WorldWideScience

Sample records for monkey-like animals running

  1. Running springs: speed and animal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, C T; Glasheen, J; McMahon, T A

    1993-12-01

    Trotting and hopping animals use muscles, tendons and ligaments to store and return elastic energy as they bounce along the ground. We examine how the musculoskeletal spring system operates at different speeds and in animals of different sizes. We model trotting and hopping as a simple spring-mass system which consists of a leg spring and a mass. We find that the stiffness of the leg spring (k(leg)) is nearly independent of speed in dogs, goats, horses and red kangaroos. As these animals trot or hop faster, the leg spring sweeps a greater angle during the stance phase, and the vertical excursion of the center of mass during the ground contact phase decreases. The combination of these changes to the spring system causes animals to bounce off the ground more quickly at higher speeds. Analysis of a wide size range of animals (0.1-140 kg) at equivalent speeds reveals that larger animals have stiffer leg springs (k(leg) [symbol: see text] M0.67, where M is body mass), but that the angle swept by the leg spring is nearly independent of body mass. As a result, the resonant period of vertical vibration of the spring-mass system is longer in larger animals. The length of time that the feet are in contact with the ground increases with body mass in nearly the same way as the resonant period of vertical vibration.

  2. Theoretical considerations on maximum running speeds for large and small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Mauricio A

    2016-02-01

    Mechanical equations for fast running speeds are presented and analyzed. One of the equations and its associated model predict that animals tend to experience larger mechanical stresses in their limbs (muscles, tendons and bones) as a result of larger stride lengths, suggesting a structural restriction entailing the existence of an absolute maximum possible stride length. The consequence for big animals is that an increasingly larger body mass implies decreasing maximal speeds, given that the stride frequency generally decreases for increasingly larger animals. Another restriction, acting on small animals, is discussed only in preliminary terms, but it seems safe to assume from previous studies that for a given range of body masses of small animals, those which are bigger are faster. The difference between speed scaling trends for large and small animals implies the existence of a range of intermediate body masses corresponding to the fastest animals.

  3. Treadmill running improves spatial memory in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoveida, Reihaneh; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Parivar, Kazem; Reisi, Parham

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by a decline in cognitive function and severe neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions of the brain including nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) that play an important role in learning and memory. There are few therapeutic regimens that influence the underlying pathogenic phenotypes of AD, however, of the currently available therapies, exercise training is considered to be one of the best strategies for attenuating the pathological phenotypes of AD for people with AD. Here, we sought to investigate the effect of treadmill running on spatial memory in Alzheimer-induced rats. Male Wistar rats were split into two groups namely shams (n=7) and lesions with the lesion group subdivided further into the lesion-rest (n=7) and lesion-exercise (n=7). The lesion-exercise and shams were subjected to treadmill running at 17 meters per minute (m/min) for 60 min per day (min/day), 7 days per week (days/wk), for 60 days. Spatial memory was investigated using the Morris Water Maze test in the rats after 60 days of Alzheimer induction and the exercise. Our data demonstrated that spatial memory was indeed impaired in the lesion group compared with the shams. However, exercise notably improved spatial memory in the lesion-exercised rats compared to lesion-rested group. The present results suggest that spatial memory is affected under Alzheimer conditions and that treadmill running improves these effects. Our data suggested that treadmill running contributes to the alleviation of the cognitive decline in AD.

  4. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, M.W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, C.P. [Department of Biotechnology, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chan, S.C.; Chang, W.Y.; Yang, C.L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, M.T. [Department of Medical Research, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use.

  5. A forced running wheel system with a microcontroller that provides high-intensity exercise training in an animal ischemic stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Chang, M W; Chang, C P; Chan, S C; Chang, W Y; Yang, C L; Lin, M T

    2014-10-01

    We developed a forced non-electric-shock running wheel (FNESRW) system that provides rats with high-intensity exercise training using automatic exercise training patterns that are controlled by a microcontroller. The proposed system successfully makes a breakthrough in the traditional motorized running wheel to allow rats to perform high-intensity training and to enable comparisons with the treadmill at the same exercise intensity without any electric shock. A polyvinyl chloride runway with a rough rubber surface was coated on the periphery of the wheel so as to permit automatic acceleration training, and which allowed the rats to run consistently at high speeds (30 m/min for 1 h). An animal ischemic stroke model was used to validate the proposed system. FNESRW, treadmill, control, and sham groups were studied. The FNESRW and treadmill groups underwent 3 weeks of endurance running training. After 3 weeks, the experiments of middle cerebral artery occlusion, the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), an inclined plane test, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed platform. The proposed platform showed that enhancement of motor function, mNSS, and infarct volumes was significantly stronger in the FNESRW group than the control group (P<0.05) and similar to the treadmill group. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed platform can be applied to test the benefit of exercise-preconditioning-induced neuroprotection using the animal stroke model. Additional advantages of the FNESRW system include stand-alone capability, independence of subjective human adjustment, and ease of use.

  6. Running the running

    CERN Document Server

    Cabass, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pajer, Enrico; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We use the recent observations of Cosmic Microwave Background temperature and polarization anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite experiment to place constraints on the running $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s} = \\mathrm{d}n_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ and the running of the running $\\beta_{\\mathrm{s}} = \\mathrm{d}\\alpha_{\\mathrm{s}} / \\mathrm{d}\\log k$ of the spectral index $n_{\\mathrm{s}}$ of primordial scalar fluctuations. We find $\\alpha_\\mathrm{s}=0.011\\pm0.010$ and $\\beta_\\mathrm{s}=0.027\\pm0.013$ at $68\\%\\,\\mathrm{CL}$, suggesting the presence of a running of the running at the level of two standard deviations. We find no significant correlation between $\\beta_{\\mathrm{s}}$ and foregrounds parameters, with the exception of the point sources amplitude at $143\\,\\mathrm{GHz}$, $A^{PS}_{143}$, which shifts by half sigma when the running of the running is considered. We further study the cosmological implications of this anomaly by including in the analysis the lensing amplitude $A_L$, the curvature parameter ...

  7. Paws for a Study Break: Running an Animal-Assisted Therapy Program at the Gerstein Science Information Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Bell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gerstein Science Information Centre is the Science and Health Sciences library serving the University of Toronto community. As the second largest library on campus, Gerstein is a mecca for studying and can accommodate 1100 students. Research has shown that high levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and other mental health disorders are prevalent among both medical students and the student population as a whole. In recent years, Gerstein staff members have seen evidence of the rising levels of student stress in their dealings with the public while providing reference and research help. Animal-assisted therapy (AAT is often used in hospital and rehabilitation settings and, most recently, to help young children learn to read by providing a stress-free learning environment in public libraries and schools. Studies on animal-assisted therapy have shown that AAT decreases blood pressure, cortisol, and reduces anxiety overall. In response to these findings, staff at Gerstein decided to implement an AAT program, “Paws for a Study Break,” comprised of several sessions when a therapy dog and her handler would visit the library to hold ‘office hours’ and give students a break from their studying during the Winter 2012 exam period. Through a total of six visits of ninety minutes each, 417 visitors were received. Best practices and lessons learned are discussed, including steps involved in coordination of the event, working with volunteers, publicity avenues, dealing with media requests, costs involved, and evaluation techniques. Based on the completed evaluation forms, the response to the therapy dog program at Gerstein was overwhelmingly positive; students were very appreciative, and there are plans underway to repeat this program on an ongoing basis.

  8. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  9. Running Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Running Away KidsHealth > For Kids > Running Away Print A ... life on the streets. continue The Reality of Running Away When you think about running away, you ...

  10. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  11. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  12. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  13. Pollution and contamination of the domestic environment leading to detrimental, long run and possible irreversible effects upon human and animal health and longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Negative impacts of industrial waste disposal into the domestic environment affect human and animal health and longevity, destruct the ecosystem, and accumulate potential harmful substances in the food chain leading to disease and genetic defects in the population.

  14. Running Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Dalheimer, Matthias Kalle

    2006-01-01

    The fifth edition of Running Linux is greatly expanded, reflecting the maturity of the operating system and the teeming wealth of software available for it. Hot consumer topics such as audio and video playback applications, groupware functionality, and spam filtering are covered, along with the basics in configuration and management that always made the book popular.

  15. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2013-01-01

    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...

  16. Repo Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.; Skeie, D.; von Thadden, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a model of financial institutions that borrow short- term and invest into long-term marketable assets. Because these financial intermediaries perform maturity transformation, they are subject to runs. We endogenize the profits of the intermediary and derive distinct liquidity and

  17. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2011-01-01

    The cross country running season has started well this autumn with two events: the traditional CERN Road Race organized by the Running Club, which took place on Tuesday 5th October, followed by the ‘Cross Interentreprises’, a team event at the Evaux Sports Center, which took place on Saturday 8th October. The participation at the CERN Road Race was slightly down on last year, with 65 runners, however the participants maintained the tradition of a competitive yet friendly atmosphere. An ample supply of refreshments before the prize giving was appreciated by all after the race. Many thanks to all the runners and volunteers who ensured another successful race. The results can be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/default.aspx CERN participated successfully at the cross interentreprises with very good results. The teams succeeded in obtaining 2nd and 6th place in the Mens category, and 2nd place in the Mixed category. Congratulations to all. See results here: http://www.c...

  18. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Chamizo

    2012-01-01

      On 17th January, as soon as the services were restored after the technical stop, sub-systems started powering on. Since then, we have been running 24/7 with reduced shift crew — Shift Leader and DCS shifter — to allow sub-detectors to perform calibration, noise studies, test software upgrades, etc. On 15th and 16th February, we had the first Mid-Week Global Run (MWGR) with the participation of most sub-systems. The aim was to bring CMS back to operation and to ensure that we could run after the winter shutdown. All sub-systems participated in the readout and the trigger was provided by a fraction of the muon systems (CSC and the central RPC wheel). The calorimeter triggers were not available due to work on the optical link system. Initial checks of different distributions from Pixels, Strips, and CSC confirmed things look all right (signal/noise, number of tracks, phi distribution…). High-rate tests were done to test the new CSC firmware to cure the low efficiency ...

  19. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2013-01-01

    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  20. Wild Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静

    2005-01-01

    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  1. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Rakness.

    2013-01-01

    After three years of running, in February 2013 the era of sub-10-TeV LHC collisions drew to an end. Recall, the 2012 run had been extended by about three months to achieve the full complement of high-energy and heavy-ion physics goals prior to the start of Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), which is now underway. The LHC performance during these exciting years was excellent, delivering a total of 23.3 fb–1 of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, 6.2 fb–1 at 7 TeV, and 5.5 pb–1 at 2.76 TeV. They also delivered 170 μb–1 lead-lead collisions at 2.76 TeV/nucleon and 32 nb–1 proton-lead collisions at 5 TeV/nucleon. During these years the CMS operations teams and shift crews made tremendous strides to commission the detector, repeatedly stepping up to meet the challenges at every increase of instantaneous luminosity and energy. Although it does not fully cover the achievements of the teams, a way to quantify their success is the fact that that...

  2. Running Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 29th September at 18h. The 5.5km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at http://cern.ch/club...

  3. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere

    2012-01-01

      On Wednesday 14 March, the machine group successfully injected beams into LHC for the first time this year. Within 48 hours they managed to ramp the beams to 4 TeV and proceeded to squeeze to β*=0.6m, settings that are used routinely since then. This brought to an end the CMS Cosmic Run at ~Four Tesla (CRAFT), during which we collected 800k cosmic ray events with a track crossing the central Tracker. That sample has been since then topped up to two million, allowing further refinements of the Tracker Alignment. The LHC started delivering the first collisions on 5 April with two bunches colliding in CMS, giving a pile-up of ~27 interactions per crossing at the beginning of the fill. Since then the machine has increased the number of colliding bunches to reach 1380 bunches and peak instantaneous luminosities around 6.5E33 at the beginning of fills. The average bunch charges reached ~1.5E11 protons per bunch which results in an initial pile-up of ~30 interactions per crossing. During the ...

  4. RUN COORDINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere

    2012-01-01

      With the analysis of the first 5 fb–1 culminating in the announcement of the observation of a new particle with mass of around 126 GeV/c2, the CERN directorate decided to extend the LHC run until February 2013. This adds three months to the original schedule. Since then the LHC has continued to perform extremely well, and the total luminosity delivered so far this year is 22 fb–1. CMS also continues to perform excellently, recording data with efficiency higher than 95% for fills with the magnetic field at nominal value. The highest instantaneous luminosity achieved by LHC to date is 7.6x1033 cm–2s–1, which translates into 35 interactions per crossing. On the CMS side there has been a lot of work to handle these extreme conditions, such as a new DAQ computer farm and trigger menus to handle the pile-up, automation of recovery procedures to minimise the lost luminosity, better training for the shift crews, etc. We did suffer from a couple of infrastructure ...

  5. Changes in running economy following downhill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor C; Nosaka, Kazunori; Tu, Jui-Hung

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the time course of changes in running economy following a 30-min downhill (-15%) run at 70% peak aerobic power (VO2peak). Ten young men performed level running at 65, 75, and 85% VO2peak (5 min for each intensity) before, immediately after, and 1 - 5 days after the downhill run, at which times oxygen consumption (VO2), minute ventilation, the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration were measured. Stride length, stride frequency, and range of motion of the ankle, knee, and hip joints during the level runs were analysed using high-speed (120-Hz) video images. Downhill running induced reductions (7 - 21%, P run. Oxygen consumption increased (4 - 7%, P stride frequency, as well as reductions in stride length and range of motion of the ankle and knee. The results suggest that changes in running form and compromised muscle function due to muscle damage contribute to the reduction in running economy for 3 days after downhill running.

  6. Can Unshod Running Reduce Running Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    quadrupeds run, their internal organs expand and contract like an accordion as they stride when running. As a cheetah strides forward, its lungs expand...and take in air. When the cheetah compresses its stride, the lungs are collapsed and the cheetah breathes out. This take-a-step and take-a- breath

  7. Biomechanics of Distance Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R., Ed.

    Contributions from researchers in the field of running mechanics are included in the 13 chapters of this book. The following topics are covered: (1) "The Mechanics of Distance Running: A Historical Perspective" (Peter Cavanagh); (2) "Stride Length in Distance Running: Velocity, Body Dimensions, and Added Mass Effects" (Peter Cavanagh, Rodger…

  8. Energetics of running: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kram, R; Taylor, C R

    1990-07-19

    The amount of energy used to run a mile is nearly the same whether it is run at top speed or at a leisurely pace (although it is used more rapidly at the higher speed). This puzzling independence of energy cost and speed is found generally among running animals, although, on a per gram basis, cost is much higher for smaller animals. Running involves little work against the environment; work is done by muscles and tendons to lift and accelerate the body and limbs. Some of the work is recovered from muscle-tendon springs without metabolic cost and work rate does not parallel metabolic rate with either speed or size. Regardless of the amount of work muscles do, they must be activated and develop force to support the weight of the body. Load-carrying experiments have shown that the cost of supporting an extra newton of load is the same as the weight-specific cost of running. Size differences in cost are proportional to stride frequency at equivalent speeds, suggesting that the time available for developing force is important in determining cost. We report a simple inverse relationship between the rate of energy used for running and the time the foot applies force to the ground during each stride. These results support the hypothesis that it is primarily the cost of supporting the animal's weight and the time course of generating this force that determines the cost of running.

  9. Running surface couplings

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the renormalization group improved effective action and running surface couplings in curved spacetime with boundary. Using scalar self-interacting theory as an example, we study the influence of the boundary effects to effective equations of motion in spherical cap and the relevance of surface running couplings to quantum cosmology and symmetry breaking phenomenon. Running surface couplings in the asymptotically free SU(2) gauge theory are found.

  10. Overuse injuries in running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence.......What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence....

  11. Running to Extremes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PHILIP JONES

    2010-01-01

    @@ For some, simply running 21 km, or a full marathon at 42 kin, isn't enough of an achievement. I mean, you can run a marathon in almost every major city in the world and many of them are centerpiece events watched by a global audience.

  12. On the Run

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL; GOLD

    2009-01-01

    Istarted running at age 14, inspired in equal parts by an incipient teenage desire for athletic greatness, the movie Personal Best, and the fact that all my classmates on sports teams got a free period during gym class.

  13. Learning to Run

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jiafu

    2006-01-01

    @@ In Africa, there live antelopes and lions.In the morning, the antelope wakes up from sleep. His first sense is that he has to run faster than the fastest lion, otherwise, he will be eaten out. In the meanwhile, when the lion opens his eyes, his first thought is he must run faster than the slowest antelope,otherwise, he will starve to death.

  14. Running Boot Camp

    CERN Document Server

    Toporek, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  15. Prevention of running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury.

  16. From Walking to Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Juergen; Blum, Yvonne; Seyfarth, Andre

    The implementation of bipedal gaits in legged robots is still a challenge in state-of-the-art engineering. Human gaits could be realized by imitating human leg dynamics where a spring-like leg behavior is found as represented in the bipedal spring-mass model. In this study we explore the gap between walking and running by investigating periodic gait patterns. We found an almost continuous morphing of gait patterns between walking and running. The technical feasibility of this transition is, however, restricted by the duration of swing phase. In practice, this requires an abrupt gait transition between both gaits, while a change of speed is not necessary.

  17. The Art of Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill Harris

    2007-01-01

    Every year, the Parent-Teacher Association of Ferndale Elementary School in Atlanta, Georgia sponsors a fun road race for the students, teachers, families, and community. This annual event has inspired the author to develop the Running and Art project to show off her students' art and squeeze in a little art history, too. In this article, the…

  18. Optimizing Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widule, Carol J.

    1989-01-01

    The optimization of step length and step rate (frequency) is essential for sprinters. This article analyzes data that compare step rate and step length to height, as a function of running speed, for ten elite runners. How results of such analyses can be used in training runners is also discussed. (IAH)

  19. 9 CFR 54.11 - Approval of laboratories to run official scrapie tests and official genotype tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of laboratories to run official scrapie tests and official genotype tests. 54.11 Section 54.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... laboratories to run official scrapie tests and official genotype tests. (a) State, Federal, and...

  20. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Addiction? » Does Addiction Run in Families? Does Addiction Run in Families? Listen PDF: EasyToRead_WhatIsAddiction_Final_ ... English Español "Heart disease runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." ©istock.com/ Antonio_Diaz Matt's ...

  1. The Running Gravitational Couplings

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Djamel; Percacci, Roberto

    1997-01-01

    We compute the running of the cosmological constant and Newton's constant taking into account the effect of quantum fields with any spin between 0 and 2. We find that Newton's constant does not vary appreciably but the cosmological constant can change by many orders of magnitude when one goes from cosmological scales to typical elementary particle scales. In the extreme infrared, zero modes drive the cosmological constant to zero.

  2. Ubuntu Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Ubuntu for everyone! This popular Linux-based operating system is perfect for people with little technical background. It's simple to install, and easy to use -- with a strong focus on security. Ubuntu: Up and Running shows you the ins and outs of this system with a complete hands-on tour. You'll learn how Ubuntu works, how to quickly configure and maintain Ubuntu 10.04, and how to use this unique operating system for networking, business, and home entertainment. This book includes a DVD with the complete Ubuntu system and several specialized editions -- including the Mythbuntu multimedia re

  3. ATLAS people can run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira; Pauline Gagnon

    It must be all the training we are getting every day, running around trying to get everything ready for the start of the LHC next year. This year, the ATLAS runners were in fine form and came in force. Nine ATLAS teams signed up for the 37th Annual CERN Relay Race with six runners per team. Under a blasting sun on Wednesday 23rd May 2007, each team covered the distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m taking the runners around the whole Meyrin site, hills included. A small reception took place in the ATLAS secretariat a week later to award the ATLAS Cup to the best ATLAS team. For the details on this complex calculation which takes into account the age of each runner, their gender and the color of their shoes, see the July 2006 issue of ATLAS e-news. The ATLAS Running Athena Team, the only all-women team enrolled this year, won the much coveted ATLAS Cup for the second year in a row. In fact, they are so good that Peter Schmid and Patrick Fassnacht are wondering about reducing the women's bonus in...

  4. PDU Run 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    PDU Run 10, a 46-day H-Coal syncrude mode operation using Wyodak coal, successfully met all targeted objectives, and was the longest PDU operation to date in this program. Targeted coal conversion of 90 W % was exceeded with a C/sub 4/-975/sup 0/F distillate yield of 43 to 48 W %. Amocat 1A catalyst was qualified for Pilot Plant operation based on improved operation and superior performance. PDU 10 achieved improved yields and lower hydrogen consumption compared to PDU 6, a similar operation. High hydroclone efficiency and high solids content in the vacuum still were maintained throughout the run. Steady operations at lower oil/solids ratios were demonstrated. Microautoclave testing was introduced as an operational aid. Four additional studies were successfully completed during PDU 10. These included a catalyst tracer study in conjunction with Sandia Laboratories; tests on letdown valve trims for Battelle; a fluid dynamics study with Amoco; and special high-pressure liquid sampling.

  5. Picassos of the Animal World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gaye Leigh

    2006-01-01

    This article presents how many animals, like human beings, are also capable of painting, sketching, and displaying remarkable abilities. An example of these kind of animals are the "artists" Koko and Michael, gorillas who have been taught the Gorilla Sign Language or GSL as part of an ongoing project run by the Gorilla Foundation. This article…

  6. Barefoot running: biomechanics and implications for running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Allison R; Davis, Irene S

    2012-01-01

    Despite the technological developments in modern running footwear, up to 79% of runners today get injured in a given year. As we evolved barefoot, examining this mode of running is insightful. Barefoot running encourages a forefoot strike pattern that is associated with a reduction in impact loading and stride length. Studies have shown a reduction in injuries to shod forefoot strikers as compared with rearfoot strikers. In addition to a forefoot strike pattern, barefoot running also affords the runner increased sensory feedback from the foot-ground contact, as well as increased energy storage in the arch. Minimal footwear is being used to mimic barefoot running, but it is not clear whether it truly does. The purpose of this article is to review current and past research on shod and barefoot/minimal footwear running and their implications for running injuries. Clearly more research is needed, and areas for future study are suggested.

  7. Run-off-road crashes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, one-third of all fatalities and one-sixth of all seriously injured are the consequence of run-off-road crashes. The outcome of run-off-road crashes is relatively severe, one fatality in five seriously injured, which is twice the average in the Netherlands. Serious run-off-road cr

  8. Pediatric running injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Craig K; Statuta, Siobhan M; Solari, Ian L

    2010-07-01

    As more children have become involved in athletic activities and running, there has been a significant increase in overuse injuries. The young athlete with open growth plates is vulnerable to unique overuse injuries involving the apophyses, articular cartilage, and growth plate. The physician caring for these young athletes needs to be aware of these conditions to diagnose and treat them appropriately. Physicians should also be aware of the risk of overtraining and overuse injury in athletes participating in year-round sports and competition. Current guidelines for overuse injury prevention in young athletes are primarily based on consensus and expert opinion. Further research is needed to provide evidence-based guidelines for overuse injury prevention in young athletes and runners. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ctypes. ctypes run!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    One of the new features of Python 2.5 is the introduction of ctypes as a standard library module. At the simplest level, ctypes adds the standard C types to Python: signed and unsigned bytes, shorts, ints and longs; as well as structs, unions, pointers and functions. At run-time it can load a shared library (DLL and import its symbols, allowing a Python application to make function calls into the library without any special preparation.  ctypes can be used to wrap native libraries in place of interface generators such as SWIG, to manipulate memory and Python objects at the lowest level, and to prototype application development in other languages.

    This paper begins with a quick introduction to ctypes, shows some advanced techniques, and describes some examples of how it has been used by the author in his recent work.

  10. Stability Criterion for Humanoid Running

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhao-Hui; HUANGQiang; LIKe-Jie

    2005-01-01

    A humanoid robot has high mobility but possibly risks of tipping over. Until now, one main topic on humanoid robots is to study the walking stability; the issue of the running stability has rarely been investigated. The running is different from the walking, and is more difficult to maintain its dynamic stability. The objective of this paper is to study the stability criterion for humanoid running based on the whole dynamics. First, the cycle and the dynamics of running are analyzed. Then, the stability criterion of humanoid running is presented. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed stability criterion is illustrated by a dynamic simulation example using a dynamic analysis and design system (DADS).

  11. Polarization Issues in Run 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang,S.Y.; Ahrens, L.; Huang, H.; Zeno, K.

    2008-07-01

    The RHIC proton beam polarization has a strong dependence on intensity in Run 2008, whereas the dependence is almost absent in Run 2006. Meanwhile, the RHIC beam transverse emittance also has a dependence on intensity in Run 2008, but little in Run 2006. Using the emittance measurement at the AGS IPM and the BtA multiwires, the source of this difference between 2006 and 2008 runs is traced to the Booster. It is found that at least the degree of the vertical scraping in the Booster is different in 2006 and 2008. The effect of this scraping for the RHIC beam emittance and polarization is studied.

  12. The QCD Running Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Deur, A; de Teramond, G F

    2016-01-01

    We review the present knowledge for $\\alpha_s$, the fundamental coupling underlying the interactions of quarks and gluons in QCD. The dependence of $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$ on momentum transfer $Q$ encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics -from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We review constraints on $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$ at high $Q^2$, as predicted by perturbative QCD, and its analytic behavior at small $Q^2$, based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the introductory part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of $\\alpha_s$, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss the behavior of $\\alpha_s(Q^2)$ in the high $Q^2$ domain of QCD. We review how $\\alpha_s$ is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as ...

  13. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  14. The QCD running coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-09-01

    We review the present theoretical and empirical knowledge for αs, the fundamental coupling underlying the interactions of quarks and gluons in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The dependence of αs(Q2) on momentum transfer Q encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics-from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We review constraints on αs(Q2) at high Q2, as predicted by perturbative QCD, and its analytic behavior at small Q2, based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the introductory part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss the behavior of αs(Q2) in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how αs is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as "Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization-scale ambiguity. We also report recent significant measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the "Principle of Maximum Conformality", which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of theoretical conventions such as the renormalization scheme. In the last part of the review, we discuss the challenge of understanding the analytic behavior αs(Q2) in the low momentum transfer domain. We survey various theoretical models for the nonperturbative strongly coupled regime, such as the light-front holographic approach to QCD. This new framework predicts the form of the quark-confinement potential underlying hadron spectroscopy and

  15. Oxygen cost of running barefoot vs. running shod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, N J; Berg, K; Deka, P; Meendering, J R; Ryan, C

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the oxygen cost of running barefoot vs. running shod on the treadmill as well as overground. 10 healthy recreational runners, 5 male and 5 female, whose mean age was 23.8±3.39 volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects participated in 4 experimental conditions: 1) barefoot on treadmill, 2) shod on treadmill, 3) barefoot overground, and 4) shod overground. For each condition, subjects ran for 6 min at 70% vVO (2)max pace while VO (2), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed. A 2 × 2 (shoe condition x surface) repeated measures ANOVA revealed that running with shoes showed significantly higher VO (2) values on both the treadmill and the overground track (pbarefoot. It was concluded that at 70% of vVO (2)max pace, barefoot running is more economical than running shod, both overground and on a treadmill.

  16. CDF RunRun Control and Online Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Arisawa; W.Badgett; 等

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,we discuss the CDF RunRun Control and online event monitoring system.Run Control is the top level application that controls the data acquisition activities across 150 front end VME crates and related service processes,Run Control is a real-time multi-threaded application implemented in Java with flexible state machines,using JDBC database connections to configure clients,and including a user friendly and powerful graphical user interface.The CDF online event monitoring system consists of several parts;the eent monitoring programs,the display to browse their results,the server program which communicates with the display via socket connections ,the error receiver which displays error messages and communicates with run Control,and the state manager which monitors the state of the monitor programs.

  17. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...

  18. Effects of marathon running on running economy and kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyröläinen, H; Pullinen, T; Candau, R; Avela, J; Huttunen, P; Komi, P V

    2000-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate interactions between running economy and mechanics before, during, and after an individually run marathon. Seven experienced triathletes performed a 5-min submaximal running test on a treadmill at an individual constant marathon speed. Heart rate was monitored and the expired respiratory gas was analyzed. Blood samples were drawn to analyze serum creatine kinase activity (S-CK), skeletal troponin I (sTnI), and blood lactate (B-La). A video analysis was performed (200 frames x s(-1)) to investigate running mechanics. A kinematic arm was used to determine the external work of each subject. The results of the present study demonstrate that after the marathon, a standardized 5-min submaximal running test resulted in an increase in oxygen consumption, ventilation, and heart rate (P stride frequency and a similar decrease in stride length were observed (P < 0.01). These results demonstrate clearly that weakened running economy cannot be explained by changes in running mechanics. Therefore, it is suggested that the increased physiological loading is due to several mechanisms: increased utilization of fat as an energy substrate, increased demands of body temperature regulation, and possible muscle damage.

  19. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they become infected, you can develop serious medical problems. To prevent animal bites and complications from bites Never pet, handle, ...

  20. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  1. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  2. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  3. Voluntary wheel running: a review and novel interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin

    1998-07-01

    Voluntary wheel running by animals is an activity that has been observed and recorded in great detail for almost a century. This review shows that it is performed, often with startling intensity and coordination, by a wide variety of wild, laboratory and domestic species with diverse evolutionary histories. However, despite the plethora of published studies on wheel running, there is considerable disagreement between many findings, thus leading to a lack of consensus on explanations of the causality and function. In the initial part of this review, I discuss the internal and external factors that may be involved in the causality of this behaviour, with an emphasis on disparities in both the factual and theoretical development of the subject. I then address the various proposed functions of wheel running, again highlighting evidence to the contrary. This leads to the conclusion that any single theory on the basis of wheel running is likely to be simplistic with little generality. I then present a novel, behaviour-based interpretation in which it is argued that wheel running has no directly analogous naturally occurring behaviour, it is (sometimes) performed for its own sake per se rather than as a redirected or substitute activity, and studies on motivation show that wheel running is self-reinforcing and perceived by animals as 'important'. This review proposes that wheel running may be an artefact of captive environments or of the running-wheel itself, possibly resulting from feedback dysfunction. I also discuss the ubiquity and intensity of its performance, along with its great plasticity and maladaptiveness, all indicating that if it is an artefact, it is nevertheless one of great interest to behavioural science. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  4. RUN TO RUN CONTROL OF TIME-PRESSURE DISPENSING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yixiang; Li Hanxiong; Ding Han; Xiong Youlun

    2004-01-01

    In electronics packaging the time-pressure dispensing system is widely used to squeeze the adhesive fluid in a syringe onto boards or sub-strates with the pressurized air.However,complexity of the process,which includes the air-fluid coupling and the nonlinear uncertainties,makes it diffi-cult to have a consistent process per-formance.An integrated dispensing process model is first introduced and then its input-output regression rela-tionship is used to design a run to run control methodology for this process.The controller takes EWMA scheme and its stability region is given.Ex-perimental results verify the effective-ness of the proposed run to run control method for dispensing process.

  5. Run-to-Run Control Strategy for Diabetes Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    quite serious ( diabetic coma), and the long- term implications of varying glucose levels ( nephropathy , retinopathy, and other tissue damage ) have...Trial Re- search Group, \\The e ect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long{term complications in insulin{dependent...1 RUN-TO-RUN CONTROL STRATEGY FOR DIABETES MANAGEMENT F.J. Doyle III1, B. Srinivasan2, and D. Bonvin2 1Department of Chemical Engineering, University

  6. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  7. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  8. GENOMIC VARIABILITY AMONG CATTLE POPULATIONS BASED ON RUNS OF HOMOZYGOSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Šidlová; Radovan Kasarda; Nina Moravčíková; Anna Trakovická; Ino Curik; Maja Ferenčaković

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the distribution of different lengths ROH (runs of homozygosity) in six cattle breeds was described. A total of 122 animals from six cattle breeds (Holstein, Simmental, Austrian Pinzgau, Ayrshire, MRI-Meuse Rhine Issel and Slovak Pinzgau) were analysed. The ROH approach was used to distinguish Slovak Pinzgau population from other investigated breeds as well as to differentiate between ancient and recent inbreeding. The average number of ROH per animal ranged from 17.06 in Holste...

  9. Piketty in the long run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    I examine the idea of 'the long run' in Piketty (2014) and related works. In contrast to simplistic interpretations of long-run models of income- and wealth-distribution Piketty (2014) draws on a rich economic analysis that models the intra- and inter-generational processes that underly the development of the wealth distribution. These processes inevitably involve both market and non-market mechanisms. To understand this approach, and to isolate the impact of different social and economic factors on inequality in the long run, we use the concept of an equilibrium distribution. However the long-run analysis of policy should not presume that there is an inherent tendency for the wealth distribution to approach equilibrium.

  10. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  11. Phthalate SHEDS-HT runs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inputs and outputs for SHEDS-HT runs of DiNP, DEHP, DBP. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Moreau, M., J. Leonard, K. Phillips, J. Campbell,...

  12. How to run 100 meters?

    CERN Document Server

    Aftalion, Amandine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to bring a mathematical justification to the optimal way of organizing one's effort when running. It is well known from physiologists that all running exercises of duration less than 3mn are run with a strong initial acceleration and a decelerating end; on the contrary, long races are run with a final sprint. This can be explained using a mathematical model describing the evolution of the velocity, the anaerobic energy, and the propulsive force: a system of ordinary differential equations, based on Newton's second law and energy conservation, is coupled to the condition of optimizing the time to run a fixed distance. We show that the monotony of the velocity curve vs time is the opposite of that of the oxygen uptake (V O2) vs time. Since the oxygen uptake is monotone increasing for a short run, we prove that the velocity is exponentially increasing to its maximum and then decreasing. For longer races, the oxygen uptake has an increasing start and a decreasing end and this accounts for...

  13. Effect Of Running Shoes on Foot Impact During Running

    CERN Document Server

    Nassif, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Running is part of almost every sport, and requires a great amount of stamina, endurance, mental toughness and overall strength. At every step, the foot experiences ground reaction forces necessary to support the motion of the body. With the advancements in shoe technology, running shoes have grown in popularity among runners, as well as non-runners, because they reduce the risk of injuries from the impact felt by the foot. The purpose of this report is to analyze the effect of running shoes on impact forces on the foot. This is achieved through the use of three force pads fixed at different locations on the foot The force measured by each sensor is then used to estimate the vertical ground reaction force, using the sensors' calibrations equations . Based on the ground reaction force, the effective mass corresponding to the momentum change occurring during the transient phase of the impact is estimated. The results show that running at 9 miles per hour without running shoes generates an effective mass of (14....

  14. Running of the Running and Entropy Perturbations During Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    van de Bruck, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    In single field slow-roll inflation, one expects that the spectral index $n_s -1$ is first order in slow-roll parameters. Similarly, its running $\\alpha_s = dn_s/d \\log k$ and the running of the running $\\beta_s = d\\alpha_s/d \\log k$ are second and third order and therefore expected to be progressively smaller, and usually negative. Hence, such models of inflation are in considerable tension with a recent analysis hinting that $\\beta_s$ may actually be positive, and larger than $\\alpha_s$. Motivated by this, in this work we ask the question of what kinds of inflationary models may be useful in achieving such a hierarchy of runnings, particularly focusing on two--field models of inflation in which the late-time transfer of power from isocurvature to curvature modes allows for a much more diverse range of phenomenology. We calculate the runnings due to this effect and briefly apply our results to assessing the feasibility of finding $|\\beta_s| \\gtrsim |\\alpha_s|$ in some specific models.

  15. Animal Shelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  16. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  17. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    “animation”, defined as “an innate (and learnable) ability of our bodies to discover life in inanimate images” (Belting 2012, 188). In this essay I investigate the animation of pictures in dialogue with Mitchell, both by addressing general questions such as: how is animation of otherwise static pictures...... to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  18. Thermoregulation and endurance running in extinct hominins: Wheeler's models revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxton, Graeme D; Wilkinson, David M

    2011-08-01

    Thermoregulation is often cited as a potentially important influence on the evolution of hominins, thanks to a highly influential series of papers in the Journal of Human Evolution in the 1980s and 1990s by Peter Wheeler. These papers developed quantitative modeling of heat balance between different potential hominins and their environment. Here, we return to these models, update them in line with new developments and measurements in animal thermal biology, and modify them to represent a running hominin rather than the stationary form considered previously. In particular, we use our modified Wheeler model to investigate thermoregulatory aspects of the evolution of endurance running ability. Our model suggests that for endurance running to be possible, a hominin would need locomotive efficiency, sweating rates, and areas of hairless skin similar to modern humans. We argue that these restrictions suggest that endurance running may have been possible (from a thermoregulatory viewpoint) for Homo erectus, but is unlikely for any earlier hominins.

  19. Biomechanics and energetics of running on uneven terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshina, Alexandra S; Ferris, Daniel P

    2015-03-01

    In the natural world, legged animals regularly run across uneven terrain with remarkable ease. To gain understanding of how running on uneven terrain affects the biomechanics and energetics of locomotion, we studied human subjects (N=12) running at 2.3 m s(-1) on an uneven terrain treadmill, with up to a 2.5 cm height variation. We hypothesized that running on uneven terrain would show increased energy expenditure, step parameter variability and leg stiffness compared with running on smooth terrain. Subject energy expenditure increased by 5% (0.68 W kg(-1); Prunning on uneven terrain compared with smooth terrain. Step width and length variability also increased by 27% and 26%, respectively (Prunning on uneven terrain compared with smooth terrain. Calculations of gravitational potential energy fluctuations suggest that about half of the energetic increases can be explained by additional positive and negative mechanical work for up and down steps on the uneven surface. This is consistent between walking and running, as the absolute increases in energetic cost for walking and running on uneven terrain were similar: 0.68 and 0.48 W kg(-1), respectively. These results provide insight into how surface smoothness can affect locomotion biomechanics and energetics in the real world.

  20. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  1. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  2. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  3. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  4. Kindergarten Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  5. Animation of boom failure processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, C. F.; Brown, H. M.; Goodman, R. H. [Imperial Oil Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada); Clavelle, E. J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    1997-10-01

    Computer animations of oil boom failure mechanisms were discussed. The animations are useful in demonstrating the transient processes of boom failure. They consist of a series of images obtained from the graphical output of a computational fluid dynamics program, FLUENT, while the modeling is based on boom failure experiments carried out in flowing water channels. The animations can be viewed on a PC running under Windows `95. Three types of failures are presented, i. e. drainage failure, droplet entrainment and critical accumulation. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Energetics of bipedal running. II. Limb design and running mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T J; Chen, M S; Taylor, C R

    1998-10-01

    Compared with quadrupeds, bipedal runners of the same weight have longer legs, take longer steps and can presumably use slower, more economical muscle fibers. One might predict that bipedal running is less expensive, but it is not. We hypothesized that bipeds recruit a larger volume of muscle to support their weight, eliminating the potential economy of longer legs and slower steps. To test our hypothesis, we calculated the relative volume of muscle needed to support body weight over a stride in small dogs (Canis familiaris) and wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) of the same weight. First, we confirmed that turkeys and dogs use approximately the same amount of energy to run at the same speed, and found that turkeys take 1. 8-fold longer steps. Higher muscle forces and/or longer muscle fibers would require a greater volume of active muscle, since muscle volume is proportional to the product of force and fascicle length. We measured both mean fascicle length and mean mechanical advantage for limb extensor muscles. Turkeys generated approximately the same total muscle force to support their weight during running and used muscle fascicles that are on average 2.1 times as long as in dogs, thus requiring a 2.5-fold greater active muscle volume. The greater volume appears to offset the economy of slower rates of force generation, supporting our hypothesis and providing a simple explanation for why it costs the same to run on two and four legs.

  7. How Fast Can a Human Run? - Bipedal vs. Quadrupedal Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Usami, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Usain Bolt holds the current world record in the 100-m run, with a running time of 9.58 s, and has been described as the best human sprinter in history. However, this raises questions concerning the maximum human running speed, such as "Can the world's fastest men become faster still?" The correct answer is likely "Yes." We plotted the historical world records for bipedal and quadrupedal 100-m sprint times according to competition year. These historical records were plotted using several curve-fitting procedures. We found that the projected speeds intersected in 2048, when for the first time, the winning quadrupedal 100-m sprint time could be lower, at 9.276 s, than the winning bipedal time of 9.383 s. Video analysis revealed that in quadrupedal running, humans employed a transverse gallop with a small angular excursion. These results suggest that in the future, the fastest human on the planet might be a quadrupedal runner at the 2048 Olympics. This may be achieved by shifting up to the rotary gallop and taking longer strides with wide sagittal trunk motion.

  8. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  9. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  10. Animal Bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  11. [Stress fracture after changing to barefoot running].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mikkel

    2014-12-15

    Barefoot running is increasing in popularity but little is known about the implications in respect to injuries. It has been proposed that barefoot running is associated with a decrease in running injuries as it represents a more natural way of running. A 50-year-old runner with a weekly running distance of 50 km presented suffering from a stress fracture of the second metatarsal after six weeks of intensive barefoot running.

  12. Animal Flicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érik Bullot

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leafing a book quickly creates metamorphoses of its images and illustrations. Cinema as a medium is based on such visual discontinuity.  Both Paolo Gioli, the Italian filmmaker, and Stan Brakhage in America,  made very interesting flicker films with and about insects and butterflies : Farfallìo (1993 and Mothlight (1963. Is the buttefly miming the filmic device? To what extent has a film to disguise its mechanism? What is the relation between animation and the animal? I intend to scrutinize the link between flicker film and animality in regard of camouflage and mimicry.

  13. Optimal chemotaxis in animal cell intermittent migration

    CERN Document Server

    Romanczuk, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    Animal cells can sense chemical gradients without moving, and are faced with the challenge of migrating towards a target despite noisy information on the target position. Here we discuss optimal search strategies for a chaser that moves by switching between two phases of motion ("run" and "tumble"), reorienting itself towards the target during tumble phases, and performing a persistent random walk during run phases. We show that the chaser average run time can be adjusted to minimize the target catching time or the spatial dispersion of the chasers. We obtain analytical results for the catching time and for the spatial dispersion in the limits of small and large ratios of run time to tumble time, and scaling laws for the optimal run times. Our findings have implications for optimal chemotactic strategies in animal cell migration.

  14. Enforced bipedal downhill running induces Achilles tendinosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gabriel Yin-Fat; Chung, Polly Yee-Man; Wang, Jenny Shijie; Cheung, Roy Tsz-Hei

    2011-01-01

    Enforced downhill running has been reported to induce tendinosis in the rat supraspinatus tendon but similar exercise failed to induce Achilles tendinosis in this animal. Due to the presence of acromial arch in the shoulder, accessing the supraspinatus tendon with physical modalities is difficult; thus this model may not be suitable for studying the treatment for tendinosis. To develop a rat model for Achilles tendinosis, we tested 14 mature Sprague-Dawley rats by dividing them into 2 groups of 7 each. The experimental group was subjected to a daily enforced downhill bipedal running program by suspending their upper bodies so that they ran with their hind limbs on a treadmill for 1 hr/day for 8 weeks. The downward inclination was 20 degrees and the speed was 17 m/min. The animals in the control group did not undergo any exercise. After 8 weeks, the Achilles tendons were harvested and subjected to histological and biomechanical analysis. Histological examination revealed tenocyte proliferation, change in tenocytes appearance, and collagen bundle disintegration in the running group. The biomechanical testing revealed significant decrease in stiffness (p = 0.002) and ultimate tensile strength (p = 0.016) in the running group than in the control group. Both the histological and biomechanical findings are suggestive of changes in the tendon of the running group that resembled the pathological changes of tendinosis in human. This new model of Achilles tendinosis in rat will be useful for studying the etiology and subsequent management strategies of this condition.

  15. Dopamine D1 receptor modulation in nucleus accumbens lowers voluntary wheel running in rats bred to run high distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D; Gilpin, Leigh; Parker, Kyle E; Childs, Thomas E; Will, Matthew J; Booth, Frank W

    2012-02-01

    Dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been postulated to influence reward development towards drugs of abuse and exercise. Herein, we used generation 4-5 rats that were selectively bred to voluntary run high (HVR) versus low (LVR) distances in order to examine if dopamine-like 1 (D1) receptor modulation in the NAc differentially affects nightly voluntary wheel running between these lines. A subset of generation 5-6 HVR and LVR rats were also used to study the mRNA expression of key genes related to reward and addiction in the NAc (i.e., DRD1, DRD5, DRD2, Nr4a2, FosB, and BDNF). In a crossover fashion, a D1-like agonist SKF 82958 (2 μg per side) or D1-like full antagonist SCH 23390 (4 μg per side) was bilaterally injected into the NAc of HVR and LVR female Wistar rats prior to their high running nights. Notably, during hours 2-4 (between 2000 and 2300) of the dark cycle there was a significant decrement in running distances in the HVR rats treated with the D1 agonist (p=0.025) and antagonist (p=0.017) whereas the running distances in LVR rats were not affected. Interestingly, HVR and LVR rats possessed similar NAc concentrations of the studied mRNAs. These data suggest that: a) animals predisposed to run high distances on a nightly basis may quickly develop a rewarding response to exercise due to an optimal D1-like receptor signaling pathway in the NAc that can be perturbed by either activation or blocking, b) D1-like agonist or antagonist injections do not increase running distances in rats that are bred to run low nightly distances, and c) running differences between HVR and LVR animals are seemingly not due to the expression of the studied mRNAs. Given the societal prevalence of obesity and extraneous physical inactivity, future studies should be performed in order to further determine the culprit for the low running phenotype observed in LVR animals.

  16. Running energetics in the pronghorn antelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, S L; Hokanson, J F; Wells, D J; Swain, S D; Hoppeler, H; Navarro, V

    1991-10-24

    The pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) has an alleged top speed of 100 km h-1, second only to the cheetah (Acionyx jubatus) among land vertebrates, a possible response to predation in the exposed habitat of the North American prairie. Unlike cheetahs, however, pronghorn antelope are distance runners rather than sprinters, and can run 11 km in 10 min, an average speed of 65 km h-1. We measured maximum oxygen uptake in pronghorn antelope to distinguish between two potential explanations for this ability: either they have evolved a uniquely high muscular efficiency (low cost of transport) or they can supply oxygen to the muscles at unusually high levels. Because the cost of transport (energy per unit distance covered per unit body mass) varies as a predictable function of body mass among terrestrial vertebrates, we can calculate the predicted cost to maintain speeds of 65 and 100 km h-1 in an average 32-kg animal. The resulting range of predicted values, 3.2-5.1 ml O2 kg-1 s-1, far surpasses the predicted maximum aerobic capacity of a 32-kg mammal (1.5 ml O2 kg-1 s-1). We conclude that their performance is achieved by an extraordinary capacity to consume and process enough oxygen to support a predicted running speed greater than 20 ms-1 (70 km h-1), attained without unique respiratory-system structures.

  17. Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same bacterium that has become resistant to certain antibiotics, which can make infections harder to treat. MRSA can be passed back and forth between people and farm animals through direct contact. In humans, MRSA can cause ...

  18. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2016-01-01

    machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation......, indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  19. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 15 to 20 of every 100 following dog or human bites. Treatment If your child is bleeding from ... dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal also is important, so if ...

  20. Bremen Workshop : Run-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Schlütter, F.

    The objective of the workshop was a comparison between the prototype and the laboratory measurements. the emphasis is put on comparison between recorded run-up levels. Three enclosed reports present measurements and results from University of Ghent (UG)/ FCCD, Flanders Hydraulics (FH) and Aalborg...

  1. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  2. ATLAS Searches in Run I

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Michael; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Title: Searches for di-Higgs production in 4b final states and new phenomena with boosted Higgs using the ATLAS detector at LHC Run I Abstract : Measurement of Higgs boson pair production has a fundamental importance in understanding the nature of the Higgs boson and electroweak symmetry breaking. TeVscale resonances decaying to a pair of Higgs boson are also predicted in various extensions of the Standard Models, e.g, Kaluza-Klein excitation of the gravitons in the bulk Randall- Sundrum extra dimensions, heavy scalar particles in two-Higgs-doublet models. This talk highlights ATLAS Run I searches for di-Higgs production in 4b final states with resolved topology using small-radius jets and boosted topology using large-radius jets with associated b-tagged track-jets. Other Run I searches employing techniques to identify boosted Higgs bosons are also presented in this talk. Title: Searches for vector-like quarks and resonances decaying into top-quarks with the ATLAS detector at LHC Run I Abstract : In theories ...

  3. Running gratings in photoconductive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, N. V.; Kukhtareva, T.; Lyuksyutov, S. F.

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the three-dimensional version of a standard photorefractive model (STPM), we obtain a reduced compact Set of equations for an electric field based on the assumption of a quasi-steady-state fast recombination. The equations are suitable for evaluation of a current induced by running...

  4. Run-to-run product quality control of batch processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li; SHI Ji-ping; CHENG Da-shuai; CHIU Min-sen

    2009-01-01

    Batch processes have been increasingly used in the production of low volume and high value added products.Consequently,optimization control in batch processes is crucial in order to derive the maximum benefit.In this paper,a run-to-run product quality control based on iterative learning optimization control is developed.Moreover,a rigorous theorem is proposed and proven in this paper,which states that the tracking error under the optimal iterative learning control (ILC) law can converge to zero.In this paper,a typical nonlinear batch continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) is considered,and the results show that the performance of trajectory tracking is gradually improved by the ILC.

  5. Running free: embracing a healthy lifestyle through distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipway, Richard; Holloway, Immy

    2010-11-01

    Sport and leisure activity contribute to both health and quality of life. There is a dearth of qualitative studies on the lived experiences of active people, so the aim of this paper is to develop a deeper understanding of the experiences of one particular group of active leisure participants, distance runners, and to highlight the associated health and well-being benefits that result from participating in this increasingly popular form of active leisure. In doing so, this paper will briefly explore the potential opportunities and implications for sport and leisure policy and provision, and highlight examples of how distance running could positively contribute towards government objectives linked to tackling obesity levels, healthy living and physical well-being. It is suggested that similar benefits also exist across other forms of physical activity, exercise and sport. Qualitative methods of enquiry were adopted to understand the nature of the social world of long distance runners through interviews and observations, which were thematically analyzed. One of the key themes emerging from the data was the desire to embrace a healthy lifestyle, which then led to the emergence of four main sub-themes. The first was linked to the importance of seeking self-esteem and confirmation through running; second, an investigation of a selection of negative aspects associated with exercise addiction; third, the need to exercise among sport and leisure participants; and finally, an understanding of the concept of the 'running body'. Cautionary notes also identified negative aspects associated with exercise and physical activity. The findings highlight the potential role that distance running can play as an easily accessible and enjoyable leisure activity, one that can help facilitate increased participation in exercise and physical activity as an integral part of an active and healthy lifestyle.

  6. Effects of running velocity on running kinetics and kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brughelli, Matt; Cronin, John; Chaouachi, Anis

    2011-04-01

    Sixteen semiprofessional Australian football players performed running bouts at incremental velocities of 40, 60, 80, and 100% of their maximum velocity on a Woodway nonmotorized force treadmill. As running velocity increased from 40 to 60%, peak vertical and peak horizontal forces increased by 14.3% (effect size [ES] = 1.0) and 34.4% (ES = 4.2), respectively. The changes in peak vertical and peak horizontal forces from 60 to 80% were 1.0% (ES = 0.05) and 21.0% (ES = 2.9), respectively. Finally, the changes in peak vertical and peak horizontal forces from 80% to maximum were 2.0% (ES = 0.1) and 24.3% (ES = 3.4). In addition, both stride frequency and stride length significantly increased with each incremental velocity (p velocity (p velocity (r = 0.47). For the kinematic variables, only stride length was found to have a significant positive correlation with maximum running velocity (r = 0.66). It would seem that increasing maximal sprint velocity may be more dependent on horizontal force production as opposed to vertical force production.

  7. Animal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Function of HumAnimAllegory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Meighoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical reading of the function of the animal-human allegory or the “humanimallegory” in both the animated films Animal Farm and Chicken Run. Based on George Orwell’s novel of the same name, Animal Farm provides an allegorical representation of the Russian Revolution and the rise of Stalinism in the Soviet Union by relaying Orwell’s story of a revolution led by a group of farm animals and its aftermath. Animal Farm ultimately reduces its fictional animal characters to simple metaphors for real human subjects, thus serving the most common function of the animal-human allegory in literature as well as film. In contrast, improvising on the many prisoner-of-war films that were produced during the first few decades following World War II, Chicken Run tells the story of a group of chickens who attempt to escape from an egg farm. Chicken Run complicates the function of the animal-human allegory, though, by resisting the allegorical reduction of its fictional animal characters to simple metaphors for real human subjects. By presenting a critical reading of these two different films, this article suggests that the literary concept of allegory itself remains circumscribed within the philosophical tradition of humanism.

  9. The ATLAS RunTimeTester

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS RunTimeTester is a job based software test system. The RunTimeTester runs jobs, and optional tests on the job outputs. Job and test results are reported via a web site. The system currently runs $\\approx$ 8000 jobs daily, and the web site receives $\\approx$ 25K hits a week. This note provides an overview of the system.

  10. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  11. Effect of Minimalist Footwear on Running Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Gillinov, Stephen M.; Laux, Sara; Kuivila, Thomas; Hass, Daniel; Joy, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although minimalist footwear is increasingly popular among runners, claims that minimalist footwear enhances running biomechanics and efficiency are controversial. Hypothesis: Minimalist and barefoot conditions improve running efficiency when compared with traditional running shoes. Study Design: Randomized crossover trial. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Fifteen experienced runners each completed three 90-second running trials on a treadmill, each trial performed in a differ...

  12. Inequality in the long run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel

    2014-05-23

    This Review presents basic facts regarding the long-run evolution of income and wealth inequality in Europe and the United States. Income and wealth inequality was very high a century ago, particularly in Europe, but dropped dramatically in the first half of the 20th century. Income inequality has surged back in the United States since the 1970s so that the United States is much more unequal than Europe today. We discuss possible interpretations and lessons for the future.

  13. Running Servers around Zero Degrees

    OpenAIRE

    PervilÀ, Mikko; Kangasharju, Jussi

    2010-01-01

    Data centers are a major consumer of electricity and a significant fraction of their energy use is devoted to cooling the data center. Recent prototype deployments have investigated the possibility of using outside air for cooling and have shown large potential savings in energy consumption. In this paper, we push this idea to the extreme, by running servers outside in Finnish winter. Our results show that commercial, off-the-shelf computer equipment can tolerate extreme conditions such as ou...

  14. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  15. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  16. Better in the long run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Last week, the Chamonix workshop once again proved its worth as a place where all the stakeholders in the LHC can come together, take difficult decisions and reach a consensus on important issues for the future of particle physics. The most important decision we reached last week is to run the LHC for 18 to 24 months at a collision energy of 7 TeV (3.5 TeV per beam). After that, we’ll go into a long shutdown in which we’ll do all the necessary work to allow us to reach the LHC’s design collision energy of 14 TeV for the next run. This means that when beams go back into the LHC later this month, we’ll be entering the longest phase of accelerator operation in CERN’s history, scheduled to take us into summer or autumn 2011. What led us to this conclusion? Firstly, the LHC is unlike any previous CERN machine. Because it is a cryogenic facility, each run is accompanied by lengthy cool-down and warm-up phases. For that reason, CERN’s traditional &...

  17. LHC Report: Positive ion run!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The current LHC ion run has been progressing very well. The first fill with 358 bunches per beam - the maximum number for the year - was on Tuesday, 15 November and was followed by an extended period of steady running. The quality of the beam delivered by the heavy-ion injector chain has been excellent, and this is reflected in both the peak and the integrated luminosity.   The peak luminosity in ATLAS reached 5x1026 cm-2s-1, which is a factor of ~16 more than last year's peak of 3x1025 cm-2s-1. The integrated luminosity in each of ALICE, ATLAS and CMS is now around 100 inverse microbarn, already comfortably over the nominal target for the run. The polarity of the ALICE spectrometer and solenoid magnets was reversed on Monday, 28 November with the aim of delivering another sizeable amount of luminosity in this configuration. On the whole, the LHC has been behaving very well recently, ensuring good machine availability. On Monday evening, however, a faulty level sensor in the cooling towe...

  18. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  19. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  20. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  1. Animal house

    OpenAIRE

    Turka, Laurence A.

    2008-01-01

    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  2. Curriculum Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

  3. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  4. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...

  5. LHCb siliicon detectors: the Run 1 to Run 2 transition and first experience of Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Rinnert, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated experiment to study New Physics in the decays of heavy hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The detector includes a high precision tracking system consisting of a silicon-strip vertex detector (VELO) surrounding the pp interaction region, a large- area silicon-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet (TT), and three stations of silicon- strip detectors (IT) and straw drift tubes placed downstream (OT). The operational transition of the silicon detectors VELO, TT and IT from LHC Run 1 to Run 2 and first Run 2 experiences will be presented. During the long shutdown of the LHC the silicon detectors have been maintained in a safe state and operated regularly to validate changes in the control infrastructure, new operational procedures, updates to the alarm systems and monitoring software. In addition, there have been some infrastructure related challenges due to maintenance performed in the vicinity of the silicon detectors that will be discussed. The LHCb silicon dete...

  6. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  7. Barefoot running: does it prevent injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-01

    Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.

  8. 40 CFR 258.26 - Run-on/run-off control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Run-on/run-off control systems. 258.26... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.26 Run-on/run-off control systems. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must design, construct, and maintain: (1) A run-on control system...

  9. Fatigue associated with prolonged graded running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandolini, Marlene; Vernillo, Gianluca; Samozino, Pierre; Horvais, Nicolas; Edwards, W Brent; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2016-10-01

    Scientific experiments on running mainly consider level running. However, the magnitude and etiology of fatigue depend on the exercise under consideration, particularly the predominant type of contraction, which differs between level, uphill, and downhill running. The purpose of this review is to comprehensively summarize the neurophysiological and biomechanical changes due to fatigue in graded running. When comparing prolonged hilly running (i.e., a combination of uphill and downhill running) to level running, it is found that (1) the general shape of the neuromuscular fatigue-exercise duration curve as well as the etiology of fatigue in knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles are similar and (2) the biomechanical consequences are also relatively comparable, suggesting that duration rather than elevation changes affects neuromuscular function and running patterns. However, 'pure' uphill or downhill running has several fatigue-related intrinsic features compared with the level running. Downhill running induces severe lower limb tissue damage, indirectly evidenced by massive increases in plasma creatine kinase/myoglobin concentration or inflammatory markers. In addition, low-frequency fatigue (i.e., excitation-contraction coupling failure) is systematically observed after downhill running, although it has also been found in high-intensity uphill running for different reasons. Indeed, low-frequency fatigue in downhill running is attributed to mechanical stress at the interface sarcoplasmic reticulum/T-tubule, while the inorganic phosphate accumulation probably plays a central role in intense uphill running. Other fatigue-related specificities of graded running such as strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of downhill running on muscle function, the difference of energy cost versus heat storage or muscle activity changes in downhill, level, and uphill running are also discussed.

  10. Google Wave Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrate, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Catch Google Wave, the revolutionary Internet protocol and web service that lets you communicate and collaborate in realtime. With this book, you'll understand how Google Wave integrates email, instant messaging (IM), wiki, and social networking functionality into a powerful and extensible platform. You'll also learn how to use its features, customize its functions, and build sophisticated extensions with Google Wave's open APIs and network protocol. Written for everyone -- from non-techies to ninja coders -- Google Wave: Up and Running provides a complete tour of this complex platform. You'

  11. ATLAS Run II Exotics Results

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    While Standard Model is in a good shape especially after Higgs boson discovery, there are a lot of questions beyond SM. The ATLAS detector is performing about 50 Exotics searches addressed these questions. This talk is discussing some of them with datasets collected during the 2015-2016 LHC run from 3 fb^-1 to 18 fb^-1 of proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV centre of mass energy . Results on searches for resonances decaying into vector boson or fermions, for vector like quarks, for dark matter, and for other new phenomena using these data will be presented.

  12. HTML 5 up and running

    CERN Document Server

    Pilgrim, Mark

    2010-01-01

    If you don't know about the new features available in HTML5, now's the time to find out. This book provides practical information about how and why the latest version of this markup language will significantly change the way you develop for the Web. HTML5 is still evolving, yet browsers such as Safari, Mozilla, Opera, and Chrome already support many of its features -- and mobile browsers are even farther ahead. HTML5: Up & Running carefully guides you though the important changes in this version with lots of hands-on examples, including markup, graphics, and screenshots. You'll learn how to

  13. Variable Joint Elasticities in Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Stephan; Grimmer, Sten; Lipfert, Susanne W.; Seyfarth, Andre

    In this paper we investigate how spring-like leg behavior in human running is represented at joint level. We assume linear torsion springs in the joints and between the knee and the ankle joint. Using experimental data of the leg dynamics we compute how the spring parameters (stiffness and rest angles) change during gait cycle. We found that during contact the joints reveal elasticity with strongly changing parameters and compare the changes of different parameters for different spring arrangements. The results may help to design and improve biologically inspired spring mechanisms with adjustable parameters.

  14. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  15. Animal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gisela

    2014-11-01

    Animal communication is first and foremost about signal transmission and aims to understand how communication occurs. It is a field that has contributed to and been inspired by other fields, from information technology to neuroscience, in finding ever better methods to eavesdrop on the actual 'message' that forms the basis of communication. Much of this review deals with vocal communication as an example of the questions that research on communication has tried to answer and it provides an historical overview of the theoretical arguments proposed. Topics covered include signal transmission in different environments and different species, referential signaling, and intentionality. The contention is that animal communication may reveal significant thought processes that enable some individuals in a small number of species so far investigated to anticipate what conspecifics might do, although some researchers think of such behavior as adaptive or worth dismissing as anthropomorphizing. The review further points out that some species are more likely than others to develop more complex communication patterns. It is a matter of asking how animals categorize their world and which concepts require cognitive processes and which are adaptive. The review concludes with questions of life history, social learning, and decision making, all criteria that have remained relatively unexplored in communication research. Long-lived, cooperative social animals have so far offered especially exciting prospects for investigation. There are ample opportunities and now very advanced technologies as well to tap further into expressions of memory of signals, be they vocal or expressed in other modalities. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:661-677. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1321 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Macroinvertebrates of the Iranian running waters: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Sharifinia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A comprehensive review of macroinvertebrate studies conducted along the Iranian running waters over the last 15 years has been made by providing the most updated checklist of the Iranian running waters benthic invertebrates. Running waters ecosystems are complex environments known for their importance in terms of biodiversity. As part of the analysis, we endeavored to provide the critical re-identification of the reported species by through comparisons with the database of the Animal Diversity Web (ADW and appropriate literature sources or expert knowledge. A total of 126 species belonging to 4 phyla have been compiled from 57 references. The phylum Arthropoda was found to comprise the most taxa (n = 104 followed by Mollusca, Annelida and Platyhelminthes. Ongoing efforts in the Iranian running waters regarding biomonitoring indices development, testing, refinement and validation are yet to be employed in streams and rivers. Overall, we suggest that future macroinvertebrate studies in Iranian running waters should be focused on long-term changes by broadening target species and strong efforts to publish data in peer-reviewed journals in English.

  17. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  18. Animation 7 TeV pp collisions from ALICE- 30 March 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    ALICE Outreach

    2010-01-01

    Run 114783. To show what happens during a proton proton collision. Animation from 7 TeV proton proton collisions in the ALICE experiment. Collisions recorded on the first day of the 7 TeV run, 30 March 2010.

  19. Mechanical power output during running accelerations in wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas J; Scales, Jeffrey A

    2002-05-01

    suggest that elastic energy storage and recovery may redistribute muscle power during acceleration. Elastic mechanisms may expand the functional range of muscle contractile elements in running animals by allowing muscles to vary their mechanical function from force-producing struts during steady-speed running to power-producing motors during acceleration.

  20. Leg-adjustment strategies for stable running in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuker, Frank; Maufroy, Christophe; Seyfarth, André

    2012-09-01

    The dynamics of the center of mass (CoM) in the sagittal plane in humans and animals during running is well described by the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP). With appropriate parameters, SLIP running patterns are stable, and these models can recover from perturbations without the need for corrective strategies, such as the application of additional forces. Rather, it is sufficient to adjust the leg to a fixed angle relative to the ground. In this work, we consider the extension of the SLIP to three dimensions (3D SLIP) and investigate feed-forward strategies for leg adjustment during the flight phase. As in the SLIP model, the leg is placed at a fixed angle. We extend the scope of possible reference axes from only fixed horizontal and vertical axes to include the CoM velocity vector as a movement-related reference, resulting in six leg-adjustment strategies. Only leg-adjustment strategies that include the CoM velocity vector produced stable running and large parameter domains of stability. The ability of the model to recover from perturbations along the direction of motion (directional stability) depended on the strategy for lateral leg adjustment. Specifically, asymptotic and neutral directional stability was observed for strategies based on the global reference axis and the velocity vector, respectively. Additional features of velocity-based leg adjustment are running at arbitrary low speed (kinetic energy) and the emergence of large domains of stable 3D running that are smoothly transferred to 2D SLIP stability and even to 1D SLIP hopping. One of the additional leg-adjustment strategies represented a large convex region of parameters where stable and robust hopping and running patterns exist. Therefore, this strategy is a promising candidate for implementation into engineering applications, such as robots, for instance. In a preliminary comparison, the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the 3D SLIP is an

  1. Run-up on Offshore Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vos, Leen; Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter

    For the present report a testprogramme has been performed to determine the run-up on offshore windturbine foundations.......For the present report a testprogramme has been performed to determine the run-up on offshore windturbine foundations....

  2. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  3. Is Running Bad for Your Knees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162903.html Is Running Bad for Your Knees? Study suggests it may ... THURSDAY, Jan. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Everybody believes running can leave you sore and swollen, right? Well, ...

  4. Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  5. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... the possibilities of re-appropriating digital software, game engines, and other tools available in digital media. The machinima film scenes demonstrate how war-related stories resemiotize, such as how meaning-making transforms from a story in a war game context to a film context. Thereby, machinima exemplifies how...

  6. Robotic Bipedal Running: Increasing disturbance rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssen, J.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to increase the understanding of the human running gait. The understanding of the human running gait is essential for the development of devices, such as prostheses and orthoses, that enable disabled people to run or that enable able people to inc

  7. Wave Run-Up on Rubble Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van de Walle, Bjorn; De Rouck, Julien; Troch, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Seven sets of data for wave run-up on a rubble mound breakwater were combined and re-analysed, with full-scale, large-scale and small-scale model test results being taken into account. The dimensionless wave run-up value Ru-2%/Hm0 was considered, where R u-2% is the wave run-up height exceeded by...

  8. Head injury from a bungee run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj; Convery, Fiona; Watt, Michael; Fulton, Ailsa; McKinstry, Steven; Flannery, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    An adaptation of bungee jumping, 'bungee running', involves participants attempting to run as far as they can whilst connected to an elastic rope which is anchored to a fixed point. Usually considered a safe recreational activity, we report a potentially life-threatening head injury following a bungee running accident.

  9. Running Patterns of Highly Skilled Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunetts, Michael J.; Dillman, Charles J.

    The biomechanical elements inherent in the running styles of Olympic-level athletes were examined in order to obtain a range of parameter values for specific running velocities. Forty-eight athletes participated in middle and long distance running events that were filmed and later analyzed to determine the relationship between the physical…

  10. Barefoot running survey: Evidence from the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hryvniak

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Prior studies have found that barefoot running often changes biomechanics compared to shod running with a hypothesized relationship of decreased injuries. This paper reports the result of a survey of 509 runners. The results suggest that a large percentage of this sample of runners experienced benefits or no serious harm from transitioning to barefoot or minimal shoe running.

  11. Running with technology: Where are we heading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Mueller, Florian 'Floyd'

    2014-01-01

    Running has become popular in recent years, and numerous runners utilize wearable technologies in order to improve their run training. This paper investigates the development and trends in technologies used for run training, and describes how these are changing from solely focusing...

  12. Animal papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-10-01

    We provide an overview of the host range, taxonomic classification and genomic diversity of animal papillomaviruses. The complete genomes of 112 non-human papillomavirus types, recovered from 54 different host species, are currently available in GenBank. The recent characterizations of reptilian papillomaviruses extend the host range of the Papillomaviridae to include all amniotes. Although the genetically diverse papillomaviruses have a highly conserved genomic lay-out, deviations from this prototypic genome organization are observed in several animal papillomaviruses, and only the core ORFs E1, E2, L2 and L1 are present in all characterized papillomavirus genomes. The discovery of papilloma-polyoma hybrids BPCV1 and BPCV2, containing a papillomaviral late region but an early region encoding typical polyomaviral nonstructural proteins, and the detection of recombination breakpoints between the early and late coding regions of cetacean papillomaviruses, could indicate that early and late gene cassettes of papillomaviruses are relatively independent entities that can be interchanged by recombination. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomechanics and analysis of running gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Sheila A; Bhat, Krishna P

    2005-08-01

    Physical activity, including running, is important to general health by way of prevention of chronic illnesses and their precursors. To keep runners healthy, it is paramount that one has sound knowledge of the biomechanics of running and assessment of running gait. More so, improving performance in competitive runners is based in sound training and rehabilitation practices that are rooted firmly in biomechanical principles. This article summarized the biomechanics of running and the means with which one can evaluate running gait. The gait assessment techniques for collecting and analyzing kinetic and kinematic data can provide insights into injury prevention and treatment and performance enhancement.

  14. Are multiple runs better than one?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu-Paz, E

    2001-01-04

    This paper investigates whether it is better to use a certain constant amount of computational resources in a single run with a large population, or in multiple runs with smaller populations. The paper presents the primary tradeoffs involved in this problem and identifies the conditions under which there is an advantage to use multiple small runs. The paper uses an existing model that relates the quality of the solutions reached by a GA with its population size. The results suggest that in most cases a single run with the largest population possible reaches a better solution than multiple isolated runs. The findings are validated with experiments on functions of varying difficulty.

  15. Self-Stabilising Quadrupedal Running by Mechanical Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Chatzakos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic stability allows running animals to maintain preferred speed during locomotion over rough terrain. It appears that rapid disturbance rejection is an emergent property of the mechanical system. In running robots, simple motor control seems to be effective in the negotiation of rough terrain when used in concert with a mechanical system that stabilises passively. Spring-like legs are a means for providing self-stabilising characteristics against external perturbations. In this paper, we show that a quadruped robot could be able to perform self-stable running behaviour in significantly broader ranges of forward speed and pitch rate with a suitable mechanical design, which is not limited to choosing legs spring stiffness only. The results presented here are derived by studying the stability of the passive dynamics of a quadruped robot running in the sagittal plane in a dimensionless context and might explain the success of simple, open loop running controllers on existing experimental quadruped robots. These can be summarised in (a the self-stabilised behaviour of a quadruped robot for a particular gait is greatly related to the magnitude of its dimensionless body inertia, (b the values of hip separation, normalised to rest leg length, and leg relative stiffness of a quadruped robot affect the stability of its motion and should be in inverse proportion to its dimensionless body inertia, and (c the self-stable regime of quadruped running robots is enlarged at relatively high forward speeds. We anticipate the proposed guidelines to assist in the design of new, and modifications of existing, quadruped robots. As an example, specific design changes for the Scout II quadruped robot that might improve its performance are proposed.

  16. Public perceptions of animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Vincentsen, Ulla; Andersen, Ida-Elisabeth

    What was from the outset meant to be a survey testing predefined categories of ethical positions related to new biotechnologies with animal cloning as an example was subsequently developed into a process of broader involvement of groups of citizens in the issue. The survey was conducted at meetings...... in four different cities in Denmark. The participants were introduced to animal cloning and after that they filled out the questionnaire. Finally, the issue was discussed in focus groups. The process as a whole was run in a dialogue oriented way. Through the information they received in combination...... with reflecting on the survey questions the participants were well prepared for discussions in the focus groups. This approach made it possible, on the one hand to get a measure of the citizen's perceptions of the ethical aspects of animal cloning, but also to go deeper into their own thoughts of the issue...

  17. What we can learn about running from barefoot running: an evolutionary medical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E

    2012-04-01

    Barefoot running, which was how people ran for millions of years, provides an opportunity to study how natural selection adapted the human body to run. Because humans evolved to run barefoot, a barefoot running style that minimizes impact peaks and provides increased proprioception and foot strength, is hypothesized to help avoid injury, regardless of whether one is wearing shoes.

  18. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  19. A Globally Convergent Algorithm for the Run-to-Run Control of Systems with Sector Nonlinearities

    OpenAIRE

    François, Grégory; Srinivasan, Balasubrahmanya; Bonvin, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Run-to-run control is a technique that exploits the repetitive nature of processes to iteratively adjust the inputs and drive the run-end outputs to their reference values. It can be used to control both static and finite-time dynamic systems. Although the run-end outputs of dynamic systems result from the integration of process dynamics during the run, the relationship between the input parameters p (fixed at the beginning of the run) and the run-end outputs z (available at the end of t...

  20. Daytime Running Lights. Public Consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    The Road Safety Authority is considering the policy options available to promote the use of Daytime Running Lights (DRL), including the possibility of mandating the use of DRL on all vehicles. An EC Directive would make DRL mandatory for new vehicles from 2011 onwards and by 2024 it is predicted that due to the natural replacement of the national fleet, almost all vehicles would be equipped with DRL. The RSA is inviting views on introducing DRL measures earlier, whereby all road vehicles would be required to use either dipped head lights during hours of daylight or dedicated DRL from next year onwards. The use of DRL has been found to enhance the visibility of vehicles, thereby increasing road safety by reducing the number and severity of collisions. This paper explores the benefits of DRL and the implications for all road users including pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists. In order to ensure a comprehensive consideration of all the issues, the Road Safety Authority is seeking the views and advice of interested parties.

  1. Running Club - Nocturne des Evaux

    CERN Multimedia

    Running club

    2017-01-01

    Les coureurs du CERN sont encore montés sur les plus hautes marches du podium lors de la course interentreprises. Cette course d’équipe qui se déroule de nuit et par équipe de 3 à 4 coureurs est unique dans la région de par son originalité : départ groupé toutes les 30 secondes, les 3 premiers coureurs doivent passer la ligne d’arrivée ensemble. Double victoire pour le running club a la nocturne !!!! 1ère place pour les filles et 22e au classement général; 1ère place pour l'équipe mixte et 4e au général, battant par la même occasion le record de l'épreuve en mixte d'environ 1 minute; 10e place pour l'équipe homme. Retrouvez tous les résultats sur http://www.chp-geneve.ch/web-cms/index.php/nocturne-des-evaux

  2. A Paradigm of Uphill Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, Johnny; Powell, Douglas; Milia, Raffaele; Ardigò, Luca Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The biomechanical management of bioenergetics of runners when running uphill was investigated. Several metabolic and mechanical variables have been studied simultaneously to spread light on the locomotory strategy operated by humans for effective locomotion. The studied variables were: heart rate, heart rate variability, oxygen intake and blood lactate, metabolic cost, kinematics, ground reaction force and muscular activity. 18 high-level competitive male runners ran at 70% VO2max on different uphill slope conditions: 0%, 2% and 7%. Modifications were significant in almost all variables studied, and were more pronounced with increasing incline. Step frequency/length and ground reaction force are adjusted to cope with both the task of uphill progression and the available (limited) metabolic power. From 0% to 7% slope, step frequency and ground reaction force and metabolic cost increased concurrently by 4%, 12% and 53%, respectively (with a 4% step length decrease as well). It is hypothesised that this biomechanical management is allowed by an environment-body communication performed by means of specific muscular activity. PMID:23874850

  3. LHCf completes its first run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    LHCf, one of the three smaller experiments at the LHC, has completed its first run. The detectors were removed last week and the analysis of data is continuing. The first results will be ready by the end of the year.   One of the two LHCf detectors during the removal operations inside the LHC tunnel. LHCf is made up of two independent detectors located in the tunnel 140 m either side of the ATLAS collision point. The experiment studies the secondary particles created during the head-on collisions in the LHC because they are similar to those created in a cosmic ray shower produced when a cosmic particle hits the Earth’s atmosphere. The focus of the experiment is to compare the various shower models used to estimate the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The energy of proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be equivalent to a cosmic ray of 1017eV hitting the atmosphere, very close to the highest energies observed in the sky. “We have now completed the fir...

  4. Diphoton Excess and Running Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Moroi, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    The recently observed diphoton excess at the LHC may suggest the existence of a singlet (pseudo-) scalar particle with a mass of 750 GeV which couples to gluons and photons. Assuming that the couplings to gluons and photons originate from loops of fermions and/or scalars charged under the Standard Model gauge groups, we show that here is a model-independent upper bound on the cross section $\\sigma(pp\\to S\\to \\gamma\\gamma)$ as a function of the cutoff scale $\\Lambda$ and masses of the fermions and scalars in the loop. Such a bound comes from the fact that the contribution of each particle to the diphoton event amplitude is proportional to its contribution to the one-loop $\\beta$ functions of the gauge couplings. We also investigate the perturbativity of running Yukawa couplings in models with fermion loops, and show the upper bounds on $\\sigma(pp\\to S\\to \\gamma\\gamma)$ for explicit models.

  5. Animating Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  6. Impact Accelerations of Barefoot and Shod Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M; Seegmiller, J; McGowan, C P

    2016-05-01

    During the ground contact phase of running, the body's mass is rapidly decelerated resulting in forces that propagate through the musculoskeletal system. The repetitive attenuation of these impact forces is thought to contribute to overuse injuries. Modern running shoes are designed to reduce impact forces, with the goal to minimize running related overuse injuries. Additionally, the fore/mid foot strike pattern that is adopted by most individuals when running barefoot may reduce impact force transmission. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the barefoot running form (fore/mid foot strike & decreased stride length) and running shoes on running kinetics and impact accelerations. 10 healthy, physically active, heel strike runners ran in 3 conditions: shod, barefoot and barefoot while heel striking, during which 3-dimensional motion analysis, ground reaction force and accelerometer data were collected. Shod running was associated with increased ground reaction force and impact peak magnitudes, but decreased impact accelerations, suggesting that the midsole of running shoes helps to attenuate impact forces. Barefoot running exhibited a similar decrease in impact accelerations, as well as decreased impact peak magnitude, which appears to be due to a decrease in stride length and/or a more plantarflexed position at ground contact.

  7. Determinants Of Savings Behavior In Pakistan: Long Run - Short Run Association And Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Fawad

    2015-01-01

    The existing studies on private savings have mostly investigated the long run and short association of different variables with private savings, whereas no known study has investigated both long run and short run causality of variables against private savings by using data of Pakistan. The current study used time series data of Pakistan over the period of 1972 to 2012 and employed long run cointegration test, first normalized equation for long run association, vector error correction model fo...

  8. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  9. Leg stiffness and stride frequency in human running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, C T; González, O

    1996-02-01

    When humans and other mammals run, the body's complex system of muscle, tendon and ligament springs behaves like a single linear spring ('leg spring'). A simple spring-mass model, consisting of a single linear leg spring and a mass equivalent to the animal's mass, has been shown to describe the mechanics of running remarkably well. Force platform measurements from running animals, including humans, have shown that the stiffness of the leg spring remains nearly the same at all speeds and that the spring-mass system is adjusted for higher speeds by increasing the angle swept by the leg spring. The goal of the present study is to determine the relative importance of changes to the leg spring stiffness and the angle swept by the leg spring when humans alter their stride frequency at a given running speed. Human subjects ran on treadmill-mounted force platform at 2.5ms-1 while using a range of stride frequencies from 26% below to 36% above the preferred stride frequency. Force platform measurements revealed that the stiffness of the leg spring increased by 2.3-fold from 7.0 to 16.3 kNm-1 between the lowest and highest stride frequencies. The angle swept by the leg spring decreased at higher stride frequencies, partially offsetting the effect of the increased leg spring stiffness on the mechanical behavior of the spring-mass system. We conclude that the most important adjustment to the body's spring system to accommodate higher stride frequencies is that leg spring becomes stiffer.

  10. Effects of voluntary wheel running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Kojima; Mitsutoshi Kurosaka; Yuji Ogura; Hisashi Naito; Shizuo Katamoto; Katsumasa Goto

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running on satellite cells in the rat plantaris muscle. Seventeen 5-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to a control (n = 5) or training (n = 12) group. Each rat in the training group ran voluntarily in a running-wheel cage for 8 weeks. After the training period, the animals were anesthetized, and the plantaris muscles were removed, weighed, and analyzed immunohistochemically and biochemically. Although there were no significant diffe...

  11. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  12. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conserva

  13. CB1 receptor deficiency decreases wheel-running activity: consequences on emotional behaviours and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreucq, Sarah; Koehl, Muriel; Abrous, Djoher N; Marsicano, Giovanni; Chaouloff, Francis

    2010-07-01

    Chronic voluntary wheel-running activity has been reported to hypersensitise central CB1 receptors in mice. On the other hand, pharmacological findings suggest that the CB1 receptor could be involved in wheel-running behaviour and in running-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. We analysed wheel-running behaviour for 6 weeks and measured its consequences on hippocampal neurogenesis in CB1 knockout (CB1(-/-)) animals, compared to wild-type (CB1(+/+)) littermates. Because wheel running has been shown to affect locomotor reactivity in novel environments, memory for aversive events and depression-like behaviours, we also assessed these behaviours in control and running CB1(+/+) and CB1(-/-) mice. When compared with running CB1(+/+) mice, the distance covered weekly by CB1(-/-) mice was decreased by 30-40%, an observation accounted for by decreased time spent and maximal velocity on the wheels. Analyses of running distances with respect to the light/dark cycle revealed that mutant covered less distance throughout both the inactive and the active phases of that cycle. Locomotion in an activity cage, exploration in an open field, and immobility time in the forced swim test proved insensitive to chronic wheel running in either genotype. Wheel running, per se, did not influence the expression and extinction of cued fear memory but counteracted in a time-dependent manner the deficiency of extinction measured in CB1(-/-) mice. Hippocampal neurogenesis, assessed by doublecortin labelling of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus, was lowered by 40% in control CB1(-/-) mice, compared to control CB1(+/+) mice. Although CB1(-/-) mice ran less than their wild-type littermates, the 6-week running protocol increased neurogenesis to similar extents (37-39%) in both genotypes. This study suggests that mouse CB1 receptors control wheel running but not its neurogenic consequences in the hippocampus.

  14. The Effect of Training in Minimalist Running Shoes on Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Sarah T; Standifird, Tyler; Rivera, Jessica; Johnson, A Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike; Hunter, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of minimalist running shoes on oxygen uptake during running before and after a 10-week transition from traditional to minimalist running shoes. Twenty-five recreational runners (no previous experience in minimalist running shoes) participated in submaximal VO2 testing at a self-selected pace while wearing traditional and minimalist running shoes. Ten of the 25 runners gradually transitioned to minimalist running shoes over 10 weeks (experimental group), while the other 15 maintained their typical training regimen (control group). All participants repeated submaximal VO2 testing at the end of 10 weeks. Testing included a 3 minute warm-up, 3 minutes of running in the first pair of shoes, and 3 minutes of running in the second pair of shoes. Shoe order was randomized. Average oxygen uptake was calculated during the last minute of running in each condition. The average change from pre- to post-training for the control group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 3.1 ± 15.2% and 2.8 ± 16.2%, respectively. The average change from pre- to post-training for the experimental group during testing in traditional and minimalist shoes was an improvement of 8.4 ± 7.2% and 10.4 ± 6.9%, respectively. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA. There were no significant interaction effects, but the overall improvement in running economy across time (6.15%) was significant (p = 0.015). Running in minimalist running shoes improves running economy in experienced, traditionally shod runners, but not significantly more than when running in traditional running shoes. Improvement in running economy in both groups, regardless of shoe type, may have been due to compliance with training over the 10-week study period and/or familiarity with testing procedures. Key pointsRunning in minimalist footwear did not result in a change in running economy compared to running in traditional footwear

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  17. EnergyPlus Run Time Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip

    2008-09-20

    EnergyPlus is a new generation building performance simulation program offering many new modeling capabilities and more accurate performance calculations integrating building components in sub-hourly time steps. However, EnergyPlus runs much slower than the current generation simulation programs. This has become a major barrier to its widespread adoption by the industry. This paper analyzed EnergyPlus run time from comprehensive perspectives to identify key issues and challenges of speeding up EnergyPlus: studying the historical trends of EnergyPlus run time based on the advancement of computers and code improvements to EnergyPlus, comparing EnergyPlus with DOE-2 to understand and quantify the run time differences, identifying key simulation settings and model features that have significant impacts on run time, and performing code profiling to identify which EnergyPlus subroutines consume the most amount of run time. This paper provides recommendations to improve EnergyPlus run time from the modeler?s perspective and adequate computing platforms. Suggestions of software code and architecture changes to improve EnergyPlus run time based on the code profiling results are also discussed.

  18. Training errors and running related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries.......The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries....

  19. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  20. Training errors and running related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries.......The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries....

  1. Impact of Running Away on Girls' Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Lisa E.; Chen, Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of running away on pregnancy in the subsequent year among U.S. adolescents. We also investigated interactions between running away and sexual assault, romance, and school disengagement. Pregnancy among females between 11 and 17 years (n = 6100) was examined utilizing the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add…

  2. Running biomechanics: shorter heels, better economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, M N; Bobbert, M F; van Soest, A J; Clark, J R; van Heerden, J

    2008-10-01

    Better running economy (i.e. a lower rate of energy consumption at a given speed) is correlated with superior distance running performance. There is substantial variation in running economy, even among elite runners. This variation might be due to variation in the storage and reutilization of elastic energy in tendons. Using a simple musculoskeletal model, it was predicted that the amount of energy stored in a tendon during a given movement depends more critically on moment arm than on mechanical properties of the tendon, with the amount of stored energy increasing as the moment arm gets smaller. Assuming a link between elastic energy reutilization and overall metabolic cost of running, a smaller moment arm should therefore be associated with superior running economy. This prediction was confirmed experimentally in a group of 15 highly trained runners. The moment arm of the Achilles tendon was determined from standardized photographs of the ankle, using the position of anatomical landmarks. Running economy was measured as the rate of metabolic energy consumption during level treadmill running at a speed of 16 km h(-1). A strong correlation was found between the moment arm of the Achilles tendon and running economy. Smaller muscle moment arms correlated with lower rates of metabolic energy consumption (r(2)=0.75, P<0.001).

  3. Biomechanics of Distance Running: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Richard C.; Gregor, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    Training for distance running over a long period produces meaningful changes in the running mechanics of experienced runners, as revealed in this longitudinal study of the biomechanical components of stride length, stride rate, stride time, and support and nonsupport time. (MB)

  4. 40 CFR 92.126 - Test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test run. 92.126 Section 92.126... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.126 Test run. (a) The following steps... water from the pretest value, the test is void. (7)(i) For bag samples, as soon as possible transfer...

  5. Teaching Bank Runs with Classroom Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenborg, Dieter; Kaplan, Todd; Miller, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Once relegated to cinema or history lectures, bank runs have become a modern phenomenon that captures the interest of students. In this article, the authors explain a simple classroom experiment based on the Diamond-Dybvig model (1983) to demonstrate how a bank run--a seemingly irrational event--can occur rationally. They then present possible…

  6. T-shirts from "Run for 32"

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Two views of t-shirts with "Run for 32" written on them The "Run for 32" race team, sponsored by TechSideline.com, participated in the SunTrust Rock 'n' Roll Half-Marathon, September 2, 2007. Shirt is inscribed with the names of the victims.; Compound Object

  7. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  8. Orthopaedic Perspective on Barefoot and Minimalist Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jonathan; Neumann, Julie; Tao, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a movement toward barefoot and minimalist running. Advocates assert that a lack of cushion and support promotes a forefoot or midfoot strike rather than a rearfoot strike, decreasing the impact transient and stress on the hip and knee. Although the change in gait is theorized to decrease injury risk, this concept has not yet been fully elucidated. However, research has shown diminished symptoms of chronic exertional compartment syndrome and anterior knee pain after a transition to minimalist running. Skeptics are concerned that, because of the effects of the natural environment and the lack of a standardized transition program, barefoot running could lead to additional, unforeseen injuries. Studies have shown that, with the transition to minimalist running, there is increased stress on the foot and ankle and risk of repetitive stress injuries. Nonetheless, despite the large gap of evidence-based knowledge on minimalist running, the potential benefits warrant further research and consideration.

  9. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T

    2013-01-01

    for eight subjects, respectively, were excluded from analysis because of insufficient signal quality. Running increased mean arterial pressure and mean MCA velocity and induced rhythmic oscillations in BP and in MCA velocity corresponding to the difference between step rate and heart rate (HR) frequencies......) blood flow velocity, photoplethysmographic finger BP, and step frequency were measured continuously during three consecutive 5-min intervals of treadmill running at increasing running intensities. Data were analysed in the time and frequency domains. BP data for seven subjects and MCA velocity data....... During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow...

  10. Physiology, propaganda, and pound animals: medical research and animal welfare in mid-twentieth century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, John

    2007-07-01

    In 1952, the University of Michigan physiologist Robert Gesell shocked his colleagues at the business meeting of the American Physiological Society by reading a prepared statement in which he claimed that some of the animal experimentation being carried out by scientists was inhumane. He especially attacked the National Society for Medical Research (NSMR), an organization that had been founded to defend animal experimentation. This incident was part of a broader struggle taking place at the time between scientists and animal welfare advocates with respect to what restrictions, if any, should be placed on animal research. A particularly controversial issue was whether or not pound animals should be made available to laboratories for research. Two of the prominent players in this controversy were the NSMR and the Animal Welfare Institute, founded and run by Gesell's daughter, Christine Stevens. This article focuses on the interaction between these two organizations within the broader context of the debate over animal experimentation in the mid-twentieth century.

  11. Hispar Glacier on the run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Frank; Strozzi, Tazio; Schellenberger, Thomas; Kääb, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Karakoram Mountain Range is well known for its numerous surge-type and recently or currently surging glaciers. Latest analysis of time-series from satellite data has revealed several new insights in the related variability of glacier extents, flow velocities and elevation changes. As surge-type glaciers have their own dynamic playbook and show a very limited direct response to climatic forcing, it is important to correctly identify them when glacier changes are interpreted in climatic terms. One of the glaciers known to be influenced by surges from tributary glaciers but not surging itself is the 50 km long, debris-covered and comparably flat Hispar Glacier in the Hunza catchment (Pakistan). Its terminus is at the same location for more than 120 years and no signs of unusual activity were reported before. However, in late autumn of 2014 the entire middle section of the glacier started to increase its flow velocity from about 40 to 4000 m/yr by May 2015. The surge continued until spring 2016 with flow velocities around 1500-2000 m/yr and a sudden drop back to pre-surge levels in summer 2016. Thereby, a well-defined surge front advanced by about 3 km from May to July 2015 and a further 3 km afterwards. Animated time-series from archived Landsat images (OLI and ETM+) clearly show the mass wave traveling down-glacier over this period. The temporal variability of flow velocities has been captured with Sentinel 1 data acquired every 11 to 22 days starting from February 2015 and previous image pairs from Radarsat-2, ALOS PALSAR and Landsat 8. Results suggest that changes of the hydrologic regime are responsible for the observed seasonal variability. A further analysis of historic Corona reconissance satellite imagery from 1965 and 1969 revealed that the 2015/16 surge of Hispar Glacier seems not to be unprecedented, but should have occured in a similar way around 1960 and maybe several times before as numerous elongated surge marks indicate. They might have been

  12. Rocker shoe, minimalist shoe, and standard running shoe : A comparison of running economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, Sobhan; Bredeweg, Steven; Dekker, Rienk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Hijmans, Juha; Postema, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Running with rocker shoes is believed to prevent lower limb injuries. However, it is not clear how running in these shoes affects the energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to assess the effects of rocker shoes on running economy in comparison with standard and min

  13. A Runs-Test Algorithm: Contingent Reinforcement and Response Run Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiga, Yosuke; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    Four rats' choices between two levers were differentially reinforced using a runs-test algorithm. On each trial, a runs-test score was calculated based on the last 20 choices. In Experiment 1, the onset of stimulus lights cued when the runs score was smaller than criterion. Following cuing, the correct choice was occasionally reinforced with food,…

  14. Rocker shoe, minimalist shoe, and standard running shoe : A comparison of running economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobhani, Sobhan; Bredeweg, Steven; Dekker, Rienk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Hijmans, Juha; Postema, Klaas

    Objectives: Running with rocker shoes is believed to prevent lower limb injuries. However, it is not clear how running in these shoes affects the energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to assess the effects of rocker shoes on running economy in comparison with standard and

  15. Running Economy from a Muscle Energetics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R. Fletcher

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (Erun can be obtained with this approach. Erun is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of Erun from that perspective. The amount of energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction is dependent on the force, duration, shortening, shortening velocity, and length of the muscle. These factors therefore dictate the energy cost of running. It is understood that some determinants of the energy cost of running are not trainable: environmental factors, surface characteristics, and certain anthropometric features. Other factors affecting Erun are altered by training: other anthropometric features, muscle and tendon properties, and running mechanics. Here, the key features that dictate the energy cost during distance running are reviewed in the context of skeletal muscle energetics.

  16. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngeraa, T S; Pedersen, L M; Mantoni, T; Belhage, B; Rasmussen, L S; van Lieshout, J J; Pott, F C

    2013-02-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity, photoplethysmographic finger BP, and step frequency were measured continuously during three consecutive 5-min intervals of treadmill running at increasing running intensities. Data were analysed in the time and frequency domains. BP data for seven subjects and MCA velocity data for eight subjects, respectively, were excluded from analysis because of insufficient signal quality. Running increased mean arterial pressure and mean MCA velocity and induced rhythmic oscillations in BP and in MCA velocity corresponding to the difference between step rate and heart rate (HR) frequencies. During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow but also challenges cerebral autoregulation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Limited transfer of newly acquired movement patterns across walking and running in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ogawa

    Full Text Available The two major modes of locomotion in humans, walking and running, may be regarded as a function of different speed (walking as slower and running as faster. Recent results using motor learning tasks in humans, as well as more direct evidence from animal models, advocate for independence in the neural control mechanisms underlying different locomotion tasks. In the current study, we investigated the possible independence of the neural mechanisms underlying human walking and running. Subjects were tested on a split-belt treadmill and adapted to walking or running on an asymmetrically driven treadmill surface. Despite the acquisition of asymmetrical movement patterns in the respective modes, the emergence of asymmetrical movement patterns in the subsequent trials was evident only within the same modes (walking after learning to walk and running after learning to run and only partial in the opposite modes (walking after learning to run and running after learning to walk (thus transferred only limitedly across the modes. Further, the storage of the acquired movement pattern in each mode was maintained independently of the opposite mode. Combined, these results provide indirect evidence for independence in the neural control mechanisms underlying the two locomotive modes.

  18. The physiology of deep-water running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas; Dowzer, Clare N; Cable, N T

    2003-12-01

    Deep-water running is performed in the deep end of a swimming pool, normally with the aid of a flotation vest. The method is used for purposes of preventing injury and promoting recovery from strenuous exercise and as a form of supplementary training for cardiovascular fitness. Both stroke volume and cardiac output increase during water immersion: an increase in blood volume largely offsets the cardiac decelerating reflex at rest. At submaximal exercise intensities, blood lactate responses to exercise during deep-water running are elevated in comparison to treadmill running at a given oxygen uptake (VO2). While VO2, minute ventilation and heart rate are decreased under maximal exercise conditions in the water, deep-water running nevertheless can be justified as providing an adequate stimulus for cardiovascular training. Responses to training programmes have confirmed the efficacy of deep-water running, although positive responses are most evident when measured in a water-based test. Aerobic performance is maintained with deep-water running for up to 6 weeks in trained endurance athletes; sedentary individuals benefit more than athletes in improving maximal oxygen uptake. There is some limited evidence of improvement in anaerobic measures and in upper body strength in individuals engaging in deep-water running. A reduction in spinal loading constitutes a role for deep-water running in the prevention of injury, while an alleviation of muscle soreness confirms its value in recovery training. Further research into the applications of deep-water running to exercise therapy and athletes' training is recommended.

  19. Implications of a Running Dark Photon Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Davoudiasl, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    For an "invisible" dark photon $Z_d$ that dominantly decays into dark states, the running of its fine structure constant $\\alpha_d$ with momentum transfer $q > m_{Z_d}$ could be significant. A similar running in the kinetic mixing parameter $\\varepsilon^2$ can be induced through its dependence on $\\alpha_d(q)$. The running of couplings could potentially be detected in "dark matter beam" experiments, for which theoretical considerations imply $\\alpha_d (m_{Z_d}) \\lesssim 0.5$.

  20. Gravitational Baryogenesis in Running Vacuum models

    CERN Document Server

    Oikonomou, V K; Nunes, Rafael C

    2016-01-01

    We study the gravitational baryogenesis mechanism for generating baryon asymmetry in the context of running vacuum models. Regardless if these models can produce a viable cosmological evolution, we demonstrate that they produce a non-zero baryon-to-entropy ratio even if the Universe is filled with conformal matter. This is a sound difference between the running vacuum gravitational baryogenesis and the Einstein-Hilbert one, since in the latter case, the predicted baryon-to-entropy ratio is zero. We consider two running vacuum models and show that the resulting baryon-to-entropy ratio is compatible with the observational data.

  1. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  2. ALFA detector upgrade before LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobel, Vit; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The operation experience with ATLAS ALFA detectors in the LHC environment during the Run1 period has shown significant beam-induced heating. Subsequent comprehensive studies revealed that heating effects could be disastrous in the case of the larger beam intensities foreseen for higher luminosities in the LHC Run2. During the first LHC long shutdown (LS1) all ALFA detectors have been removed from the LHC tunnel and their covers - Roman Pots - underwent a geometry upgrade to minimize the impedance losses. It will be shown that this modification together with a system improving the internal heat transfer and an air cooling system, significantly shifted the temperatures of ALFA detectors away from the critical limits throughout the LHC Run2. Also ALFA trigger system was considerably upgraded to keep measured data safely inside the Run2 ATLAS latency budget and to minimize dead time. The needed hardware changes of the trigger system will be presented in the second part of the talk.

  3. Common running musculoskeletal injuries among recreational half ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected from runners (N=200) who officially ran half-marathon road ... Department of Sport Science, School of Physiotherapy, Sport Science and ..... Van Mechelen W. Running injuries: A review of the epidemiological literature.

  4. Run 16, eIPM Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dawson, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jao, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Three problems with the eIPMs were corrected during the 2015 summer shutdown. These involved ac coupling and 'negative profiles', detector 'dead zone' created by biasing, and gain control on ramp. With respect to Run 16, problems dealt with included gain depletion on horizontal MCP and rf pickup on profile signals; it was found that the MCP was severely damaged over part of the aperture. Various corrective measures were applied. Some results of these measured obtained during Run 16 are shown. At the end of Run 16 there was a three-­day beam run to study polarized proton beams in the AGS. Attempts to minimize beam injection errors which increase emittance by using the eIPMs to measure the contribution of injection mismatch to the AGS output beam emittance are recounted. .

  5. ALFA detector before LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobel, Vit; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The operation experience with ATLAS ALFA detectors in the LHC environment during the Run1 period has shown significant beam-induced heating. Subsequent comprehensive studies revealed that heating effects could be disastrous in the case of the larger beam intensities foreseen for higher luminosities in the LHC Run2. During the first LHC long shutdown (LS1) all ALFA detectors have been removed from the LHC tunnel and their covers - Roman Pots - underwent a geometry upgrade to minimize the impedance losses. It will be shown that this modification together with a system improving the internal heat transfer and an air cooling system, significantly shifted the temperatures of ALFA detectors away from the critical limits throughout the LHC Run2. Also ALFA trigger system was considerably upgraded to keep measured data safely inside the Run2 ATLAS latency budget and to minimize dead time. The needed hardware changes of the trigger system are also described

  6. Input data to run Landis-II

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data are input data files to run the forest simulation model Landis-II for Isle Royale National Park. Files include: a) Initial_Comm, which includes the location...

  7. The CDF Run 2 Offline Computer Farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JaroslavAntos; TanyaLevshina; 等

    2001-01-01

    Run 2 at Fermilab began in March,2001,CDF will collect data at a maximum rate of 20 MByte/sec during the run.The offline reconstruction of this data must keep up with the data taking rate.This reconstruction occurs on a large PC farm,which must have the capacity for quasi-real time data reconstruction,for reprocessing of some data and for generation and processing of Monte Carlo samples.In this paer we will give the design requirements ofr the farm,describe the hardware and software design used to meet those requirements,describe the early experiences with Run 2 data processing,and discussfuture prospects for the farm,including some ideas about Run 2b processing.

  8. Run 1 Legacy Performance : electrons/photons

    CERN Document Server

    Damazio, D O; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In this talk, the run 1 legacy performance of the electron and photon reconstruction and identification in the ATLAS and CMS experiments will be described, as well as the associated systematic uncertainties. The two speakers should try to enlight the differences of performances between the two experiments, and explain what worked better/worse than planned, as well as the lessons for the run 2.

  9. Between and Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Animals are man’s best friends. Animals remind man of his own infancy. People and animals get on well with each other, so the world is bright and colorful. Animals are children’s close pals, too. Being on intimate terms with animals makes children more kind-hearted and sympathetic.

  10. Metadata aided run selection at ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, R. M.; Gallas, E. J.; C-L Tseng, J.; Viegas, F.; Vinek, E.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    Management of the large volume of data collected by any large scale scientific experiment requires the collection of coherent metadata quantities, which can be used by reconstruction or analysis programs and/or user interfaces, to pinpoint collections of data needed for specific purposes. In the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, we have collected metadata from systems storing non-event-wise data (Conditions) into a relational database. The Conditions metadata (COMA) database tables not only contain conditions known at the time of event recording, but also allow for the addition of conditions data collected as a result of later analysis of the data (such as improved measurements of beam conditions or assessments of data quality). A new web based interface called "runBrowser" makes these Conditions Metadata available as a Run based selection service. runBrowser, based on PHP and JavaScript, uses jQuery to present selection criteria and report results. It not only facilitates data selection by conditions attributes, but also gives the user information at each stage about the relationship between the conditions chosen and the remaining conditions criteria available. When a set of COMA selections are complete, runBrowser produces a human readable report as well as an XML file in a standardized ATLAS format. This XML can be saved for later use or refinement in a future runBrowser session, shared with physics/detector groups, or used as input to ELSSI (event level Metadata browser) or other ATLAS run or event processing services.

  11. Calcaneal loading during walking and running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, V. L.; Beaupre, G. S.; Whalen, R. T.; Carter, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study of the foot uses experimentally measured kinematic and kinetic data with a numerical model to evaluate in vivo calcaneal stresses during walking and running. METHODS: External ground reaction forces (GRF) and kinematic data were measured during walking and running using cineradiography and force plate measurements. A contact-coupled finite element model of the foot was developed to assess the forces acting on the calcaneus during gait. RESULTS: We found that the calculated force-time profiles of the joint contact, ligament, and Achilles tendon forces varied with the time-history curve of the moment about the ankle joint. The model predicted peak talocalcaneal and calcaneocuboid joint loads of 5.4 and 4.2 body weights (BW) during walking and 11.1 and 7.9 BW during running. The maximum predicted Achilles tendon forces were 3.9 and 7.7 BW for walking and running. CONCLUSIONS: Large magnitude forces and calcaneal stresses are generated late in the stance phase, with maximum loads occurring at approximately 70% of the stance phase during walking and at approximately 60% of the stance phase during running, for the gait velocities analyzed. The trajectories of the principal stresses, during both walking and running, corresponded to each other and qualitatively to the calcaneal trabecular architecture.

  12. Running With an Elastic Lower Limb Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Michael S; Kota, Sridhar; Young, Aaron; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    Although there have been many lower limb robotic exoskeletons that have been tested for human walking, few devices have been tested for assisting running. It is possible that a pseudo-passive elastic exoskeleton could benefit human running without the addition of electrical motors due to the spring-like behavior of the human leg. We developed an elastic lower limb exoskeleton that added stiffness in parallel with the entire lower limb. Six healthy, young subjects ran on a treadmill at 2.3 m/s with and without the exoskeleton. Although the exoskeleton was designed to provide ~50% of normal leg stiffness during running, it only provided 24% of leg stiffness during testing. The difference in added leg stiffness was primarily due to soft tissue compression and harness compliance decreasing exoskeleton displacement during stance. As a result, the exoskeleton only supported about 7% of the peak vertical ground reaction force. There was a significant increase in metabolic cost when running with the exoskeleton compared with running without the exoskeleton (ANOVA, P exoskeletons for human running are human-machine interface compliance and the extra lower limb inertia from the exoskeleton.

  13. Mechanical spring technology improves running economy in endurance runners

    OpenAIRE

    Riess, Kenneth James

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in participation in timed running events. With this increase, the motivation for individuals to run their best has motivated the running shoe industry to make design changes to traditional running foot wear in an effort to improve running economy (RE) and decrease running times. One such design change has been to incorporate mechanical springs (MS) into the midsole of the running shoe. Evaluation of this technology has yet to be performed. This study...

  14. Running kinematics and shock absorption do not change after brief exhaustive running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Chu, Yungchien; Lovalekar, Mita; Burdett, Ray G; Lephart, Scott M

    2011-06-01

    Because of the nature of running, the forces encountered require a proper coordination of joint action of the lower extremity to dissipate the ground reaction forces and accelerations through the kinetic chain. Running-related muscle fatigue may reduce the shock absorbing capacity of the lower extremity and alter running kinematics. The purpose of this study was to determine if a bout of exhaustive running at a physiologically determined high intensity, changes running kinematics, impact accelerations, and alters shock attenuating capabilities. It was hypothesized that as a result of fatigue induced by an exhaustive run, running kinematics, impact accelerations at the head and shank, acceleration reduction, and shock attenuation would change. A within-subject, repeated-measures design was used for this study. Twelve healthy, competitive male and female distance runners participated. Subjects performed 2 testing sessions consisting of a VO2max treadmill protocol to determine the heart rate at ventilatory threshold and a fatigue-inducing running bout at the identified ventilatory threshold heart rate. Kinematic data included knee flexion, pronation, time to maximum knee flexion, and time to maximum pronation. Acceleration data included shank acceleration, head acceleration, and shock attenuation. No significant differences resulted for the kinematic or acceleration variables. Although the results of this study do not support the original hypotheses, the influence of running fatigue on kinematics and accelerations remains inconclusive. Future research is necessary to examine fatigue-induced changes in running kinematics and accelerations and to determine the threshold at which point the changes may occur.

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home ... Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  18. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  19. Animal welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.

  20. Animals in Medical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    developed and tested in animals, for treatment and management of both human and animal ailments. Medical research ... Animal model experimental is one approach among .... comparative study of male reproductive problems. These and ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  2. Animals and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Jack Howard; Botting, Regina; Morrison, Adrian R.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease offers a detailed, scholarly historical review of the critical role animal experiments have played in advancing medical knowledge. Laboratory animals have been essential to this progress, and the knowledge gained has saved countless lives - both human and animal. Unfortunately, those opposed to using animals in research have often employed doctored evidence to suggest that the practice has impeded medical p...

  3. Animals and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Botting, Jack Howard; Botting, Regina; Morrison, Adrian R.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and Medicine: The Contribution of Animal Experiments to the Control of Disease offers a detailed, scholarly historical review of the critical role animal experiments have played in advancing medical knowledge. Laboratory animals have been essential to this progress, and the knowledge gained has saved countless lives - both human and animal. Unfortunately, those opposed to using animals in research have often employed doctored evidence to suggest that the practice has impeded medical p...

  4. Biomechanics of sprint running. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mero, A; Komi, P V; Gregor, R J

    1992-06-01

    Understanding of biomechanical factors in sprint running is useful because of their critical value to performance. Some variables measured in distance running are also important in sprint running. Significant factors include: reaction time, technique, electromyographic (EMG) activity, force production, neural factors and muscle structure. Although various methodologies have been used, results are clear and conclusions can be made. The reaction time of good athletes is short, but it does not correlate with performance levels. Sprint technique has been well analysed during acceleration, constant velocity and deceleration of the velocity curve. At the beginning of the sprint run, it is important to produce great force/power and generate high velocity in the block and acceleration phases. During the constant-speed phase, the events immediately before and during the braking phase are important in increasing explosive force/power and efficiency of movement in the propulsion phase. There are no research results available regarding force production in the sprint-deceleration phase. The EMG activity pattern of the main sprint muscles is described in the literature, but there is a need for research with highly skilled sprinters to better understand the simultaneous operation of many muscles. Skeletal muscle fibre characteristics are related to the selection of talent and the training-induced effects in sprint running. Efficient sprint running requires an optimal combination between the examined biomechanical variables and external factors such as footwear, ground and air resistance. Further research work is needed especially in the area of nervous system, muscles and force and power production during sprint running. Combining these with the measurements of sprinting economy and efficiency more knowledge can be achieved in the near future.

  5. The ATLAS Tau Trigger Performance during LHC Run 1 and Prospects for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Mitani, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS tau trigger is designed to select hadronic decays of the tau leptons. Tau lepton plays an important role in Standard Model (SM) physics, such as in Higgs boson decays. Tau lepton is also important in beyond the SM (BSM) scenarios, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles, as they are often produced preferentially in these models. During the 2010-2012 LHC run (Run1), the tau trigger was accomplished successfully, which leads several rewarding results such as evidence for $H\\rightarrow \\tau\\tau$. From the 2015 LHC run (Run2), LHC will be upgraded and overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up) are expected to increase by a factor two. It will be challenging to control trigger rates while keeping interesting physics events. This paper summarized the tau trigger performance in Run1 and its prospects for Run2.

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  7. The design of the run Clever randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running...... and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. METHODS/DESIGN: The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week...

  8. The role of elastic energy storage and recovery in downhill and uphill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kristine L; Kram, Rodger; Gottschall, Jinger S

    2012-07-01

    In level running, humans and other animals store and recover elastic energy during each step. What role does elastic energy play during downhill and uphill running? We measured the fluctuations of the mechanical energy of the center of mass (CoM) of 15 human participants running at 3 m s(-1) on the level, downhill and uphill on a force-measuring treadmill mounted at 3, 6 and 9 deg. In level running, nearly symmetrical decreases and increases of the combined gravitational potential and kinetic (GPE+KE) energy of the CoM indicated equal possible elastic energy storage and recovery. However, asymmetrical fluctuations during hill running indicate reduced maximum possible elastic energy storage and return. We analyzed mechanical energy generation and dissipation during level and hill running by quantifying the anatomically estimated elastic energy storage (AEEE) in the arch and Achilles' tendon using peak ground reaction forces and anatomical characteristics. AEEE did not change with grade. At shallow downhill grades, the body must generate mechanical energy, though it dissipates more than it generates. At steeper downhill grades, little to no energy generation is required and only mechanical energy dissipation must occur. The downhill grade at which mechanical energy must no longer be generated occurs at approximately -9 deg, near the metabolically optimal running grade. At shallow uphill grades, mechanical energy must be generated to raise the CoM, and at steeper grades, additional energy must be generated to offset reduced elastic energy storage and return.

  9. Impact of dispersed coupling strength on the free running periods of circadian rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Changgui; Rohling, Jos H. T.; Liang, Xiaoming; Yang, Huijie

    2016-03-01

    The dominant endogenous clock, named the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), regulates circadian rhythms of behavioral and physiological activity in mammals. One of the main characteristics of the SCN is that the animal maintains a circadian rhythm with a period close to 24 h in the absence of a daily light-dark cycle (called the free running period). The free running period varies among species due to heterogeneity of the SCN network. Previous studies have shown that the heterogeneity in cellular coupling as well as in intrinsic neuronal periods shortens the free running period. Furthermore, as derived from experiments, one neuron's coupling strength is negatively associated with its period. It is unknown what the effects of this association between coupling strength and period are on the free running period and how the heterogeneity in coupling strength influences this free running period. In the present study we found that in the presence of a negative relationship between one neuron's coupling strength and its period, surprisingly, the dispersion of coupling strengths increases the free running period. Our present finding may shed new light on the understanding of the heterogeneous SCN network and provides an alternative explanation for the diversity of free running periods between species.

  10. Short-run and long-run effect of oil consumption on economic growth: ECM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Syahnur

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of oil consumption on economic growth of Aceh in the long-run and short-run by using Error Correction Model (ECM model during the period before the world commodity prices fall of 1985–2008. Four types of oil consumption will be focused on Avtur, Gasoline, Kerosene and Diesel. The data is collected from Central Bureau of Statistics of Aceh (BPS Aceh. The result of this study shows a merely positive effect of oil consumption type diesel to economic growth in Aceh both in the short run and the long run.

  11. Cross-training and periodization in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, D K; Wilder, R P

    1996-01-01

    Understanding the principles of cross-training and periodization will assist the coach and team physician in designing training programs that maximize performance while minimizing risk of injury. Cross-training is defined as simultaneous training for two or more sports or the use of multiple modes of training to enhance performance in one particular sport. This manuscript will review the benefits of three commonly used forms of cross training, deep water running, cycling and swimming, on running, training and performance. Periodization refers to the process of designing a progressive and appropriate training plan in order to optimize performance, yet minimize injury related to overtraining. The main structural components for periodization are macrocycles, mesocycles and microcycles. Physiological determinants for distance running performance, including VO2 max, lactate threshold and running economy, are presented as key components for the design of endurance training programs. Training intensity can be prescribed or monitored using running speed, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). The clinician must often make recommendations regarding the appropriate level of training or offer an alternative. By understanding the principles of cross-training and periodization, the clinician can assist the coach or athlete in preventing injury as well as assisting the attainment of peak performance.

  12. Run-Time Data-Flow Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑慧; 臧斌宇; 吴蓉; 朱传琪

    2002-01-01

    Parallelizing compilers have made great progress in recent years. However, there still remains a gap between the current ability of parallelizing compilers and their final goals.In order to achieve the maximum parallelism, run-time techniques were used in parallelizing compilers during last few years. First, this paper presents a basic run-time privatization method.The definition of run-time dead code is given and its side effect is discussed. To eliminate the imprecision caused by the run-time dead code, backward data-flow information must be used.Proteus Test, which can use backward information in run-time, is then presented to exploit more dynamic parallelism. Also, a variation of Proteus Test, the Advanced Proteus Test, is offered to achieve partial parallelism. Proteus Test was implemented on the parallelizing compiler AFT.In the end of this paper the program fpppp.f of Spec95fp Benchmark is taken as an example, to show the effectiveness of Proteus Test.

  13. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Martínez, A.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in up to five times higher rates of processes of interest. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event processing farm. A few examples will be shown, such as the impressive performance improvements in the HLT trigger algorithms used to identify leptons, hadrons and global event quantities like missing transverse energy. Finally, the status of the commissioning of the trigger system and its performance during the 2015 run will be presented.

  14. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLosnegard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL•kg-1•min-1 participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis with subsequent criteria for interpreting the magnitude of correlation (r. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81 and a large correlation between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53 and double poling and running (r = 0.58. There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23, cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46, body mass (r = -0.09-0.46 and body height (r = 0.11-0.36. In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could only moderately be explained by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height and therefore we suggest that other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  15. Exercise economy in skiing and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46), body mass (r = -0.09-0.46) and body height (r = 0.11-0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  16. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  17. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  18. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  19. Jefferson Lab Data Acquisition Run Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardan Gyurjyan; Carl Timmer; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2004-10-01

    A general overview of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition run control system is presented. This run control system is designed to operate the configuration, control, and monitoring of all Jefferson Lab experiments. It controls data-taking activities by coordinating the operation of DAQ sub-systems, online software components and third-party software such as external slow control systems. The main, unique feature which sets this system apart from conventional systems is its incorporation of intelligent agent concepts. Intelligent agents are autonomous programs which interact with each other through certain protocols on a peer-to-peer level. In this case, the protocols and standards used come from the domain-independent Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA), and the implementation used is the Java Agent Development Framework (JADE). A lightweight, XML/RDF-based language was developed to standardize the description of the run control system for configuration purposes.

  20. CDF Run I B physics results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, S.

    2001-03-08

    The CDF Run I B physics program has been very successful, making numerous measurements over a wide variety of B physics topics. Measurements have included masses and lifetimes; discovery of the B{sub c}; B{sub s} {r_arrow} J/{psi}{phi} polarization; B{sup 0} {leftrightarrow} {bar B}{sup 0} mixing; sin (2{beta}); and rare decay limits. Recent results include a search for {Lambda}{sub b} {r_arrow} {Lambda}{gamma} and a study of B{sup 0} {r_arrow} J/{psi}K(*){sup 0} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} decays. The tools and experience developed during Run I are quite valuable as CDF enters Run II.

  1. Identifying Ground-Robot Impedance to Improve Terrain Adaptability in Running Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Arevalo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, running robots are still outperformed by animals, but their dynamic behaviour can be described by the same model. This coincidence means that biomechanical studies can reveal much about the adaptability and energy efficiency of walking mechanisms. In particular, animals adjust their leg stiffness to negotiate terrains with different stiffnesses to keep the total leg-ground stiffness constant. In this work, we aim to provide one method to identify ground-robot impedance so that control can be applied to emulate the aforementioned animal behaviour. Experimental results of the method are presented, showing well- differentiated estimations on four different types of terrain. Additionally, an analysis of the convergence time is presented and compared with the contact time of humans while running, indicating that the method is suitable for use at high speeds.

  2. Footwear Decreases Gait Asymmetry during Running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hoerzer

    Full Text Available Previous research on elderly people has suggested that footwear may improve neuromuscular control of motion. If footwear does in fact improve neuromuscular control, then such an influence might already be present in young, healthy adults. A feature that is often used to assess neuromuscular control of motion is the level of gait asymmetry. The objectives of the study were (a to develop a comprehensive asymmetry index (CAI that is capable of detecting gait asymmetry changes caused by external boundary conditions such as footwear, and (b to use the CAI to investigate whether footwear influences gait asymmetry during running in a healthy, young cohort. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected for both legs of 15 subjects performing five barefoot and five shod over-ground running trials. Thirty continuous gait variables including ground reaction forces and variables of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were computed for each leg. For each individual, the differences between the variables for the right and left leg were calculated. Using this data, a principal component analysis was conducted to obtain the CAI. This study had two main outcomes. First, a sensitivity analysis suggested that the CAI had an improved sensitivity for detecting changes in gait asymmetry caused by external boundary conditions. The CAI may, therefore, have important clinical applications such as monitoring the progress of neuromuscular diseases (e.g. stroke or cerebral palsy. Second, the mean CAI for shod running (131.2 ± 48.5; mean ± standard deviation was significantly lower (p = 0.041 than the CAI for barefoot running (155.7 ± 39.5. This finding suggests that in healthy, young adults gait asymmetry is reduced when running in shoes compared to running barefoot, which may be a result of improved neuromuscular control caused by changes in the afferent sensory feedback.

  3. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  5. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  6. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  7. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  8. Health related aspects of PA & sport/running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Johan de Jong

    2015-01-01

    The lecture presents an overview of the positive but also the negative health related aspects of running. An deeper insight will be offered when it comes to running, especially the mass running events.

  9. The design of the run Clever randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need...... evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running...... and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. METHODS/DESIGN: The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week...

  10. Running vacuum versus the $\\Lambda$CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Valent, Adrià; Pérez, Javier de Cruz

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that a constant $\\Lambda$-term is a traditional building block of the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM model. We show that this assumption is not necessarily the optimal one from the phenomenological point of view. The class of running vacuum models, with a possible running of the gravitational coupling G, are capable to fit the overall cosmological data SNIa+BAO+H(z)+LSS+BBN+CMB better than the $\\Lambda$CDM, namely at a level of $\\sim 3\\sigma$ and with Akaike and Bayesian information criteria supporting a strong level of statistical evidence on this fact. Here we report on the results of such analysis.

  11. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uythoven, Jan [CERN; Boccardi, Andrea [CERN; Bravin, Enrico [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Jacquet, Delphine [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Mazzoni, Stefano [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    To minimize the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  12. Chaotic inflation with curvaton induced running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2014-01-01

    While dust contamination now appears as a likely explanation of the apparent tension between the recent BICEP2 data and the Planck data, we will here explore the consequences of a large running in the spectral index as suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration as an alternative explanation...... of the apparent tension, but which would be in conflict with prediction of the simplest model of chaotic inflation. The large field chaotic model is sensitive to UV physics, and the nontrivial running of the spectral index suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration could therefore, if true, be telling us some...

  13. Abort Gap Cleaning for LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Bravin, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, GH; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Mazzoni, S; Meddahi, M; Valuch, D

    2015-01-01

    To minimise the beam losses at the moment of an LHC beam dump the 3 μs long abort gap should contain as few particles as possible. Its population can be minimised by abort gap cleaning using the LHC transverse damper system. The LHC Run 1 experience is briefly recalled; changes foreseen for the LHC Run 2 are presented. They include improvements in the observation of the abort gap population and the mechanism to decide if cleaning is required, changes to the hardware of the transverse dampers to reduce the detrimental effect on the luminosity lifetime and proposed changes to the applied cleaning algorithms.

  14. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  15. Oxygen delivery does not limit peak running speed during incremental downhill running to exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefeldt, G; Noakes, T D; Dennis, S C

    1992-01-01

    Oxygen consumption (VO2), ventilation (VI), respiratory exchange ratio (R), stride frequency and blood lactate concentrations were measured continuously in nine trained athletes during two continuous incremental treadmill runs to exhaustion on gradients of either 0 degree or -3 degrees. Compared to the run at 0 degree gradient, the athletes reached significantly higher maximal treadmill velocities but significantly lower VO2, VI, R and peak blood lactate concentrations (P less than 0.001) during downhill running. These lower VO2 and blood lactate concentrations at exhaustion indicated that factors other than oxygen delivery limited maximal performance during the downhill run. In contrast, stride frequencies were similar at each treadmill velocity; the higher maximal speed during the downhill run was achieved with a significantly longer stride length (P less than 0.001); maximal stride frequency was the same between tests. Equivalent maximal stride frequencies suggested that factors determining the rate of lower limb stride recovery may have limited maximal running speed during downhill running and, possibly, also during horizontal running.

  16. Short-run and long-run dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    that include acreage, output, and variable input utilization at the crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the short-run and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops...

  17. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  18. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, R.O.; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  19. Sex differences in running mechanics and patellofemoral joint kinetics following an exhaustive run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, John D; Loss, Justin R; Willy, Richard W; Meardon, Stacey A

    2015-11-26

    Patellofemoral joint pain (PFP) is a common running-related injury that is more prevalent in females and thought to be associated with altered running mechanics. Changes in running mechanics have been observed following an exhaustive run but have not been analyzed relative to the sex bias for PFP. The purpose of this study was to test if females demonstrate unique changes in running mechanics associated with PFP following an exhaustive run. For this study, 18 females and 17 males ran to volitional exhaustion. Peak PFJ contact force and stress, PFJ contact force and stress loading rates, hip adduction excursion, and hip and knee joint frontal plane angular impulse were analyzed between females and males using separate 2 factor ANOVAs (2 (male/female)×2 (before/after exhaustion)). We observed similar changes in running mechanics among males and females over the course of the exhaustive run. Specifically, greater peak PFJ contact force loading rate (5%, P=.01), PFJ stress loading rate (5%, Pmechanics due to exhaustion do not appear to contribute to the sex bias for PFP.

  20. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Juul, Martin Serup;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  1. Comparison of fractions of inactive modules between Run1 and Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Motohashi, Kazuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Fraction of inactive modules for each component of the ATLAS pixel detector at the end of Run 1 and the beginning of Run 2. A similar plot which uses a result of functionality tests during LS1 can be found in ATL-INDET-SLIDE-2014-388.

  2. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  3. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  4. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  5. Wheel-running reinforcement in free-feeding and food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-03-01

    Rats experiencing sessions of 30min free access to wheel running were assigned to ad-lib and food-deprived groups, and given additional sessions of free wheel activity. Subsequently, both ad-lib and deprived rats lever pressed for 60s of wheel running on fixed ratio (FR) 1, variable ratio (VR) 3, VR 5, and VR 10 schedules, and on a response-initiated variable interval (VI) 30s schedule. Finally, the ad-lib rats were switched to food deprivation and the food-deprived rats were switched to free food, as rats continued responding on the response-initiated VI 30-s schedule. Wheel running functioned as reinforcement for both ad-lib and food-deprived rats. Food-deprived rats, however, ran faster and had higher overall lever-pressing rates than free-feeding rats. On the VR schedules, wheel-running rates positively correlated with local and overall lever pressing rates for deprived, but not ad-lib rats. On the response-initiated VI 30s schedule, wheel-running rates and lever-pressing rates changed for ad-lib rats switched to food deprivation, but not for food-deprived rats switched to free-feeding. The overall pattern of results suggested different sources of control for wheel running: intrinsic motivation, contingencies of automatic reinforcement, and food-restricted wheel running. An implication is that generalizations about operant responding for wheel running in food-deprived rats may not extend to wheel running and operant responding of free-feeding animals.

  6. Exceptional running skill in dogs requires extensive experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, William S

    2009-07-01

    Performances across a wide variety of animal species share a similar pattern of development. Performance starts out low, over time increases to a peak, and then declines with old age. The increase of performance in early life is due to growth, adaptation, and learning. The author examined changes in running performance in 14 elite greyhound (Canis lupus familiaris) runners. The time to peak performance from initiation of a professional career took up 9.1% of a typical dog's lifespan. This amount of time devoted to skill development relative to species lifespan is similar to that of elite human track runners. Even with controll for changes in size (weight in kilograms), dogs' skill development showed marked improvement with increasing race experience. The author discusses the benefit of future research on motor-skill acquisition in nonhuman athletes.

  7. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The magnitude of capacitor that will develop maximum torque in capacitor start motor and capacitor run motor are investigated and determined by simulation. Each of these capacitors is connected to the auxiliary winding of split-phase motor thereby transforming it into capacitor start or capacitor run motor. The starting current and starting torque of the split-phase motor (SPM, capacitor run motor (CRM and capacitor star motor (CSM are compared for their suitability in their operational performance and applications.

  8. Improved infrared-sensing running wheel systems with an effective exercise activity indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Wen; Chang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Wen-Ying; Chang, Shin-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an infrared-sensing running wheel (ISRW) system for the quantitative measurement of effective exercise activity in rats. The ISRW system provides superior exercise training compared with commercially available traditional animal running platforms. Four infrared (IR) light-emitting diode/detector pairs embedded around the rim of the wheel detect the rat's real-time position; the acrylic wheel has a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 15 cm, that is, it is larger and thicker than traditional exercise wheels, and it is equipped with a rubber track. The acrylic wheel hangs virtually frictionless, and a DC motor with an axially mounted rubber wheel, which has a diameter of 10 cm, drives the acrylic wheel from the outer edge. The system can automatically train rats to run persistently. The proposed system can determine effective exercise activity (EEA), with the IR sensors (which are connected to a conventional PC) recording the rat exercise behavior. A prototype of the system was verified by a hospital research group performing ischemic stroke experiments on rats by considering middle cerebral artery occlusion. The experimental data demonstrated that the proposed system provides greater neuroprotection in an animal stroke model compared with a conventional treadmill and a motorized running wheel for a given exercise intensity. The quantitative exercise effectiveness indicator showed a 92% correlation between an increase in the EEA and a decrease in the infarct volume. This indicator can be used as a noninvasive and objective reference in clinical animal exercise experiments.

  9. The effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Bellenger, Clint R; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-03-01

    The effect of footwear on running economy has been investigated in numerous studies. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis has synthesised the available literature and the effect of footwear on running performance is not known. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of footwear on running performance and running economy in distance runners, by reviewing controlled trials that compare different footwear conditions or compare footwear with barefoot. The Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), EMBASE, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), CINAHL and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from inception up until April 2014. Included articles reported on controlled trials that examined the effects of footwear or footwear characteristics (including shoe mass, cushioning, motion control, longitudinal bending stiffness, midsole viscoelasticity, drop height and comfort) on running performance or running economy and were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Of the 1,044 records retrieved, 19 studies were included in the systematic review and 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No studies were identified that reported effects on running performance. Individual studies reported significant, but trivial, beneficial effects on running economy for comfortable and stiff-soled shoes [standardised mean difference (SMD) economy for cushioned shoes (SMD = 0.37; P economy for training in minimalist shoes (SMD = 0.79; P economy for light shoes and barefoot compared with heavy shoes (SMD economy. Certain models of footwear and footwear characteristics can improve running economy. Future research in footwear performance should include measures of running performance.

  10. Biomechanics of running indicates endothermy in bipedal dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Pontzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the great unresolved controversies in paleobiology is whether extinct dinosaurs were endothermic, ectothermic, or some combination thereof, and when endothermy first evolved in the lineage leading to birds. Although it is well established that high, sustained growth rates and, presumably, high activity levels are ancestral for dinosaurs and pterosaurs (clade Ornithodira, other independent lines of evidence for high metabolic rates, locomotor costs, or endothermy are needed. For example, some studies have suggested that, because large dinosaurs may have been homeothermic due to their size alone and could have had heat loss problems, ectothermy would be a more plausible metabolic strategy for such animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe two new biomechanical approaches for reconstructing the metabolic rate of 14 extinct bipedal dinosauriforms during walking and running. These methods, well validated for extant animals, indicate that during walking and slow running the metabolic rate of at least the larger extinct dinosaurs exceeded the maximum aerobic capabilities of modern ectotherms, falling instead within the range of modern birds and mammals. Estimated metabolic rates for smaller dinosaurs are more ambiguous, but generally approach or exceed the ectotherm boundary. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the hypothesis that endothermy was widespread in at least larger non-avian dinosaurs. It was plausibly ancestral for all dinosauriforms (perhaps Ornithodira, but this is perhaps more strongly indicated by high growth rates than by locomotor costs. The polarity of the evolution of endothermy indicates that rapid growth, insulation, erect postures, and perhaps aerobic power predated advanced "avian" lung structure and high locomotor costs.

  11. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region.

  12. Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke;

    2011-01-01

    Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...

  13. The Beautiful Physics of LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108556

    2015-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC offers some beautiful prospects for new physics, including flavour physics as well as more detailed studies of the Higgs boson and searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). One of the possibilities for BSM physics is supersymmetry, and flavour physics plays various important r\\^oles in constraining supersymmetric models.

  14. EMBL rescue package keeps bioinformatics centre running

    CERN Multimedia

    Abott, A

    1999-01-01

    The threat to the EBI arising from the EC refusal to fund its running costs seems to have been temporarily lifted. At a meeting in EMBL, Heidelberg, delegates agreed in principle to make up the shortfall of 5 million euros. A final decision will be taken at a special meeting of the EMBL council in March (1 page).

  15. BEAM SCRUBBING FOR RHIC POLARIZED PROTON RUN.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG,S.Y.FISCHER,W.HUANG,H.ROSER,T.

    2004-07-05

    One of the intensity limiting factor of RHIC polarized proton beam is the electron cloud induced pressure rise. A beam scrubbing study shows that with a reasonable period of time of running high intensity 112-bunch proton beam, the pressure rise can be reduced, allowing higher beam intensity.

  16. Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...

  17. Common Running Overuse Injuries and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Kozinc

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Runners are particularly prone to developing overuse injuries. The most common running-related injuries include medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, patellar tendinopathy, iliotibial band syndrome, tibial stress fractures, and patellofemoral pain syndrome. Two of the most significant risk factors appear to be injury history and weekly distance. Several trials have successfully identified biomechanical risk factors for specific injuries, with increased ground reaction forces, excessive foot pronation, hip internal rotation and hip adduction during stance phase being mentioned most often. However, evidence on interventions for lowering injury risk is limited, especially regarding exercise-based interventions. Biofeedback training for lowering ground reaction forces is one of the few methods proven to be effective. It seems that the best way to approach running injury prevention is through individualized treatment. Each athlete should be assessed separately and scanned for risk factors, which should be then addressed with specific exercises. This review provides an overview of most common running-related injuries, with a particular focus on risk factors, and emphasizes the problems encountered in preventing running-related injuries.

  18. Book Review: HTML5: Up and Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Cyzyk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mark Pilgrim's HTML5: Up and Running was one of the first books published on the subject. If you’re looking for a really good, well-written, entertaining, concise overview of what’s going on right this very minute with HTML5 technologies and techniques, this is a good book to have.

  19. Considerations in Running a Foreign Language University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乃芳

    2005-01-01

    To run a foreign language university well, four important things should be given priority: 1)pay constant attention to teacher education; 2) make sure the staff keep abreast of the latest teaching beliefs;3) back up teaching with high quality research; 4) do a good job in cultural and humanity education.

  20. ATLAS Data Preparation in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Laycock, Paul; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, the data preparation workflows for Run 2 are presented. Online data quality uses a new hybrid software release that incorporates the latest offline data quality monitoring software for the online environment. This is used to provide fast feedback in the control room during a data acquisition (DAQ) run, via a histogram-based monitoring framework as well as the online Event Display. Data are sent to several streams for offline processing at the dedicated Tier-0 computing facility, including dedicated calibration streams and an "express" physics stream containing approximately 2% of the main physics stream. This express stream is processed as data arrives, allowing a first look at the offline data quality within hours of a run end. A prompt calibration loop starts once an ATLAS DAQ run ends, nominally defining a 48 hour period in which calibrations and alignments can be derived using the dedicated calibration and express streams. The bulk processing of the main physics stream starts on expi...

  1. Event alignment, warping between running speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Douglas, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    marine conditions (different load settings on the propeller curve) was in the range from 60 to 120 rotations per minute; furthermore the running speed was stable within periods of fixed load. Electronically controlled engines can change the angular timing of certain events, such as fuel injection...

  2. The CDF Run II Disk Inventory Manager

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PaulHubbard; StephanLammel

    2001-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab(CDF) experiment records and analyses proton-antiprotion interactions at a center-of -mass energy of 2 TeV,Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron started in April of this year,The duration of the run is expected to be over two years.One of the main data handling strategies of CDF for RUn II is to hide all tape access from the user and to facilitate sharing of data and thus disk space,A disk inventory manager was designed and developed over the past years to keep track of the data on disk.to coordinate user access to the data,and to stage data back from tape to disk as needed.The CDF Run II disk inventory manager consists of a server process,a user and administrator command line interfaces.and a library with the routines of the client API.Data are managed in filesets which are groups of one or more files.The system keeps track of user acess to the filesets and attempts to keep frequently accessed data on disk.Data that are not on disk are automatically staged back from tape as needed.For CDF the main staging method is based on the mt-tools package as tapes are written according to the ANSI standard.

  3. All Orthogonal Arrays with 18 Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    All combinatorially inequivalent orthogonal arrays with 18 runs and eight or less factors are generated. Their potential as practical experimental designs is evaluated by a classification using generalized word-length patterns of the original arrays and those of their projections into less factors.

  4. Palm cooling does not improve running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheadler, C M; Saunders, N W; Hanson, N J; Devor, S T

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the BEX Runner palm cooling device during a combination of exercise and environmental heat stress. Twelve subjects completed two randomly ordered time-to-exhaustion runs at 75% VO2max, 30 °C, and 50% relative humidity with and without palm cooling. Time to exhaustion runs started once the warm-up had elicited a core temperature of 37.5 °C. Heart rate, Rating of Perceived Exertion, Feeling Scale, and core temperature were recorded at 2-min intervals during each run. Time to exhaustion was longer in control than treatment (46.7±31.1 vs. 41.3±26.3 min, respectively, prate-of-rise of core temperature was not different between control and treatment (0.047 vs. 0.048 °C · min-1, respectively). The use of the BEX Runner palm cooling device during a run in hot conditions did not eliminate or even attenuate the rise in core temperature. Exercise time in hot conditions did not increase with the use of the palm cooling device and time to exhaustion was reduced. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Chaotic inflation with curvaton induced running

    CERN Document Server

    Sloth, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    The apparent tension between the the recent BICEP2 data and the Planck data might be removed by allowing for a large running in the spectral index as suggested by the BICEP2 collaboration, but in disagreement with prediction of the simplest model of chaotic inflation. The large field chaotic model is sensitive to UV physics, and the non-trivial running of the spectral index hinted by the BICEP2 data could therefore be telling us some additional new information about the UV completion of inflation. However, before we can draw such strong conclusions with confidence, we might first have to carefully exclude the alternatives. Assuming monomial chaotic inflation is the right theory of inflation, we therefore explore the possibility that the running could be due to some other less UV sensitive degree of freedom. As an example, we ask if it is possible that the curvature perturbation spectrum has a contribution from a curvaton, which makes up for the large running in the spectrum. We find that this effect could mas...

  6. Jet performance in Run 2 at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kunigo, Takuto; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Slides for the talk "Jet performance in Run 2" at BOOST 2016. In this talk, the jet energy calibration sequence ( including in-situ calibrations at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV ), jet energy scale and resolution uncertainties and the jet calibration plan for 2016 will be presented.

  7. Asperity deformation during running-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jørgen; Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2011-01-01

    Asperities loaded in pure rolling against a hard, smooth surface will often be deformed at the first contact event and will thereby experience high normal stress, presumably of a magnitude near the Vickers hardness of the softer material. Continued running-in can be imagined to develop into lower...

  8. Asperity deformation during running-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jørgen; Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2010-01-01

    Asperities loaded in pure rolling against a hard, smooth surface will often be deformed at the first contact event and will thereby experience high normal stress, presumably of a magnitude near the Vickers hardness of the softer material. Continued running-in can be imagined to develop into lower...

  9. Wave run-up on sandbag slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamnoon Rasmeemasmuang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On occasions, sandbag revetments are temporarily applied to armour sandy beaches from erosion. Nevertheless, an empirical formula to determine the wave run -up height on sandbag slopes has not been available heretofore. In this study a wave run-up formula which considers the roughness of slope surfaces is proposed for the case of sandbag slopes. A series of laboratory experiments on the wave run -up on smooth slopes and sandbag slopes were conducted in a regular-wave flume, leading to the finding of empirical parameters for the formula. The proposed empirical formula is applicable to wave steepness ranging from 0.01 to 0.14 and to the thickness of placed sandbags relative to the wave height ranging from 0.17 to 3.0. The study shows that the wave run-up height computed by the formula for the sandbag slopes is 26-40% lower than that computed by the formula for the smooth slopes.

  10. A luminosity model of RHIC gold runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-11-01

    In this note, we present a luminosity model for RHIC gold runs. The model is applied to the physics fills in 2007 run without cooling, and with the longitudinal cooling applied to one beam only. Having good comparison, the model is used to project a fill with the longitudinal cooling applied to both beams. Further development and possible applications of the model are discussed. To maximize the integrated luminosity, usually the higher beam intensity, smaller longitudinal and transverse emittance, and smaller {beta} are the directions to work on. In past 10 years, the RHIC gold runs have demonstrated a path toward this goal. Most recently, a successful commissioning of the bunched beam stochastic cooling, both longitudinal and transverse, has offered a chance of further RHIC luminosity improvement. With so many factors involved, a luminosity model would be useful to identify and project gains in the machine development. In this article, a preliminary model is proposed. In Section 2, several secondary factors, which are not yet included in the model, are identified based on the RHIC operation condition and experience in current runs. In Section 3, the RHIC beam store parameters used in the model are listed, and validated. In Section 4, the factors included in the model are discussed, and the luminosity model is presented. In Section 5, typical RHIC gold fills without cooling, and with partial cooling are used for comparison with the model. Then a projection of fills with more coolings is shown. In Section 6, further development of the model is discussed.

  11. D0 Upgrade for RUN II

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, P

    1999-01-01

    The D0 detector at The Fermilab Tevatron is undergoing a major upgrade to prepare for data taking with luminosities reaching 2 x 10^{32} cm^{-2} s^{-1}. The upgrade includes a new central tracking array, new muon detector components and electronic upgrades to many subsystems. The D0 upgraded detector will be operational for RUN II in spring 2000.

  12. Daytime running lights : its safety evidence revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Retrospective in-depth accident studies from several countries confirm that human perception errors are the main causal factor in road accidents. The share of accident types which are relevant for the effect of daytime running lights (DRL), such as overtaking and crossing accidents, in the total of

  13. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. A ...

  14. Validity of Self-Reported Running Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dideriksen, Mette; Soegaard, Cristina; Nielsen, Rasmus O

    2016-06-01

    It is unclear whether there is a difference between subjective evaluation and objective global positioning systems (GPS) measurement of running distance. The purpose of this study was to investigate if such difference exists. A total of 100 participants (51% men; median age, 41.5; body mass, 78.1 kg ±13.8 SD) completed a run of free choice, then subjectively reported the distance in kilometer (km). This information was subsequently compared with the distance derived from a nondifferential GPS watch using paired t-tests and Bland-Altman's 95% limits of agreement. No significant difference was found between the mean paired differences between subjective evaluations and GPS measurements (1.86%, 95% confidence interval = -1.53%; 5.25%, p = 0.96). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement revealed considerable variation (lower limit = -28% and upper limit = 40%). Such variation exceeds the clinical error range of 10%. In conclusion, the mean running distance (km) is similar between self-reporting and GPS measurements. However, researchers should consider using GPS measurements in favor of subjective reporting of running distance because of considerable variation on an individual level.

  15. KINETIC CONSEQUENCES OF CONSTRAINING RUNNING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Mercer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that impact forces increase with running velocity as well as when stride length increases. Since stride length naturally changes with changes in submaximal running velocity, it was not clear which factor, running velocity or stride length, played a critical role in determining impact characteristics. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not stride length influences the relationship between running velocity and impact characteristics. Eight volunteers (mass=72.4 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.7 ± 0.1 m; age = 25 ± 3.4 years completed two running conditions: preferred stride length (PSL and stride length constrained at 2.5 m (SL2.5. During each condition, participants ran at a variety of speeds with the intent that the range of speeds would be similar between conditions. During PSL, participants were given no instructions regarding stride length. During SL2.5, participants were required to strike targets placed on the floor that resulted in a stride length of 2.5 m. Ground reaction forces were recorded (1080 Hz as well as leg and head accelerations (uni-axial accelerometers. Impact force and impact attenuation (calculated as the ratio of head and leg impact accelerations were recorded for each running trial. Scatter plots were generated plotting each parameter against running velocity. Lines of best fit were calculated with the slopes recorded for analysis. The slopes were compared between conditions using paired t-tests. Data from two subjects were dropped from analysis since the velocity ranges were not similar between conditions resulting in the analysis of six subjects. The slope of impact force vs. velocity relationship was different between conditions (PSL: 0.178 ± 0.16 BW/m·s-1; SL2.5: -0.003 ± 0.14 BW/m·s-1; p < 0.05. The slope of the impact attenuation vs. velocity relationship was different between conditions (PSL: 5.12 ± 2.88 %/m·s-1; SL2.5: 1.39 ± 1.51 %/m·s-1; p < 0.05. Stride length was an important factor

  16. Insects: Little Things That Run the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Insects are easily the most abundant and diverse group of animals, with over 24,000 species in the UK alone. They can be found in almost every habitat on Earth and are fundamentally important to ecology, conservation, food production, animal and human health, and biodiversity. They are a prominent feature of almost every food web in the UK and…

  17. A novel running mechanic's class changes kinematics but not running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Daniel H; Lehecka, Nick; King, Deborah L

    2014-11-01

    A novel method of running technique instruction, Midstance to Midstance Running (MMR), was studied to determine how MMR affected kinematics and running economy (RE) of recreational runners. An experimental pre-post randomized groups design was used. Participants (n = 18) were recreational runners who ran at least 3 days a week and 5 km per run. All testing was performed on a treadmill at 2.8 m·s. The intervention group (n = 9) completed 8 weeks of instruction in MMR; the control group (n = 9) continued running without instruction. The MMR group showed significant decreases in stride length (SL) (p = 0.02) and maximum knee flexion velocity in stance (p = 0.01), and a significant increase in stride rate (SR) (p = 0.02) after 8 weeks. No significant changes were found in heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, or RE. Midstance to Midstance Running was effective in changing SR and SL, but was not effective in changing other kinematic variables such as foot contact position and maximum knee flexion during swing. Midstance to Midstance Running did not affect RE. Evidence suggests that MMR may be an appropriate instructional method for recreational runners trying to decrease SL and increase SR.

  18. Physiological assessment of isolated running does not directly replicate running capacity after triathlon-specific cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Naroa; Hunt, Julie; Ingham, Steve; Ferguson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon running is affected by prior cycling and power output during triathlon cycling is variable in nature. We compared constant and triathlon-specific variable power cycling and their effect on subsequent submaximal running physiology. Nine well-trained male triathletes (age 24.6 ± 4.6 years, [Formula: see text] 4.5 ± 0.4 L · min(-1); mean ± SD) performed a submaximal incremental run test, under three conditions: no prior exercise and after a 1 h cycling trial at 65% of maximal aerobic power with either a constant or a variable power profile. The variable power protocol involved multiple 10-90 s intermittent efforts at 40-140% maximal aerobic power. During cycling, pulmonary ventilation (22%, ± 14%; mean; ± 90% confidence limits), blood lactate (179%, ± 48%) and rating of perceived exertion (7.3%, ± 10.2%) were all substantially higher during variable than during constant power cycling. At the start of the run, blood lactate was 64%, ± 61% higher after variable compared to constant power cycling, which decreased running velocity at 4 mM lactate threshold by 0.6, ± 0.9 km · h(-1). Physiological responses to incremental running are negatively affected by prior cycling and, to a greater extent, by variable compared to even-paced cycling. Testing and training of triathletes should account foe higher physiological cost of triathlon-specific cycling and its effect on subsequent running.

  19. Effect of voluntary running on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cholinergic lesioned mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawe Gavin S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholinergic neuronal dysfunction of the basal forebrain is observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and has been linked to decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a region involved in learning and memory. Running is a robust inducer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This study aims to address the effect of running on hippocampal neurogenesis in lesioned mice, where septohippocampal cholinergic neurones have been selectively eliminated in the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca of the basal forebrain by infusion of mu-p75-saporin immunotoxin. Results Running increased the number of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in cholinergic denervated mice compared to non-lesioned mice 24 hours after injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU. Although similar levels of surviving cells were present in cholinergic depleted animals and their respective controls four weeks after injection of BrdU, the majority of progenitors that proliferate in response to the initial period of running were not able to survive beyond one month without cholinergic input. Despite this, the running-induced increase in the number of surviving neurones was not affected by cholinergic depletion. Conclusion The lesion paradigm used here models aspects of the cholinergic deficits associated with Alzheimer's Disease and aging. We showed that running still increased the number of newborn cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus in this model of neurodegenerative disease.

  20. Influence of photoperiod and running wheel access on the entrainment of split circadian rhythms in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Jeffrey A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the laboratory, behavioral and physiological states of nocturnal rodents alternate, with a period near 24 h, between those appropriate for the night (e.g., elevated wheel-running activity and high melatonin secretion and for the day (e.g., rest and low melatonin secretion. Under appropriate 24 h light:dark:light:dark conditions, however, rodents may be readily induced to express bimodal rest/activity cycles that reflect a global temporal reorganization of the central neural pacemaker in the hypothalamus. We examine here how the relative length of the light and dark phases of the environmental cycle influences this rhythm splitting and the necessity of a running wheel for expression of this entrainment condition. Results Rhythm splitting was observed in wheel-running and general locomotion of Siberian and Syrian hamsters. The latter also manifest split rhythms in body temperature. Access to a running wheel was necessary neither for the induction nor maintenance of this entrainment pattern. While rhythms were only transiently split in many animals with two 5 h nights, the incidence of splitting was greater with twice daily nights of shorter duration. Removal of running wheels altered the body temperature rhythm but did not eliminate its clear bimodality. Conclusion The expression of entrained, split circadian rhythms exhibits no strict dependence on access to a running wheel, but can be facilitated by manipulation of ambient lighting conditions. These circadian entrainment patterns may be of therapeutic value to human shift-workers and others facing chronobiological challenges.

  1. Intra-dance variation among waggle runs and the design of efficient protocols for honey bee dance decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J. Couvillon

    2012-03-01

    Noise is universal in information transfer. In animal communication, this presents a challenge not only for intended signal receivers, but also to biologists studying the system. In honey bees, a forager communicates to nestmates the location of an important resource via the waggle dance. This vibrational signal is composed of repeating units (waggle runs that are then averaged by nestmates to derive a single vector. Manual dance decoding is a powerful tool for studying bee foraging ecology, although the process is time-consuming: a forager may repeat the waggle run 1- >100 times within a dance. It is impractical to decode all of these to obtain the vector; however, intra-dance waggle runs vary, so it is important to decode enough to obtain a good average. Here we examine the variation among waggle runs made by foraging bees to devise a method of dance decoding. The first and last waggle runs within a dance are significantly more variable than the middle run. There was no trend in variation for the middle waggle runs. We recommend that any four consecutive waggle runs, not including the first and last runs, may be decoded, and we show that this methodology is suitable by demonstrating the goodness-of-fit between the decoded vectors from our subsamples with the vectors from the entire dances.

  2. The Effect of Treadmill Running on Passive Avoidance Learning in Animal Model of Alzheimer Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrin Hosseini; Hojjatallah Alaei; Parham Reisi; Maryam Radahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Background : Alzheimer′s disease was known as a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly and is characterized by dementia and severe neuronal loss in the some regions of brain such as nucleus basalis magnocellularis. It plays an important role in the brain functions such as learning and memory. Loss of cholinergic neurons of nucleus basalis magnocellularis by ibotenic acid can commonly be regarded as a suitable model of Alzheimer′s disease. Previous studies reported that exercise...

  3. Muscular strategy shift in human running: dependence of running speed on hip and ankle muscle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Tim W; Schache, Anthony G; Pandy, Marcus G

    2012-06-01

    Humans run faster by increasing a combination of stride length and stride frequency. In slow and medium-paced running, stride length is increased by exerting larger support forces during ground contact, whereas in fast running and sprinting, stride frequency is increased by swinging the legs more rapidly through the air. Many studies have investigated the mechanics of human running, yet little is known about how the individual leg muscles accelerate the joints and centre of mass during this task. The aim of this study was to describe and explain the synergistic actions of the individual leg muscles over a wide range of running speeds, from slow running to maximal sprinting. Experimental gait data from nine subjects were combined with a detailed computer model of the musculoskeletal system to determine the forces developed by the leg muscles at different running speeds. For speeds up to 7 m s(-1), the ankle plantarflexors, soleus and gastrocnemius, contributed most significantly to vertical support forces and hence increases in stride length. At speeds greater than 7 m s(-1), these muscles shortened at relatively high velocities and had less time to generate the forces needed for support. Thus, above 7 m s(-1), the strategy used to increase running speed shifted to the goal of increasing stride frequency. The hip muscles, primarily the iliopsoas, gluteus maximus and hamstrings, achieved this goal by accelerating the hip and knee joints more vigorously during swing. These findings provide insight into the strategies used by the leg muscles to maximise running performance and have implications for the design of athletic training programs.

  4. Muscle injury after low-intensity downhill running reduces running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Cory W; Green, Michael S; Doyle, J Andrew; Rupp, Jeffrey C; Ingalls, Christopher P; Corona, Benjamin T

    2014-05-01

    Contraction-induced muscle injury may reduce running economy (RE) by altering motor unit recruitment, lowering contraction economy, and disturbing running mechanics, any of which may have a deleterious effect on endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to determine if RE is reduced 2 days after performing injurious, low-intensity exercise in 11 healthy active men (27.5 ± 5.7 years; 50.05 ± 1.67 VO2peak). Running economy was determined at treadmill speeds eliciting 65 and 75% of the individual's peak rate of oxygen uptake (VO2peak) 1 day before and 2 days after injury induction. Lower extremity muscle injury was induced with a 30-minute downhill treadmill run (6 × 5 minutes runs, 2 minutes rest, -12% grade, and 12.9 km·h(-1)) that elicited 55% VO2peak. Maximal quadriceps isometric torque was reduced immediately and 2 days after the downhill run by 18 and 10%, and a moderate degree of muscle soreness was present. Two days after the injury, steady-state VO2 and metabolic work (VO2 L·km(-1)) were significantly greater (4-6%) during the 65% VO2peak run. Additionally, postinjury VCO2, VE and rating of perceived exertion were greater at 65% but not at 75% VO2peak, whereas whole blood-lactate concentrations did not change pre-injury to postinjury at either intensity. In conclusion, low-intensity downhill running reduces RE at 65% but not 75% VO2peak. The results of this study and other studies indicate the magnitude to which RE is altered after downhill running is dependent on the severity of the injury and intensity of the RE test.

  5. The ATLAS Tau Trigger Performance during LHC Run 1 and Prospects for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Triggering on hadronic tau decays is essential for a wide variety of analyses of interesting physics processes at ATLAS. The ATLAS tau trigger combines information from the tracking detectors and calorimeters to identify the signature of hadronically decaying tau leptons. In Run 2 operation expected to start in 2015, the trigger strategies will become more important than ever before. In this paper, the tau trigger performance during Run 1 is summarized and also an overview of the developments of Run 2 tau trigger strategy is presented.

  6. The ATLAS Tau Trigger Performance during LHC Run1 and Prospects for Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Y; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Triggering on hadronic tau decays is essential for a wide variety of analyses of interesting physics processes at ATLAS. The ATLAS tau trigger combines information from the tracking detectors and calorimeters to identify the signature of hadronically decaying tau leptons. In Run2 operation expected to start in 2015, the trigger strategies will become more important than ever before. In this paper, the tau trigger performance during Run1 is summarized and also an overview of the developments of Run2 tau trigger strategy is presented.

  7. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  8. Animal Communication: What Do Animals Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Eugene S.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of animal communication, including possible relationships between the physical structure of vocalizations and their functions in communicating. Provides tables of mammalian and avian sounds (by species/family) used in hostile and friendly appeasing contexts. (JN)

  9. Run scenarios for the linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Battaglia et al.

    2002-12-23

    We have examined how a Linear Collider program of 1000 fb{sup -1} could be constructed in the case that a very rich program of new physics is accessible at {radical}s {le} 500 GeV. We have examined possible run plans that would allow the measurement of the parameters of a 120 GeV Higgs boson, the top quark, and could give information on the sparticle masses in SUSY scenarios in which many states are accessible. We find that the construction of the run plan (the specific energies for collider operation, the mix of initial state electron polarization states, and the use of special e{sup -}e{sup -} runs) will depend quite sensitively on the specifics of the supersymmetry model, as the decay channels open to particular sparticles vary drastically and discontinuously as the underlying SUSY model parameters are varied. We have explored this dependence somewhat by considering two rather closely related SUSY model points. We have called for operation at a high energy to study kinematic end points, followed by runs in the vicinity of several two body production thresholds once their location is determined by the end point studies. For our benchmarks, the end point runs are capable of disentangling most sparticle states through the use of specific final states and beam polarizations. The estimated sparticle mass precisions, combined from end point and scan data, are given in Table VIII and the corresponding estimates for the mSUGRA parameters are in Table IX. The precision for the Higgs boson mass, width, cross-sections, branching ratios and couplings are given in Table X. The errors on the top quark mass and width are expected to be dominated by the systematic limits imposed by QCD non-perturbative effects. The run plan devotes at least two thirds of the accumulated luminosity near the maximum LC energy, so that the program would be sensitive to unexpected new phenomena at high mass scales. We conclude that with a 1 ab{sup -1} program, expected to take the first 6-7 years

  10. DESIGN IMPROVEMENT OF THE LOCOMOTIVE RUNNING GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the dynamic qualities of the mainline freight locomotives characterizing the safe motion in tangent and curved track sections at all operational speeds, one needs a whole set of studies, which includes a selection of the design scheme, development of the corresponding mathematical model of the locomotive spatial fluctuations, construction of the computer calculation program, conducting of the theoretical and then experimental studies of the new designs. In this case, one should compare the results with existing designs. One of the necessary conditions for the qualitative improvement of the traction rolling stock is to define the parameters of its running gears. Among the issues related to this problem, an important place is occupied by the task of determining the locomotive dynamic properties on the stage of projection, taking into account the selected technical solutions in the running gear design. Methodology. The mathematical modeling studies are carried out by the numerical integration method of the dynamic loading for the mainline locomotive using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles » («DYNRAIL». Findings. As a result of research for the improvement of locomotive running gear design it can be seen that the creation of the modern locomotive requires from engineers and scientists the realization of scientific and technical solutions. The solutions enhancing design speed with simultaneous improvement of the traction, braking and dynamic qualities to provide a simple and reliable design, especially the running gear, reducing the costs for maintenance and repair, low initial cost and operating costs for the whole service life, high traction force when starting, which is as close as possible to the ultimate force of adhesion, the ability to work in multiple traction mode and sufficient design speed. Practical Value. The generalization of theoretical, scientific and methodological, experimental studies aimed

  11. Run scenarios for the linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Battaglia et al.

    2002-12-23

    We have examined how a Linear Collider program of 1000 fb{sup -1} could be constructed in the case that a very rich program of new physics is accessible at {radical}s {le} 500 GeV. We have examined possible run plans that would allow the measurement of the parameters of a 120 GeV Higgs boson, the top quark, and could give information on the sparticle masses in SUSY scenarios in which many states are accessible. We find that the construction of the run plan (the specific energies for collider operation, the mix of initial state electron polarization states, and the use of special e{sup -}e{sup -} runs) will depend quite sensitively on the specifics of the supersymmetry model, as the decay channels open to particular sparticles vary drastically and discontinuously as the underlying SUSY model parameters are varied. We have explored this dependence somewhat by considering two rather closely related SUSY model points. We have called for operation at a high energy to study kinematic end points, followed by runs in the vicinity of several two body production thresholds once their location is determined by the end point studies. For our benchmarks, the end point runs are capable of disentangling most sparticle states through the use of specific final states and beam polarizations. The estimated sparticle mass precisions, combined from end point and scan data, are given in Table VIII and the corresponding estimates for the mSUGRA parameters are in Table IX. The precision for the Higgs boson mass, width, cross-sections, branching ratios and couplings are given in Table X. The errors on the top quark mass and width are expected to be dominated by the systematic limits imposed by QCD non-perturbative effects. The run plan devotes at least two thirds of the accumulated luminosity near the maximum LC energy, so that the program would be sensitive to unexpected new phenomena at high mass scales. We conclude that with a 1 ab{sup -1} program, expected to take the first 6-7 years

  12. Uniqueness of human running coordination: The integration of modern and ancient evolutionary innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eKiely

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Running is a pervasive activity across human cultures and a cornerstone of contemporary health, fitness and sporting activities. Yet for the overwhelming predominance of human existence running was an essential prerequisite for survival. A means to hunt, and a means to escape when hunted. In a very real sense humans have evolved to run. Yet curiously, perhaps due to running’s cultural ubiquity and the natural ease with which we learn to run, we rarely consider the uniqueness of human bipedal running within the animal kingdom. Our unique upright, single stance, bouncing running gait imposes a unique set of coordinative difficulties. Challenges demanding we precariously balance our fragile brains in the very position where they are most vulnerable to falling injury while simultaneously retaining stability, steering direction of travel, and powering the upcoming stride: all within the abbreviated time-frames afforded by short, violent ground contacts separated by long flight times. These running coordination challenges are solved through the tightly-integrated blending of primitive evolutionary legacies, conserved from reptilian and vertebrate lineages, and comparatively modern, more exclusively human, innovations. The integrated unification of these top-down and bottom-up control processes bestows humans with an agile control system, enabling us to readily modulate speeds, change direction, negotiate varied terrains and to instantaneously adapt to changing surface conditions. The seamless integration of these evolutionary processes is facilitated by pervasive, neural and biological, activity-dependent adaptive plasticity. Over time, and with progressive exposure, this adaptive plasticity shapes neural and biological structures to best cope with regularly imposed movement challenges. This pervasive plasticity enables the gradual construction of a robust system of distributed coordinated control, comprised of processes that are so deeply

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ...

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  15. ANIMAL MODELS IN SURGICAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ASSEMBLED BY

    the development of medicine and surgery. Animals have .... from cinemas and television except if for humane .... museums, exhibitions, films, and education as well as .... India. 2000. Al-Suhrawardy AM (ed). Animals and duties owed thereto.

  16. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  17. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  19. 28 CFR 544.34 - Inmate running events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate running events. 544.34 Section 544... EDUCATION Inmate Recreation Programs § 544.34 Inmate running events. Running events will ordinarily not... available for all inmate running events....

  20. Run-up distributions of waves breaking on sloping walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Distributions of run-up are calculated by assigning to each individual wave in an irregular wave train a run-up value according to Hunt's formula. The use of this formula permits a normalization of the run-up in such a way that the run-up distributions are independent of slope angle, mean wave

  1. Muriel is approached to run as new ATLAS spokesperson

    CERN Multimedia

    Muriel

    Dear Muriel, There will be elections in 2008 for a new Spokesperson. Peter Jenni will be a hard person to follow: we need someone who will be highly visible and tough. Having watched your exploits through the ATLAS eNews, it is clear that you are the most visible person in ATLAS and it seems to me that you are just the kind of person we need to be out next Spokesperson (Spokesanimal?). Have you given this possibility any thought? Yours, Animal Lover. Muriel's reply: Dear Animal Lover, thank you very much for your support. I thought it was about time someone asked!I am certainly interested in the position. Will I get a CD plate for my car? Muriel decided to check out the scene before accepting to run for the ATLAS spokesperson position and gave it a try in the spokesperson's office. Muriel also decided to have add a productive chat with Fabiola Gianotti while raising support for her candidature.

  2. GENOMIC VARIABILITY AMONG CATTLE POPULATIONS BASED ON RUNS OF HOMOZYGOSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Šidlová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the distribution of different lengths ROH (runs of homozygosity in six cattle breeds was described. A total of 122 animals from six cattle breeds (Holstein, Simmental, Austrian Pinzgau, Ayrshire, MRI-Meuse Rhine Issel and Slovak Pinzgau were analysed. The ROH approach was used to distinguish Slovak Pinzgau population from other investigated breeds as well as to differentiate between ancient and recent inbreeding. The average number of ROH per animal ranged from 17.06 in Holstein to 159.22 in Ayrshire. The highest number of short ROH (ancient inbreeding was found in Simmental, followed by Ayrshire. The Ayrshire and MRI had a higher proportion of longer ROH distributed across the whole genome, revealing recent inbreeding. ROH were identified and used to estimate molecular inbreeding coefficients (FROH. The highest level of inbreeding from the investigated breeds was found out in Ayrshire with the same tendency for all length categories compared to Slovak Pinzgau with higher ancient inbreeding. Ancient inbreeding was only observed in Holstein population. A similar trend is becoming apparent even for Slovak Pinzgau, showing the second smallest recent inbreeding. Therefore, it is necessary to preserve the given population in the original phenotype and prevent further increase of inbreeding especially in endangered breeds.

  3. Intersegmental coupling and recovery from perturbations in freely running cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzin-Fuchs, Einat; Kiemel, Tim; Gal, Omer; Ayali, Amir; Holmes, Philip

    2015-01-15

    Cockroaches are remarkably stable runners, exhibiting rapid recovery from external perturbations. To uncover the mechanisms behind this important behavioral trait, we recorded leg kinematics of freely running animals in both undisturbed and perturbed trials. Functional coupling underlying inter-leg coordination was monitored before and during localized perturbations, which were applied to single legs via magnetic impulses. The resulting transient effects on all legs and the recovery times to normal pre-perturbation kinematics were studied. We estimated coupling architecture and strength by fitting experimental data to a six-leg-unit phase oscillator model. Using maximum-likelihood techniques, we found that a network with nearest-neighbor inter-leg coupling best fitted the data and that, although coupling strengths vary among preparations, the overall inputs entering each leg are approximately balanced and consistent. Simulations of models with different coupling strengths encountering perturbations suggest that the coupling schemes estimated from our experiments allow animals relatively fast and uniform recoveries from perturbations. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. CMS computing operations during run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Adelman, J; Artieda, J; Bagliese, G; Ballestero, D; Bansal, S; Bauerdick, L; Behrenhof, W; Belforte, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Blyweert, S; Bonacorsi, D; Brew, C; Contreras, L; Cristofori, A; Cury, S; da Silva Gomes, D; Dolores Saiz Santos, M; Dost, J; Dykstra, D; Fajardo Hernandez, E; Fanzango, F; Fisk, I; Flix, J; Georges, A; Gi ffels, M; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Gowdy, S; Gutsche, O; Holzman, B; Janssen, X; Kaselis, R; Kcira, D; Kim, B; Klein, D; Klute, M; Kress, T; Kreuzer, P; Lahi , A; Larson, K; Letts, J; Levin, A; Linacre, J; Linares, J; Liu, S; Luyckx, S; Maes, M; Magini, N; Malta, A; Marra Da Silva, J; Mccartin, J; McCrea, A; Mohapatra, A; Molina, J; Mortensen, T; Padhi, S; Paus, C; Piperov, S; Ralph; Sartirana, A; Sciaba, A; S ligoi, I; Spinoso, V; Tadel, M; Traldi, S; Wissing, C; Wuerthwein, F; Yang, M; Zielinski, M; Zvada, M

    2014-01-01

    During the first run, CMS collected and processed more than 10B data events and simulated more than 15B events. Up to 100k processor cores were used simultaneously and 100PB of storage was managed. Each month petabytes of data were moved and hundreds of users accessed data samples. In this document we discuss the operational experience from this first run. We present the workflows and data flows that were executed, and we discuss the tools and services developed, and the operations and shift models used to sustain the system. Many techniques were followed from the original computing planning, but some were reactions to difficulties and opportunities. We also address the lessons learned from an operational perspective, and how this is shaping our thoughts for 2015.

  5. CMS Full Simulation for Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Hildreth, M; Lange, D J; Kortelainen, M J

    2015-01-01

    During LHC shutdown between run-1 and run-2 intensive developments were carried out to improve performance of CMS simulation. For physics improvements migration from Geant4 9.4p03 to Geant4 10.0p02 has been performed. CPU performance has been improved by introduction of the Russian roulette method inside CMS calorimeters, optimization of CMS simulation sub-libraries, and usage of statics build of the simulation executable. As a result of these efforts, CMS simulation has been speeded up by about factor two. In this work we provide description of updates for different software components of CMS simulation. Development of a multi-threaded (MT) simulation approach for CMS will be also discuss.

  6. The CDF Run IIb silicon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, M.; Bacchetta, N.; Behari, S.; Benjamin, D.; Bisello, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Burghard, A.; Busetto, G.; Cabrera, S.; Canepa, A.; Castro, A.; Cardoso, G.; Chertok, M.; Ciobanu, C.; Derylo, G.; Fang, I.; Flaugher, B. E-mail: brenna@fnal.gov; Freeman, J.; Galtieri, L.; Galyardt, J.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Gorelov, I.; Haber, C.; Hara, K.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Holbrook, B.; Hrycyk, M.; Junk, T.; Kim, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Krieger, B.; Kruse, M.; Lander, R.; Lu, R.-S.; Lukens, P.; Malferrari, L.; Manea, C.; Margotti, A.; Maksimovic, P.; Merkel, P.; Moccia, S.; Nakano, I.; Naoumov, D.; Novak, J.; Okusawa, T.; Orlov, Y.; Pancaldi, G.; Pantano, D.; Pavlicek, V.; Pellett, D.; Seidel, S.; Semeria, F.; Takei, Y.; Tanaka, R.; Wang, Z.; Watje, P.; Weber, M.; Wester, W.; Wilkes, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Yao, W.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.; Zucchini, A

    2004-02-01

    Fermilab plans to deliver 5-15 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity to the CDF and D0 experiments. The current inner silicon detectors at CDF (SVXIIa and L00) will not tolerate the radiation dose associated with high-luminosity running and will need to be replaced. A new readout chip (SVX4) has been designed in radiation-hard 0.25 {mu}m, CMOS technology. Single-sided sensors are arranged in a compact structure, called a stave, with integrated readout and cooling systems. This paper describes the general design of the Run IIb system, testing results of prototype electrical components (staves), and prototype silicon sensor performance before and after irradiation.

  7. The Millennium Run Observatory: First Light

    CERN Document Server

    Overzier, R; Angulo, R E; Bertin, E; Blaizot, J; Henriques, B M B; Marleau, G -D; White, S D M

    2012-01-01

    Simulations of galaxy evolution aim to capture our current understanding as well as to make predictions for testing by future experiments. Simulations and observations are often compared in an indirect fashion: physical quantities are estimated from the data and compared to models. However, many applications can benefit from a more direct approach, where the observing process is also simulated and the models are seen fully from the observer's perspective. To facilitate this, we have developed the Millennium Run Observatory (MRObs), a theoretical virtual observatory which uses virtual telescopes to `observe' semi-analytic galaxy formation models based on the suite of Millennium Run dark matter simulations. The MRObs produces data that can be processed and analyzed using the standard software packages developed for real observations. At present, we produce images in forty filters from the rest-frame UV to IR for two stellar population synthesis models, three different models of IGM absorption, and two cosmologi...

  8. Instrumental Variables in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, Gregory; Klemp, Marc Patrick Brag

    2017-01-01

    In the study of long-run economic growth, it is common to use historical or geographical variables as instruments for contemporary endogenous regressors. We study the interpretation of these conventional instrumental variable (IV) regressions in a general, yet simple, framework. Our aim...... is to estimate the long-run causal effect of changes in the endogenous explanatory variable. We find that conventional IV regressions generally cannot recover this parameter of interest. To estimate this parameter, therefore, we develop an augmented IV estimator that combines the conventional regression...... with a separate regression estimating the degree of persistence in the endogenous regressor. Importantly, our estimator can overcome a particular violation of the exclusion restriction that can arise when there is a time gap between the instrument and the endogenous explanatory variable. We apply our results...

  9. Measuring the running top-quark mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenfeld, U.; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Uwer, P. [Berlin Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2009-06-15

    We present the first direct determination of the running top-quark mass based on the total cross section of top-quark pair-production as measured at the Tevatron. Our theory prediction for the cross section includes various next-to-next-to-leading order QCD contributions, in particular all logarithmically enhanced terms near threshold, the Coulomb corrections at two loops and all explicitly scale dependent terms at NNLO accuracy. The result allows for an exact and independent variation of the renormalization and factorization scales. For Tevatron and LHC we study its dependence on all scales, on the parton luminosity and on the top-quark mass using both the conventional pole mass definition as well as the running mass in the MS scheme. We extract for the top-quark an MS mass of m({mu}=m) =160.0{sup +3.3}{sub -3.2} GeV. (orig.)

  10. I like animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官健

    2008-01-01

    @@ Animals are our friends.We should protect them and we mustn't hurtthem. Do you like animals?My answer is"yes".Maybe you may ask me why.I will tell you they are very lovely.I like many animals,such as pandas,monkeys and elephants.

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  12. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (

  13. Ergogenic effect of music during running performance

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dyck, Edith; Leman, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In running competitions portable music players and headphones are often banned. In some cases, runners have been disqualified after using such devices during competition. In this paper, it is discussed whether, aside from possible safety reasons, such competition regulations make sense and whether music can have an ergogenic effect on performance. Although a definitive conclusion on the regulation matter is not of our concern here, we review evidence of the fact that music is capable of enhan...

  14. FPU-Supported Running Error Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    T. Zahradnický; R. Lórencz

    2010-01-01

    A-posteriori forward rounding error analyses tend to give sharper error estimates than a-priori ones, as they use actual data quantities. One of such a-posteriori analysis – running error analysis – uses expressions consisting of two parts; one generates the error and the other propagates input errors to the output. This paper suggests replacing the error generating term with an FPU-extracted rounding error estimate, which produces a sharper error bound.

  15. 1987 DOE review: First collider run operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, S.; Crawford, J.; Dugan, G.; Edwards, H.; Finley, D.A.; Fowler, W.B.; Harrison, M.; Holmes, S.; Makara, J.N.; Malamud, E.

    1987-05-01

    This review covers the operations of the first run of the 1.8 TeV superconducting super collider. The papers enclosed cover: PBAR source status, fixed target operation, Tevatron cryogenic reliability and capacity upgrade, Tevatron Energy upgrade progress and plans, status of the D0 low beta insertion, 1.8 K and 4.7 K refrigeration for low-..beta.. quadrupoles, progress and plans for the LINAC and booster, near term and long term and long term performance improvements.

  16. Xiamen Runs Faster with Marathon Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaZhijuan; YeShaojin

    2005-01-01

    On March 26, 15,920 contestants were running on Xiamen's Island Loop Road, dubbed as the world's most beautiful race lane. Along the 42.195kilometer lane, some 300 thousand spectators shouted and applauded for those runners. That was the Third Xiamen International Marathon Competition, which was called by local people """"a big festival"""". There has been never a sport game that makes the city so enthusiastic.

  17. The anatomy and biomechanics of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Terry L; Jewison, David J

    2012-04-01

    To understand the normal series of biomechanical events of running, a comparative assessment to walking is helpful. Closed kinetic chain through the lower extremities, control of the lumbopelvic mechanism, and overall symmetry of movement has been described well enough that deviations from normal movement can now be associated with specific overuse injuries experienced by runners. This information in combination with a history of the runner's errors in their training program will lead to a more comprehensive treatment and prevention plan for related injuries.

  18. Footwear and running cardio-respiratory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D A; Butler, R J; Beckman, B; Hackney, A C

    2009-05-01

    This study compared cardio-respiratory responses during running wearing a motion control shoe (MC) or a cushioning shoe (CU) in a cross-over single blinded design. Fourteen runners (10F/4M, age=27.3+/-5.1 years, body mass=64.1+/-12.2 kg, height=167.8+/-7.5 cm, VO (2)max=52.3+/-8.8 ml/kg/min) completed a 40-min run at approximately 65% VO (2) max under both shoe conditions. Oxygen uptake (mL/kg/min; L/min), minute ventilation (L/min), respiratory exchange ratio, and heart rate were measured at minutes 8-10, 18-20, 28-30 and 38-40 of exercise. Rating of perceived exertion was obtained at minutes 10, 20, 30 and 40. Two (footwear) by four (time) repeated measures ANOVAs showed no differences between footwear conditions in overall oxygen consumption (MC=36.8+/-1.5 vs. CU=35.3+/-1.4 mL/kg/min, p=0.143), minute ventilation (MC=50.4+/-4 vs. CU=48.5+/-3.8, p=0.147), respiratory exchange ratio (MC=0.90+/-0.01 vs. CU=0.89+/-0.01, p=0.331), heart rate (MC=159+/-3 vs. CU=160+/-3, p=0.926), or rate of perceived exertion. The design of motion control footwear does not appear to affect cardio-respiratory or perceived exertion responses during submaximal running. The findings are specific to the shoes tested. Nonetheless, the outcomes suggest that footwear selection to reduce certain overuse injuries does not increase the work of running.

  19. Proposal for a running coupling JIMWLK equation

    CERN Document Server

    Lappi, T

    2014-01-01

    In the CGC framework the initial stages of a heavy ion collision at high energy are described as "glasma" field configurations. The initial condition for these evolving fields depends, in the CGC effective theory, on a probability distribution for color charges. The energy dependence of this distribution can be calculated from the JIMWLK renormalization group equation. We discuss recent work on a practical implementation of the running coupling constant in the Langevin method of solving the JIMWLK equation.

  20. The Aerodynamic Signature of Running Spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Casas; Thomas Steinmann; Olivier Dangles

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Many predators display two foraging modes, an ambush strategy and a cruising mode. These foraging strategies have been classically studied in energetic, biomechanical and ecological terms, without considering the role of signals produced by predators and perceived by prey. Wolf spiders are a typical example; they hunt in leaf litter either using an ambush strategy or by moving at high speed, taking over unwary prey. Air flow upstream of running spiders is a source of i...

  1. Running with a powered knee and ankle prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Amanda H; Lawson, Brian E; Goldfarb, Michael

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a running control architecture for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis that enables a transfemoral amputee to run with a biomechanically appropriate running gait and to intentionally transition between a walking and running gait. The control architecture consists firstly of a coordination level controller, which provides gait biomechanics representative of healthy running, and secondly of a gait selection controller that enables the user to intentionally transition between a running and walking gait. The running control architecture was implemented on a transfemoral prosthesis with powered knee and ankle joints, and the efficacy of the controller was assessed in a series of running trials with a transfemoral amputee subject. Specifically, treadmill trials were conducted to assess the extent to which the coordination controller provided a biomechanically appropriate running gait. Separate trials were conducted to assess the ability of the user to consistently and reliably transition between walking and running gaits.

  2. CMS Strip Detector: Operational Experience and Run1 to Run2 Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Butz, Erik Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker is the largest silicon detector ever built. It has an active area of 200~m$^2$ of silicon segmented into almost 10 million readout channels. We describe some operational aspects of the system during its first years of operation during the LHC run 1. During the long shutdown 1 of the LHC an extensive work program was carried out on the strip tracker services in order to facilitate operation of the system at sub-zero temperatures in the LHC run~2 and beyond. We will describe these efforts and give a motivation of the choice of run~2 operating temperature. Finally, a brief outlook on the operation of the system in the upcoming run~2 will be given.

  3. Running vacuum cosmological models: linear scalar perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perico, E. L. D.; Tamayo, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    In cosmology, phenomenologically motivated expressions for running vacuum are commonly parameterized as linear functions typically denoted by Λ(H2) or Λ(R). Such models assume an equation of state for the vacuum given by bar PΛ = - bar rhoΛ, relating its background pressure bar PΛ with its mean energy density bar rhoΛ ≡ Λ/8πG. This equation of state suggests that the vacuum dynamics is due to an interaction with the matter content of the universe. Most of the approaches studying the observational impact of these models only consider the interaction between the vacuum and the transient dominant matter component of the universe. We extend such models by assuming that the running vacuum is the sum of independent contributions, namely bar rhoΛ = Σibar rhoΛi. Each Λ i vacuum component is associated and interacting with one of the i matter components in both the background and perturbation levels. We derive the evolution equations for the linear scalar vacuum and matter perturbations in those two scenarios, and identify the running vacuum imprints on the cosmic microwave background anisotropies as well as on the matter power spectrum. In the Λ(H2) scenario the vacuum is coupled with every matter component, whereas the Λ(R) description only leads to a coupling between vacuum and non-relativistic matter, producing different effects on the matter power spectrum.

  4. The Run-Up of Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, S.; Bravo, F. J.; Fuentes, M.; Matias, M.; Medina, M.

    2016-12-01

    Large earthquakes in subduction zones are liable to produce tsunamis that can cause destruction and fatalities. The Run-up is a geophysical parameter that quantifies damage and if critical facilities or population are exposed to. Here we use the coupling for certain subduction regions measured by different techniques (Potency and GPS observations) to define areas where large earthquakes can occur. Taking the slab 1.0 from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), we can define the geometry of the area including its tsunamigenic potential. By using stochastic earthquakes sources for each area with its maximum tsunamigenic potential, we calculate the numerical and analytical run-up for each case. Then, we perform a statistical analysis and calculate the envelope for both methods. Furthermore, we build an index of risk using: the closest slope to the shore in a piecewise linear approach (last slopecriteria) and the outputsfrom tsunami modeling. Results show that there are areas prone to produce higher run-up than others based on the size of the earthquake, geometrical constraints of the source, tectonic setting and the coast last slope. Based on these results, there are zones that have low risk index which can define escape routes or secure coastal areas for tsunami early warning, urban and planning purposes when detailed data is available.

  5. Constructing predictive models of human running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Horst-Moritz; Revzen, Shai; Guckenheimer, John; Ludwig, Christian; Reger, Johann; Seyfarth, Andre

    2015-02-06

    Running is an essential mode of human locomotion, during which ballistic aerial phases alternate with phases when a single foot contacts the ground. The spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) provides a starting point for modelling running, and generates ground reaction forces that resemble those of the centre of mass (CoM) of a human runner. Here, we show that while SLIP reproduces within-step kinematics of the CoM in three dimensions, it fails to reproduce stability and predict future motions. We construct SLIP control models using data-driven Floquet analysis, and show how these models may be used to obtain predictive models of human running with six additional states comprising the position and velocity of the swing-leg ankle. Our methods are general, and may be applied to any rhythmic physical system. We provide an approach for identifying an event-driven linear controller that approximates an observed stabilization strategy, and for producing a reduced-state model which closely recovers the observed dynamics. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards a measurement of the spectral runnings

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, Julian B; Raccanelli, Alvise; Kamionkowski, Marc; Silk, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Single-field slow-roll inflation predicts a nearly scale-free power spectrum of perturbations, as observed at the scales accessible to current cosmological experiments. This spectrum is slightly red, showing a tilt $(1-n_s)\\sim 0.04$. A direct consequence of this tilt are nonvanishing runnings $\\alpha_s=\\mathrm d n_s/\\mathrm d\\log k$, and $\\beta_s=\\mathrm d\\alpha_s/\\mathrm d\\log k$, which in the minimal inflationary scenario should reach absolute values of $10^{-3}$ and $10^{-5}$, respectively. In this work we calculate how well future surveys can measure these two runnings. We consider a Stage-4 (S4) CMB experiment and show that it will be able to detect significant deviations from the inflationary prediction for $\\alpha_s$, although not for $\\beta_s$. Adding to the S4 CMB experiment the information from a WFIRST-like, a DESI-like, or a SKA-like galaxy survey improves the sensitivity to the runnings by $\\sim$ 5\\%, 15\\%, and 25\\%, respectively. A spectroscopic survey with a billion objects, such as SKA2, will...

  7. The energetics of ultra-endurance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzer, Stefano; Salvadego, Desy; Rejc, Enrico; Buglione, Antonio; Antonutto, Guglielmo; di Prampero, Pietro Enrico

    2012-05-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of long-lasting endurance events on the energy cost of running (C(r)), and the role of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), its fractional utilisation (F) and C(r) in determining the performance. Ten healthy runners (age range 26-59 years) participated in an ultra-endurance competition consisting of three running laps of 22, 48 and 20 km on three consecutive days in the North-East of Italy. Anthropometric characteristics and VO(2max) by a graded exercise test on a treadmill were determined 5 days before and 5 days after the competition. In addition, C(r) was determined on a treadmill before and after each running lap. Heart rate (HR) was recorded throughout the three laps. Results revealed that mean C(r) of the individual laps did not increase significantly with lap number (P = 0.200), thus ruling out any chronic lap effect. Even so, however, at the end of lap 3, C(r) was 18.0% (P increase of C(r-mean) during the competition yields to marked worsening of the performance, and (2) the three variables F, VO(2max) and C(r-mean) combined as described above explaining 87% of the total competition time variance.

  8. The aerodynamic signature of running spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Casas

    Full Text Available Many predators display two foraging modes, an ambush strategy and a cruising mode. These foraging strategies have been classically studied in energetic, biomechanical and ecological terms, without considering the role of signals produced by predators and perceived by prey. Wolf spiders are a typical example; they hunt in leaf litter either using an ambush strategy or by moving at high speed, taking over unwary prey. Air flow upstream of running spiders is a source of information for escaping prey, such as crickets and cockroaches. However, air displacement by running arthropods has not been previously examined. Here we show, using digital particle image velocimetry, that running spiders are highly conspicuous aerodynamically, due to substantial air displacement detectable up to several centimetres in front of them. This study explains the bimodal distribution of spider's foraging modes in terms of sensory ecology and is consistent with the escape distances and speeds of cricket prey. These findings may be relevant to the large and diverse array of arthropod prey-predator interactions in leaf litter.

  9. The aerodynamic signature of running spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Jérôme; Steinmann, Thomas; Dangles, Olivier

    2008-05-07

    Many predators display two foraging modes, an ambush strategy and a cruising mode. These foraging strategies have been classically studied in energetic, biomechanical and ecological terms, without considering the role of signals produced by predators and perceived by prey. Wolf spiders are a typical example; they hunt in leaf litter either using an ambush strategy or by moving at high speed, taking over unwary prey. Air flow upstream of running spiders is a source of information for escaping prey, such as crickets and cockroaches. However, air displacement by running arthropods has not been previously examined. Here we show, using digital particle image velocimetry, that running spiders are highly conspicuous aerodynamically, due to substantial air displacement detectable up to several centimetres in front of them. This study explains the bimodal distribution of spider's foraging modes in terms of sensory ecology and is consistent with the escape distances and speeds of cricket prey. These findings may be relevant to the large and diverse array of arthropod prey-predator interactions in leaf litter.

  10. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The ma...

  11. Prophylactic ankle taping: influence on treadmill-running kinematics and running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sally; Braun, William A

    2014-02-01

    Prophylactic ankle taping (PAT) is commonly used in sport. Prophylactic ankle taping may restrict ankle motion, which would affect the kinetic chain and alter gait. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PAT on lower extremity (LE) kinematics and running economy during treadmill running. Twelve recreational runners (9 women, 3 men; M ± SD age = 31.33 ± 8.04 years, height = 1.67 ± 0.81 m, mass = 61.84 ± 9.38 kg) completed two 20-minute running sessions (PAT and no tape: control [CON]) at a self-selected pace. Before each run, reflective markers were placed along the right side of the body. Sagittal plane kinematic data (60 Hz) were captured 4 times, and expired gases were measured for 2-minute after each video capture during both trials. Stride frequency, stride length, LE kinematic variables at initial contact and end contact (EC) were calculated. Cardiorespiratory variables and heart rate were also measured. Running economy was normalized to oxygen uptake per unit body mass per kilometer (milliliter per kilogram per kilometer) as running speeds varied. At EC, the PAT hip angle significantly decreased (p = 0.01) by 3.82°, whereas CON decreased by 0.85°. The range of motion tended to decrease over the 20-minute run (p = 0.08). Heart rate significantly increased over time (6.7%) but was not different between conditions. Prophylactic ankle taping did not significantly affect the physiological measures associated with the metabolic cost of treadmill running or the other kinematic variables. These findings suggest that the hip angle continued to decrease during the PAT condition at push-off in recreational runners without impacting the metabolic cost of transport.

  12. Peak treadmill running velocity during the VO2 max test predicts running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, T D; Myburgh, K H; Schall, R

    1990-01-01

    Twenty specialist marathon runners and 23 specialist ultra-marathon runners underwent maximal exercise testing to determine the relative value of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak treadmill running velocity, running velocity at the lactate turnpoint, VO2 at 16 km h-1, % VO2max at 16 km h-1, and running time in other races, for predicting performance in races of 10-90 km. Race time at 10 or 21.1 km was the best predictor of performance at 42.2 km in specialist marathon runners and at 42.2 and 90 km in specialist ultra-marathon runners (r = 0.91-0.97). Peak treadmill running velocity was the best laboratory-measured predictor of performance (r = -0.88(-)-0.94) at all distances in ultra-marathon specialists and at all distances except 42.2 km in marathon specialists. Other predictive variables were running velocity at the lactate turnpoint (r = -0.80(-)-0.92); % VO2max at 16 km h-1 (r = 0.76-0.90) and VO2max (r = 0.55(-)-0.86). Peak blood lactate concentrations (r = 0.68-0.71) and VO2 at 16 km h-1 (r = 0.10-0.61) were less good predictors. These data indicate: (i) that in groups of trained long distance runners, the physiological factors that determine success in races of 10-90 km are the same; thus there may not be variables that predict success uniquely in either 10 km, marathon or ultra-marathon runners, and (ii) that peak treadmill running velocity is at least as good a predictor of running performance as is the lactate turnpoint. Factors that determine the peak treadmill running velocity are not known but are not likely to be related to maximum rates of muscle oxygen utilization.

  13. Oil shale project run summary for small retort Run S-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, F.J.; Sandholtz, W.A.; Raley, J.H.; Laswell, B.H. (eds.)

    1978-06-01

    A combustion run using sidewall heaters to control heat loss and computer control to set heater power were conducted to study the effectiveness of the heater control system, compare results with a one-dimensional retort model when radial heat loss is not significant, and determine effects of recycling off-gas to the retort (by comparison with future runs). It is concluded that adequate simulation of in-situ processing in laboratory retorts requires control of heat losses. (JRD)

  14. Warm-up with a weighted vest improves running performance via leg stiffness and running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, K R; Hopkins, W G; McGuigan, M R; Kilding, A E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of "strides" with a weighted-vest during a warm-up on endurance performance and its potential neuromuscular and metabolic mediators. A bout of resistance exercise can enhance subsequent high-intensity performance, but little is known about such priming exercise for endurance performance. A crossover with 5-7 days between an experimental and control trial was performed by 11 well-trained distance runners. Each trial was preceded by a warm-up consisting of a 10-min self-paced jog, a 5-min submaximal run to determine running economy, and six 10-s strides with or without a weighted-vest (20% of body mass). After a 10-min recovery period, runners performed a series of jumps to determine leg stiffness and other neuromuscular characteristics, another 5-min submaximal run, and an incremental treadmill test to determine peak running speed. Clinical and non-clinical forms of magnitude-based inference were used to assess outcomes. Correlations and linear regression were used to assess relationships between performance and underlying measures. The weighted-vest condition resulted in a very-large enhancement of peak running speed (2.9%; 90% confidence limits ±0.8%), a moderate increase in leg stiffness (20.4%; ±4.2%) and a large improvement in running economy (6.0%; ±1.6%); there were also small-moderate clear reductions in cardiorespiratory measures. Relationships between change scores showed that changes in leg stiffness could explain all the improvements in performance and economy. Strides with a weighted-vest have a priming effect on leg stiffness and running economy. It is postulated the associated major effect on peak treadmill running speed will translate into enhancement of competitive endurance performance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurements for improvement of running capacity. : Physiological and biomechanical evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Gullstrand, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Running is included in a large number of sports and one of the most well investigated modes of locomotion in both physiology and biomechanics. This thesis focuses on how some new methods from both areas may be used to capture running capacity in mid-distance and distance running from laboratory and field recordings. Measurement of running economy is included and defined as oxygen uptake at a given submaximal velocity in a steady-state condition. Running economy...

  16. Effects of a minimalist shoe on running economy and 5-km running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if minimalist shoes improve time trial performance of trained distance runners and if changes in running economy, shoe mass, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were related to any difference in performance. Twenty-six trained runners performed three 6-min sub-maximal treadmill runs at 11, 13 and 15 km·h(-1) in minimalist and conventional shoes while running economy, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were assessed. They then performed a 5-km time trial. In the minimalist shoe, runners completed the trial in less time (effect size 0.20 ± 0.12), were more economical during sub-maximal running (effect size 0.33 ± 0.14) and decreased stride length (effect size 0.22 ± 0.10) and increased stride rate (effect size 0.22 ± 0.11). All but one runner ran with a rearfoot footfall in the minimalist shoe. Improvements in time trial performance were associated with improvements in running economy at 15 km·h(-1) (r = 0.58), with 79% of the improved economy accounted for by reduced shoe mass (P economy and 5-km running performance.

  17. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  18. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...... of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we...

  19. The Robust Running Ape: Unraveling the Deep Underpinnings of Coordinated Human Running Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kiely

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to other mammals, humans are not especially strong, swift or supple. Nevertheless, despite these apparent physical limitations, we are among Natures most superbly well-adapted endurance runners. Paradoxically, however, notwithstanding this evolutionary-bestowed proficiency, running-related injuries, and Overuse syndromes in particular, are widely pervasive. The term ‘coordination’ is similarly ubiquitous within contemporary coaching, conditioning, and rehabilitation cultures. Various theoretical models of coordination exist within the academic literature. However, the specific neural and biological underpinnings of ‘running coordination,’ and the nature of their integration, remain poorly elaborated. Conventionally running is considered a mundane, readily mastered coordination skill. This illusion of coordinative simplicity, however, is founded upon a platform of immense neural and biological complexities. This extensive complexity presents extreme organizational difficulties yet, simultaneously, provides a multiplicity of viable pathways through which the computational and mechanical burden of running can be proficiently dispersed amongst expanded networks of conditioned neural and peripheral tissue collaborators. Learning to adequately harness this available complexity, however, is a painstakingly slowly emerging, practice-driven process, greatly facilitated by innate evolutionary organizing principles serving to constrain otherwise overwhelming complexity to manageable proportions. As we accumulate running experiences persistent plastic remodeling customizes networked neural connectivity and biological tissue properties to best fit our unique neural and architectural idiosyncrasies, and personal histories: thus neural and peripheral tissue plasticity embeds coordination habits. When, however, coordinative processes are compromised—under the integrated influence of fatigue and/or accumulative cycles of injury, overuse

  20. The Effects of Backwards Running Training on Forward Running Economy in Trained Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Jason D; Laubach, Lloyd L; Vanderburgh, Paul M; Jackson, Kurt J

    2016-03-01

    Backwards running (BR) results in greater cardiopulmonary response and muscle activity compared with forward running (FR). BR has traditionally been used in rehabilitation for disorders such as stroke and lower leg extremity injuries, as well as in short bursts during various athletic events. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of sustained backwards running training on forward running economy in trained male athletes. Eight highly trained, male runners (26.13 ± 6.11 years, 174.7 ± 6.4 cm, 68.4 ± 9.24 kg, 8.61 ± 3.21% body fat, 71.40 ± 7.31 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) trained with BR while harnessed on a treadmill at 161 m·min(-1) for 5 weeks following a 5-week BR run-in period at a lower speed (134 m·min(-1)). Subjects were tested at baseline, postfamiliarized, and post-BR training for body composition, a ramped VO2max test, and an economy test designed for trained male runners. Subjects improved forward running economy by 2.54% (1.19 ± 1.26 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.032) at 215 m·min(-1). VO2max, body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and % body fat did not change (p > 0.05). Five weeks of BR training improved FR economy in healthy, trained male runners without altering VO2max or body composition. The improvements observed in this study could be a beneficial form of training to an already economical population to improve running economy.

  1. Is There an Economical Running Technique? A Review of Modifiable Biomechanical Factors Affecting Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Isabel S

    2016-06-01

    Running economy (RE) has a strong relationship with running performance, and modifiable running biomechanics are a determining factor of RE. The purposes of this review were to (1) examine the intrinsic and extrinsic modifiable biomechanical factors affecting RE; (2) assess training-induced changes in RE and running biomechanics; (3) evaluate whether an economical running technique can be recommended and; (4) discuss potential areas for future research. Based on current evidence, the intrinsic factors that appeared beneficial for RE were using a preferred stride length range, which allows for stride length deviations up to 3 % shorter than preferred stride length; lower vertical oscillation; greater leg stiffness; low lower limb moment of inertia; less leg extension at toe-off; larger stride angles; alignment of the ground reaction force and leg axis during propulsion; maintaining arm swing; low thigh antagonist-agonist muscular coactivation; and low activation of lower limb muscles during propulsion. Extrinsic factors associated with a better RE were a firm, compliant shoe-surface interaction and being barefoot or wearing lightweight shoes. Several other modifiable biomechanical factors presented inconsistent relationships with RE. Running biomechanics during ground contact appeared to play an important role, specifically those during propulsion. Therefore, this phase has the strongest direct links with RE. Recurring methodological problems exist within the literature, such as cross-comparisons, assessing variables in isolation, and acute to short-term interventions. Therefore, recommending a general economical running technique should be approached with caution. Future work should focus on interdisciplinary longitudinal investigations combining RE, kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular and anatomical aspects, as well as applying a synergistic approach to understanding the role of kinetics.

  2. Monitoring Animal Activity Rhythms in the Laboratory: Four Easily Assembled Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1989-01-01

    The use of actographs for studying animal activity is discussed. Described are running recorders for rodents, perching and feeding recorders for birds, and tilting box recorders for studying the movement of reptiles, amphibians, and arthropods. (CW)

  3. Prevalence of Injury in Ultra Trail Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliaropoulos Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study was to find the rate of musculoskeletal injuries in ultra-trail runners, investigate the most sensitive anatomical areas, and discover associated predicting factors to aid in the effective prevention and rapid rehabilitation of trail running injuries. Methods. Forty ultra trail runners responded to an epidemiological questionnaire. Results. At least one running injury was reported by 90% of the sample, with a total of 135 injuries were reported (111 overuse injuries, 24 appeared during competing. Lower back pain was the most common source of injury (42.5%. Running in the mountains (p = 0.0004 and following a personalized training schedule (p = 0.0995 were found to be protective factors. Runners involved in physical labor are associated with more injuries (p = 0.058. Higher-level runners are associated with more injuries than lower-level cohorts (p = 0.067, with symptoms most commonly arising in the lower back (p = 0.091, hip joint (p = 0.083, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0.054. Experienced runners (> 6 years are at greater risk of developing injuries (p = 0.001, especially in the lower back (p = 0.012, tibia (p = 0.049, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0 .028. Double training sessions could cause hip joint injury (p = 0.060. Conclusions. In order to avoid injury, it is recommended to train mostly on mountain trails and have a training program designed by professionals.

  4. Blood glutathione status following distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufaux, B; Heine, O; Kothe, A; Prinz, U; Rost, R

    1997-02-01

    In 12 moderately trained subjects reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in the blood before and during the first two hours and first two days after a 2.5-h run. The participants covered between 19 and 26 km (20.8 +/- 2.5 km, mean +/- SD). The running speed was between 53 and 82% of the speed at which blood lactate concentration reached 4 mmol/L lactate (67.9 +/- 8.2%, mean +/- SD) assessed during a previously performed treadmill test. Blood samples were collected 1 h before, immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 2 h after, as well as 1 and 2 days after the run. Immediately after exercise GSH was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) and GSSG significantly increased (p < 0.01). In all subjects the ratio of GSH to GSSG showed a marked decline to 18 +/- 4% (mean +/- SD) of the pre-exercise values (p < 0.01). One hour later the mean GSH and GSSG values returned to baseline. However, there were considerable inter-individual differences. In some subjects the GSH/ GSSG ratio overshot the pre-exercise levels, in others the ratio remained low even two hours after exercise. Compared with the pre-exercise values TBARS concentrations did not change significantly at any time point after exercise. The findings suggest that after prolonged exercise in moderately trained subjects a critical shift in the blood glutathione redox status may be reached. The changes observed were generally short-lived, the duration of which may have depended on the relative importance of reactive oxygen species generation by the capillary endothelial cells and neutrophil and eosinophil granulocytes after the end of exercise.

  5. Towards a measurement of the spectral runnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Julian B.; Kovetz, Ely D.; Raccanelli, Alvise; Kamionkowski, Marc; Silk, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Single-field slow-roll inflation predicts a nearly scale-free power spectrum of perturbations, as observed at the scales accessible to current cosmological experiments. This spectrum is slightly red, showing a tilt (1-ns)~ 0.04. A direct consequence of this tilt are nonvanishing runnings αs= d ns/ dlog k, and βs= dαs/ dlog k, which in the minimal inflationary scenario should reach absolute values of 10-3 and 10-5, respectively. In this work we calculate how well future surveys can measure these two runnings. We consider a Stage-4 (S4) CMB experiment and show that it will be able to detect significant deviations from the inflationary prediction for αs, although not for βs. Adding to the S4 CMB experiment the information from a WFIRST-like or a DESI-like survey improves the sensitivity to the runnings by ~ 20%, and 30%, respectively. A spectroscopic survey with a billion objects, such as the SKA, will add enough information to the S4 measurements to allow a detection of αs=10-3, required to probe the single-field slow-roll inflationary paradigm. We show that only a very-futuristic interferometer targeting the dark ages will be capable of measuring the minimal inflationary prediction for βs. The results of other probes, such as a stochastic background of gravitational waves observable by LIGO, the Ly-α forest, and spectral distortions, are shown for comparison. Finally, we study the claims that large values of βs, if extrapolated to the smallest scales, can produce primordial black holes of tens of solar masses, which we show to be easily testable by the S4 CMB experiment.

  6. Contribution of trunk muscularity on sprint run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, T; Hoshikawa, Y; Muramatsu, M; Iida, T; Komori, S; Shibukawa, K; Kanehisa, H

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate how the trunk muscularity is related to sprint running performance. In 23 youth soccer players, the cross-sectional images at the mid level of each of L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging to determine the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of rectus abdominis, oblique, psoas major, quadratus lumborum and erector spinae muscles. The times taken to sprint over 20 m were measured, and the mean velocity of running was calculated for each of the 2 distances (V (10 m) and V (20 m)) and for the distance from 10 m to 20 m (V (10-20 m)). The CSA values of the 5 slice levels for all muscles except for the quadratus lumborum and those of the 3 slice levels (L1-L2, L2-L3 and L3-L4) for the quadratus lumborum were averaged and expressed relative to the two-third power of body mass (CSA/BM (2/3)). The CSA/BM (2/3) values of the erector spinae and quadratus lumborum were selected as significant contributors to predict V (10 m) ( R(2)=0.450), V (20 m) ( R(2)=0.504) and V (10-20 m) ( R(2)=0.420). The current results indicate that the muscularity of the erector spinae and quadratus lumborum contributes to achieving a high performance in sprint running over distances of less than 20 m.

  7. Running on Empty? The Compensatory Reserve Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Running on empty? The compensatory reserve index Steven L. Moulton, MD, Jane Mulligan , PhD, Greg Z. Grudic, PhD, and Victor A. Convertino, PhD, San...reserve index. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Moulton S. L., Mulligan J., Grudic G. Z., Convertino V...2003;196:679Y684. 25. Convertino VA, Grudic GZ, Mulligan J, Moulton S. Estimation of individual-specific progression to cardiovascular instability using

  8. The Running Barbed Tie-over Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormac W. Joyce, MB, BCh, MRCSI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Barbed suture technology is becoming increasingly popular in plastic surgery and is now being used in body contouring surgery and facial rejuvenation. We describe the novel application of a barbed suture as a running tie-over dressing for skin grafts. The barbs act as anchors in the skin, so constant tensioning of the suture is not required. The bidirectional nature of the suture prevents any slippage, and the barbs even act as a grip on the underlying wool dressing. Furthermore, the method described is both quick and simple to learn and would be useful for the sole operator.

  9. ATLAS Data Preparation in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Laycock, Paul; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, the data preparation workflows for Run 2 are presented. The challenges posed by the excellent performance and high live time fraction of the LHC are discussed, and the solutions implemented by ATLAS are described. The prompt calibration loop procedures are described and examples are given. Several levels of data quality assessment are used to quickly spot problems in the control room and prevent data loss, and to provide the final selection used for physics analysis. Finally the data quality efficiency for physics analysis is shown.

  10. SUSY searches at the LHC Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    After a period of maintenance the LHC was restarted in 2015 delivering p-p collision at a new center of mass energy of 13 TeV, this new achievement by the machine opened the phase space of many searches for physics beyond the standard model (BSM). In this talk a summary of the LHC searches for supersymmetry (SUSY) pursued by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations is presented, covering a broad number of models and scenarios. Even at this early stage the new searches greatly extend the reach of the previous Run1 analyses limiting the phase space for natural SUSY to exist.

  11. LHCb: The LHCb Silicon Tracker: Running experience

    CERN Multimedia

    Saornil Gamarra, S

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is part of the main tracking system of the LHCb detector at the LHC. It measures very precisely the particle trajectories coming from the interaction point in the region of high occupancies around the beam axis. After presenting our production and comissioning issues in TWEPP 2008, we report on our running experience. Focusing on electronic and hardware issues as well as operation and maintenance adversities, we describe the lessons learned and the pitfalls encountered after three years of successful operation.

  12. Analysis of Biomechanical Factors in Bend Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sprint running is the demonstration of comprehensive abilities of technology and tactics, under various conditions. However, whether it is just to allocate the tracks for short-distance athletes from different racetracks has been the hot topic. This study analyzes its forces, differences in different tracks and winding influences, in the aspects of sport biomechanics. The results indicate, many disadvantages exist in inner tracks, middle tracks are the best and outer ones are inferior to middle ones. Thus it provides references for training of short-distance items in biomechanics and psychology, etc.

  13. Input data to run Landis-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJager, Nathan R.

    2017-01-01

    The data are input data files to run the forest simulation model Landis-II for Isle Royale National Park. Files include: a) Initial_Comm, which includes the location of each mapcode, b) Cohort_ages, which includes the ages for each tree species-cohort within each mapcode, c) Ecoregions, which consist of different regions of soils and climate, d) Ecoregion_codes, which define the ecoregions, and e) Species_Params, which link the potential establishment and growth rates for each species with each ecoregion.

  14. ATLAS Run-2 status and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Pastore, Francesca; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During the 2013/2014 shutdown of the LHC the ATLAS detector has been improved. A new silicon pixel detector layers has been installed, and the muon detector coverage has been improved substantially. In addition nearly all other parts of the detector have also been revised to adapt them to the higher pileup conditions or make them more robust in general. This talk will describe these improvements, and how they affect the performance of physics objects. The initial results showing the detector performance as obtained from cosmic runs and/or initial beam data will also be shown.

  15. Effect of motion control running shoes compared with neutral shoes on tibial rotation during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Alice; Birch, Ivan; Kuisma, Raija

    2011-09-01

    To determine whether a motion control running shoe reduces tibial rotation in the transverse plane during treadmill running. An experimental study measuring tibial rotation in volunteer participants using a repeated measures design. Human Movement Laboratory, School of Health Professions, University of Brighton. Twenty-four healthy participants were tested. The group comprised males and females with size 6, 7, 9 and 11 feet. The age range for participants was 19 to 31 years. The total range of proximal tibial rotation was measured using the Codamotion 3-D Movement Analysis System. A one-tailed paired t-test indicated a statistically significant decrease in the total range of proximal tibial rotation when a motion control shoe was worn (mean difference 1.38°, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 2.73, P=0.04). There is a difference in tibial rotation in the transverse plane between a motion control running shoe and a neutral running shoe. The results from this study have implications for the use of supportive running shoes as a form of injury prevention. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Body borne loads impact walk-to-run and running biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T N; O'Donovan, M; Hasselquist, L; Corner, B D; Schiffman, J M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a biomechanics-based assessment of body borne load during the walk-to-run transition and steady-state running because historical research has limited load carriage assessment to prolonged walking. Fifteen male military personnel had trunk and lower limb biomechanics examined during these locomotor tasks with three different load configurations (light, ∼6 kg, medium, ∼20 kg, and heavy, ∼40 kg). Subject-based means of the dependent variables were submitted to repeated measures ANOVA to test the effects of load configuration. During the walk-to-run transition, the hip decreased (P=0.001) and knee increased (P=0.004) their contribution to joint power with the addition of load. Additionally, greater peak trunk (P=0.001), hip (P=0.001), and knee flexion (Prun transition. Body borne load had no significant effect (P>0.05) on distribution of lower limb joint power during steady-state running, but increased peak trunk (Prun transition the load carrier may move joint power production distally down the kinetic chain and adopt biomechanical profiles to maintain performance of the task. The load carrier, however, may not adopt lower limb kinematic adaptations necessary to shift joint power distribution during steady-state running, despite exhibiting potentially detrimental larger lower limb joint loads. As such, further study appears needed to determine how load carriage impairs maximal locomotor performance.

  17. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  18. [Transgenic animals bioreactors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Ke-Mian; An, Xiao-Rong; Tian, Jian-Hui; Chen, Yong-Fu

    2002-01-01

    The production of human recombinant proteins in milk of transgenic farm animals offers a safe, very cost-effective source of commercially important proteins that cannot be produced as efficiently in adequate quantities by other methods. This review has summarized the current status of gene selection, vector construct, transgenic methods, economics, and obvious potential in transgenic animals bioreactors. Recently, a more powerful approach was adopted in the transgenic animals founded on the application of nuclear transfer. As we will illustrate, this strategy presents a breakthrough in the overall efficiency of generating transgenic farm animals, product consistency, and time of product development. The successful adaptation of Cre-/lox P-mediated site-specific DNA recombination systems in farm animals will offer unprecedented possibilities for generating transgenic animals.

  19. Dopamine D3 receptor status modulates sexual dimorphism in voluntary wheel running behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinker, Florian; Ko Hnemann, Kathrin; Paulus, Walter; Liebetanz, David

    2017-08-30

    Sexual dimorphism has been described in various aspects of physiological and pathophysiological processes involving dopaminergic signaling. This might account for the different disease characteristics in men and women in e.g. Parkinson's disease or ADHD. A better understanding might contribute to the future individualization of therapy. We examined spontaneous wheel running activity of male and female mice, homo- and heterozygote for dopamine D3 receptor deficiency (D3R -/- and D3R+/-), and compared them to wild type controls. We found higher wheel running activity in female mice than in their male littermates. D3-/- mice, irrespective of sex, were also hyperactive compared to both D3+/- and wild type animals. Hyperactivity of D3-/- female mice was pronounced during the first days of wheel running but then decreased while their male counterparts continued to be hyperactive. Physical activity was menstrual cycle-dependent. Activity fluctuations were also seen in D3 receptor knockout mice and are therefore presumably independent of D3 receptor activation. Our data underscore the complex interaction of dopaminergic signaling and gonadal hormones that leads to specific running behavior. Furthermore, we detected sex- and D3 receptor status-specific reactions during novel exposure to the running wheel. These findings suggest the need for adapting dopaminergic therapies to individual factors such as sex or even menstrual cycle to optimize therapeutic success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-functional foot use during running in the zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus draconoides)

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chen; Goldman, Daniel I; 10.1242/jeb.061937

    2013-01-01

    A diversity of animals that run on solid, level, flat, non-slip surfaces appear to bounce on their legs; elastic elements in the limbs can store and return energy during each step. The mechanics and energetics of running in natural terrain, particularly on surfaces that can yield and flow under stress, is less understood. The zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus draconoides), a small desert generalist with a large, elongate, tendinous hind foot, runs rapidly across a variety of natural substrates. We use high speed video to obtain detailed three-dimensional running kinematics on solid and granular surfaces to reveal how leg, foot, and substrate mechanics contribute to its high locomotor performance. Running at ~10 body length/s (~1 m/s), the center of mass oscillates like a spring-mass system on both substrates, with only 15% reduction in stride length on the granular surface. On the solid surface, a strut-spring model of the hind limb reveals that the hind foot saves about 40% of the mechanical work needed per s...

  1. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  2. Algorithm Animation with Galant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmann, Matthias F

    2017-01-01

    Although surveys suggest positive student attitudes toward the use of algorithm animations, it is not clear that they improve learning outcomes. The Graph Algorithm Animation Tool, or Galant, challenges and motivates students to engage more deeply with algorithm concepts, without distracting them with programming language details or GUIs. Even though Galant is specifically designed for graph algorithms, it has also been used to animate other algorithms, most notably sorting algorithms.

  3. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  4. Lightning safety of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  5. The representative animal

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, J M

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experim...

  6. Visualization of the relationship between Fischer and Haworth projections of monosaccharides by animation on a microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, J F; Kirby, G H; Rayner, J D

    1994-06-01

    An animation is described to assist in the visualization of the relationship between the Fischer and Haworth projections of monosaccharides. The animation helps the understanding of two quite different, commonly used representations of the same molecule. The animation runs on a 386-based PC with VGA graphics. The method for realizing such an animation on this hardware is described in detail; C code is provided in the Appendix.

  7. Less charismatic animals are more likely to be “road killed”: human attitudes towards small animals in Brazilian roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. M. D. Mesquita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Roads are long and intermittent sources of wildlife loss due to their indirect effects, such as fragmentation of habitat, or their direct effects, such as constant mortality by run-over. Thus, some studies indicate that a portion of these run-over incidents may be intentional and could be avoided. We investigated whether various groups of small animals had different run-over rates and how “charisma” affects the survival chances of an animal on the roads. During our experiment, we quantified run-over rates for models of spiders, snakes, chicks, and tree leaves (control on three roads with different traffic volumes. We found out that snakes and spiders were consistently ran over with a higher frequency than chicks and leaves. We also observed that chicks were the only models rescued by human beings. We concluded that the survival chances of chicks are the highest among the models tested and this is due to the charismatic value attributed to them by human beings, when compared to snakes and spiders. We suggest the broadcasting of campaigns in the media to increase public awareness regarding wildlife conservation as a useful tool to solve the problem of intentional run over of small animals.

  8. Less charismatic animals are more likely to be “road killed”: human attitudes towards small animals in Brazilian roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. M. D. Mesquita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n1p85 Roads are long and intermittent sources of wildlife loss due to their indirect effects, such as fragmentation of habitat, or their direct effects, such as constant mortality by run-over. Thus, some studies indicate that a portion of these run-over incidents may be intentional and could be avoided. We investigated whether various groups of small animals had different run-over rates and how “charisma” affects the survival chances of an animal on the roads. During our experiment, we quantified run-over rates for models of spiders, snakes, chicks, and tree leaves (control on three roads with different traffic volumes. We found out that snakes and spiders were consistently ran over with a higher frequency than chicks and leaves. We also observed that chicks were the only models rescued by human beings. We concluded that the survival chances of chicks are the highest among the models tested and this is due to the charismatic value attributed to them by human beings, when compared to snakes and spiders. We suggest the broadcasting of campaigns in the media to increase public awareness regarding wildlife conservation as a useful tool to solve the problem of intentional run over of small animals.

  9. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...

  10. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  11. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  12. CDF Run Ⅱ Data File Catalog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Kowalkowski; F.Ratnikov; 等

    2001-01-01

    The CDF experiment started data taking in April 2001,The data are organized into datasets which contain events of similar physics properties and reconstruction version.the information about datasets is stored in the Data File Catalog,a relational database.This information is presented to the data processing framework as objects which are retrieved using compound keys.The objects and the keys are designed to be the algorithms' view of information stored in the database.Objects may use several DB tables.A database interface management layer exists for the purpose of managing the mapping of persistent data to transient objects that can be used by the framework.This layer exists between the algorithm code and the code which reads directly from datanbase tables.At the user end,it places get/put interface on a top of a transient class for retrieval or storage of objects of this class using a key.Data File Catalog code makes use of this facility and contains all the code needed to manipulate CDF Data File Catalog from a C++ program or from the command prompt,It supports an Oracle interface using OTL,and a mSQL interface,This code and the Oravcle implementation of Data File Catalog were subjected to test during CDF Commissioning Run last fall and during first weeks of Run II in April.It performed exceptionally well.

  13. Primordial gravitational waves in running vacuum cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, D. A.; Lima, J. A. S.; Alves, M. E. S.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological production of gravitational waves in a nonsingular flat cosmology powered by a "running vacuum" energy density described by ρΛ ≡ ρΛ(H), a phenomenological expression potentially linked with the renormalization group approach in quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. The model can be interpreted as a particular case of the class recently discussed by Perico et al. (2013) [25] which is termed complete in the sense that the cosmic evolution occurs between two extreme de Sitter stages (early and late time de Sitter phases). The gravitational wave equation is derived and its time-dependent part numerically integrated since the primordial de Sitter stage. The generated spectrum of gravitons is also compared with the standard calculations where an abrupt transition, from the early de Sitter to the radiation phase, is usually assumed. It is found that the stochastic background of gravitons is very similar to the one predicted by the cosmic concordance model plus inflation except at higher frequencies (ν ≳ 100 kHz). This remarkable signature of a "running vacuum" cosmology combined with the proposed high frequency gravitational wave detectors and measurements of the CMB polarization (B-modes) may provide a new window to confront more conventional models of inflation.

  14. GRETINA commissioning and engineering run resolution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlow, Thomas; Beausang, Con; Ross, Tim; Hughes, Richard; Gell, Kristen; Good, Erin

    2012-10-01

    GRETINA, the first stage in the full Gamma Ray Energy Tracking Array (GRETA), consists of seven modules covering approximately 1 solid angle. Each module is made up of four large, highly-segmented germanium detectors capable of measuring the interaction points of individual gamma-rays. GRETINA has recently been assembled and commissioned in LBNL via a series of engineering and commissioning runs. Here we report on an analysis of data from the first engineering run (ER01) which was intended to probe the response of the data acquisition system to high multiplicity gamma-ray cascades. For this experiment the 122Sn(40Ar, 4n) reaction at a beam energy of 210 MeV was utilized to populate high spin states in 158Er. A variety of beam currents, targets and trigger conditions were utilized to test the acquisition. Here we report on the measured energy resolution, both with calibration and in-beam sources as well as a gamma-gamma coincidence analysis to confirm the known level scheme and the capability of the data acquisition system for high fold coincidence measurements. This work was partly supported by the US Department of Energy via grant numbers DE-FG52-09NA29454 and DE-FG02-05-ER41379.

  15. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. We will briefly review the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented during the shutdown, allowing us to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving our efficiency to select relevant physics processes. This includes changes to the L1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new L1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. At hand of a few examples, we will show the ...

  16. Can cycle power predict sprint running performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ingen Schenau, G J; Jacobs, R; de Koning, J J

    1991-01-01

    A major criticism of present models of the energetics and mechanics of sprint running concerns the application of estimates of parameters which seem to be adapted from measurements of running during actual competitions. This study presents a model which does not perpetuate this solecism. Using data obtained during supra-maximal cycle ergometer tests of highly trained athletes, the kinetics of the anaerobic and aerobic pathways were modelled. Internal power wasted in the acceleration and deceleration of body limbs and the power necessary to overcome air friction was calculated from data in the literature. Assuming a mechanical efficiency as found during submaximal cycling, a power equation was constructed which also included the power necessary to accelerate the body at the start of movement. The differential equation thus obtained was solved through simulation. The model appeared to predict realistic times at 100 m (10.47 s), 200 m (19.63 s) and 400 m (42.99 s) distances. By comparison with other methods it is argued that power equations of locomotion should include the concept of mechanical efficiency.

  17. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  18. Adjustments with running speed reveal neuromuscular adaptations during landing associated with high mileage running training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Jasper; Clansey, Adam C; Lake, Mark J

    2016-12-08

    It remains to be determined whether running training influences the amplitude of lower limb muscle activations prior to and during the first half of stance, and whether such changes are associated with joint stiffness regulation and usage of stored energy from tendons. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate neuromuscular and movement adaptations before and during landing in response to running training across a range of speeds. Two groups of high mileage (HM; >45 km/wk, n=13) and low mileage (LM; muscular activations before landing. Estimated elastic work about the ankle was found to be higher in the HM runners which might play a role in reducing weight acceptance phase muscle activation levels and improve muscle activation efficiency with running training.

  19. An Integrated Approach to Flexible Modelling and Animated Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shuliang; Wu Zhenye

    1994-01-01

    Based on the software support of SIMAN/CINEMA, this paper presents an integrated approach to flexible modelling and simulation with animation. The methodology provides a structured way of integrating mathematical and logical model, statistical experinentation, and statistical analysis with computer animation. Within this methodology, an animated simulation study is separated into six different activities: simulation objectives identification , system model development, simulation experiment specification, animation layout construction, real-time simulation and animation run, and output data analysis. These six activities are objectives driven, relatively independent, and integrate through software organization and simulation files. The key ideas behind this methodology are objectives orientation, modelling flexibility,simulation and animation integration, and application tailorability. Though the methodology is closely related to SIMAN/CINEMA, it can be extended to other software environments.

  20. Option Valuation with Long-run and Short-run Volatility Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Ornthanalai, Chayawat;

    This paper presents a new model for the valuation of European options, in which the volatility of returns consists of two components. One of these components is a long-run component, and it can be modeled as fully persistent. The other component is short-run and has a zero mean. Our model can...... be viewed as an affine version of Engle and Lee (1999), allowing for easy valuation of European options. The model substantially outperforms a benchmark single-component volatility model that is well-established in the literature, and it fits options better than a model that combines conditional...

  1. Comparison of CMS Resistive Plate Chambers performance during LHC RUN-1 and RUN-2

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Mehar Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers detector system at the CMS experiment at the LHC provides robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region < 1.6. The main detector parameters and environmental conditions are constantly and closely monitored to achieve operational stability and high quality data in the harsh conditions of the second run period of the LHC with center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. First results of overall detector stability with 2015 data and comparisons with data from the LHC RUN-1 period at 8 TeV are presented.

  2. Comparison of CMS Resistive Plate Chambers performance during LHC RUN-1 and RUN-2

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Mehar Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers detector system at the CMS experiment at the LHC provides robustness and redundancy to the muon trigger. A total of 1056 double-gap chambers cover the pseudo-rapidity region lt 1.6. The main detector parameters and environmental conditions are constantly and closely monitored to achieve operational stability and high quality data in the harsh conditions of the second run period of the LHC with center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. First results of overall detector stability with 2015 data and comparisons with data from the LHC RUN-1 period at 8 TeV are presented.

  3. Comparison of CAISO-run Plexos output with LLNL-run Plexos output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A; Meyers, C; Smith, S

    2011-12-20

    In this report we compare the output of the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) 33% RPS Plexos model when run on various computing systems. Specifically, we compare the output resulting from running the model on CAISO's computers (Windows) and LLNL's computers (both Windows and Linux). We conclude that the differences between the three results are negligible in the context of the entire system and likely attributed to minor differences in Plexos version numbers as well as the MIP solver used in each case.

  4. Images in Rabbit, Run from Archetypal Perspective%Images in Rabbit,Run from Archetypal Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付晓芳

    2016-01-01

    John Updike is regarded as one of the greatest American novelists in the 20th century. His Rabbit series brought him a worldwide reputation, especially the first one Rabbit, Run is considered as his magnum opus and has drawn the most concern from the critics. This thesis is intended to shed light on Rabbit, Run by applying some important archetypal terms, especially the archetypal images. By sorting out the employment of images, this thesis aims to prove Harry's plight and to dig out the theme of the empty mental condition of the whole society. Therefore, it hopes to provide a new way to interpret this novel.

  5. Joint kinematics and kinetics of overground accelerated running versus running on an accelerated treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caekenberghe, Ine Van; Segers, Veerle; Aerts, Peter; Willems, Patrick; De Clercq, Dirk

    2013-07-01

    Literature shows that running on an accelerated motorized treadmill is mechanically different from accelerated running overground. Overground, the subject has to enlarge the net anterior-posterior force impulse proportional to acceleration in order to overcome linear whole body inertia, whereas on a treadmill, this force impulse remains zero, regardless of belt acceleration. Therefore, it can be expected that changes in kinematics and joint kinetics of the human body also are proportional to acceleration overground, whereas no changes according to belt acceleration are expected on a treadmill. This study documents kinematics and joint kinetics of accelerated running overground and running on an accelerated motorized treadmill belt for 10 young healthy subjects. When accelerating overground, ground reaction forces are characterized by less braking and more propulsion, generating a more forward-oriented ground reaction force vector and a more forwardly inclined body compared with steady-state running. This change in body orientation as such is partly responsible for the changed force direction. Besides this, more pronounced hip and knee flexion at initial contact, a larger hip extension velocity, smaller knee flexion velocity and smaller initial plantarflexion velocity are associated with less braking. A larger knee extension and plantarflexion velocity result in larger propulsion. Altogether, during stance, joint moments are not significantly influenced by acceleration overground. Therefore, we suggest that the overall behaviour of the musculoskeletal system (in terms of kinematics and joint moments) during acceleration at a certain speed remains essentially identical to steady-state running at the same speed, yet acting in a different orientation. However, because acceleration implies extra mechanical work to increase the running speed, muscular effort done (in terms of power output) must be larger. This is confirmed by larger joint power generation at the level of

  6. Twisting the Dollar? On the Consistency of Short-Run and Long-Run Exchange Rate Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Rülke, Jan; Frenkel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    ’ in the dollar/euro expectation formation process, i.e. market participants expect bandwagon effects in the short run, while they have stabilizing expectations in their long-run forecasts. Applying a panel probit analysis we find that this twisting behavior is more likely to occur in periods of excess exchange......process of short-run and long-run forecasts in the dollar/euro and yen/dollar market. Applying nonlinear consistency restrictions we show that in a simple expectation formation structure short-run forecasts are indeed inconsistent with long-run predictions. Moreover, we establish a ‘twist...... rate volatility....

  7. Reduction in ground reaction force variables with instructed barefoot running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia D. Samaan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: As impact loading has been associated with certain running-related injuries, instruction and feedback on the proper forefoot strike pattern may help reduce the injury risk associated with transitioning to BF running.

  8. Scans Hint At Running's Brain Benefits, Even When Young

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162948.html Scans Hint at Running's Brain Benefits, Even When Young Researchers suggest that ... is an associate professor of anthropology and a running expert at the University of Arizona. There have ...

  9. Animal Care Use Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Margaret D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the structure, activities, responsibilities, and practices of animal care and use committees established to review classroom activities and student research using animals. Provides six hypothetical situations with suggested solutions to test a committee's decision-making ability. Includes a proposed activity form for teachers. (MDH)

  10. Small Animal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Dennis W.; Fong, Stephen

    This small animal care course guide is designed for students who will be seeking employment in veterinary hospitals, kennels, grooming shops, pet shops, and small-animal laboratories. The guide begins with an introductory section that gives the educational philosophy of the course, job categories and opportunities, units of instruction required…

  11. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  12. Political animal voices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.R.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, I develop a theory of political animal voices. The first part of the thesis focuses on non-human animal languages and forming interspecies worlds. I first investigate the relation between viewing language as exclusively human and seeing humans as categorically different from other

  13. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  14. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  15. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Meijer

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  16. Designing for animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, T.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Providing living space for animals in cities is an underexposed subject in the practice of urban designers. We encounter the results of conflicting situations between humans and animals almost every day, and

  17. Trends in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rosangela; Brandau, Ricardo; Gomes, Walter J; Braile, Domingo M

    2009-01-01

    The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in medical journals. Five Brazilian journals indexed by LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and recently incorporate for Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports were analyzed. All the papers published in those journals, between 2007 and 2008, that used animal models, were selected based on the abstracts. Of the total of 832 articles published in the period, 92 (11.1%) experimentation papers were selected. The number of experimental articles ranged from 5.2% to 17.9% of the global content of the journal. In the instructions to the authors, four (80%) journals presented explicit reference to the ethical principles in the conduction of studies with animals. The induced animal models represented 100% of the articles analyzed in this study. The rat was the most employed animal in the analyzed articles (78.3%). The present study can contribute, supplying subsidies for adoption of future editorials policies regarding the publication of animal research papers in Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

  18. Animals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  19. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  20. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  1. Dreams of the Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author, when teaching dream poems and poem writing to older kids, uses Margaret Atwood's "Dreams of the Animals" to extend the discussion about dreaming and have the children think about dreams that have little to do with their own. Includes examples of students' poems about animal dreams. (SR)

  2. Ways Animals Communicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Kristen; Sumrall, William J.; Moore, Jerilou; Daniels, Anniece

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a set of upper-elementary activities that focuses on how animals communicate. The activities describe procedures that students working in groups can use to investigate the topic of animal communication. An initial information sheet, resource list, and grading rubric are provided. The lesson plan was field-tested in an…

  3. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  4. Designing for animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, T.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Providing living space for animals in cities is an underexposed subject in the practice of urban designers. We encounter the results of conflicting situations between humans and animals almost every day, and

  5. Hazardous marine animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, P S

    1984-08-01

    Both traumatic injury and the damage inflicted by envenomating marine animals are considered in this article. Among the creatures causing traumatic injury are sharks, barracudas, moray eels, and needlefish. Envenomating animals include sponges, coelenterates, coral, various mollusks, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, stingrays, sea snakes, and others.

  6. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  7. Mean platelet volume (MPV predicts middle distance running performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    Full Text Available Running economy and performance in middle distance running depend on several physiological factors, which include anthropometric variables, functional characteristics, training volume and intensity. Since little information is available about hematological predictors of middle distance running time, we investigated whether some hematological parameters may be associated with middle distance running performance in a large sample of recreational runners.The study population consisted in 43 amateur runners (15 females, 28 males; median age 47 years, who successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75-85% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max. Whole blood was collected 10 min before the run started and immediately thereafter, and hematological testing was completed within 2 hours after sample collection.The values of lymphocytes and eosinophils exhibited a significant decrease compared to pre-run values, whereas those of mean corpuscular volume (MCV, platelets, mean platelet volume (MPV, white blood cells (WBCs, neutrophils and monocytes were significantly increased after the run. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running time were found for pre-run values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, red blood cell distribution width (RDW, MPV, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration (RetCHR, and post-run values of MCH, RDW, MPV, monocytes and RetCHR. In multivariate analysis, in which running time was entered as dependent variable whereas age, sex, blood lactate, body mass index, VO2max, mean training regimen and the hematological parameters significantly associated with running performance in univariate analysis were entered as independent variables, only MPV values before and after the trial remained significantly associated with running time. After adjustment for platelet count, the MPV value before the run (p = 0.042, but not thereafter (p = 0.247, remained significantly associated with running

  8. Leg stiffness of sprinters using running-specific prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    McGowan, Craig P.; Grabowski, Alena M.; McDermott, William J.; Herr, Hugh M.; Kram, Rodger

    2012-01-01

    Running-specific prostheses (RSF) are designed to replicate the spring-like nature of biological legs (bioL) during running. However, it is not clear how these devices affect whole leg stiffness characteristics or running dynamics over a range of speeds. We used a simple spring–mass model to examine running mechanics across a range of speeds, in unilateral and bilateral transtibial amputees and performance-matched controls. We found significant differences between the affected leg (AL) of uni...

  9. 29 CFR 452.30 - Run-off elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Run-off elections. 452.30 Section 452.30 Labor Regulations... OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.30 Run-off elections. A run-off election must meet the... example, if the run-off is to be held at the same meeting as the original election, the original notice...

  10. Cupper in animal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximino Huerta Bravo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cupper is an essential element for plants, animals and humans. Under certain circumstances, cupper excessive consumption could result in animal and human intoxication. In order to ensure safe and innocuous and safe foods for Mexicans, government create legislation as Norma Oficial Mexicana to establish the maximum levels of residues, particularly cupper in liver, kidney and muscle of human consumption animals. Liver in Mexico ruminant animals regularly contain 60 mg Cu/kg, which is the legal limit for this metal. This demands a review of the actual legislation. The strict application of this Norma will limit the commercialization of these viscera, since approximately 50% will exceed the legal limit for cupper. A potential hazard for human health, especially young people, is found in the constant ovine liver consumption feed with animal excretes with higher amount of supplementary cupper.

  11. Towards an animated JPEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theytaz, Joël.; Yuan, Lin; McNally, David; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2016-09-01

    Recently, short animated image sequences have become very popular in social networks. Most animated images are represented in GIF format. In this paper we propose an animated JPEG format, called aJPEG, which allows the standard JPEG format to be extended in a backward compatible way in order to cope with animated images. After presenting the proposed format, we illustrate it using two prototype applications: the first in form of a GIF-to-aJPEG converter on a personal computer and the second in form of an aJPEG viewer on a smart phone. The paper also reports the performance evaluation of aJPEG when compared to GIF. Experimental results show that aJPEG outperforms animated GIF in both file size overhead and image quality.

  12. Workshop on molecular animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2010-10-13

    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories.

  13. Parenting in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    The study of parenting in animals has allowed us to come to a better understanding of the neural and physiological mechanisms that underlie mammalian parental behavior. The long-term effects of parenting (and parental abuse or neglect) on offspring, and the neurobiological changes that underlie those changes, have also been best studied in animal models. Our greater experimental control and ability to directly manipulate neural and hormonal systems, as well as the environment of the subjects, will ensure that animal models remain important in the study of parenting; while in the future, the great variety of parental caregiving systems displayed by animals should be more thoroughly explored. Most importantly, cross-talk between animal and human subjects research should be promoted.

  14. Sketching with animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    , the aim is to present a range of analytical arguments and experimental results that indicate the need for a systematic approach to realising the potential of animation within design sketching. This will establish the foundation for what we label animation-based sketching.......This book offers a contribution to the theory, method and techniques involved in the use of animation as a tool for temporal design sketching. Lifted from its traditional role as a genre of entertainment and art and reframed in the design domain, animation offers support during the early phases...... of exploring and assessing the potential of new and emerging digital technologies. This approach is relatively new and has been touched upon by few academic contributions in the past. Thus, the aim of the text is not to promote a claim that sketching with animation is an inherently new phenomenon. Instead...

  15. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  16. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1......) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways...

  17. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  18. Wave Run-up on the Zeebrugge Rubble Mound Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Rouck, Julien; de Walle, Bjorn Van; Troch, Peter

    2007-01-01

    equals 1.77 for Iribarren number xi(om) = 3.63. An (apparent) influence of the water level on wave run-up has been observed. The porosity of the armor layer has a significant influence on wave run-up and may explain the dependency of wave run-up on the water level observed in Zeebrugge. Full...

  19. Integrating spatio-temporal environmental models for planning ski runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeffer, Karin

    2003-01-01

    The establishment of ski runs and ski lifts, the action of skiing and maintenance of ski runs may cause considerable environmental impact. Clearly, for improvements to be made in the planning of ski runs in alpine terrain a good understanding of the environmental system and the response of environme

  20. Endurance and age : evidence from long-distance running data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of aging on long-run endurance. We analyze the determinants of running speed on distances from 5K to the marathon. We model running speed as a function of distance, age, and sex. We find evidence for interaction between age and sex, but not between distance and sex.

  1. Using Integration and Autonomy to Teach an Elementary Running Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, J. Brandon; Howard-Shaughnessy, Candice

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is an important aspect of overall fitness, health, and wellness, and running can be an excellent lifetime physical activity. One of the most simple and effective means of exercise, running raises heart rate in a short amount of time and can be done with little to no cost for equipment. There are many benefits to running,…

  2. 40 CFR 600.507-12 - Running change data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.507-12 Running... shall submit additional running change fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emissions data...

  3. 40 CFR 600.507-08 - Running change data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.507-08 Running... shall submit additional running change fuel economy data as specified in paragraph (b) of this...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1234-96 - Running loss test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running loss test. 86.1234-96 Section... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1234-96 Running loss test. (a) Overview. Gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles are to be tested for running loss emissions during simulated high-temperature...

  5. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in service to subscribers to the extent possible. (b) Unit-by-unit disposition of home run wiring: (1... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring....

  6. 14 CFR 25.113 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 25.113... and takeoff run. (a) Takeoff distance on a dry runway is the greater of— (1) The horizontal distance... include a clearway, the takeoff run is equal to the takeoff distance. If the takeoff distance includes...

  7. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  8. 40 CFR 600.507-86 - Running change data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Running change data requirements. 600... Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.507-86 Running... shall submit additional running change fuel economy data as specified in paragraph (b) of this...

  9. 14 CFR 23.59 - Takeoff distance and takeoff run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff distance and takeoff run. 23.59... Takeoff distance and takeoff run. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff distance and, at the option of the applicant, the takeoff run, must be determined. (a) Takeoff distance is the greater of—...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1237-85 - Dynamometer runs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dynamometer runs. 86.1237-85 Section... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1237-85 Dynamometer runs. (a) The vehicle shall be either driven... the diurnal loss test and beginning of the hot soak preparation run shall not exceed 3 minutes,...

  11. 46 CFR 113.10-3 - Cable runs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable runs. 113.10-3 Section 113.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Fire and Smoke Detecting and Alarm Systems § 113.10-3 Cable runs. Cable runs...

  12. 40 CFR 90.409 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine dynamometer test run. 90.409... Test Procedures § 90.409 Engine dynamometer test run. (a) Engine and dynamometer start-up. (1) Only... practice. (3) For Phase 1 engines, at the manufacturer's option, the engine can be run with the throttle...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1438 - Test run-EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test run-EPA. 86.1438 Section 86.1438... Short Test Procedures § 86.1438 Test run—EPA. (a) This section describes the test run performed by the... prior to conduct of the CST. The test run consists of the wait time, vehicle preconditioning, and...

  14. Teaching Physical Based Animation via OpenGL Slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Miao; Mokhov, Serguei A.; Grogono, Peter

    This work expands further our earlier poster presentation and integration of the OpenGL Slides Framework (OGLSF) - to make presentations with real-time animated graphics where each slide is a scene with tidgets - and physical based animation of elastic two-, three-layer softbody objects. The whole project is very interactive, and serves dual purpose - delivering the teaching material in a classroom setting with real running animated examples as well as releasing the source code to the students to show how the actual working things are made.

  15. Teaching Physical Based Animation via OpenGL Slides

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Miao; Grogono, Peter; 10.1145/1557626.1557647

    2009-01-01

    This work expands further our earlier poster presentation and integration of the OpenGL Slides Framework (OGLSF) - to make presentations with real-time animated graphics where each slide is a scene with tidgets - and physical based animation of elastic two-, three-layer softbody objects. The whole project is very interactive, and serves dual purpose - delivering the teaching material in a classroom setting with real running animated examples as well as releasing the source code to the students to show how the actual working things are made.

  16. CosmoMC Installation and Running Guidelines

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ming-Hua

    2014-01-01

    CosmoMC is a Fortran 95 Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) engine to explore the cosmological parameter space, plus a Python suite for plotting and presenting results (see http://cosmologist.info/cosmomc/). This document describes the installation of the CosmoMC on a Linux system (Ubuntu 14.04.1 LTS 64-bit version). It is written for those who want to use it in their scientific research but without much training on Linux and the program. Besides a step-by-step installation guide, we also give a brief introduction of how to run the program on both a desktop and a cluster. We share our way to generate the plots that are commonly used in the references of cosmology. For more information, one can refer to the CosmoCoffee forum (http://cosmocoffee.info/viewforum.php?f=11) or contact the authors of this document. Questions and comments would be much appreciated.

  17. Anomalous Coronary Artery: Run of a Lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael Stuart; Sehgal, Sankalp; Smukler, Naomi; Suber, LaDouglas Jarod; Saththasivam, Pooven

    2016-09-01

    The anatomy of the coronary circulation is well described with incidence of congenital anomalies of approximately 0.3% to 1.0%. Although often incidental, 20% are life-threatening. A 25-year-old woman with syncopal episodes collapsed following a 10-km run. Coronary anatomy evaluation showed an anomalous left main coronary artery originating from the right sinus of valsalva and following a course between the aorta and the pulmonary outflow tract. Percutaneous coronary intervention was followed by eventual surgical revascularization. Abnormal course of coronary arteries plays a role in the pathogenesis of sudden death on exertion. Origin of the left main coronary from the right sinus of valsalva is a rare congenital anomaly. The expansion of the roots of the aorta and pulmonary trunk with exertion lead to compression of the coronary artery and syncope. Our patient raises awareness of a potentially fatal coronary artery path. Intraoperative identification of anomalous coronaries by utilizing intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography was critical.

  18. Watershed Conservation in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    We studied unanticipated long-run outcomes of conservation activities that occurred in forested watersheds on O`ahu, Hawaii, in the early twentieth century. The initial general impetus for the conservation activities was to improve irrigation surface water flow for the sugar industry. Industry...... concentration facilitated conservation of entire ecosystems. We investigate the benefits that accrued through dynamic linkages of the hydrological cycle and groundwater aquifer system. This provides a clear example of the need to consider integrated watershed effects, industrial structure, and linkages...... in groundwater recharge levels from these activities, with a lower bound benefit–cost ratio of 7.1–18.2. This lower-bound excludes returns from such high value, yet controversial to measure, amenities as species preservation....

  19. Running cosmological constant with observational tests

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Zhang, Kaituo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the running cosmological constant model with dark energy linearly proportional to the Hubble parameter, $\\Lambda = \\sigma H + \\Lambda_0$, in which the $\\Lambda$CDM limit is recovered by taking $\\sigma=0$. We derive the linear perturbation equations of gravity under the Friedmann-Lema\\"itre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, and show the power spectra of the CMB temperature and matter density distribution. By using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we fit the model to the current observational data and find that $\\sigma H_0/ \\Lambda_0 \\lesssim 2.63 \\times 10^{-2}$ and $6.74 \\times 10^{-2}$ for $\\Lambda(t)$ coupled to matter and radiation-matter, respectively, along with constraints on other cosmological parameters.

  20. DNA strand displacement system running logic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso; Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Sosík, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a DNA-based computing model which is enzyme-free and autonomous, not requiring a human intervention during the computation. The model is able to perform iterated resolution steps with logical formulae in conjunctive normal form. The implementation is based on the technique of DNA strand displacement, with each clause encoded in a separate DNA molecule. Propositions are encoded assigning a strand to each proposition p, and its complementary strand to the proposition ¬p; clauses are encoded comprising different propositions in the same strand. The model allows to run logic programs composed of Horn clauses by cascading resolution steps. The potential of the model is demonstrated also by its theoretical capability of solving SAT. The resulting SAT algorithm has a linear time complexity in the number of resolution steps, whereas its spatial complexity is exponential in the number of variables of the formula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Running cosmological constant with observational tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Qiang Geng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the running cosmological constant model with dark energy linearly proportional to the Hubble parameter, Λ=σH+Λ0, in which the ΛCDM limit is recovered by taking σ=0. We derive the linear perturbation equations of gravity under the Friedmann–Lemaïtre–Robertson–Walker cosmology, and show the power spectra of the CMB temperature and matter density distribution. By using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we fit the model to the current observational data and find that σH0/Λ0≲2.63×10−2 and 6.74×10−2 for Λ(t coupled to matter and radiation-matter, respectively, along with constraints on other cosmological parameters.

  2. ATLAS Distributed Computing in LHC Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, Simone; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing infrastructure has evolved after the first period of LHC data taking in order to cope with the challenges of the upcoming LHC Run2. An increased data rate and computing demands of the Monte-Carlo simulation, as well as new approaches to ATLAS analysis, dictated a more dynamic workload management system (ProdSys2) and data management system (Rucio), overcoming the boundaries imposed by the design of the old computing model. In particular, the commissioning of new central computing system components was the core part of the migration toward the flexible computing model. The flexible computing utilization exploring the opportunistic resources such as HPC, cloud, and volunteer computing is embedded in the new computing model, the data access mechanisms have been enhanced with the remote access, and the network topology and performance is deeply integrated into the core of the system. Moreover a new data management strategy, based on defined lifetime for each dataset, has been defin...

  3. Short-sale Constraints and Credit Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venter, Gyuri

    of prices to some agents who learn about the quality of an investment opportunity from market prices and have additional private information. Then I apply this observation when modeling a run on an investment bank by its short-term creditors, who are endowed with dispersed information and also learn from...... the price of an asset the bank holds. I show that short-selling constraints in the financial market lead to the revival of self-fulfilling beliefs about the beliefs and actions of others, and create multiple equilibria. In the equilibrium where agents rely more on public information (i.e., the price......), creditors with high private signals are more lenient to roll over debt, and a bank with lower asset quality remains solvent. This leads to higher allocative efficiency in the real economy. My result thus implies that the decrease in average informativeness due to short-sale constraints can be more than...

  4. Running cosmological constant with observational tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lee, Chung-Chi; Zhang, Kaituo

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the running cosmological constant model with dark energy linearly proportional to the Hubble parameter, Λ = σH +Λ0, in which the ΛCDM limit is recovered by taking σ = 0. We derive the linear perturbation equations of gravity under the Friedmann-Lemaïtre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, and show the power spectra of the CMB temperature and matter density distribution. By using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we fit the model to the current observational data and find that σH0 /Λ0 ≲ 2.63 ×10-2 and 6.74 ×10-2 for Λ (t) coupled to matter and radiation-matter, respectively, along with constraints on other cosmological parameters.

  5. RUNNING CONDITION FRETTING MAPS OF POLYMER MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilárd Tamás Vezér

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the industrial demand, the determination of the wear behaviour of polymeric materials is an important research task. Rubbers and elastomers are used widely in contacts, where wear is the dominant failure mechanisms. Furthermore, only the material properties under large displacements were investigated in the majority of existing studies. Depending on the input physical parameters of the tribological systems small oscillations are also observed on the measured signals (due to stick-slip like effect in the contact zone of the elastomers. To describe the failure behaviour under this special condition, a novel fretting fatigue test system was developed and built on a electro-dynamical shaker in this study. The contact area were defined with some additional test, like 2D full field strain analysis, compression and creep tests. Based on the methodology developed and applied for steels and polymer composites, Running Condition Fretting Maps for two elastomer grades (HNBR and TPU were determined.

  6. Flood-plain delineation for Occoquan River, Wolf Run, Sandy Run, Elk Horn Run, Giles Run, Kanes Creek, Racoon Creek, and Thompson Creek, Fairfax County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Pat LeRoy

    1978-01-01

    Water-surface profiles of the 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence interval discharges have been computed for all streams and reaches of channels in Fairfax County, Virginia, having a drainage area greater than 1 square mile except for Dogue Creek, Little Hunting Creek, and that portion of Cameron Run above Lake Barcroft. Maps having a 2-foot contour interval and a horizontal scale of 1 inch equals 100 feet were used for base on which flood boundaries were delineated for 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods to be expected in each basin under ultimate development conditions. This report is one of a series and presents a discussion of techniques employed in computing discharges and profiles as well as the flood profiles and maps on which flood boundaries have been delineated for the Occoquan River and its tributaries within Fairfax County and those streams on Mason Neck within Fairfax County tributary to the Potomac River. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. The Nature of Running Penumbral Waves Revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Bloomfield, D Shaun; Solanki, Sami K

    2007-01-01

    We seek to clarify the nature of running penumbral (RP) waves: are they chromospheric trans-sunspot waves or a visual pattern of upward-propagating waves? Full Stokes spectropolarimetric time series of the photospheric Si I 10827 \\AA line and the chromospheric He I 10830 \\AA multiplet were inverted using a Milne-Eddington atmosphere. Spatial pixels were paired between the outer umbral/inner penumbral photosphere and the penumbral chromosphere using inclinations retrieved by the inversion and the dual-height pairings of line-of-sight velocity time series were studied for signatures of wave propagation using a Fourier phase difference analysis. The dispersion relation for radiatively cooling acoustic waves, modified to incorporate an inclined propagation direction, fits well the observed phase differences between the pairs of photospheric and chromospheric pixels. We have thus demonstrated that RP waves are in effect low-beta slow-mode waves propagating along the magnetic field.

  8. Process-independent strong running coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binosi, Daniele; Mezrag, Cédric; Papavassiliou, Joannis; Roberts, Craig D.; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose

    2017-09-01

    We unify two widely different approaches to understanding the infrared behavior of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), one essentially phenomenological, based on data, and the other computational, realized via quantum field equations in the continuum theory. Using the latter, we explain and calculate a process-independent running coupling for QCD, a new type of effective charge that is an analogue of the Gell-Mann-Low effective coupling in quantum electrodynamics. The result is almost identical to the process-dependent effective charge defined via the Bjorken sum rule, which provides one of the most basic constraints on our knowledge of nucleon spin structure. This reveals the Bjorken sum to be a near direct means by which to gain empirical insight into QCD's Gell-Mann-Low effective charge.

  9. Run 16, eIPM Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dawson, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jao, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-08-05

    We corrected three problems with the eIPMs during the summer shutdown. We installed new amplifiers for Run 15. These were charge-­sensitive amps designed to integrate over the 200ns-­long injected bunches and decay to baseline in one full revolution period, ~2.7us. The input stage was built on a small circuit board which replaced the fast pulse amplifiers used originally in RHIC. We used the existing output drivers on the carrier board which were transformer-­coupled to the twisted-­pair signal lines leaving the tunnel. With AC coupling, there could be no DC component in the output signal. When the digitizers were triggered on the beam pulse we got good profiles, left. When we moved the trigger point we got 'inverted profiles' from the undershoot, right. In these two examples the trigger signal timing is different by 70° at harmonic number 1.

  10. Prospettive per il Run 2 ad LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ciulli, Vitaliano

    2015-01-01

    With the approach of resumption of the activity of the Large Hadron Collider at the CERN, scheduled for the spring of 2015, the physicists of the ATLAS and CMS experiments are pondering the prospects that will be opened up by the increase of centre-of-mass energy from 8 to 13 TeV, after the discovery of the Higgs boson. However the results from Run 2 go, they will mark an important new chapter in the physics of fundamental interactions, making it possible to explore the region up to around 1 TeV of mass in the search for new particles that can explain dark matter and the other unresolved questions of the Standard Model.

  11. The ATLAS Muon Trigger Performance : Run 1 and initial Run 2.

    CERN Document Server

    Kasahara, Kota; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Muon Trigger Performance: Run 1 and Initial Run 2 Performance

Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). An efficient trigger on muons and a detailed understanding of its performance are required. In 2012, the last year of Run 1, the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC reached 7.7x10^33 cm -2s-1 and the average number of events that occur in a same bunch crossing was 25. The ATLAS Muon trigger has successfully adapted to this changing environment by making use of isolation requirements, combined trigger signatures with electron and jet trigger objects, and by using so-called full-scan triggers, which make use of the full event information to search for di-lepton signatures, seeded by single lepton objects. A stable and highly efficient muon trigger was vital in the discovery of Higgs boson in 2012 and for many searches for new physics. 
The performance of muon triggers during the LHC Run 1 data-taking campaigns i...

  12. LHCb computing in Run II and its evolution towards Run III

    CERN Document Server

    Falabella, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    his contribution reports on the experience of the LHCb computing team during LHC Run 2 and its preparation for Run 3. Furthermore a brief introduction on LHCbDIRAC, i.e. the tool to interface to the experiment distributed computing resources for its data processing and data management operations, is given. Run 2, which started in 2015, has already seen several changes in the data processing workflows of the experiment. Most notably the ability to align and calibrate the detector between two different stages of the data processing in the high level trigger farm, eliminating the need for a second pass processing of the data offline. In addition a fraction of the data is immediately reconstructed to its final physics format in the high level trigger and only this format is exported from the experiment site to the physics analysis. This concept have successfully been tested and will continue to be used for the rest of Run 2. Furthermore the distributed data processing has been improved with new concepts and techn...

  13. Short-Run Pain, Long-Run Gain : The Effects of Financial Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminsky, Graciela Laura; Schmukler, Sergio L.

    2002-01-01

    The authors examine the short- and long-run effects of financial liberalization on capital markets. To do so, they construct a new comprehensive chronology of financial liberalization in 28 developed and emerging economies since 1973. The authors also construct an algorithm to identify booms and busts in stock market prices. The results indicate that financial liberalization is followed by...

  14. How Fast Can a Human Run? − Bipedal vs. Quadrupedal Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Usami, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Usain Bolt holds the current world record in the 100-m run, with a running time of 9.58 s, and has been described as the best human sprinter in history. However, this raises questions concerning the maximum human running speed, such as “Can the world’s fastest men become faster still?” The correct answer is likely “Yes.” We plotted the historical world records for bipedal and quadrupedal 100-m sprint times according to competition year. These historical records were plotted using several curve-fitting procedures. We found that the projected speeds intersected in 2048, when for the first time, the winning quadrupedal 100-m sprint time could be lower, at 9.276 s, than the winning bipedal time of 9.383 s. Video analysis revealed that in quadrupedal running, humans employed a transverse gallop with a small angular excursion. These results suggest that in the future, the fastest human on the planet might be a quadrupedal runner at the 2048 Olympics. This may be achieved by shifting up to the rotary gallop and taking longer strides with wide sagittal trunk motion. PMID:27446911

  15. Excessive progression in weekly running distance and risk of running-related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    trochanteric bursitis, injury to the tensor fascia latae, and patellar tendinopathy) existed in those who progressed their weekly running distance by more than 30% compared with those who progressed less than 10% (hazard ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 2.66; P = .07). Conclusion Novice runners who...

  16. Caffeine supplementation and multiple sprint running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark; Howatson, Glyn; Abraham, Corinne S; Lockey, Richard A; Goodwin, Jon E; Foley, Paul; McInnes, Gillian

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of caffeine supplementation on multiple sprint running performance. Using a randomized double-blind research design, 21 physically active men ingested a gelatin capsule containing either caffeine (5 mg x kg(-1) body mass) or placebo (maltodextrin) 1 h before completing an indoor multiple sprint running trial (12 x 30 m; repeated at 35-s intervals). Venous blood samples were drawn to evaluate plasma caffeine and primary metabolite concentrations. Sprint times were recorded via twin-beam photocells, and earlobe blood samples were drawn to evaluate pretest and posttest lactate concentrations. Heart rate was monitored continuously throughout the tests, with RPE recorded after every third sprint. Relative to placebo, caffeine supplementation resulted in a 0.06-s (1.4%) reduction in fastest sprint time (95% likely range = 0.04-0.09 s), which corresponded with a 1.2% increase in fatigue (95% likely range = 0.3-2.2%). Caffeine supplementation also resulted in a 3.4-bpm increase in mean heart rate (95% likely range = 0.1-6.6 bpm) and elevations in pretest (+0.7 mmol x L(-1); 95% likely range = 0.1-1.3 mmol x L(-1)) and posttest (+1.8 mmol x L(-1); 95% likely range = 0.3-3.2 mmol x L(-1)) blood lactate concentrations. In contrast, there was no significant effect of caffeine supplementation on RPE. Although the effect of recovery duration on caffeine-induced responses to multiple sprint work requires further investigation, the results of the present study show that caffeine has ergogenic properties with the potential to benefit performance in both single and multiple sprint sports.

  17. Thermodynamical aspects of running vacuum models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Astronomia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Basilakos, Spyros [Academy of Athens, Research Center for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics, Athens (Greece); Sola, Joan [Univ. de Barcelona, High Energy Physics Group, Dept. d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    The thermal history of a large class of running vacuum models in which the effective cosmological term is described by a truncated power series of the Hubble rate, whose dominant term is Λ(H) ∝ H{sup n+2}, is discussed in detail. Specifically, by assuming that the ultrarelativistic particles produced by the vacuum decay emerge into space-time in such a way that its energy density ρ{sub r} ∝ T{sup 4}, the temperature evolution law and the increasing entropy function are analytically calculated. For the whole class of vacuum models explored here we find that the primeval value of the comoving radiation entropy density (associated to effectively massless particles) starts from zero and evolves extremely fast until reaching a maximum near the end of the vacuum decay phase, where it saturates. The late-time conservation of the radiation entropy during the adiabatic FRW phase also guarantees that the whole class of running vacuum models predicts the same correct value of the present day entropy, S{sub 0} ∝ 10{sup 87}-10{sup 88} (in natural units), independently of the initial conditions. In addition, by assuming Gibbons¨CHawking temperature as an initial condition, we find that the ratio between the late-time and primordial vacuum energy densities is in agreement with naive estimates from quantum field theory, namely, ρ{sub Λ0}/ρ{sub ΛI} 10{sup -123}. Such results are independent on the power n and suggests that the observed Universe may evolve smoothly between two extreme, unstable, non-singular de Sitter phases. (orig.)

  18. The bounce of the body in hopping, running and trotting: different machines with the same motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, G A; Legramandi, M A

    2009-12-22

    The bouncing mechanism of human running is characterized by a shorter duration of the brake after 'landing' compared with a longer duration of the push before 'takeoff'. This landing-takeoff asymmetry has been thought to be a consequence of the force-velocity relation of the muscle, resulting in a greater force exerted during stretching after landing and a lower force developed during shortening before takeoff. However, the asymmetric lever system of the human foot during stance may also be the cause. Here, we measure the landing-takeoff asymmetry in bouncing steps of running, hopping and trotting animals using diverse lever systems. We find that the duration of the push exceeds that of the brake in all the animals, indicating that the different lever systems comply with the basic property of muscle to resist stretching with a force greater than that developed during shortening. In addition, results show both the landing-takeoff asymmetry and the mass-specific vertical stiffness to be greater in small animals than in large animals. We suggest that the landing-takeoff asymmetry is an index of a lack of elasticity, which increases with increasing the role of muscle relative to that of tendon within muscle-tendon units.

  19. Runs of homozygosity and population history in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purfield Deirdre C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Runs of homozygosity (ROH are contiguous lengths of homozygous genotypes that are present in an individual due to parents transmitting identical haplotypes to their offspring. The extent and frequency of ROHs may inform on the ancestry of an individual and its population. Here we use high density (n = 777,962 bi-allelic SNPs in a range of cattle breed samples to correlate ROH with the pedigree-based inbreeding coefficients and to validate subsequent analyses using 54,001 SNP genotypes. This study provides a first testing of the inference drawn from ROH through comparison with estimates of inbreeding from calculations based on the detailed pedigree data available for several breeds. Results All animals genotyped on the HD panel displayed at least one ROH that was between 1–5 Mb in length with certain regions of the genome more likely to be involved in a ROH than others. Strong correlations (r = 0.75, p  0.5 KB and suggests that in the absence of an animal’s pedigree data, the extent of a genome under ROH may be used to infer aspects of recent population history even from relatively few samples. Conclusions Our findings suggest that ROH are frequent across all breeds but differing patterns of ROH length and burden illustrate variations in breed origins and recent management.

  20. Forced splitting of human sleep in free-running rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulley; Carr

    1992-06-01

    The assumption of polyphasic sleep/wake regulation is based on the occurrence of nap-sleep at specific phase positions in the circadian cycle. Further support would be the split of the normal long major sleep episode into shorter components. Evidence for this hypothesis comes from the discovery of bimodal distribution in sleep duration. An experimental approach to test this hypothesis has been carried out by restricting sleep duration in free-running rhythms. The outcome was a biphasic distribution of sleep within a circadian cycle with sections of dissociation and synchronization of the two sleep blocks. The results show similarities with 'splitting', a phenomenon which has been found in animal studies. The relatively short duration of the different sections as well as the asymmetric distribution of the two sleep blocks in the circadian cycle leads to the assumption of a splitting of the major sleep episode and not of the circadian rhythm. Sleep split into two, relatively short sleep episodes of comparable duration contrasts with napping, which is characterized by an extra sleep episode in addition to the long major sleep.

  1. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  2. Automated home cage observations as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on cage floor locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud; Spruijt, Berry M

    2005-05-28

    This paper introduces automated observations in a modular home cage system as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on the time distribution and daily organization of cage floor locomotor activity in female C57BL/6 mice. Mice (n = 16) were placed in the home cage system for 6 consecutive days. Fifty percent of the subjects had free access to a running wheel that was integrated in the home cage. Overall activity levels in terms of duration of movement were increased by wheel running, while time spent inside a sheltering box was decreased. Wheel running affected the hourly pattern of movement during the animals' active period of the day. Mice without a running wheel, in contrast to mice with a running wheel, showed a clear differentiation between novelty-induced and baseline levels of locomotion as reflected by a decrease after the first day of introduction to the home cage. The results are discussed in the light of the use of running wheels as a tool to measure general activity and as an object for environmental enrichment. Furthermore, the possibilities of using automated home cage observations for e.g. behavioural phenotyping are discussed.

  3. Renormalization-group running cosmologies and the generalized second law

    CERN Document Server

    Horvat, R

    2007-01-01

    We explore some thermodynamical consequences of accelerated universes driven by a running cosmological constant (CC) from the renormalization group (RG). Application of the generalized second law (GSL) of gravitational thermodynamics to a framework where the running of the CC goes at the expense of energy transfer between vacuum and matter, strongly restricts the mass spectrum of a (hypothetical) theory controlling the CC running. We find that quantum effects driving the running of the CC should be dominated by a trans-planckian mass field, in marked contrast with the GUT-scale upper mass bo obtained by analyzing density perturbations for the running CC. The model shows compliance with the holographic principle.

  4. Is the Exchange Rate Predictable in the Long-Run?

    OpenAIRE

    Soowon Mo; Wookil Cho

    1994-01-01

    The short-run and long-run forecasts of exchange rates based on the three structural models are compared to those based on the random walk model. The long—run forecasts are generated by the error—correction equations of the Johansen's multivariate cointegration technique. The results show that while the random walk model outperforms the structural models in the short—run forecasting, the structural models outperform the random walk in the long—run forecasting. Our results indicate tha...

  5. Injury-free running - a utopia? Risk factors of running-related injuries in men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worp, M.P. van der

    2016-01-01

    Running is a popular sport worldwide and has a positive effect on health and well-being. However, the rate of running-related injuries and the associated costs are high. Van der Worp performed a systematic review to examine which factors increase the risk of running injuries, and whether this is the

  6. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  7. Computer facial animation

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Frederic I

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

  8. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  9. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  10. Women Protecting Endangered Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ON the Yongding River, 40 kilometers south of Beijing lies the Beijing Center for Breeding Endangered Animals.Built more than 10 years ago it is the only rare and endangered animal base in China, incorporating such functions as Scientific research, raising, breeding and medical treatment. There are more than 30 national and international rare species, with a total of more than 1,000 animals. Among them, the snub-nosed golden monkey, Chinese monal pheasant and eared pheasant account for the largest number of man-bred species in the world.

  11. Utilization of Human-Like Pelvic Rotation for Running Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya eOtani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The spring loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP is used to model human running. It is based on a characteristic feature of human running, in which the linear-spring-like motion of the standing leg is produced by the joint stiffness of the knee and ankle. Although this model is widely used in robotics, it does not include human-like pelvic motion. In this study, we show that the pelvis actually contributes to the increase in jumping force and absorption of landing impact. On the basis of this finding, we propose a new model, SLIP2 (spring loaded inverted pendulum with pelvis, to improve running in humanoid robots. The model is composed of a body mass, a pelvis, and leg springs, and, it can control its springs while running by use of pelvic movement in the frontal plane. To achieve running motions, we developed a running control system that includes a pelvic oscillation controller to attain control over jumping power and a landing placement controller to adjust the running speed. We also developed a new running robot by using the SLIP2 model and performed hopping and running experiments to evaluate the model. The developed robot could accomplish hopping motions only by pelvic movement. The results also established that the difference between the pelvic rotational phase and the oscillation phase of the vertical mass displacement affects the jumping force. In addition, the robot demonstrated the ability to run with a foot placement controller depending on the reference running speed.

  12. BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF RUNNING IN THE HIGH JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Werlayne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the biomechanics of running at high jump. To this study was realized a bibliographic revision. The running phase is the one which starts when the athlete is set in movement for the jump until the moment that he touches the ground with the takeoff foot in front of the bar, this phase can be divided into two parts: the running in straight line and the running in curve. On the other hand, for better understanding and due to a biomechanical complexity, the running in curve will be divided into three other parts: the three last strides, the two last strides and the last strides. Besides that, we could mention important factors for an efficient approach run: the radius of the curve, the distance and length of the takeoff run.

  13. Gait-specific energetics contributes to economical walking and running in emus and ostriches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rebecca R; Rubenson, Jonas; Coder, Lisa; Hoyt, Donald F; Propert, Matthew W G; Marsh, Richard L

    2011-07-07

    A widely held assumption is that metabolic rate (Ė(met)) during legged locomotion is linked to the mechanics of different gaits and this linkage helps explain the preferred speeds of animals in nature. However, despite several prominent exceptions, Ė(met) of walking and running vertebrates has been nearly uniformly characterized as increasing linearly with speed across all gaits. This description of locomotor energetics does not predict energetically optimal speeds for minimal cost of transport (E(cot)). We tested whether large bipedal ratite birds (emus and ostriches) have gait-specific energetics during walking and running similar to those found in humans. We found that during locomotion, emus showed a curvilinear relationship between Ė(met) and speed during walking, and both emus and ostriches demonstrated an abrupt change in the slope of Ė(met) versus speed at the gait transition with a linear increase during running. Similar to human locomotion, the minimum net E(cot) calculated after subtracting resting metabolism was lower in walking than in running in both species. However, the difference in net E(cot) between walking and running was less than is found in humans because of a greater change in the slope of Ė(met) versus speed at the gait transition, which lowers the cost of running for the avian bipeds. For emus, we also show that animals moving freely overground avoid a range of speeds surrounding the gait-transition speed within which the E(cot) is large. These data suggest that deviations from a linear relation of metabolic rate and speed and variations in transport costs with speed are more widespread than is often assumed, and provide new evidence that locomotor energetics influences the choice of speed in bipedal animals. The low cost of transport for walking is probably ecologically important for emus and ostriches because they spend the majority of their active day walking, and thus the energy used for locomotion is a large part of their daily

  14. Advanced overlay: sampling and modeling for optimized run-to-run control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramany, Lokesh; Chung, WoongJae; Samudrala, Pavan; Gao, Haiyong; Aung, Nyan; Gomez, Juan Manuel; Gutjahr, Karsten; Park, DongSuk; Snow, Patrick; Garcia-Medina, Miguel; Yap, Lipkong; Demirer, Onur Nihat; Pierson, Bill; Robinson, John C.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years overlay (OVL) control schemes have become more complicated in order to meet the ever shrinking margins of advanced technology nodes. As a result, this brings up new challenges to be addressed for effective run-to- run OVL control. This work addresses two of these challenges by new advanced analysis techniques: (1) sampling optimization for run-to-run control and (2) bias-variance tradeoff in modeling. The first challenge in a high order OVL control strategy is to optimize the number of measurements and the locations on the wafer, so that the "sample plan" of measurements provides high quality information about the OVL signature on the wafer with acceptable metrology throughput. We solve this tradeoff between accuracy and throughput by using a smart sampling scheme which utilizes various design-based and data-based metrics to increase model accuracy and reduce model uncertainty while avoiding wafer to wafer and within wafer measurement noise caused by metrology, scanner or process. This sort of sampling scheme, combined with an advanced field by field extrapolated modeling algorithm helps to maximize model stability and minimize on product overlay (OPO). Second, the use of higher order overlay models means more degrees of freedom, which enables increased capability to correct for complicated overlay signatures, but also increases sensitivity to process or metrology induced noise. This is also known as the bias-variance trade-off. A high order model that minimizes the bias between the modeled and raw overlay signature on a single wafer will also have a higher variation from wafer to wafer or lot to lot, that is unless an advanced modeling approach is used. In this paper, we characterize the bias-variance trade off to find the optimal scheme. The sampling and modeling solutions proposed in this study are validated by advanced process control (APC) simulations to estimate run-to-run performance, lot-to-lot and wafer-to- wafer model term monitoring to

  15. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  17. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  18. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  19. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to ... and wildlife, minilivestock, livestock farming systems and other disciplines. ... Selenium and tocopherol effects on parasitaemia, organ weights and ...

  20. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1...... to explore the program; for example, they can navigate the program using the 'Assist Me' option, which explains the basis of the ethical arguments. Reality text provides details of real events on which the case is based, and a glossary of terminology is available for the students to explore. Selected access...