01

    There are three prominent factors that can predict human visual-search behavior in natural scenes: the distinctiveness of a location (salience), similarity to the target (relevance), and features of the environment that predict where the object might be (context). We do not currently know how well these factors are able to predict macaque visual search, which matters because it is arguably the most popular model for asking how the brain controls eye movements. Here we trained monkeys to perform the pedestrian search task previously used for human subjects. Salience, relevance, and context models were all predictive of monkey eye fixations and jointly about as precise as for humans. We attempted to disrupt the influence of scene context on search by testing the monkeys with an inverted set of the same images. Surprisingly, the monkeys were able to locate the pedestrian at a rate similar to that for upright images. The best predictions of monkey fixations in searching inverted images were obtained by rotating the results of the model predictions for the original image. The fact that the same models can predict human and monkey search behavior suggests that the monkey can be used as a good model for understanding how the human brain enables natural-scene search.

  1. Perception of chasing in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Takeshi; Nagasaka, Yasuo

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the intentions of others is crucial in developing positive social relationships. Comparative human and non-human animal studies have addressed the phylogenetic origin of this ability. However, few studies have explored the importance of motion information in distinguishing others' intentions and goals in non-human primates. This study addressed whether squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) are able to perceive a goal-directed motion pattern-specifically, chasing-represented by two geometric objects. In Experiment 1, we trained squirrel monkeys to discriminate a "Chasing" sequence from a "Random" sequence. We then confirmed that this discrimination transferred to new stimuli ("Chasing" and "Random") in a probe test. To determine whether the monkeys used similarities of trajectory to discriminate chasing from random motion, we also presented a non-chasing "Clone" sequence in which the trajectories of the two figures were identical. Three of six monkeys were able to discriminate "Chasing" from the other sequences. In Experiment 2, we confirmed humans' recognition of chasing with the stimuli from Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, the three monkeys for which discrimination did not transfer to the new stimuli in Experiment 1 were trained to discriminate between "Chasing" and "Clone" sequences. At testing, all three monkeys had learned to discriminate chasing, and two transferred their learning to new stimuli. Our results suggest that squirrel monkeys use goal-directed motion patterns, rather than simply similarity of trajectory, to discriminate chasing. Further investigation is necessary to identify the motion characteristics that contribute to this discrimination.

  2. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  3. Loss of metabolites from monkey striatum during PET with FDOPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, P; Munk, O L; Doudet, D

    2001-01-01

    constants using data recorded during 240 min of FDOPA circulation in normal monkeys and in monkeys with unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesions. Use of the extended models increased the magnitudes of K(D)(i) and k(D)(3) in striatum; in the case of k(D)(3), variance...... of the estimate was substantially improved upon correction for metabolite loss. The rate constants for metabolite loss were higher in MPTP-lesioned monkey striatum than in normal striatum. The high correlation between individual estimates of k(Lin)(cl) and k(DA)(9) suggests that both rate constants reveal loss...

  4. Aggression, grooming and group-level cooperation in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus): insights from social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Maiya, Arun S; Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y

    2011-08-01

    The form of animal social systems depends on the nature of agonistic and affiliative interactions. Social network theory provides tools for characterizing social structure that go beyond simple dyadic interactions and consider the group as a whole. We show three groups of capuchin monkeys from Barro Colorado Island, Panama, where there are strong connections between key aspects of aggression, grooming, and proximity networks, and, at least among females, those who incur risk to defend their group have particular "social personalities." Although there is no significant correlation for any of the network measures between giving and receiving aggression, suggesting that dominance relationships do not follow a simple hierarchy, strong correlations emerge for many measures between the aggression and grooming networks. At the local, but not global, scale, receiving aggression and giving grooming are strongly linked in all groups. Proximity shows no correlation with aggression at either the local or the global scale, suggesting that individuals neither seek out nor avoid aggressors. Yet, grooming has a global but not local connection to proximity. Extensive groomers who tend to direct their efforts at other extensive groomers also spend time in close proximity to many other individuals. These results indicate the important role that prosociality plays in shaping female social relationships. We also show that females who receive the least aggression, and thus pay low costs for group living, are most likely to participate in group defense. No consistent "social personality" traits characterize the males who invest in group defense.

  5. Effects of NV gene knock-out recombinant viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) on Mx gene expression in Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells and olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Ki Hong

    2012-03-01

    To determine whether the NV gene of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is related to the type I interferon response of hosts, expression of Mx gene in Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells and in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in response to infection with either wild-type VHSV or recombinant VHSVs (rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP and rVHSV-wild) was investigated. A reporter vector was constructed for measuring Mx gene expression using olive flounder Mx promoter, in which the reporter Metridia luciferase was designed to be excreted to culture medium to facilitate measurement. The highest increase of luciferase activity was detected from supernatant of cells infected with rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP. In contrast cells infected with wild-type VHSV showed a slight increase of the luciferase activity. Interestingly, cells infected with rVHSV-wild that has artificially changed nucleotides just before and after the NV gene ORF, also showed highly increased luciferase activity, but the increased amplitude was lower than that by rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP. These results strongly suggest that the NV protein of VHSV plays an important role in suppressing interferon response in host cells, which provides a condition for the viruses to efficiently proliferate in host cells. In an in vivo experiment, the Mx gene expression in olive flounder challenged with the rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP was clearly higher than fish challenged with rVHSV-wild or wild-type VHSV, suggesting that lacking of the NV gene in the genome of rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP brought to strong interferon response that subsequently inhibit viral replication in fish.

  6. Characterization of CD3(+) T lymphocytes of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its response after immunization with formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoqian; Qin, Yinghui; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2017-04-01

    The CD3 complex is an important cell surface marker of T lymphocytes and essential for T lymphocytes activation in higher vertebrates. In the present work, the CD3ε of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was recombinantly expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and used as an immunogen to produce mouse anti-rCD3ε polyclonal antibodies, which could specifically recognize a 20 kDa protein in the membrane proteins of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of Japanese flounder by co-immunoprecipitation assay. Mass spectrometric analysis showed the 20 kDa protein was the native CD3ε of Japanese flounder. Both the flow cytometric analysis and double immunofluorescence assay (DIFA) showed that the CD3(+) T lymphocytes could be identified specifically by the mouse anti-rCD3ε polyclonal antibodies, which didn't cross-react with the sIgM(+) lymphocytes. Immunohistochemistry showed that CD3(+) T lymphocytes could be detected in gill, skin, stomach, intestine, spleen, liver, head-kidney and mid-kidney. Flow cytometric analysis showed the percentages of CD3(+) T lymphocytes in the PBL, spleen lymphocytes (SL) and head-kidney lymphocytes (HKL) of Japanese flounder increased rapidly after immunization with formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda, and reached their peak levels at 5th day with 12.6%, 9.7% and 8.7%, respectively, and then decreased gradually. These results suggested that CD3(+) T lymphocytes play important roles in mucosal and cell-mediated immunity, and the results would deepen our understanding on the roles of teleost T lymphocytes in the immune response.

  7. Enteromyxum leei (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) as the cause of myxosporean emaciation disease of farmed olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) and a turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) on Jeju Island, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Mariko; Setsuda, Aogu; Sato, Hiroshi; Song, Kicheon; Han, Jung-Kyun; Kim, Gyeong-Ju; Yeo, In Kyu

    2016-11-01

    A life-threatening emaciation disease of unknown cause(s) is affecting the farming of olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) and turbots (Scophthalmus maximus) on Jeju Island, Korea. As this is one of the major industries in the region, it is of great concern to local farmers trying to develop successful and sustainable aquaculture. We examined 16 olive flounders and one turbot cultured at three farms located in the southern part of Jeju Island, which manifested moderate to severe emaciation such as thinning of the body with notable appearance of bony ridges of the skull on heads. Fresh mucosal scrapings of the intestinal mucosa contained many myxosporean vegetative stages at various developments but not fully grown spores. Histological examination of gastrointestinal and other visceral organs revealed striking changes in the intestinal mucosa such as detachment and loss of the epithelium due to intensive parasitism of the myxosporean vegetative stages, accompanied by considerable leukocyte infiltration in the lamina propria, and at the final stage villus atrophy with no epithelial lining. Specific polymerase chain reaction using a pair of primers targeting a fragment of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) of Enteromyxum leei, a known pathogen causing myxosporean emaciation disease in a variety of cultured fish in Mediterranean countries and Japan, amplified 433-bp products in almost all diseased fish samples, particularly the gastrointestinal tract. Nearly the whole length of the 18S rDNA, 1672-bp long excluding primer-aligning sequences, of the present Korean isolate was comparable to those of E. leei isolates from Japan and Europe, particularly those from the former region. Taking the heavy load of various developmental stages of E. leei in the gastrointestinal mucosa into account, we ascribe the emaciation disease of the fish examined in the present study to this well-known myxosporean species and not to another unknown pathogen(s).

  8. Selection of normalization factors for quantitative real time RT-PCR studies in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) under conditions of viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Hu, Yong-hua; Sun, Bo-guang; Xiao, Zhi-zhong; Sun, Li

    2013-04-15

    Disease outbreaks caused by iridoviruses are known to affect farmed flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). To facilitate quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of gene expression in flounder and turbot during viral infection, we in this study examined the potentials of 9 housekeeping genes of flounder and turbot as internal references for qRT-PCR under conditions of experimental infection with megalocytivirus, a member of the Iridoviridae family. The mRNA levels of the 9 housekeeping genes in the brain, gill, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, and spleen of flounder and turbot were determined by qRT-PCR at 24h and 72h post-viral infection, and the expression stabilities of the genes were determined with geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that (i) viral infection induced significant changes in the mRNA levels of the all the examined genes in a manner that was dependent on both tissue type and infection stage; (ii) for a given time point of infection, stability predictions made by the two algorisms were highly consistent for most tissues; (iii) the optimum reference genes differed at different infection time points at least in some tissues; (iv) at both examined time points, no common reference genes were identified across all tissue types. These results indicate that when studying gene expression in flounder and turbot in relation to viral infection, different internal references may have to be used not only for different tissues but also for different infection stages.

  9. Effects of different light wavelengths from LEDs on oxidative stress and apoptosis in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) at high water temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Seok; Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Cheol Young; Kim, Jae-Woo

    2016-08-01

    We investigated how different light spectra affect thermal stress in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), using light emitting diodes (LEDs; blue, 450 nm; green, 530 nm; red, 630 nm) at two intensities (0.3 and 0.5 W/m(2)) at relatively high water temperatures (25 and 30 °C, compared to a control condition of 20 °C). We measured the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the levels of plasma hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Furthermore, the levels and mRNA expression of caspase-3 were measured, and terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays of liver and comet assays were performed. The expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, as well as plasma H2O2 and LPO levels were significantly higher after exposure to high temperatures, and significantly lower after exposure to green and blue light. Caspase-3 levels and mRNA expression showed a similar pattern. The TUNEL assay showed that apoptosis markedly increased at higher water temperatures, compared with the 20 °C control. In contrast, green light irradiation decreased apoptosis rate. Furthermore, the comet assays showed that nuclear DNA damage was caused by thermal stress, and that green light irradiation played a role in partially preventing this damage. Overall, these results suggest that light with green and blue wavelengths can reduce both high temperature-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis, and that particularly green light is efficient for this. Therefore, green light can play a role in protecting in olive flounder from thermal stress damage.

  10. Histological change and heat shock protein 70 expression in different tissues of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in response to elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifan; Ma, Daoyuan; Xiao, Zhizhong; Xu, Shihong; Wang, Yanfeng; Wang, Yufu; Xiao, Yongshuang; Song, Zongcheng; Teng, Zhaojun; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    High temperature influences the homeostasis of fish. We investigated the effects of elevated temperature on tissues of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) by analyzing the histology and heat shock protein 70 ( hsp70) expression of fish reared in warm conditions. In this study, temperature was increased at 1±0.5°C/day starting at 24±0.5°C, and was kept at that temperature for 5 days before the next rise. After raising temperature at the rate up to 32±0.5°C, tissue samples from midgut, spleen, stomach, liver, muscle, gill, heart, trunk kidney and brain were collected for histological analysis and mRNA assay. Almost all the tissues showed changes in morphological structure and hsp70 level at 32±0.5°C. Histological assessment of the tissues indicated that the gill had the most serious damage, including highly severe epithelial lifting and edema, curved tips and hyperemia at the ending of the lamellars, desquamation and necrosis. The next most severe damage was found in liver and kidney. The hsp70 levels in all the tissues first increased and then decreased. The gut, stomach, muscle, heart, and brain had the highest expressions in 6 h, whereas the spleen, liver, gill and kidney had the highest expressions in 2 h. Therefore, tissues with the most significant lesions (especially gill and liver) responded much earlier (2 h) in hsp70 expression than other tissues, and these tissues demonstrated the most marked histological disruption and elevated mRNA levels, making them ideal candidates for further studies on the thermal physiology of this species.

  11. Behavioral adaptations to heat stress and water scarcity in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fernando A; Fedigan, Linda M

    2009-01-01

    We examined thermoregulatory behaviors in a wild population of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) inhabiting a highly seasonal dry forest in Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP), Costa Rica. The dry season in SRNP lasts approximately 5 months and is characterized by high ambient temperatures regularly exceeding 37 degrees C, low relative humidity, and the near absence of precipitation. This study demonstrates that capuchins rest more and travel shorter distances during the hottest and driest hours of the day, and suggests that they extend their tongues to lower body temperature via evaporative cooling. Seasonal weather patterns and group movement data reported here are based on 940 h of observations on three social groups of capuchins (wet season: 370 h, dry season: 570 h). In the dry season, the proportion of time spent resting increased at higher temperatures whereas the proportion of time spent traveling decreased. Distance traveled between location points taken at half-hour intervals decreased significantly as temperature increased, although the correlation was not strong. Capuchins exposed their tongues during hot, dry, windy conditions, and this behavior was much more frequent in the dry season. Temperature was significantly higher and humidity significantly lower for "tongue-out" events than expected for a random event in the dry season. Finally, as surface water became scarce, home-range areas of heavy use became increasingly centered on the remaining permanent water sources. These results suggest that heat stress and water scarcity are significant influences on the behavior of capuchins in hot, dry conditions.

  12. Molecular systematics and phylogeography of Cebus capucinus (Cebidae, Primates) in Colombia and Costa Rica by means of the mitochondrial COII gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Garcia, Manuel; Castillo, Maria Ignacia; Ledezma, Andrea; Leguizamon, Norberto; Sánchez, Ronald; Chinchilla, Misael; Gutierrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A

    2012-04-01

    We propose the first molecular systematic hypothesis for the origin and evolution of Cebus capucinus based on an analysis of 710 base pairs (bp) of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) mitochondrial gene in 121 C. capucinus specimens sampled in the wild. The animals came from the borders of Guatemala and Belize, Costa Rica, and eight different departments of Colombia (Antioquia, Chocó, Sucre, Bolivar, Córdoba, Magdalena, Cauca, and Valle del Cauca). Three different and significant haplotype lineages were found in Colombia living sympatrically in the same departments. They all presented high levels of gene diversity but the third Colombian gene pool was determined likely to be the most ancestral lineage. The second Colombian mitochondrial (mt) haplogroup is likely the source of origin of the unique Central America mt haplogroup that was detected. Our molecular population genetics data do not agree with the existence of two well-defined subspecies in Central America (limitaneus and imitator). This Central America mt haplogroup showed significantly less genetic diversity than the Colombian mt haplogroups. All the C. capucinus analyzed showed evidence of historical population expansions. The temporal splits among these four C. capucinus lineages were related to the completion of the Panamanian land bridge as well as to climatic changes during the Quaternary Period.

  13. Effects of gut passage, feces, and seed handling on latency and rate of germination in seeds consumed by capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Kim; Fedigan, Linda M

    2009-04-01

    One of the key measures of the effectiveness of primary seed dispersal by animals is the quality of seed dispersal (Schupp: Plant Ecol 107/108 [1993] 15-29). We present data on quality of seed dispersal by two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica to test the hypothesis that capuchin seed handling results in effective primary dispersal for some fruit species they consume. We examined seed handling for 27 plant species, and germination rates of 18 species consumed by capuchins. For five of the most commonly swallowed seed species, we determined germination rates and average time to germination (latency) for seeds ingested and defecated by capuchins and compared these to seeds removed directly from fruit and planted. For the same five species, we compared germination rates and latency for passed seeds planted in capuchin feces to those cleaned of feces and planted in soil. For three of five species, differences in proportion of germinated seeds were significantly higher for gut passed seeds than for controls. For four of five species, germination latency was significantly faster for gut passed seeds than for controls. Feces had either no effect on seed germination rate or precluded germination. Data presented here support the hypothesis that white-faced capuchins are effective primary dispersers.

  14. Desferrioxamine suppresses Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, S; Rossan, R N; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A

    1987-02-01

    Clinical observation has suggested that iron deficiency may be protective in malaria, and we have found that desferrioxamine (DF), an iron-specific chelating agent, inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. It was difficult to be confident that DF would be effective in an intact animal, however, because continuous exposure to DF was required in vitro and, in vivo, DF is rapidly excreted. Also, the in vitro effect of DF was overcome by addition of iron to the culture and in vivo there are potentially high local iron concentrations when iron is absorbed from the diet or released from reticuloendothelial cells. We now show that DF given by constant subcutaneous infusion does suppress parasitemia in P. falciparum-infected Aotus monkeys.

  15. Amygdalar vocalization pathways in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, U

    1982-06-10

    In 22 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) vocalization-eliciting electrodes were implanted into the amygdala and along the trajectory of the stria terminalis. Then, lesions were placed in the stria terminalis, its bed nucleus, the ventral amygdalofugal pathway and several di- and mesencephalic structures in order to find out the pathways along which the amygdala exerts its vocalization-controlling influence. It was found that different call types are controlled by different pathways. Purring and chattering calls, which express a self-confident, challenging attitude and an attempt to recruit fellow-combatants in intra-specific mobbing, respectively, are controlled via the stria terminalis; alarm peep and groaning calls, in contrast, which indicate flight motivation and resentment, respectively, are triggered via the ventral amygdalofugal fibre bundle. Both pathways traverse the dorsolateral and dorsomedial hypothalamus, respectively, and unite in the periaqueductal grey of the midbrain.

  16. Keep children away from macaque monkeys!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréhin, Camille; Debuisson, Cécile; Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Niphuis, Henk; Buitendijk, Hester; Mengelle, Catherine; Grouteau, Erick; Claudet, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    To warn physicians and parents about the risk of macaque bites, we present two pediatric cases (a 4-year-old boy and a 10-year-old girl) of bites sustained while on holiday. The young boy developed febrile dermohypodermitis and was hospitalized for IV antibiotic treatment. He received an initial antirabies vaccine while still in the holiday destination. Except for local wound disinfection and antibiotic ointment, the girl did not receive any specific treatment while abroad. Both were negative for simian herpes PCR. When travelling in countries or cities with endemic simian herpes virus, parents should keep children away from monkeys. Travel agencies, pediatricians and family physicians should better inform families about the zoonotic risk.

  17. Molecular cloning of pituitary glycoprotein alpha-subunit and follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunits from New World squirrel monkey and owl monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Jonathan G; Funkhouser, Jane D; Moyer, Felricia S; Gibson, Susan V; Willis, Donna L

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the gonadotropins expressed in pituitary glands of the New World squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) and owl monkey (Aotus sp.). The various subunits were amplified from total RNA from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of other species. Mature squirrel monkey and owl monkey glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides (96 amino acids in length) were determined to be 80% homologous to the human sequence. The sequences of mature beta subunits of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHbeta) from squirrel monkey and owl monkey (111 amino acids in length) are 92% homologous to human FSHbeta. New World primate glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides and FSHbeta subunits showed conservation of all cysteine residues and consensus N-linked glycosylation sites. Attempts to amplify the beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands were unsuccessful. Rather, the beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) was amplified from pituitaries of both New World primates. Squirrel monkey and owl monkey CGbeta are 143 and 144 amino acids in length and 77% homologous with human CGbeta. The greatest divergence is in the C terminus, where all four sites for O-linked glycosylation in human CGbeta, responsible for delayed metabolic clearance, are predicted to be absent in New World primate CGbetas. It is likely that CG secreted from pituitary of New World primates exhibits a relatively short half-life compared to human CG.

  18. jMonkeyEngine 3.0 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Edén, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    If you are a jMonkey developer or a Java developer who is interested to delve further into the game making process to expand your skillset and create more technical games, then this book is perfect for you.

  19. Monkey visual behavior falls into the uncanny valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckenfinger, Shawn A; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2009-10-27

    Very realistic human-looking robots or computer avatars tend to elicit negative feelings in human observers. This phenomenon is known as the "uncanny valley" response. It is hypothesized that this uncanny feeling is because the realistic synthetic characters elicit the concept of "human," but fail to live up to it. That is, this failure generates feelings of unease due to character traits falling outside the expected spectrum of everyday social experience. These unsettling emotions are thought to have an evolutionary origin, but tests of this hypothesis have not been forthcoming. To bridge this gap, we presented monkeys with unrealistic and realistic synthetic monkey faces, as well as real monkey faces, and measured whether they preferred looking at one type versus the others (using looking time as a measure of preference). To our surprise, monkey visual behavior fell into the uncanny valley: They looked longer at real faces and unrealistic synthetic faces than at realistic synthetic faces.

  20. Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys without Anti-Rejection Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160989.html Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys Without Anti-Rejection Drugs Scientists say goal is to create banks of stem cells that could be used for any human patient ...

  1. Monkey King by Zhengjiang General Troupe of Quyi and Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉

    2008-01-01

    Monkey King,the grand acrobatic and magical theme show, has successfully given its first dozen shows at Hangzhou Theater since July 27.The show was presented by Zhejiang General Troupe of Quyi and Acrobatics, and

  2. INTERCEPTIVE EFFECTS OF EPOSTANE IN RATS AND RHESUS MONKEYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINZhong-Ming; LIUChang-Guan; CHENHui-Qing; LIWei-Kang; XURui-Ying

    1989-01-01

    Interceptives arc defined as agents which interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Epostane, a potent 3β-hydroxysteruid dehydrogenase inhibitor, possessed interceptive activities in rats and rhesus monkeys. In rats, day 10 and day 11 of pregnancy were the

  3. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A

    1985-11-01

    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains.

  4. Depth perception from moving cast shadow in macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Saneyuki; Usui, Nobuo; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Taira, Masato; Katsuyama, Narumi

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, we investigate whether the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow. To accomplish this, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, an adult Japanese monkey was trained in a motion discrimination task in depth by binocular disparity. A square was presented on the display so that it appeared with a binocular disparity of 0.12 degrees (initial position), and moved toward (approaching) or away from (receding) the monkey for 1s. The monkey was trained to discriminate the approaching and receding motion of the square by GO/delayed GO-type responses. The monkey showed a significantly high accuracy rate in the task, and the performance was maintained when the position, color, and shape of the moving object were changed. In the next experiment, the change in the disparity was gradually decreased in the motion discrimination task. The results showed that the performance of the monkey declined as the distance of the approaching and receding motion of the square decreased from the initial position. However, when a moving cast shadow was added to the stimulus, the monkey responded to the motion in depth induced by the cast shadow in the same way as by binocular disparity; the reward was delivered randomly or given in all trials to prevent the learning of the 2D motion of the shadow in the frontal plane. These results suggest that the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow as well as using binocular disparity.

  5. Monkey Feeding Assay for Testing Emetic Activity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are unique bacterial toxins that cause gastrointestinal toxicity as well as superantigenic activity. Since systemic administration of SEs induces superantigenic activity leading to toxic shock syndrome that may mimic enterotoxic activity of SEs such as vomiting and diarrhea, oral administration of SEs in the monkey feeding assay is considered as a standard method to evaluate emetic activity of SEs. This chapter summarizes and discusses practical considerations of the monkey feeding assay used in studies characterizing classical and newly identified SEs.

  6. Pulpal Response to Intraligamentary Injection in the Cynomologus Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Peurach, James C.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if intraligamentary injection causes qualitative histopathologic changes in the dental pulp of a Cynomologus monkey. In as much as the pulp and periapical tissues of the monkey are similar to that of humans, nonresolving damage to the pulp would contraindicate periodontal ligament injection in procedures where the tooth would not be extracted or the pulp extirpated. Periodontal ligament injection in this study did not produce any histopathological ...

  7. Monkey and dung beetle activities influence soil seed bank structure

    OpenAIRE

    Feer, François; Ponge, Jean-François; Jouard, Sylvie; Gomez, Doris

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In Neotropical forests, dung beetles act as efficient secondary dispersers of seeds that are dispersed primarily by red howler monkeys. Here, we investigated the origins of soil seed bank variability in relation to monkey and dung beetle activity, to assess the impact of dung beetles on seed fate, and their adaptability to resource availability. This question is important to better understand the process of tree regeneration, and is especially timely in the current con...

  8. Performing monkeys of Bangladesh: characterizing their source and genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Akhtar, Sharmin; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The acquisition and training of monkeys to perform is a centuries-old tradition in South Asia, resulting in a large number of rhesus macaques kept in captivity for this purpose. The performing monkeys are reportedly collected from free-ranging populations, and may escape from their owners or may be released into other populations. In order to determine whether this tradition involving the acquisition and movement of animals has influenced the population structure of free-ranging rhesus macaques in Bangladesh, we first characterized the source of these monkeys. Biological samples from 65 performing macaques collected between January 2010 and August 2013 were analyzed for genetic variation using 716 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA. Performing monkey sequences were compared with those of free-ranging rhesus macaque populations in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar. Forty-five haplotypes with 116 (16 %) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the performing monkeys. As for the free-ranging rhesus population, most of the substitutions (89 %) were transitions, and no indels (insertion/deletion) were observed. The estimate of the mean number of pair-wise differences for the performing monkey population was 10.1264 ± 4.686, compared to 14.076 ± 6.363 for the free-ranging population. Fifteen free-ranging rhesus macaque populations were identified as the source of performing monkeys in Bangladesh; several of these populations were from areas where active provisioning has resulted in a large number of macaques. The collection of performing monkeys from India was also evident.

  9. A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Banerji, Christopher R S; Severini, Simone

    2013-01-01

    We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.

  10. A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.

  11. Dyscoria Associated with Herpesvirus Infection in Owl Monkeys (Aotus nancymae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Montoya, Enrique J; Weller, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Dyscoria was noted in a female owl monkey and 2 of her offspring. The third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two male monkeys paired with the female died, 1 of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all 3 animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring w...

  12. Transcriptional profiling of rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, James A; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Clepper, Lisa; Wolf, Don P

    2006-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) may be able to cure or alleviate the symptoms of various degenerative diseases. However, unresolved issues regarding survival, functionality, and tumor formation mean a prudent approach should be adopted towards advancing ESCs into human clinical trials. The rhesus monkey provides an ideal model organism for developing strategies to prevent immune rejection and test the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of ESC-based medical treatments. Transcriptional profiling of rhesus monkey ESCs provides a foundation for pre-clinical ESC research in this species. In the present study, we used microarray technology, immunocytochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to characterize and transcriptionally profile rhesus monkey ESCs. We identified 367 stemness gene candidates that were highly (>85%) conserved across five different ESC lines. Rhesus monkey ESC lines maintained a pluripotent undifferentiated state over a wide range of POU5F1 (also known as OCT4) expression levels, and comparisons between rhesus monkey, mouse, and human stemness genes revealed five mammalian stemness genes: CCNB1, GDF3, LEFTB, POU5F1, and NANOG. These five mammalian genes are strongly expressed in rhesus monkey, mouse, and human ESCs, albeit only in the undifferentiated state, and represent the core key mammalian stemness factors.

  13. Evaluation of seven hypotheses for metamemory performance in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M; Schroeder, Gabriel R; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2015-02-01

    Knowing the extent to which nonhumans and humans share mechanisms for metacognition will advance our understanding of cognitive evolution and will improve selection of model systems for biomedical research. Some nonhuman species avoid difficult cognitive tests, seek information when ignorant, or otherwise behave in ways consistent with metacognition. There is agreement that some nonhuman animals "succeed" in these metacognitive tasks, but little consensus about the cognitive mechanisms underlying performance. In one paradigm, rhesus monkeys visually searched for hidden food when ignorant of the location of the food, but acted immediately when knowledgeable. This result has been interpreted as evidence that monkeys introspectively monitored their memory to adaptively control information seeking. However, convincing alternative hypotheses have been advanced that might also account for the adaptive pattern of visual searching. We evaluated seven hypotheses using a computerized task in which monkeys chose either to take memory tests immediately or to see the answer again before proceeding to the test. We found no evidence to support the hypotheses of behavioral cue association, rote response learning, expectancy violation, response competition, generalized search strategy, or postural mediation. In contrast, we repeatedly found evidence to support the memory monitoring hypothesis. Monkeys chose to see the answer when memory was poor, either from natural variation or experimental manipulation. We found limited evidence that monkeys also monitored the fluency of memory access. Overall, the evidence indicates that rhesus monkeys can use memory strength as a discriminative cue for information seeking, consistent with introspective monitoring of explicit memory.

  14. Insect-foraging in captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovich, Christy K; Rivera, Jeanette; Evans, Sian

    2010-08-01

    Whereas the diets of diurnal primate species vary greatly, almost all nocturnal primate species consume insects. Insect-foraging has been described in nocturnal prosimians but has not been investigated in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.). We studied 35 captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) in order to describe their foraging behavior and to determine if there were any age or sex differences in their ability to capture insect prey. Because owl monkeys cooperate in parental care and in food-sharing, we expected social interactions involving insect prey. We found that owl monkeys most often snatched flying insects from the air and immobilized crawling insects against a substrate using their hands. Immatures and adult female owl monkeys attempted to capture prey significantly more often than did adult males; however, there was no difference in the proportion of attempts that resulted in capture. Social interactions involving prey appeared similar to those with provisioned food, but possessors of prey resisted begging attempts more so than did possessors of other food. Owl monkeys attempted to capture prey often (mean = 9.5 +/- 5.8 attempts/h), and we speculate that the protein and lipid content of captured prey is important for meeting the metabolic demands for growth and reproduction.

  15. Intrapericardial Denervation: Responses to Water Immersion in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1995-01-01

    Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings.

  16. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M; Swanbeck, Sonja N; Conway, Bevil R

    2014-07-15

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection thresholds from initial testing to plateau performance (“learning”) was similar for +L − M (red) colors and +M − L (bluish-green) colors. But the extent of learning was higher for +S (lavender) than for −S (yellow-lime); moreover, at plateau performance, the cone contrast at the detection threshold was higher for +S than for −S. These asymmetries may reflect differences in retinal circuitry for S-ON and S-OFF. At plateau performance, the two species also had similar detection thresholds for all colors, although monkeys had shorter reaction times than humans and slightly lower thresholds for colors that modulated L/M cones. We discuss whether these observations, together with previous work showing that monkeys have lower spatial acuity than humans, could be accounted for by selective pressures driving higher chromatic sensitivity at the cost of spatial acuity amongst monkeys, specifically for the more recently evolved L − M mechanism.

  17. Auditory artificial grammar learning in macaque and marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Slater, Heather; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2013-11-27

    Artificial grammars (AG) are designed to emulate aspects of the structure of language, and AG learning (AGL) paradigms can be used to study the extent of nonhuman animals' structure-learning capabilities. However, different AG structures have been used with nonhuman animals and are difficult to compare across studies and species. We developed a simple quantitative parameter space, which we used to summarize previous nonhuman animal AGL results. This was used to highlight an under-studied AG with a forward-branching structure, designed to model certain aspects of the nondeterministic nature of word transitions in natural language and animal song. We tested whether two monkey species could learn aspects of this auditory AG. After habituating the monkeys to the AG, analysis of video recordings showed that common marmosets (New World monkeys) differentiated between well formed, correct testing sequences and those violating the AG structure based primarily on simple learning strategies. By comparison, Rhesus macaques (Old World monkeys) showed evidence for deeper levels of AGL. A novel eye-tracking approach confirmed this result in the macaques and demonstrated evidence for more complex AGL. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown level of AGL complexity in Old World monkeys that seems less evident in New World monkeys, which are more distant evolutionary relatives to humans. The findings allow for the development of both marmosets and macaques as neurobiological model systems to study different aspects of AGL at the neuronal level.

  18. Etiologic structure of bacterial intestinal infections in monkeys of Adler breeding center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardasheliya, S N; Kalashnikova, V A; Dzhikidze, E K

    2011-10-01

    We studied etiologic structure of bacterial intestinal infections in monkeys of Adler nursery. A total of 533 monkeys with diarrhea syndrome and monkeys dead from intestinal infections, as well as clinically healthy monkeys and animals dead from other pathologies were examined by bacteriological and molecular-genetic methods. Pathogenic enterobacteria Shigella and Salmonella and microaerophile Campylobacter were found in 5 and 19%, respectively. A high percentage (49%) of intestinal diseases of unknown etiology was revealed in monkeys. The fact that the number of detected opportunistic enterobacteria did not differ in healthy and diseased monkeys suggests that they are not involved into the etiology of intestinal disease.

  19. Purification and Characterization of an Aminopeptidase with Highest Preference for Lysine from Paralichthys Olivaceus Skeletal Muscle%牙鲆肌肉赖氨酸氨肽酶的分离纯化与性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦; 蔡秋凤; 刘光明; 苏文金; 曹敏杰

    2012-01-01

    An aminopeptidase was purified from Paralichthys olivaceus skeletal muscle to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation and three column chromatographies, including DEAE -Sephacel, Phenyl -Sepharose, and DEAE -Sepharose Fast Flow. The molecular mass of the enzyme was approximately 100 ku. Optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 45 ℃ and 7.5, respectively. Metal-chelating agents such as EDTA, EGTA and 1,10-phenanthroline effectively inhibited the enzyme activity. Zn2+, Mn2+ and (or) Co2+ were quite possibly its metal cofactor(s), strongly suggesting the enzyme belong to metalloproteinase family. The enzyme purified in the present study was regarded as a lysine aminopeptidase (LysAP) according to its substrate specificity. Western blot analysis revealed that leucine aminopeptidase from red sea bream and LysAP from Paralichthys olivaceus have high homogeneity in amino acid sequences. Furthermore, LysAP distributes in tissues including skeletal muscle, heart, liver, spleen, stomach, kidney, gut and gill.%通过DEAE-Sephacel阴离子葡聚糖纤维素交换层析,Phenyl Sepharose 6-Fast Flow苯基葡聚糖凝胶疏水层析和DEAE Sepharose-Fast Flow阴离子葡聚糖凝胶交换层析,从牙鲆(Paralichthys olivaceus)肌肉中分离纯化得到1种赖氨酸氨肽酶,并对其生化性质进行研究.牙鲆赖氨酸氨肽酶的分子质量约为100 ku.该酶的最适温度45℃,最适pH 7.5,二价金属离子对酶活性有较大影响,EDTA和EGTA等金属螯合剂对其活性有抑制作用.该酶对荧光合成底物Lys-MCA分解作用最强,而对内肽酶对应的荧光底物没有分解作用.免疫印迹反应结果显示,该酶与鲤鱼肌肉中亮氨酸氨肽酶同源性较高,并在牙鲆多种器官中均有分布.

  20. Male-directed infanticide in spider monkeys (Ateles spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Sara; Di Fiore, Anthony; Champion, Jane; Pavelka, Mary Susan; Páez, Johanna; Link, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Infanticide is considered a conspicuous expression of sexual conflict amongst mammals, including at least 35 primate species. Here we describe two suspected and one attempted case of intragroup infanticide in spider monkeys that augment five prior cases of observed or suspected infanticide in this genus. Contrary to the typical pattern of infanticide seen in most primate societies, where infants are killed by conspecifics independent of their sex, all eight cases of observed or suspected infanticide in spider monkeys have been directed toward male infants within their first weeks of life. Moreover, although data are still scant, infanticides seem to be perpetrated exclusively by adult males against infants from their own social groups and are not associated with male takeovers or a sudden rise in male dominance rank. Although the slow reproductive cycles of spider monkeys might favor the presence of infanticide because of the potential to shorten females' interbirth intervals, infanticide is nonetheless uncommon among spider monkeys, and patterns of male-directed infanticide are not yet understood. We suggest that given the potentially close genetic relationships among adult males within spider monkey groups, and the need for males to cooperate with one another in territorial interactions with other groups of related males, infanticide may be expected to occur primarily where the level of intragroup competition among males outweighs that of competition between social groups. Finally, we suggest that infanticide in spider monkeys may be more prevalent than previously thought, given that it may be difficult for observers to witness cases of infanticide or suspected infanticide that occur soon after birth in taxa that are characterized by high levels of fission-fusion dynamics. Early, undetected, male-biased infanticide could influence the composition of spider monkey groups and contribute to the female-biased adult sex ratios often reported for this genus.

  1. Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on lipid metabolism of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus Temminck et Schlegel) fed animal or plant protein source-based diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Junming; MAI Kangsen; AI Qinghui; ZHANG Wenbing

    2007-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) on the levels of cholesterol in plasma and liver,and the fatty acid composition in muscle and liver of juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus Temminck et Schlegel).Four isonitrogenous and isocaloric practical diets (crude protein 49%,gross energy 19 kJ/g) including only fish meal (FM) or soy protein isolate (SPI) as sole dietary protein source with (Diets FMO and SPIO) or without (Diets FM and SPI) supplemented SBOS (stachyose,2.61%;raffinose,0.61%) were formulated.Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate aquaria stocked with 30 fish (initial body weight 1.93 ±0.02 g) each.Fish were maintained in the flow-through aquaria at water temperature ranging from 22.0℃ to 25.0℃ and fed twice (08:00,16:00) daily to apparent satiation for 8 weeks.Dietary SBOS supplementation significantly increased the levels of total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in plasma of the fish fed FM-based diets (P<0.05),but no significant differences were observed at the levels of plasma triacylglycerol (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (P>0.05).The levels of TC,TG,HDL-C and LDL-C,and LDL-C/HDLC ratio in plasma of the fish fed SPI-based diets were not significantly influenced by the supplemented SBOS (P>0.05).Supplementation of SBOS did not influence the hepatic TC,TG and lipid contents and lipid droplet accumulation in fish fed FM-based diets,but significantly decreased the hepatic TC,TG and lipid contents and lipid droplet accumulation in fish fed SPI-based diets (P<0.05).In contrast,supplemented SBOS significantly increased fecal cholesterol extraction in the fish fed FM-based diets (P<0.05),but no significant difference was observed in the fish fed SPI-based diets (P>0.05).The fatty acid composition in muscle and liver was not significantly affected by supplemental SBOS regardless of

  2. Viabilidad poblacional de Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae y Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica Population viability of Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae and Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodríguez-Matamoros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La destrucción del hábitat conlleva a la fragmentación de poblaciones de especies silvestres y se considera como uno de los principales factores en la extinción de especies A medida que las poblaciones se vuelven más pequeñas, surgen amenazas hacia su estabilidad y persistencia, como resultado de factores estocásticos demográficos, ambientales y genéticos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los efectos de la fragmentación de poblaciones en la viabilidad de Alouatta palliata y Cebus capucinus en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal (RVSPN, Sarapiquí, Heredia. Para esto se uso el programa VORTEX para correr un análisis de viabilidad de poblaciones (PVA para ambas especies. La información utilizada en el PVA proviene de la estructura demográafica de las poblaciones del RVSPN, literatura sobre la historia natural de las especies y artículos relacionados con PVA. Los resultados sugieren que tanto A. palliata como C. capucinus pueden sobrevivir en fragmentos boscosos aislados. Sin embargo, si se incorporan factores como depresión por endogamia, catástrofes o perdida de hábitat, las pequeñas poblaciones fragmentadas se vuelven inestables y aumenta el riesgo de que desaparezcan. Las poblaciones continuas fueron más robustas ante las amenazas incorporadas, por lo que se recomienda continuar con la reforestación para unir los fragmentos boscosos. Es importante darle seguimiento a las poblaciones de ambas especies y tener un manejo de su hábitat para disminuir los efectos negativos de diferentes eventos estocásticos provocados por el ambiente.Population viability of Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae and Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica. Habitat destruction may cause wildlife population fragmentation and is considered an important factor in small population species extinction. As wildlife populations become smaller, threats to their stability

  3. Seroepidemiological survey of pathogenic Yersinia in breeding squirrel monkeys in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Taketoshi; Une, Yumi; Lee, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Taniguchi, Takahide; Hayashidani, Hideki

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of antibodies to pathogenic Yersinia in breeding squirrel monkeys, the serum samples of 252 squirrel monkeys from 9 zoological gardens in Japan were tested by ELISA using plasmid-encoded Yersinia outer membrane protein (Yops) as the antigen. The cutoff value was calculated by using the serum samples of the squirrel monkeys from Suriname, where no prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia have been reported. According to the cutoff value, 164 of 252 (65.1%) squirrel monkeys were considered positive against pathogenic Yersinia. These positive monkeys belonged to 8 of the 9 zoological gardens, and the percentage of the seropositive monkeys ranged from 22.2 to 89.4%. Furthermore, in one zoological garden, the positive rate of the squirrel monkeys which were over 1 year old (95.7%) was significantly higher than those which were under 1 year old (23.3%). These results suggested that pathogenic Yersinia is highly prevalent among breeding monkeys in Japan.

  4. Fetal malformations and early embryonic gene expression response in cynomolgus monkeys maternally exposed to thalidomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was performed to determine experimental conditions for thalidomide induction of fetal malformations and to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying thalidomide teratogenicity in cynomolgus monkeys. Cynomolgus monkeys were orally administered (±)-thalidomid...

  5. Viabilidad poblacional de Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae y Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodríguez-Matamoros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La destrucción del hábitat conlleva a la fragmentación de poblaciones de especies silvestres y se considera como uno de los principales factores en la extinción de especies A medida que las poblaciones se vuelven más pequeñas, surgen amenazas hacia su estabilidad y persistencia, como resultado de factores estocásticos demográficos, ambientales y genéticos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los efectos de la fragmentación de poblaciones en la viabilidad de Alouatta palliata y Cebus capucinus en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal (RVSPN, Sarapiquí, Heredia. Para esto se uso el programa VORTEX para correr un análisis de viabilidad de poblaciones (PVA para ambas especies. La información utilizada en el PVA proviene de la estructura demográafica de las poblaciones del RVSPN, literatura sobre la historia natural de las especies y artículos relacionados con PVA. Los resultados sugieren que tanto A. palliata como C. capucinus pueden sobrevivir en fragmentos boscosos aislados. Sin embargo, si se incorporan factores como depresión por endogamia, catástrofes o perdida de hábitat, las pequeñas poblaciones fragmentadas se vuelven inestables y aumenta el riesgo de que desaparezcan. Las poblaciones continuas fueron más robustas ante las amenazas incorporadas, por lo que se recomienda continuar con la reforestación para unir los fragmentos boscosos. Es importante darle seguimiento a las poblaciones de ambas especies y tener un manejo de su hábitat para disminuir los efectos negativos de diferentes eventos estocásticos provocados por el ambiente.

  6. Parasitosis intestinal en monos capuchinos cariblancos Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae de un área protegida en la provincia de Limón, noreste de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La deforestación de bosques tropicales está amenazando la biodiversidad de las especies de primates y su estado de salud, dependiente de un lugar ecológicamente equilibrado. Con el fin de evaluar esta relación, se analizó la presencia de parásitos en los intestinos de esta especie. El estudio se realizó en la Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS, Limón, Costa Rica. El grupo de monos capuchinos cariblancos (Cebus capucinus fue observado entre marzo y diciembre de 2006. Se recolectaron 75 muestras de heces a las que se les identificó las plantas ingeridas, y se procesaron en el laboratorio para evaluar la prevalencia de parásitos. Moraceae fue la familia de plantas más reportada. Strongyloides spp. y acantocéfalos fueron los más comunes. La distribución positiva de las mismas fue similar independientemente del sexo y la edad. Microsporidios se reportaron mayoritariamente en heces asociadas con la familia Piperaceae. Fue encontrada una baja existencia de éstos parásitos en muestras asociadas con Myrtaceae en cuyo género Psidium, se han reportado compuestos activos antiparasitarios. La aparición de parásitos fue relativamente mayor en la EBLS, comparado con muestras de otras regiones más secas de Costa Rica. Por lo tanto, esa expresión parasitaria puede deberse al hecho de ser la EBLS una selva lluviosa, además de estar rodeada por zonas con actividades antrópicas. Se sugiere incrementar las investigaciones de parasitología de campo en primates neotropicales con el fin de entender plenamente las relaciones parásitos-hospederos, para en un largo plazo poder comprender los ecosistemas donde conviven, y en consecuencia, preservar la diversidad biológica.

  7. Microsatellite polymorphisms of Sichuan golden monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Deng; LI Ying; HU Hongxing; MENG Shijie; MEN Zhengrning; FU Yunxin; ZHANG Yaping

    2005-01-01

    Previous study using protein electrophoresis shows no polymorphism in 44 nuclear loci of Sichuan golden monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), which limits our understandings of its population genetic patterns in the nuclear genome. In order to obtain sufficient information, we scanned 14 microsatellite loci in a sample of 32 individuals from its three major habitats (Minshan, Qinling and Shennongjia). A considerable amount of polymorphisms were detected. The average heterozygosities in the local populations were all above 0.5. The differentiations among local populations were significant. There was evidence of geneflow among subpopulations, but geneflow between Qinling and Shennongjia local populations was the weakest. Minshan and Qinling populations might have gone through recent bottlenecks. The estimation of the ratio of the effective population sizes among local populations was close to that from census sizes. Comparisons to available mitochondria data suggested that R. roxellana's social structures played an important role in shaping its population genetic patterns. Our study showed that the polymorphism level of R. roxellana was no higher than other endangered species; therefore, measures should be taken to preserve genetic diversity of this species.

  8. The Thatcher illusion in humans and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Christoph D; Logothetis, Nikos K; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Wallraven, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Primates possess the remarkable ability to differentiate faces of group members and to extract relevant information about the individual directly from the face. Recognition of conspecific faces is achieved by means of holistic processing, i.e. the processing of the face as an unparsed, perceptual whole, rather than as the collection of independent features (part-based processing). The most striking example of holistic processing is the Thatcher illusion. Local changes in facial features are hardly noticeable when the whole face is inverted (rotated 180 degrees ), but strikingly grotesque when the face is upright. This effect can be explained by a lack of processing capabilities for locally rotated facial features when the face is turned upside down. Recently, a Thatcher illusion was described in the macaque monkey analogous to that known from human investigations. Using a habituation paradigm combined with eye tracking, we address the critical follow-up questions raised in the aforementioned study to show the Thatcher illusion as a function of the observer's species (humans and macaques), the stimulus' species (humans and macaques) and the level of perceptual expertise (novice, expert).

  9. [Visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality in female macaque monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, M

    1997-04-01

    Visual information about face and body including facial expression and bodily behavioral patterns has been known to play an important role in social and emotional communication in monkeys. Its involvement in sexual activity has also been demonstrated in male monkeys but it is poorly understood in female monkeys. In the present study, visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality were investigated in female macaque monkeys performing operant bar-press tasks in an experimental cage which had a transparent panel facing a display. In the sex discrimination task, two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate sex of a monkey shown in a picture which was randomly selected from six photographs (three males and three females) and was presented on the display. The monkey pressed a right or left bar for male or female monkey, respectively, to get water as a reward. Under this discrimination task, the monkeys could discriminate the sexes of monkeys shown in newly presented pictures. When choice bars were reversed, correct responses significantly decreased below chance level. In the sex preference task, three rhesus monkeys and three Japanese monkeys (M. juscata) were used. The monkeys voluntarily pressed the bar to watch the video movie showing either male or female rhesus monkeys. The movies were presented as long as the subject kept pressing the bar. The same movie was continued when the monkey pressed the bar again within 10s after the previous release of the bar, while it was changed to the other when 10s passed after the subject released the bar. The total duration of the responses in daily sessions was measured. In this visual preference task, four out of six monkeys showed sex preference. Three adult Japanese monkeys (6-8 y) pressed the bar to watch the video movie of male monkeys which was taken in breeding season with longer duration than that of female monkeys taken in the same season. The other two adult rhesus monkeys (7 8 y) did not

  10. Ocorrência de anticorpos e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Leptospira spp. em Cebus spp. mantidos em cativeiro no Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora R.A. Ferreira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Leptospira e os fatores de risco associados à infecção em primatas do gênero Cebus mantidos em cativeiro no Nordeste do Brasil. Foram analisadas 139 amostras de soro sanguíneo de diferentes espécies de primatas de ambos os sexos e idades variadas. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos empregou-se a técnica de Soroaglutinação Microscópica (SAM e para estudo dos fatores de risco utilizou-se análise multivariada. Foram observados anticorpos anti-Leptospira, sorovar Patoc em 6,5% dos primatas (09/139. O fator de risco identificado nesse estudo foi a não higienização diária de bebedouros (Odds ratio=12,095; IC 95% = 1,73-84,52; p=0,012,. Conclui-se que a população de Cebus mantidos em cativeiros no Nordeste do Brasil está exposta à infecção por anticorpos anti-Leptospira e que medidas corretivas de manejo dos animais, especificamente aquelas relacionadas à higienização diária de bebedouros devem ser implementadas para reduzir o risco de infecção por sorovares de Leptospira spp.

  11. Behavioral effects in monkeys of racemates of two biologically active marijuana constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheckel, C L; Boff, E; Dahlen, P; Smart, T

    1968-06-28

    Both dl-Delta(8)- and dl-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol produced marked alterations of behavior in rhesus and squirrel monkeys. Squirrel monkeys appeared to have visual hallucinations. Continuous avoidance behavior of squirrel monkeys was stimulated by both drugs, but high doses of dl-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol also caused depression after the stimulant phase. Complex behavior involving memory and visual discrimination in rhesus monkeys was markedly disrupted by both drugs.

  12. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  13. NUTRITIONAL CYTOPENIA (VITAMIN M DEFICIENCY) IN THE MONKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, W C; Darby, W J; Shukers, C F; Day, P L

    1938-10-31

    Young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were given a diet containing casein, polished rice, whole wheat, salt mixture, sodium chloride, cod liver oil, and ascorbic acid. They developed a syndrome characterized by anemia, leukopenia, and loss of weight. Ulceration of the gums and diarrhea were common, and death occurred between the 26th and 100th day. 4 monkeys were given the deficient diet supplemented with 1 mg. of riboflavin daily, and these developed the characteristic signs and died. in periods of time similar to the survival of monkeys receiving the deficient diet alone. Nicotinic acid, either alone or in combination with riboflavin and thiamin chloride, failed to alter appreciably the course of the deficiency manifestations. Thus, it is evident that this nutritional cytopenia is not the result of a deficiency of vitamin B, riboflavin, or nicotinic acid. The deficient diet supplemented with either 10 gm. of dried brewers' yeast or 2 gm. of liver extract (Cohn fraction G) daily supported good growth, permitted normal body development, and maintained a normal blood picture over long periods. It is obvious that yeast and liver extract contain a substance essential to the nutrition of the monkey which is not identical with any of those factors of the vitamin B complex that have been chemically identified. We have proposed the term vitamin M for this factor which prevents nutritional cytopenia in the monkey.

  14. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. (Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab., Pensacola, FL (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  15. Observational learning in capuchin monkeys: a video deficit effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2017-07-01

    Young human children have been shown to learn less effectively from video or televised images than from real-life demonstrations. Although nonhuman primates respond to and can learn from video images, there is a lack of direct comparisons of task acquisition from video and live demonstrations. To address this gap in knowledge, we presented capuchin monkeys with video clips of a human demonstrator explicitly hiding food under one of two containers. The clips were presented at normal, faster than normal, or slower than normal speed, and then the monkeys were allowed to choose between the real containers. Even after 55 sessions and hundreds of video demonstration trials the monkeys' performances indicated no mastery of the task, and there was no effect of video speed. When given live demonstrations of the hiding act, the monkeys' performances were vastly improved. Upon subsequent return to video demonstrations, performances declined to pre-live-demonstration levels, but this time with evidence for an advantage of fast video demonstrations. Demonstration action speed may be one aspect of images that influence nonhuman primates' ability to learn from video images, an ability that in monkeys, as in young children, appears limited compared to learning from live models.

  16. Selective hippocampal lesions yield nonspatial memory impairments in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, F Y; Thornton, J A; White, N M; Murray, E A

    1998-01-01

    Monkeys with removals of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures are widely recognized as valid models of human global anterograde amnesia, a syndrome that arises consequent to damage to a finite set of brain structures situated in the medial temporal lobe and/or medial diencephalon. However, a comparison of memory deficits in human and nonhuman primates with MTL damage has presented a long-standing puzzle. Whereas amnesic patients are impaired in learning object discrimination problems, monkeys with MTL damage are typically not. One possible explanation for this difference is that object discrimination tasks for humans and monkeys differ in that the former but not the latter requires the use of contextual information. If this analysis is correct, monkeys with MTL damage might be disadvantaged in learning to discriminate similar objects presented in different contexts. To test this possibility, we evaluated the effects of excitotoxic lesions of one of the MTL structures, the hippocampus, on the rate of learning of discrimination problems embedded within unique contexts. Monkeys with hippocampal lesions were impaired relative to controls in learning object discrimination problems of this type. These findings strongly support the idea that the difference in the effect on object memory of MTL damage in human and nonhuman primates is due to a difference in the opportunity to employ contextual cues rather than to a difference in the organization of memory.

  17. Monkey steering responses reveal rapid visual-motor feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth W Egger

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms underlying primate locomotion are largely unknown. While behavioral and theoretical work has provided a number of ideas of how navigation is controlled, progress will require direct physiolgical tests of the underlying mechanisms. In turn, this will require development of appropriate animal models. We trained three monkeys to track a moving visual target in a simple virtual environment, using a joystick to control their direction. The monkeys learned to quickly and accurately turn to the target, and their steering behavior was quite stereotyped and reliable. Monkeys typically responded to abrupt steps of target direction with a biphasic steering movement, exhibiting modest but transient overshoot. Response latencies averaged approximately 300 ms, and monkeys were typically back on target after about 1 s. We also exploited the variability of responses about the mean to explore the time-course of correlation between target direction and steering response. This analysis revealed a broad peak of correlation spanning approximately 400 ms in the recent past, during which steering errors provoke a compensatory response. This suggests a continuous, visual-motor loop controls steering behavior, even during the epoch surrounding transient inputs. Many results from the human literature also suggest that steering is controlled by such a closed loop. The similarity of our results to those in humans suggests the monkey is a very good animal model for human visually guided steering.

  18. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  19. A review of the currently recognised zoogonid cercariae, including the identification and emergence ecology of Cercaria capricornia XI (Digenea: Zoogonidae) from Nassarius olivaceus (Gastropoda: Nassariidae) in Central Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Leonie J; Miller, Terrence L; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we review the known zoogonid cercariae, summarise their life-cycles and first intermediate host distributions, and present a new cercaria, Cercaria capricornia XI (Digenea: Zoogonidae), which was found in one of three nassariid gastropods, Nassarius olivaceus (Bruguière), surveyed in the intertidal zone in the Capricornia region of Central Queensland, Australia. Morphological data and molecular analysis of the ITS2 rDNA region support placement of this cercaria in the family Zoogonidae but do not allow any further resolution of its identity. There are now fifteen cercariae described as belonging to the Zoogonidae; thirteen of these, including the present species, infect neogastropods as first intermediate hosts and two use vetigastropods. This study reinforces the pattern that the Nassariidae is by far the most commonly reported family for the Zoogonidae. Given its richness we predict that the Nassariidae will prove to harbour many more zoogonid species.

  20. Predation of three juvenile scyphomedusa species toParalichthys olivaceus and Sebastes schlegelilarvae%三种大型钵水母幼体对牙鲆和许氏平鲉仔稚鱼的捕食选择性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春胜; 庄志猛; 陈四清; 燕敬平; 刘长琳; 陈昭廷

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish bloom has had numerous deleterious effects in the marine ecosystem worldwide in past decades. In particular, jellyfish bloom impedes the recovery of fish stocks by preying on fish eggs and larvae, and competing strongly for food with fish. Recently, studies have focused on the predatory relationship between fish and jellyfish. However, the species involved vary among different jellyfish-bloom areas.Aurelia aurita,Rhopilema esculentum and Nemopilema nomuraiare, the three common jellyfish species along Chinese coastal seas, of whichA. auritais a cos-mopolitan jellyfish species, and the other two species were indigenous. To the best of our knowledge, the predatory ability of different jellyfish species has not been estimated, as well as the predation of jellyfish on larger fish larvae (more than 10 mm). In this study, the predation of three common jellyfish species (A. aurita,R. esculentum andN. no-murai), as 4-cm medusae, in Chinese coastal seas on fish larvae ofParalichthys olivaceus and Sebastes schlegeli, was studied using the clearance method. All three jellyfish species could prey on fish larvae, and their predatory abilities decreased as the fish grew. The ranges ofA. auritato P. olivaceus and S. schlegeli were not bigger than 15 mm and 20 mm, respectively; the ranges ofR. esculentumto P. olivaceus and S. schlegeli were not bigger than 20 mm and 30 mm, respectively; and the ranges ofN. nomuraito S. schlegeli were not bigger 30 mm (the experiment ofN. nomurai toP. olivaceuswas not done). Clearance rates were similar between the different prey concentrations, and metamorphosis of P. olivaceushelped to avoid predation. The clearance rates of different jellyfish species mainly depended on their vital-ity, though body structure and toxicity of jellyfish were also important factors. Accordingly,R. esculentum had the highest vitality and predatory ability toward fish larvae, followed byN. nomurai andA. aurita. The results provide theoretical evidence of the

  1. Fanjing Mountain:the Only Home of the Guizhou Golden Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    2000-01-01

    THE Guizhou golden monkey is one of three breeds of golden monkey (the others are in Sichuan and Yunnan) that are found only in China, and is an extremely rare and precious wild animal. Inhabiting a very small area around Guizhou's Fanjing Mountain, there are only about 750 monkeys in existence making it

  2. Comparative plasma lipidome between human and cynomolgus monkey: are plasma polar lipids good biomarkers for diabetic monkeys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghou Shui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-human primates (NHP are now being considered as models for investigating human metabolic diseases including diabetes. Analyses of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma derived from NHPs can easily be achieved using methods employed in humans. Information pertaining to other lipid species in monkey plasma, however, is lacking and requires comprehensive experimental analysis. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the plasma lipidome from 16 cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS. We established novel analytical approaches, which are based on a simple gradient elution, to quantify polar lipids in plasma including (i glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; phosphatidylinositol, PI; phosphatidylglycerol, PG; phosphatidylserine, PS; phosphatidic acid, PA; (ii sphingolipids (sphingomyelin, SM; ceramide, Cer; Glucocyl-ceramide, GluCer; ganglioside mannoside 3, GM3. Lipidomic analysis had revealed that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, with PC, SM, PE, LPC and PI constituting the major polar lipid species present. Human plasma contained significantly higher levels of plasmalogen PE species (p<0.005 and plasmalogen PC species (p<0.0005, while cynomolgus monkey had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acyls (PUFA in PC, PE, PS and PI. Notably, cynomolgus monkey had significantly lower levels of glycosphingolipids, including GluCer (p<0.0005 and GM(3 (p<0.0005, but higher level of Cer (p<0.0005 in plasma than human. We next investigated the biochemical alterations in blood lipids of 8 naturally occurring diabetic cynomolgus monkeys when compared with 8 healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, but contained different mol distribution of individual molecular species. Diabetic monkeys

  3. Photoacoustic tomography of monkey brain using virtual point ultrasonic transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Liming; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-07-01

    A photoacoustic tomography system (PAT) using virtual point ultrasonic transducers was developed and applied to image a monkey brain. The custom-built transducers provide a 10-fold greater field-of-view (FOV) than finite-aperture unfocused transducers as well as an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reduced artifacts rather than negative-lens transducers. Their tangential resolution, radial resolution, and (SNR) improvements were quantified using tissue phantoms. Our PAT system can achieve high uniformity in both resolution (8) within a large FOV of 6 cm in diameter, even when the imaging objects are enclosed by a monkey skull. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through a skull ranging from 2 to 4 mm in thickness. This study demonstrates that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull and can potentially be applied to human neonatal brain imaging.

  4. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V

    2006-03-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head containing inserted needles. We also image the coronal and axial sections of a 7-month-old monkey head. Brain features that are 3 cm deep in the head are imaged clearly. Our results demonstrate that TAT has potential for use in portable, cost-effective imagers for pediatric brains.

  5. Predation of wild spider monkeys at La Macarena, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ikki; Izawa, Kosei

    2008-01-01

    The killing of an adult male spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth ) by a jaguar (Panthera onca) and a predation attempt by a puma (Felis concolor) on an adult female spider monkey have been observed at the CIEM (Centro de Investigaciones Ecológicas La Macarena), La Macarena, Colombia. These incidents occurred directly in front of an observer, even though it is said that predation under direct observation on any type of primate rarely occurs. On the basis of a review of the literature, and the observations reported here, we suggest that jaguars and pumas are likely to be the only significant potential predators on adult spider monkeys, probably because of their large body size.

  6. Neural Monkey: An Open-source Tool for Sequence Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helcl Jindřich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we announce the development of Neural Monkey – an open-source neural machine translation (NMT and general sequence-to-sequence learning system built over the TensorFlow machine learning library. The system provides a high-level API tailored for fast prototyping of complex architectures with multiple sequence encoders and decoders. Models’ overall architecture is specified in easy-to-read configuration files. The long-term goal of the Neural Monkey project is to create and maintain a growing collection of implementations of recently proposed components or methods, and therefore it is designed to be easily extensible. Trained models can be deployed either for batch data processing or as a web service. In the presented paper, we describe the design of the system and introduce the reader to running experiments using Neural Monkey.

  7. Oct-4 expression in pluripotent cells of the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Hennebold, Jon D; Wolf, Don P

    2003-12-01

    The POU (Pit-Oct-Unc)-domain transcription factor, Oct-4, has become a useful marker of pluripotency in the mouse. It is found exclusively in mouse preimplantation-stage embryos after embryonic genome activation and is a characteristic of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and its absence in knockout mice precludes inner cell mass (ICM) formation in blastocysts. Expression of Oct-4 has also been associated with pluripotency in primate cells. Here, we undertook a systematic study of Oct-4 expression in rhesus macaque preimplantation embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and in ES cells before and after exposure to differentiating conditions in vitro. We also evaluated Oct-4 expression as a means of monitoring the extent of reprogramming following somatic cell nuclear transfer. Oct-4 was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry with a monoclonal antibody. Monkey pronuclear-stage zygotes and cleaving embryos up to the 8-cell stage showed no detectable Oct-4. Nuclear staining for Oct-4 first became obvious at the 16-cell stage, and a strong signal was observed in morula and compact morula stages. Both ICM and trophectodermal cell nuclei of monkey early blastocysts were positive for Oct-4. However, the signal was diminished in trophectodermal cells of expanded blastocysts, whereas expression remained high in ICM nuclei. Similar to the mouse, hatched monkey blastocysts showed strong Oct-4 expression in the ICM, with no detectable signal in the trophectoderm. Undifferentiated monkey ES cells derived from the ICM of in vitro-produced blastocysts expressed Oct-4, consistent with their pluripotent nature, whereas ES cell differentiation was associated with signal loss. Therefore, Oct-4 expression in the monkey, as in the mouse, provides a useful marker for pluripotency after activation of the embryonic genome. Finally, the observed lack or abnormal expression of Oct-4 in monkey nuclear transfer embryos suggests

  8. Socialization of adult owl monkeys (Aotus sp.) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence E; Coke, C S; Weed, J L

    2017-01-01

    Social housing has often been recommended as one-way to address the psychological well-being of captive non-human primates. Published reports have examined methods to socialize compatible animals by forming pairs or groups. Successful socialization rates vary depending on the species, gender, and environment. This study presents a retrospective look at pairing attempts in two species of owl monkeys, Aotus nancymaae and A. azarae, which live in monogamous pairs in the wild. The results of 477 pairing attempt conducted with captive, laboratory housed owl monkeys and 61 hr of behavioral observations are reported here. The greatest success pairing these owl monkeys occurred with opposite sex pairs, with an 82% success rate. Opposite sex pairs were more successful when females were older than males. Female-female pairs were more successful than male-male (MM) pairs (62% vs 40%). Successful pairs stayed together between 3 and 7 years before the animals were separated due to social incompatibility. Vigilance, eating, and sleeping during introductions significantly predicted success, as did the performance of the same behavior in both animals. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to give captive owl monkeys a social alternative even if species appropriate social partners (i.e., opposite sex partners) are not available. The focus of this report is a description of one potential way to enhance the welfare of a specific new world primate, the owl monkey, under laboratory conditions. More important is how the species typical social structure of owl monkeys in nature affects the captive management of this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22521, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Positive reinforcement training in squirrel monkeys using clicker training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Timothy E; Janes, Amy C; Kaufman, Marc J

    2012-08-01

    Nonhuman primates in research environments experience regular stressors that have the potential to alter physiology and brain function, which in turn can confound some types of research studies. Operant conditioning techniques such as positive reinforcement training (PRT), which teaches animals to voluntarily perform desired behaviors, can be applied to improve behavior and reactivity. PRT has been used to train rhesus macaques, marmosets, and several other nonhuman primate species. To our knowledge, the method has yet to be used to train squirrel monkeys to perform complex tasks. Accordingly, we sought to establish whether PRT, utilizing a hand-box clicker (which emits a click sound that acts as the conditioned reinforcer), could be used to train adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis, N = 14). We developed and implemented a training regimen to elicit voluntary participation in routine husbandry, animal transport, and injection procedures. Our secondary goal was to quantify the training time needed to achieve positive results. Squirrel monkeys readily learned the connection between the conditioned reinforcer (the clicker) and the positive reinforcer (food). They rapidly developed proficiency on four tasks of increasing difficulty: target touching, hand sitting, restraint training, and injection training. All subjects mastered target touching behavior within 2 weeks. Ten of 14 subjects (71%) mastered all tasks in 59.2 ± 2.6 days (range: 50-70 days). In trained subjects, it now takes about 1.25 min per monkey to weigh and administer an intramuscular injection, one-third of the time it took before training. From these data, we conclude that clicker box PRT can be successfully learned by a majority of squirrel monkeys within 2 months and that trained subjects can be managed more efficiently. These findings warrant future studies to determine whether PRT may be useful in reducing stress-induced experimental confounds in studies involving squirrel monkeys.

  10. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhao; Fauzia Akbary; Shengli Li; Jing Lu; Feng Ling; Xunming Ji; Guowei Shang; Jian Chen; Xiaokun Geng; Xin Ye; Guoxun Xu; Ju Wang; Jiasheng Zheng; Hongjun Li

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiol-ogy in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group:middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood lfow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood lfow was restored. A revers-ible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identiifed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symp-toms of neurological deifcits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental ifndings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the ifeld of brain injury research.

  11. Atlas-guided segmentation of vervet monkey brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Andriy; Li, Xiaoxing; Pohl, Kilian M; Bouix, Sylvain; Styner, Martin; Addicott, Merideth; Wyatt, Chris; Daunais, James B; Wells, William M; Kikinis, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI analysis. In this paper we developed an open source image analysis framework based on the tools available within the 3D Slicer software to support a biological study that investigates the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on brain morphometry in a longitudinally followed population of male vervets. We first developed a computerized atlas of vervet monkey brain MRI, which was used to encode the typical appearance of the individual brain structures in MRI and their spatial distribution. The atlas was then used as a spatial prior during automatic segmentation to process two longitudinal scans per subject. Our evaluation confirms the consistency and reliability of the automatic segmentation. The comparison of atlas construction strategies reveals that the use of a population-specific atlas leads to improved accuracy of the segmentation for subcortical brain structures. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we describe an image processing workflow specifically tuned towards the analysis of vervet MRI that consists solely of the open source software tools. Second, we develop a digital atlas of vervet monkey brain MRIs to enable similar studies that rely on the vervet model.

  12. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Shang, Guowei; Chen, Jian; Geng, Xiaokun; Ye, Xin; Xu, Guoxun; Wang, Ju; Zheng, Jiasheng; Li, Hongjun; Akbary, Fauzia; Li, Shengli; Lu, Jing; Ling, Feng; Ji, Xunming

    2014-12-01

    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiology in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group: middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood flow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood flow was restored. A reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identified by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symptoms of neurological deficits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental findings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the field of brain injury research.

  13. Characteristics of histologically confirmed endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto-Kakiuchi, A.; Netsu, S.; Matsuo, S.; Hayashi, S.; Ito, T.; Okabayashi, S.; Yasmin, L.; Yuzawa, K.; Kondoh, O.; Kato, A.; Suzuki, M.; Konno, R.; Sankai, T.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the characteristics of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys? SUMMARY ANSWER Spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys exhibited similar characteristics to the human disease. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY One previous report described the prevalence and the basic histopathology of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Endometriotic lesions that had been histologically confirmed in 8 female cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 21 years old were subjected to study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The monkeys died of, or were sacrificed because of, sickness consequent on endometriosis. Specimens were evaluated histopathologically with haematoxylin and eosin staining, iron staining and immunohistochemistry (CD10, CD31, α-SMA and PGP9.5), and by observing them under a microscope. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Endometriotic and stromal cells (CD10-positive) with haemorrhage and inflammation were observed. Smooth muscle metaplasia and nerve fibres were also noted in the endometriotic lesions. Endometriotic lesions in lymph nodes were incidentally found. LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION Since laparoscopic analysis for monitoring the disease state was not set as a parameter of the current study, time course changes (progression) of the disease were not assessed. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Further investigation of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys may contribute to better understanding of the disease pathobiology. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) No external funds were used for this study. A.N.K., S.M., S.H., T.I., O.K., A.K. and M.S. are full-time employees of Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. R.K. received lecture fees from Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., unrelated to the submitted work. S.N., S. O., L.Y., K.Y. and T.S. have nothing to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER N/A. PMID:27591226

  14. Comparative Overview of Visuospatial Working Memory in Monkeys and Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Oyama, Kei; Nakamura, Shinya; Iijima, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Neural mechanisms of working memory, particularly its visuospatial aspect, have long been studied in non-human primates. On the other hand, rodents are becoming more important in systems neuroscience, as many of the innovative research methods have become available for them. There has been a question on whether primates and rodents have similar neural backgrounds for working memory. In this article, we carried out a comparative overview of the neural mechanisms of visuospatial working memory in monkeys and rats. In monkeys, a number of lesion studies indicate that the brain region most responsible for visuospatial working memory is the ventral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (vDLPFC), as the performance in the standard tests for visuospatial working memory, such as delayed response and delayed alternation tasks, are impaired by lesions in this region. Single-unit studies revealed a characteristic firing pattern in neurons in this area, a sustained delay activity. Further studies indicated that the information maintained in the working memory, such as cue location and response direction in a delayed response, is coded in the sustained delay activity. In rats, an area comparable to the monkey vDLPFC was found to be the dorsal part of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as the delayed alternation in a T-maze is impaired by its lesion. Recently, the sustained delay activity similar to that found in monkeys has been found in the dorsal mPFC of rats performing the delayed response task. Furthermore, anatomical studies indicate that the vDLPFC in monkeys and the dorsal mPFC in rats have much in common, such as that they are both the major targets of parieto-frontal projections. Thus lines of evidence indicate that in both monkeys and rodents, the PFC plays a critical role in working memory.

  15. Atlas-Guided Segmentation of Vervet Monkey Brain MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Andriy; Li, Xiaoxing; Pohl, Kilian M; Bouix, Sylvain; Styner, Martin; Addicott, Merideth; Wyatt, Chris; Daunais, James B; Wells, William M; Kikinis, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI analysis. In this paper we developed an open source image analysis framework based on the tools available within the 3D Slicer software to support a biological study that investigates the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on brain morphometry in a longitudinally followed population of male vervets. We first developed a computerized atlas of vervet monkey brain MRI, which was used to encode the typical appearance of the individual brain structures in MRI and their spatial distribution. The atlas was then used as a spatial prior during automatic segmentation to process two longitudinal scans per subject. Our evaluation confirms the consistency and reliability of the automatic segmentation. The comparison of atlas construction strategies reveals that the use of a population-specific atlas leads to improved accuracy of the segmentation for subcortical brain structures. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we describe an image processing workflow specifically tuned towards the analysis of vervet MRI that consists solely of the open source software tools. Second, we develop a digital atlas of vervet monkey brain MRIs to enable similar studies that rely on the vervet model. PMID:22253661

  16. Stereopsis and disparity vergence in monkeys with subnormal binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwerth, R S; Smith, E L; Crawford, M L; von Noorden, G K

    1997-02-01

    The surgical treatment for strabismus in infants generally results in microtropia or subnormal binocular vision. Although the clinical characteristics of these conditions are well established, there are important questions about the mechanisms of binocular vision in these patients that can best be investigated in an appropriate animal model. In the present psychophysical investigations, spatial frequency response functions for disparity-induced fusional vergence and for local stereopsis were studied in macaque monkeys, who demonstrated many of the major visual characteristics of patients whose eyes were surgically aligned during infancy. In six rhesus monkeys, unilateral esotropia was surgically induced at various ages (30-184 days of age). However, over the next 12 months, all of the monkeys recovered normal eye alignment. Behavioral measurements at 4-6 years of age showed that the monkeys' prism-induced fusional vergence responses were indistinguishable from those of control monkeys or humans with normal binocular vision. Investigations of stereo-depth discrimination demonstrated that each of the experimental monkeys also had stereoscopic vision, but their stereoacuities varied from being essentially normal to severely stereo-deficient. The degree of stereo-deficiency was not related to the age at which surgical esotropia was induced, or to the presence or absence of amblyopia, and was not dependent on the spatial frequency of the test stimulus. Altogether, these experiments demonstrate that a temporary, early esotropia can affect the binocular disparity responses of motor and sensory components of binocular vision differently, probably because of different sensitive periods of development for the two components.

  17. Functional analysis of aldehyde oxidase using expressed chimeric enzyme between monkey and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kunio; Asakawa, Tasuku; Hoshino, Kouichi; Adachi, Mayuko; Fukiya, Kensuke; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Yorihisa

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. Each subunit consists of about 20 kDa 2Fe-2S cluster domain storing reducing equivalents, about 40 kDa flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain and about 85 kDa molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) domain containing a substrate binding site. In order to clarify the properties of each domain, especially substrate binding domain, chimeric cDNAs were constructed by mutual exchange of 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains between monkey and rat. Chimeric monkey/rat AO was referred to one with monkey type 2Fe-2S/FAD domains and a rat type MoCo domain. Rat/monkey AO was vice versa. AO-catalyzed 2-oxidation activities of (S)-RS-8359 were measured using the expressed enzyme in Escherichia coli. Substrate inhibition was seen in rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, but not in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, suggesting that the phenomenon might be dependent on the natures of MoCo domain of rat. A biphasic Eadie-Hofstee profile was observed in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, but not rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, indicating that the biphasic profile might be related to the properties of MoCo domain of monkey. Two-fold greater V(max) values were observed in monkey AO than in chimeric rat/monkey AO, and in chimeric monkey/rat AO than in rat AO, suggesting that monkey has the more effective electron transfer system than rat. Thus, the use of chimeric enzymes revealed that 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains affect the velocity and the quantitative profiles of AO-catalyzed (S)-RS-8359 2-oxidation, respectively.

  18. Electroretinogram measurements of cone spectral sensitivity in dichromatic monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitz, J; Jacobs, G H

    1984-12-01

    The corneal electroretinogram (ERG) was used to investigate the spectral sensitivities of cones in 12 dichromatic squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) whose color-vision capacities were established in behavioral tests. Three different varieties of dichromacy were represented among these animals. A flicker-photometric procedure was used in which the ERG response to a rapidly flickering monochromatic test light was compared with the response elicited by a similarly flickering reference light. The spectral-sensitivity functions obtained by the use of this technique are similar to previous estimates of cone spectral sensitivity in dichromatic squirrel monkeys derived from direct microspectrophotometric measurements.

  19. "Zeroing" in on mathematics in the monkey brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    A new study documented that monkeys showed selective neuronal responding to the concept of zero during a numerical task, and that there were two distinct classes of neurons that coded the absence of stimuli either through a discrete activation pattern (zero or not zero) or a continuous one for which zero was integrated with other numerosities in the relative rate of activity. These data indicate that monkeys, like humans, have a concept of zero that is part of their analog number line but that also may have unique properties compared to other numerosities.

  20. Terminal leptospirosis in a woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagothricha in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana González A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A captive woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagothricha displayed severe lethargy, vomiting and diarrhea. Laboratory tests revealed anemia, leukopenia, hypoproteinemia, severe azotemia and positive Leptospira IgM ELISA. The monkey was humanely euthanized and the necropsy revealed a multifocal tubulointerstitial glomerulonephritis; in addition to splenic lymphoid depletion, and interstitial pneumonia, all of which are compatible with leptospirosis. Rodent control and biosecurity measures should be done at all zoological collections in order to prevent transmission to facility personnel and to threatened mammals maintained in captivity.

  1. Bat Predation by Cercopithecus Monkeys: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapanes, Elizabeth; Detwiler, Kate M; Cords, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between bats and primates, which may contribute to zoonotic disease transmission, is poorly documented. We provide the first behavioral accounts of predation on bats by Cercopithecus monkeys, both of which are known to harbor zoonotic disease. We witnessed 13 bat predation events over 6.5 years in two forests in Kenya and Tanzania. Monkeys sometimes had prolonged contact with the bat carcass, consuming it entirely. All predation events occurred in forest-edge or plantation habitat. Predator-prey relations between bats and primates are little considered by disease ecologists, but may contribute to transmission of zoonotic disease, including Ebolavirus.

  2. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (< 1 MHz) are used to reconstruct the TAT images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head co...

  3. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  4. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia in a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, L R; DiLoreto, C; Leite, M C; Wakamatsu, A; Santos, R T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2000-09-01

    Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare and seldom reported disease in animals and humans induced by a papillomavirus. The present report is the first description of this disease in a Neotropical primate, a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca). The diagnosis was based on gross and microscopic findings. The generic papillomavirus antigen was identified by immunohistochemistry and was found not to be related to any human papillomavirus DNA tested by in situ hybridization. This virus is probably a specific papillomavirus of the howler monkey (HMPV).

  5. A hybrid monkey search algorithm for clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zhou, Yongquan; Luo, Qifang

    2014-01-01

    Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique. The k-means clustering algorithm is one of the most commonly used methods. However, it highly depends on the initial solution and is easy to fall into local optimum solution. In view of the disadvantages of the k-means method, this paper proposed a hybrid monkey algorithm based on search operator of artificial bee colony algorithm for clustering analysis and experiment on synthetic and real life datasets to show that the algorithm has a good performance than that of the basic monkey algorithm for clustering analysis.

  6. A Hybrid Monkey Search Algorithm for Clustering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique. The k-means clustering algorithm is one of the most commonly used methods. However, it highly depends on the initial solution and is easy to fall into local optimum solution. In view of the disadvantages of the k-means method, this paper proposed a hybrid monkey algorithm based on search operator of artificial bee colony algorithm for clustering analysis and experiment on synthetic and real life datasets to show that the algorithm has a good performance than that of the basic monkey algorithm for clustering analysis.

  7. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M.; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  8. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehan; Xie, Na; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya'an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis.

  9. Cynomolgus monkey induced pluripotent stem cells established by using exogenous genes derived from the same monkey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Ono, Ryoichi; Shimada, Manami; Shibata, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Inada, Hiroyasu; Takada, Tatsuyuki; Nosaka, Tetsuya; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells established by introduction of the transgenes POU5F1 (also known as Oct3/4), SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC have competence similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells. iPS cells generated from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells by using genes taken from the same species would be a particularly important resource, since various biomedical investigations, including studies on the safety and efficacy of drugs, medical technology development, and research resource development, have been performed using cynomolgus monkeys. In addition, the use of xenogeneic genes would cause complicating matters such as immune responses when they are expressed. In this study, therefore, we established iPS cells by infecting cells from the fetal liver and newborn skin with amphotropic retroviral vectors containing cDNAs for the cynomolgus monkey genes of POU5F1, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. Flat colonies consisting of cells with large nuclei, similar to those in other primate ES cell lines, appeared and were stably maintained. These cell lines had normal chromosome numbers, expressed pluripotency markers and formed teratomas. We thus generated cynomolgus monkey iPS cell lines without the introduction of ecotropic retroviral receptors or other additional transgenes by using the four allogeneic transgenes. This may enable detailed analysis of the mechanisms underlying the reprogramming. In conclusion, we showed that iPS cells could be derived from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on iPS cell lines established from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells by using genes from the same species.

  10. Collective decision-making in white-faced capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, O; Gautrais, J; Leca, J-B; Theraulaz, G; Deneubourg, J-L

    2009-10-01

    In group-living animals, collective movements are a widespread phenomenon and occur through consensus decision. When one animal proposes a direction for group movement, the others decide to follow or not and hence take part in the decision-making process. This paper examines the temporal spread of individual responses after the departure of a first individual (the initiator) in a semi-free ranging group of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). We analysed 294 start attempts, 111 succeeding and 183 failing. Using a modelling approach, we have demonstrated that consensus decision-making for group movements is based on two complementary phenomena in this species: firstly, the joining together of group members thanks to a mimetic process; and secondly, a modulation of this phenomenon through the propensity of the initiator to give up (i.e. cancellation rate). This cancellation rate seems to be directly dependent upon the number of followers: the greater this number is, the lower the cancellation rate is seen to be. The coupling between joining and cancellation rates leads to a quorum: when three individuals join the initiator, the group collectively moves. If the initiator abandons the movement, this influences the joining behaviour of the other group members, which in return influences the initiator's behaviour. This study demonstrates the synergy between the initiator's behaviour and the self-organized mechanisms underlying group movements.

  11. Interactions of motivation and reinforcement during the performance of a simple instrumental reflex by a monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, I M; Shul'govskii, V V

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of the performance of an instrumental task by Macaca rhesus monkeys was investigated in an automated experiment. Three monkeys were trained to complete a movement with a lever in response to a light stimulus. It was demonstrated that the performance of the instrumental reflex by the monkeys is comprised of the alternation of blocks of more or less continuous realizations and pauses between them. The relationship of the intensity of the work of the monkeys to the time from the beginning of the experiment was studied, and a comparison was made of the magnitude of the intensity for the three monkeys. The average intensity of the work of the monkeys within the blocks of continuous realizations is a constant and individual value. The influence of the degree of deprivation and of the delivery of out-of-turn reinforcement on the work of the monkeys was also investigated.

  12. A Deficit in Face-Voice Integration in Developing Vervet Monkeys Exposed to Ethanol during Gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenehpour, Shahin; Javadi, Pasha; Ervin, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    monkey model of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) provides an unparalleled opportunity to study the neurobehavioral outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure in a controlled experimental setting. Recent work has revealed a significant reduction of the neuronal population in the frontal lobes of these monkeys. We...... used an intersensory matching procedure to investigate audiovisual perception of socially relevant stimuli in young FAE vervet monkeys. Here we show a domain-specific deficit in audiovisual integration of socially relevant stimuli. When FAE monkeys were shown a pair of side-by-side videos of a monkey....... However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face...

  13. 中草药对牙鲆免疫力的影响%Effect of Chinese herbal medicine on immunity of flounder Paralich thvs olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 马驰原; 李雅娟; 姜志强; 王斌; 姚远; 孔相铁

    2011-01-01

    vFlounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)juveniles, (22.89± 12.60)g, were stocked in circulating water and temperature controlled channels and fed the diets containing 1%, 3% and 5% Chinese herbal medicine. On the 15th, 30th and 45th day, serological immunological index were analyzed. Histology section of epithelium and the number of mucus cells were observed under microscope. Noxious experiment with injecting Edwardsiella Tarda into the back muscle was carried. Results showed that the number of white blood cells, the active of lysozyme, alkaline phosphatasein and the total protein in serum were increased as the inrising of concentration of Chinese herbal medicine and the sustained time under the condition of 3% and 5%. Complement C3 and superoxide dismutase were increased after feeding the diets containing 5% Chinese herbal medicine. Numbers of mucus cells in the skin, the index of spleen and rate of the immune protection were positive correlated with the concentration of Chinese herbal medicine and sustained time. The rate of immune protection was as high as 80% in 5% concentration group. It showed that feeding Chinese herbal medicine added in could improve the flounder's immunity.%以初始体重为(22.89±12.60)g的牙鲆幼鱼为试验对象,在室内控温循环水槽中进行中草药对牙鲆免疫力影响的试验.向基础饲料中添加的中草药含量分别为1%、3%和5%,经过15、30和45 d后分别取血清进行免疫指标的分析测定,取鱼表皮进行常规组织学制片,在光学显微镜下观察粘液细胞的数量变化.饲喂实验结束时通过背部肌肉注射爱得华氏菌进行攻毒实验.结果表明,以3%和5%浓度中草药的牙鲆混合饲料饲喂45 d后牙鲆血液中白细胞数、碱性磷酸酶活性、溶菌酶活性和血清总蛋白含量随中草药添加浓度和投喂时间的增加而增多;而在添加量5%的条件下,补体C3的含量和超氧化物歧化酶活性较对照组有明显增加.牙

  14. Temperature-dependent viral replication and antiviral apoptotic response in viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV)-infected olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avunje, Satheesha; Kim, Wi-Sik; Oh, Myung-Joo; Choi, Ilsu; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2012-06-01

    The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) shows a high rate of mortality to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in the winter and spring but has zero mortality over 20 °C. In this experiment, we studied the effect of rearing temperature on viral replication, viral transcription and antiviral apoptotic immune response in VHSV-infected olive flounder by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Olive flounder were given intra-peritoneal injections of VHSV (10(7.8) TCID(50)/ml) and were reared at 15 °C or 20 °C. Five fish were randomly sampled for head kidney at 3, 6 and 12 h post-infection (hpi) and 1, 2, 4 and 7 days post-infection (dpi). Total RNA extracted from the tissue was reverse transcribed and used as template for real-time PCR. In the 15 °C group, the number of viral gRNA copies peaked after 2 dpi and remained high through 7 dpi, while in the 20 °C group, the copy number was at the highest at 1 dpi but drastically declined at later stages. Viral mRNA levels in the 15 °C group gradually increased starting at 3 hpi to reach their maximum value at 12 hpi and remained high until 2 dpi, whereas the other group showed much lower copy numbers that were undetectably low at 4 and 7 dpi. Type II IFN expression increased as the viral copies increased and the 20 °C group showed quicker and stronger expression than the 15 °C group. The MHC class I and CD8 expression was high in both the groups at early stage of infection (3-6 hpi) but at later stages (2-7 dpi) in 15 °C group expression reduced below control levels, while they expressed higher to control in 20 °C group. The expression of granzyme in 15 °C fish showed a single peak at 2 dpi, but was consistently expressing in 20 °C fish. Individuals expressed very high levels of perforin expressed very high levels of caspase 3. In 15 °C fish, TNFα, FasL and p53 expressed significantly higher than 20 °C only at initial stages of infection (3-6 hpi). Caspase 3 expression found to be low in 15 °C fish

  15. 牙鲆亲本对子代贡献率的实验研究%Difference in parental contribution to reproduction in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    It is important to consider the difference in contribution to reproduction between parents when assessing the effectiveness of enhancement programs. We used 18 microsatellite markers to estimate the Probability of Ex­clusion (PE), paternity test accuracy, and the parental contribution of thirteen parents (five eight S), based on a sample of one hundred and eighty eight offspring of Japanese flounder {Paralichthys olivaceus).When using 4 microsatellite markers, the PE was^0.999 9 and accuracy was 92.02%. Using 6 microsatellite markers, the PE was >0.999 999 and accuracy was 96.81%. When using 8 microsatellite markers, the two values were 0.999 999 999 and 97.87%; using 10 microsatellite markers, the accuracy was 99.47%,and between 12-18 microsatellite markers, the accuracy was 100%. Our data suggest that the accuracy increased with an increase in the number of microsatellite markers. These SSR markers can be used for parentage determination and evaluating the effective­ness of enhancement releases. The results of PE testing suggest that paternity test accuracy of 100% can be achieved. Although all thirteen parents contributed to reproduction, there was considerable variation in contribu­tion among individuals. The highest and the lowest parental contributions were 47.34% and 0.53%, respectively. The reasons driving these differences require further research.%  利用18对高度多态性微卫星标记,对13尾牙鲆知oftvacezw)亲鱼的188尾后代进行亲子鉴定,计算其非亲排除率、鉴定准确率以及亲本对子代的贡献率。使用4个微卫星标记进行亲子鉴定,排除率>0.9999,准确率为92.02%;用6个标记的排除率為0.999999,准确率为96.81%;用8个标记的排除率為0.999999999,准确率为97.87%;用10个标记的准确率为99.47%;用12~18个标记的准确率为100%。亲子鉴定准确率随非亲排除率和微卫星标记数目的增多而升高。检验所有子代全部

  16. Monkey hybrid stem cells develop cellular features of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorthongpanich Chanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluripotent stem cells that are capable of differentiating into different cell types and develop robust hallmark cellular features are useful tools for clarifying the impact of developmental events on neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. Additionally, a Huntington's cell model that develops robust pathological features of Huntington's disease would be valuable for drug discovery research. Results To test this hypothesis, a pluripotent Huntington's disease monkey hybrid cell line (TrES1 was established from a tetraploid Huntington's disease monkey blastocyst generated by the fusion of transgenic Huntington's monkey skin fibroblast and a wild-type non-transgenic monkey oocyte. The TrES1 developed key Huntington's disease cellular pathological features that paralleled neural development. It expressed mutant huntingtin and stem cell markers, was capable of differentiating to neural cells, and developed teratoma in severely compromised immune deficient (SCID mice. Interestingly, the expression of mutant htt, the accumulation of oligomeric mutant htt and the formation of intranuclear inclusions paralleled neural development in vitro , and even mutant htt was ubiquitously expressed. This suggests the development of Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. Conclusions Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. These results are the first to demonstrate that a pluripotent stem cell line is able to mimic Huntington's disease progression that parallels neural development, which could be a useful cell model for investigating the developmental impact on Huntington's disease pathogenesis.

  17. Effect of physical restraint on glucose tolerance in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Yasufumi; Yoshioka, Naoya; Kanazawa, Kanpei; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi; Horikawa, Tadahiro; Hayashi, Toshiaki

    2013-06-01

    Physiologic stress has been demonstrated to impair glucose tolerance. Glucose tolerance tests were performed using six cynomolgus monkeys. Chair-restrained subjects elicited higher elevations of plasma glucose and cortisol compared with squeezing device-restrained subjects. The responses to a glucose challenge are altered by different restraint procedures.

  18. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Desiré L; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  19. Mononeuropathy multiplex in rhesus monkeys with chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J D; Bohm, R P; Roberts, E D; Philipp, M T

    1997-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a recognized but poorly understood manifestation of Lyme disease. We performed serial electrophysiological studies on 8 rhesus monkeys chronically infected with the JD1 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi and compared the results with those of similar studies on 10 uninfected control monkeys. Four infected and 2 uninfected animals underwent sural nerve biopsy. Five of the infected and 1 of the uninfected animals also had postmortem neuropathological examinations. Altogether, 5 of the infected monkeys demonstrated primarily axonal-loss-variety multifocal neuropathies. Only one nerve lesion exhibited findings compatible with demyelination. Pathologically, peripheral nerve specimens showed multifocal axonal degeneration and regeneration and occasional perivascular inflammatory cellular infiltrates without vessel wall necrosis. Free spirochetal structures were not seen, but several macrophages exhibited positive immunostaining with a highly specific anti-B. burgdorferi, 7.5-kd lipoprotein monoclonal antibody. In the infected animals, serial analysis of serum antibodies to B. burgdorferi showed increasing numbers of IgG specificities and new IgM specificities, suggesting persistent infection. Thus, peripheral neuropathy in the form of a mononeuropathy multiplex develops frequently in rhesus monkeys chronically infected with B. burgdorferi. The pathogenesis of these nerve lesions is not yet known, but our studies suggest an immune-mediated process perhaps driven by persistent infection with B. burgdorferi.

  20. GLP-1 receptor localization in monkey and human tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Charles; Heller, R Scott; Kirk, Rikke Kaae

    2014-01-01

    and increase heart rate. Using a new monoclonal antibody for immunohistochemistry, we detected GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in important target organs in humans and monkeys. In the pancreas, GLP-1R was predominantly localized in β-cells with a markedly weaker expression in acinar cells. Pancreatic ductal epithelial...

  1. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  2. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiré L Dalton

    Full Text Available The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  3. Prospective and Retrospective Metacognitive Abilities in Rhesus Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ding

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Metacognition refers to a knowledge of one’s own cognitive abilities and one’s aptitude to alter these abilities if necessary. Previous research from our lab shows that monkeys exhibit metacognitive abilities by accurately judging their own performance on perceptual and serial working memory tasks. The present study includes two phases during which a monkey makes retrospective and prospective judgments of confidence. In the retrospective phase of this experiment, the subject completes a recall task, and then judges his performance on the test phase by choosing from high and low-risk confidence choices. In the prospective task, the monkey makes his confidence judgment before the test, instead judging how well he learned during the study phase. An analysis of results indicates that monkeys can immediately transfer the ability to make metacognitive judgments from the serial working memory tasks in previous experiments to retrospective and prospective recall tasks in the present study. These findings underline the similarity between the non-human primate and human abilities to make confidence judgments. Further, they are the first evidence to date of a non-human primate making a prospective judgment of future performance, suggesting that the ability to use a metacognitive state to control one’s actions is not uniquely human.

  4. Phospholipid organization in monkey erythrocytes upon Plasmodium knowlesi infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, P.H. van der; Beaumelle, B.; Vial, H.; Roelofsen, B.; Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1987-01-01

    The phospholipid organization in monkey erythrocytes upon Plasmodium knowlesi infection has been studied. Parasitized and nonparasitized erythrocytes from malaria-infected blood were separated and pure erythrocyte membranes from parasitized cells were isolated using Affi-Gel beads. In this way, the

  5. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...

  6. Serial memory strategies in macaque monkeys: behavioral and theoretical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Tanya; Yakovlev, Volodya; Amit, Daniel; Hochstein, Shaul; Zohary, Ehud

    2002-03-01

    Serial memory is the ability to encode and retrieve a list of items in their correct temporal order. To study nonverbal strategies involved in serial memory, we trained four macaque monkeys on a novel delayed sequence-recall task and analysed the mechanisms underlying their performance in terms of a neural network model. Thirty fractal images, divided into 10 triplets, were presented repeatedly in fixed temporal order. On each trial the monkeys viewed three sequentially presented sample images, followed by a test stimulus consisting of the same triplet of images and a distractor image (chosen randomly from the remaining 27). The task was to touch the three images in their original order, avoiding the distractor. The monkeys' most common error was touching the distractor when it had the same ordinal position (in its own triplet) as the correct image. This finding suggests that monkeys naturally categorize images by their ordinal number. Additional, secondary strategies were eventually used to avoid distractor images. These include memory of the sample images (working memory) and associations between triplet members. Further direct evidence for ordinal number categorization was provided by a transfer of learning to untrained images of the same ordinal category, following reassignment of image categories within each triplet. We propose a generic three-tier neuronal framework that can explain the components and complex set of characteristics of the observed behavior. This framework, with its intermediate level representing ordinal categories, can also explain the transfer of learning following category reassignment.

  7. Monkey Malaria in a European Traveler Returning from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Hanspeter; Felger, Ingrid; Müller, Dania; Jokiranta, T. Sakari

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, a Finnish traveler was infected in Peninsular Malaysia with Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite that usually causes malaria in monkeys. P. knowlesi has established itself as the fifth Plasmodium species that can cause human malaria. The disease is potentially life-threatening in humans; clinicians and laboratory personnel should become more aware of this pathogen in travelers. PMID:18760013

  8. [The principles of the therapy of glanders in monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomiakov, Iu N; Manzeniuk, I N; Naumov, D V; Svetoch, E A

    1998-01-01

    The effect of pathogenetic therapy in the normalization of homeostasis disturbances in monkeys has been shown under experimental conditions. Data on the possibility of using hemosorption in the treatment of severe forms of glanders are presented. The conclusion on the necessity of using complex treatment for the effective therapy of glanders in humans has been made.

  9. Multimodal convergence within the intraparietal sulcus of the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guipponi, Olivier; Wardak, Claire; Ibarrola, Danielle; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique; Pinède, Serge; Ben Hamed, Suliann

    2013-02-27

    The parietal cortex is highly multimodal and plays a key role in the processing of objects and actions in space, both in human and nonhuman primates. Despite the accumulated knowledge in both species, we lack the following: (1) a general description of the multisensory convergence in this cortical region to situate sparser lesion and electrophysiological recording studies; and (2) a way to compare and extrapolate monkey data to human results. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the monkey to provide a bridge between human and monkey studies. We focus on the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and specifically probe its involvement in the processing of visual, tactile, and auditory moving stimuli around and toward the face. We describe three major findings: (1) the visual and tactile modalities are strongly represented and activate mostly nonoverlapping sectors within the IPS. The visual domain occupies its posterior two-thirds and the tactile modality its anterior one-third. The auditory modality is much less represented, mostly on the medial IPS bank. (2) Processing of the movement component of sensory stimuli is specific to the fundus of the IPS and coincides with the anatomical definition of monkey ventral intraparietal area (VIP). (3) A cortical sector within VIP processes movement around and toward the face independently of the sensory modality. This amodal representation of movement may be a key component in the construction of peripersonal space. Overall, our observations highlight strong homologies between macaque and human VIP organization.

  10. Monkeys Exhibit Prospective Memory in a Computerized Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) involves forming intentions, retaining those intentions, and later executing those intended responses at the appropriate time. Few studies have investigated this capacity in animals. Monkeys performed a computerized task that assessed their ability to remember to make a particular response if they observed a PM cue embedded…

  11. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  12. Servants, Managers and Monkeys: New Perspectives on Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskey, Frederick C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author questions whether the understanding of teaching and leading is the same today as it was last year? The chances are that the concept of what it means to be a teacher and a leader has changed. After describing three leadership types: servants, managers, and monkeys, Buskey suggest several things that are needed to improve…

  13. MAC of xenon and halothane in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, S L; Nemoto, E M; Yao, L; Yonas, H

    1994-10-01

    Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) maps produced by 33% xenon-enhanced computed tomographic scanning (Xe/CT LCBF) are useful in the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with cerebrovascular disorders. However, observations in humans that 25-35% xenon (Xe) inhalation increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) have raised concerns that Xe/CT LCBF measurements may be inaccurate and that Xe inhalation may be hazardous in patients with decreased intracranial compliance. In contrast, 33% Xe does not increase CBF in rhesus monkeys. To determine whether this interspecies difference in the effect of Xe on CBF correlates with an interspecies difference in the anesthetic potency of Xe, we measured the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of Xe preventing movement to a tail-clamp stimulus in rhesus monkeys. Using a standard protocol for the determination of MAC in animals, we first measured the MAC of halothane (n = 5), and then used a combination of halothane and Xe to measure the MAC of Xe (n = 7). The halothane MAC was 0.99 +/- 0.12% (M +/- SD), and the Xe MAC was 98 +/- 15%. These results suggest that the MAC of Xe in rhesus monkeys is higher than the reported human Xe MAC value of 71%. Thus the absence of an effect of 33% Xe on CBF in the rhesus monkey may be related to its lower anesthetic potency.

  14. Assessing Unit-Price Related Remifentanil Choice in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuska, Chad M.; Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    Given a commodity available at different prices, a unit-price account of choice predicts preference for the cheaper alternative. This experiment determined if rhesus monkeys preferred remifentanil (an ultra-short-acting [mu]-opioid agonist) delivered at a lower unit price over a higher-priced remifentanil alternative (Phases 1 and 3). Choice…

  15. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  16. Monkey malaria in a European traveler returning from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantele, Anu; Marti, Hanspeter; Felger, Ingrid; Müller, Dania; Jokiranta, T Sakari

    2008-09-01

    In 2007, a Finnish traveler was infected in Peninsular Malaysia with Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite that usually causes malaria in monkeys. P. knowlesi has established itself as the fifth Plasmodium species that can cause human malaria. The disease is potentially life-threatening in humans; clinicians and laboratory personnel should become more aware of this pathogen in travelers.

  17. Polioencephalomalacia secondary to hypernatremia in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macri, S M Cummings; Masek-Hammerman, K; Crowell, A M; Fenn, M S; Knight, H L; Westmoreland, S V; Miller, A D

    2014-05-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp) are one of the most consistently used New World primates in biomedical research and are increasingly being used in neuroscience research, including models of drug abuse and addiction. Spontaneous neurologic disease in the squirrel monkey is uncommonly reported but includes various infectious diseases as well as cerebral amyloidosis. Hypernatremia is an extremely serious condition of hyperosmolarity that occurs as a result of water loss, adipsia, or excess sodium intake. Neurologic effects of hypernatremia reflect the cellular dehydration produced by the shift of water from the intracellular fluid space into the hypertonic extracellular fluid space. Severe hypernatremia may result in cerebrocortical laminar necrosis (polioencephalomalacia) in human patients as well as in a number of domestic species, including pigs, poultry, and ruminants. We report the clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings of polioencephalomalacia in 13 squirrel monkeys. Polioencephalomalacia in these animals was associated with hypernatremia that was confirmed by serum levels of sodium greater than 180 mmol/L (reference range, 134.0-154.0 mmol/L [mEq/L]). All animals had concurrent diseases or experimental manipulation that predisposed to adipsia. Immunohistochemical investigation using antibodies to neuronal nuclei (NeuN), CNPase, Iba-1, and CD31 revealed necrosis of predominantly cerebral cortical layers 3, 4, and 5 characterized by neuronal degeneration and loss, oligodendrocytic loss, microglial proliferation, and vascular reactivity. The squirrel monkey is exquisitely sensitive to hyperosmolar metabolic disruption and it is associated with laminar cortical necrosis.

  18. The Monkey Kid: A Personal Glimpse into the Cultural Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M. Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Wang, Xiao-Yen (Director/Writer, 'The Monkey Kid '(1995. San Francisco, Calif.: Beijing–San Francisco Film Group. Also released in France by Les Films du Parodoxe under the title, 'La Mome Singe '(1997. 95 minutes. Mandarin Chinese with English subtitles.

  19. The effects of a 20-week nutritional insult on the skeletal development of Cebus albifrons during the 1st year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurm, D A; Samonds, K W; Hegsted, D M

    1976-06-01

    Using an atlas constructed from records of a group of normal monkeys in the same colony, the effects of a 20-week low-calorie or low-protein nutritional insult on skeletal development were determined. The most significantly retarded sites were the late-forming ossifications (epiphyses, sesamoids, and tuberosites). A general increase in ossification anomalies and in individual variation was evident. The similarity of these findings to studies previously reported for man indicates the utility of nonhuman primate models for the further study of nutritional deficiency.

  20. Experimental toxoplasmosis and vaccine tests in Aotus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escajadillo, A; Frenkel, J K

    1991-04-01

    We studied Aotus lemurinus, Panamanian night monkeys, for susceptibility to Toxoplasma infection and for their capacity to develop immunity using either sufadiazine prophylaxis or the non-persistent ts-4 vaccine. The animals were highly susceptible to infection with a mouse pathogenic (T265) and a mouse nonpathogenic (T163) Toxoplasma isolate. A calculated single bradyzoite by mouth gave rise to infection which was fatal in nine to 12 days. Chemoprophylaxis with 60-300 of sulfadiazine mg per day for up to 40 days protected the animals; however this was followed by fatal reactivation of infection between 11 and 70 days after treatment was stopped. Vaccination was carried out in two or three doses subcutaneously. Challenge was performed in 26 animals using both Toxoplasma isolates. Five monkeys (19%) survived for over a year, 10 died after a prolonged illness, and 11 died as rapidly as the seven controls. Safety tests showed the vaccine to be nonpathogenic in 111 adults except for slight fever and local inflammation, although one of four juveniles died from disseminated infection. Vaccination of 25 pregnant monkeys was non-pathogenic; however two of 25 fetuses were aborted, one of which was infected and one newborn had microphthalmia, retinitis and a cataract; four of the offspring were not tested. When six lactating monkeys were vaccinated, Toxoplasma was not transmitted to the infants. The high susceptibility to Toxoplasma and the low immunizability was circumstantially attributed to absence of exposure and lack of selection by Toxoplasma of these arboreal monkeys even though about 50% of terrestrial animals from the same area were infected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)