WorldWideScience

Sample records for monkey macaca nemestrina

  1. Campylobacter pylori isolated from the stomach of the monkey, Macaca nemestrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsdon, M A; Schoenknecht, F D

    1988-09-01

    Campylobacter pylori was isolated from the gastric mucosa in 6 of 24 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) examined by gastric biopsy and culture; 3 isolates were recovered during gastroendoscopy, and 3 were recovered at necropsy. The isolates were morphologically and biochemically similar to the human type strain NCTC 11638, differing only in colony diameter, pigmentation, and rate of growth. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by whole-genomic DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain. Colonization of the monkey stomachs was associated with hypochlorhydria and histologic features resembling type B chronic gastritis in humans. Host animals exhibited no morbid clinical effects of colonization, although endoscopy revealed inflammation, erythema, and friable tissue in some animals. The discovery of C. pylori occurring spontaneously in M. nemestrina extends the known range of the hosts of the organism and offers the possibility of a natural or experimental model of the infection in monkeys.

  2. The pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina) as a space-flight candidate. [for cardiovascular studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Mains, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Scientific attributes which make the pig-tailed monkey an optimal candidate for studing the nature of cardiovascular and respiratory adaptations in man during exposure to high altitutes for long periods of time include: a calm, quiet, patient temperament; a short tail and the presence of ischial callosities permitting comfortable seated restraint during long duration experiments; and the close phylogenetic relationships and comparable body size to man.

  3. A computer touch screen system and training procedure for use with primate infants: Results from pigtail monkeys (Macaca nemestrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Dorothy J; Sackett, Gene P

    2008-03-01

    Computerized cognitive and perceptual testing has resulted in many advances towards understanding adult brain-behavior relations across a variety of abilities and species. However, there has been little migration of this technology to the assessment of very young primate subjects. We describe a training procedure and software that was developed to teach infant monkeys to interact with a touch screen computer. Eighteen infant pigtail macaques began training at 90-postnatal days and five began at 180-postnatal days. All animals were trained to reliably touch a stimulus presented on a computer screen and no significant differences were found between the two age groups. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using computers to assess cognitive and perceptual abilities early in development.

  4. Risk factors for dystocia in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, Diane E; Torrence, Anne E; Hukkanen, Renee R; Vogel, Keith W; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Ha, James C

    2011-04-01

    Dystocia (difficult labor) is an important component of the management of nonhuman primates and results in significant fetal and maternal morbidity and increased use of veterinary resources. Dystocias can arise from abnormalities of the maternal pelvis or fetus or uncoordinated uterine activity. Although risk factors for stillbirths have been established in nonhuman primates, risk factors for dystocias have not. The objective of this study was to determine maternal and fetal risk factors for dystocia in macaques. Retrospective data were collected from 83 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) diagnosed with dystocia. The diagnosis of dystocia was made based on clinical or pathologic evidence. Maternal records of age, reproductive history, experimental history, clinical records, and fetal birth weight and any applicable fetal necropsy reports were reviewed. The gestational age of the fetus, the infant's birth weight, total previous births by the dam, and the proportions of both viable delivery (inverse effect) and surgical pregnancy interventions (direct effect) in the dam's history generated a model that maximized the experimental variance for predicting dystocia in the current pregnancy and explained 24% of the dystocia deliveries. The number of total previous births and proportion of previous cesarean sections accounted for the greatest effect. This model can identify individual dams within a colony that are at risk for dystocias and allow for changes in breeding colony management, more intense monitoring of dams at risk, or allocation of additional resources.

  5. Choriodecidual infection downregulates angiogenesis and morphogenesis pathways in fetal lungs from Macaca nemestrina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M McAdams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrauterine exposure to amniotic fluid (AF cytokines is thought to predispose to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. We evaluated the effects of GBS exposure on RNA expression in fetal lung tissue to determine early molecular pathways associated with fetal lung injury that may progress to BPD. METHODS: Ten chronically catheterized pregnant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina at 118-125 days gestation (term = 172 days received choriodecidual inoculation of either: 1 Group B Streptococcus (n = 5 or 2 saline (n = 5. Cesarean section and fetal necropsy was performed in the first week after GBS or saline inoculation regardless of labor. RNA was extracted from fetal lungs and profiled by microarray. Results were analyzed using single gene, Gene Set, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Validation was by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Despite uterine quiescence in most cases, fetal lung injury occurred in four GBS cases (intra-alveolar neutrophils, interstitial thickening and one control (peri-mortem hemorrhage. Significant elevations of AF cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 were detected in GBS versus controls (p<0.05. Lung injury was not directly caused by GBS, because GBS was undetectable by culture and PCR in the AF and fetal lungs. A total of 335 genes were differentially expressed greater than 1.5 fold (p<0.05 with GBS exposure associated with a striking upregulation of genes in innate and adaptive immunity and downregulation of pathways for angiogenesis, morphogenesis, and cellular growth and development. CONCLUSIONS: A transient choriodecidual infection may induce fetal lung injury with profound alterations in the genetic program of the fetal lung before signs of preterm labor. Our results provide a window for the first time into early molecular pathways disrupting fetal lung angiogenesis and morphogenesis before preterm labor occurs, which may set the stage for BPD. A strategy to prevent BPD should target the fetus in

  6. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  7. Testing for localized stimulus enhancement and object movement reenactment in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and young children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Marco M; Custance, Deborah M; Previde, Emanuela Prato; Spiezio, Caterina

    2005-08-01

    Four puzzle boxes were used to investigate localized stimulus enhancement and object movement reenactment (OMR) in 13 pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and 30 human infants (Homo sapiens). Participants received contrasting demonstrations on each box. A circular lid was gripped by its rim or handle and swiveled to the left or right. A flap door was pushed or flipped. A sliding lid was pushed to the left or right. A pin bolt was demonstrated being pushed down, or the participants were left to solve the puzzle for themselves. Despite the fact that the monkeys watched the demonstrations about 60% of the time, only a weak OMR effect was found on the sliding lid. In contrast, the children watched significantly more, and there was clear evidence of socially mediated learning on all of the boxes.

  8. Thromboelastography values from pigtail macaques ( Macaca nemestrina): effects of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Derek L; Ha, James C; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E

    2012-01-01

    Thromboelastography is a clinical laboratory test used to assess global hemostasis. With technologic advances and the test's reemergence in human medicine, its utility in veterinary medicine is being explored. Because assays for PT, aPTT, and d-dimers require platelet-poor plasma, whereas thromboelastography is performed on whole blood, thromboelastography provides a more accurate representation of coagulation and allows the identification of hypocoagulable, hypercoagulable, and hyperfibrinolytic states. Conflicting information has been reported about the effects of age and sex on thromboelastog- raphy in humans and animals. Human studies have reported significant effects of age and sex on thromboelastography more often than have animal studies, but few publications are available about thromboelastography in the nonhuman primate and laboratory animal literature. We used a sample of 50 pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) to determine whether age or sex influence thromboelastography values. Of 5 measured and 2 calculated variables produced by thromboelastography, sex had a significant effect only on the lysis-30 parameter, which also showed significant interaction between age and sex; values increased with age in male macaques but decreased with age in female macaques. In addition, we used the data to define reference intervals for thromboelastography parameters in pigtail macaques.

  9. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  10. Phylogenetic relationships of Malaysia's pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina based on D-loop region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Latiff M. A., B.; Ampeng, A.; Yaakop, S.; Md-Zain B., M.

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysian pig-tailed macaques have never been established even though the data are crucial in aiding conservation plan for the species. The aims of this study is to establish the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca nemestrina in Malaysia. A total of 21 genetic samples of M. nemestrina yielding 458 bp of D-loop sequences were used in phylogenetic analyses, in addition to one sample of M. fascicularis which was used as an outgroup. Sequence character analysis revealed that D-loop locus contains 23% parsimony informative character detected among the ingroups. Further analysis indicated a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula populations are separated from Borneo Insular population; and Perak population formed a distinctive clade within Peninsular Malaysia populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo population was distinguished from Peninsula population (100% bootstrap value in the NJ, MP, 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). Perak's population was separated from other Peninsula populations (100% in NJ, 99% in MP and 1.00 in Bayesian). D-loop region of mtDNA is proven to be a suitable locus in studying the separation of M. nemestrina at population level. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.

  11. Metabolic alkalosis during immobilization in monkeys (M. nemestrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. R.; Yeh, I.; Swenson, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systemic and renal acid-base response of monkeys during ten weeks of immobilization was studied. By three weeks of immobilization, arterial pH and bicarbonate concentrations were elevated (chronic metabolic alkalosis). Net urinary acid excretion increased in immobilized animals. Urinary bicarbonate excretion decreased during the first three weeks of immobilization, and then returned to control levels. Sustained increases in urinary ammonium excretion were seen throughout the time duration of immobilization. Neither potassium depletion nor hypokalemia was observed. Most parameters returned promptly to the normal range during the first week of recovery. Factors tentatively associated with changes in acid-base status of monkeys include contraction of extracellular fluid volume, retention of bicarbonate, increased acid excretion, and possible participation of extrarenal buffers.

  12. Pathogenic infection of Macaca nemestrina with a CCR5-tropic subtype-C simian-human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ruijiang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina have been used in AIDS research for years, less is known about the early immunopathogenic events in this species, as compared to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. Similarly, the events in early infection are well-characterized for simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV, but less so for chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV, although the latter have been widely used in HIV vaccine studies. Here, we report the consequences of intrarectal infection with a CCR5-tropic clade C SHIV-1157ipd3N4 in pig-tailed macaques. Results Plasma and cell-associated virus was detectable in peripheral blood and intestinal tissues of all four pig-tailed macaques following intrarectal inoculation with SHIV-1157ipd3N4. We also observed a rapid and irreversible loss of CD4+ T cells at multiple mucosal sites, resulting in a marked decrease of CD4:CD8 T cell ratios 0.5–4 weeks after inoculation. This depletion targeted subsets of CD4+ T cells expressing the CCR5 coreceptor and having a CD28-CD95+ effector memory phenotype, consistent with the R5-tropism of SHIV-1157ipd3N4. All three animals that were studied beyond the acute phase seroconverted as early as week 4, with two developing cross-clade neutralizing antibody responses by week 24. These two animals also demonstrated persistent plasma viremia for >48 weeks. One of these animals developed AIDS, as shown by peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion starting at 20 weeks post inoculation. Conclusion These findings indicate that SHIV-1157ipd3N4-induced pathogenesis in pig-tailed macaques followed a similar course as SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Thus, R5 SHIV-C-infection of pig-tailed macaques could provide a useful and relevant model for AIDS vaccine and pathogenesis research.

  13. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space

    OpenAIRE

    Drucker, Caroline B.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance...

  14. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Caroline B; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2014-07-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance, location, and spacing of the vertical array. We next asked whether monkeys show a spatially-oriented number mapping by testing their responses to the same five-element stimulus array rotated ninety degrees into a horizontal line. In these horizontal probe trials, monkeys preferentially selected the fourth position from the left, but not the fourth position from the right. Our results indicate that rhesus macaques map number onto space, suggesting that the association between number and space in human cognition is not purely a result of cultural experience and instead has deep evolutionary roots.

  15. Essentialism in the Absence of Language? Evidence from Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Webb; Shankar, Maya; Santos, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    We explored whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) share one important feature of human essentialist reasoning: the capacity to track category membership across radical featural transformations. Specifically, we examined whether monkeys--like children (Keil, 1989)--expect a transformed object to have the internal properties of its original…

  16. Symptomatic dermographism (factitious urticaria)--passive transfer experiments from human to monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, G M; Zollman, P E; Greaves, M W; Winkelmann, R K

    1987-06-01

    Passive transfer experiments were carried out on three species of monkey, Macaca mulatta, Macaca nemestrina and Macaca fascicularis, using human serum from patients affected with severe symptomatic dermographism (factitious urticaria), cholinergic urticaria, chronic idiopathic urticaria and normal subjects. The monkeys were tested for dermographism by means of a calibrated dermographometer 24 h after intradermal injection of the serum, using Evans blue as a marker. Positive responses were seen initially in the M. nemestrina. Four sites injected with serum from patients with severe symptomatic dermographism gave positive responses, one site injected with serum from a normal subject produced a faint response. One of the four responses was reproduced one month later in M. fascicularis. These results indicate that passive transfer of dermographism is possible from human to monkey.

  17. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  18. STEREOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COCHLEAR NUCLEI OF MONKEY (MACACA FASCICULARIS AFTER DEAFFERENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Insausti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cochlear nuclei (CN in the brainstem receive the input signals from the inner ear through the cochlear nerve, and transmit these signals to higher auditory centres. A variety of lesions of the cochlear nerve cause deafness. As reported in the literature, artificial removal of auditive input, or 'deafferentation', induces structural alterations in the CN. The purpose of this study was to estimate a number of relevant stereological parameters of the CN in control and deafferented Macaca fascicularis monkeys.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Probing around implants and teeth with healthy or inflamed peri-implant mucosa/gingival. A histologic comparison in cynomolgus monkeys. (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Søren; Holmstrup, Palle; Stoltze, K.

    2002-01-01

    Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis......Osseointegrated oral implants; teeth; phathology; peri-implant mucositis; gingivitis; peri-implantitis; periodontitis; diagnosis; probing depth; non-human primates; cynomolgus monkeys: Macaca fascicularis...

  1. Effects of feeding selenium deficient diets to rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.A.; Whanger, P.D.; Patton, N.M.

    1988-02-01

    Pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were fed either selenium (Se) deficient or Se supplemented diets with adequate vitamin E. Except for some cardiac irregularities in the first babies born to these females, no physiological disorders due to Se deficiency were seen in a subsequent offspring. Plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activities and blood Se levels increased in the Se supplemented monkeys but decreased in the deficient ones. The data indicated that hair Se levels reflect long term exposure to this element. In a very preliminary experiment, evidence was obtained to indicate that dietary protein deficiency along with Se deficiency will generate cardiomyopathic lesions characteristic of Se deficiency. It is hypothesized that, in addition to Se deficiency, another dietary deficiency (or abnormality) is necessary to produce Se deficiency lesions in higher primates. Higher glutathione transferase (or non-Se glutathione peroxidase) activity in tissues of rhesus monkeys may account for this resistance.

  2. Effects elicited by toxaphene in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, F; Iverson, F; Andrews, P; Barker, M; Cherry, W; Mueller, R; Pulido, O; Hayward, S; Fernie, S; Arnold, D L

    2001-12-01

    Toxaphene, which was added to glycerol/corn oil, was administered at a level of 1 mg/kg body weight/day in gelatin capsules to four healthy young adult cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys for 52 weeks. Four control monkeys ingested capsules containing only glycerol/corn oil. Each group had two males and two females. On a daily basis, each monkey's feed and water consumption was determined, its health was monitored and the females were swabbed to evaluate menstrual status. On a weekly basis, each monkey's body weight was determined and a detailed clinical evaluation was performed. At 4-week intervals, blood samples were taken for serum biochemistry, haematology and toxaphene analysis. Also, a local anaesthetic was administered to the nuchal fat pad area of each monkey, and adipose samples were obtained for toxaphene analysis. 1 day prior to the biopsies, a 24-h urine and faecal collection was obtained for toxaphene analysis. After 34 weeks of treatment, the immune system of the monkeys was evaluated. After 52 weeks of dosing, all treated and two control animals were necropsied. Liver samples were obtained and microsomal fractions were prepared immediately. A portion of liver and kidney was taken for toxaphene analysis. All of the major internal organs were weighed and bone marrow evaluations were conducted. Organ and tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin and processed for light microscopy. There was no effect of treatment on body weight gain, feed consumption, water consumption or haematological parameters. Two major clinical findings were inflammation and/or enlargement of the tarsal gland and impacted diverticulae in the upper and lower eye lids. At necropsy, the relative spleen and thymus weights were greater for the treated monkeys than the controls. Toxaphene administration produced an increase in metabolism of aminopyrene, methoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin, three substrates that are altered specifically by cytochrome P450-based hepatic

  3. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  4. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans

  5. A computer touch screen system and training procedure for use with primate infants: Results from pigtail monkeys (Macaca nemestrina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D.J.; Sackett, G.P.

    2008-01-01

    Computerized cognitive and perceptual testing has resulted in many advances towards understanding adult brain-behavior relations across a variety of abilities and species. However, there has been little migration of this technology to the assessment of very young primate subjects. We describe a trai

  6. A computer touch screen system and training procedure for use with primate infants: Results from pigtail monkeys (Macaca nemestrina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D.J.; Sackett, G.P.

    2008-01-01

    Computerized cognitive and perceptual testing has resulted in many advances towards understanding adult brain-behavior relations across a variety of abilities and species. However, there has been little migration of this technology to the assessment of very young primate subjects. We describe a

  7. A computer touch screen system and training procedure for use with primate infants: Results from pigtail monkeys (Macaca nemestrina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D.J.; Sackett, G.P.

    2008-01-01

    Computerized cognitive and perceptual testing has resulted in many advances towards understanding adult brain-behavior relations across a variety of abilities and species. However, there has been little migration of this technology to the assessment of very young primate subjects. We describe a trai

  8. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) discriminate between knowing and not knowing and collect information as needed before acting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Robert R; Zivin, Aaron; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2004-10-01

    Humans use memory awareness to determine whether relevant knowledge is available before acting, as when we determine whether we know a phone number before dialing. Such metacognition, or thinking about thinking, can improve selection of appropriate behavior. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys ( Macaca mulatta) are capable of a simple form of metacognitive access to the contents of short-term memory. Monkeys chose among four opaque tubes, one of which concealed food. The tube containing the reward varied randomly from trial to trial. On half the trials the monkeys observed the experimenter baiting the tube, whereas on the remaining trials their view of the baiting was blocked. On each trial, monkeys were allowed a single chance to select the tube containing the reward. During the choice period the monkeys had the opportunity to look down the length of each tube, to determine if it contained food. When they knew the location of the reward, most monkeys chose without looking. In contrast, when ignorant, monkeys often made the effort required to look, thereby learning the location of the reward before choosing. Looking improved accuracy on trials on which monkeys had not observed the baiting. The difference in looking behavior between trials on which the monkeys knew, and trials on which they were ignorant, suggests that rhesus monkeys discriminate between knowing and not knowing. This result extends similar observations made of children and apes to a species of Old World monkey, suggesting that the underlying cognitive capacities may be widely distributed among primates.

  9. Auditory Rehabilitation in Rhesus Macaque Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Auditory Brainstem Implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Min Wang; Zhi-Jun Yang; Fu Zhao; Bo Wang; Xing-Chao Wang; Pei-Ran Qu; Pi-Nan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) have been used to treat deafness for patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 and nontumor patients.The lack of an appropriate animal model has limited the study of improving hearing rehabilitation by the device.This study aimed to establish an animal model of ABI in adult rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta).Methods:Six adult rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) were included.Under general anesthesia,a multichannel ABI was implanted into the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle through the modified suboccipital-retrosigmoid (RS) approach.The electrical auditory brainstem response (EABR) waves were tested to ensure the optimal implant site.After the operation,the EABR and computed tomography (CT) were used to test and verify the effectiveness via electrophysiology and anatomy,respectively.The subjects underwent behavioral observation for 6 months,and the postoperative EABR was tested every two weeks from the 1st month after implant surgery.Result:The implant surgery lasted an average of 5.2 h,and no monkey died or sacrificed.The averaged latencies of peaks Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅳ were 1.27,2.34 and 3.98 ms,respectively in the ABR.One-peak EABR wave was elicited in the operation,and one-or two-peak waves were elicited during the postoperative period.The EABR wave latencies appeared to be constant under different stimulus intensities;however,the amplitudes increased as the stimulus increased within a certain scope.Conclusions:It is feasible and safe to implant ABIs in rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) through a modified suboccipital RS approach,and EABR and CT are valid tools for animal model establishment.In addition,this model should be an appropriate animal model for the electrophysiological and behavioral study of rhesus macaque monkey with ABI.

  10. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henkjan Honing

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1. Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2 and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3. In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm, the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group, but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm.

  11. Rosalie: the brazilian female monkey of Charcot Rosalie: a pequenina macaca brasileira de Charcot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Martin Charcot, the father of Neurology, a very austere and reserved man that did not express affection freely for human being, had a profound affection to animals, particularly to a small female monkey, called "Rosalie", which came from Brazil and was a gift of Dom Pedro II to Charcot.Jean-Martin Charcot, considerado o pai da Neurologia, foi um homem de aspecto austero e reservado, que tinha dificuldades de expressar os seus sentimentos para outros seres humanos. Contudo ele tinha profunda afeição por animais, particularmente por uma pequena macaca, chamada de "Rosalie", oriunda do Brasil e que foi um presente dado a ele por Dom Pedro II.

  12. Experimental oral toxicity of domoic acid in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and rats. Preliminary investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryphonas, L; Truelove, J; Todd, E; Nera, E; Iverson, F

    1990-10-01

    A recent outbreak of marine food poisoning in humans was attributed to the consumption of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) contaminated with domoic acid (DA) that was produced by the diatom Nitzschia pungens. The clinical and morphological effects of single oral doses of extracts of mussels contaminated with DA or of DA isolated from toxic mussels were investigated in small groups (one to six) of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; 0.5-10 mg DA/kg body weight) and of Sprague-Dawley rats (60 to 80 mg DA/kg body weight). Control animals were either given saline or were not treated. To test whether monosodium glutamate, present in the food consumed by some affected humans, and dimethylsulphoxide, suspected of being present in the plankton, enhanced the response, monosodium glutamate (at 0.25% of mussel extract bolus) or dimethylsulphoxide (at 1 g per bolus) were co-administered to two (one each) of the DA-treated monkeys. DA-treated monkeys developed transient excitation characterized by vomiting. DA-treated rats showed withdrawal followed by hyperexcitation and death (in one case). Mild to moderate central nervous system lesions consistent with neuroexcitation were present in both monkeys and rats. The addition of monosodium glutamate and dimethylsulphoxide had no significant effect on the appearance and severity of central nervous system clinical signs and lesions. The wide variations in the response of test animals to orally administered DA were attributed to the protective effect of vomiting, and to suspected incomplete or slow gastro-intestinal absorption of the toxic agent. The results reinforce the view that DA is an emetic and that under appropriate conditions may also inflict excitotoxic central nervous system damage.

  13. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Remember Future Responses in a Computerized Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Klein, Emily D.; Einstein, Gilles O.

    2012-01-01

    Planning is an important aspect of many daily activities for humans. Planning involves forming a strategy in anticipation of a future need. However, evidence that nonhuman animals can plan for future situations is limited, particularly in relation to the many other kinds of cognitive capacities that they appear to share with humans. One critical aspect of planning is the ability to remember future responses, or what is called prospective coding. Two monkey species performed a series of computerized tasks that required encoding a future response at the outset of each trial. Monkeys of both species showed competence in all tests that were given, providing evidence that they anticipated future responses, and that they appropriately engaged in those responses when the time was right for such responses. In addition, some tests demonstrated that monkeys even remembered future responses that were not as presently motivating as were other aspects of the task environment. These results indicated that monkeys can anticipate future responses and retain and implement those responses when appropriate. PMID:22545901

  14. Circulation of Campylobacter spp. in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta held in captivity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is an extremely important zoonosis, circulating freely in the environment. In nonhuman primates kept in open facilities and bred for experimental purposes, the presence of Campylobacter spp. could cause severe damage to the production and interfere with the results of scientific research. In this paper, we assessed the circulation of Campylobacter spp. in a colony of clinically healthy rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta destined to research. The analysis was carried out during seven non-consecutive years. Data showed that despite several changes made in animal management along the studied years in order to control this zoonosis, reduction of bacterial charge did not occur. Significant differences among the age groups and sex were observed. Infants showed higher susceptibility than adult animals. In general males were more infected than females. Modifications adopted in the handling techniques need to be reviewed with the intent of improving the production, reducing bacterial infection of the stock and avoiding undesirable cross reactions in the research carried out with these animals. Therefore, this paper alerts professionals that work directly with captive rhesus monkeys about the risks of Campylobacter spp. infection and possible interference on the experimental procedures.

  15. Maxillary nerve compression in cynomolgus monkey Macaca fascicularis: altered somatic sensation and peripheral nerve firing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Ning

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trigeminal nerve is a major source of the sensory input of the face, and trigeminal neuropathology models have been reported in rodents with injury to branches of the maxillary or mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Non-human primates are neuroanatomically more closely related to human than rodents; however, nerve injury studies in non-human primates are limited. Results We describe here a nerve injury model of maxillary nerve compression (MNC in the cynomolgus macaque monkey, Macaca fascicularis, and the initial characterization of the consequences of damage to this trigeminal nerve branch. The nerve injury from the compression appeared to be mild, as we did not observe overt changes in home-cage behavior in the monkeys. When mechanical stimulation was applied to the facial area, monkeys with MNC displayed increased mechanical sensitivity, as the avoidance response scores were lower than those from the control animals. Such a change in mechanical sensitivity appeared to be somewhat bilateral, as the contralateral side also showed increased mechanical sensitivity, although the change on the ipsilateral side was more robust. Multiple-unit recording of the maxillary nerve showed a general pattern of increasing responsiveness to escalating force in mechanical stimulation on the contralateral side. Ipsilateral side of the maxillary nerve showed a lack of responsiveness to escalating force in mechanical stimulation, possibly reflecting a maximum stimulation threshold effect from sensitized nerve due to MNC injury. Conclusions These results suggest that MNC may produce increased sensitivity of the ipsilateral maxillary nerve, and that this model may serve as a non-human primate model to evaluate the effect of injury to trigeminal nerve branches.

  16. Piracetam-induced changes on the brainstem auditory response in anesthetized juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Report of two clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Rivera, A; Gonzalez-Pina, R; Hernandez-Godinez, B; Ibanez-Contreras, A; Bueno-Nava, A; Alfaro-Rodriguez, A

    2012-10-01

    We describe two clinical cases and examine the effects of piracetam on the brainstem auditory response in infantile female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We found that the interwave intervals show a greater reduction in a 3-year-old rhesus monkey compared to a 1-year-old rhesus monkey. In this report, we discuss the significance of these observations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals.

  18. A behavioral taxonomy of loneliness in humans and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Capitanio

    Full Text Available Social relationships endow health and fitness benefits, but considerable variation exists in the extent to which individuals form and maintain salutary social relationships. The mental and physical health effects of social bonds are more strongly related to perceived isolation (loneliness than to objective social network characteristics. We sought to develop an animal model to facilitate the experimental analysis of the development of, and the behavioral and biological consequences of, loneliness. In Study 1, using a population-based sample of older adults, we examined how loneliness was influenced both by social network size and by the extent to which individuals believed that their daily social interactions reflected their own choice. Results revealed three distinct clusters of individuals: (i individuals with large networks who believed they had high choice were lowest in loneliness, (ii individuals with small social networks who believed they had low choice were highest in loneliness, and (iii the remaining two groups were intermediate and equivalent in loneliness. In Study 2, a similar three-group structure was identified in two separate samples of adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta living in large social groups: (i those high in sociability who had complex social interaction with a broad range of social partners (putatively low in loneliness, (ii those low in sociability who showed tentative interactions with certain classes of social partners (putatively high in loneliness, and (iii those low in sociability who interacted overall at low levels with a broad range of social partners (putatively low or intermediate in loneliness. This taxonomy in monkeys was validated in subsequent experimental social probe studies. These results suggest that, in highly social nonhuman primate species, some animals may show a mismatch between social interest and social attainment that could serve as a useful animal model for experimental and

  19. Toxic shock due to Streptococcus pyogenes in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Anapatricia; Paul, Katherine; Beall, Bernard; McClure, Harold

    2006-09-01

    Recent years have seen a worldwide resurgence in serious infections caused by group A streptococci. This group includes Streptococcus pyogenes, one of the most common pathogens among children which causes diverse suppurative infections, such as pharyngitis, as well as nonsuppurative infections with sequelae, such as rheumatoid fever and rheumatic heart disease. S. pyogenes produces several superantigen-like erythrogenic toxins, which are believed to be associated with pyrogenicity, erythromatous skin reactions, and various immunologic and cytotoxic effects. These toxins also can cause myocardial necrosis. In addition, recently reported streptococcal infections in obstetric human patients appear to be clinically different from classic puerperal sepsis. Here, we report a case of spontaneous streptococcal infection in a pregnant female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). In addition to lesions consistent with bacteremia and toxic shock, this animal had severe cardiac lesions resembling those described in humans with rheumatic heart disease. S. pyogenes was isolated from intracardiac blood, liver, placenta, and fetal tissues. This isolate also had a unique M protein gene.

  20. Co-localization of histamine and norepinephrine in sympathetic ganglia and exocytosis of endogenous histamine from cardiac sympathetic nerve endings of macaca mulatto monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-kaiLI; Xiao-xingLUO; Liang-weiCHEN; ZhongCHEN; JiaMENG; JingHU; Yu-meiWU; Jing-ruMENG; ZhengHOU; XueMA

    2005-01-01

    AIM To provide the evidence about localization, biosynthesis, metabolism and release of histamine from the cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals, and endogenous sympathetic histamine could inhibit itsel frelease from the nerve terminal through the presynaptic histamine H3 receptor. METHODS Using double-labeled immunohistochemistry to observe the co-localization of histamine and NE in the superior cer-vical ganglia (SCG) of macaca mulatto monkey; Different-speed centrifugation to obtain the cardiac sympathetic nerve terminal model (the cardiac synaptosomes), spectrofluorometer and ELISA techniques to detect the release of histamine from the cardiacsynaptosomes. RESULTS ( 1 ) The coexistence of histamine and norepinephrine immunoreactivities was identified in the same neuron within SCG of macaca mulatto monkey. (2) Depolarization of macaca mulatto monkey cardiac synaptosomes with 50 mmol/L potassium caused the release of endogenous histamine,

  1. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus, Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina and Tiger (Panthera tigris Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schmidt-Burbach

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  2. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  3. Microvasculature of the Olfactory Organ in the Japanese Monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2002-06-01

    Olfaction is an important and primitive sense. As its importance has changed with evolution, anatomic adjustments have occurred in its structure and vasculature. Primates are a family of vertebrates that have had to develop their visual system to adapt to the arboreal environment and have evolved from a macrosmatic to a microsmatic species as the optic system has enlarged. This has resulted in anatomic changes of a small but critical area at the base of the brain. This paper describes the three-dimensional vascular anatomy of the olfactory organ of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata fuscata). This is best understood by dividing the organ into three parts: the olfactory tract, olfactory bulb, and olfactory nerves in the nasal mucosa. The bulb can be partitioned into an outer or cortical part and inner or medullary part. The vasculature and tissue were examined grossly and with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. The olfactory tract and bulb were supplied by an arteriole from the anterior cerebral artery on each side. The tract was supplied by capillaries running spirally with a coarse network. At the olfactory bulb, the arteriole ramified into the intracortical and medullary branches that formed capillary networks. The bulbar intracortical capillaries were divided into two layers with different densities and vascular patterns. The capillaries of the superficial layer had a ladder-like pattern. The branches that ran into the medulla of the olfactory bulb were more widely spaced. Twigs from the posterior ethmoidal artery ran along the nerve fiber and formed intra- and extrafascicular networks. Each region of the olfactory organ had characteristic three-dimensional vascular patterns that were related to their cellular architecture.

  4. The acquisition of Streptococcus mutans by infant monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and its relationship to the initiation of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighton, D; Hayday, H; Walker, J

    1982-08-01

    The acquisition and transmission of Streptococcus mutans by 16 consecutively born infant monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) was studied. The 16 infant monkeys were weaned in four groups and caged together to form a commune. Transmission from mother to infant occurred infrequently. Streptococcus mutans was isolated from nine of the mothers but only from the dental plaque of two infant monkeys at weaning at which time the predominant streptococci were S. sanguis and S. mitior. One further animal was colonized by S. mutants during the formation of the commune, but only after it was caged with an infant harbouring the same organism. For 46 d after the completion of the commune, the monkeys were fed a starch-based diet during which time S. mutans of serotypes c, e or h were isolated from the faeces of all 16 animals and from the dental plaque taken from the developmental groove of the first deciduous molar of 11 animals. Faecal transmission appeared to be an important factor in the spread of S. mutans between monkeys in the commune. The monkeys were then fed a caries-promoting high sucrose diet resulting in a rapid increase in the proportion of S. mutans in the plaque and in the faeces. Streptococcus mutans serotype e was more frequently isolated from both plaque and faeces and its predominance may in part be due to the production of a bacteriocin active in vitro against S. mutans serotype h and other species of oral streptococci isolated from monkey dental plaque. The proportion of S. mutans in the developmental groove 8 d after the introduction of the high sucrose diet was significantly related to both the caries status of the groove and the total caries score 6 months later. The results suggest that, in this model of human dental caries, S. mutans is the major bacterial factor in the initiation of tooth decay.

  5. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  6. Ordered recall in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta: Can monkeys recall the correct order of sequentially presented images?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E O'Neil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta are capable of identifying sequentially shown images in any order among distractors (i.e. images not part of the list sequence. We investigated ordered recall in rhesus monkeys in which subjects were expected to recognize the correct order of images during a “test” phase (simultaneous presentation of images after they had seen the images presented sequentially in a “presentation” phase (sequential presentation of images. If subjects were successfully able to execute the ordered recall task, the first trial accuracy data would appear close to 100% accuracy and it would only take one day to learn the list since the lists used were short, 3-item lists. While this study did not conclusively demonstrate monkeys are capable of ordered recall of sequentially presented, trial unique images (i.e. a list sequence presented only once per session, the data suggests that when the stimuli are not trial unique the monkeys treat each sequence as a simultaneous chaining task. A simultaneous chaining paradigm entails simultaneous presentation of all items without any previous sequential presentation of the images. It is unclear whether results resembling simultaneous chaining are seen because these animals have previous experience with simultaneous chaining, if the training procedure needs to be modified for the monkeys to understand the task, or if the task is beyond their cognitive abilities. Further research with serial learning will clarify this finding and also seek to prove whether rhesus monkeys are in fact capable of such ordered recall tasks.

  7. Trisomy 16 in a Pigtailed Macaque ("M. nemestrina") with Multiple Anomalies and Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppenthal, Gerald C.; Moore, Charleen M.; Best, Robert G.; Walker-Gelatt, Coleen G.; Delio, Patrick J.; Sackett, Gene P.

    2004-01-01

    A female pigtailed macaque ("Macaca nemestrina") with unusual physical characteristics, deficits in learning and cognitive tasks, abnormal social behavior, and abnormal reflexes and motor control was followed from birth until 3 years of age and found to have trisomy 16, which is homologous to trisomy 13 in humans. The animal described here showed…

  8. Associations between Parity, Hair Hormone Profiles during Pregnancy and Lactation, and Infant Development in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Suomi, Stephen J; Meyer, Jerrold S; Novak, Melinda A

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining hormones throughout pregnancy and lactation in women have been limited to single, or a few repeated, short-term measures of endocrine activity. Furthermore, potential differences in chronic hormonal changes across pregnancy/lactation between first-time and experienced mothers are not well understood, especially as they relate to infant development. Hormone concentrations in hair provide long-term assessments of hormone production, and studying these measures in non-human primates allows for repeated sampling under controlled conditions that are difficult to achieve in humans. We studied hormonal profiles in the hair of 26 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, n=12 primiparous), to determine the influences of parity on chronic levels of cortisol (hair cortisol concentration, HCC) and progesterone (hair progesterone concentration, HPC) during early- to mid-pregnancy (PREG1), in late pregnancy/early lactation (PREG2/LACT1), and in peak lactation (LACT2). We also assessed infants' neurobehavioral development across the first month of life. After controlling for age and stage of pregnancy at the first hair sampling period, we found that HCCs overall peaked in PREG2/LACT1 (p=0.02), but only in primiparous monkeys (ppregnancy and lactation for all monkeys (phormonal profiles and infant development. These effects may, in part, reflect differential reproductive and maternal effort in mothers with varied caretaking experience. In addition, infant exposure to relatively higher levels of maternal cortisol during the late fetal and early postnatal periods is predictive of poorer developmental outcomes.

  9. Experimental hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis): evidence of active extrahepatic site of HAV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Luciane A; Marchevsky, Renato S; de Paula, Vanessa S; Hooper, Cleber; Freire, Marcos da S; Gaspar, Ana Maria C; Pinto, Marcelo A

    2010-02-01

    This work studied the replication sites of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) after intravenous inoculation. The cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with the Brazilian hepatitis A virus strain (HAF-203). Monkeys were euthanized on days 15, 30, 45 and 60 postinoculation (pi). Liver samples, submandibular salivary gland, mesenteric lymph node and tonsils were removed for virological and pathological evaluation. Immunofluorescence analyses on liver and salivary gland sections using confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the presence of HAV antigen (HAV Ag). The presence of HAV genome was monitored by real-time PCR. The HAV RNA was detected at 7 days postinoculation (dpi), concomitantly in serum, saliva and faeces. The highest HAV viral load was observed in faeces at 15 dpi (10(5) copies/ml), followed by serum viral load of 10(4) copies/ml at 20 dpi and saliva viral load of 10(3 )copies/ml at 7 dpi. The animals showed first histological and biochemical signs of hepatitis at 15 dpi. The HAV antigen (Ag) was present from day 7 until day 60 pi in the liver and salivary glands. The HAV replicative intermediate was also detected in the liver (4.5 x 10(4) copies/mg), salivary glands (1.9 x 10(3) copies/mg), tonsils (4.2 x 10(1) copies/mg) and lymph nodes (3.4 x 10(1) copies/mg). Our data demonstrated that the salivary gland as an extrahepatic site of early HAV replication could create a potential risk of saliva transmitted infection. In addition, the cynomolgus monkey was confirmed as a suitable model to study the pathogenesis of HAV human infection.

  10. Immunization with Recombinant Helicobacter pylori Urease in Specific-Pathogen-Free Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Solnick, Jay V.; Canfield, Don R.; Hansen, Lori M.; Torabian, Sima Z.

    2000-01-01

    Immunization with urease can protect mice from challenge with Helicobacter pylori, though results vary depending on the particular vaccine, challenge strain, and method of evaluation. Unlike mice, rhesus monkeys are naturally colonized with H. pylori and so may provide a better estimate of vaccine efficacy in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of H. pylori urease as a vaccine in specific-pathogen (H. pylori)-free rhesus monkeys. Monkeys raised from birth and do...

  11. Individual differences in scanpaths correspond with serotonin transporter genotype and behavioral phenotype in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R Gibboni

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanpaths (the succession of fixations and saccades during spontaneous viewing contain information about the image but also about the viewer. To determine the viewer-dependent factors in the scanpaths of monkeys, we trained three adult males (Macaca mulatta to look for 3 s at images of conspecific facial expressions with either direct or averted gaze. The subjects showed significant differences on four basic scanpath parameters (number of fixations, fixation duration, saccade length, and total scanpath length when viewing the same facial expression/gaze direction combinations. Furthermore, we found differences between monkeys in feature preference and in the temporal order in which features were visited on different facial expressions. Overall, the between-subject variability was larger than the within- subject variability, suggesting that scanpaths reflect individual preferences in allocating visual attention to various features in aggressive, neutral, and appeasing facial expressions. Individual scanpath characteristics were brought into register with the genotype for the serotonin transporter regulatory gene (5-HTTLPR and with behavioral characteristics such as expression of anticipatory anxiety and impulsiveness/hesitation in approaching food in the presence of a potentially dangerous object.

  12. Aging, dominance history, and social behavior in Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Veenema, H.C.; Spruijt, B.M.; Vanhooff, J.A.R.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the dominance history of socially housed Java-monkeys on the aging process. In monkeys, social subordinance is generally associated with elevated levels of cortisol, which, in turn, have been suggested to influence cognitive decline. As cogni

  13. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) adaptively adjust information seeking in response to information accumulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Pani, Alex A; Hampton, Robert R

    2015-11-01

    Metacognition consists of monitoring and control processes. Monitoring has been inferred when nonhumans use a "decline test" response to selectively escape difficult test trials. Cognitive control has been inferred from selective information-seeking behavior by nonhumans ignorant of needed knowledge. Here we describe a computerized paradigm that extends previous work and assesses dynamic interactions between monitoring and control. Monkeys classified images as containing birds, fish, flowers, or people. To-be-classified images were initially masked, and monkeys were trained to gradually reveal the images by touching a "reveal button." Monkeys could choose to classify images at any time or to reveal more of the images. Thus, they had the opportunity to assess when enough of an image had been revealed to support accurate classification. In Experiment 1, monkeys made more reveal responses before classifying when smaller amounts of the image were revealed by each button touch. In Experiment 2, to-be-classified images were shrunk and covered by 1 critical blocker among other blockers that did not provide information when removed. Monkeys made more reveal responses as the critical blocker was removed later in the trial. In Experiment 3, monkeys were presented with previously classified images with either more or fewer blockers obscuring the image than was the case when they chose to classify that image previously. Monkeys made more reveal responses when information was insufficient than when it was excessive. These results indicate that monkeys dynamically monitor evolving decision processes and adaptively collect information as necessary to maintain accuracy.

  14. Nucleotide sequence of the BamHI repetitive sequence, including the HindIII fundamental unit, as a possible mobile element from the Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassolov, V S; Kuchino, Y; Nemoto, K; Nishimura, S

    1986-01-01

    Clustered repeat units produced by BamHI digestion of genomic DNA from the Japanese monkey Macaca fuscata [JMr(BamHI)] were sequenced by dideoxy DNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences of several individual repeats showed that the BamHI repeat contains the 170-bp HindIII element as an integral part, and that it has more than 90% homology with the HindIII repeat element [AGMr(HindIII)] found in the genomic DNA of the African green monkey. In the JMr(BamHI) repeat unit, the 170-bp HindIII element is flanked by a 6-bp inverted repeat, which is part of a 22-bp direct repeat. This latter repeat of 22-bp asymmetrically overlaps the border between the internal AGMr(HindIII)-like region and adjacent regions of the JMr(BamHI) repeat. A similar structural feature of the BamHI repeat unit has been found in the genomic DNA of the baboon, but not in that of the African green monkey. These results show clearly that the BamHI repeat of the modern Japanese monkey originated as a result of insertion of an AGMr(HindIII) element into a certain site(s) of the genomic DNA of an ancestor of the modern Japanese monkey before Macaca-Cercocebus divergence.

  15. Associations between Parity, Hair Hormone Profiles during Pregnancy and Lactation, and Infant Development in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Dettmer

    Full Text Available Studies examining hormones throughout pregnancy and lactation in women have been limited to single, or a few repeated, short-term measures of endocrine activity. Furthermore, potential differences in chronic hormonal changes across pregnancy/lactation between first-time and experienced mothers are not well understood, especially as they relate to infant development. Hormone concentrations in hair provide long-term assessments of hormone production, and studying these measures in non-human primates allows for repeated sampling under controlled conditions that are difficult to achieve in humans. We studied hormonal profiles in the hair of 26 female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, n=12 primiparous, to determine the influences of parity on chronic levels of cortisol (hair cortisol concentration, HCC and progesterone (hair progesterone concentration, HPC during early- to mid-pregnancy (PREG1, in late pregnancy/early lactation (PREG2/LACT1, and in peak lactation (LACT2. We also assessed infants' neurobehavioral development across the first month of life. After controlling for age and stage of pregnancy at the first hair sampling period, we found that HCCs overall peaked in PREG2/LACT1 (p=0.02, but only in primiparous monkeys (p<0.001. HPCs declined across pregnancy and lactation for all monkeys (p<0.01, and primiparous monkeys had higher HPCs overall than multiparous monkeys (p=0.02. Infants of primiparous mothers had lower sensorimotor reflex scores (p=0.02 and tended to be more irritable (p=0.05 and less consolable (p=0.08 in the first month of life. Moreover, across all subjects, HCCs in PREG2/LACT1 were positively correlated with irritability (r(s=0.43, p=0.03 and negatively correlated with sensorimotor scores (r(s=-0.41, p=0.04. Together, the present results indicate that primiparity influences both chronic maternal hormonal profiles and infant development. These effects may, in part, reflect differential reproductive and maternal effort in

  16. Limited Susceptibility of Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to Leprosy after Experimental Administration of Mycobacterium leprae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gerald P.; Dela Cruz, Eduardo C.; Abalos, Rodolfo M.; Tan, Esterlina V.; Fajardo, Tranquilino T.; Villahermosa, Laarni G.; Cellona, Roland V.; Balagon, Maria V.; White, Valerie A.; Saunderson, Paul R.; Walsh, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for human tuberculosis, but susceptibility to M. leprae is unknown. A cynomolgus model of leprosy could increase understanding of pathogenesis—importantly, neuritis and nerve-damaging reactions. We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1–19 years) involving biopsies, nasal smears, antiphenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody serology, and lepromin skin testing. Most developed evanescent papules at intradermal M. leprae inoculation sites that, on biopsy, showed a robust cellular immune response akin to a lepromin skin test reaction; many produced PGL-1 antibodies. At necropsy, four monkeys, without cutaneous or gross neurological signs of leprosy but with elevated PGL-1 antibodies, including three with nasal smears (+) for acid fast bacilli (AFB), showed histological features, including AFB, suggestive of leprosy at several sites. Overall, however, cynomolgus monkeys seem minimally susceptible to leprosy after experimental M. leprae administration. PMID:22855766

  17. The comparative psychology of same-different judgments by humans (Homo sapiens) and monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Redford, Joshua S; Haas, Sarah M; Coutinho, Mariana V C; Couchman, Justin J

    2008-07-01

    The authors compared the performance of humans and monkeys in a Same-Different task. They evaluated the hypothesis that for humans the Same-Different concept is qualitative, categorical, and rule-based, so that humans distinguish 0-disparity pairs (i.e., same) from pairs with any discernible disparity (i.e., different); whereas for monkeys the Same-Different concept is quantitative, continuous, and similarity-based, so that monkeys distinguish small-disparity pairs (i.e., similar) from pairs with a large disparity (i.e., dissimilar). The results supported the hypothesis. Monkeys, more than humans, showed a gradual transition from same to different categories and an inclusive criterion for responding Same. The results have implications for comparing Same-Different performances across species--different species may not always construe or perform even identical tasks in the same way. In particular, humans may especially apply qualitative, rule-based frameworks to cognitive tasks like Same-Different.

  18. Indirect Immunofluorescence, Serum Neutralization, and Viremia Responses of Thesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) to Machupo Virus,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-22

    immunofluorescent antibody tests (iFAT) have been developed V: for several arenaviruses , none has been applied to the rhesus monkey model for Bolivian...though indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IUAT) have been developed for several arenaviruses , none has been applied to the rhesus monkey model for...specific for individual arenaviruses than the SN procedure. Substantial cross- reactivity by IFAT has been described between New World arenaviruses

  19. Assessing significant (>30%) alopecia as a possible biomarker for stress in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Melinda A; Menard, Mark T; El-Mallah, Saif N; Rosenberg, Kendra; Lutz, Corrine K; Worlein, Julie; Coleman, Kris; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2017-01-01

    Hair loss is common in macaque colonies. Very little is known about the relationship between psychological stress and hair loss. We initially examined alopecia and hair cortisol concentrations in 198 (89 male) rhesus macaques from three primate centers and demonstrated replicability of our previous finding that extensive alopecia (>30% hair loss) is associated with increased chronic cortisol concentrations and significantly affected by facility. A subset of these monkeys (142 of which 67 were males) were sampled twice approximately 8 months apart allowing us to examine the hypotheses that gaining hair should be associated with decreases in cortisol concentrations and vice versa. Hair loss was digitally scored using ImageJ software for the first sample. Then visual assessment was used to examine the second sample, resulting in three categories of coat condition: (i) monkeys that remained fully haired; (ii) monkeys that remained alopecic (with more than 30% hair loss); or (iii) monkeys that showed more than a 15% increase in hair. The sample size for the group that lost hair was too small to be analyzed. Consistent with our hypothesis, monkeys that gained hair showed a significant reduction in hair cortisol concentrations but this effect only held for females. Coat condition changed little across sampling periods with only 25 (11 male) monkeys showing a greater than 15% gain of hair. Twenty (7 male) monkeys remained alopecic, whereas 97 (49 males) remained fully haired. Hair cortisol was highly correlated across samples for the monkeys that retained their status (remained alopecic or retained their hair). Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22547, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of prolonged ketamine exposure on cardiovascular physiology in pregnant and infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Wang, Cheng; Slikker, William

    2007-11-01

    Physiologic measurements in nonhuman primates usually are collected from animals that are chemically or physically restrained. Both types of restraint may affect the parameters measured, and those effects can vary with age. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, expired CO2, blood pressure, temperature, blood glucose, hematocrit, and venous blood gasses were measured in rhesus monkeys that were either infused intravenously with ketamine for 24 h or were cage-housed and physically restrained for sample collection. The subjects were pregnant monkeys at gestational day 120 to 123, infants 5 to 6 d old, and infants 35 to 37 d old. Heart rate and blood pressure were lower in ketamine-treated monkeys than physically restrained monkeys. Heart rate was higher in infants than adults, whereas blood pressure was lower in infants. Respiratory rate was higher in infants than adults and higher in physically restrained infants than ketamine-sedated infants but was not affected by ketamine in pregnant adults. Hematocrit was decreased in older infants. In summary, both physical restraint and ketamine sedation altered several physiologic parameters in pregnant and infant rhesus macaques. Investigators should consider these effects when designing experiments and evaluating experimental outcomes in monkeys.

  1. Isolation and characterization of liver epithelial progenitor cells from normal adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lifang Jin; Shaohui Ji; Xianghui Tang; Xiangyu Guo; Yongqing Lu; Hongwei Chen; Hongkui Deng; Qi Zhou; Weizhi Ji

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Based on their ability to proliferate and the capacity to differentiate into specific cell types, hepatic progenitor/stem cells (HPCs) from adult human liver may have potential therapeutic effects on end-stage liver failure. In addition, adult HPCs have a reduced risk of teratoma formation and are not subject to the same ethical issues as fetal HPCs or embryonic stem cells [1]. The HPCs from rhesus monkeys are relevant because they may serve as a valuable preclinical model for assessment of cell therapy in humans. To date, there are no reports of HPCs or liver epithelial progenitor cells (LEPCs) isolated from normal adult rhesus monkey although a few studies in other species were reported [2, 3]. We report here for the first time the successful isolation of rhesus monkey LEPCs (mLEPCs) from normal adult livers (n=12).

  2. Uncertain responses by humans and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a psychophysical same-different task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, W. E.; Smith, J. D.; Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The authors asked whether animals, like humans, use an uncertain response adaptively to escape indeterminate stimulus relations. Humans and monkeys were placed in a same-different task, known to be challenging for animals. Its difficulty was increased further by reducing the size of the stimulus differences, thereby making many same and different trials difficult to tell apart. Monkeys do escape selectively from these threshold trials, even while coping with 7 absolute stimulus levels concurrently. Monkeys even adjust their response strategies on short time scales according to the local task conditions. Signal-detection and optimality analyses confirm the similarity of humans' and animals' performances. Whereas associative interpretations account poorly for these results, an intuitive uncertainty construct does so easily. The authors discuss the cognitive processes that allow uncertainty's adaptive use and recommend further comparative studies of metacognition.

  3. Behavioural and pharmacokinetic studies in the monkey (Macaca mulatta) with diazepam, nordiazepam and related 1,4-benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, S H; Whelpton, R; Nicholson, A N; Wright, C M

    1977-11-01

    1. Behavioural activity (delayed differentiation and spatial delayed alternation) and pharmacokinetics of diazepam and its metabolites, N-desmethyldiazepam (nordiazepam), 3-hydroxydiazepam (temazepam) and 3-hydroxy-N-desmethyldiazepam (oxazepam), and of dipotassium clorazepate (clorazepate), were studied in the monkey (Macaca mulatta). Diazepam and its metabolites (1.8 and 3.0 mg/kg) and clorazepate (2.6 and 4.3 mg/kg) were given by intraperitoneal injection. 2. Hydroxylation of diazepam (temazepam and oxazepam) led to a loss of, or a considerable reduction in, behavioural activity, whereas activity was preserved, though modified, by demethylation (nordiazepam). It was not possible to establish change in behaviour at specific time intervals after clorazepate, but combined performance data revealed an effect. 3. The maximum mean plasma concentrations of diazepam, temazepam, oxazepam and clorazepate were observed at 0.5 h, and the maximum mean plasma concentration of nordiazepam was observed at 1 hour. Plasma concentrations of nordiazepam were the highest and decreased monoexponentially. Plasma concenqrations of the other drugs declined rapidly at first but more slowly later, and these data were analysed as biexponential models. In the analysis for metabolites, nordiazepam reached measurable levels after the injection of diazepam and clorazepate. 4. It is suggested that differences in the effects of closely related benzodiazepines may not be due solely to their plasma pharmacokinetic properties, but may arise from differences in their intrinsic activity.

  4. Increased rigidity with age in social behavior of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, H.C.; Hooff, van J.A.R.A.M.; Gispen, W.H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of aging on the structure of behavior of socially housed Java-monkeys. Indices of the sequential structure of an animal's own ongoing behavior and of its responses to behavior of other animals were calculated using an information statistic approach. These ind

  5. Selection and Pairing of ’Normal’ Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-08

    ECG Blood Pressure ___Ocular Motility ___Pupillary Reflexes (Direct and Indirect) Fascial Muscle Tone ___Apply Mydriatic Agents to Dilate Eyes Head...selectees would be subjected to frequent handling and manipulation . The radiographs of seven other monkeys contained evidence of abdominal opacities

  6. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys.

  7. Increased rigidity with age in social behavior of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, H.C.; Hooff, van J.A.R.A.M.; Gispen, W.H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of aging on the structure of behavior of socially housed Java-monkeys. Indices of the sequential structure of an animal's own ongoing behavior and of its responses to behavior of other animals were calculated using an information statistic approach. These ind

  8. Pedicled Instep Flap and Tibial Nerve Reconstruction in a Cynomolgus Monkey [Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Weiss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male cynomolgus monkey experienced extensive soft tissue trauma to the right caudal calf area. Some weeks after complete healing of the original wounds, the monkey developed a chronic pressure sore on plantar surface of the heel of its right foot. A loss of sensitivity in the sole of the foot was hypothesized. The skin defect was closed by a medial sensate pedicled instep flap followed by counter transplantation of a full thickness graft from the interdigital webspace. The integrity of the tibial nerve was revised and reconstructed by means of the turnover flap technique. Both procedures were successful. This is an uncommon case in an exotic veterinary patient as it demonstrates a reconstructive skin flap procedure for the treatment of a chronic, denervated wound in combination with the successful reconstruction of 2.5 cm gap in the tibial nerve.

  9. Reticulospinal neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, S T; Davidson, A G; Buford, J A

    2009-11-10

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate a role for reticulospinal neurons of the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) in motor preparation and goal-directed reaching in the monkey. Although the macaque monkey is an important model for such investigations, little is known regarding the organization of the PMRF in the monkey. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of reticulospinal neurons in the macaque. Bilateral injections of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) were made into the cervical spinal cord. A wide band of retrogradely labeled cells was found in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) and labeled cells continued rostrally into the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) and into the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO). Additional retrograde tracing studies following unilateral cervical spinal cord injections of cholera toxin subunit B revealed that there were more ipsilateral (60%) than contralateral (40%) projecting cells in Gi, while an approximately 50:50 ratio contralateral to ipsilateral split was found in PnC and more contralateral projections arose from PnO. Reticulospinal neurons in PMRF ranged widely in size from over 50 microm to under 25 microm across the major somatic axis. Labeled giant cells (soma diameters greater than 50 microm) comprised a small percentage of the neurons and were found in Gi, PnC and PnO. The present results define the origins of the reticulospinal system in the monkey and provide an important foundation for future investigations of the anatomy and physiology of this system in primates.

  10. Do rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceive the Zöllner illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    A long-standing debate surrounds the issue of whether human and nonhuman animals share the same perceptual mechanisms. In humans, the Zöllner illusion occurs when two parallel lines appear to be convergent when oblique crosshatching lines are superimposed. Although one baboon study suggests that they too might perceive this illusion, the results of that study were unclear, whereas two recent studies suggest that birds see this illusion in the opposite direction from humans. It is currently unclear whether these mixed results are an artifact of the experimental design or reflect a peculiarity of birds' visual system or, instead, a wider phenomenon shared among nonhuman mammals. Here, we trained 6 monkeys to select the narrower of two gaps at the end of two convergent lines. Three different conditions were set up: control (no crosshatches), perpendicular (crosshatches not inducing the illusion), and Zöllner (crosshatches inducing the illusion in humans). During training, the degrees of convergence between the two lines ranged from 15° to 12°. Monkeys that reached the training criterion were tested with more difficult discriminations (11°-1°), including probe trials with parallel lines (0°). The results showed that monkeys perceived the Zöllner illusion in the same direction as humans. Comparison of these data with the data from bird studies points toward the existence of different orientation-tuned mechanisms between primate and nonprimate species.

  11. Ethane dimethylsulphonate selectively destroys Leydigcells in the adult bonnet monkeysMacaca radiata )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Sumathi; V.sriraman; B.S.Kurkalli; F.F.G.Rommerts; A.JagannadhaRao

    1999-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of intratesficular administration of ethane-1,2-dimethylsulphonate (EDS) which has been exten-sively used to selectively destroy Leydig cells in rats and study ~ role of gonadotropin in regulation of differentiation ofLeydig cells (LC) in the adult male bonnet monkey. Methods and Results: In vitro studies with cultured interstitialcells isolated from monkey testis revealed an inhibitory effect of EDS on LC as assessed by decrease in testosterone pro-duction. Intratesticular administration of EDS (5, 10, 20, 50 rag/testis) resulted in a dose-dependent rapid decrease inserum testosterone levels, with a 6.5 % decrease with 5 nag of EDS by the 3rd day, which returned to control levels by the45th day. EDS treatment resulted in a significant decrease in testiculiar testosterone. In addition a significant decrease in[125 1]hCG binding and phenylesterase activity in the interstitial cells was noticed. Histological analysis of the testes onthe 5th day after administration of EDS revealed an interstitium devoid of LC indicating the destructive action of EDS.Conclusion: The monkey LC are sensitive to destructive action of EDS.

  12. Effect of mother's dominance rank on offspring temperament in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Jimenez, Benjamin; Hathaway, Amanda; Waters, Carlos; Vaughan, Kelli; Suomi, Stephen J; Noble, Pamela L; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Eric E

    2013-01-01

    In humans, temperament plays an important role in socialization and personality. Some temperaments, such as behavioral inhibition are associated with an increased risk for psychopathology. Nonhuman primates can serve as a model for neurobiological and developmental contributions to emotional development and several recent studies have begun to investigate temperament in nonhuman primates. In rhesus monkeys, dominance rank is inherited from the mother and is associated with social and emotional tendencies that resemble differences in temperament. The current study assessed differences in temperament in infant rhesus monkeys as a function of maternal dominance rank. Temperament was assessed in 26 infants (13 males) from birth until 6 months of age with a battery that included Brazelton test, human intruder test, human intruder-startle, cortisol stress reactivity, and home cage observations of interactions with peers and the mother. Throughout testing, infants lived with their mothers and a small group of other monkeys in indoor/outdoor runs. Dominance rank of the mothers within each run was rated as either low/middle (N = 18, 9 male) or high/alpha (N = 8, 4 female). Infants of high-ranking mothers displayed more intruder-directed aggression and reduced startle potentiation in the human intruder tests. Dominant offspring also had reduced levels cortisol and startle across development and spent more time away from mothers in the interaction tests. These results suggest that dominance of the mother may be reflected in behavioral reactivity of infants early in life. These findings set up future studies, which may focus on contributing factors to both dominance and temperament such as genetics, rearing, and socialization. Such factors are likely to interact across development in meaningful ways. These results also suggest future human-based studies of a similar relationship may be warranted, although social dominance is clearly more complex in human than macaque societies.

  13. Radical curative efficacy of tafenoquine combination regimens in Plasmodium cynomolgi-infected Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenworthy David

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline being developed for radical cure (blood and liver stage elimination of Plasmodium vivax. During monotherapy treatment, the compound exhibits slow parasite and fever clearance times, and toxicity in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a concern. Combination with other antimalarials may mitigate these concerns. Methods In 2005, the radical curative efficacy of tafenoquine combinations was investigated in Plasmodium cynomolgi-infected naïve Indian-origin Rhesus monkeys. In the first cohort, groups of two monkeys were treated with a three-day regimen of tafenoquine at different doses alone and in combination with a three-day chloroquine regimen to determine the minimum curative dose (MCD. In the second cohort, the radical curative efficacy of a single-day regimen of tafenoquine-mefloquine was compared to that of two three-day regimens comprising tafenoquine at its MCD with chloroquine or artemether-lumefantrine in groups of six monkeys. In a final cohort, the efficacy of the MCD of tafenoquine against hypnozoites alone and in combination with chloroquine was investigated in groups of six monkeys after quinine pre-treatment to eliminate asexual parasites. Plasma tafenoquine, chloroquine and desethylchloroquine concentrations were determined by LC-MS in order to compare doses of the drugs to those used clinically in humans. Results The total MCD of tafenoquine required in combination regimens for radical cure was ten-fold lower (1.8 mg/kg versus 18 mg/kg than for monotherapy. This regimen (1.8 mg/kg was equally efficacious as monotherapy or in combination with chloroquine after quinine pre-treatment to eliminate asexual stages. The same dose of (1.8 mg/kg was radically curative in combination with artemether-lumefantrine. Tafenoquine was also radically curative when combined with mefloquine. The MCD of tafenoquine monotherapy for radical cure (18 mg/kg appears to be biologically

  14. The socioendocrinology of adolescent development in male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, A F; Nevison, C M

    1997-04-01

    Observations were made on four captive breeding groups of rhesus monkeys in order to measure hormonal, behavioral, and genital changes in adolescent males during the annual mating season. Three questions were addressed with regard to possible effects of social environment upon reproductive maturation: (1) Does male agonistic rank influence adolescent development? (2) Does affiliation between adolescent males and adult females during the mating season influence the males' reproductive development? (3) Does maternal rank exert any effect upon reproductive maturation in adolescent sons? In many (but not all) cases male rank was positively correlated with circulating testosterone and testes weights during the mating season. Affiliative behavior (allogrooming and sexual interactions) between adolescents and adult females in their social groups bore no relationship to the degree of reproductive maturation in males. Mounts involving intromission were infrequent, but sons of high-ranking mothers gained significantly more intromissions than sons of lower-ranking females. Maternal rank was also found to correlate with circulating testosterone levels, testes weights, growth of the baculum (os penis), and maintenance of body weight in adolescent sons during the mating season. By contrast, levels of beta-endorphin in the cerebrospinal fluid of adolescent males did not correlate with social rank, testosterone levels, or genital development. These findings point to possible effects of maternal rank, as well as intermale agonistic rank, in determining reproductive maturation during adolescence in the male rhesus monkey.

  15. Cryopreservation of cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) spermatozoa in a chemically defined extender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Hui Li; Ke-Jun Cai; Lei Su; Mo Guan; Xie-Chao He; Hong Wang; Andras Kovacs; Wei-Zhi Ji

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To establish a method for cynomolgus monkey sperm cryopreservation in a chemically defined extender.Methods: Semen samples were collected by electro-ejaculation from four sexually mature male cynomolgus monkeys.The spermatozoa were frozen in straws by liquid nitrogen vapor using egg-yolk-free Tes-Tris (mTTE) synthetic extender and glycerol as cryoprotectant. The effects of glycerol concentration (1%, 3%, 5%, 10% and 15% [v/v])and its equilibration time (10 min, 30 min, 60 min and 90 min) on post-thaw spermatozoa were examined by sperm motility and sperm head membrane integrity. Results: The post-thaw motility and head membrane integrity of spermatozoa were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for 5% glycerol (42.95 ± 2.55 and 50.39 ± 2.42, respectively) than those of the other groups (1%: 19.19 ± 3.22 and 24.84 ± 3.64; 3%: 34.23 ± 3.43 and 41.37 ± 3.42; 10%:15.68 ± 2.36 and 21.39 ± 3.14; 15%: 7.47 ± 1.44 and 12.90 ± 2.18). The parameters for 30 min equilibration (42.95 ± 2.55 and 50.39 ± 2.42) were better (P < 0.05) than those of the other groups (10 min: 31.33 ± 3.06 and 38.98 ± 3.31; 60 min: 32.49 ± 3.86 and 40.01 ± 4.18; 90 min: 31.16 ± 3.66 and 38.30 ± 3.78). Five percent glycerol and 30 min equilibration yielded the highest post-thaw sperm motility and head membrane integrity. Conclusion:Cynomolgus monkey spermatozoa can be successfully cryopreserved in a chemically defined extender, which is related to the concentration and the equilibration time of glycerol.

  16. Spontaneous cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a juvenile cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Rogerson, Petrina; Blanco, Ana L; Naylor, Stuart W; Bradley, Alys

    2012-08-01

    A neoplastic mass compressing the left cerebellar hemisphere and hindbrain was observed at trimming in a 3½-year-old male cynomolgus monkey from a control dose group. Microscopically, the neoplastic mass was nonencapsulated, invasive, and showed two morphological patterns. The predominant area consisted of densely packed undifferentiated, polygonal to spindle cells arranged in vague sheets supported by a scant fibrovascular stroma. The other area was less cellular and composed of round neoplastic cells separated by eosinophilic fibrillar material. Immunohistochemical staining for vimentin, synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament, and S-100 confirmed the presence of primitive undifferentiated neuroectodermal cells and some cells with neuronal or glial differentiation. On the basis of histopathology and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor with neuronal and glial differentiation was made. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are rare in animals including nonhuman primates; this is the first published report in this species.

  17. Characterization of PrPc-immunoreactive cells in monkey (Macaca fascicularis) gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Z; Bodegas, M E; Sesma, M P; Guembe, L

    2005-04-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is one of the most likely entry sites for the pathological isoform of prions (PrP(sc)). To understand how PrP(sc) crosses the digestive mucosa, it is crucial to characterize the cells expressing normal prion protein (PrP(c)). By means of double immunofluorescence applied to sections of the monkey GIT, we demonstrated that, in the stomach, PrP(c) immunostaining occurs in subsets of histamine, somatostatin (Som), ghrelin (Ghr), gastrin (G), and serotonin (5HT) cells. In the small and large bowels, PrP(c) cells were found in subpopulations of cells immunolabeled for 5HT, Som, G, and peptide YY (PYY).

  18. No strings attached: Physiological Monitoring of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta with Thermal Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos eIoannou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Methodological challenges make physiological affective observations very restrictive as in many cases they take place in a laboratory setting rather than the animals’ natural habitat. In the current study using Infrared Thermal Imaging we examine the physiological thermal imprints of 5 macaques. The monkeys were exposed in 3 different experimental scenarios. Playing with a toy, food teasing as well as feeding. It was observed that during teasing the temperature of the region surrounding the eyes was higher than play as a result of rapid saccades directed at the food. Compared to play and teasing, a lower temperature accompanied feeding on the upper lip, nose and orbital region suggesting elevated levels of distress. These findings prove that thermal imaging is a reliable method of physiological monitoring the subject at a distance while preserving a semi-experimental setting.

  19. Metabolism of /sup 14/C-labeled doxylamine succinate (Bendectin) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Holder, C.L.; Lipe, G.W.; Korfmacher, W.A.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Bailey, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    The time-course of the metabolic fate of (/sup 14/C)doxylamine was determined after the p.o. administration of 13 mg/kg doxylamine succinate as Bendectin plus (/sup 14/C)doxylamine succinate to the rhesus monkey. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chemical derivatization, and mass spectrometry. The cumulative 48-hr urinary metabolic profile contained 81% of the administered radiolabeled dose and consisted of at least six radiolabeled peaks. They were peak 1: unknown polar metabolites (8% of dose); peak 2: 2-(1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy) acetic acid, 1-(1-phenyl-1(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy) methanol, and another minor metabolite(s) (31%); peak 3: doxylamine-N-oxide (1%); peak 4a: N,N-didesmethyldoxylamine (17%); peak 4b: doxylamine (4%); and peak 5: N-desmethyldoxylamine (20%). The plasma metabolic profile was the same as the urinary profile except for the absence of doxylamine-N-oxide. The maximum plasma concentrations and elapsed time to attain these concentrations were as follows. Peak 1: 540 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 2: 1700 ng/mL, 1 hr; peak 4a: 430 ng/mL, 4 hr; peak 4b: 930 ng/mL, 2 hr; and peak 5: 790 ng/mL, 2 hr. These data suggest that in the monkey, doxylamine metabolism follows at least four pathways: a minor pathway to the N-oxide; a minor pathway to unknown polar metabolites; a major pathway to mono- and didesmethyldoxylamine via successive N-demethylation; and a major pathway to side-chain cleavage products (peak 2) via direct side-chain oxidation and/or deamination.

  20. Molecular composition of drusen and possible involvement of anti-retinal autoimmunity in two different forms of macular degeneration in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Michihiro T; Okamoto, Haru; Ono, Fumiko; Mizota, Atsushi; Terao, Keiji; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Iwata, Takeshi

    2005-10-01

    We have previously reported a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) pedigree with early onset macular degeneration that develops drusen at 2 yr after birth. In this study, the molecular composition of drusen in monkeys affected with late onset and early onset macular degeneration was both characterized. Involvement of anti-retinalautoimmunity in the deposition of drusen and the pathogenesis of the disease was also evaluated. Funduscopic and histological examinations were performed on 278 adult monkeys (mean age=16.94 yr) for late onset macular degeneration. The molecular composition of drusen was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and/or direct proteome analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Anti-retinal autoantibodies in sera were screened in 20 affected and 10 age-matched control monkeys by Western blot techniques. Immunogenic molecules were identified by 2D electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Relative antibody titer against each antigen was determined by ELISA in sera from 42 affected (late onset) and 41 normal monkeys. Yellowish-white spots in the macular region were observed in 90 (32%) of the late onset monkeys that were examined. Histological examination demonstrated that drusen or degenerative retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were associated with the pigmentary abnormalities. Drusen in both late and early onset monkeys showed immunoreactivities for apolipoprotein E, amyloid P component, complement component C5, the terminal C5b-9 complement complex, vitronectin, and membrane cofactor protein. LC-MS/MS analyses identified 60 proteins as constituents of drusen, including a number of common components in drusen of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD), such as annexins, crystallins, immunoglobulins, and complement components. Half of the affected monkeys had single or multiple autoantibodies against 38, 40, 50, and 60 kDa retinal proteins. The reacting antigens of 38 and 40 kDa were identified as annexin II and mu

  1. Concentration of radiocesium in the wild Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata over the first 15 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichi Hayama

    Full Text Available Following the massive earthquake that struck eastern Japan on March 11, 2011, a nuclear reactor core meltdown occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company, and was followed by the release of large amounts of radioactive materials. The objective of this study was to measure the concentration of radiocesium (134Cs and (137Cs in the muscle of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City and to determine the change in concentration over time as well as the relationship with the level of soil contamination. Cesium concentrations in the muscle of monkeys captured at locations with 100,000-300,000 Bq/m(2 were 6,000-25,000 Bq/kg in April 2011 and decreased over 3 months to around 1,000 Bq/kg. However, the concentration increased again to 2,000-3,000 Bq/kg in some animals during and after December 2011 before returning to 1,000 Bq/kg in April 2012, after which it remained relatively constant. This pattern of change in muscle radiocesium concentration was similar to that of the change in radiocesium concentration in atmospheric fallout. Moreover, the monkeys feed on winter buds and the cambium layer of tree bark potentially containing higher concentrations of radiocesium than that in the diet during the rest of the year. The muscle radiocesium concentration in the monkeys related significantly with the level of soil contamination at the capture locations.

  2. Architecture and connections of retrosplenial area 30 in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R; Petrides, M; Pandya, D N

    1999-07-01

    Because of the sharp curvature of the retrosplenial region around the splenium of the corpus callosum, standard coronal sections are not appropriate for architectonic analysis of its posteroventral part. In the present study, examination of the posteroventral retrosplenial region of the rhesus monkey in sections that were orthogonal to its axis of curvature (and therefore appropriate for architectonic analysis) has permitted definition of its architecture and precise extent. This analysis demonstrated that areas 29 and 30 of the retrosplenial cortex, as well as adjacent area 23 of the posterior cingulate cortex, extend together as an arch around the splenium of the corpus callosum and maintain their topographical relationship with one another throughout their entire course. Injections of anterograde and retrograde tracers confined to retrosplenial area 30 revealed that this area has reciprocal connections with adjacent areas 23, 19 and PGm, with the mid-dorsolateral part of the prefrontal cortex (areas 9, 9/46 and 46), with multimodal area TPO in the superior temporal sulcus, as well as the posterior parahippocampal cortex, the presubiculum and the entorhinal cortex. There are also bidirectional connections with the lateroposterior thalamic nucleus, as well as the laterodorsal and the anteroventral limbic thalamic nuclei. The connectivity of area 30 suggests that it may play a role in working memory processes subserved by the mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex in interaction with the hippocampal system.

  3. Reach–to-grasp movements in macaca fascicularis monkeys: the Isochrony Principle at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans show a spontaneous tendency to increase the velocity of their movements depending on the linear extent of their trajectory in order to keep execution time approximately constant. Termed the isochrony principle, this compensatory mechanism refers to the observation that the velocity of voluntary movements increases proportionally with their linear extension. Although there is a wealth of psychophysical data regarding isochrony in humans, there is none regarding non-human primates. The present study attempts to fill that gap by investigating reach-to-grasp movement kinematics in free-ranging macaques. Video footage of monkeys grasping objects located at different distances was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The amplitude of arm peak velocity was found to be correlated with the distance to be covered, and total movement duration remained invariant although target distances varied. Like in humans, the ‘isochrony principle’ seems to be operative as there is a gearing down/up of movement velocity that is proportional to the distance to be covered in order to allow for a relatively constant movement duration. Based on a centrally generated temporal template, this mode of motor programming could be functional in macaques given the high speed and great instability of posture and joint kinematics characterizing their actions. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative motor control a step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment.

  4. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  5. Structural and functional definition of the motor cortex in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessle, B J; Wiesendanger, M

    1982-02-01

    1. The details of the organization of the motor cortex and its anterior and posterior border were investigated in three monkeys by a combination of techniques including intracortical microstimulation (i.c.m.s.), electrophysiological recording of cutaneous and muscle afferent inputs to single cortical neurones, and electrophysiological and anatomical identification of corticospinal neurones; in addition, data from these methods were related to cortical cytoarchitecture.2. Almost 5000 individual cortical loci were tested with i.c.m.s. in the unanaesthetized monkeys. In this paper, we particularly consider the organization of the forelimb motor representation, and its relation to the representation of other parts of the body. I.c.m.s. thresholds of about 5 muA were common for evoking twitch movements and e.m.g. responses in distal forelimb and face, jaw and tongue muscles, but proximal forelimb, trunk and hind-limb movements also sometimes had such low thresholds.3. The fingers were found to be represented nearest the central sulcus, with horseshoe-shaped bands of cortical tissue representing progressively more proximal muscles situated around this central ;finger core'.4. Cytoarchitectonically, the cortex having these low-threshold motor effects was characteristic of area 4. There was also a close fit between the extent of this ;excitable cortex' and the extent of densely spaced corticospinal neurones identified electro-physiologically or with horseradish peroxidase labelling. In subsequent mapping of forelimb afferents to the cortex when the animal was deeply anaesthetized, low-threshold and short-latency responses to muscle nerve stimulation were rarely found in this ;excitable cortex'.5. The anterior border could be clearly established by i.c.m.s. and by the sharp boundary of corticospinal neurones. It was noted that the motor cortex extends rostrally beyond area 4 and its anterior border appears to reside in the posterior part of area 6aalpha (Vogt & Vogt, 1919

  6. The relationship between masseter force and masseter electromyogram during mastication in the monkey Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, W L; Johnson, K R

    1989-01-01

    In five adult monkeys, electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from bipolar surface electrodes positioned over the superficial masseter and from bipolar fine-wire electrodes within both the superficial and deep masseter. Relative masseter force was estimated by measuring surface bone strain from the lateral aspect of the zygomatic arch using rosette strain gauges. Multiple step-wise regression procedures demonstrated that peak values of the averaged masseter EMG could often explain a considerable amount of the variation of peak relative masseter force during mastication, i.e. r2 values ranged from 0.23 to 0.96 for the various single-electrode models and R2 values ranged from 0.78 to 0.96 for the various multiple-electrode models. The r2 values for relative masseter force and EMG data from the surface electrodes ranged from 0.69 to 0.96, and, on average, EMG data from surface electrodes provided somewhat more information about overall relative muscle force than data from fine-wire electrodes. The R2 values for a two-electrode model, consisting of data from surface electrodes over the superficial masseter and fine-wire electrodes in the posterior portion of the deep masseter, ranged from 0.78 to 0.95. The latency between the averaged surface EMG and relative muscle force was determined and the data indicated that the surface EMG usually preceded muscle force. This latency tended to decrease gradually throughout the entire power stroke of mastication. At peak values, the surface EMG preceded muscle force by about 22 ms. Towards the end of the power stroke, i.e. the 25% of peak values during unloading, muscle force may actually precede the average EMG.

  7. The sweetness-inducing effect of miraculin; behavioural and neurophysiological experiments in the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, J N; Glaser, D; Hard Af Segerstad, C; Hellekant, G; Ninomiya, Y; Van der Wel, H

    1983-04-01

    1. The gustatory effects of miraculin, the sweetness-inducing protein from the miracle fruit Synsepalum dulcificum, was studied in the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta.2. The intake of five acids was recorded in two-bottle preference tests, one bottle containing acid and the other tap water, before and after miraculin treatment. All the acids tasted more pleasant after miraculin.3. The electrical activity of the chorda tympani nerve to stimulation of the tongue with a variety of sweeteners, acids, sodium chloride and quinine hydrochloride was recorded in anaesthetized animals.4. Pre-treatment of the tongue with 0.3-5 mg miraculin doubled the summated nerve response to the acids and diminished the response to sucrose by about 10%. The enhancement lasted for at least an hour and the diminution up to 20 min.5. After miraculin treatment the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the order of increased intake of acids and the order of enhancement of the summated nerve response was 0.99.6. A solution of 0.1 mg miraculin per ml. elicited a weak nerve response. No preference over water for this concentration of miraculin was recorded in the two-bottle tests.7. The activity of twenty-nine single taste fibres, selected for their responsiveness to sweetness or acids or both, was recorded after miraculin treatment. Effects were obtained in nine fibres which were similar but more pronounced than those observed in the summated recordings. Before miraculin, these fibres responded better and to a larger variety of sweeteners (81%) than the other fibres (40%). After miraculin, acids elicited on the average 2.3 times more activity than before, while the response to sweeteners was depressed. In twenty fibres no effect of miraculin was observed. These fibres responded to fewer of the sweeteners and were more stimulated by the non-sweet stimuli than the first group.8. The results suggest that miraculin acts on those structures in the taste cell membrane that are involved in

  8. The Macaque Social Responsiveness Scale (mSRS: A Rapid Screening Tool for Assessing Variability in the Social Responsiveness of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Feczko

    Full Text Available Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD, has been hindered by the lack of a robust, translational animal model. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta display many of the same social behaviors that are affected in ASD, making them an excellent animal species in which to model social impairments. However, the social impairments associated with ASD may reflect extreme ends of a continuous distribution of traits. Thus, to validate the rhesus monkey as an animal model for studying social impairments that has strong translational relevance for ASD, researchers need an easily-implemented measurement tool that can quantify variation in social behavior dimensionally. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS is a 65-item survey that identifies both typical and atypical social behaviors in humans that covary with ASD symptom severity. A chimpanzee SRS has already been validated and the current study adapted this tool for use in the rhesus monkey (mSRS. Fifteen raters completed the mSRS for 105 rhesus monkeys living at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. The mSRS scores showed a unimodal distribution with a positive skew that identified 6 statistical outliers. Inter-rater reliability was very strong, but only 17 of the 36 questions showed positive intra-item reliability. The results of an exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors that explained over 60% of the variance, with 12 items significantly loading onto the primary factor. These items reflected behaviors associated with social avoidance, social anxiety or inflexibility and social confidence. These initial findings are encouraging and suggest that variability in the social responsiveness of rhesus monkeys can be quantified using the mSRS: a tool that has strong translational relevance for human disorders. With further modification, the mSRS may provide an promising new direction for research on the biological

  9. Study of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of attenuated and killed Leishmania (Leishmania major vaccines in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta model of the human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VF Amaral

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We have compared the efficacy of two Leishmania (Leishmania major vaccines, one genetically attenuated (DHFR-TS deficient organisms, the other inactivated [autoclaved promastigotes (ALM with bacillus Calmete-Guérin (BCG], in protecting rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta against infection with virulent L. (L. major. Positive antigen-specific recall proliferative response was observed in vaccinees (79% in attenuated parasite-vaccinated monkeys, versus 75% in ALM-plus-BCG-vaccinated animals, although none of these animals exhibited either augmented in vitro gamma interferon (IFN-g production or positive delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to the leishmanin skin test prior to the challenge. Following challenge, there were significant differences in blastogenic responses (p < 0.05 between attenuated-vaccinated monkeys and naïve controls. In both vaccinated groups very low levels of antibody were found before challenge, which increased after infective challenge. Protective immunity did not follow vaccination, in that monkeys exhibited skin lesion at the site of challenge in all the groups. The most striking result was the lack of pathogenicity of the attenuated parasite, which persisted in infected animals for up to three months, but were incapable of causing disease under the conditions employed. We concluded that both vaccine protocols used in this study are safe in primates, but require further improvement for vaccine application.

  10. Induced neurocysticercosis in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) produces clinical signs and lesions similar to natural disease in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, N; Saleque, A; Sood, N K; Singla, L D

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  11. Induced Neurocysticercosis in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta Produces Clinical Signs and Lesions Similar to Natural Disease in Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  12. Delayed response task performance as a function of age in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, H S; Call, J; Sajuthi, D

    2014-01-01

    We compared delayed response task performance in young, middle-aged, and old cynomolgus monkeys using three memory tests that have been used with non-human primates. Eighteen cynomolgus monkeys-6 young (4-9 years), 6 middle-aged (10-19 years), and 6 old (above 20 years)-were tested. In general...

  13. Behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta is related to the airways response, but not immune measures, commonly associated with asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Chun

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition reflects a disposition to react warily to novel situations, and has been associated with atopic diseases such as asthma. Retrospective work established the relationship between behavioral inhibition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and airway hyperresponsiveness, but not atopy, and the suggestion was made that behavioral inhibition might index components of asthma that are not immune-related. In the present study, we prospectively examined the relationship between behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and whether hormonal and immune measures often associated with asthma were associated with behavioral inhibition and/or airway hyperresponsiveness. In a sample of 49 yearling rhesus monkeys (mean=1.25 years, n=24 behaviorally inhibited animals, we measured in vitro cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ in response to stimulation, as well as peripheral blood cell percentages, cortisol levels, and percentage of regulatory T-cells (CD3+CD4+CD25+FOXP3+. Airway reactivity was assessed using an inhaled methacholine challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the proportion of immune cells was determined. Behaviorally inhibited monkeys had airway hyperresponsiveness as indicated by the methacholine challenge (p=0.031, confirming our earlier retrospective result. Airway hyperresponsiveness was also associated with lower lymphocyte percentages in lavage fluid and marginally lower plasma cortisol concentrations. However, none of the tested measures was significantly related to both behavioral inhibition and airway hyperresponsiveness, and so could not mediate their relationship. Airway hyperresponsiveness is common to atopic and non-atopic asthma and behavioral inhibition has been related to altered autonomic activity in other studies. Our results suggest that behavioral inhibition might index an autonomically mediated reactive airway phenotype, and that a variety of stimuli (including inflammation within

  14. Ultrastructural organization of thrombocytes in normal monkeys (Macaca arctoides) and in those with experimental viral malignant lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvirov, G N; Fomenko, V N

    1978-01-01

    Data on platelet ultrastructure of 6 M. arctoides monkeys investigated before and during experimental viral malignant lymphoma are presented. It has been established that the inner structure of thrombocytes in healthy monkeys was almost similar to that of man. In experimental malignant lymphoma, irrespective of the clinical period of the disease, a decrease of alpha-, beta- and sigma-granules, a decrease of the functional activity of thrombocytes and an increase of delta-granules and glycogen granulation content were observed. The above mentioned disturbances can be a result of changes of megakaryocytes in malignant lymphoma. No viral particles in thrombocytes of neither healthy nor sick monkeys have been revealed.

  15. Looking ahead? Computerized maze task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and human children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Futch, Sara E; Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M

    2015-05-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and-at least to an extent-anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future-oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques), a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys), and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to "plan ahead" to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future-oriented cognition in primates.

  16. Determination of the Infectious Dose of Helicobacter pylori during Primary and Secondary Infection in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Solnick, Jay V.; Hansen, Lori M.; Canfield, Don R.; Parsonnet, Julie

    2001-01-01

    We sought to determine the infectious dose of Helicobacter pylori during primary and secondary infection in the rhesus monkey and to determine whether preinoculation acid suppression is necessary to produce colonization. Mixed inoculation with three human-derived strains showed that H. pylori J166 is particularly adapted to colonization of rhesus monkeys, since it outcompeted two other strains. The minimum infectious dose of H. pylori J166 was 104 bacteria in specific-pathogen (H. pylori)-fre...

  17. Use of enclosures with functional vertical space by captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) involved in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarence, Wendy M; Scott, Jennifer P; Dorris, Michael C; Paré, Martin

    2006-09-01

    We assessed space use by 2 pairs of captive female rhesus monkeys recently transferred into 2 enclosures moderately larger than their former traditional research cages and providing elevated perches at or above human eye level for all monkeys. This new space did not affect the ongoing biomedical research in which these captive monkeys were involved, and we sought to determine whether they used the elevated positions preferentially, as do wild animals. The frequency and duration of visits at each of the 9 distinct regions within these enclosures was calculated during 30-min morning and evening sessions over 20 d. We found that the monkeys frequented all regions of their enclosures in a similar manner during both morning and evening sessions. However, the duration spent at each region varied significantly between morning and evening sessions, with high perches being chosen preferentially in the evenings. Overall, the monkeys spent the majority of their time at elevated positions. These results support the view that access to functional vertical space provides a preferred environment for species- specific behavior and is an option that should be considered by other research facilities.

  18. Mucinous gastric hyperplasia in a colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) induced by polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geistfeld, J.G.; Bond, M.G.; Bullock, B.C.; Varian, M.C.

    1982-02-01

    Since 1971, 45 of 259 male rhesus monkeys housed in a primate building have died of a chronic and progressive disease characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, weakness, gingivitis, emaciation, and alopecia. The principal necropsy finding in these monkeys, and in eight others killed for experimental purposes, was hypertrophic and hyperplastic mucinous gastropathy involving both the mucosa and submucosa. The toxic agent involved was identified as the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254. The suspected source of the toxic agent was a concrete sealer used during building construction.

  19. The utility of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta and other non-human primate models for preclinical testing of Leishmania candidate vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Grimaldi Jr

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis causes significant morbidity and mortality, constituting an important global health problem for which there are few effective drugs. Given the urgent need to identify a safe and effective Leishmania vaccine to help prevent the two million new cases of human leishmaniasis worldwide each year, all reasonable efforts to achieve this goal should be made. This includes the use of animal models that are as close to leishmanial infection in humans as is practical and feasible. Old world monkey species (macaques, baboons, mandrills etc. have the closest evolutionary relatedness to humans among the approachable animal models. The Asian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are quite susceptible to leishmanial infection, develop a human-like disease, exhibit antibodies to Leishmania and parasite-specific T-cell mediated immune responses both in vivo and in vitro, and can be protected effectively by vaccination. Results from macaque vaccine studies could also prove useful in guiding the design of human vaccine trials. This review summarizes our current knowledge on this topic and proposes potential approaches that may result in the more effective use of the macaque model to maximize its potential to help the development of an effective vaccine for human leishmaniasis.

  20. Genotyping of TRIM5 locus in northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina, a primate species susceptible to Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xue-Long

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pig-tailed macaques are the only Old World monkeys known to be susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. We have previously reported that the TRIM5-Cyclophilin A (TRIMCyp fusion in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina is dysfunctional in restricting HIV-1, which may explain why pig-tailed macaques are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Similar results have also been reported by other groups. However, according to the current primate taxonomy, the previously reported M. nemestrina are further classified into three species, which all belong to the Macaca spp. This calls for the need to look into the previous studies in more details. Results The local species Northern pig-tailed macaque (M. leonina was analyzed for the correlation of TRIM5 structure and HIV-1 infection. Eleven M. leonina animals were analyzed, and all of them were found to possess TRIM5-CypA fusion at the TRIM5 locus. The transcripts encoding the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA should result from the G-to-T mutation in the 3'-splicing site of intron 6. Polymorphism in the putative TRIMCyp recognition domain was observed. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of M. leonina were susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Consistent with the previous results, expression of the M. leonina TRIMCyp in HeLa-T4 cells rendered the cells resistant to HIV-2ROD but not to SIVmac239 infection. Conclusion The susceptibility of M. leonina to HIV-1 infection is due to the dysfunctional TRIM5-CypA fusion in the TRIM5 locus. This finding should broaden our perspective in developing better HIV/AIDS non-human primate animal models.

  1. Gonadal and nongonadal mechanisms contribute to the prepubertal hiatus in gonadotropin secretion in the female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C R; deRidder, C M; Plant, T M

    1995-07-01

    The present study reexamined the role of the ovary in determining the prepubertal hiatus of gonadotropin secretion in the rhesus monkey. Day- and nighttime blood samples were obtained weekly from neonatally (7-10 days of age) ovariectomized and intact monkeys from birth until 3 yr of age. In the intact monkeys, plasma FSH levels increased during the first month of life, remained elevated until approximately 3 months of age, and then decreased to become undetectable by 7 months of age. Thereafter, plasma FSH remained undetectable until approximately 19 months of age, at which time it again increased to detectable concentrations. In animals ovariectomized as neonates, the developmental pattern in FSH secretion was similar to that in intact animals, but, quantitatively, mean plasma FSH concentrations in the agonadal females were greater than those in the intact control group at all times. Circulating daytime LH concentrations in intact animals were generally below the sensitivity of the assay during the neonatal and prepubertal phases of development, but after 27 months of age, this plasma hormone was measurable on occasion. In neonatally ovariectomized monkeys, daytime LH was elevated during the first month of life, undetectable between 2-20 months of age, and then rose into the adult range by the end of the study. Nocturnal plasma FSH and LH concentrations in agonadal monkeys were generally greater than those during the day at all stages of development. Of particular note was the finding that during the prepubertal hiatus in gonadotropin secretion, when daytime LH levels were mostly immeasurable, nighttime levels of this gonadotropin were consistently elevated. The hypersecretion of gonadotropin during prepubertal development in agonadal animals also occurred when ovariectomy was performed at 61-62 weeks of age. These findings demonstrate that in the female monkey, the open loop activity of the GnRH pulse generator during juvenile development is only partially

  2. Mortality in Captive Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in China Due to Infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Serotype O:1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Li, Meng; Amer, Said; Liu, Shelan; Luo, Jing; Wang, Shan; He, Hongxuan

    2016-09-01

    The most common serotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infecting non-human primates are serotypes O:1b, O:3, O:4, and O:7. The O:1a serotype has never been reported in non-human primates. The present study describes an outbreak of serotype O:1a with high fatality (6/18) in captive rhesus monkeys in China. Bacteria were isolated from different organs of the carcasses using standard microbiological procedures. The strain was identified using conventional and molecular techniques such as morphological and biochemical identification, serotype determination, PCR-sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene, detection of virulence genes, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The pathogenicity was determined after experimental infection in mice. Taken together, the obtained data indicate that Y. pseudotuberculosis O:1a is a pathogen of concern and represents a potential threat to monkey conservation efforts.

  3. Characterization of perfect microsatellite based on genome-wide and chromosome level in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongtao; Hu, Zongxiu; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Xiuyue; Li, Jing; Yue, Bisong

    2016-11-05

    Microsatellite studies based on chromosomes level would contribute to the biometric correlation analysis of chromosome and microsatellite applications on the specific chromosome. In this study, the total microsatellite length of 1,141,024 loci was 21.8Mb, which covered about 0.74% of the male Rhesus monkey genome. Perfect mononucleotide SSRs were the most abundant, followed by the pattern: perfect di->tetra->tri->penta->hexanucleotide SSRs. The main range of repeat times focused on 12-32 times (mono-), 7-23 times (di-), 5-10 times (tri-), 4-14 times (tetra-), 4-9 times (penta-), 4-8 times (hexa-), respectively. The largest SSRs number was found in chromosome 1 with 94,347 loci, followed by chromosome 3, 2, 7 and 5, and the smallest number was in chromosome 18. The predominant repeat types in male Rhesus monkey genome and chromosome Y were basically A, AC, AG, AAT, AAC, AAAT, AAAC, AAAG, AAACA and AAACAA. SSRs number of all chromosomes was closely positively correlated with chromosome sequence size (r=0.969, pmicrosatellite density (r=-0.456, 0.01microsatellites structural function, composition mode and molecular markers development in Rhesus monkey genome.

  4. Superovulatory responses in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) depend on the interaction between donor status and superovulation method used

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Ji-Su; YOON, Seung-Bin; JEONG, Kang-Jin; SIM, Bo-Woong; CHOI, Seon-A; LEE, Sang-Il; JIN, Yeung Bae; SONG, Bong-Seok; LEE, Sang-Rae; KIM, Sun-Uk; CHANG, Kyu-Tae

    2017-01-01

    The current study was performed to investigate the effect of oocyte donor status, including age and body weight, on metaphase II (MII) oocyte recovery using two superovulation methods in cynomolgus monkeys. The use of Method A [recombinant gonadotrophin (75 IU/kg, 3 ×, 3-day intervals) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)] led to great increases in ovary size and the mean number of MII oocytes retrieved in age- and body-weight-dependent manner; in contrast, both the parameters were similar in Method B [recombinant gonadotrophin (60 IU, twice daily, 6 days), recombinant gonadotropin and recombinant human luteinizing hormone (rhLH) (60 IU, twice daily, 3 days), and hCG]. Importantly, Method A showed maximal MII oocyte recovery rate in > 60-month-old or 4.5–5.0-kg female monkeys, whereas Method B was equally effective regardless of the donor age and body weight. These results indicate that superovulatory responses depend on the interaction between oocyte donor status and the superovulation method used in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:28070055

  5. Expression of gelatinases and tissue inhibitors of metallo- proteinases in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) corpus luteum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are believed to play important roles in the formation and regression of corpus luteum (CL). This study is to investigate the expression of gelatinases (MMP-2, -9) and TIMPs in the rhesus monkey CL in both early and late luteal phases and during the early stages of pregnancy. Ovaries were collected from regularly cycling rhesus monkey at D5 and D15 following ovulation and at D12, D18 and D26 of pregnancy. In situ hybridization revealed that in the CL MMP-2 mRNA was expressed during both formation and regression, while MMP-9 mRNA was mainly localized in the late luteal phase. Reduction of MMP-2, -9 transcripts in the CL was observed during pregnancy. MMP-2 mRNA in the CL reduced to an undetectable level at D26 of pregnancy. TIMP-1 mRNA was highly expressed in the CL in both early and late luteal phases and persisted throughout the early stages of pregnancy. Strong signal for TIMP-2 mRNA was also detected in both luteal phases, and the level of TIMP-2 mRNA gradually increased with the progresses of pregnancy. No TIMP-3 mRNA was detected in the macaque CL in this study. In conclusion, these results suggest that MMP-2, -9 and TIMP-1, -2 may have functional roles in rhesus monkey CL. Coordinated expression of MMP-2, -9 and TIMP-2 may play a role in the maintaining of luteal function during early pregnancy. The unchanged expression pattern of TIMP-1 indicates that it may have other functions in the primate CL than inhibition of MMPs.

  6. Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) quickly detect snakes but not spiders: Evolutionary origins of fear-relevant animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Koda, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    Humans quickly detect the presence of evolutionary threats through visual perception. Many theorists have considered humans to be predisposed to respond to both snakes and spiders as evolutionarily fear-relevant stimuli. Evidence supports that human adults, children, and snake-naive monkeys all detect pictures of snakes among pictures of flowers more quickly than vice versa, but recent neurophysiological and behavioral studies suggest that spiders may, in fact, be processed similarly to nonthreat animals. The evidence of quick detection and rapid fear learning by primates is limited to snakes, and no such evidence exists for spiders, suggesting qualitative differences between fear of snakes and fear of spiders. Here, we show that snake-naive Japanese monkeys detect a single snake picture among 8 nonthreat animal pictures (koala) more quickly than vice versa; however, no such difference in detection was observed between spiders and pleasant animals. These robust differences between snakes and spiders are the most convincing evidence that the primate visual system is predisposed to pay attention to snakes but not spiders. These findings suggest that attentional bias toward snakes has an evolutionary basis but that bias toward spiders is more due to top-down, conceptually driven effects of emotion on attention capture. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Application of three-dimensional culture systems to study mammalian spermatogenesis, with an emphasis on the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huleihel, Mahmoud; Nourashrafeddin, Seyedmehdi; Plant, Tony M

    2015-01-01

    In vitro culture of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) has generally been performed using two-dimensional (2D) culture systems; however, such cultures have not led to the development of complete spermatogenesis. It seems that 2D systems do not replicate optimal conditions of the seminiferous tubules (including those generated by the SSC niche) and necessary for spermatogenesis. Recently, one of our laboratories has been able to induce proliferation and differentiation of mouse testicular germ cells to meiotic and postmeiotic stages including generation of sperm in a 3D soft agar culture system (SACS) and a 3D methylcellulose culture system (MCS). It was suggested that SACS and MCS form a special 3D microenvironment that mimics germ cell niche formation in the seminiferous tubules, and thus permits mouse spermatogenesis in vitro. In this review, we (1) provide a brief overview of the differences in spermatogenesis in rodents and primates, (2) summarize data related to attempts to generate sperm in vitro, (3) report for the first time formation of colonies/clusters of cells and differentiation of meiotic (expression of CREM-1) and postmeiotic (expression of acrosin) germ cells from undifferentiated spermatogonia isolated from the testis of prepubertal rhesus monkeys and cultured in SACS and MCS, and (4) indicate research needed to optimize 3D systems for in vitro primate spermatogenesis and for possible future application to man.

  8. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Demonstrate Robust Memory for What and Where, but Not When, in an Open-Field Test of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, R.R.; Hampstead, B.M.; Murray, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    We adapted a paradigm developed by Clayton and Dickinson (1998), who demonstrated memory for what, where, and when in scrub jays, for use with rhesus monkeys. In the study phase of each trial, monkeys found a preferred and a less-preferred food reward in a trial-unique array of three locations in a large room. After 1h, monkeys returned to the…

  9. Mechanisms of action of light on circadian rhythms in the monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winget, C. M.; Rosenblatt, L. S.; DeRoshia, C. W.; Hetherington, N. W.

    1970-01-01

    Light is considered by many investigators to be the primary Zeitgeber for most physiologic rhythms. In order to study the effects on biorhythms of changing photoperiods and to provide information on the nature of the wave forms and the mechanisms of entrainment, unrestrained male monkeys (Cebus albifrons, Macaca nemestrina) were maintained in a sound-proofed environmental chamber. The Cebus was initially maintained on a 12L:12D schedule; it was subjected to a 180 degrees phase shift for 14 days, then returned to the original photoperiod. In two experiments (24 days; 27 days each) the same monkey was again maintained on a 12L:12D schedule which was gradually altered to a constant light environment. Deep body temperature (DBT) data were obtained with miniature radiotransmitters. Locomotor activity (LMA) was measured by strain gauges. Under the 12L:12D regimens the Macaca DBT cycles were uniform as to phase and wave form for over 60 weeks. These wave forms were analyzed by the use of periodogram and correlogram analyses and by fitting to the Volterra Integro-Differential Equation. Phase angle relationships between Zeitgeber and physiologic parameters were characterized. After the photoperiod phase shift the DBT cycle rephased in about 9 days. During the rephasing process the wave form changed. The shapes of the wave forms of DBT and activity were maintained with increasing light until an 18L:6D photoperiod was reached. The rhythms were entrained to the onset of darkness rather than lights on. Major and minor periods of LMA were detected. Hysteresis diagrams showed that DBT led the onset of major LA by 6 hr and the end of major activity by 2 hr.

  10. Amyloid beta1–42 and the phoshorylated tau threonine 231 in brains of aged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda Shalahudin; Gjedde, Albert; Sajuthi, Dondin

    2014-01-01

    Pathological hallmarks indicative of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which are the plaques of amyloid beta1-42 and neurofibrillary tangles, were found in brain of aged cynomolgus monkey. The aim of this study was to investigate if aged monkeys exhibiting spatial memory impairment and levels of biomarke...

  11. High resolution karyotype of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chromosome banding analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies are established approaches to compare human and ape chromosomes. FISH banding is a relatively new and not routinely applied method very well suited to provide to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of primate and human phylogeny. Here multicolor banding (MCB-applying probes derived from Homo sapiens were used to analyze the chromosomes of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis. The results agree with those of previous studies in other macaques, e.g. Macaca sylvanus or Macaca nemestrina. This result highlights that morphological differences within the Cercopithecoidea must be found rather in subchromosomal changes or even in epigenetics than in gross structural alterations.

  12. High resolution karyotype of thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chromosome banding analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies are established approaches to compare human and ape chromosomes. FISH-banding is a relatively new and not routinely applied method suited very well to provide to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of primate and human phylogeny. Here multicolor banding (MCB applying probes derived from Homo sapiens was used to analyze the chromosomes of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis. The results agree with those of previous studies in other macaques, e.g. Macaca sylvanus or Macaca nemestrina. This result pinpoints, that morphological differences within the Ceropithecoidae must be founded rather in subchromosomal changes or even in epigenetics than in gross structural alterations.

  13. Correlations between serum levels of beta amyloid, cerebrospinal levels of tau and phospho tau, and delayed response tasks in young and aged cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda Shalahudin; Sajuthi, D; Kalliokoski, O

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to explore cynomolgus monkeys as an animal model for Alzheimer's disease, the present study focused on the Alzheimer's biomarkers beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42 ) in serum, and total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels in cerebrospinal fluid.......In an attempt to explore cynomolgus monkeys as an animal model for Alzheimer's disease, the present study focused on the Alzheimer's biomarkers beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42 ) in serum, and total tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels in cerebrospinal fluid....

  14. Selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in a streptozotocin-induced Alzheimer's disease model of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Je; Kim, Young-Hyun; Lee, Youngjeon; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Heui-Soo; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Su; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been widely used to quantify relative gene expression because of the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of this technique. In order to obtain reliable gene expression data from RT-qPCR experiments, it is important to utilize optimal reference genes for the normalization of target gene expression under varied experimental conditions. Previously, we developed and validated a novel icv-STZ cynomolgus monkey model for Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. However, in order to enhance the reliability of this disease model, appropriate reference genes must be selected to allow meaningful analysis of the gene expression levels in the icv-STZ cynomolgus monkey brain. In this study, we assessed the expression stability of 9 candidate reference genes in 2 matched-pair brain samples (5 regions) of control cynomolgus monkeys and those who had received intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (icv-STZ). Three well-known analytical programs geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to choose the suitable reference genes from the total sample group, control group, and icv-STZ group. Combination analysis of the 3 different programs clearly indicated that the ideal reference genes are RPS19 and YWHAZ in the total sample group, GAPDH and RPS19 in the control group, and ACTB and GAPDH in the icv-STZ group. Additionally, we validated the normalization accuracy of the most appropriate reference genes (RPS19 and YWHAZ) by comparison with the least stable gene (TBP) using quantification of the APP and MAPT genes in the total sample group. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first study to identify and validate the appropriate reference genes in cynomolgus monkey brains. These findings provide useful information for future studies involving the expression of target genes in the cynomolgus monkey.

  15. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippo, Antonio G; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R; Caramenti, Gian C; Benabid, Alim L; Biella, Gabriele E M

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1-8 V, 1-10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  16. Toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, D.W.; Elwell, M.R.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-04-01

    The toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF), a ubiquitous and acutely toxic environmental contaminant, was examined in three adult male Rhesus monkeys administered a single iv dose of 34 micrograms (0.1 mumol)/kg. Within 20 min, 4PeCDF was eliminated from the blood and was distributed to the liver, skin, adipose, and muscle tissues. Excretion occurred primarily via the feces with a minimum whole body half-life approximately 38 days. Within 7-14 days after administration, the packed cell volume and serum triglyceride and bile acid concentrations were significantly increased while serum cholesterol, protein, and albumin concentrations were decreased relative to pretreatment levels. Thyroid hormone levels were also altered with an increase in TSH and a decrease in T3 and T4 concentrations. After 28 days, two monkeys began exhibiting alopecia, hyperkeratinization of the toe and finger nails, facial chloracne-like lesions, and loss of body weight. They subsequently died 40 and 48 days after treatment. Similar symptoms of toxicity were observed in the third animal 58 days after 4PeCDF administration, but this animal appeared to fully recover and was administered 4PeCDF orally and (3H)1,2,3,7,8-pentachloro-dibenzofuran (1PeCDF) dermally 238 days after the initial iv dose. In this animal, approximately 2% of an oral dose of (14C)-4PeCDF was absorbed from the stomach and small intestine in 6 hr and was distributed mainly to the muscle and skin and less than 99% of a dermal dose of 1PeCDF remained at the site of application. Pathological findings in the monkeys that died indicated hyperplastic and metaplastic changes in the gastric mucosa, the Meibomian glands of the eyelid, and the ceruminous glands of the ear. Regression of these lesions was present in the surviving animal.

  17. A new method for piercing the tentorium cerebelli for implanting fragile electrodes into the brain stem in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Wenchao; Rizak, Joshua Dominic; Wang, Zhengbo; Wang, Jianhong; Feng, Xiaoli; Dong, Jinrun; Li, Lin; Liu, Li; Xu, Liqi; Yang, Shangchuan; Hu, Xintian

    2014-03-01

    Recent developments in neuron recording techniques include the invention of some fragile electrodes. The fragility of these electrodes impedes their successful use in deep brain recordings because it is difficult to penetrate the electrodes through the dura mater, especially the tentorium cerebelli (TC) enclosing the cerebellum and brain stem. This paper reports a new method to pierce the TC for inserting fragile electrodes into the inferior colliculus of rhesus monkeys. Briefly, a unique tool kit, consisting of needles with sharp tips, a guide tube and an "impactor," was used in a multistep protocol to pierce the TC. The impactor provided a brief force that quickly thrusts the needles through the meninges without causing significant damage to the brain tissue under the TC. Using this novel approach, tetrodes were successfully implanted into the inferior colliculus of a rhesus monkey and neuronal discharge signals were recorded. This method, which is simple, convenient and economical, allows neurophysiologists to study the electrophysiological characteristics of deep brain structures under the TC with advanced, albeit fragile, electrodes.

  18. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Giuliano Zippo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and 3 the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1 to 8V, 1 to 10 Hz, 500ms, biphasic waves, we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being < 1ms and interblock intervals of 1.5 to 4 s have been analyzed. We found 150 to 250ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses.

  19. A novel wireless recording and stimulating multichannel epicortical grid for supplementing or enhancing the sensory-motor functions in monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippo, Antonio G.; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Torres Martinez, Napoleon R.; Caramenti, Gian C.; Benabid, Alim L.; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) represent a prospective step forward supporting or replacing faulty brain functions. So far, several obstacles, such as the energy supply, the portability and the biocompatibility, have been limiting their effective translation in advanced experimental or clinical applications. In this work, a novel 16 channel chronically implantable epicortical grid has been proposed. It provides wireless transmission of cortical recordings and stimulations, with induction current recharge. The grid has been chronically implanted in a non-human primate (Macaca fascicularis) and placed over the somato-motor cortex such that 13 electrodes recorded or stimulated the primary motor cortex and three the primary somatosensory cortex, in the deeply anaesthetized animal. Cortical sensory and motor recordings and stimulations have been performed within 3 months from the implant. In detail, by delivering motor cortex epicortical single spot stimulations (1–8 V, 1–10 Hz, 500 ms, biphasic waves), we analyzed the motor topographic precision, evidenced by tunable finger or arm movements of the anesthetized animal. The responses to light mechanical peripheral sensory stimuli (blocks of 100 stimuli, each single stimulus being <1 ms and interblock intervals of 1.5–4 s) have been analyzed. We found 150–250 ms delayed cortical responses from fast finger touches, often spread to nearby motor stations. We also evaluated the grid electrical stimulus interference with somatotopic natural tactile sensory processing showing no suppressing interference with sensory stimulus detection. In conclusion, we propose a chronically implantable epicortical grid which can accommodate most of current technological restrictions, representing an acceptable candidate for BMI experimental and clinical uses. PMID:26029061

  20. Evolution of a TRIM5-CypA splice isoform in old world monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi M Newman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The TRIM family proteins share a conserved arrangement of three adjacent domains, an N-terminal RING domain, followed by one or two B-boxes and a coiled-coil, which constitutes the tripartite-motif for which the family is named. However, the C-termini of TRIM proteins vary, and include at least nine evolutionarily distinct, unrelated protein domains. Antiviral restriction factor TRIM5alpha has a C-terminal B30.2/SPRY domain, which is the major determinant of viral target specificity. Here, we describe the evolution of a cyclophilin-A encoding exon downstream of the TRIM5 locus of Asian macaques. Alternative splicing gives rise to chimeric transcripts encoding the TRIM motif fused to a C-terminal CypA domain (TRIM5-CypA. We detected TRIM5-CypA chimeric transcripts in primary lymphocytes from two macaque species. These were derived in part from a CypA pseudogene in the TRIM5 locus, which is distinct from the previously described CypA insertion in TRIM5 of owl monkeys. The CypA insertion is linked to a mutation in the 3' splice site upstream of exon 7, which may prevent or reduce expression of the alpha-isoform. All pig-tailed macaques (M. nemestrina screened were homozygous for the CypA insertion. In contrast, the CypA-containing allele was present in 17% (17/101 of rhesus macaques (M. mulatta. The block to HIV-1 infection in lymphocytes from animals bearing the TRIM5-CypA allele was weaker than that in cells from wild type animals. HIV-1 infectivity remained significantly lower than SIV infectivity, but was not rescued by treatment with cyclosporine A. Thus, unlike owl monkey TRIMCyp, expression of the macaque TRIM5-CypA isoform does not result in increased restriction of HIV-1. Despite its distinct evolutionary origin, Macaca TRIM5-CypA has a similar domain arrangement and shares approximately 80% amino-acid identity with the TRIMCyp protein of owl monkeys. The independent appearance of TRIM5-CypA chimeras in two primate lineages constitutes a

  1. Hallazgos de anticuerpos contra Leptospira sp., serovariedades Panama, Lai, Australis, Shermani y Patoc, en un grupo de monos rhesus (Macaca mulatta en condiciones de cautiverio Antibodies findings against Leptospira sp., of the serovars Panama, Lai, Australis, Shermani, and Patoc, in a group of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in conditions of captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ibáñez-Contreras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La leptospirosis ha emergido como una importante enfermedad infecciosa, lo que ha ocurrido en diferentes entornos desde urbanos hasta medios naturales; los portadores son animales salvajes o domésticos. El objetivo fue evaluar la presencia de anticuerpos contra Leptospira en monos rhesus en condiciones de bioterio. Se utilizaron 59 monos de diferentes etapas fisiológicas. Se determinaron anticuerpos contra Leptospira a partir de la prueba de aglutinación microscópica (TAM, utilizando como antígenos 25 serovariedades de Leptospira. Se observó que de los 59 animales, únicamente el 30,50% reaccionaron contra una o más serovariedades de Leptospira. En este trabajo se determinaron anticuerpos contra cuatro serovariedades de Leptospira: Panama, Lai, Australis y Shermani, consideradas como patógenas, y once de las muestras reaccionaron contra la serovariedad Patoc, considerada no patógena y saprófita. Ninguno de los animales que resultaron positivos contra Leptospira presentó signos clínicos compatibles con leptospirosis.During the last decade leptospirosis has emerged as a worldwide and very important infectious disease, affecting different environments from urban to rural, with carriers usually being wild or domestic animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of antibodies against Leptospira in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in a Research Center. Fifty nine non-human primates of different physiological stages were studied. The animals were held in groups and in individual cages. Blood samples were obtained from the saphenous vein to determine the presence of antibodies through the microscopic agglutination test (MA, using twenty five serovars of Leptospira as antigens. It was observed that 18 out of the 59 monkeys (30.50% reacted against one or more serovars of Leptospira. In this study, antibodies of 4 serovars of Leptospira, (Panama, Lai, Australis, and Shermani were detected. All 4 serovars were considered

  2. Time course and role of LH and FSH in the expansion of the Leydig cell population at the time of puberty in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, I.; Ramaswamy, S.; Teerds, K.J.; Keijer, J.; Plant, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    In higher primates development of the adult population of Leydig cells has received little attention. Here, the emergence of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B) positive cells in the testis of the rhesus monkey was examined during spontaneous puberty, and correlated with S-phase labeling in the interstitium at this critical stage of development. In addition, the relative role of LH and FSH in initiating the pubertal expansion of Leydig cells was studied by precociously stimulating the juvenile testis in vivo with pulsatile 11-day infusions of recombinant LH and FSH, either alone or in combination. At the time of castration, testes were immersion fixed in Bouin’s, embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 5 μm. Leydig cells/testis were enumerated using HSD3B as a Leydig cell marker. Leydig cell number per testis increased progressively during puberty to reach values in the adult approximately 10 fold greater than in early pubertal animals. The rise in cell number was associated with an increase in nuclear diameter. That the pubertal expansion of Leydig cell number was driven primarily by the increase in LH secretion at this stage of development was suggested by the finding that precocious stimulation of mid juvenile monkeys with LH, either alone or in combination with that of FSH, resulted in a 20 to 30 fold increase in the number of HSD3B positive cells. Interestingly, precocious FSH stimulation, alone, also resulted in appearance of Leydig cells as indicated by the occasional HSD3B positive cell in the interstitium. The nuclear diameter of these Leydig cells, however was less than that of those generated in response to LH. PMID:25269763

  3. Microcanalization in the epididymis to overcome ductal obstruction caused by chronic exposure to chromium - a study in the mature bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata Geoffroy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruldhas, M Michael; Subramanian, S; Sekhar, P; Hasan, G Chandra; Govindarajulu, P; Akbarsha, M A

    2004-07-01

    In order to apprehend the toxic effects of chromium, an occupational/environmental pollutant, on the epididymis, adult bonnet monkeys were exposed to chromium (VI) in their drinking water at concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 p.p.m. for a chronic period of 180 days. At the end of the experimental period, testicles and segments of epididymis from control and treated monkeys were subjected to light microscopic (resin-embedded semi-thin sections) and transmission electron microscopic analyses. Among the various changes undergone by the epididymal epithelium, the present paper describes the origin of two different kinds of microcanals, probably caused by ductal obstruction. The first type of microcanal, which appears to provide passage for spermatozoa to bypass the obstructed main duct, is comparable with the one already reported in carbendazim-treated efferent ductules of the rat. The second type of microcanal, which is novel, consisted of a lumen in the epithelium enclosed by four to five cells, which are either modified basal cells, principal cells or a hitherto unknown cell type. This novel type of microcanal is suggested to be a device to entrap the spermatozoa which reach the core of the epithelium and may be a mechanism to prevent extravasation of sperm so as to avoid an autoimmune response of spermatic granuloma formation. Thus, the present study has shown that chronic exposure to chromium (VI) through drinking water can produce pathological manifestations in the epididymal epithelium but the epididymis, being a versatile organ, is capable of overcoming such adverse situations through novel devices.

  4. Procedures for the isolation and culture of Sertoli cells from the testes of infant, juvenile, and adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S S; Winters, S J; Plant, T M

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish culture conditions for the in vitro study of the rhesus monkey Sertoli cell (Sc) at three major stages of development, namely infancy, adulthood, and the intervening prepubertal period. Conditions for the culture of Sc from juveniles were first established using collagenase and pancreatin digestion of seminiferous tubules. The addition of 1% fetal bovine serum for the first 24 h of culture was necessary for attachment of Sc clusters. Confluency of Sc from juveniles was reached as early as 4 days of culture. Histochemical and ultrastructural observations confirmed that the cultures were enriched with Sc and that contamination by peritubular cells was minimal (2%). Although application of similar culture conditions was successful in establishing cultures of Sc from infants, significant modification of the procedure was required before Sc from adults could be cultured. Specifically, adult testicular tissue required two sequential collagenase digestions at elevated temperature. The yield of adult Sc, however, remained low. Cultures of juvenile Sc produced substantial quantities of 31-kDa inhibin, which was bioactive as reflected by its ability to suppress FSH secretion from rat pituitary cells in vitro. Although aromatase activity in juvenile Sc cultures was stimulated by FSH, inhibin synthesis, as reflected by immunoactive inhibin production and steady-state levels of alpha inhibin mRNA, was not increased by FSH. The establishment of conditions for the culture of infant, juvenile, and adult Sc from the rhesus monkey will provide a model for study of the postnatal ontogeny of Sc function in higher primates.

  5. Spatial information processing in humans and monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis a series of experiments are described on human volunteers and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in the context of spatial information processing. In the first single-unit recording experiments in monkeys a spatial summation algorithm was investigated. The responses of single neurons to

  6. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) experimentally infected with B19V and hepatitis A virus: no evidence of the co-infection as a cause of acute liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Marchevsky, Renato Sergio; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Nasser Cubel; de Almeida, Adilson José; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Castro, Tatiana Xavier; do Nascimento, Jussara Pereira; Brown, Kevin E; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse the course and the outcome of the liver disease in the co-infected animals in order to evaluate a possible synergic effect of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) co-infection. Nine adult cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with serum obtained from a fatal case of B19V infection and/or a faecal suspension of acute HAV. The presence of specific antibodies to HAV and B19V, liver enzyme levels, viraemia, haematological changes, and necroinflammatory liver lesions were used for monitoring the infections. Seroconversion was confirmed in all infected groups. A similar pattern of B19V infection to human disease was observed, which was characterised by high and persistent viraemia in association with reticulocytopenia and mild to moderate anaemia during the period of investigation (59 days). Additionally, the intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in pro-erythroblast cell from an infected cynomolgus and B19V Ag in hepatocytes. The erythroid hypoplasia and decrease in lymphocyte counts were more evident in the co-infected group. The present results demonstrated, for the first time, the susceptibility of cynomolgus to B19V infection, but it did not show a worsening of liver histopathology in the co-infected group. PMID:27074255

  7. The Distribution of MAP-2 Phosphorylation in Cerebral Cortex of Long-Tailed Monkey Fetuses (Macaca fascicularis in the Last Trimester of Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wahyu Pangestiningsih

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Memories are storage in cholinoceptive cells, the cells which are enriched with microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2 that localized in the neuronal dendrite and the cell bodies. Phosphorylation of MAP-2 may increase memory with reduce stability of dendrite by altered dendrite length and lead new side-branches of neuronal as a neuronal plasticity processes in cerebral cortex. The aim of this research is to study the distribution of MAP-2 phosphorylation neurons in cerebral cortex of long-tailed macaques in the third semester of gestationalimmunohistochemically using avidin biotin conjugated complex method. Neurons MAP-2 phosphorylation immunoreactive were located in dendrites and cell bodies, mostly in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex. Intensity of MAP-2 phosphorylation immunoreactivity in layer V were stronger than another layer and the neurons that very intensely stained were the pyramidal cells in frontal and parietal lobes, that was suggested that neurons in this areas more responsive to neuroplasticity. From the results we concluded that MAP-2 phosphorylation already distributed in the cerebral cortex of long-tailed macaque fetuses at the last trimester of gestation, mostly in the pyramidal cells of layer V that is suggested plays a role for preparation of memoryformation.Keywords: fetus, long-tailed monkey, cerebral cortex, memory, MAP-2 phosphorylation

  8. Physiological studies in space with nonhuman primates using the monkey pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    A completely enclosed module was constructed for continuously maintaining an unanesthetized adult 10-12 kg monkey in a physiologically stable state of comfortable restraint for periods of at least 10 days, either on the ground or in an orbiting spacecraft. Energy balance determinations made during three different tests using a giant rhesus (malaca nemestrina) are presented in charts and graphs.

  9. Morphologic, stereologic, and morphometric evaluation of the nervous system in young cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) following maternal administration of tanezumab, a monoclonal antibody to nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Mark; Evans, Mark; Bowman, Christopher J; Cummings, Thomas; Oneda, Satoru; Shelton, David; Zorbas, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Tanezumab, an antibody to nerve growth factor, was administered to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys at 0, 0.5, 4, and 30 mg/kg weekly, beginning gestation day (GD) 20 through parturition (∼GD165). Maternal tanezumab administration appeared to increase stillbirths and infant mortality, but no consistent pattern of gross and/or microscopic change was detected to explain the mortality. Offspring exposed in utero were evaluated at 12 months of age using light microscopy (all tissues), stereology (basal forebrain cholinergic and dorsal root ganglia neurons), and morphometry (sural nerve). Light microscopy revealed decreased number of neurons in sympathetic ganglia (superior mesenteric, cervicothoracic, and ganglia in the thoracic sympathetic trunk). Stereologic assessment indicated an overall decrease in dorsal root ganglion (thoracic) volume and number of neurons in animals exposed to tanezumab 4 mg/kg (n = 9) and 30 mg/kg (n = 1). At all tanezumab doses, the sural nerve was small due to decreases in myelinated and unmyelinated axons. Existing axons/myelin sheaths appeared normal when viewed with light and transmission electron microscopy. There was no indication of tanezumab-related, active neuron/nerve fiber degeneration/necrosis in any tissue, indicating decreased sensory/sympathetic neurons and axonal changes were due to hypoplasia or atrophy. These changes in the sensory and sympathetic portions of the peripheral nervous system suggest some degree of developmental neurotoxicity, although what effect, if any, the changes had on normal function and survival was not apparent. Overall, these changes were consistent with published data from rodent studies.

  10. Serum Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Concentrations in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with Chronic Idiopathic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzi, Jessica M; Beck, Sarah E; Adams, Robert J; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Hutchinson, Eric K

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea poses a significant threat to the health of NHP research colonies, and its primary etiology remains unclear. In macaques, the clinical presentation of intractable diarrhea and weight loss that are accompanied by inflammatory infiltrates within the gastrointestinal tract closely resembles inflammatory bowel disease of humans, dogs, and cats, in which low serum and tissue cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels are due to intestinal malabsorption. We therefore hypothesized that macaques with chronic idiopathic diarrhea (CID) have lower serum cobalamin concentrations than do healthy macaques. Here we measured serum cobalamin concentrations in both rhesus and pigtailed macaques with CID and compared them with those of healthy controls. Serum cobalamin levels were 2.5-fold lower in pigtailed macaques with CID than control animals but did not differ between rhesus macaques with CID and their controls. This finding supports the use of serum cobalamin concentration as an adjunct diagnostic tool in pigtailed macaques that present with clinical symptoms of chronic gastrointestinal disease. This use of serum vitamin B12 levels has implications for the future use of parenteral cobalamin supplementation to improve clinical outcomes in this species.

  11. Social Preferences by and for Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca Nemestrina) with Trisomy 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Karyl B.; Sackett, Gene P.

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of social choices of trisomic macaques and of control groups found that groups showed few differences in preferences for stimulus animals with and without disabilities. Results suggest that the avoidance of individuals with disabilities is not a general primate trait and the presence of mental retardation and physical handicaps need not…

  12. Biologic data of Macaca mulatta, Macaca fascicularis, and Saimiri sciureusused for research at the fiocruz primate center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Ribeiro Andrade

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Physiological parameters of laboratory animals used for biomedical research is crucial for following several experimental procedures. With the intent to establish baseline biologic parameters for non-human primates held in closed colonies, hematological and morphometric data of captive monkeys were determined. Data of clinically healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus were collected over a period of five years. Animals were separated according to sex and divided into five age groups. Hematological data were compared with those in the literature by Student's t test. Discrepancies with significance levels of 0.1, 1 or 5% were found in the hematological studies. Growth curves showed that the sexual dimorphism of rhesus monkeys appeared at an age of four years. In earlier ages, the differences between sexes could not be distinguished (p < 0.05. Sexual dimorphism in both squirrel monkeys and cynomolgus monkeys occurred at an age of about 32 months. Data presented in this paper could be useful for comparative studies using primates under similar conditions.

  13. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  14. Surrogate Mobility and Orientation Affect the Early Neurobehavioral Development of Infant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda M Dettmer; Ruggerio, Angela M.; Novak, Melinda A.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    A biological mother’s movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard...

  15. Molecular detection of Yaba monkey tumour virus from a vervet monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Brettschneider

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Yaba monkey tumour virus (YMTV was first diagnosed in a colony of captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Yaba, Nigeria. It has been implicated as the cause of cutaneous nodules in wild baboons (Papio species, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis. This article reports a case of cutaneous pox lesions caused by YMTV in a  free-ranging  adult  female  vervet  monkey  (Chlorocebus  pygerythrus  from  the  Umkomaas coastal area in South Africa. The virus was identified by molecular sequencing from fragments of the insulin metalloprotease-like protein and intracellular mature virion membrane protein as well as the DNA polymerase genes. Phylogenetic analyses of these gene regions revealed a 99% similarity of the sample to YMTV. Although human disease caused by YMTV is normally mild,  it  is  recommended  that  persons  in  contact  with  non-human  primates  in  the  area  of Umkomaas who develop cutaneous lesions should inform their doctors of the possibility of this infection. The extent and significance of the virus to human and non-human primates in South Africa are not known. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first diagnosis of YMTV in South Africa and in vervet monkeys.

  16. Variation in Clitoral Length in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Beatriz; Cabello, Pedro H; Kugelmeier, Tatiana; Pereira, Barbara B; Lopes, Claudia A; Fasano, Daniele M; Andrade, Marcia C; Santos, Joice S; Marinho, Antonio M

    2009-01-01

    Clitoromegaly in the neonatal period is an important morphologic sign that can be useful for sexual determination in aberrant cases. In rhesus monkeys, differentiation of the external genitalia occurs early during gestation (at 55 to 60 d) and is complete by approximately 80 d. Most of the critical steps in genital differentiation in primates occur prenatally. We sought to determine clitoral size in normal rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and possible effects of age and inheritance. Clitoral length was highly variable and had no relationship to fertility. Statistical evaluation revealed no association in the distribution of daughters with and without clitoris between mothers with and without clitoris. However, even when mated with several female monkeys, some male macaques produced primarily daughters without clitoris. PMID:19807967

  17. Hemopoietic stem cells in rhesus monkeys : surface antigens, radiosensitivity, and responses to GM-CSF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Wielenga (Jenne)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractRhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were bred at the Primate Center TNO, Rijswijk, The Netherlands!. Both male and female animals were used for the experiments. The monkeys weighed 2.5-4 kg and were 2-4 years old at the time of the experiment. They were all typed for RhLA-A, -B and -DR antig

  18. A Reevaluation of the Question: Is the Pubertal Resurgence in Pulsatile GnRH Release in the Male Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta) Associated With a Gonad-Independent Augmentation of GH Secretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, M; Trujillo, M Vargas; Plant, T M

    2015-10-01

    A somatic signal has been posited to trigger the pubertal resurgence in pulsatile GnRH secretion that initiates puberty in highly evolved primates. That GH might provide such a signal emerged in 2000 as a result of a study reporting that circulating nocturnal GH concentrations in castrated juvenile male monkeys increased in a 3-week period immediately preceding the pubertal resurgence of LH secretion. The present study was conducted to reexamine this intriguing relationship, again in an agonadal model. Four castrated juvenile male monkeys were implanted with indwelling jugular catheters, housed in remote sampling cages, and subjected to 24 hours of sequential blood sampling (every 30 min) every 2 weeks from 19.5 to 22 months of age. Twenty-four-hour profiles of circulating GH concentrations were analyzed using the pulse detection algorithm, PULSAR, and developmental changes in pulsatile GH release with respect to the initiation of the pubertal rise of LH secretion (week 0; observed between 22.5 and 32 mo of age) were examined for significance by a repeated-measures ANOVA. Changes in the parameters of pulsatile GH secretion, including mean 24-hour GH concentration and GH pulse frequency and pulse amplitude for 3 (n = 4) and 6 (n = 3) months before week 0 were unremarkable and nonsignificant. These findings fail to confirm those of the earlier study and lead us to conclude that the timing of the pubertal resurgence of GnRH release in the male monkey is not dictated by GH. Reasons for the discrepancy between the two studies are unclear.

  19. [The first monkey malaria in Turkey: a case of Plasmodium knowlesi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbilgin, Ahmet; Çavuş, İbrahim; Yıldırım, Ahmet; Gündüz, Cumhur

    2016-07-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is now added to the known four Plasmodium species (P.vivax, P.falciparum, P.malariae, P.ovale) as a cause of malaria in humans because of the recent increasing rate of cases reported from countries of southeastern Asia. P.knowlesi which infects macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis and M.nemestrina) is transmitted to humans especially by Anopheles leucosphyrus and An.hackeri mosquitos. First human cases of P.knowlesi malaria have been detected in Malaysia which have reached high numbers in recent years and also have been reported from countries of Southeast Asia such as Thailand, Philippines, Myanmar, Singapore and Vietnam. However the number of cases reported from western countries are rare and limited only within voyagers. This report is the first presentation of an imported case of P.knowlesi malaria in Turkey and aims to draw attention to the point that it could also be detected in future. A 33-year-old male patient from Myanmar who has migrated to Turkey as a refugee, was admitted to a health center with the complaints of fever with a periodicity of 24 hours, headache, fatigue, cough, sore throat, anorexia, myalgia and arthralgia. He was prediagnosed as upper respiratory tract infection, however because of his periodical fever and background in Myanmar, thick and thin blood films were prepared and sent to our laboratory for further examinations. Microscopic examination of the thin blood films revealed erythrocytic stages compatible with P.knowlesi (three large early trophozoites in an erythrocyte, three late trophozoites with compact view, and three late band-form trophozoites). Upon this, both real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) genes of Plasmodium genus and DNA sequence analysis targeting P.knowlesi rRNA gene were performed. As a result, the suspected identification of P.knowlesi by microscopy was confirmed by Rt-PCR and DNA sequencing. The patient was treated with chloroquine

  20. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience.

  1. Fructosamine reference ranges in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Fritze, Misty J; Smith, Peter C; Zelterman, Daniel; Scholz, Jodi A Carlson

    2011-07-01

    Naturally occurring diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in several species of Old and New World nonhuman primates. Fructosamine values provide important information about recent glycemic control and can be useful in the diagnosis and management of DM. However, despite an abundance of reports in the literature describing spontaneous and induced DM in monkeys, few reference ranges are available for fructosamine. Reference ranges have been published for woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha), cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), and stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides) but currently are not available for rhesus macaques. At our institution, DM is a common diagnosis in aging rhesus macaques. Here we report a reference range for fructosamine in rhesus macaques. The overall range was 157 to 230 μmol/L, with male rhesus and macaques 10 y or older having significantly higher values than do female rhesus and macaques younger than 10 y, respectively. This range provides clinical veterinarians with an additional tool for evaluating glycemic control in rhesus macaques. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

  2. Construction and Validation of a Systematic Ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a Free Enclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Xu; Liang Xie; Xin Li; Qi Li; Tao Wang; Yongjia Ji; Fei Kong; Qunlin Zhan; Ke Cheng; Liang Fang; Peng Xie

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of th...

  3. Continuous human metastin 45-54 infusion desensitizes G protein-coupled receptor 54-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone release monitored indirectly in the juvenile male Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): a finding with therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminara, Stephanie B; Dipietro, Meloni J; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Crowley, William F; Plant, Tony M

    2006-05-01

    The effect of continuous administration of the C-terminal fragment of metastin, the ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor, GPR54, on GnRH-induced LH secretion was examined in three agonadal, juvenile male monkeys whose responsiveness to GnRH was heightened by pretreatment with a chronic pulsatile iv infusion of synthetic GnRH. After bolus injection of 10 microg human (hu) metastin 45-54 (equivalent to kisspeptin 112-121), the GPR54 agonist was infused continuously at a dose of 100 microg/h and elicited a brisk LH response for approximately 3 h. This rise was then followed by a precipitous drop in LH despite continuous exposure of GPR54 to metastin 45-54. On d 4, during the final 3 h of the infusion, single boluses of hu metastin 45-54 (10 microg), N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid (NMDA) (10 mg/kg) and GnRH (0.3 microg) were administered to interrogate each element of the metastin-GPR54-GnRH-GnRH receptor cascade. Although the NMDA and GnRH boluses were able to elicit LH pulses, that of hu metastin 45-54 was not, demonstrating functional integrity of GnRH neurons (NMDA) and GnRH receptors (NMDA and GnRH) but desensitization of GPR54. The desensitization of GPR54 by continuous hu metastin 45-54 administration has therapeutic implications for a variety of conditions currently being treated by GnRH and its analogs, including restoration of fertility in patients with abnormal GnRH secretion (i.e. idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypothalamic amenorrhea) and selective, reversible suppression of the pituitary-gonadal axis to achieve suppression of gonadal steroids (i.e. precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and prostate cancer).

  4. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  5. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  6. Interactions of motivation and reinforcement during the performance of a simple instrumental reflex by a monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, I M; Shul'govskii, V V

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of the performance of an instrumental task by Macaca rhesus monkeys was investigated in an automated experiment. Three monkeys were trained to complete a movement with a lever in response to a light stimulus. It was demonstrated that the performance of the instrumental reflex by the monkeys is comprised of the alternation of blocks of more or less continuous realizations and pauses between them. The relationship of the intensity of the work of the monkeys to the time from the beginning of the experiment was studied, and a comparison was made of the magnitude of the intensity for the three monkeys. The average intensity of the work of the monkeys within the blocks of continuous realizations is a constant and individual value. The influence of the degree of deprivation and of the delivery of out-of-turn reinforcement on the work of the monkeys was also investigated.

  7. Using infective mosquitoes to challenge monkeys with Plasmodium knowlesi in malaria vaccine studies

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Jittawadee R.; Walter R Weiss; Fryauff, David; Dowler, Megan; Savransky, Tatyana; Stoyanov, Cristina; Muratova, Olga; Lambert, Lynn; Orr-Gonzalez, Sachy; Zeleski, Katie Lynn; Hinderer, Jessica; Fay, Michael P.; Joshi, Gyan; Gwadz, Robert W; Richie, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    Background When rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are used to test malaria vaccines, animals are often challenged by the intravenous injection of sporozoites. However, natural exposure to malaria comes via mosquito bite, and antibodies can neutralize sporozoites as they traverse the skin. Thus, intravenous injection may not fairly assess humoral immunity from anti-sporozoite malaria vaccines. To better assess malaria vaccines in rhesus, a method to challenge large numbers of monkeys by mosquito...

  8. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood smear and was subsequently diagnosed with symptomatic malaria. In this animal, congestion and accumulation of hemozoin (malaria pigment) in macrophages were noted in the enlarged and darkly discolored spleen. As a follow-up for the experience, spleen sections from 800 cynomolgus monkeys in toxicity studies conducted between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively examined for hemozoin deposition as a marker of Plasmodium infection. The origin of the animals included Cambodia, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Hemozoin deposition was confirmed in 44% of all examined monkeys. Monkeys from Indonesia showed the highest incidence of hemozoin deposition (approx. 80%). A high prevalence of Plasmodium infection in laboratory monkeys was also confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using Plasmodium genus-specific primers. Although Japan is not a country with endemic malaria, it is important to be aware of the prevalence and potential impact of background infection with Plasmodium spp. and recrudescence of symptomatic malaria in imported laboratory monkeys on pharmaceutical toxicity studies.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE VITREOUS BODY IN RHESUS-MONKEYS AND MAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WORST, JGF; LOS, LI

    1992-01-01

    In the isolated unfixed vitreous body a structural organization can be visualized by slitlamp microscopy or by an ink-injection technique. We discuss the observations on human and rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) vitreous bodies using the ink-injection technique. Advantages and disadvantages of this m

  10. Evidence for Motor Planning in Monkeys: Rhesus Macaques Select Efficient Grips when Transporting Spoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eliza L.; Berthier, Neil E.; Metevier, Christina M.; Novak, Melinda A.

    2011-01-01

    McCarty and colleagues (1999) developed the elevated spoon task to measure motor planning in human infants. In this task, a spoon containing food was placed on an elevated apparatus that supported both ends of the spoon. The handle was oriented to the left or right on different trials. We presented naive adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with…

  11. Construction and validation of a systematic ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Xie, Liang; Li, Xin; Li, Qi; Wang, Tao; Ji, Yongjia; Kong, Fei; Zhan, Qunlin; Cheng, Ke; Fang, Liang; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations.

  12. Construction and validation of a systematic ethogram of Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies in non-human primates have become ideal models for further investigations into advanced cognitive function in humans. To date, there is no systematic ethogram of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis in a free enclosure. In a field observation of 6012 subjects, 107 distinct behaviors of M. fascicularis were preliminarily described. 83 of these behaviors were then independently validated through a randomized cohort and classified into 12 behavioral categories. 53 of these behaviors were then selected to accurately reflect the daily mundane activity of the species in a free enclosure. These findings systematically document the behavior of M. fascicularis in a free enclosure for use in further investigations.

  13. Muscarinic Receptor Occupancy and Cognitive Impairment: A PET Study with [11C](+)3-MPB and Scopolamine in Conscious Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Nishiyama, Shingo; Kawamata, Masahiro; Ohba, Hiroyuki; Wakuda, Tomoyasu; Takei, Nori; Tsukada, Hideo; Domino, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    The muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) antagonist scopolamine was used to induce transient cognitive impairment in monkeys trained in a delayed matching to sample task. The temporal relationship between the occupancy level of central mAChRs and cognitive impairment was determined. Three conscious monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were subjected to positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the mAChR radioligand N-[11C]methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate ([11C](+)3-MPB). The scan sequence was pre-, 2,...

  14. Spatial decisions and cognitive strategies of monkeys and humans based on abstract spatial stimuli in rotation test

    OpenAIRE

    Nekovarova, Tereza; Nedvidek, Jan; Klement, Daniel; Bures, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We showed previously that macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) could orient in real space using abstract visual stimuli presented on a computer screen. They made correct choices according to both spatial stimuli (designed as an abstract representation of a real space) and nonspatial stimuli (pictures lacking any inner configuration information). However, we suggested that there were differences in processing spatial and nonspatial stimuli. In the present experiment we show that monkeys could also...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: rhesus monkey [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available acaca_mulatta_L.png Macaca_mulatta_NL.png Macaca_mulatta_S.png Macaca_mulatta_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=NS ...

  16. Lethal canine distemper virus outbreak in cynomolgus monkeys in Japan in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kouji; Nagata, Noriyo; Ami, Yasushi; Seki, Fumio; Suzaki, Yuriko; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Tadaki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Otsuki, Noriyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Komase, Katsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Hasegawa, Hideki; Saijo, Masayuki; Takeda, Makoto; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has recently expanded its host range to nonhuman primates. A large CDV outbreak occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi Province, China, in 2006, followed by another outbreak in rhesus monkeys at an animal center in Beijing in 2008. In 2008 in Japan, a CDV outbreak also occurred in cynomolgus monkeys imported from China. In that outbreak, 46 monkeys died from severe pneumonia during a quarantine period. A CDV strain (CYN07-dV) was isolated in Vero cells expressing dog signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). Phylogenic analysis showed that CYN07-dV was closely related to the recent CDV outbreaks in China, suggesting continuing chains of CDV infection in monkeys. In vitro, CYN07-dV uses macaca SLAM and macaca nectin4 as receptors as efficiently as dog SLAM and dog nectin4, respectively. CYN07-dV showed high virulence in experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys and excreted progeny viruses in oral fluid and feces. These data revealed that some of the CDV strains, like CYN07-dV, have the potential to cause acute systemic infection in monkeys.

  17. Effect of cold and warm ischaemia on drug metabolism in isolated hepatocytes and slices from human and monkey liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olinga, Peter; Hof, I.H; de Jager, M.H; de Jong, Kurt; Slooff, M.JH; Meijer, D.K F; Groothuis, Geny; Merema, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    1. The influence of short-term cold storage in University of Wisconsin organ preservation solution (UW) on the ability to metabolize lidocaine, testosterone and 7-ethoxycoumarin in isolated human and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) hepatocytes and liver slices has been investigated. 2. The h

  18. Japanese monkeys perceive sensory consonance of chords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, A

    2000-12-01

    Consonance/dissonance affects human perception of chords from early stages of development [e.g., Schellenberg and Trainor, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3321-3328 (1996)]. To examine whether consonance has some role in audition of nonhumans, three Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) were trained to discriminate simultaneous two-tone complexes (chords). The task was serial discrimination (AX procedure) with repetitive presentation of background stimuli. Each tone in a chord was comprised of six harmonics, and chords with complex ratios of fundamental frequency (e.g., frequency ratio of 8:15 in major seventh) resulted in dissonance. The chords were transposed for each presentation to make monkeys attend to cues other than the absolute frequency of a component tone. Monkeys were initially trained to detect changes from consonant (octave) to dissonant (major seventh). Following the successful acquisition of the task, transfer tests with novel chords were conducted. In these transfer tests, the performances with detecting changes from consonant to dissonant chords (perfect fifth to major seventh; perfect fourth to major seventh) were better than those with detecting reverse changes. These results suggested that the consonance of chords affected the performances of monkeys.

  19. Collection of Macaca fascicularis cDNAs derived from bone marrow, kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameoka Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consolidating transcriptome data of non-human primates is essential to annotate primate genome sequences, and will facilitate research using non-human primates in the genomic era. Macaca fascicularis is a macaque monkey that is commonly used for biomedical and ecological research. Findings We constructed cDNA libraries of Macaca fascicularis, derived from tissues obtained from bone marrow, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus of a young male, and kidney of a young female. In total, 5'-end sequences of 56,856 clones were determined. Including the previously established cDNA libraries from brain and testis, we have isolated 112,587 cDNAs of Macaca fascicularis, which correspond to 56% of the curated human reference genes. Conclusion These sequences were deposited in the public sequence database as well as in-house macaque genome database http://genebank.nibio.go.jp/qfbase/. These data will become valuable resources for identifying functional parts of the genome of macaque monkeys in future studies.

  20. Monkey Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  1. Monkey Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  2. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kristi R.; Pypendop, Bruno H.; Christe, Kari L.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g. dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially-housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration (180 words). PMID:25488714

  3. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol following intravenous and oral administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K R; Pypendop, B H; Christe, K L

    2015-08-01

    Recently, tramadol and its active metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), have been studied as analgesic agents in various traditional veterinary species (e.g., dogs, cats, etc.). This study explores the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a nontraditional veterinary species. Rhesus macaques are Old World monkeys that are commonly used in biomedical research. Effects of tramadol administration to monkeys are unknown, and research veterinarians may avoid inclusion of this drug into pain management programs due to this limited knowledge. Four healthy, socially housed, adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 10 h post-tramadol administration. Serum tramadol and M1 were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Tramadol clearance was 24.5 (23.4-32.7) mL/min/kg. Terminal half-life of tramadol was 111 (106-127) min IV and 133 (84.9-198) min PO. Bioavailability of tramadol was poor [3.47% (2.14-5.96%)]. Maximum serum concentration of M1 was 2.28 (1.88-2.73) ng/mL IV and 11.2 (9.37-14.9) ng/mL PO. Sedation and pruritus were observed after IV administration.

  4. [Visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality in female macaque monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, M

    1997-04-01

    Visual information about face and body including facial expression and bodily behavioral patterns has been known to play an important role in social and emotional communication in monkeys. Its involvement in sexual activity has also been demonstrated in male monkeys but it is poorly understood in female monkeys. In the present study, visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality were investigated in female macaque monkeys performing operant bar-press tasks in an experimental cage which had a transparent panel facing a display. In the sex discrimination task, two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate sex of a monkey shown in a picture which was randomly selected from six photographs (three males and three females) and was presented on the display. The monkey pressed a right or left bar for male or female monkey, respectively, to get water as a reward. Under this discrimination task, the monkeys could discriminate the sexes of monkeys shown in newly presented pictures. When choice bars were reversed, correct responses significantly decreased below chance level. In the sex preference task, three rhesus monkeys and three Japanese monkeys (M. juscata) were used. The monkeys voluntarily pressed the bar to watch the video movie showing either male or female rhesus monkeys. The movies were presented as long as the subject kept pressing the bar. The same movie was continued when the monkey pressed the bar again within 10s after the previous release of the bar, while it was changed to the other when 10s passed after the subject released the bar. The total duration of the responses in daily sessions was measured. In this visual preference task, four out of six monkeys showed sex preference. Three adult Japanese monkeys (6-8 y) pressed the bar to watch the video movie of male monkeys which was taken in breeding season with longer duration than that of female monkeys taken in the same season. The other two adult rhesus monkeys (7 8 y) did not

  5. Allele frequency of antiretroviral host factor TRIMCyp in wild-caught cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akatsuki; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Higashino, Atsunori; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Ikoma, Tomoko; Suzaki, Yuriko; Ami, Yasushi; Shioda, Tatsuo; Nakayama, Emi E.; Akari, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    A recent study showed that the frequency of an antiretroviral factor TRIM5 gene-derived isoform, TRIMCyp, in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) varies widely according to the particular habitat examined. However, whether the findings actually reflect the prevalence of TRIMCyp in wild cynomolgus macaques is still uncertain because the previous data were obtained with captive monkeys in breeding and rearing facilities. Here, we characterized the TRIM5 gene in cynomolgus macaques captured in the wild, and found that the frequency of the TRIMCyp allele was comparable to those in captive monkeys. This suggests that the previous results with captive monkeys do indeed reflect the natural allele frequency and that breeding and rearing facilities may not affect the frequency of TRIM5 alleles. Interestingly, the prevalence of a minor haplotype of TRIMCyp in wild macaques from the Philippines was significantly lower than in captive ones, suggesting that it is advantageous for wild monkeys to possess the major haplotype of TRIMCyp. Overall, our results add to our understanding of the geographic and genetic prevalence of cynomolgus macaque TRIMCyp. PMID:22969754

  6. Alterations in the upper facial growth of Macaca mulatta resulting from high-pull headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, R J

    1975-04-01

    Four prepubertal Macaca mulatta monkeys, ranging in age from 13 to 24 months, were used in an investigation of the effects of high-pull headgear (to a face-bow) therapy on the growth of the upper facial skeleton. Amalgam bone implants were placed across the frontomaxillary, frontozygomatic, zygomaticomaxillary, and zygomaticotemporal sutures in each animal. Three of the monkeys wore appliances consisting of a maxillary dental spling, a face-bow, two coil springs, and an acrylic helmet. The fourth monkey (control) wore only a dental splint and a face-bow. A continuous high-pull headgear force of 300 grams per side was applied to the three monkeys for 81, 87 and 89 days, respectively, before death. Procion brilliant red 8-HBS vital stain was administered to all four animals at the start of and 3 days before the end of the treatment period. The facial growth patterns were determined from lateral cephalograms taken before and after treatment, from direct measurement of implant separation at the sutures, and from histologic sections of the four mentioned facial sutures.

  7. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  8. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  9. Processing of pro-opiomelanocortin-derived amidated joining peptide and glycine-extended precursor in monkey pituitary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1991-01-01

    The molecular forms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derived amidated and C-terminal glycine-extended joining peptide from monkey (Macaca mulatta) pituitary were determined. The predominant forms of joining peptide found were the low molecular peptides POMC(76-105) and POMC(76-106), respectively...... sequence of monkey and human POMC extremely conserved, but also the processing patterns are similar. The monkey therefore serves as a suitable model for studying regulation of the processing of POMC and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in man....

  10. Temporomandibular joint forces measured at the condyle of Macaca arctoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R L; Gibbs, C H; Mahan, P E; Richmond, A F; Laskin, J L

    1990-06-01

    Forces were measured at the articular surface of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle in two stump-tail monkeys (Macaca arctoides) during chewing, incisal biting, and drinking and also during aggressive behaviors. Force was measured with a thin piezoelectric foil transducer, which was cemented over the anterior and superior surfaces of the condyle. Wires from the upper and lower surfaces of the foil were insulated between two layers of Teflon tape and run subcutaneously to a telemetry unit, which was implanted in the upper back. Force applied across the foil by the condyle was detected by the telemetry unit and transmitted to an FM radio receiver outside the animal. The FM signals were received and demodulated, and a signal proportional to the force applied between the condyle and the TMJ fossa was displayed on a chart recorder. Data were collected over an 8-day period. The animals were not constrained. The TMJ was found to be load bearing. The greatest force of 39.0 lb (17.7 kg) was measured during feisty vocal aggression. Forces ranged as high as 34.5 lb (15.7 kg) during chewing and 28.5 lb (13.0 kg) during incisal biting. Forces were greater on the working (food) side than on the nonworking (balancing) side by average ratios of 1.4 to 2.6. A large unilateral interference at the most distal molar greatly disturbed chewing. It reduced TMJ forces by 50% or more, and the monkey refused to chew on the side opposite the interference.

  11. A 75-year pictorial history of the Cayo Santiago rhesus monkey colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Matthew J; Rawlins, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a pictorial history of the free-ranging colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, in commemoration of the 75th anniversary of its establishment by Clarence R. Carpenter in December 1938. It is based on a presentation made by the authors at the symposium, Cayo Santiago: 75 Years of Leadership in Translational Research, held at the 36th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists in San Juan, Puerto Rico, on 20 June 2013.

  12. Sleep patterns of the monkey and brain serotonin concentration: effect of p-chlorophenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, E D; Rapport, M M; McGregor, P; Jacoby, J

    1968-06-21

    The amount of time that monkeys (Macaca mulatta) slept was reduced after they were given p-chlorophenylalanine, a selective depletor of serotonin in animal tissues. The time spent in the rapid eye movement stage of sleep was unchanged, but the time in other sleep stages decreased. Seven regions of the brain had a 31 to 46 percent decrease in serotonin content; the concentration of cerebellar serotonin increased by 44 percent.

  13. Pediculosis in Macaca sylvanus of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Douglas L; Smith, Vincent; Pizarro, Mark; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory; Fuentes, Agustin; Shaw, Eric; Cortes, John

    2007-04-10

    Pedicinus spp. parasitize several species of nonhuman primates. This is the first published report confirming the presence of Pedicinus albidus (Rudow) infestation in the free-ranging macaques (Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar. The diagnosis of pediculosis was based upon finding adult lice on host animals.

  14. NUTRITIONAL CYTOPENIA (VITAMIN M DEFICIENCY) IN THE MONKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, W C; Darby, W J; Shukers, C F; Day, P L

    1938-10-31

    Young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were given a diet containing casein, polished rice, whole wheat, salt mixture, sodium chloride, cod liver oil, and ascorbic acid. They developed a syndrome characterized by anemia, leukopenia, and loss of weight. Ulceration of the gums and diarrhea were common, and death occurred between the 26th and 100th day. 4 monkeys were given the deficient diet supplemented with 1 mg. of riboflavin daily, and these developed the characteristic signs and died. in periods of time similar to the survival of monkeys receiving the deficient diet alone. Nicotinic acid, either alone or in combination with riboflavin and thiamin chloride, failed to alter appreciably the course of the deficiency manifestations. Thus, it is evident that this nutritional cytopenia is not the result of a deficiency of vitamin B, riboflavin, or nicotinic acid. The deficient diet supplemented with either 10 gm. of dried brewers' yeast or 2 gm. of liver extract (Cohn fraction G) daily supported good growth, permitted normal body development, and maintained a normal blood picture over long periods. It is obvious that yeast and liver extract contain a substance essential to the nutrition of the monkey which is not identical with any of those factors of the vitamin B complex that have been chemically identified. We have proposed the term vitamin M for this factor which prevents nutritional cytopenia in the monkey.

  15. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. (Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab., Pensacola, FL (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  16. An assessment of domain-general metacognitive responding in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emily Kathryn; Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2017-02-01

    Metacognition is the ability to monitor and control one's cognition. Monitoring may involve either public cues or introspection of private cognitive states. We tested rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a series of generalization tests to determine which type of cues control metacognition. In Experiment 1, monkeys learned a perceptual discrimination in which a "decline-test" response allowed them to avoid tests and receive a guaranteed small reward. Monkeys declined more difficult than easy tests. In Experiments 2-4, we evaluated whether monkeys generalized this metacognitive responding to new perceptual tests. Monkeys showed a trend toward generalization in Experiments 2 & 3, and reliable generalization in Experiment 4. In Experiments 5 & 6, we presented the decline-test response in a delayed matching-to-sample task. Memory tests differed from perceptual tests in that the appearance of the test display could not control metacognitive responding. In Experiment 6, monkeys made prospective metamemory judgments before seeing the tests. Generalization across perceptual tests with different visual properties and mixed generalization from perceptual to memory tests provide provisional evidence that domain-general, private cues controlled metacognition in some monkeys. We observed individual differences in generalization, suggesting that monkeys differ in use of public and private metacognitive cues.

  17. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  18. Role of vocal tract characteristics in individual discrimination by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, Takafumi; Kobayasi, Kohta I.; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) exhibits a species-specific communication sound called the “coo call” to locate group members and maintain within-group contact. Monkeys have been demonstrated to be capable of discriminating between individuals based only on their voices, but there is still debate regarding how the fundamental frequencies (F0) and filter properties of the vocal tract characteristics (VTC) contribute to individual discrimination in nonhuman primates. This study was performed to investigate the acoustic keys used by Japanese macaques in individual discrimination. Two animals were trained with standard Go/NoGo operant conditioning to distinguish the coo calls of two unfamiliar monkeys. The subjects were required to continue depressing a lever until the stimulus changed from one monkey to the other. The test stimuli were synthesized by combining the F0s and VTC from each individual. Both subjects released the lever when the VTC changed, whereas they did not when the F0 changed. The reaction times to the test stimuli were not significantly different from that to the training stimuli that shared the same VTC. Our data suggest that vocal tract characteristics are important for the identification of individuals by Japanese macaques. PMID:27550840

  19. High-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin injections induces metabolic syndrome in Macaca mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linzhao; Liao, Guangneng; Yang, Guang; Lu, Yanrong; Du, Xiaojiong; Liu, Jingping; Li, Lan; Wang, Chengshi; Li, Li; Ren, Yan; Zhong, Zhihui; Cheng, Jingqiu; Chen, Younan

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with abdominal obesity, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Given the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of MetS, qualified animal models are currently seriously limited for researchers. The aim of our study was to develop a MetS model in juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Rhesus monkeys (1-year-old) fed a high-fat diet (15 % fat, 2 % cholesterol) were used as the HF group (n = 6), and those on a normal diet (5 % fat) were used as the control group (n = 4). After being fed a high-fat diet for approximately 12 months, 2 monkeys (HF + STZ group) were injected with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ, 25 mg/kg) twice, with a 7 days interval, and were then fed the same diet continuously for another 24 months. After 36 months of treatment, the high-fat diet monkeys, including the HF and HF + STZ groups, had acquired increased body weights, abnormal serum lipids, and impaired glucose tolerance compared to the control group. In addition, much more marked metabolic changes were observed in the two monkeys of the HF + STZ group, particularly in terms of high-blood glucose level and insulin resistance. Morphological observation of biopsies of liver and pancreatic tissues showed decreased islet number and mass and decreased insulin staining in the monkeys of the HF + STZ group. In addition, Oil red O staining suggested remarkable accumulation of lipid droplets in the hepatocytes. Our study suggested that a long-term high-fat diet followed with a low-dose STZ was able to induce MetS in juvenile rhesus monkeys with faster pathophysiological progress compared with high-fat diet induction alone. Our primary data showed that this method may have potentials to develop MetS animal model in non-human primates.

  20. Effects of age and sex on the hematology and blood chemistry of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Yi, Yong; Sun, Fei; Zhou, Liang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Hongxing; Zhang, Guodong; Zhang, Yu Alex; Yue, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), also known as Chinese stump-tailed macaques, are a threatened primate species. Although Tibetan macaques are Old World monkeys in the genus of Macaca, limited age- and sex-related physiologic data are available for this particular species. We used 69 apparently healthy Tibetan male and female macaques to explore the effect of age and sex on physiologic parameters. Somatometric measurements, biochemistry, and hematologic parameters were analyzed. Significant age-related differences were found for weight, BMI, RBC count, Hgb, Hct, neutrophils, eosinophil count, ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, creatine kinase (muscle and brain subtypes), LDH, α-amylase, creatinine, apolipoprotein A1, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, HDL, and potassium. Significant differences by sex were noted for weight, BMI, ALT, total bilirubin, and indirect bilirubin. An interaction between age and sex accounted for statistically significant differences in the values for weight, BMI, and lymphocyte and eosinophil counts. These physiologic data will provide veterinarians and researchers with important age- and sex-specific reference ranges for evaluating experimental results from Tibetan macaques.

  1. Institution of combined treatment with testosterone and charcoal-extracted porcine follicular fluid immediately after orchidectomy prevents the postcastration hypersecretion of follicle-stimulating hormone in the hypothalamus-lesioned rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) receiving an invariant intravenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyawardene, S A; Plant, T M

    1989-03-01

    In the male rhesus monkey, the negative feedback regulation of gonadotropin secretion by the gonad involves a specific inhibitory action of a testicular hormone on FSH release at the level of the anterior pituitary gland. Neither circulating testosterone (T) nor estradiol appears to be able to account for the testicular inhibition of FSH in this species. The purpose of the present study was to begin to examine the role of gonadal peptides in this regard. To this end, an episodic pattern of activity in the pituitary-Leydig cell axis was restored in seven hypothalamus-lesioned male rhesus monkeys with a chronic and unchanging intermittent iv infusion of GnRH (0.1 microgram/min for 3 min every 3 h). This preparation, known as the hypophysiotropic clamp, has been described in detail previously. Charcoal-extracted porcine follicular fluid (pFF) was used as the source of gonadal peptides. In five animals, initiation of combined T replacement and pFF treatment (10-15 ml, sc, every 12 h for 8 days) maintained circulating FSH at concentrations similar to those observed before gonadectomy. Withdrawal of pFF treatment for 8 days while maintaining T replacement resulted in a progressive and dramatic rise in plasma FSH concentrations. Reinitiation of pFF treatment resulted in a return of circulating FSH concentrations toward precastration control values. Changes in LH secretion throughout the experiment were unremarkable. In an attempt to assess any nonspecific effects of porcine protein on gonadotropin secretion, the remaining two animals received charcoal-extracted pig serum instead of pFF. In these animals circulating FSH concentrations rose 7- to 8-fold during the 8 days of combined T replacement and pig serum treatment. These findings provide evidence to support the view that a testicular peptide, most probably inhibin, plays a major role in the negative feedback regulation of gonadotropin secretion in the monkey by exerting an inhibitory action on FSH secretion directly

  2. Metaphase yields from staphylococcal enterotoxin A stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes of unirradiated and irradiated aged rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, F. S.; Cox, A. B.; Salmon, Y. L.; Cantu, A. O.; Lucas, J. N.

    1994-01-01

    The mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) works well in both human and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) lymphocyte cultures to stimulate T cell proliferation. T cells from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are less responsive than human cells, producing few metaphases when thousands are required, e.g. in biological dosimetry studies. We show that staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), one of the most potent mitogens known, at a concentration of 0.5 microgram/ml stimulated peripheral lymphocytes to grow with a mitotic index (MI) averaging 0.13 metaphases/cell in old, irradiated rhesus macaques. This was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than that produced by PHA (MI < 0.01) in lymphocytes from the same animals. Whole blood was cultured for 96, 120 and 144 h for five irradiated individuals and for two controls. All cells cultured with SEA produced a high MI with a peak response at 120 h whereas the same cultures showed low MI for each PHA stimulated culture.

  3. Standardized full-field electroretinography in the Green Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bouskila

    Full Text Available Full-field electroretinography is an objective measure of retinal function, serving as an important diagnostic clinical tool in ophthalmology for evaluating the integrity of the retina. Given the similarity between the anatomy and physiology of the human and Green Monkey eyes, this species has increasingly become a favorable non-human primate model for assessing ocular defects in humans. To test this model, we obtained full-field electroretinographic recordings (ERG and normal values for standard responses required by the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV. Photopic and scotopic ERG recordings were obtained by full-field stimulation over a range of 6 log units of intensity in dark-adapted or light-adapted eyes of adult Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus. Intensity, duration, and interval of light stimuli were varied separately. Reproducible values of amplitude and latency were obtained for the a- and b-waves, under well-controlled adaptation and stimulus conditions; the i-wave was also easily identifiable and separated from the a-b-wave complex in the photopic ERG. The recordings obtained in the healthy Green Monkey matched very well with those in humans and other non-human primate species (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis. These results validate the Green Monkey as an excellent non-human primate model, with potential to serve for testing retinal function following various manipulations such as visual deprivation or drug evaluation.

  4. Prevalence of antibodies to 3 retroviruses in a captive colony of macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, M D; Letvin, N L; Sehgal, P K; Schmidt, D K; Silva, D P; Solomon, K R; Hodi, F S; Ringler, D J; Hunt, R D; King, N W

    1988-04-15

    The prevalence of antibodies to 3 retroviruses in the macaque colony of the New England Regional Primate Research Center (NERPRC) was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedures as well as radioimmunoprecipitation-SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and indirect immunofluorescence tests. Out of 848 macaques, 3 (0.35%) had antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), 27 (3.2%) had antibodies to simian T-lymphotropic virus type I (STLV-1) and approximately 285 (34%) had antibodies to type D retrovirus. Of 3 macaques infected with SIV, 2 were rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and I was a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). STLV-1 and D retrovirus infection occurred in all 4 macaque species examined. SIV, STLV-1 and D retroviruses were isolated from sero-positive macaques. The low prevalence of SIV infection suggests that SIV is not being readily transmitted among macaques at NERPRC; this contrasts markedly with the high SIV prevalence in some captive mangabey colonies. In contrast to African green monkeys from eastern Africa, 160 Caribbean green monkeys examined showed no sign of SIV infection. These results provide a framework for monitoring spontaneous disease associated with infection by these 3 retroviruses and will help in further definition of STLV-1 and SIV infection of non-human primates as animal models for human disease.

  5. Body signals during social play in free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): A systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Akie; Berman, Carol M

    2014-02-01

    Social play involves one of the most sophisticated types of communication, that is, the use of play signals. Most primate research on play signals has focused on the use of the play face. However, some species appear to exhibit a variety of play signals. For example, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) have been reported to use body movements or postures that might have signal value during social play, in addition to the play face. However, it is not clear whether these body signals actually meet several criteria necessary to label them as "play signals." Here we examine the forms and possible functions of seven candidate signals that we observed exclusively during social play contexts among free-ranging rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago. We aim to (1) distinguish them from actual play behavior (play involving contact or chasing) using loglinear analysis and (2) determine whether they predict playful behavior using modified PC-MC methods. Two candidate signals did not resemble any behaviors used in actual play. The other five signals contained elements that lasted longer or increased their conspicuousness over similar play behaviors, suggesting ritualized characteristics. Youngsters were likely to initiate contact or chasing play significantly sooner after candidate signals than in their absence. Thus, these candidate signals appear to meet critical criteria of signals that promote, moderate or facilitate play. As such, these findings open the door to questions about why multiple play signals have evolved. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comparative plasma lipidome between human and cynomolgus monkey: are plasma polar lipids good biomarkers for diabetic monkeys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghou Shui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-human primates (NHP are now being considered as models for investigating human metabolic diseases including diabetes. Analyses of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma derived from NHPs can easily be achieved using methods employed in humans. Information pertaining to other lipid species in monkey plasma, however, is lacking and requires comprehensive experimental analysis. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the plasma lipidome from 16 cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS. We established novel analytical approaches, which are based on a simple gradient elution, to quantify polar lipids in plasma including (i glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; phosphatidylinositol, PI; phosphatidylglycerol, PG; phosphatidylserine, PS; phosphatidic acid, PA; (ii sphingolipids (sphingomyelin, SM; ceramide, Cer; Glucocyl-ceramide, GluCer; ganglioside mannoside 3, GM3. Lipidomic analysis had revealed that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, with PC, SM, PE, LPC and PI constituting the major polar lipid species present. Human plasma contained significantly higher levels of plasmalogen PE species (p<0.005 and plasmalogen PC species (p<0.0005, while cynomolgus monkey had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acyls (PUFA in PC, PE, PS and PI. Notably, cynomolgus monkey had significantly lower levels of glycosphingolipids, including GluCer (p<0.0005 and GM(3 (p<0.0005, but higher level of Cer (p<0.0005 in plasma than human. We next investigated the biochemical alterations in blood lipids of 8 naturally occurring diabetic cynomolgus monkeys when compared with 8 healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, but contained different mol distribution of individual molecular species. Diabetic monkeys

  7. Profiling serum antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins in rhesus monkeys with nontuberculous Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Fangui; Pan, Jinchun; Wu, Ruike; Chen, Meiling; Kuang, Huiwen; Zhao, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the prevalence of diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing in both human and animals. In this study, antibody profiles of NTM in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were determined and compared with those of monkeys infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Antibodies against 10 M. tuberculosis proteins, purified protein derivative (PPD), and mammalian old tuberculin (MOT) were detected in 14 monkeys naturally infected with NTM by indirect ELISA. Sera from 10 monkeys infected with MTBC and 10 healthy monkeys were set as controls. All antigens showed high serological reactivities to MTBC infections and low reactivities in healthy monkeys. NTM infections showed strong antibody responses to MOT and PPD; moderate antibody responses to 16kDa, U1, MPT64L, 14kDa, and TB16.3; and low antibody responses to 38kDa, Ag85b, CFP10, ESAT-6, and CFP10-ESAT-6. According to the criteria of MTBC, only CFP10, ESAT-6, and CFP10-ESAT-6 showed negative antibody responses in all NTM infections. Taken together, these results suggest that positive results of a PPD/MOT-based ELISA in combination with results of antibodies to M. tuberculosis-specific antigens, such as CFP10 and ESAT-6, could discriminate NTM and MTBC infections. Two positive results indicate an MTBC infection, and a negative result for an M. tuberculosis-specific antigen may preliminarily predict an NTM infection.

  8. Quantitative (stereological) study on the spermatozoal storage capacity of epididymis in rats and monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-HongWEN; Zheng-WeiYANG

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the spermatozoal production rate of the testis and the spermatozoal storage capacity of the epididyrnis in monkeys and rats. Methods: The number of the late spermatids (steps 13 - 14 in the monkey or steps 15 - 19 in the rat) per testis and the number of spermatozoa per epididymis were estimated in 6 normal adult monkeys (Macaca fascicularis ) and 6 normal adult SD rats on 25 μm-thick methacrylate-embedded sections using a contemporary unbiased and efficient stereological method-the optical disector. The diameter and length of the efferent ductules and ductus epididyrnidis and the volume of the epididymal fluid in the tubules were also estimated. Results: The total number of the late spermatids per testis was 2902 ± 749 (million, x ± s ) in the monkey, or 179 ± 31 in the rat; the number of spermatozoa per epididymis was 3235 ± 1835 in the monkey, or 241 ± 76 in the rat. Conclusion: A large number of spermatozoa was densely packed and stored in the ductus epididymidis; the epididymal transit time for spermatozoa was around 5 days in monkeys or 11 days in rats. (Asian J Androl 2000; 2:73 - 77)

  9. Usefulness of the monkey model to investigate the role soy in postmenopausal women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appt, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    Some of the important health issues for postmenopausal women include cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, breast cancer, and relief of menopausal symptoms. Ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) have many strengths as models for research in this area including a close phylogenetic relationship to humans, similarities in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and coronary artery anatomy, similar skeletal anatomical and morphological characteristics, mammary glands with similar pathophysiological characteristics, and a 28-day menstrual cycle with similar hormonal fluctuations. Monkeys (macaques) also experience declining ovarian function and irregular menstrual cycles (natural menopause) when they approach 24 to 29 yr of age. However, because of their very short life span after natural menopause, ovariectomized macaques are used to model postmenopausal women. The cynomolgus monkey model has been useful in defining the potential cardiovascular benefits of soy foods and soy supplements; however, it remains unclear whether the observations are generalizable to all women or only to those who, like cynomolgus monkeys, convert the soy isoflavone daidzein to the metabolite equol. Particularly important has been the use of the cynomolgus monkey model to understand the effects of soy on breast health. There is evidence from a cynomolgus monkey trial to suggest that soy/soy phytoestrogens have no estrogen agonist effects for breast. Finally, soy/soy phytoestrogens do not appear to be an adequate alternative to postmenopausal hormone therapy. Nevertheless, important attributes of soy have been identified, and it may have potential as a complementary component to hormone therapy.

  10. Hepatitis G virus genomic RNA is pathogenic to Macaca mulatta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Ren; Fen-Lu Zhu; Ming-Mei Cao; Xin-Yu Wen; Ping Zhao; Zhong-Tian Qi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the pathogenicity and infectivity of hepatitis G virus (HGV) by observing replication and expression of the virus, as well as the serological and histological changes of Macaca mulatta infected with HGV genomic RNA or HGV RNA-positive serum.METHODS: Full-length HGV cDNA clone (HGVqz) was constructed and proved to be infectious, from which HGV genomic RNA was transcribed in vitro. Macaca mulatta BY1 was intra-hepatically inoculated with HGV genomic RNA, HGV RNA-positive serum from BY1 was intravenously inoculated into Macaca mulatta BM1, and then BB1 was infected with serum from BM1. Serum and liver tissue were taken regularly, and checked with RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and other immunological, serological,histological assays.RESULTS: Serum HGV RNA was detectable in all the 3Macaca mulattas, serological and histological examinations showed the experimental animals had slightly elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) and developed HGV viremia during the infectious period. The histology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization in liver tissues of the inoculated animals demonstrated a very mild hepatitis with HGV antigen expression in cytoplasm of hepatocytes.RT-PCR and quantitative PCR results showed that HGV could replicate in liver.CONCLUSION: The genomic RNA from full-length HGV cDNA is infectious to the Macaca mulatta and can cause mild hepatitis. HGV RNA-positive serum, from HGV RNA inoculated Macaca mulatta, is infectious to other Macaca mulattas. Macaca mulatta is susceptible to the inoculated HGV, and therefore can be used as an experimental animal model for the studies of HGV infection and pathogenesis.

  11. Large-scale analysis of Macaca fascicularis transcripts and inference of genetic divergence between M. fascicularis and M. mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugano Sumio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis are widely used as experimental animals in biomedical research and are closely related to other laboratory macaques, such as rhesus macaques (M. mulatta. We isolated 85,721 clones and determined 9407 full-insert sequences from cynomolgus monkey brain, testis, and liver. These sequences were annotated based on homology to human genes and stored in a database, QFbase http://genebank.nibio.go.jp/qfbase/. Results We found that 1024 transcripts did not represent any public human cDNA sequence and examined their expression using M. fascicularis oligonucleotide microarrays. Significant expression was detected for 544 (51% of the unidentified transcripts. Moreover, we identified 226 genes containing exon alterations in the untranslated regions of the macaque transcripts, despite the highly conserved structure of the coding regions. Considering the polymorphism in the common ancestor of cynomolgus and rhesus macaques and the rate of PCR errors, the divergence time between the two species was estimated to be around 0.9 million years ago. Conclusion Transcript data from Old World monkeys provide a means not only to determine the evolutionary difference between human and non-human primates but also to unveil hidden transcripts in the human genome. Increasing the genomic resources and information of macaque monkeys will greatly contribute to the development of evolutionary biology and biomedical sciences.

  12. Color vision test for dichromatic and trichromatic macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koida, Kowa; Yokoi, Isao; Okazawa, Gouki; Mikami, Akichika; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2013-11-01

    Dichromacy is a color vision defect in which one of the three cone photoreceptors is absent. Individuals with dichromacy are called dichromats (or sometimes "color-blind"), and their color discrimination performance has contributed significantly to our understanding of color vision. Macaque monkeys, which normally have trichromatic color vision that is nearly identical to humans, have been used extensively in neurophysiological studies of color vision. In the present study we employed two tests, a pseudoisochromatic color discrimination test and a monochromatic light detection test, to compare the color vision of genetically identified dichromatic macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with that of normal trichromatic macaques. In the color discrimination test, dichromats could not discriminate colors along the protanopic confusion line, though trichromats could. In the light detection test, the relative thresholds for longer wavelength light were higher in the dichromats than the trichromats, indicating dichromats to be less sensitive to longer wavelength light. Because the dichromatic macaque is very rare, the present study provides valuable new information on the color vision behavior of dichromatic macaques, which may be a useful animal model of human dichromacy. The behavioral tests used in the present study have been previously used to characterize the color behaviors of trichromatic as well as dichromatic new world monkeys. The present results show that comparative studies of color vision employing similar tests may be feasible to examine the difference in color behaviors between trichromatic and dichromatic individuals, although the genetic mechanisms of trichromacy/dichromacy is quite different between new world monkeys and macaques.

  13. Vitamins in the monkey brain: An immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, A; Coveñas, R; Bodet, D; Duleu, S; Marcos, P; Geffard, M

    2009-09-01

    Using highly specific antisera directed against vitamins, the distribution of pyridoxal-, pyridoxine-, vitamin C- and nicotinamide-immunoreactive structures in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis) brain was studied. Neither immunoreactive structures containing pyridoxine or nicotinamide, nor immunoreactive fibers containing vitamin C were found in the monkey brain. However, this work reports the first visualization and the morphological characteristics of pyridoxal- and vitamin C-immunoreactive cell bodies in the mammalian central nervous system using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. A high density of pyridoxal-immunoreactive cell bodies was found in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and in the supraoptic nucleus and a low density of the same was observed in the periventricular hypothalamic region, whereas a moderate density of vitamin C-immunoreactive cell bodies was observed in the somatosensorial cortex (precentral gyrus). Immunoreactive fibers containing pyridoxal were only visualized in the anterior commissure. The restricted distribution of pyridoxal and vitamin C in the monkey brain suggests that both vitamins could be involved in very specific physiological mechanisms.

  14. Phenytoin and/or stiripentol in pregnancy: infant monkey hyperexcitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N K; Lockard, J S

    1993-01-01

    A monkey (Macaca fascicularis) model was used to assess infant hyperexcitability after prenatal exposure to phenytoin (PHT, n = 4), stiripentol (STP, n = 5), or PHT + STP (n = 4). Adult female monkeys were equipped with tether systems and stomach catheters so that drug administration could start 1 month before mating and could be continued throughout gestation. During pregnancy, PHT and STP plasma levels were maintained between 4-12 and 4-10 micrograms/ml respectively (for both monotherapy and polytherapy). Infants were separated from mothers at birth and transferred to the University of Washington's (Seattle) Infant Primate Research Laboratory (IPRL) for postnatal care and testing. Data on a hyperexcitability scale were obtained during cognitive testing for visual and cross-modal recognition memory in 13 infant monkeys when they were between 2 weeks and 3 months of age. The data indicated that infants prenatally exposed to PHT, whether alone or in combination with STP, were at increased risk for hyperexcitability (screeching, refusing to attend to stimuli, lack of visual orientation). This was not true of infants prenatally exposed to STP monotherapy (drug group differences, p < 0.05).

  15. Kenya's Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐天麒

    2004-01-01

    It's difficult to get close to patas monkeys(花脸猴). Clever and nervous, they run away at the sight of humans. The long-legged monkeys, clocked ( 记录 [ 速度 ] ) at 34 miles an hour, easily escaped from the zoologist Lynne Isbell when she arrived in Kenya in 1992.

  16. Pathogenesis of fulminant monkeypox with bacterial sepsis after experimental infection with West African monkeypox virus in a cynomolgus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Noriyo; Saijo, Masayuki; Kataoka, Michiyo; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Sato, Yuko; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Ogata, Momoko; Kurane, Ichiro; Morikawa, Shigeru; Sata, Tetsutaro; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of severe human monkeypox, which causes systemic and fulminant infections, is not clear. This study presents a case repot of fulminant monkeypox with bacterial sepsis after experimental infection with monkeypox virus in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). In our previous study (Saijo et al., 2009, J Gen Virol), two cynomolgus monkeys became moribund after experimental infection with monkeypox virus Liberia strain, West African strain. One exhibited typical monkeypox-related papulovesicular lesions. The other monkey presented fulminant clinical symptoms with a characteristic flat red rash similar to that found in smallpox, which is associated with extremely high fatality rates. In this study, we found that the monkey with flat red rash had high levels of viremia and neutropenia, as well as high plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines compared with the other monkey. Monkeypox virus replicates in epithelial cells and macrophages in various organs. Sepsis due to Gram-positive cocci was confirmed histopathologically in the monkey with flat red rash. The lack of inflammatory response in the lesion suggested that the monkey with sepsis experienced strong immune suppression during the viral infection. The neutropenia and excessive inflammatory cytokine responses indicate that neutrophils play key roles in the pathogenesis of systemic and fulminant human monkeypox virus infections with sepsis.

  17. Using infective mosquitoes to challenge monkeys with Plasmodium knowlesi in malaria vaccine studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background When rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are used to test malaria vaccines, animals are often challenged by the intravenous injection of sporozoites. However, natural exposure to malaria comes via mosquito bite, and antibodies can neutralize sporozoites as they traverse the skin. Thus, intravenous injection may not fairly assess humoral immunity from anti-sporozoite malaria vaccines. To better assess malaria vaccines in rhesus, a method to challenge large numbers of monkeys by mosquito bite was developed. Methods Several species and strains of mosquitoes were tested for their ability to produce Plasmodium knowlesi sporozoites. Donor monkey parasitaemia effects on oocyst and sporozoite numbers and mosquito mortality were documented. Methylparaben added to mosquito feed was tested to improve mosquito survival. To determine the number of bites needed to infect a monkey, animals were exposed to various numbers of P. knowlesi-infected mosquitoes. Finally, P. knowlesi-infected mosquitoes were used to challenge 17 monkeys in a malaria vaccine trial, and the effect of number of infectious bites on monkey parasitaemia was documented. Results Anopheles dirus, Anopheles crascens, and Anopheles dirus X (a cross between the two species) produced large numbers of P. knowlesi sporozoites. Mosquito survival to day 14, when sporozoites fill the salivary glands, averaged only 32% when donor monkeys had a parasitaemia above 2%. However, when donor monkey parasitaemia was below 2%, mosquitoes survived twice as well and contained ample sporozoites in their salivary glands. Adding methylparaben to sugar solutions did not improve survival of infected mosquitoes. Plasmodium knowlesi was very infectious, with all monkeys developing blood stage infections if one or more infected mosquitoes successfully fed. There was also a dose-response, with monkeys that received higher numbers of infected mosquito bites developing malaria sooner. Conclusions Anopheles dirus, An. crascens and a

  18. Auditory list memory and interference processes in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A A

    1999-07-01

    Memory of 2 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) was tested in a serial probe recognition task with lists of 4 natural or environmental sounds, different retention intervals, and different manipulations of interference. At short retention intervals, increasing the separation of list items reduced the primacy effect and produced a recency effect. Similar results were shown by increasing interference across lists through item repetitions or making the first 2 list items high-interference items. These results indicated that decreasing first-item performance reduced proactive interference on memory of the last list items. At long (20 s) retention intervals, making the last list items of high interference reduced the recency effect, reduced retroactive interference, and produced a primacy effect. Taken together, interference plays a role in determining the primacy and recency effects of the serial-position function.

  19. Rhesus monkeys show human-like changes in gaze following across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Arre, Alyssa M; Platt, Michael L; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-05-11

    Gaze following, or co-orienting with others, is a foundational skill for human social behaviour. The emergence of this capacity scaffolds critical human-specific abilities such as theory of mind and language. Non-human primates also follow others' gaze, but less is known about how the cognitive mechanisms supporting this behaviour develop over the lifespan. Here we experimentally tested gaze following in 481 semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) ranging from infancy to old age. We found that monkeys began to follow gaze in infancy and this response peaked in the juvenile period-suggesting that younger monkeys were especially attuned to gaze information, like humans. After sexual maturity, monkeys exhibited human-like sex differences in gaze following, with adult females showing more gaze following than males. Finally, older monkeys showed reduced propensity to follow gaze, just as older humans do. In a second study (n = 80), we confirmed that macaques exhibit similar baseline rates of looking upwards in a control condition, regardless of age. Our findings indicate that-despite important differences in human and non-human primate life-history characteristics and typical social experiences-monkeys undergo robust ontogenetic shifts in gaze following across early development, adulthood and ageing that are strikingly similar to those of humans.

  20. Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) infected with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy develop tau pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardo, P; Cervenak, J; Yakovleva, O; Gregori, L; Pomeroy, K; Cook, A; Muhammad, F S; Seuberlich, T; Cervenakova, L; Asher, D M

    2012-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were infected experimentally with the agent of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Two to four years later, six of the monkeys developed alterations in interactive behaviour and cognition and other neurological signs typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). At necropsy examination, the brains from all of the monkeys showed pathological changes similar to those described in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) of man, except that the squirrel monkey brains contained no PrP-amyloid plaques typical of that disease. Constant neuropathological features included spongiform degeneration, gliosis, deposition of abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE)) and many deposits of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein (p-Tau) in several areas of the cerebrum and cerebellum. Western blots showed large amounts of proteinase K-resistant prion protein in the central nervous system. The striking absence of PrP plaques (prominent in brains of cynomolgus macaques [Macaca fascicularis] with experimentally-induced BSE and vCJD and in human patients with vCJD) reinforces the conclusion that the host plays a major role in determining the neuropathology of TSEs. Results of this study suggest that p-Tau, found in the brains of all BSE-infected monkeys, might play a role in the pathogenesis of TSEs. Whether p-Tau contributes to development of disease or appears as a secondary change late in the course of illness remains to be determined.

  1. Autism-like behaviours and germline transmission in transgenic monkeys overexpressing MeCP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jun-Tao; Cai, Yi-Jun; Cheng, Tian-Lin; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Chen-Chen; Nie, Yan-Hong; Chen, Zhi-Fang; Bian, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Ling; Xiao, Jianqiu; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Yue-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Di; Sang, Xiao; Wu, Jia-Jia; Xu, Xiu; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Feng; Yu, Xiang; Gong, Neng; Zhou, Wen-Hao; Sun, Qiang; Qiu, Zilong

    2016-02-04

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) has crucial roles in transcriptional regulation and microRNA processing. Mutations in the MECP2 gene are found in 90% of patients with Rett syndrome, a severe developmental disorder with autistic phenotypes. Duplications of MECP2-containing genomic segments cause the MECP2 duplication syndrome, which shares core symptoms with autism spectrum disorders. Although Mecp2-null mice recapitulate most developmental and behavioural defects seen in patients with Rett syndrome, it has been difficult to identify autism-like behaviours in the mouse model of MeCP2 overexpression. Here we report that lentivirus-based transgenic cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) expressing human MeCP2 in the brain exhibit autism-like behaviours and show germline transmission of the transgene. Expression of the MECP2 transgene was confirmed by western blotting and immunostaining of brain tissues of transgenic monkeys. Genomic integration sites of the transgenes were characterized by a deep-sequencing-based method. As compared to wild-type monkeys, MECP2 transgenic monkeys exhibited a higher frequency of repetitive circular locomotion and increased stress responses, as measured by the threat-related anxiety and defensive test. The transgenic monkeys showed less interaction with wild-type monkeys within the same group, and also a reduced interaction time when paired with other transgenic monkeys in social interaction tests. The cognitive functions of the transgenic monkeys were largely normal in the Wisconsin general test apparatus, although some showed signs of stereotypic cognitive behaviours. Notably, we succeeded in generating five F1 offspring of MECP2 transgenic monkeys by intracytoplasmic sperm injection with sperm from one F0 transgenic monkey, showing germline transmission and Mendelian segregation of several MECP2 transgenes in the F1 progeny. Moreover, F1 transgenic monkeys also showed reduced social interactions when tested in pairs, as

  2. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Steve W. C.; Amy A. Winecoff; Platt, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that t...

  3. Vicarious Reinforcement in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Steve W. C.; Amy A. Winecoff; Platt, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this...

  4. Interspecies activity correlations reveal functional correspondence between monkey and human brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Hasson, Uri; Betti, Viviana; Perrucci, Mauro G; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio; Orban, Guy A; Vanduffel, Wim

    2012-02-05

    Evolution-driven functional changes in the primate brain are typically assessed by aligning monkey and human activation maps using cortical surface expansion models. These models use putative homologous areas as registration landmarks, assuming they are functionally correspondent. For cases in which functional changes have occurred in an area, this assumption prohibits to reveal whether other areas may have assumed lost functions. Here we describe a method to examine functional correspondences across species. Without making spatial assumptions, we assessed similarities in sensory-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging responses between monkey (Macaca mulatta) and human brain areas by temporal correlation. Using natural vision data, we revealed regions for which functional processing has shifted to topologically divergent locations during evolution. We conclude that substantial evolution-driven functional reorganizations have occurred, not always consistent with cortical expansion processes. This framework for evaluating changes in functional architecture is crucial to building more accurate evolutionary models.

  5. Osseointegration of dental implants in Macaca fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, R. S.; Odang, R. W.; Odelia, L.

    2017-08-01

    Osseointegration is an important factor in determining the success of a dental implant. It can be assessed from the osseointegration that occurs between the implant and the bone. The implant stability is determined by the osseous support at the implant-bone interface, which is commonly evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. This study aimed to evaluate whether the osseointegration level measured by a Low Resonance Frequency Analyzer (LRFA) gave results as good as those obtained by histomorphometric examination. Six male Macaca fascicularis were used in this study. In each animal, two types of loading were performed: immediate and delayed loading. Clinical examination and LRFA measurement were performed to determine osseointegration at the first and second weeks and at the first, second, third, and fourth months. After four months, histomorphometric examination was performed. The relationship between the histomorphometric examination and LRFA measurement was compared using the Pearson correlation coefficient. There was no significant difference in the osseointegration between immediate loading and delayed loading (p > 0.05) The bone-implant contact percentage in the first group did not differ significantly from that in the second group. Statistical analysis showed that there was a strong correlation between LRFA measurement and histomorphometric examination. Osseointegration could be evaluated through LRFA measurement as well as through histomorphometric examination.

  6. Efficacy of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kristi R; Kapatkin, Amy R; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Christe, Kari L

    2012-08-01

    Here we describe the successful surgical implementation of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with marked osteomyelitis. The macaque presented to the veterinary clinic with grossly contaminated bite wounds in the left ankle secondary to conspecific trauma. Radiographic findings were highly suggestive of osteomyelitis. Additional differential diagnoses included bony infarct, fracture, and cellulitis. In light of the location of the lesion and extensive tissue trauma, the animal had a poor prognosis. Systemic, broad-spectrum antibiotics were instituted. After 2 wk of care, lesions did not respond to empirical therapies. On consultation, a veterinary orthopedic surgeon at another facility recommended placement of antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads at the sites of osteomyelitis. The animal underwent minor surgery in which beads were introduced into the wound. The monkey had a positive response to therapy. The animal regained full function and was returned to outdoor social housing. Veterinarians are encouraged to consider using antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads when treating osteomyelitis in other nonhuman primates and in other traditional laboratory animal species.

  7. Development of an integrative database with 499 novel microsatellite markers for Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higashino Atsunori

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis are a valuable resource for linkage studies of genetic disorders, but their microsatellite markers are not sufficient. In genetic studies, a prerequisite for mapping genes is development of a genome-wide set of microsatellite markers in target organisms. A whole genome sequence and its annotation also facilitate identification of markers for causative mutations. The aim of this study is to establish hundreds of microsatellite markers and to develop an integrative cynomolgus macaque genome database with a variety of datasets including marker and gene information that will be useful for further genetic analyses in this species. Results We investigated the level of polymorphisms in cynomolgus monkeys for 671 microsatellite markers that are covered by our established Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones. Four hundred and ninety-nine (74.4% of the markers were found to be polymorphic using standard PCR analysis. The average number of alleles and average expected heterozygosity at these polymorphic loci in ten cynomolgus macaques were 8.20 and 0.75, respectively. Conclusion BAC clones and novel microsatellite markers were assigned to the rhesus genome sequence and linked with our cynomolgus macaque cDNA database (QFbase. Our novel microsatellite marker set and genomic database will be valuable integrative resources in analyzing genetic disorders in cynomolgus macaques.

  8. Training pair-housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using a combination of negative and positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wergård, Eva-Marie; Temrin, Hans; Forkman, Björn; Spångberg, Mats; Fredlund, Hélène; Westlund, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    When training animals, time is sometimes a limiting factor hampering the use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) exclusively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a combination of negative and positive reinforcement training (NPRT). Twenty naïve female Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were trained in 30 sessions with either PRT (n=8) or NPRT (n=12) to respond to a signal, move into a selected cage section and accept confinement. In the NPRT-group a signal preceded the presentation of one or several novel, and thus aversive, stimuli. When the correct behaviour was performed, the novel stimulus was removed and treats were given. As the animal learned to perform the correct behaviour, the use of novel stimuli was decreased and finally phased out completely. None of the PRT-trained animals finished the task. Ten out of 12 monkeys in the NPRT-group succeeded to perform the task within the 30 training sessions, a significant difference from the PRT-group (p=0.0007). A modified approach test showed no significant difference between the groups (p=0.67) in how they reacted to the trainer. The results from this study suggest that carefully conducted NPRT can be an alternative training method to consider, especially when under a time constraint.

  9. Positive reinforcement training as enrichment for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K C; Bloomsmith, M A; Neu, K; Griffis, C; Maloney, M

    2010-08-01

    Positive reinforcement training is one component of behavioural management employed to improve psychological well-being. There has been regulatory promotion to compensate for restricted social housing in part by providing human interaction to singly caged primates, implying an efficacy standard for evaluating human interaction. The effect of positive reinforcement training on the behaviour of 61 singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was evaluated at two large primate facilities. Training involved body part presentation and basic control behaviours. Baseline data were compared to two treatment phases presented in varying order across individuals, six minutes per week of positive reinforcement training and six minutes per week of unstructured human interaction. While a MANOVA involving behavioural categories and study conditions across study subjects was significant, univariate ANOVAs found no effect of phase within any behavioural category. Categorising subjects according to rearing, housing facility, or baseline levels of abnormal behaviour did not reveal changes in behaviour with positive reinforcement training or human interaction. This study failed to detect, to any degree, the types of behavioural changes documented in the scientific literature to result from pairing singly housed monkeys. Implementing short durations of positive reinforcement training across large numbers of singly housed animals may not be the most effective manner for incorporating positive reinforcement training in the behavioural management of laboratory macaques. Rather, directing efforts toward individuals with specific behavioural, management, clinical, research or therapeutic needs may represent a more fruitful approach to improving psychological well-being with this technique.

  10. Experimental and postexperimental effects of posteriorly directed extraoral traction in adult Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, H C; Shapiro, P A; Kokich, V G

    1979-03-01

    The experimental, postexperimental, and postretention effects of continuous high-pull headgear force application to the maxilla were evaluated in four adult, nongrowing Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Force was applied at 450 grams per side to face-bows attached to cast maxillary splints with an implanted occipital plug for anchorage. The active experimental phase lasted from 84 days to 205 days, and its effects were documented histologically, cephalometrically, and with dry skull preparations. Postexperimental, retention, and postretention responses were documented cephalometrically. The findings of the present investigation lead to the following conclusions: 1. The termination active sutural growth is of little significance to the remodeling potential of the sutural articulations and the morphologic adaptability of the facial skeletal complex. 2. The length of time necessary for resorptive remodeling of the sutural bony projections is partially responsible for the slower rate of detectable skeletal movement in adult animals. 3. The sutural ligament in adult animals is initially less responsive to the effects of extraoral force application, possibly because of a diminished level of cellular activity at older ages. 4. Increases in age do not appear to affect the osteogenic potential of the periosteal envelope. 5. Retention aids in establishing a maintainable equilibrium following experimentally induced sutural and skeletal remodeling, but it is of little importance in maintaining the altered position of the denition. 6. The amount of postexperimental skeletal reorientation following force application to the maxilla may be related to the force level and the duration of force.

  11. Influence of testosterone and a novel SARM on gene expression in whole blood of Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmaier, Irmgard; Tichopad, Ales; Reiter, Martina; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic hormones, including testosterone, have been suggested as a therapy for aging-related conditions, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia. These therapies are sometimes associated with severe androgenic side effects. A promising alternative to testosterone replacement therapy are selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). SARMs have the potential to mimic the desirable central and peripheral androgenic anabolic effects of testosterone without having its side effects. In this study we evaluated the effects of LGD2941, in comparison to testosterone, on mRNA expression of selected target genes in whole blood in an non-human model. The regulated genes can act as potential blood biomarker candidates in future studies with AR ligands. Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were treated either with testosterone or LGD2941 for 90 days in order to compare their effects on mRNA expression in blood. Blood samples were taken before SARM application, on day 16 and on day 90 of treatment. Gene expression of 37 candidate genes was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) technology. Our study shows that both testosterone and LGD2941 influence mRNA expression of 6 selected genes out of 37 in whole blood. The apoptosis regulators CD30L, Fas, TNFR1 and TNFR2 and the interleukins IL-12B and IL-15 showed significant changes in gene expression between control and the treatment groups and represent potential biomarkers for androgen receptor ligands in whole blood.

  12. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  13. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. C. Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  14. Generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning: learning strategies and related issues in Macaca mulatta, Cebus apella, and Columba livia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2007-11-01

    The generalization hypothesis of abstract-concept learning was tested with a meta-analysis of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia) learning a same/different (S/D) task with expanding training sets. The generalization hypothesis states that as the number of training items increases, generalization from the training pairs will increase and could explain the subjects' accurate novel-stimulus transfer. By contrast, concept learning is learning the relationship between each pair of items; with more training items subjects learn more exemplars of the rule and transfer better. Having to learn the stimulus pairs (the generalization hypothesis) would require more training as the set size increases, whereas learning the concept might require less training because subjects would be learning an abstract rule. The results strongly support concept or rule learning despite severely relaxing the generalization-hypothesis parameters. Thus, generalization was not a factor in the transfer from these experiments, adding to the evidence that these subjects were learning the S/D abstract concept.

  15. The Genial Monkeys of Emei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOHONG

    2004-01-01

    MANY of China's beautiful mountainous areas are home to monkeys,the most famous monkey resort being Emei Mountain. Perhaps affected by the mountain's Buddhist atmosphere, Emei's monkeys are gentle and often approach tourists for food and play. Cute and impish, these delightful creatures are the main attraction for many visitors.

  16. Implantation and Maintenance of Chronic Jugular Venous Catheters in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-05

    ventilation. The vest was closed in back with a zipper, which was routinely secured with a safety pin . A drawstring at the waistallowed adjustable fit to the...Laboratories, Pearl River, NY). Routine flushing procedure was then resumed. Between flushings, the exposed end of the catheter was tied to a safety pin attached

  17. Single subcutaneous dosing of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, J.; Thuesen, Line Risager; Braskamp, G.

    2011-01-01

    Cefovecin is a third-generation cephalosporin approved for antibacterial treatment with a 14-day dosing interval in dogs and cats. This antibiotic may also be useful for zoo and wildlife veterinary medicine, because of its broad spectrum and long duration of activity. The aim of the study...

  18. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; Merchant, H.; Háden, G.P.; Prado, L.; Bartolo, R.

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis

  19. Effects of chair restraint on the strength of the tibia in rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, T. M.; Bakulin, A. V.; Rakhmanov, A. S.; Martin, R. B.; Steele, C. R.; Arnaud, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effects of the relative inactivity and unloading on the strength of the tibias of monkeys, Macaca mulatta, we used a non-invasive test to measure bending stiffness, or EI (Nm2), a mechanical property. The technique was validated by comparisons of in vivo measurements with standard measures of EI in the same bones post-mortem (r2 = 0.95, P monkeys, 3.0+/-0.7 years and 3.6+/-0.6 kg, revealed EI to be 16% higher in the right than left tibia (4.4+/-1.6 vs. 3.7+/-1.6 Nm2, P monkeys, restrained in chairs for 14 days, showed decreases in EI. There were no changes in EI in two chaired monkeys that lost weight during a 2-week space flight. The factors that account for both the decreases in bone mechanical properties after chair restraint at 1 g and lack of change after microgravity remain to be identified. Metabolic factors associated with body weight changes are suggested by our results.

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-1046 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-1046 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] ...nemestrina] gb|AAB62556.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAQ22367.1...| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|ABF71557.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71...558.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71559.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-02-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-02-0028 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] ...nemestrina] gb|AAB62556.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAQ22367.1...| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|ABF71557.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71...558.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71559.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-20-0020 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-20-0020 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...AC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] ...nemestrina] gb|AAB62556.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAQ22367.1...| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|ABF71557.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71...558.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71559.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71

  3. Processing of pro-opiomelanocortin-derived amidated joining peptide and glycine-extended precursor in monkey pituitary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1991-01-01

    The molecular forms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derived amidated and C-terminal glycine-extended joining peptide from monkey (Macaca mulatta) pituitary were determined. The predominant forms of joining peptide found were the low molecular peptides POMC(76-105) and POMC(76-106), respectively....... Significant amounts of N-terminally truncated POMC(78-105) and POMC(78-106) were also detected in the posterior-intermediate lobe. No N-terminal extended forms were detected. The relative amount of amidated joining peptide to total joining peptide was 6-35%. It is concluded that not only is the primary...

  4. Implicit Memory in Monkeys: Development of a Delay Eyeblink Conditioning System with Parallel Electromyographic and High-Speed Video Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Kishimoto

    Full Text Available Delay eyeblink conditioning, a cerebellum-dependent learning paradigm, has been applied to various mammalian species but not yet to monkeys. We therefore developed an accurate measuring system that we believe is the first system suitable for delay eyeblink conditioning in a monkey species (Macaca mulatta. Monkey eyeblinking was simultaneously monitored by orbicularis oculi electromyographic (OO-EMG measurements and a high-speed camera-based tracking system built around a 1-kHz CMOS image sensor. A 1-kHz tone was the conditioned stimulus (CS, while an air puff (0.02 MPa was the unconditioned stimulus. EMG analysis showed that the monkeys exhibited a conditioned response (CR incidence of more than 60% of trials during the 5-day acquisition phase and an extinguished CR during the 2-day extinction phase. The camera system yielded similar results. Hence, we conclude that both methods are effective in evaluating monkey eyeblink conditioning. This system incorporating two different measuring principles enabled us to elucidate the relationship between the actual presence of eyelid closure and OO-EMG activity. An interesting finding permitted by the new system was that the monkeys frequently exhibited obvious CRs even when they produced visible facial signs of drowsiness or microsleep. Indeed, the probability of observing a CR in a given trial was not influenced by whether the monkeys closed their eyelids just before CS onset, suggesting that this memory could be expressed independently of wakefulness. This work presents a novel system for cognitive assessment in monkeys that will be useful for elucidating the neural mechanisms of implicit learning in nonhuman primates.

  5. THE CLEVER MONKEYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付惠娟

    2004-01-01

    A man was walking through a forest. He had a few caps in his hands. In the forest there were a lot of monkeys. The day was hot, so he decided to have a rest under a tree. I-le put one cap on his head and lay down to sleep.

  6. Constitutive Release of IFNγ and IL2 from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Infected with Simian T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, JoAnn L; Montiel, Nestor A; Ardeshr, Amir; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2013-01-01

    Simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV), the nonhuman primate counterparts of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV), are endemic in many populations of African and Asian monkeys and apes. Although an etiologic link between STLV1 infection and lymphoproliferative disorders such as malignant lymphomas has been suggested in some nonhuman primate species, most STLV infections are inapparent, and infected animals remain clinically healthy. The retroviral transactivator, tax, is well known to increase transcription of viral and cellular genes, resulting in altered cytokine profiles. This study compared the cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from 25 STLV1-seropositive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with those of age- and sex-matched seronegative controls. IFNγ, TNFα, IL10, and IL2 levels in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants were measured at 24, 48, and 72 h by using enzyme immunoassays. IFNγ concentrations were found significantly higher in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of seropositive monkeys as compared with seronegative controls. In addition, although IL2 concentrations were not significantly elevated in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of all seropositive monkeys as compared with all seronegative controls, IL2 levels were increased in a subset of 5 pairs. Increased constitutive cytokine release occurred in the absence of spontaneous proliferation. The increased constitutive release of IFNγ and IL2 suggests that STLV1 alters immune functions in infected but clinically healthy rhesus macaques and further characterizes STLV1 infection of rhesus macaques as a potential model for human HTLV1 infection. PMID:24326227

  7. Spatial decisions and cognitive strategies of monkeys and humans based on abstract spatial stimuli in rotation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekovarova, Tereza; Nedvidek, Jan; Klement, Daniel; Bures, Jan

    2009-09-08

    We showed previously that macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) could orient in real space using abstract visual stimuli presented on a computer screen. They made correct choices according to both spatial stimuli (designed as an abstract representation of a real space) and nonspatial stimuli (pictures lacking any inner configuration information). However, we suggested that there were differences in processing spatial and nonspatial stimuli. In the present experiment we show that monkeys could also use as a cue abstract spatial stimuli rotated with respect to the real response space. We studied the ability of monkeys to decode abstract spatial information provided in one spatial frame (computer screen) and to perform spatial choices in another spatial frame (touch panel separated from the screen). We analyzed how the monkeys were affected by the type of training, whether they perceived the stimuli as "spatial" or "nonspatial," and which cues they used to decode them. We compared humans to monkeys in a similar test to find out which cognitive strategy they used and whether they perceive spatial stimuli in the same way. We demonstrated that there were two possible strategies to solve the task, simple "fitting" ignoring rotations and "remapping," when the stimulus was represented as an "abstract space" per se.

  8. Craniodental variation among Macaques (Macaca, nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Ruliang

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In terms of structure and function, the skull is one of the most complicated organs in the body. It is also one of the most important parts in terms of developmental and evolutionary origins. This complexity makes it difficult to obtain evolutionary assessments if, as is usually the case with fossils, only part of the skull is available. For this reason this study involves a set of comparisons whereby the smallest functional units are studied first, and these built up, through a triple-nested hierarchical design, into more complex anatomical regions and eventually into the skull-as-a-whole. This design has been applied to macaques (Macaca in order to reveal patterns of variation at the different levels. The profiles of such variation have been obtained both within and between species. This has lead to a search for the skull parts that have undergone similar selection pressures during evolution and comparable development patterns in both ontogeny and phylogeny. Results Morphometric analysis (Principal Components was used to obtain these profiles of species and sex separations based on 77 cranial variables from 11 species of macaques. The results showed that 7 functional units could be aggregated into three functionally reasonable anatomical regions on the basis of similarities in profiles. These were: the masticatory apparatus containing mandible, lower teeth and upper teeth, the face as a whole combining maxilla (actually lower face and upper face, and the cranium as a whole involving cranium and calvaria. Twenty-six variables were finally selected for analyzing the morphology of the whole skull. This last showed an overall profile similar to that revealed in the masticatory apparatus but also contained additional information pertaining to individual species and species-groups separations. Conclusions The study provides a model for carrying out analysis of species separations and sex variation simultaneously. Through this

  9. Removal of the amygdala plus subjacent cortex disrupts the retention of both intramodal and crossmodal associative memories in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, E A; Gaffan, D

    1994-06-01

    Naive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained preoperatively in an automated test apparatus on an auditory-visual (crossmodal) conditional task or on a visual-visual (intramodal) conditional task that involved learning a fixed set of stimulus-stimulus associations or paired associates. After having learned their respective tasks, each monkey received bilateral removal of the amygdala plus subjacent cortex. The 2 experimental groups showed equally poor retention of the stimulus-stimulus associations and subsequently relearned their respective crossmodal and intramodal associations at the same rate. These data argue against the idea that the amygdala is specialized for crossmodal associations. Instead, the data indicate that the amygdala or its underlying cortex, or both, play a more generalized role in stimulus-stimulus associative memory.

  10. Automated recording of individual performance and hand preference during joystick-task acquisition in group-living bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, M W; Rosenblum, L A

    1994-12-01

    A microchip that provided a unique identification number was injected into each forearm of all 8 members of a bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) social group. The group was then given computer-controlled joystick tasks of increasing difficulty. The identification number of the arm used on each trial was input into the computer and used to determine individual performance and hand preference in more than 23,000 trials. Three subjects reversed hand preference as task difficulty was increased over time. All subjects exhibited nearly exclusive use of a single hand on the most difficult task; 6 used the right hand, and 2 used the left. Daily patterns of joystick activity for the group members differed somewhat from that of our individually housed monkeys.

  11. The Elephant and the Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ Once an Elephant met a Monkey."Look how big and strong I am!"he said."I can break a tree.Can you break a tree?" "Look how quickly I can run and climb!"said the Monkey."Can you climb a tree?" The elephant was proud because he was so strong,and the Monkey Was proud because she was so quick.

  12. Studies on the effect of 4-methylpyrazole on methanol poisoning using the monkey as an animal model: with particular reference to the ocular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstrand, R; Ingemansson, S O

    1984-07-01

    Young cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were chosen as a model to investigate the ocular toxicity in animals poisoned with methanol and treated with 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP). The metabolism of methanol in the monkey was investigated after administration of 4-MP. Plasma levels of methanol, formic acid, 4-MP and 4-hydroxy-MP (4-OH-MP) were determined. After intramuscular injection, 4-MP was rapidly absorbed and depressed the elimination rate of methanol as well as the accumulation of formate in the blood. The results show the same great individual variations in monkeys as in humans regarding the susceptibility to methanol poisoning. Administration of a single dose of 5 g/kg induces a serious intoxication in most monkeys, causing death to some of them. Two monkeys receiving a single dose of 6 g/kg of methanol developed a serious initial inebriation and were treated with 4-MP. These monkeys survived and showed no signs of toxicity on ocular examinations which included ophtalmoscopy and electroretinogram (ERG) recordings.

  13. Modes of transmission and genetic diversity of foamy viruses in a Macaca tonkeana colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saib Ali

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foamy viruses are exogenous complex retroviruses that are highly endemic in several animal species, including monkeys and apes, where they cause persistent infection. Simian foamy viral (SFV infection has been reported in few persons occupationally exposed to non-human primates (NHP in zoos, primate centers and laboratories, and recently in few hunters from central Africa. Most of the epidemiological works performed among NHP populations concern cross-sectional studies without long-term follow-up. Therefore, the exact timing and the modes of transmission of SFVs remain not well known, although sexual and oral transmissions have been suspected. We have conducted a longitudinal study in a free-breeding colony of Macaca tonkeana in order (1 to determine the prevalence of the infection by foamy viruses, (2 to characterize molecularly the viruses infecting such animals, (3 to study their genetic variability overtime by long-term follow-up of several DNA samples in a series of specific animals, and (4 to get new insights concerning the timing and the modes of SFVs primary infection in these monkeys by combining serology and molecular means, as well as studies of familial structures and long-term behavioral observations. Results/conclusion We first demonstrated that this colony was highly endemic for SFVs, with a clear increase of seroprevalence with age. Only 4.7% of immatures, and 43,7% of sub-adults were found seropositive, while 89.5% of adults exhibited antibodies directed against SFV. We further showed that 6 different strains of foamy viruses (exhibiting a very low intra-strain and overtime genetic variability in the integrase gene are circulating within this group. This suggests a possible infection by different strains within an animal. Lastly, we provide strong evidence that foamy viruses are mostly acquired through severe bites, mainly in sub-adults or young adults. Most cases of seroconversion occur after 7 years of age

  14. Oxidoreductases in early gestational monkey placenta during maternal malarial infection : histochemical localisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishi Saxena , P.S.R. Murthy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Early gestational malaria is more deleterious than late gestational infection.Still the pathophysiology of maternofoetal organ—the placenta in malaria remains almost unexploredduring early gestation. Present study dealing with oxidoreductases in early gestational placenta duringmaternal malarial infection of Plasmodium cynomolgi bastianellii in rhesus monkeys was anticipatedto provide a better insight into the functional impairment of this organ leading to foetal abnormalities.Methods: Three control and four experimental monkeys (Macaca mulatta were quarantined for onemonth prior to experimentation. Experimental monkeys at 2–2½ months of gestation were inoculatedwith P. cynomolgi bastianellii. On attaining first peak of parasitaemia the placentae were collectedfrom anesthetised animals. The snap-frozen, cryostat sections were subjected to histochemicallocalisation for 3 (or 17 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (β-HSD [3 (or 17 β-hydroxysteroid:NAD (P+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.51 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases] and NADPH-tetrazoliumreductase [NADPH : (acceptor oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.99.1 NADPH-TR]. Comparative microscopyof control and malaria infected placental sections was performed and analysed.Results: A localised decrease in both the enzymes was observed in syncytiotrophoblast layer ofmalaria infected monkey placenta. The areas showing morphological damage of syncytiotrophoblastwere also depicting gross reduction in NADPH-TR activity.Interpretation & conclusion: The altered enzymatic activities [3 (or 17 β-HSD and NADPH-TR] inmalaria infected early gestational monkey placenta have been discussed in the light of placentalfunction. It could be concluded by present studies that these alterations would affect the cellularmetabolism especially steroidogenesis and detoxification process which in turn would affect thenormal development of the foetus as well as maintenance of gestation.

  15. PET measurement of FK506 concentration in a monkey model of stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Yoshihiro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Hakui City, Ishikawa 925-0613 (Japan); Analysis and Pharmacokinetics Research Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8585 (Japan)], E-mail: murakami@mprcf.or.jp; Takamatsu, Hiroyuki [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Hakui City, Ishikawa 925-0613 (Japan); Noda, Akihiro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Hakui City, Ishikawa 925-0613 (Japan); Analysis and Pharmacokinetics Research Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8585 (Japan); Osoda, Kazuhiko [Chemical Research Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8585 (Japan); Nishimura, Shintaro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Hakui City, Ishikawa 925-0613 (Japan); Analysis and Pharmacokinetics Research Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8585 (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    Introduction: The immunosuppressive agent FK506 (tacrolimus) has neuroprotective properties in an experimental model of cerebral ischemia. To improve the accuracy of clinical studies in acute stroke, a clinical dose setting should be based on the brain concentration, but not on the blood concentration of agents in humans. We have already established a measurement method using PET for FK506 concentration in the normal monkey brain, which could be applicable for human study; however, under ischemic conditions, in this study, we aimed to examine the brain concentration of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. Methods: Studies were performed on six male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model was used. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by an intravenous injection of [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O 165 min after MCA occlusion. FK506 (0.1 mg/kg) containing [{sup 11}C]FK506 was intravenously injected into the monkeys 180 min after MCA occlusion, and dynamic PET images were acquired for 30 min after administration. FK506 concentrations in the brain were calculated in moles per liter (M) units using the specific activity of injected FK506. Results: MCA occlusion produced ischemia, confirmed by rCBF measurement before the administration of [{sup 11}C]FK506. Fifteen minutes after FK506 (0.1 mg/kg) administration, the concentrations in the contralateral and ipsilateral cortex were 22.4{+-}6.4 and 19.7{+-}4.0 ng/g, respectively. Conclusion: We successfully measured the brain concentration of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. The difference between the contralateral and ipsilateral concentrations of FK506 was not significant. This characteristic that FK506 readily penetrates ischemic tissue as well as normal tissue might explain the neuroprotective effect of FK506 in the ischemic brain and is suitable for the treatment of stroke patients.

  16. Noninvasive scalp recording of cortical auditory evoked potentials in the alert macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kosuke; Nejime, Masafumi; Konoike, Naho; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Katsuki

    2015-09-01

    Scalp-recorded evoked potentials (EP) provide researchers and clinicians with irreplaceable means for recording stimulus-related neural activities in the human brain, due to its high temporal resolution, handiness, and, perhaps more importantly, non-invasiveness. This work recorded the scalp cortical auditory EP (CAEP) in unanesthetized monkeys by using methods that are essentially identical to those applied to humans. Young adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, 5-7 years old) were seated in a monkey chair, and their head movements were partially restricted by polystyrene blocks and tension poles placed around their head. Individual electrodes were fixated on their scalp using collodion according to the 10-20 system. Pure tone stimuli were presented while electroencephalograms were recorded from up to nineteen channels, including an electrooculogram channel. In all monkeys (n = 3), the recorded CAEP comprised a series of positive and negative deflections, labeled here as macaque P1 (mP1), macaque N1 (mN1), macaque P2 (mP2), and macaque N2 (mN2), and these transient responses to sound onset were followed by a sustained potential that continued for the duration of the sound, labeled the macaque sustained potential (mSP). mP1, mN2 and mSP were the prominent responses, and they had maximal amplitudes over frontal/central midline electrode sites, consistent with generators in auditory cortices. The study represents the first noninvasive scalp recording of CAEP in alert rhesus monkeys, to our knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Metaphase yields from staphylococcal enterotoxin A stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes of unirradiated and irradiated aged rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, F.S.; Cantu, A.O.; Lucas, J.N. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Cox, A.B.; Salmon, Y.L. (Air Force Armstrong Lab., Brookes AFB, TX (United States))

    1994-10-01

    The mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) works well in both human and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) lymphocyte cultures to stimulate T cell proliferation. T cells from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are less responsive than human cells, producing few metaphases when thousands are required, e.g. in biological dosimetry studies. We show that staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), one of the most potent mitogens known, at a concentration of 0.5 [mu]g/ml stimulated peripheral lymphocytes to grow with a mitotic index (MI) averaging 0.13 metaphases/cell in old, irradiated rhesus macaques. This was significantly greater (p < 0.001) that that produced by PHA (M1<0.01) in lymphocytes from the same animals. Whole blood was cultured for 96, 120 and 144 h for five irradiated individuals and for two controls. All cells cultured with SEA produced a high MI with a peak response at 120 h whereas the same cultures showed low MI for each PHA stimulated culture. (author).

  18. Low-status monkeys "play dumb" when learning in mixed social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drea, C M; Wallen, K

    1999-10-26

    Many primates, including humans, live in complex hierarchical societies where social context and status affect daily life. Nevertheless, primate learning studies typically test single animals in limited laboratory settings where the important effects of social interactions and relationships cannot be studied. To investigate the impact of sociality on associative learning, we compared the individual performances of group-tested rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) across various social contexts. We used a traditional discrimination paradigm that measures an animal's ability to form associations between cues and the obtaining of food in choice situations; but we adapted the task for group testing. After training a 55-member colony to separate on command into two subgroups, composed of either high- or low-status families, we exposed animals to two color discrimination problems, one with all monkeys present (combined condition), the other in their "dominant" and "subordinate" cohorts (split condition). Next, we manipulated learning history by testing animals on the same problems, but with the social contexts reversed. Monkeys from dominant families excelled in all conditions, but subordinates performed well in the split condition only, regardless of learning history. Subordinate animals had learned the associations, but expressed their knowledge only when segregated from higher-ranking animals. Because aggressive behavior was rare, performance deficits probably reflected voluntary inhibition. This experimental evidence of rank-related, social modulation of performance calls for greater consideration of social factors when assessing learning and may also have relevance for the evaluation of human scholastic achievement.

  19. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-06

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech.

  20. Characteristics of Spontaneous Square-Wave Jerks in the Healthy Macaque Monkey during Visual Fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Costela

    Full Text Available Saccadic intrusions (SIs, predominantly horizontal saccades that interrupt accurate fixation, include square-wave jerks (SWJs; the most common type of SI, which consist of an initial saccade away from the fixation target followed, after a short delay, by a return saccade that brings the eye back onto target. SWJs are present in most human subjects, but are prominent by their increased frequency and size in certain parkinsonian disorders and in recessive, hereditary spinocerebellar ataxias. SWJs have been also documented in monkeys with tectal and cerebellar etiologies, but no studies to date have investigated the occurrence of SWJs in healthy nonhuman primates. Here we set out to determine the characteristics of SWJs in healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta during attempted fixation of a small visual target. Our results indicate that SWJs are common in healthy nonhuman primates. We moreover found primate SWJs to share many characteristics with human SWJs, including the relationship between the size of a saccade and its likelihood to be part of a SWJ. One main discrepancy between monkey and human SWJs was that monkey SWJs tended to be more vertical than horizontal, whereas human SWJs have a strong horizontal preference. Yet, our combined data indicate that primate and human SWJs play a similar role in fixation correction, suggesting that they share a comparable coupling mechanism at the oculomotor generation level. These findings constrain the potential brain areas and mechanisms underlying the generation of fixational saccades in human and nonhuman primates.

  1. Immunocytochemical localization of L-alpha-hydroxyacid oxidase in dense bar of dumb-bell-shaped peroxisomes of monkey kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, S; Hashimoto, T

    1995-07-01

    Localization of the B of L-alpha hydroxyacid oxidase (HOX-B) in monkey kidney peroxisomes was investigated by immunoelectron microscopic techniques. Kidneys of Japanese monkeys, Macaca fuscata, were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde + 0.25% glutaraldehyde and embedded in LR White resin. Thin sections were stained for HOX-B and catalase by the immunogold technique. HOX-B was localized in the marginal plates of normal peroxisomes and the dense bar of dumb-bell-shaped peroxisomes. Catalase was detected in the matrix of normal peroxisomes and in the terminal dilatations of dumb-bell-shaped peroxisomes. There were no gold particles indicating presence of catalase associated with the marginal plates or with the dense bars. Immunoblot analysis of monkey kidney homogenate showed that HOX-B has a molecular mass of 42 kDa that was slightly larger than that of rat kidney HOX-B (39 kDa). The results show that the dense bar of dumb-bell-shaped peroxisomes in monkey kidney is composed of at least HOX-B and is a variation of the marginal plates.

  2. Cloning and high level expression of the biologically active extracellular domain of Macaca mulatta CD40 in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shengyun; Wan, Lin; Yang, Hao; Cheng, Jingqiu; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2016-03-01

    The CD40-mediated immune response contributes to a wide variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. CD40 antagonists have potential as novel therapies for immune disorders. However, the CD40 pathway has not been well characterized in the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta, which is a valuable animal model for human immune disease. An 834 bp transcript was cloned from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of rhesus monkey using specific primers designed according to the predicted sequence of M. mulatta CD40 (mmCD40) in GenBank. Sequence analysis demonstrated that mmCD40 is highly homologous to human CD40 (hCD40), with an amino acid sequence identity of 94%. Genes encoding the extracellular domain of mmCD40 and the Fc fragment of the hIgG1 were inserted into a pPIC9K plasmid to produce mmCD40Ig by Pichia pastoris. Approximately 15-20 mg of the mmCD40Ig protein with ∼90% purity could be recovered from 1 L of culture. The purified mmCD40Ig protein can form dimers and can specifically bind CD40L-positive cells. Additionally, the mmCD40Ig protein can bind hCD40L protein in phosphate buffered saline and form a stable combination in a size-exclusion chromatography assay using a Superdex 200 column. Moreover, mmCD40Ig is as efficient as M. mulatta CTLA4Ig (mmCTLA4Ig) to suppress Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Additionally, mmCD40Ig only showed mild immunosuppressive activity in a one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) system. These results suggest that mmCD40Ig secreted by P. pastoris was productive and functional, and it could be used as a tool for pathogenesis and therapies for chronic inflammatory diseases in a M. mulatta model.

  3. Cortisol in Neonatal Mother's Milk Predicts Later Infant Social and Cognitive Functioning in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Murphy, Ashley M; Guitarra, Denisse; Slonecker, Emily; Suomi, Stephen J; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Hinde, Katie

    2017-03-29

    Milk provides not only the building blocks for somatic development but also the hormonal signals that contribute to the biopsychological organization of the infant. Among mammals, glucocorticoids (GCs) in mother's milk have been associated with infant temperament. This study extended prior work to investigate rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) mother-infant dyads (N = 34) from birth through 8 months postpartum. Regression analysis revealed that cortisol concentrations in milk during the neonatal period predicted impulsivity on a cognitive task, but not global social behaviors, months later. During this time period, sex-differentiated social behavior emerged. For female infants, milk cortisol concentrations predicted total frequency of play. Collectively, these findings support and extend the "lactational programming" hypothesis on the impact of maternal-origin hormones ingested via milk. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. [Cellular composition of the lymph nodes of monkeys (rhesus macaque) under normal and experimental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusina, A K

    1978-01-01

    By means of mathematical methods, quantitative and qualitative changes were studied in different structural components of the mesenteric (ileocecal) lymph nodes in normal monkeys (Macaca rhesus) and under per os administration of Salmonella typhi murium, streptomycin-dependent. Cellular composition was calculated in the cortical plateau, cortical (lymphoid) cords and in follicules. Average percent of every cell type was determined. Vaccine administration, was stated to inhibit cytopoiesis in the cortical plateau and in the follicules with light centers. An inverse correlation was noted between the content of small and medium size lymphocytes. Different reactivity of certain structural components in the lymph nodes was demonstrated. As a response to the vaccine administration, plasmocellular acidophilic and macrophagal reactions were most pronounced in the cortical (lymphoid) cords.

  5. Spaceflight and growth effects on muscle fibers in the rhesus monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine-Fowler, Sue C.; Roy, Roland R.; Rudolph, William; Haque, Naz; Kozlovskaia, Inessa B.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of a 14-day spaceflight onboard Cosmos 2044 on selected morphological and metabolic properties of single muscle fibers was investigated in a nonhuman primate, Macaca mulatta. It is concluded that the 14-day spaceflight had little impact on fiber size in the soleus (S) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles, whereas it appeared to be a slight decrease in sized in the tibialis anterior (TA). The mean fiber size in the postflight biopsies increased relative to preflight values. The mean fiber succinate dehydrogenase activity was found to decrease in the MG, whereas there was no apparent effect of spaceflight on the s and ta muscles. The differences in response of the S, MG, and TA to spaceflight in monkeys vs rats may be related to a species responsiveness to spaceflight, the manner in which the animals were restrained, and/or the possibility that the ankle musculature was able to function against a load while in space.

  6. Spaceflight and growth effects on muscle fibers in the rhesus monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine-Fowler, Sue C.; Roy, Roland R.; Rudolph, William; Haque, Naz; Kozlovskaia, Inessa B.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of a 14-day spaceflight onboard Cosmos 2044 on selected morphological and metabolic properties of single muscle fibers was investigated in a nonhuman primate, Macaca mulatta. It is concluded that the 14-day spaceflight had little impact on fiber size in the soleus (S) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles, whereas it appeared to be a slight decrease in sized in the tibialis anterior (TA). The mean fiber size in the postflight biopsies increased relative to preflight values. The mean fiber succinate dehydrogenase activity was found to decrease in the MG, whereas there was no apparent effect of spaceflight on the s and ta muscles. The differences in response of the S, MG, and TA to spaceflight in monkeys vs rats may be related to a species responsiveness to spaceflight, the manner in which the animals were restrained, and/or the possibility that the ankle musculature was able to function against a load while in space.

  7. Fasting induced kisspeptin signaling suppression is regulated by glutamate mediated cues in adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamas, Shazia; Khan, Saeed-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Yousaf; Shabbir, Nadia; Zubair, Hira; Shafqat, Saira; Wahab, Fazal; Shahab, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Kisspeptin signaling is suppressed by short term fasting. It has been reported that hypothalamic Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA expression decreased after 48h of fasting in male rhesus monkey. But the mechanism involved in the reduction of kisspeptin signaling after 48h of fasting is unknown. Recent studies have suggested the role of afferent excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the regulation of kisspeptin neurons. Therefore, this study was designed to observe the changes in the glutamate and GABA signaling during fed and 48h fasting states by performing immunofluorescence to examine the interaction of kisspeptin neurons with NR1 subunit of NMDA receptors and by performing SYBR green qRT-PCR to measure and quantify the levels of Kiss1, Kiss1r, NR1 and GAD67 mRNA in the POA and MBH of adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) during 48h of fasting (n=2) and fed ad libitum (n=2). Plasma testosterone (pfasting. Our results clearly showed that expression of hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r and NR1 mRNA was significantly (pfasting. These observations suggest that decreased kisspeptin signaling during fasting may occur due to reduction in glutamatergic inputs to kisspeptin neurons. Our results also suggest that fasting induced suppression of kisspeptin signaling is not mediated through GABAergic neurons.

  8. Cashing out: The decisional flexibility of uncertainty responses in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Perdue, Bonnie M; Beran, Michael J; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2014-10-01

    Researchers are exploring whether animals share with humans something like a metacognitive capacity. Though some results point to human-animal continuities in this domain, they face the dominant criticism that animals' performances might be associative. A persistent problem is that animal-metacognition paradigms present static environments of risk and reward that may foster inflexible and conditioned responding. Those environments do not challenge animals to show the flexibility in their decision strategies that could indicate an antecedent capacity to metacognition. Accordingly, we tested macaques and humans on an uncertainty-monitoring paradigm in which risk changed dynamically. Participants classified stimuli of different difficulties while also choosing when to use a cashout response to collect the accumulated rewards that would be forfeit on a discrimination error. Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and humans flexibly adjusted their decision criteria to achieve appropriate protection against the cost of error that could differ depending on trial difficulty and the number of rewards at risk. In particular, monkeys widened their cashout-response region as their accumulated rewards increased, providing more protection against a more costly error. These findings demonstrate a new continuity between humans' and animals' uncertainty systems. They reveal a calibration by macaques of present risk to trial difficulty tolerated. They show that animals' uncertainty-monitoring and risk-management systems have substantial trial-by-trial flexibility.

  9. Spatial choices of macaque monkeys based on the visual representation of the response space: rotation of the stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedvidek, Jan; Nekovarova, Tereza; Bures, Jan

    2008-11-21

    In earlier experiments we have demonstrated that macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are able to use abstract visual stimuli presented on a computer screen to make spatial choices in the real environment. In those experiments a touch board ("response space") was directly connected to the computer screen ("virtual space"). The goal of the present experiment was to find out whether macaque monkeys are able: (1) To make spatial choices in a response space which is completely separated from the screen where the stimuli (designed as representation of the response space) are presented. (2) To make spatial choices based on visual stimuli representing the configuration of the response space which are rotated with respect to this response space. The monkeys were trained to choose one of the nine "touch holes" on a transparent touch panel situated beside a computer monitor on which the visual stimuli were presented. The visual stimuli were designed as an abstract representation of the response space: the rewarded position was shown as a bright circle situated at a certain position in the rectangle representing the contours of the touch panel. At first, the monkeys were trained with non-rotated spatial stimuli. After this initial training, the visual stimuli were gradually rotated by 20 degrees in each step. In the last phase, the stimulus was suddenly rotated in the opposite direction by 60 degrees in one step. The results of the experiment suggest that the monkeys are able to use successfully abstract stimuli from one spatial frame for spatial choices in another frame. Effective use of the stimuli after their rotation suggested that the monkeys perceived the stimuli as a representation of the configuration of the touch holes in the real space, not only as different geometrical patterns without configuration information.

  10. Protection of monkeys against the lethal effects of male funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) venom by immunization with a toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheumack, D D; Phillips, C A; Mylecharane, E J; Spence, I; Claassens, R; Brown, M R; Comis, A; Howden, M E

    1991-01-01

    A stable toxoid was prepared from robustoxin (the lethal polypeptide neurotoxin in the venom of the male funnel-web spider, Atrax robustus) by polymerization with glutaraldehyde. This material was non-toxic in new-born mice. Administration of the toxoid to three Macaca fascicularis monkeys (50-80 micrograms/kg s.c. at 14-day intervals for 8-12 weeks) produced no toxic effects; anti-robustoxin antibodies were detected in serum samples by immunodiffusion tests within 13-27 days. In vivo evidence of successful protection with the toxoid was obtained by challenging the monkeys with male A. robustus venom (50 micrograms/kg i.v.) under anaesthesia with pentobarbitone (one monkey), or with ketamine, halothane and nitrous oxide, 1-26 weeks after the last injection of the toxoid. Only minor respiratory, cardiovascular and skeletal motor disturbances were produced, and all monkeys recovered fully and uneventfully. Challenge with the same dose of venom in non-immunized or robustoxin N-terminal decapeptide ovalbumin conjugate-treated monkeys resulted in typical lethal neurotoxic effects, culminating in severe hypotension or death from circulatory and respiratory failure within 280 min.

  11. Heterochrony and cross-species intersensory matching by infant vervet monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Zangenehpour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the evolutionary origins of a phenotype requires understanding the relationship between ontogenetic and phylogenetic processes. Human infants have been shown to undergo a process of perceptual narrowing during their first year of life, whereby their intersensory ability to match the faces and voices of another species declines as they get older. We investigated the evolutionary origins of this behavioral phenotype by examining whether or not this developmental process occurs in non-human primates as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the ability of infant vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops, ranging in age from 23 to 65 weeks, to match the faces and voices of another non-human primate species (the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. Even though the vervets had no prior exposure to rhesus monkey faces and vocalizations, our findings show that infant vervets can, in fact, recognize the correspondence between rhesus monkey faces and voices (but indicate that they do so by looking at the non-matching face for a greater proportion of overall looking time, and can do so well beyond the age of perceptual narrowing in human infants. Our results further suggest that the pattern of matching by vervet monkeys is influenced by the emotional saliency of the Face+Voice combination. That is, although they looked at the non-matching screen for Face+Voice combinations, they switched to looking at the matching screen when the Voice was replaced with a complex tone of equal duration. Furthermore, an analysis of pupillary responses revealed that their pupils showed greater dilation when looking at the matching natural face/voice combination versus the face/tone combination. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because the infant vervets in the current study exhibited cross-species intersensory matching far later in development than do human infants, our findings suggest either that intersensory perceptual narrowing does not occur in Old

  12. Associations between early life experience, chronic HPA axis activity, and adult social rank in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Wooddell, Lauren J; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    Early life experience and socioeconomic status (SES) are well-established predictors of health outcomes in people. Both factors likely influence health outcomes via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. However, it is unclear how early experience and HPA axis activity influence adult social status. We studied differentially reared female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, N = 90) as models to test the hypothesis that chronic HPA axis activity assessed via hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) mediated the relationship between early life experience and adult social rank. We found that mother-peer-reared (MPR) monkeys acquired higher social ranks than either of the two nursery-reared (NR) groups (peer-reared, PR, or surrogate-peer-reared, SPR monkeys) (β = -0.07, t(89) = -2.16, p = 0.034). We also found that MPR HCCs were lower during the juvenile period at 18 months (F(2,25) = 3.49, p = 0.047). Furthermore, for MPR but not NR monkeys, changes in HCCs from 18 to 24 months (r(s) = -0.627, p = 0.039) and adult HCCs (r(s) = -0.321, p = 0.03) were negatively correlated with adult social rank. These findings suggest that chronic HPA axis regulation in juvenility, and perhaps in adulthood, may influence adult social status for primates that experience typical early rearing. However, early life adversity may result in dissociation between neuroendocrine stress regulation and adult social competence, which may be risk factors for adverse health outcomes.

  13. A preliminary study on activity budget, daily travel distance and feeding behaviour of long-tailed macaques and spectacled dusky leaf monkey in Bangi campus of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslin, Farhani; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2014-09-01

    The activity budget, ranging behaviour and feeding behaviour of a multimale-multifemale group of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and a multimale-multifemale group of spectacled dusky leaf monkey (Trachypithecus obscurus) were studied. A total of 145 hours and 143 hours have been spent to observe the group of long-tailed macaque and spectacled dusky leaf monkey that ranged the same habitat adjacent to the campus areas. The researchers examined the activity budgets, daily travel length and feeding activity of both species and distinguished how the sympatric species used the same forested habitat. Preliminary study found that the long-tailed macaques spent longer time feeding, moving than resting and other activities. On the other hand, the dusky leaf monkey spent much time in feeding and resting than moving. The differences of daily pattern between these two groups are significant. Macaques have higher daily mean of path length compared to the dusky leaf monkey and spent much time moving compare to the leaf monkey group. The spectacled dusky leaf monkey group also has fully utilized the forested areas where else the long-tailed macaques adopted foraging to the adjacent residential colleges.

  14. Can old-world and new-world monkeys judge spatial above/below relations to be the same or different? Some of them, but not all of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Roger K R; Flemming, Timothy M; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2016-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of relational matching to sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether old world rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a spatial above/below relational matching task as reported for old world baboons (Papio papio). None of the rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that new-world capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match above/below relations. The capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of 'Clever Hans' controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract 'relations between relations' and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of Cefovecin in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Olive Baboons (Papio anubis), and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, Brigitte M.; Lovaglio, Jamie A.; Grover, GScott; Brown, Scott A.; Boucher, Joseph F.; Yuan, Yang; Civil, Jacqueline R.; Gillhouse, Kimberly A.; Stubbs, Makeida N.; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Halliday, Lisa C.; Fortman, Jeffrey D.

    2011-05-01

    Cefovecin sodium is a long-acting, third-generation, cephalosporin antibiotic approved for the treatment of skin infections in dogs and cats. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin were evaluated in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), olive baboons (Papio anubis), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatto) by using a single-dose (8 mg/kg SC) dosing regimen. Plasma cefovecin concentrations were determined by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and a noncompartmental model was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters. The half-life of cefovecin was 4.95 {+-} 1.47 h in cynomolgus macaques, 9.17 {+-} 1.84 h in olive baboons, and 8.40 {+-} 2.53 h in rhesus macaques. These values are considerably lower than the half-lives previously published for dogs (133 h) and cats (166 h). The extended half-life of cefovecin in dogs and cats is speculated to be due to active reabsorption of drug in the kidney tubules because plasma clearance is well below the normal glomerular filtration rate. In nonhuman primates, renal clearance rates approximated plasma clearance rates, suggesting that active renal reabsorption of cefovecin does not occur in these species. The pharmacokinetic properties of cefovecin in nonhuman primates are vastly different from the pharmacokinetic properties in dogs and cats, precluding its use as a long-acting antibiotic in nonhuman primates. This study highlights the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies prior to extralabel drug usage.

  16. The Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell repertoire in Macaca fascicularis: functional responses to phosphoantigen stimulation by the Vgamma2/Jgamma1.2 subset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Cristiana; Propp, Nadia; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C David

    2005-06-01

    Circulating Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T cells in human and non-human primates respond to small molecular weight non-peptidic phosphoantigens in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted manner. These responses are encoded by the Vgamma2/Jgamma1.2 chain of the T-cell receptor and are positively selected during early development to create a biased repertoire in adults. We characterized the Vgamma2 chain in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to develop a non-human primate model for studying the effects of infection and therapy on the circulating Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell subset. The cynomolgus macaque Vgamma2 chain was highly homologous to the Vgamma2 chain from human beings and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), though we noted conserved substitutions in critical residues within the CDR3 for both macaque species. Despite these substitutions, Vgamma2/Vdelta2+ T cells from cynomolgus monkeys exhibited polyclonal responses to two different phosphoantigens. Proliferative responses were observed with both isopentenylpyrophosphate and alendronate, but stronger interferon-gamma secretory responses were observed with isopentenylpyrophosphate. In vitro stimulation and expansion led to selective outgrowth of the Vgamma2/Jgamma1.2 subset, with a marked shift in the Vgamma2 spectratype. As a result of the less biased starting repertoire for Vgamma2, the cynomolgus macaque constitutes a sensitive model for examining the effects of in vitro or in vivo treatments on the Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell population. Our studies establish the value of cynomolgus macaques as a model for Vgamma2/Vdelta2 T-cell responses to non-peptidic antigens, and further evidence the remarkable evolutionary conservation of this unusual, phosphoantigen-responsive T-cell subset that is found only in primate species.

  17. The Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell repertoire in Macaca fascicularis: functional responses to phosphoantigen stimulation by the Vγ2/Jγ1.2 subset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Cristiana; Propp, Nadia; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Colizzi, Vittorio; Pauza, C David

    2005-01-01

    Circulating Vγ2/Vδ2 T cells in human and non-human primates respond to small molecular weight non-peptidic phosphoantigens in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted manner. These responses are encoded by the Vγ2/Jγ1.2 chain of the T-cell receptor and are positively selected during early development to create a biased repertoire in adults. We characterized the Vγ2 chain in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to develop a non-human primate model for studying the effects of infection and therapy on the circulating Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell subset. The cynomolgus macaque Vγ2 chain was highly homologous to the Vγ2 chain from human beings and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), though we noted conserved substitutions in critical residues within the CDR3 for both macaque species. Despite these substitutions, Vγ2/Vδ2+ T cells from cynomolgus monkeys exhibited polyclonal responses to two different phosphoantigens. Proliferative responses were observed with both isopentenylpyrophosphate and alendronate, but stronger interferon-γ secretory responses were observed with isopentenylpyrophosphate. In vitro stimulation and expansion led to selective outgrowth of the Vγ2/Jγ1.2 subset, with a marked shift in the Vγ2 spectratype. As a result of the less biased starting repertoire for Vγ2, the cynomolgus macaque constitutes a sensitive model for examining the effects of in vitro or in vivo treatments on the Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell population. Our studies establish the value of cynomolgus macaques as a model for Vγ2/Vδ2 T-cell responses to non-peptidic antigens, and further evidence the remarkable evolutionary conservation of this unusual, phosphoantigen-responsive T-cell subset that is found only in primate species. PMID:15885125

  18. Immunopathology and histopathology of experimental chlamydial salpingitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, D L

    1985-01-01

    Experimental infection of fallopian tubes was produced in four sexually mature pig-tailed monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) by intratubal inoculation with serovar E or F Chlamydia trachomatis. Infection was confirmed by reisolation of the organism from both the endosalpinx and the endocervix. An antibody response to the infecting strain of C. trachomatis was demonstrated in monkey sera and in cervical secretions by the microimmunofluorescence test. A cellular immune response to C. trachomatis was shown by the in vitro lymphocyte transformation assay. Histopathologic examination of the endosalpinx following infection showed epithelial degeneration and deciliation of ciliated cells. Lymphocytic infiltration into both submucosa and mucosa was present at day 7 and approximated areas of epithelial cell degeneration. Two control monkeys remained unresponsive throughout the study. These results indicate that the pig-tailed macaque should be a suitable model for further studies of the pathogenesis of, immune responses to, and therapy for acute C. trachomatis salpingitis.

  19. Distribution of amylin-immunoreactive neurons in the monkey hypothalamus and their relationships with the histaminergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Este, L; Wimalawansa, S J; Renda, T G

    2001-08-01

    Amylin (AMY) is a 37 amino acid peptide of pancreatic origin that has been localized in peripheral and central nervous structures. Both peripheral and central injection of the peptide causes various effects, including anorectic behavior in rats. Prompted by previous reports showing that the anorectic effect of AMY is mediated by histamine release, we immunohistochemically investigated possible relationships between these two systems at the light microscopical level. Monkey (Macaca fuscata japonica) hypothalamus specimens were submitted to immunohistochemical double staining procedures using AMY and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) antisera. AMY-immunoreactive neurons were found widely distributed in several nuclei of the monkey hypothalamus including the supraoptic, paraventricular, perifornical, periventricular, ventromedial, arcuate, and tuberomammillary nuclei. We detected AMY-immunoreactive nerve fibers throughout the hypothalamus, the median eminence and hypothalamus-neurohypophysial tract. Although AMY- and HDC-immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies occupied distinct hypothalamic zones, many HDC-immunoreactive cell bodies and dendrites, particularly those in the periventricular, arcuate, and rostral tuberomammillary regions, were surrounded by numerous AMY-immunoreactive nerve fiber varicosities. These findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of a discrete number of AMY-immunoreactive neurons in the monkey hypothalamus and add morphological support to the experimental data demonstrating that AMY probably exerts its influence on food intake via the histaminergic system.

  20. Facial anatomy of Victoriapithecus and its relevance to the ancestral cranial morphology of Old World monkeys and apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefit, B R; McCrossin, M L

    1993-11-01

    Recently discovered craniofacial fossils of the middle Miocene cercopithecoid Victoriapithecus are described. The frontal, zygomatic, maxilla, and premaxilla anatomy differ from the previously proposed colobine-like ancestral cercopithecoid morphotype in several significant respects. This morphotype was based on the assumption that features held in common by subordinate hominoid and cercopithecoid morphotypes (Colobinae and Hylobatidae) are primitive for Old World monkeys. Cranial similarities between Victoriapithecus, which represents the sister-group of both colobine and cercopithecine monkeys, and the shorter-snouted Cercopithecinae (Macaca and Cercopithecus) indicate that the last common ancestor of Old World monkeys possessed the following features: a narrow interorbital septum, moderately long snout, moderately long and anteriorly tapering premaxilla, large procumbent upper central incisors set anterior to and with longer roots than lateral incisors, moderately tall face below the orbits, teardrop-shaped nasal aperture of low height and moderate width, and probably long and narrow nasal bones. The Victoriapithecus cranium is also characterized by features not present in modern cercopithecids. These include a deep malar region of the zygomatic and the presence of a frontal trigon due to the occurrence of temporal lines that merge with supraorbital costae close to the midline of each orbit and converge anterior to bregma. These features are interpreted as primitive retentions from the basal catarrhine condition as indicated by the occurrence of these features among primitive catarrhines (Aegyptopithecus) and Miocene hominoids (Afropithecus).

  1. Motivational Shifts in Aging Monkeys and the Origins of Social Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeling, Laura; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Sennhenn-Reulen, Holger; Freund, Alexandra M; Fischer, Julia

    2016-07-11

    As humans age, they become more selective regarding their personal goals [1] and social partners [2]. Whereas the selectivity in goals has been attributed to losses in resources (e.g., physical strength) [3], the increasing focus on emotionally meaningful partners is, according to socioemotional selectivity theory, driven by the awareness of one's decreasing future lifetime [2]. Similar to humans, aging monkeys show physical losses [4] and reductions in social activity [2, 5-7]. To disentangle a general resource loss and the awareness of decreasing time, we combined field experiments with behavioral observations in a large age-heterogeneous population of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at La Forêt des Singes. Novel object tests revealed a loss of interest in the nonsocial environment in early adulthood, which was modulated by the availability of a food reward. Experiments using vocal and visual representations of social partners indicated that monkeys maintained an interest in social stimuli and a preferential interest in friends and socially important individuals into old age. Old females engaged in fewer social interactions, although other group members continued to invest in relationships with them. Consequently, reductions in sociality were not due to a decrease in social interest. In conclusion, some of the motivational shifts observed in aging humans, particularly the increasing focus on social over nonsocial stimuli, may occur in the absence of a limited time perspective and are most likely deeply rooted in primate evolution. Our findings highlight the value of nonhuman primates as valuable models for understanding human aging [8, 9].

  2. Hippocampus and dentate gyrus of the Cebus monkey: architectonic and stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro-Diniz, Cristovam; de Melo Paz, Roberta Bentes; Hamad, Mayra Hermínia Simões; Filho, Carlos Santos; Martins, Adriano Augusto Vilhena; Neves, Heitor Bastos; de Souza Cunha, Elane Domenica; Alves, Gisele Cristina; de Sousa, Lia Amaral; Dias, Ivanira Amaral; Trévia, Nonata; de Sousa, Aline Andrade; Passos, Aline; Lins, Nara; Torres Neto, João Bento; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2010-10-01

    Behavioral, electrophysiological, and anatomical assays of non-human primates have provided substantial evidence that the hippocampus and dentate gyrus are essential for memory consolidation. However, a single anatomical and stereological investigation of these regions has been done in New World primates to complement those assays. The aim of the present study was to describe the cyto-, myelo-, and histochemical architecture of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus, and to use the optical fractionator method to estimate the number of neurons in the hippocampal pyramidal and granular neurons in the dentate gyrus of the Cebus monkey. NeuN immunolabeling, lectin histochemical staining with Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), enzyme-histochemical detection of NADPH-diaphorase activity and Gallyas silver staining were used to define the layers and limits of the hippocampal fields and dentate gyrus. A comparative analysis of capuchin (Cebus apella) and Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys revealed similar structural organization of these regions but significant differences in the regional distribution of neurons. C. apella were found to have 1.3 times fewer pyramidal and 3.5 times fewer granular neurons than M. mulatta. Taken together the architectonic and stereological data of the present study suggest that hippocampal and dentate gyrus neural networks in the C. apella and M. mulatta may contribute to hippocampal-dentate gyrus-dependent tasks in different proportions.

  3. Stability of the translocation frequency following whole-body irradiation measured in rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J. N.; Hill, F. S.; Burk, C. E.; Cox, A. B.; Straume, T.

    1996-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are persistent indicators of prior exposure to ionizing radiation and the development of 'chromosome painting' to efficiently detect translocations has resulted in a powerful biological dosimetry tool for radiation dose reconstruction. However, the actual stability of the translocation frequency with time after exposure must be measured before it can be used reliably to obtain doses for individuals exposed years or decades previously. Human chromosome painting probes were used here to measure reciprocal translocation frequencies in cells from two tissues of 8 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) irradiated almost three decades previously. Six of the monkeys were exposed in 1965 to whole-body (fully penetrating) radiation and two were unexposed controls. The primates were irradiated as juveniles to single doses of 0.56, 1.13, 2.00, or 2.25 Gy. Blood lymphocytes (and skin fibroblasts from one individual) were obtained for cytogenetic analysis in 1993, near the end of the animals' lifespans. Results show identical dose-response relationships 28 y after exposure in vivo and immediately after exposure in vitro. Because chromosome aberrations are induced with identical frequencies in vivo and in vitro, these results demonstrate that the translocation frequencies induced in 1965 have not changed significantly during the almost three decades since exposure. Finally, our emerging biodosimetry data for individual radiation workers are now confirming the utility of reciprocal translocations measured by FISH in radiation dose reconstruction.

  4. Rhesus monkey heart rate during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorge, J.; Thach, J. S., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Various schedules of reinforcement and their relation to heart rates of rhesus monkeys during exercise are described. All the reinforcement schedules produced 100 per cent or higher increments in the heart rates of the monkeys during exercise. Resting heart rates were generally much lower than those previously reported, which was attributed to the lack of physical restraint of the monkeys during recording.

  5. Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities across Senses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kerry E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys…

  6. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  7. Histopathological changes of Macaca mulatta infected with Plasmodium knowlesi%恒河猴感染诺氏疟原虫的病理组织学变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林; 李国桥; 户耀增; 罗灼玲

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨诺氏疟原虫(Plasmodium knowlesi)感染恒河猴(Macaca mu1atta)引起有关脏器的病理组织学变 化。 方法病解3例感染疟原虫未经治疗病死的猴;2例感染疟原虫经青蒿琥酯(artesunate)栓剂治疗后又复发 的猴;1例感染疟原虫经磷酸哌喹(piperaquine phosphate)治愈后死于上肢坏死感染的猴。对有关脏器均进 行切片检查。 结果 3例(1号、7号和12号)未经治疗而病死的猴和1例(72号)虽经青蒿琥酯栓剂治疗但很快被排出 体外的猴的心、肝、脾、肺、肾、大小脑、胰腺、甲状旁腺、脑垂体和淋巴结等均有严重病变,含原虫的红细胞 和疟色素聚集于这些脏器的毛细血管内。1例(131号)经用哌喹治愈而死于上肢坏死的猴,除见多个脏器 内有色素沉积或被巨噬细胞吞噬外,可见胰岛细胞、甲状旁腺和垂体细胞萎缩和消失等病变。1例(33号) 用青蒿琥酯栓剂治疗后短期原虫转阴,但又复燃的猴被灌药致死,多个脏器所见与感染后未经治疗者明显 不同,仅见肝脏Kupffer细胞和大脑基质细胞内含原虫和疟色素,多个脏器均呈修复。 结论本文报导了诺氏疟原虫感染恒河猴后各有关脏器的病理组织学变化,特别是观察到胰岛细胞、甲状 旁腺和垂体细胞的萎缩和消失与心肌细胞的溶解是国内外文献所未记载过的。%Objective To study the histopathological changes of relevant intemal organs of Macaca mulatta infected with Plasmodium knowlesi ( P. knowlesi). Methods Histopathological examination of 3 monkeys who died of P. knowlesi infection, 2 P. knowlesi infected monkeys who died of treatment failure with artesunate suppository and 1 P. knowlesi infected monkey that was cured by piperaquine phosphate (PQP) but died of trauma and necrosis of the fore limb. Results The heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain, pancreas, parathyriod, pituitary and lymph nodes showed severe

  8. Measles virus selectively blind to signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM; CD150) is attenuated and induces strong adaptive immune responses in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Vincent H J; Hodge, Gregory; Reyes-Del Valle, Jorge; McChesney, Michael B; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2010-04-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM; CD150) is the immune cell receptor for measles virus (MV). To assess the importance of the SLAM-MV interactions for virus spread and pathogenesis, we generated a wild-type IC-B MV selectively unable to recognize human SLAM (SLAM-blind). This virus differs from the fully virulent wild-type IC-B strain by a single arginine-to-alanine substitution at amino acid 533 of the attachment protein hemagglutinin and infects cells through SLAM about 40 times less efficiently than the isogenic wild-type strain. Ex vivo, this virus infects primary lymphocytes at low levels regardless of SLAM expression. When a group of six rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) was inoculated intranasally with the SLAM-blind virus, no clinical symptoms were documented. Only one monkey had low-level viremia early after infection, whereas all the hosts in the control group had high viremia levels. Despite minimal, if any, viremia, all six hosts generated neutralizing antibody titers close to those of the control monkeys while MV-directed cellular immunity reached levels at least as high as in wild-type-infected monkeys. These findings prove formally that efficient SLAM recognition is necessary for MV virulence and pathogenesis. They also suggest that the selectively SLAM-blind wild-type MV can be developed into a vaccine vector.

  9. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  10. 食蟹猴动物实验在PET/CT扫描检查中的注意事项%Guidelines for PET/CT scanography in animal experiment of Macaca fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪文; 秦朝军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To search for the best scanning parameters of PET/CT scanning examination in animal experiment of Macaca fascicularis, and to obtain the best images. Methods One male and one female monkeys respectively received the CT multiparameter scanning and PET multi - time period dynamic tomoscan. Results When the scanning conditions were 420 mAs and 120 kV,the best resolution ratio and the lightest constructed defect could be obtained. In the images of PET multi - time period dynamic tomoscan, the best image effects could be obtained from the images within 40-60 min. Conclusion Before the animal experiment of Macaca fascicularis on the PET/CT machine, the monkeys should receive the pre - scanning. And the best scanning parameters should be selected in order to obtain satisfactory results in the experiment.%目的 寻找食蟹猴动物实验在PET/CT扫描检查中最佳的扫描参数,获得最佳图像.方法 两只食蟹猴为一雄一雌,对两只食蟹猴分别采用CT多参数扫描和PET的多时段动态断层扫描.结果 扫描条件采用420 mAs、120 kV时,可以获得最佳的图像分辨率和最轻的伪影.PET扫描多时段动态断层扫描的图像中,40~60 min的图像可以获得最佳图像效果.结论 食蟹猴在PET/CT机上行动物实验前,应进行预扫描,选择最佳的扫描参数,才能获得满意的实验结果.

  11. Visual Evoked Potentials to Light Flashes in Captive Rhesus Monkeys: A Study Reflecting Cerebral Cortical Activity and Brain Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Solís-Chávez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual evoked potentials (VEPs are useful electrophysiological diagnostic tools for evaluating retinal response of the visual cortex and detecting its functional integrity in humans and animals. To analyze the VEPs and physiologic response of the visual pathway of a random population of captive-bred monkeys of the Macaca mulatta species throughout different physiologic stages after stimulation with stroboscopic light flashes. In this study we used 20 non-human primates (M. mulatta, 10 males and 10 females, divided into five age-dependant cohorts of 2 males and 2 females. Two replicable negative waveforms and one positive were recorded, as reliable indicators of electrical conductivity at specific anatomical nuclei of the visual pathways. Statistically significant differences were primarily observed in group 1 when compared against the remaining groups for the three evaluated waveforms. Waveform morphology characteristically presented steady deviations related to ontogenetic development of the studied population.

  12. Effect of spaceflight on the isotonic contractile properties of single skeletal muscle fibers in the rhesus monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, R. H.; Romatowski, J. G.; Blaser, C.; De La Cruz, L.; Gettelman, G. J.; Widrick, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments from both Cosmos and Space Shuttle missions have shown weightlessness to result in a rapid decline in the mass and force of rat hindlimb extensor muscles. Additionally, despite an increased maximal shortening velocity, peak power was reduced in rat soleus muscle post-flight. In humans, declines in voluntary peak isometric ankle extensor torque ranging from 15-40% have been reported following long- and short-term spaceflight and prolonged bed rest. Complete understanding of the cellular events responsible for the fiber atrophy and the decline in force, as well as the development of effective countermeasures, will require detailed knowledge of how the physiological and biochemical processes of muscle function are altered by spaceflight. The specific purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which the isotonic contractile properties of the slow- and fast-twitch fiber types of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were altered by a 14-day spaceflight.

  13. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social context in

  14. Quantitative analysis of postnatal neurogenesis and neuron number in the macaque monkey dentate gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabès, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Amaral, David G.; Lavenex, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is one of only two regions of the mammalian brain where substantial neurogenesis occurs postnatally. However, detailed quantitative information about the postnatal structural maturation of the primate dentate gyrus is meager. We performed design-based, stereological studies of neuron number and size, and volume of the dentate gyrus layers in rhesus macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) of different postnatal ages. We found that about 40% of the total number of granule cells observed in mature 5–10-year-old macaque monkeys are added to the granule cell layer postnatally; 25% of these neurons are added within the first three postnatal months. Accordingly, cell proliferation and neurogenesis within the dentate gyrus peak within the first three months after birth and remain at an intermediate level between three months and at least one year of age. Although granule cell bodies undergo their largest increase in size during the first year of life, cell size and the volume of the three layers of the dentate gyrus (i.e., the molecular, granule cell and polymorphic layers) continue to increase beyond one year of age. Moreover, the different layers of the dentate gyrus exhibit distinct volumetric changes during postnatal development. Finally, we observe significant levels of cell proliferation, neurogenesis and cell death in the context of an overall stable number of granule cells in mature 5–10-year-old monkeys. These data identify an extended developmental period during which neurogenesis might be modulated to significantly impact the structure and function of the dentate gyrus in adulthood. PMID:20074220

  15. Visual area MT in the Cebus monkey: location, visuotopic organization, and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, M; Gattass, R; Rosa, M G; Sousa, A P

    1989-09-01

    The representation of the visual field in the dorsal portion of the superior temporal sulcus (ST) was studied by multiunit recordings in eight Cebus apella, anesthetized with N2O and immobilized with pancuronium bromide, in repeated recording sessions. On the basis of visuotopic organization, myeloarchitecture, and receptive field size, area MT was distinguished from its neighboring areas. MT is an oval area of about 70 mm2 located mainly in the posterior bank of the superior temporal sulcus. It contains a visuotopically organized representation of at least the binocular visual field. The representation of the vertical meridian forms the dorsolateral, lateral, and ventrolateral borders of MT and that of the horizontal meridian runs across the posterior bank of ST. The fovea is represented at the lateralmost portion of MT, while the retinal periphery is represented medially. The representation of the central visual field is magnified relative to that of the periphery in MT. The cortical magnification factor in MT decreases with increasing eccentricity following a negative power function. Receptive field size increases with increasing eccentricity. A method to evaluate the scatter of receptive field position in multiunit recordings based on the inverse of the magnification factor is described. In MT, multiunit receptive field scatter increases with increasing eccentricity. As shown by the Heidenhain-Woelcke method, MT is coextensive with two myeloarchitectonically distinct zones: one heavily myelinated, located in the posterior bank of ST, and another, less myelinated, located at the junction of the posterior bank with the anterior bank of ST. At least three additional visual zones surround MT: DZ, MST, and FST. The areas of the dorsal portion of the superior temporal sulcus in the diurnal New World monkey Cebus are comparable to those described for the diurnal Old World monkey, Macaca. This observation suggests that these areas are ancestral characters of the simian

  16. Ultrastructure of basement membranes in monkey and shark teeth at an early stage of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    The basement membrane, which separates the inner enamel epithelium from the dental papilla in the early stages of tooth development, is known to play a significant role in odontogenesis. In this review article, this basement membrane was described in detail based on our recent findings with the use of high-resolution electron microscopy. Tooth germs of a monkey (Macaca fuscata) and a shark (Cephaloscyllium umbratile) were processed for thin-section observations. During the early stage of development, the basement membrane of the inner enamel (dental) epithelium was composed of a lamina lucida, lamina densa, and much wider lamina fibroreticularis. At higher magnification, the lamina densa in both species was made up of a fine network of cords, which are generally the main constituents of the basement membranes. In the monkey tooth, the lamina fibroreticularis was rich in fibrils, which were now characterized as basotubules, 10-nm-wide microfibril-like structures. The space between the basotubules was filled with a cord network that extended from the lamina densa. Dental papilla cell processes were inserted into the lamina fibroreticularis, and their surface was closely associated with numerous parallel basotubules via 1.5- to 3-nm-wide filaments. In the shark tooth during its early stage of development, the basotubules were absent in the lamina fibroreticularis and only narrow extensions, 60-90 nm wide and 1-2 microm long, of the cord network of the lamina densa were present. The dental papilla cells were immobilized by means of the binding of their processes to the extensions. These results indicate that basement membranes in both monkey and shark teeth at early stage of development are specialized for functions as anchoring and firm binding, which are essential for the successful differentiation of the odontoblasts.

  17. Evaluation of serum lipid, thyroid, and hepatic clinical chemistries in association with serum perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in cynomolgus monkeys after oral dosing with potassium PFOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Ching; Allen, Bruce C; Andres, Kara L; Ehresman, David J; Falvo, Ria; Provencher, Anne; Olsen, Geary W; Butenhoff, John L

    2017-01-23

    An oral dose study with PFOS was undertaken to identify potential associations between serum PFOS and changes in serum clinical chemistry parameters in purpose-bred young adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fasicularis). While control group (n=6/sex) was sham-dosed with vehicle (0.5% Tween® 20 and 5% ethanol in DI water) during the study, low-dose group (n=6/sex) received one single K(+)PFOS dose (9 mg/kg) and high-dose group (n=6/sex) received three separate K(+)PFOS doses (11 - 17.2 mg/kg). Monkeys were given routine checkups and observed carefully for health problems on a daily basis. Scheduled blood samples were drawn from all monkeys prior, during, and after PFOS administration for up to one year and they were analyzed for PFOS concentration and clinical chemistry markers for coagulation, lipids, hepatic, renal, electrolytes, and thyroid-related hormones. No mortality occurred during the study. All the monkeys were healthy, gained weight, and were released back to the colony at the end of the study. The highest serum PFOS achieved was approximately 165 µg/mL. Compared to time-matched controls, administration of K(+)PFOS to monkeys did not result in any toxicologically meaningful or clinically relevant changes in serum clinical measurements for coagulation, lipids, hepatic, renal, electrolytes, and thyroid-related hormones. A slight reduction in serum cholesterol (primarily the HDL fraction), although not toxicologically significant, was observed and the corresponding lower-bound 5(th) percentile benchmark concentrations (BMCL1sd) were 74 and 76 µg/mL for male and female monkeys, respectively. This compares to the 2011-2012 geometric mean serum PFOS level of 6.3 ng/mL (0.00063 µg/mL) in US general population would result in 4 orders of magnitude for margin of exposure.

  18. Monkeys in a prisoner's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ju; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-03-12

    Haroush and Williams trained pairs of monkeys to play in a prisoner's dilemma game, a model of social interactions. Recording from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), they find neurons whose activity reflects the anticipation of the opponent's yet unknown choice, which may be important in guiding animals' performance in the game.

  19. Modelling Social Learning in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Jeremy R.

    2008-01-01

    The application of modelling to social learning in monkey populations has been a neglected topic. Recently, however, a number of statistical, simulation and analytical approaches have been developed to help examine social learning processes, putative traditions, the use of social learning strategies and the diffusion dynamics of socially…

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0934 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0934 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...eptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mula...laris] gb|AAB62555.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|AAB62556.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca mula...tta] gb|AAQ22367.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|ABF71557.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mula...tta] gb|ABF71558.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71559.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mula

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0927 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0927 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...eptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mula...laris] gb|AAB62555.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|AAB62556.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca mula...tta] gb|AAQ22367.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|ABF71557.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mula...tta] gb|ABF71558.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71559.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mula

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1280 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1280 ref|NP_001036238.2| chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [Macaca mula...eptor 5 [Macaca nigra] gb|AAC51158.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mulatta] gb|AAC51109.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca mula...laris] gb|AAB62555.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|AAB62556.1| CC chemokine receptor-5 [Macaca mula...tta] gb|AAQ22367.1| CC chemokine receptor 5 [Macaca nemestrina] gb|ABF71557.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mula...tta] gb|ABF71558.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mulatta] gb|ABF71559.1| CC-chemokine receptor [Macaca mula

  3. VASEKTOMI PADA MONYET EKOR PANJANG (MACACA FASCICULARISDI LOKASI WISATA SANGEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANDIA. I .N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Growth population control on the animal population dwelling a restricted habitat is very important to decrease, especially the negative impact on its surrounding environment. This Community Service was conducted as an application of vasectomy on an adult male of long tailed macaque occupying the tourist destination of Sangeh. This was the choosen method to overcome the overcrowded population. Vasectomy is surgical division of all or part of the vas deferens to induce sterility. One selected adult male monkey was anesthetized successfully using blowpipe. Surgical resection of part of vas deferens used a bilateral slicing method. Vasectomy was fully done nearly in one hour, and the monkey was released to habitat in the following three days of captivity.

  4. Correlation between the concentration of serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys and their offspring's behavioral scores in eye-contact test and finger maze learning test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negishi, T. [Aoyama Gakuin Univ., Kanagawa (Japan); Takasuga, T. [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Kawasaki, K. [Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Kuroda, Y. [CREST Japan Science and Technology Corp., Saitama (Japan); Yoshikawa, Y. [The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    A recent review suggested that pre- or perinatal exposure of developing fetuses to dioxins, the widespread environmental contaminants, such as polychrorinated biphenlys (PCBs), induce the irreversible abnormalities in the functions of central nervous system (CNS) in human. These chemicals can be transferred to each fetus and naonate transplacentally and lactationally in rhesus monkey. Several studies also reported the adverse effect of PCB on CNS development in rodents and monkeys as well as on behavior in rodents and monkeys. In the present study, we show a preliminary data about the correlation between the serum concentrations of PCBs in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and the scores of two behavioral tests, eye-contact test and four-step finger maze test, which evaluate consciousness against human observer and learning ability, respectively, in their offspring. This experimental surveillance system using non-human primates would be useful to predict the risk of PCBs exposure in human fetuses because of the similarities of cynomolgus monkey to human with regard to reproduction, developmental parameter, and others.

  5. In vitro germ cell differentiation from cynomolgus monkey embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Yamauchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mouse embryonic stem (ES cells can differentiate into female and male germ cells in vitro. Primate ES cells can also differentiate into immature germ cells in vitro. However, little is known about the differentiation markers and culture conditions for in vitro germ cell differentiation from ES cells in primates. Monkey ES cells are thus considered to be a useful model to study primate gametogenesis in vitro. Therefore, in order to obtain further information on germ cell differentiation from primate ES cells, this study examined the ability of cynomolgus monkey ES cells to differentiate into germ cells in vitro. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To explore the differentiation markers for detecting germ cells differentiated from ES cells, the expression of various germ cell marker genes was examined in tissues and ES cells of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis. VASA is a valuable gene for the detection of germ cells differentiated from ES cells. An increase of VASA expression was observed when differentiation was induced in ES cells via embryoid body (EB formation. In addition, the expression of other germ cell markers, such as NANOS and PIWIL1 genes, was also up-regulated as the EB differentiation progressed. Immunocytochemistry identified the cells expressing stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA 1, OCT-4, and VASA proteins in the EBs. These cells were detected in the peripheral region of the EBs as specific cell populations, such as SSEA1-positive, OCT-4-positive cells, OCT-4-positive, VASA-positive cells, and OCT-4-negative, VASA-positive cells. Thereafter, the effect of mouse gonadal cell-conditioned medium and growth factors on germ cell differentiation from monkey ES cells was examined, and this revealed that the addition of BMP4 to differentiating ES cells increased the expression of SCP1, a meiotic marker gene. CONCLUSION: VASA is a valuable gene for the detection of germ cells differentiated from ES cells in monkeys, and the

  6. Efficacy of selective PDE4D negative allosteric modulators in the object retrieval task in female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane S Sutcliffe

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP signalling plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and information processing in the hippocampal and basal ganglia systems. The augmentation of cAMP signalling through the selective inhibition of phosphodiesterases represents a viable strategy to treat disorders associated with dysfunction of these circuits. The phosphodiesterase (PDE type 4 inhibitor rolipram has shown significant pro-cognitive effects in neurological disease models, both in rodents and primates. However, competitive non-isoform selective PDE4 inhibitors have a low therapeutic index which has stalled their clinical development. Here, we demonstrate the pro-cognitive effects of selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs of PDE4D, D159687 and D159797 in female Cynomolgous macaques, in the object retrieval detour task. The efficacy displayed by these NAMs in a primate cognitive task which engages the corticostriatal circuitry, together with their suitable pharmacokinetic properties and safety profiles, suggests that clinical development of these allosteric modulators should be considered for the treatment of a variety of brain disorders associated with cognitive decline.

  7. Nectin-4 Interactions Govern Measles Virus Virulence in a New Model of Pathogenesis, the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeut, Sébastien; Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Frenzke, Marie; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika

    2017-06-01

    In addition to humans, only certain nonhuman primates are naturally susceptible to measles virus (MeV) infection. Disease severity is species dependent, ranging from mild to moderate for macaques to severe and even lethal for certain New World monkey species. To investigate if squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), which are reported to develop a course of disease similar to humans, may be better suited than macaques for the identification of virulence determinants or the evaluation of therapeutics, we infected them with a green fluorescent protein-expressing MeV. Compared to cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) infected with the same virus, the squirrel monkeys developed more-severe immunosuppression, higher viral load, and a broader range of clinical signs typical for measles. In contrast, infection with an MeV unable to interact with the epithelial receptor nectin-4, while causing immunosuppression, resulted in only a mild and transient rash and a short-lived elevation of the body temperature. Similar titers of the wild-type and nectin-4-blind MeV were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node homogenates, but only the wild-type virus was found in tracheal lavage fluids and urine. Thus, our study demonstrates the importance of MeV interactions with nectin-4 for clinical disease in the new and better-performing S. sciureus model of measles pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE The characterization of mechanisms underlying measles virus clinical disease has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that reproduces the course of disease seen in human patients. Here, we report that infection of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) fulfills these requirements. Comparative infection with wild-type and epithelial cell receptor-blind viruses demonstrated the importance of epithelial cell infection for clinical disease, highlighting the spread to epithelia as an attractive target for therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Early Paradoxical Increase of Dopamine: A Neurochemical Study of Olfactory Bulb in Asymptomatic and Symptomatic MPTP Treated Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pifl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disease with both motor and non-motor manifestations. Hyposmia is one of the early non-motor symptoms, which can precede motor symptoms by several years. The relationship between hyposmia and PD remains elusive. Olfactory bulb (OB pathology shows an increased number of olfactory dopaminergic cells, protein aggregates and dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems. In this study we examined tissue levels of dopamine (DA and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT and their metabolites, of noradrenaline (NA and of the amino acid neurotransmitters aspartate, glutamate, taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid in OBs of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP treated Macaca fascicularis in different stages, including monkeys who were always asymptomatic, monkeys who recovered from mild parkinsonian signs, and monkeys with stable moderate or severe parkinsonism. DA was increased compared to controls, while neither NA and 5-HT nor the amino acid neurotransmitters were significantly changed. Furthermore, DA increased before stable motor deficits appear with +51% in asymptomatic and +96% in recovered monkeys. Unchanged DA metabolites suggest a special metabolic profile of the newly formed DA neurons. Significant correlation of homovanillic acid (HVA with taurine single values within the four MPTP groups and of aspartate with taurine within the asymptomatic and recovered MPTP groups, but not within the controls suggest interactions in the OB between taurine and the DA system and taurine and the excitatory neurotransmitter triggered by MPTP. This first investigation of OB in various stages after MPTP administration suggests that the DA increase seems to be an early phenomenon, not requiring profound nigrostriatal neurodegeneration or PD symptoms.

  9. Behavioral sleep in captive owl monkey (Aotus azarae) and squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Kantha, Sachi; Suzuki, Juri; Hirai, Yuriko; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that activity-behavioral sleep parameters differ between nocturnallyactive owl monkeys and diurnally-active squirrel monkeys which are sympatric and of Bolivian origin. The total sleep time (TST) and sleep episode length (SEL) of 7 adult owl monkey siblings and 4 adult squirrel monkeys were quantitated by actigraphy for 7 days under captive conditions. The higher TST/24 h values and longer SEL/12 h quiescent phase quantitated for owl monkeys in comparison to that of squirrel monkeys clearly indicate that the behavioral sleep is markedly different between these two groups, though they are sympatric in wild. Significant differences noted in the sleep architecture between squirrel monkeys and owl monkeys can be attributed to the influences in the selected sleep niche, threat perception from predators, and disturbances from natural elements (especially rain) in the natural habitat.

  10. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Macaca fascicularis by EST Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which repress gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. In this study, an expressed sequence tag (EST-based combined method was applied for the detection of miRNAs in Macaca fascicularis which is used as a model animal extensively in medical experiments, particularly those involved with neuroscience and disease. Initially, previously known miRNA sequences from metazoans were used to blast with the EST databases of Macaca fascicularis, and then a range of filtering criteria was conducted to remove some pseudo ones. At last a total of 8 novel conserved miRNAs were identified; their functions were further predicted and analyzed. Together, our study provides insight into miRNAs and their functions in Macaca fascicularis, indicating that the EST analysis is an efficient and affordable alternative approach for identifying novel miRNA candidates.

  11. Grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dongpo; Li, Jinhua; Garber, Paul A; Sun, Lixing; Zhu, Yong; Sun, Binghua

    2012-06-01

    Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for grooming given) or interchange traders (interchange grooming for social tolerance or other commodities). The results showed that: (1) grooming given was positively correlated with grooming received; (2) kinship did not exert a significant influence on grooming reciprocity; and (3) grooming reciprocity occurred principally between individuals of adjacent rank; however, when females of different rank groomed, females tended to groom up the hierarchy (lower ranking individuals groomed higher ranking individuals more than vice versa). Our results support the contention that both grooming reciprocity and the interchange of grooming for tolerance represent important social tactics used by female Tibetan macaques.

  12. Evaluation of Infrared Thermometry in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffins, Michael M; Mellal, Nacera; Almlie, Cynthia L; Regalia, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    Recording an accurate body temperature is important to assess an animal's health status. We compared temperature data from sedated cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to evaluate differences between rectal, infrared (inguinal and chest), and implanted telemetry techniques with the objective of demonstrating the diagnostic equivalence of the infrared device with other approaches. Infrared thermometer readings are instantaneous and require no contact with the animal. Body temperature data were obtained from 205 (137 male, 68 female) cynomolgus macaques under ketamine (10 mg/kg IM) sedation over a 3-mo period during scheduled physical examinations. Infrared measurements were taken 5 cm from the chest and inguinal areas. We evaluated 10 (9 functional devices) sedated cynomolgus macaques (5 male, 5 female) implanted with telemetry units in a muscular pouch between the internal and external abdominal oblique muscles. We determined that the mean body temperature acquired by using telemetry did not differ from either the mean of inguinal and chest infrared measurements but did differ from the mean of temperature obtained rectally. In addition, the mean rectal temperature differed from the mean of the inguinal reading but not the mean of the chest temperature. The results confirm our hypothesis that the infrared thermometer can be used to replace standard rectal thermometry. PMID:28905720

  13. Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) immunoglobulin heavy chain locus description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guo-Yun; Mate, Suzanne; Garcia, Karla; Ward, Michael D; Brueggemann, Ernst; Hall, Matthew; Kenny, Tara; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have become an important animal model for biomedical research. In particular, it is the animal model of choice for the development of vaccine candidates associated with emerging dangerous pathogens. Despite their increasing importance as animal models, the cynomolgus macaque genome is not fully characterized, hindering molecular studies for this model. More importantly, the lack of knowledge about the immunoglobulin (IG) locus organization directly impacts the analysis of the humoral response in cynomolgus macaques. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to analyze IG repertoires open the opportunity to deeply characterize the humoral immune response. However, the IG locus organization for the animal is required to completely dissect IG repertoires. Here, we describe the localization and organization of the rearranging IG heavy (IGH) genes on chromosome 7 of the cynomolgus macaque draft genome. Our annotation comprises 108 functional genes which include 63 variable (IGHV), 38 diversity (IGHD), and 7 joining (IGHJ) genes. For validation, we provide RNA transcript data for most of the IGHV genes and all of the annotated IGHJ genes, as well as proteomic data to validate IGH constant genes. The description and annotation of the rearranging IGH genes for the cynomolgus macaques will significantly facilitate scientific research. This is particularly relevant to dissect the immune response during vaccination or infection with dangerous pathogens such as Ebola, Marburg and other emerging pathogens where non-human primate models play a significant role for countermeasure development.

  14. A Macaca mulatta model of fulminant hepatic failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zhou; Hong Bu; Jie Xia; Gang Guo; Li Li; Yu-Jun Shi; Zi-Xing Huang; Qiang Lu; Hong-Xia Li

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To establish an appropriate primate model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). METHODS: We have, for the first time, established a large animal model of FHF in Macaca mulatta by intraperitoneal infusion of amatoxin and endotoxin. Clinical features, biochemical indexes, histopathology and iconography were examined to dynamically investigate the progress and outcome of the animal model. RESULTS: Our results showed that the enzymes and serum bilirubin were markedly increased and the enzyme-bilirubin segregation emerged 36 h after toxin administration. Coagulation activity was significantly decreased. Gradually deteriorated parenchymal abnormality was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography at 48 h. The liver biopsy showed marked hepatocyte steatosis and massive parenchymal necrosis at 36 h and 49 h, respectively. The autopsy showed typical yellow atrophy of the liver. Hepatic encephalopathy of the models was also confirmed by hepatic coma, MRI and pathological changes of cerebral edema. The lethal effects of the extrahepatic organ dysfunction were ruled out by their biochemical indices, imaging and histopathology. CONCLUSION: We have established an appropriate large primate model of FHF, which is closely similar to clinic cases, and can be used for investigation of the mechanism of FHF and for evaluation of potential medical therapies.

  15. Molecular mapping of striatal subdivisions in juvenile Macaca Mulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Joann; Muly, Emil C.; Hemby, Scott E.

    2016-01-01

    The striatum of the primate brain can be subdivided into three distinct anatomical subregions: caudate (CAU), putamen (PUT), and ventral striatum (VS). Although these subregions share several anatomical connections, cell morphological, and histochemical features, they differ considerably in their vulnerability to different neurological and psychiatric diseases, and these brain regions have significantly different functions in health and disease. In order to better understand the molecular underpinnings of the different disease and functional vulnerabilities, transcriptional profiles were generated from the CAU, PUT, and VS of five juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using human cDNA neuromicroarrays containing triplicate spots of 1227 cDNAs. Differences in microarray gene expression were assessed using z score analysis and 1.5-fold change between paired subregions. Clustering of genes based on dissimilarity of expression patterns between regions revealed subregion specific expression profiles encoding G-protein-coupled receptor signaling transcripts, transcription factors, kinases and phosphatases, and cell signaling and signal transduction transcripts. Twelve transcripts were examined using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and 81% demonstrated alterations similar to those seen with microarray analysis, some of which were statistically significant. Subregion specific transcription profiles support the anatomical differentiation and potential disease vulnerabilities of the respective subregions. PMID:16455077

  16. Cooperation and competition in two forest monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Eckardt, Winnie; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Putty-nosed monkeys, Cercopithecus nictitans stampflii, occur at various sites in West Africa, particularly in the transition zone between rainforest and savannah. The species is sometimes seen in primary rainforest, although at a curiously low density compared with that of other monkey species. We conducted a 24-month field study in the tropical rainforest of Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, and found that putty-nosed monkeys require an ecological niche almost identical to that of the Diana m...

  17. Effects of Simian Betaretrovirus Serotype 1 (SRV1) Infection on the Differentiation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells (CD34+) Derived from Bone Marrow of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Nestor A; Todd, Patricia A; Yee, JoAnn; Lerche, Nicholas W

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral blood cytopenias, particularly persistent anemia and neutropenia, are commonly associated with simian betaretrovirus infection of Asian monkeys of the genus Macaca. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these hematologic abnormalities are not well understood. The current study investigated the in vitro tropism of simian betaretrovirus (SRV) for both hematopoietic progenitor (CD34+) and stromal cells obtained from rhesus macaque bone marrow and assessed the effects of infection on hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation in vitro. After in vitro exposure, SRV proviral DNA could be demonstrated by real-time PCR in cells and the reverse transcriptase assay in supernatants from SRV-exposed progenitor-associated stroma, but not in differentiated colonies derived from SRV-exposed progenitors. Furthermore, in vitro exposure involving cell–cell contact of uninfected CD34+ progenitor cells with SRV-infected stromal cells resulted in a statistically significant reduction in granulocyte–macrophage colony formation in absence of detectable SRV-infection of progenitor cells. Reduction in colony formation occurred in a ‘dose-dependent’ fashion with increasing contact time. No effects on erythroid lineages and RBC differentiation were noted. Our results suggest that hematologic abnormalities observed during SRV disease (natural or experimental) of rhesus macaques may not result from direct effects of viral infection of progenitor cell populations, but rather be (at least in part) a consequence of SRV infection of supportive bone marrow stroma with secondary effects on differentiation of associated progenitor cells. PMID:22330653

  18. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Macaque monkeys experience visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Erin A; Olson, Carl R

    2015-01-01

    In peripheral vision, objects that are easily discriminated on their own become less discriminable in the presence of surrounding clutter. This phenomenon is known as crowding.The neural mechanisms underlying crowding are not well understood. Better insight might come from single-neuron recording in nonhuman primates, provided they exhibit crowding; however, previous demonstrations of crowding have been confined to humans. In the present study, we set out to determine whether crowding occurs in rhesus macaque monkeys. We found that animals trained to identify a target letter among flankers displayed three hallmarks of crowding as established in humans. First, at a given eccentricity, increasing the spacing between the target and the flankers improved recognition accuracy. Second, the critical spacing, defined as the minimal spacing at which target discrimination was reliable, was proportional to eccentricity. Third, the critical spacing was largely unaffected by object size. We conclude that monkeys, like humans, experience crowding. These findings open the door to studies of crowding at the neuronal level in the monkey visual system.

  20. Artificial Nursing Procedure Establishment for Infant Rhesus Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong; Si Wei; Zhou Yin; Chen Lixian

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus monkey can not achieve natural delivery due to various reasons,and cesarean section becomes an important midwifery to get infant monkeys. After caesarean section,the pregnant monkey is weak and postoperative wound pain,so it can not personally feed infant monkeys which must be artificially fed. Thus,establishing suitable feeding management program is very important for improving survival rate of infant rhesus monkey and maintaining good health. We summarized food preparation method for infant rhesus monkeys as well as temperature setting and light control,and established the nursing program for newborn infant monkey and daily management process for infant monkeys.

  1. Sequence length polymorphisms within primate amelogenin and amelogenin-like genes: usefulness in sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Benson H; Rickords, Lee F; Schafstall, Heather J

    2008-10-01

    Sequence length polymorphisms between the amelogenin (AMELX) and the amelogenin-like (AMELY) genes both within and between several mammalian species have been identified and utilized for sex determination, species identification, and to elucidate evolutionary relationships. Sex determination via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of the AMELX and AMELY genes has been successful in greater apes, prosimians, and two species of old world monkeys. To date, no sex determination PCR assay using AMELX and AMELY has been developed for new world monkeys. In this study, we present partial AMELX and AMELY sequences for five old world monkey species (Mandrillus sphinx, Macaca nemestrina, Macaca fuscata, Macaca mulatta, and Macaca fascicularis) along with primer sets that can be used for sex determination of these five species. In addition, we compare the sequences we generated with other primate AMELX and AMELY sequences available on GenBank and discuss sequence length polymorphisms and their usefulness in sex determination within primates. The mandrill and four species of macaque all share two similar deletion regions with each other, the human, and the chimpanzee in the region sequenced. These two deletion regions are 176-181 and 8 nucleotides in length. In analyzing existing primate sequences on GenBank, we also discovered that a separate six-nucleotide polymorphism located approximately 300 nucleotides upstream of the 177 nucleotide polymorphism in sequences of humans and chimps was also present in two species of new world monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis and Saimiri sciureus). We designed primers that incorporate this polymorphism, creating the first AMELX and AMELY PCR primer set that has been used successfully to generate two bands in a new world monkey species.

  2. Cup tool use by squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Christine L; Hyde, Shellie A; Parker, Karen J; Lyons, David M

    2015-12-01

    Captive-born male and female squirrel monkeys spontaneously 'invented' a cup tool use technique to Contain (i.e., hold and control) food they reduced into fragments for consumption and to Contain water collected from a valve to drink. Food cup use was observed more frequently than water cup use. Observations indicate that 68% (n = 39/57) of monkeys in this population used a cup (a plastic slip cap) to Contain food, and a subset of these monkeys, 10% (n = 4/39), also used a cup to Contain water. Cup use was optional and did not replace, but supplemented, the hand/arm-to-mouth eating and direct valve drinking exhibited by all members of the population. Strategies monkeys used to bring food and cups together for food processing activity at preferred upper-level perching areas, in the arboreal-like environment in which they lived, provides evidence that monkeys may plan food processing activity with the cups. Specifically, prior to cup use monkeys obtained a cup first before food, or obtained food and a cup from the floor simultaneously, before transporting both items to upper-level perching areas. After food processing activity with cups monkeys rarely dropped the cups and more often placed the cups onto perching. Monkeys subsequently returned to use cups that they previously placed on perching after food processing activity. The latter behavior is consistent with the possibility that monkeys may keep cups at preferred perching sites for future food processing activity and merits experimental investigation. Reports of spontaneous tool use by squirrel monkeys are rare and this is the first report of population-level tool use. These findings offer insights into the cognitive abilities of squirrel monkeys and provide a new context for behavior studies with this genus and for comparative studies with other primates.

  3. Emotional states after grooming interactions in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    In animal societies, the effect of grooming interactions on anxiety reduction is unclear. This study examined the effects of giving and receiving grooming on anxiety reduction in free ranging female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by measuring rates of self-scratching as an index of anxiety. In this study, the authors used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama prefecture, Japan. They evaluated affiliative relationships, which were defined by standard proximity rates, and found that females' self-scratching rates were lower after grooming affiliated partners than during matched-control periods (occurring on another day, beginning at approximately the same time of day as the corresponding postgrooming period) and not after grooming unaffiliated partners. Moreover, regardless of affiliative relationships, self-scratching rates were lower after receiving grooming than during matched-control periods. These findings did not change after excluding data in which groomer and groomee were in proximity after the grooming interaction. In addition, multivariable analysis showed that affiliative relationships, but not kinship or rank distances, were related to differences in the rates of self-scratching between giving grooming and matched-control periods. In contrast, neither affiliative relationships nor kinship nor rank distances affected differences in self-scratching rates between receiving grooming and matched-control periods. Therefore, individuals' anxiety levels decreased both after giving grooming to affiliated partners and after receiving grooming, regardless of affiliative relationships. This is the first empirical study to support the notion that giving grooming to affiliated partners is self-rewarding in Japanese macaques.

  4. Seed dispersal by rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Asmita; McConkey, Kim R; Radhakrishna, Sindhu

    2014-12-01

    Frugivorous primates are important seed dispersers and their absence from forest patches is predicted to be detrimental to tropical forest regeneration and recruitment. With the reduction of primate populations globally, ecologically resilient primate species, characterized by dietary flexibility and the ability to thrive in a variety of habitats, assume new importance as seed dispersers. The most widely distributed non-human primate, the rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta has been intensively studied but little is known about its role in maintaining ecosystem structure and functions. Due to their frugivorous diet, large group sizes, large home ranges and tolerance to disturbance, rhesus macaques may be effective seed dispersers. We studied seed dispersal by rhesus macaques at the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India, through a combination of behavioural observations and germination experiments. Rhesus macaques dispersed 84% of the 49 species they fed on either through spitting or defecation. Nearly 96% of the handled seeds were undamaged and 61% of the species for which germination tests were performed had enhanced germination. Almost 50% of the monitored seeds among those deposited in situ germinated and 22% established seedlings, suggesting that rhesus macaques are important seed dispersers in tropical forests. Due to their widespread distribution and large populations, rhesus macaques are perceived as common and are categorized as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List, effectively excluding them from any conservation plans. Based on the results of our study, we argue that rhesus macaques fulfill critical ecological functions in their habitat and that this parameter must be taken into consideration when they are reviewed for conservation priorities.

  5. Morphology, dendritic field size, somal size, density, and coverage of M and P retinal ganglion cells of dichromatic Cebus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, E S; Silveira, L C; Perry, V H

    1996-01-01

    Male Cebus monkeys are all dichromats, but about two thirds of the females are trichromats. M and P retinal ganglion cells were studied in the male Cebus monkey to investigate the relationship of their morphology to retinal eccentricity. Retinal ganglion cells were retrogradely labeled after optic nerve deposits of biocytin to reveal their entire dendritic tree. Cebus M and P ganglion cell morphology revealed by biocytin retrograde filling is similar to that described for macaque and human M and P ganglion cells obtained by in vitro intracellular injection of HRP and neurobiotin. We measured 264 and 441 M and P ganglion cells, respectively. M ganglion cells have larger dendritic field and cell body size than P ganglion cells at any comparable temporal or nasal eccentricity. Dendritic trees of both M and P ganglion cells are smaller in the nasal than in the temporal region at eccentricities greater than 5 mm and 2 mm for M and P ganglion cells, respectively. The depth of terminal dendrites allows identification of both inner and outer subclasses of M and P ganglion cells. The difference in dendritic tree size between inner and outer cells is small or absent. Comparison between Cebus and Macaca shows that M and P ganglion cells have similar sizes in the central retinal region. The results support the view that M and P pathways are similarly organized in diurnal dichromat and trichromat primates.

  6. Comparative insect fauna succession on indoor and outdoor monkey carrions in a semi-forested area in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazni Wasi Ahmad; Sofian Mohd Azirun; Lee Han Lim; Chen Chee Dhang; Heo Chong Chin; Abdullah AG; Wan-Norjuliana Wan Mustaffa; Chew Wai Kian; John Jeffery; Rosli Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the occurrence of insects fauna obtained in a semi forested area in Malaysia using the carcass of the monkey Macaca fascicularis, Raffles, and to compared the wave of insect succession collected from the carcass placed outdoor and indoor. Methods:The outdoor and indoor studies were conducted at a location of 3º17’57.86”N, 101º47’00.78”E. The euthanized monkeys were placed indoor and outdor. The insect seccession visited the carcass, the envirenmental temperature and relative humidity were recorded. Results:The main insects attracted to specific stages of decomposition were mainly members of Diptera and Coleoptera. There was a delay of fly arrival by two days in indoor carcass. Nocturnal oviposition behaviour was not observed in this study. The flies left the carcass during the twilight zone as noted during a 3 days observation period in outdoor study. The dipteran species found outdoor and indoor were similar but more diverse coleopteran species was found indoor. Conclusions:Information and evidence from this study can be used to improve the estimation of the post mortem interval in forensic cases.

  7. Presynaptic mitochondrial morphology in monkey prefrontal cortex correlates with working memory and is improved with estrogen treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuko; Yuk, Frank; Puri, Rishi; Janssen, William G M; Rapp, Peter R; Morrison, John H

    2014-01-07

    Humans and nonhuman primates are vulnerable to age- and menopause-related decline in working memory, a cognitive function reliant on the energy-demanding recurrent excitation of neurons within Brodmann's Area 46 of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Here, we tested the hypothesis that the number and morphology (straight, curved, or donut-shaped) of mitochondria in dlPFC presynaptic boutons are altered with aging and menopause in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and that these metrics correlate with delayed response (DR) accuracy, a well-characterized measure of dlPFC-dependent working memory. Although presynaptic bouton density or size was not significantly different across groups distinguished by age or menses status, DR accuracy correlated positively with the number of total and straight mitochondria per dlPFC bouton. In contrast, DR accuracy correlated inversely with the frequency of boutons containing donut-shaped mitochondria, which exhibited smaller active zone areas and fewer docked synaptic vesicles than those with straight or curved mitochondria. We then examined the effects of estrogen administration to test whether a treatment known to improve working memory influences mitochondrial morphology. Aged ovariectomized monkeys treated with vehicle displayed significant working memory impairment and a concomitant 44% increase in presynaptic donut-shaped mitochondria, both of which were reversed with cyclic estradiol treatment. Together, our data suggest that hormone replacement therapy may benefit cognitive aging, in part by promoting mitochondrial and synaptic health in the dlPFC.

  8. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Lundsgaard, Jo F. H.; Bakker, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Five acute-phase reactants—serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron—were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this specie...

  9. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  10. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  11. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  12. Intramanchette transport during primate spermiogenesis:expression of dynein, myosin Va, motor recruiter myosin Va,Ⅶa-Rab27a/b interacting protein, and Rab27b in the manchette during human and monkey spermiogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinichi Hayasaka; Yukihiro Terada; Kichiya Suzuki; Haruo Murakawa; Ikuo Tachibana; Tadashi Sankai; Takashi Murakami; Nobuo Yaegashi; Kunihiro Okamura

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To show whether molecular motor dynein on a microtubule track, molecular motor myosin Va, motor recruiter myosin Va, Ⅶa-Rab27a/b interacting protein (MyRIP), and vesicle receptor Rab27b on an F-actin track were present during human and monkey spermiogenesis involving intramanchette transport (IMT). Methods: Spermiogenic cells were obtained from three men with obstructive azoospermia and normal adult cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascieularis). Immunocytochemical detection and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the pro- teins were carried out. Samples were analyzed by light microscope. Results: Using RT-PCR, we found that dynein, myosin Va, MyRIP and Rab27b were expressed in monkey testis. These proteins were localized to the manchette, as shown by immunofluorescence, particularly during human and monkey spermiogenesis. Conclusion: We speculate that during primate spermiogenesis, those proteins that compose microtubule-based and actin-based vesicle transport systems are actually present in the manchette and might possibly be involved in intramanchette transport. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 561-568)

  13. Kyasanur forest disease virus: viremia and challenge studies in monkeys with evidence of cross-protection by Langat virus infection [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/UiWGcy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti V Shah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus (KFDV, discovered in 1957, is a member of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV complex. Diseases caused by members of the TBEV complex occur in many parts of the world. KFDV produces a hemorrhagic fever in humans in South India and fatal illnesses in both species of monkeys in the area, the black faced langur (Presbytis entellus and the bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata. Experimental infection of the langur and the bonnet macaque with early mouse passage KFDV strain P9605 resulted in a viremia of up to 11 days duration, peak viremia titers as high as 109, and death in 82 = 100% of the animals. Prolonged passage of the KFDV strain P9605 in monkey kidney tissue culture resulted in a markedly reduced virulence of the virus for both species; peak viremia titers in monkeys decreased by 2.5 to 4.0 log LD 50 (p= 0.001, and the mortality decreased to 10% (p= 0.001. In challenge experiments, monkeys previously infected with tissue-culture-adapted KFDV, or with the related Langat virus from Malaysia, were fully protected against virulent KFDV. These studies in non-human primates lend support to the idea that a live virus vaccine from a member of the TBEV complex may be broadly protective against infections by other members of the TBEV complex.

  14. Tamoxifen-DNA adduct formation in monkey and human reproductive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Ramon, Elena E; Sandoval, Nicole A; John, Kaarthik; Cline, J Mark; Wood, Charles E; Woodward, Ruth A; Poirier, Miriam C

    2014-05-01

    The estrogen analog tamoxifen (TAM), used for adjuvant therapy of breast cancer, induces endometrial and uterine tumors in breast cancer patients. Proliferation stimulus of the uterine endometrium is likely involved in tumor induction, but genotoxicity may also play a role. Formation of TAM-DNA adducts in human tissues has been reported but remains controversial. To address this issue, we examined TAM-DNA adducts in uteri from two species of monkeys, Erythrocebus patas (patas) and Macaca fascicularis (macaque), and in human endometrium and myometrium. Monkeys were given 3-4 months of chronic TAM dosing scaled to be equivalent to the daily human dose. In the uteri, livers and brains from the patas (n = 3), and endometrium from the macaques (n = 4), TAM-DNA adducts were measurable by TAM-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay. Average TAM-DNA adduct values for the patas uteri (23 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) were similar to those found in endometrium of the macaques (19 adducts/10(8) nucleotides). Endometrium of macaques exposed to both TAM and low-dose estradiol (n = 5) averaged 34 adducts/10(8) nucleotides. To examine TAM-DNA persistence in the patas, females (n = 3) were exposed to TAM for 3 months and to no drug for an additional month, resulting in low or non-detectable TAM-DNA in livers and uteri. Human endometrial and myometrial samples from women receiving (n = 8) and not receiving (n = 8) TAM therapy were also evaluated. Women receiving TAM therapy averaged 10.3 TAM-DNA adducts/10(8) nucleotides, whereas unexposed women showed no detectable TAM-DNA. The data indicate that genotoxicity, in addition to estrogen agonist effects, may contribute to TAM-induced human endometrial cancer.

  15. Effect of spaceflight on the maximal shortening velocity, morphology, and enzyme profile of fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibers in rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, R. H.; Romatowski, J. G.; De La Cruz, L.; Widrick, J. J.; Desplanches, D.

    2000-01-01

    Weightlessness has been shown to cause limb muscle wasting and a reduced peak force and power in the antigravity soleus muscle. Despite a reduced peak power, Caiozzo et al. observed an increased maximal shortening velocity in the rat soleus muscle following a 14-day space flight. The major purpose of the present investigation was to determine if weightlessness induced an elevated velocity in the antigravity slow type I fibers of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), as well as to establish a cellular mechanism for the effect. Spaceflight or models of weightlessness have been shown to increase glucose uptake, elevate muscle glycogen content, and increase fatigability of the soleus muscle. The latter appears to be in part caused by a reduced ability of the slow oxidative fibers to oxidize fats. A second goal of this study was to establish the extent to which weightlessness altered the substrate profile and glycolytic and oxidative enzyme capacity of individual slow- and fast-twitch fibers.

  16. Do deposed adult male Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys Rhinopithecus roxellana roam as solitary bachelors or continue to interact with former band members?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dapeng ZHAO; Baoguo LI

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dispersal pattems exhibited by group-living animals play an important role in individual reproductive success and survival, as well as population and social dynamics (Greenwood, 1980; Isbell and van Vuren, 1996; Kappeler and van Schaik, 2002). Dispersing individuals may emigrate voluntarily, or they may be forcibly evicted by other individuals (Pusey and Packer, 1987; Clobert et al., 2001). One cause of individual dispersal is when an extra-group male compels another male to leave a group of females. This phenomenon has been well documented in primates, especially Old World monkey species (e.g. Colobus vellerosus: Saj and Sicotte, 2005; Erythrocebus patas: Ohsawa, 2003; Macaca fascicularis: van Noordwijk and van Schaik, 2001).

  17. Pluripotent hybrid stem cells from transgenic Huntington's disease monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laowtammathron, Chuti; Chan, Anthony W S

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating disease that currently has no cure. Transgenic HD monkeys have developed key neuropathological and cognitive behavioral impairments similar to HD patients. Thus, pluripotent stem cells derived from transgenic HD monkeys could be a useful comparative model for clarifying HD pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic approaches, which could be validated in HD monkeys. In order to create personal pluripotent stem cells from HD monkeys, here we present a tetraploid technique for deriving pluripotent hybrid HD monkey stem cells.

  18. Assessing the Value of Television as Environmental Enrichment for Individually Housed Rhesus Monkeys: A Behavioral Economic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Linda D.; Briand, Edward J.; Orth, Rushawn; Galbicka, Gregory

    1999-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate television as a source of environmental enrichment for individually housed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by using the concepts of behavioral economics. Phase I entailed the use of operant conditioning to assess the behavior of eight rhesus monkeys given the opportunity to control their environment through lever activation of a television (TV). Success in shaping was variable, and only two animals successfully acquired lever pressing. Phase II used an alternating reinforcement/ extinction procedure as a control method to determine the degree to which lever pressing depended on TV presentation. Both animals responded with more lever pressing on the days when lever pressing produced TV. The first animal, tested with the alternating reinforcement/extinction procedure for 12 weeks yielded a mean significant difference of 3.85 (p = 0.036); the second assessed for 9 weeks was associated with a mean significant difference of 6.0 (p = 0.018). Therefore, TV (and not lever pressing itself) was positively reinforcing. The final phase of the study progressively increased the fixed ratio (FR) from 1 to 8. Linear regression of the data points, plotted as the log of price (or FR) vs the consumption of TV, revealed a significantly negative slope (-2.179, p, 0.05) and accounted for 89% of the variance. The negative demand curve suggested that TV is not a valued commodity and is highly elastic. TV provided to individually housed rhesus monkeys appears to be a weakly positive reinforcer for some animals, which may contribute to overall environmental enrichment.

  19. Cognitive mechanisms for transitive inference performance in rhesus monkeys: measuring the influence of associative strength and inferred order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Chee, Nicholas W; Hampton, Robert R

    2012-10-01

    If Ben is taller than Emily and Emily is taller than Dina, one can infer that Ben is taller than Dina. This process of inferring relations between stimuli based on shared relations with other stimuli is called transitive inference (TI). Many species solve TI tasks in which they learn pairs of overlapping stimulus discriminations (A+B-, B+C-, etc.) and are tested with non-adjacent novel test pairings (BD). When relations between stimuli are determined by reinforcement (A is reinforced when paired with B, B when paired with C), performance can be controlled by the associative values of individual stimuli or by logical inference. In Experiment 1 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) chose the higher ranked item on non-adjacent test trials after training on a 7-image TI task. In Experiment 2 we measured the associative values of 7 TI images and found that these values did not correlate with choice in TI tests. In Experiment 3 large experimental manipulations of the associative value of images did influence performance in some TI test pairings, but performance on other pairs was consistent with the implied order. In Experiment 4 monkeys linked two previously learned 7-item lists into one 14-item list after training with a single linking pair. Linking cannot be explained by associative values. Associative value can control choice in TI tests in at least some extreme circumstances. Implied order better explains most TI choices in monkeys, and is a more viable mechanism for TI of social dominance, which has been observed in birds and fish.

  20. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly.

  1. Empathy versus parsimony in understanding post-conflict affiliation in monkeys: model and empirical data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Puga-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Post-conflict affiliation between former opponents and bystanders occurs in several species of non-human primates. It is classified in four categories of which affiliation received by the former victim, 'consolation', has received most attention. The hypotheses of cognitive constraint and social constraint are inadequate to explain its occurrence. The cognitive constraint hypothesis is contradicted by recent evidence of 'consolation' in monkeys and the social constraint hypothesis lacks information why 'consolation' actually happens. Here, we combine a computational model and an empirical study to investigate the minimum cognitive requirements for post-conflict affiliation. In the individual-based model, individuals are steered by cognitively simple behavioural rules. Individuals group and when nearby each other they fight if they are likely to win, otherwise, they may groom, especially when anxious. We parameterize the model after empirical data of a tolerant species, the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana. We find evidence for the four categories of post-conflict affiliation in the model and in the empirical data. We explain how in the model these patterns emerge from the combination of a weak hierarchy, social facilitation, risk-sensitive aggression, interactions with partners close-by and grooming as tension-reduction mechanism. We indicate how this may function as a new explanation for empirical data.

  2. Convergence of inhibitory neural inputs regulate motor activity in the murine and monkey stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaylor, Lara A; Hwang, Sung Jin; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

    2016-11-01

    Inhibitory motor neurons regulate several gastric motility patterns including receptive relaxation, gastric peristaltic motor patterns, and pyloric sphincter opening. Nitric oxide (NO) and purines have been identified as likely candidates that mediate inhibitory neural responses. However, the contribution from each neurotransmitter has received little attention in the distal stomach. The aims of this study were to identify the roles played by NO and purines in inhibitory motor responses in the antrums of mice and monkeys. By using wild-type mice and mutants with genetically deleted neural nitric oxide synthase (Nos1(-/-)) and P2Y1 receptors (P2ry1(-/-)) we examined the roles of NO and purines in postjunctional inhibitory responses in the distal stomach and compared these responses to those in primate stomach. Activation of inhibitory motor nerves using electrical field stimulation (EFS) produced frequency-dependent inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) that produced muscle relaxations in both species. Stimulation of inhibitory nerves during slow waves terminated pacemaker events and associated contractions. In Nos1(-/-) mice IJPs and relaxations persisted whereas in P2ry1(-/-) mice IJPs were absent but relaxations persisted. In the gastric antrum of the non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis, similar NO and purine neural components contributed to inhibition of gastric motor activity. These data support a role of convergent inhibitory neural responses in the regulation of gastric motor activity across diverse species.

  3. Synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic axons in the olfactory bulb of the cynomolgus monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eLiberia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory bulb of mammals receives cholinergic afferents from the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca. At present, the synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic axons on the circuits of the olfactory bulb has only been investigated in the rat. In this report, we analyze the synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic axons in the olfactory bulb of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis. Our aim is to investigate whether the cholinergic innervation of the bulbar circuits is phylogenetically conserved between macrosmatic and microsmatic mammals. Our results demonstrate that the cholinergic axons form synaptic contacts on interneurons. In the glomerular layer, their main targets are the periglomerular cells, which receive axo-somatic and axo-dendritic synapses. In the inframitral region, their main targets are the granule cells, which receive synaptic contacts on their dendritic shafts and spines. Although the cholinergic boutons were frequently found in close vicinity of the dendrites of principal cells, we have not found synaptic contacts on them. From a comparative perspective, our data indicate that the synaptic connectivity of the cholinergic circuits is highly preserved in the olfactory bulb of macrosmatic and microsmatic mammals.

  4. Empathy versus parsimony in understanding post-conflict affiliation in monkeys: model and empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga-Gonzalez, Ivan; Butovskaya, Marina; Thierry, Bernard; Hemelrijk, Charlotte Korinna

    2014-01-01

    Post-conflict affiliation between former opponents and bystanders occurs in several species of non-human primates. It is classified in four categories of which affiliation received by the former victim, 'consolation', has received most attention. The hypotheses of cognitive constraint and social constraint are inadequate to explain its occurrence. The cognitive constraint hypothesis is contradicted by recent evidence of 'consolation' in monkeys and the social constraint hypothesis lacks information why 'consolation' actually happens. Here, we combine a computational model and an empirical study to investigate the minimum cognitive requirements for post-conflict affiliation. In the individual-based model, individuals are steered by cognitively simple behavioural rules. Individuals group and when nearby each other they fight if they are likely to win, otherwise, they may groom, especially when anxious. We parameterize the model after empirical data of a tolerant species, the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana). We find evidence for the four categories of post-conflict affiliation in the model and in the empirical data. We explain how in the model these patterns emerge from the combination of a weak hierarchy, social facilitation, risk-sensitive aggression, interactions with partners close-by and grooming as tension-reduction mechanism. We indicate how this may function as a new explanation for empirical data.

  5. Monkey adrenal chromaffin cells express α6β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Hernández-Vivanco

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs that contain α6 and β4 subunits have been demonstrated functionally in human adrenal chromaffin cells, rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, and on noradrenergic terminals in the hippocampus of adolescent mice. In human adrenal chromaffin cells, α6β4* nAChRs (the asterisk denotes the possible presence of additional subunits are the predominant subtype whereas in rodents, the predominant nAChR is the α3β4* subtype. Here we present molecular and pharmacological evidence that chromaffin cells from monkey (Macaca mulatta also express α6β4* receptors. PCR was used to show the presence of transcripts for α6 and β4 subunits and pharmacological characterization was performed using patch-clamp electrophysiology in combination with α-conotoxins that target the α6β4* subtype. Acetylcholine-evoked currents were sensitive to inhibition by BuIA[T5A,P6O] and MII[H9A,L15A]; α-conotoxins that inhibit α6-containing nAChRs. Two additional agonists were used to probe for the expression of α7 and β2-containing nAChRs. Cells with currents evoked by acetylcholine were relatively unresponsive to the α7-selctive agonist choline but responded to the agonist 5-I-A-85380. These studies provide further insights into the properties of natively expressed α6β4* nAChRs.

  6. Interplay Between Grip and Vision in the Monkey Medial Parietal Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breveglieri, Rossella; De Vitis, Marina; Bosco, Annalisa; Galletti, Claudio; Fattori, Patrizia

    2017-05-03

    We aimed at understanding the relative contribution of visual information and hand shaping to the neuronal activity of medial posterior parietal area V6A, a newly added area in the monkey cortical grasping circuit. Two Macaca fascicularis performed a Reach-to-Grasp task in the dark and in the light, grasping objects of different shapes. We found that V6A contains Visual cells, activated only during grasping in the light; Motor neurons, equally activated during grasping in the dark and in the light; Visuomotor cells, differently activated while grasping in the dark and in the light. Visual, Motor, and Visuomotor neurons were moderately or highly selective during grasping, whereas they reduced their selectivity during object observation without performing grasping. The use of the same experimental design employed in the dorsolateral grasping area AIP by other authors allowed us to compare the grasp-related properties of V6A and AIP. From these data and from the literature a frame emerges with many similarities between medial grasping area V6A and lateral grasping area AIP: both areas update and control prehension, with V6A less sensitive than AIP to fine visual details of the objects to be grasped, but more involved in coordinating reaching and grasping. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Generation of chimeric rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Ramsey, Cathy; Ma, Hong; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2012-01-20

    Totipotent cells in early embryos are progenitors of all stem cells and are capable of developing into a whole organism, including extraembryonic tissues such as placenta. Pluripotent cells in the inner cell mass (ICM) are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into any cell type of a body except extraembryonic tissues. The ability to contribute to chimeric animals upon reintroduction into host embryos is the key feature of murine totipotent and pluripotent cells. Here, we demonstrate that rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and isolated ICMs fail to incorporate into host embryos and develop into chimeras. However, chimeric offspring were produced following aggregation of totipotent cells of the four-cell embryos. These results provide insights into the species-specific nature of primate embryos and suggest that a chimera assay using pluripotent cells may not be feasible.

  8. Vitreal syneresis in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, B E; Talsma, D M; Beatrice, E S

    1977-11-01

    The eyes of 15 rhesus monkeys were evaluated. Various degrees of vitreal syneresis were observed in 28 of the 30 eyes. The observed vitreal structures varied from fine strands randomly spaced throughout the vitreous to thick, intertwining, fibrous networks with some clumping of the collagenous condensate at the fiber junctions. Qualitatively, the degree of syneresis was slightly more extensive in the eight older mature males than in the seven younger animals. In all animals a clear view of the fundus could be obtained with the ophthalmoscope. The vitreous structures may be one cause of variability in ocular dose-response relationships for exposure to laser radiation. The effect on retinal exposure experiments of the finer vitreal structure is considered minimal.

  9. 3 Zika Vaccines Effective in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160252.html 3 Zika Vaccines Effective in Monkeys Human trial set to ... In another key step toward a vaccine against Zika virus, scientists have found that three different experimental ...

  10. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  11. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V.

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultras...

  12. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant subunit West Nile virus vaccine in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Michael M; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Luo, Haiyan; Cropp, Bruce; Carrion, Ricardo; de la Garza, Melissa; Coller, Beth-Ann; Clements, David; Ogata, Steven; Wong, Teri; Martyak, Tim; Weeks-Levy, Carolyn

    2009-09-01

    The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant subunit West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine was evaluated in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The vaccine consisted of a recombinant envelope (E) protein truncated at the C-terminal end, resulting in a polypeptide containing 80% of the N-terminal amino acids of the native WNV protein (WN-80E), mixed with an adjuvant (GPI-0100). WN-80E was produced in a Drosophila melanogaster expression system with high yield and purified by immunoaffinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody specific for flavivirus E proteins. Groups of monkeys were vaccinated with formulations containing 1 or 25 microg of WN-80E antigen, and both humoral and cellular immunity were assessed after vaccination. The results demonstrated potent antibody responses to vaccination, as determined by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus-neutralizing antibody assays. All vaccinated animals responded favorably, and there was little difference in response between animals immunized with 1 or 25 microg of WN-80E. Cellular immunity was determined by lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from vaccinated animals stimulated in vitro with WN-80E. Cell-mediated immune responses varied from animal to animal within each group. About half of the animals responded with lymphoproliferation, cytokine production, or both. Again, there was little difference in response between animals immunized with a 1- or 25-microg dose of WN-80E in the vaccine formulations. In a separate experiment, groups of monkeys were immunized with the WN-80E/GPI-0100 vaccine or an adjuvant-only control formulation. Animals were then challenged by inoculation of wild-type WNV, and the level of viremia in each animal was monitored daily for 10 days. The results showed that whereas all animals in the control group had detectable viremia for at least 3 days after challenge, all of the vaccinated animals were negative on all

  13. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  14. Positive reinforcement training as enrichment for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, KC; Bloomsmith, MA; Neu, K; Griffis, C; Maloney, M.

    2010-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training is one component of behavioural management employed to improve psychological well-being. There has been regulatory promotion to compensate for restricted social housing in part by providing human interaction to singly caged primates, implying an efficacy standard for evaluating human interaction. The effect of positive reinforcement training on the behaviour of 61 singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) was evaluated at two large primate facil...

  15. Early Predictors of Impaired Social Functioning in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, Laura A.; Seil, Shannon K.; Calonder, Laura A.; Madrid, Jesus E.; Bone, Kyle J.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Garner, Joseph P.; Capitanio, John P.; Parker, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social cognition impairments but its basic disease mechanisms remain poorly understood. Progress has been impeded by the absence of animal models that manifest behavioral phenotypes relevant to ASD. Rhesus monkeys are an ideal model organism to address this barrier to progress. Like humans, rhesus monkeys are highly social, possess complex social cognition abilities, and exhibit pronounced individual differences in social functioning. Moreover, we have previously shown that Low-Social (LS) vs. High-Social (HS) adult male monkeys exhibit lower social motivation and poorer social skills. It is not known, however, when these social deficits first emerge. The goals of this study were to test whether juvenile LS and HS monkeys differed as infants in their ability to process social information, and whether infant social abilities predicted later social classification (i.e., LS vs. HS), in order to facilitate earlier identification of monkeys at risk for poor social outcomes. Social classification was determined for N = 25 LS and N = 25 HS male monkeys that were 1–4 years of age. As part of a colony-wide assessment, these monkeys had previously undergone, as infants, tests of face recognition memory and the ability to respond appropriately to conspecific social signals. Monkeys later identified as LS vs. HS showed impairments in recognizing familiar vs. novel faces and in the species-typical adaptive ability to gaze avert to scenes of conspecific aggression. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression using infant social ability measures perfectly predicted later social classification of all N = 50 monkeys. These findings suggest that an early capacity to process important social information may account for differences in rhesus monkeys’ motivation and competence to establish and maintain social relationships later in life. Further development of this model will facilitate identification of novel biological targets

  16. White-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys): A new macaque species from Medog, southeastern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Zhao, Chao; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2015-07-01

    We describe a newly discovered Macaca species from the Medog, in southeastern Tibet, China, Macaca leucogenys sp. nov or the "white-cheeked macaque". Based on 738 photos taken during direct observations and captured by camera traps this new species appears to be distinct from the Macaca sinica species group. Moreover, the species is distinguished from all potential sympatric macaque species (M. mulatta, M. thibetana, M. assamensis, and M. munzala) in exhibiting a suite of pelage characteristics including relatively uniform dorsal hair pattern, hairy ventral pelage, relative hairless short tail, prominent pale to white side- and chin-whiskers creating a white cheek and round facial appearance, dark facial skin on the muzzle, long and thick hairs on its neck, and a round rather than arrow-shaped male genitalia. This new macaque species was found to exploit a diverse set of habitat types from tropical forest at 1395 m, to primary and secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest at 2000 m, as well as mixed broadleaf-conifer forest at 2700 m. Its range may extend to neighboring counties in Tibet and the part of southeastern Tibet controlled by India. The white-cheeked macaque is threatened by illegal hunting and the construction of hydropower stations. Discovery of this new primate species further highlights the high value for biodiversity conservation of southeastern Tibet and calls for more intensive surveys, studies, and environmental protection in this area.

  17. Squirrel monkey cytomegalovirus antibodies in free-ranging black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya), Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Argibay, Hernan; Rinas, Miguel A; Uhart, Marcela

    2012-04-01

    Serum from four black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) was screened for antibodies to seven viruses by dot immunoassay. Cytomegalovirus antibodies were detected in three of four individuals and provide the first evidence of exposure by black howler monkeys to this virus.

  18. Social rank and cortisol among female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Dong QIN; Joshua Dominic Rizak; Xiao-Li FENG; Xun-Xun CHU; Shang-Chuan YANG; Chun-Lu LI; Long-Bao LV; Yuan-Ye MA; Xin-Tian HU

    2013-01-01

    In animal societies,some stressful events can lead to higher levels of physiological stress.Such stressors,like social rank,also predict an increased vulnerability to an array of diseases.However,the physiological relationship between social rank and stress varies between different species,as well as within groups of a single species.For example,dominant individuals are more socially stressed at times,while at other times it is the subordinate ones who experience this stress.Together,these variations make it difficult to assess disease vulnerability as connected to social interactions.In order to leam more about how physiological rank relationships vary between groups of a single species,cortisol measurements from hair samples were used to evaluate the effects of dominance rank on long-term stress levels in despotic and less stringent female rhesus macaque hierarchal groups.In despotic groups,cortisol levels were found not to be correlated with social rank,but a negative correlation was found between social rank and cortisol levels in less stringent hierarchies.Low ranking monkeys in less stringent groups secreted elevated levels of cortisol compared to higher ranking animals.These data suggest that variations in the strictness of the dominance hierarchy are determining factors in rank related stress physiology.The further consideration of nonhuman primate social system diversity and the linear degree of their hierarchies may allow for the development of valid rank-related stress models that will help increase our understanding and guide the development of new therapeutics for diseases related to human socioeconomic status.

  19. DNA-Based Vaccine Guards Against Zika in Monkey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161106.html DNA-Based Vaccine Guards Against Zika in Monkey Study ... THURSDAY, Sept. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental DNA-based vaccine protected monkeys from infection with the ...

  20. Evaluation of Serum Lipid, Thyroid, and Hepatic Clinical Chemistries in Association With Serum Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in Cynomolgus Monkeys After Oral Dosing With Potassium PFOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bruce C.; Andres, Kara L.; Ehresman, David J.; Falvo, Ria; Provencher, Anne; Olsen, Geary W.; Butenhoff, John L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An oral dose study with perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was undertaken to identify potential associations between serum PFOS and changes in serum clinical chemistry parameters in purpose-bred young adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). In this study, control group (n = 6/sex) was sham-dosed with vehicle (0.5% Tween 20 and 5% ethanol in water), low-dose group (n = 6/sex) received 1 single K+PFOS dose (9 mg/kg), and high-dose group (n = 4–6/sex) received 3 separate K+ PFOS doses (11–17.2 mg/kg). Monkeys were given routine checkups and observed carefully for health problems on a daily basis. Scheduled blood samples were drawn from all monkeys prior to, during, and after K+PFOS administration for up to 1 year and they were analyzed for PFOS concentrations and clinical chemistry markers for coagulation, lipids, hepatic, renal, electrolytes, and thyroid-related hormones. No mortality occurred during the study. All the monkeys were healthy, gained weight, and were released back to the colony at the end of the study. The highest serum PFOS achieved was approximately 165 μg/ml. When compared with time-matched controls, administration of K+PFOS to monkeys did not result in any toxicologically meaningful or clinically relevant changes in serum clinical measurements for coagulation, lipids, hepatic, renal, electrolytes, and thyroid-related hormones. A slight reduction in serum cholesterol (primarily the high-density lipoprotein fraction), although not toxicologically significant, was observed. The corresponding lower-bound fifth percentile benchmark concentrations (BMCL1sd) were 74 and 76 μg/ml for male and female monkeys, respectively. Compared to the 2013–2014 geometric mean serum PFOS level of 4.99 ng/ml (0.00499 μg/ml) in US general population reported by CDC NHANES, this represents 4 orders of magnitude for margin of exposure. PMID:28115654

  1. Investigation on Gastrointestinal Parasites in Captive-bred Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis in Guangxi%广西地区人工驯繁猕猴、食蟹猴胃肠道寄生虫感染情况的初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 全琛宇; 施维; 周庆安; 张鸿满; 黄维义; 何国声

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the infection status of gastrointestinal parasites in captive-bred non-human primates (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis) in Guangxi,and provide basis for prevention and control strategies.Methods The monkeys were divided into three groups,the growth group,the breeding group,and the quarantine group.Totally 784 fresh feces samples from M.mulatta and M.fascicularis were collected at six monkey shelters in Guangxi,during 2008~2012.The direct smear method (DS),saturation salt solution float method (SSF) and formaldehyde-ether precipitation method (FEP) were used for fecal parasite examination under the microscope.Results The total infection rate was 72.4% among 784 sample.Five protozoan species Ameoba,Trichomonas sp.,Giardia sp.,Balantidium coli and Coccidia),five species of nematodes(Trichuris sp.,Streptopharagus sp.,Physaloptera sp.,Oesophagostmum sp.and Strongyloides sp.),two species of cestodas (Hymenolepis sp.and Bertiella studeri),one speice of trematoda and one speice of arthropod were identified.The gastrointestinal parasites infection of the growth group was possessed of the fewest among three groups,while the quarantine group was the largest.Relatively higher prevalence of protozoan was observed in both the growth monkey group and the breeding group,and the highest infection rate was found in both Amoeba and B.coli.Conclusions The results suggest that the protozoans with simple lifecycle and the soil transmitted nematodes which are difficult to kill by antihelmintic products nowadays,have become the major parasitic species that does serious harm to the captive-bred monkeys for experiment used in Guangxi.Herein,the infestation status could provide reference for prevention and controling strategies on parasitic disease of monkeys.Some species identified from this study have been considered as the pathogens of zoonose,which will have important public sanitation significances of countermeasure on disease spread between humans and

  2. Atlas-Guided Segmentation of Vervet Monkey Brain MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoxing; Pohl, Kilian M.; Styner, Martin; Addicott, Merideth; Wyatt, Chris; Daunais, James B.; Fedorov, Andriy; Bouix, Sylvain; Wells, William Mercer; Kikinis, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI anal...

  3. A Paradoxical Property of the Monkey Book

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Minnhagen, Petter

    2011-01-01

    A "monkey book" is a book consisting of a random distribution of letters and blanks, where a group of letters surrounded by two blanks is defined as a word. We compare the statistics of the word distribution for a monkey book with the corresponding distribution for the general class of random books, where the latter are books for which the words are randomly distributed. It is shown that the word distribution statistics for the monkey book is different and quite distinct from a typical sampled book or real book. In particular the monkey book obeys Heaps' power law to an extraordinary good approximation, in contrast to the word distributions for sampled and real books, which deviate from Heaps' law in a characteristics way. The somewhat counter-intuitive conclusion is that a "monkey book" obeys Heaps' power law precisely because its word-frequency distribution is not a smooth power law, contrary to the expectation based on simple mathematical arguments that if one is a power law, so is the other.

  4. Somatosensory thresholds in monkeys exposed to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurissen, J.P.J.; Weiss, B.; Davis, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    Six monkeys were trained to report detection of a vibratory or electrical stimulus applied to the fingertip. The vibratory stimuli were presented at two frequencies (40 and 150 Hz). Thresholds were determined with a tracking procedure before, during, and after dosing. Each monkey served as its own control. Four monkeys were dosed orally with 10 mg/kg of acrylamide 5 days a week until the appearance of toxic signs. The total administered dose varied between 320 and 450 mg/kg. The other two monkeys served as time-matched controls. All the monkeys were observed 5 days a week. They were also weighed and presented with a visuomotor task twice a week. Weight loss usually preceded the onset of gross behavioral disturbances, such as loss of balance, tremor, or decreased activity. Impaired coordination, as revealed with the pickup test, paralleled weight loss. Electrical sensitivity was not affected. Vibration sensitivity, however, fell during dosing and remained impaired for several months after dosing ended. These data indicate that vibration sensitivity testing can trace the time course of intoxication and recovery in toxic peripheral neuropathies. Furthermore, the differential results obtained with vibratory and electrical stimulation are consonant with a primary effect on end-organ receptors.

  5. Drinking typography established by scheduled induction predicts chronic heavy drinking in a monkey model of ethanol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathleen A; Leng, Xiaoyan; Green, Heather L; Szeliga, Kendall T; Rogers, Laura S M; Gonzales, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    We have developed an animal model of alcohol self-administration that initially employs schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) to establish reliable ethanol consumption under open access (22 h/d) conditions with food and water concurrently available. SIP is an adjunctive behavior that is generated by constraining access to an important commodity (e.g., flavored food). The induction schedule and ethanol polydipsia generated under these conditions affords the opportunity to investigate the development of drinking typologies that lead to chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. Adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were induced to drink water and 4% (w/v in water) ethanol by a Fixed-Time 300 seconds (FT-300 seconds) schedule of banana-flavored pellet delivery. The FT-300 seconds schedule was in effect for 120 consecutive sessions, with daily induction doses increasing from 0.0 to 0.5 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg to 1.5 g/kg every 30 days. Following induction, the monkeys were allowed concurrent access to 4% (w/v) ethanol and water for 22 h/day for 12 months. Drinking typographies during the induction of drinking 1.5 g/kg ethanol emerged that were highly predictive of the daily ethanol intake over the next 12 months. Specifically, the frequency in which monkeys ingested 1.5 g/kg ethanol without a 5-minute lapse in drinking (defined as a bout of drinking) during induction strongly predicted (correlation 0.91) subsequent ethanol intake over the next 12 months of open access to ethanol. Blood ethanol during induction were highly correlated with intake and with drinking typography and ranged from 100 to 160 mg% when the monkeys drank their 1.5 g/kg dose in a single bout. Forty percent of the population became heavy drinkers (mean daily intakes >3.0 g/kg for 12 months) characterized by frequent "spree" drinking (intakes >4.0 g/kg/d). This model of ethanol self-administration identifies early alcohol drinking typographies (gulping the equivalent of 6 drinks) that evolve into

  6. Las Islas de los Changos (the Monkey Islands): the economic impact of ecotourism in the region of Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

    2006-05-01

    This study evaluates the popularity and economic impact of Las Islas de los Changos (the Monkey Islands) as an ecotourism site on Lake Catemaco in the Los Tuxtlas region of Veracruz, Mexico. Two small island colonies of exotic primates, stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides), have proved to be highly beneficial for the local economy as the main attraction for tourists in this region. From July 1991 to June 1992, data were collected on the number of tourists who took boat trips to visit the primates, and the amount of money spent on tours to the islands. The data suggest that at least 28,470 passengers visit these primate troops annually and spend approximately 88,970 U.S. dollars (USD). Follow-up questionnaires during July 1997 to June 2000 to hotelkeepers and tourist boat operators identified the Monkey Islands as the primary destination for tourists to this region. A comparison of the net income obtained by local ecotourism operators with wages earned through other types of employment in the Los Tuxtlas region, such as working in natural reserves, agriculture, or renting grazing land for cattle, show the relative importance of Las Islas de Los Changos in sustaining the local economy. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Investigation on possible transmission of monkeys' Plasmodium to human in a populations living in the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieudonné Makaba Mvumbi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodiums are protozoa that may infect various hosts. Only five species are now recognized as naturally parasitizing humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium knowlesi. This fifth species, P. knowlesi, previously identified as naturally parasitizing the monkey Macaca fascicularis, has been microscopically confused for a long time with P. malariae or P. falciparum and it was not possible to correctly differentiate them until the advent of molecular biology. To date, natural human infections with P. knowlesi only occur in Southeast Asia and a similar phenomenon of natural transmission of simian plasmodium to humans has not been reported elsewhere. This study was conducted to investigate a possible transmission of African small monkey's plasmodium to humans in populations living near the rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC where several species of non-human primates are living. Two successive real-time PCRs were identified in the literature and used in combination for purpose. Only P. falciparum was found in this study. However, studies with larger samples and with more advanced techniques should be conducted.

  8. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A

    2014-08-06

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of fMRI experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category- and feature-selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging.

  9. Default mode of brain function in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Gerits, Annelis; Nelissen, Koen; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Joly, Olivier; Simone, Luciano; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Wardak, Claire; Orban, Guy A; Buckner, Randy L; Vanduffel, Wim

    2011-09-07

    Human neuroimaging has revealed a specific network of brain regions-the default-mode network (DMN)-that reduces its activity during goal-directed behavior. So far, evidence for a similar network in monkeys is mainly indirect, since, except for one positron emission tomography study, it is all based on functional connectivity analysis rather than activity increases during passive task states. Here, we tested whether a consistent DMN exists in monkeys using its defining property. We performed a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in 10 awake monkeys to reveal areas in which activity consistently decreases when task demands shift from passive tasks to externally oriented processing. We observed task-related spatially specific deactivations across 15 experiments, implying in the monkey a functional equivalent of the human DMN. We revealed by resting-state connectivity that prefrontal and medial parietal regions, including areas 9/46d and 31, respectively, constitute the DMN core, being functionally connected to all other DMN areas. We also detected two distinct subsystems composed of DMN areas with stronger functional connections between each other. These clusters included areas 24/32, 8b, and TPOC and areas 23, v23, and PGm, respectively. Such a pattern of functional connectivity largely fits, but is not completely consistent with anatomical tract tracing data in monkeys. Also, analysis of afferent and efferent connections between DMN areas suggests a multisynaptic network structure. Like humans, monkeys increase activity during passive epochs in heteromodal and limbic association regions, suggesting that they also default to internal modes of processing when not actively interacting with the environment.

  10. First detection of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in two species of nonhuman primates raised in a zoo: a fatal case in Cercopithecus diana and a strongly suspected case of spontaneous recovery in Macaca nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Kimiaki; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Uraguchi, Kohji; Mukai, Takeshi; Shibata, Chikako; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Takaesu, Noboru; Ito, Masaki; Makino, Yoshinori; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi; Yagi, Kinpei

    2014-08-01

    The causative parasite of alveolar echinococcosis, Echinococcus multilocularis, maintains its life cycle between red foxes (Vulpes vulples, the definitive hosts) and voles (the intermediate hosts) in Hokkaido, Japan. Primates, including humans, and some other mammal species can be infected by the accidental ingestion of eggs in the feces of red foxes. In August 2011, a 6-year-old zoo-raised female Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana) died from alveolar echinococcosis. E. multilocularis infection was confirmed by histopathological examination and detection of the E. multilocularis DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A field survey in the zoo showed that fox intrusion was common, and serodiagnosis of various nonhuman primates using western blotting detected a case of a 14-year-old female Celebes crested macaque (Macaca nigra) that was weakly positive for E. multilocularis. Computed tomography revealed only one small calcified lesion (approximately 8mm) in the macaque's liver, and both western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed a gradual decline of antibody titer. These findings strongly suggest that the animal had recovered spontaneously. Until this study, spontaneous recovery from E. multilocularis infection in a nonhuman primate had never been reported.

  11. Preliminary Study on Population Ecology of Macaca arctoides in Tiantang Mountain Nature Reserve Yulin Guangxi%广西天堂山自然保护区红面猴种群生态学初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮桂文; 黄肇宇

    2014-01-01

    Population ecology and habitat characteristics of Macaca arctoides in Tiantang mountain nature reserve of Guangxi were studied by interview survey and sampling methods. There are two stump-tailed macaque populations. The number of two stump-tailed macaque populations reduced sharply because of the loss and fragmentation of their habitats, human disturbance and severe poaching. This study provides basic suggestion n on how to effectively protect the monkey.%通过访问调查和样方法对广西天堂山自然保护区的红面猴的种群生态学和栖息地特征进行了初步研究,保护区内分布有2群红面猴,由于栖息地的丧失和破碎化,人为干扰严重及其长期盗猎等因素,导致红面猴种群数量急剧下降。

  12. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultrasound signal attenuation and distortion caused by a relatively thick skull.

  13. [Cycloferon therapy of cytomegalovirus infection in monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezentseva, M V; Agrba, V Z; Karal-ogly, D D; Agumava, A A

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a wide-spread disease throw humans and monkeys, which and associated with various diseases. The development of this infection in human organism is much like that in rhesus macaque, which makes CMV-infected monkeys adequate model for studying and elaborating prophylactic and therapeutic measures against this disease in humans. This article presents data on the efficiency of cycloferon action on animals with the M. mulatta CMV infection. Cycloferon stimulated an increase in the IFN-alpha production and promoted the period of remission in CMV-infected animals.

  14. Effects of continuous nicotine treatment and subsequent termination on cocaine versus food choice in male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienteck, Kathryn L; Negus, S Stevens; Poklis, Justin L; Banks, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    One complicating factor in cocaine addiction may be concurrent exposure and potential dependence on nicotine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of continuous nicotine treatment and subsequent termination on cocaine versus food choice in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). For comparison, we also determined effects of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine on cocaine versus food choice during continuous saline and nicotine treatment. Rhesus monkeys (N = 3) responded under a concurrent schedule of food pellet (1 g) and intravenous cocaine (0-0.1 mg/kg/injection) availability. Saline and ascending nicotine doses (0.1-1.0 mg/kg/hr, intravenous) were continuously infused for 7-day treatment periods and separated by 24-hr saline treatment periods. Acute effects of mecamylamine (0.32-1.8 mg/kg, intramuscular, 15 min pretreatment) were determined during continuous saline and 0.32-mg/kg/hr nicotine treatments. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine choice. Nicotine treatment did not alter cocaine versus food choice. In contrast, preference of 0.032 mg/kg/injection cocaine was attenuated 24 hr following termination of 0.32-mg/kg/hr nicotine treatment, despite no somatic abstinence signs being observed. Acute mecamylamine enhanced cocaine choice during saline treatment and mainly suppressed rates of behavior during nicotine treatment. Overall, continuous nicotine exposure, up to 1 mg/kg/hr, does not enhance cocaine choice and does not produce nicotine dependence, as demonstrated by the lack of abstinence signs. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Measurement of fetal biparietal diameter in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, A Michele; Brady, Alan G; Tustin, George W; Parks, Virginia L; Morris, Chris G; Abee, Christian R

    2010-09-01

    Owl monkeys are New World primates frequently used in biomedical research. Despite the historical difficulty of breeding owl monkeys in captivity, several productive owl monkey breeding colonies exist currently. The animals in the colony we describe here are not timed-pregnant, and determination of gestational age is an important factor in prenatal care. Gestational age of human fetuses is often determined by using transabdominal measurements of fetal biparietal diameter. The purpose of this study was to correlate biparietal diameter measurements with gestational age in owl monkeys. We found that biparietal diameter can be used to accurately predict gestational age in owl monkeys.

  16. Phylogeography of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) and the origin of the Gibraltar colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, Lara; Salzburger, Walter; Martin, Robert D

    2005-05-17

    The Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) is the earliest offshoot of the genus Macaca and the only extant African representative, all other species being Asiatic. Once distributed throughout North Africa, M. sylvanus is now restricted to isolated forest fragments in Algeria and Morocco. The species is threatened; the maximum total wild population size is estimated at 10,000 individuals. Relationships among surviving wild subpopulations in Algeria (96 samples) and Morocco (116 samples) were examined by using 468-bp sequences from hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Twenty-four different haplotypes were identified, differing by 1-26 mutational steps (0.2-5.6%) and 1 insertion. With one exception (attributable to secondary introduction in coastal Morocco), Algerian and Moroccan haplotypes are clearly distinct. However, whereas Moroccan subpopulations show little divergence in hypervariable region I sequences and little correspondence with geographical distribution, there is a deep division between two main subpopulations in Algeria and one marked secondary division, with haplotypes generally matching geographical distribution. Accepting an origin of the genus Macaca of 5.5 million years ago, the Moroccan population and the two main Algerian subpopulations diverged approximately 1.6 million years ago. Distinction between Moroccan and Algerian haplotypes permitted analysis of the origin of the Gibraltar colony of Barbary macaques (68 samples; 30% of the population). It is generally held that the present Gibraltar population descended from a dozen individuals imported during World War II. However, the Gibraltar sample was found to include Algerian and Moroccan haplotypes separated by at least 16 mutational steps, revealing a dual origin of the founding females.

  17. Differences in the morphology of the maxillary sinus and roots of teeth between Macaca fuscata and Macaca fuscata yakui determined using cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaizen, Tomonori; Sato, Iwao; Miwa, Yoko; Sunohara, Masataka; Yosue, Takashi; Mine, Kazuharu; Koseki, Hirohisa; Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese macaque is an endemic species consisting of two subspecies: Macaca fuscata fuscata (MFF) and Macaca fuscata yakui (MFY). The MFY is indigenous to Yakushima Island and represents a subspecies of MFF that lives from Honshu to Shikoku and Kyushu, Japan. However, the differences in the skulls of the MFY and MFF are unknown, despite these subspecies having different skull sizes. The maxillary sinus (MS) indicates that the features of the frontal view reflect the transversal growth of the maxilla of the skull. In this study, we show the MS structures of the MFF (n = 9, 18 sides) and MFY (n = 10, 20 sides) using a cone-beam computed tomography instrument. Base on three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed images the MS and nasal cavity were found to present almost to no significant differences between MFF and MFY. However, we designated three classifications of the sinus floor based on the 3D MS images of these Japanese macaques: a round-like shape (type a, MFF = 66.7% (12/18), MFY = 45% (9/20)), a flat-like shape (type b, MFF = 22.2% (4/18), MFY = 35% (7/20)), and an irregular shape (type c, MFF = 11.1% (2/18), MFY = 20.0% (4/20)). The sinus floor shapes of the MFF were mostly type a, while those of the MFY were mostly type b. The prevalence of a root contacting the cortical bone is higher in the canine (26.7%, (8/30)) and second premolar (20%, (6/30) of the MFY at the nasal cavity, moreover, this value is higher in the third molar (42.9%, (9/21)) of the MS in the MFY. These results suggest that the features of the floor of the MS are related to the differences in maxillary root apices teeth between MMF and MMF.

  18. Genetic evidence for host specificity in the adhesin-encoding genes hxaA of Helicobacter acinonyx, hnaA of H. nemestrinae and hpaA of H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D G; Lampert, H C; Nakano, H; Eaton, K A; Burnens, A P; Bronsdon, M A; Evans, D J

    1995-09-22

    Gastric and non-gastric species of Helicobacter were examined for the presence of the adhesin-encoding gene, hpaA, from the human-associated gastric Helicobacter H. pylori (Hp), and for adhesin subunit protein HpaA. Amplification of a 375-bp internal DNA fragment of hpaA by PCR demonstrated the presence of the gene in Hp and in two closely related gastric Helicobacters, H. nemestrinae (Hn) and H. acinonyx (Hx), but not in the more distantly related H. felis (Hf) and H. mustelae (Hm). The non-gastric Helicobacters, H. canis (Hc), H. muridarum (Hr), H. fennelliae (He) and H. cinaedi (Hi), were all negative for hpaA. An immunoblot assay of water extracts with adhesin-specific antibody confirmed these results. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of Hp HpaA and Hn adhesin A (hereafter termed HnaA) are very similar, having identical receptor-binding motifs (rbm); also, the hemagglutination (HA) properties of Hn and Hp cells were indistinguishable. In contrast, the rbm of Hx adhesin A (hereafter termed HxaA), compared to that of Hp, contained a non-conservative aa substitution (Ile to Thr); also, there was variance in five consecutive aa from 10 to 14 residues upstream from the rbm. We conclude that these aa substitutions in HxaA are probably responsible for the difference in receptor recognition of this adhesin, as evidenced by the resistance of Hx HA to inhibition with N-acetylneuraminyl-alpha(2,3)-lactose. These results are consistent with the biological similarity between the natural host(s) of Hp and Hn; i.e., human and non-human primates, and the dissimilarity between these hosts and the feline host, the cheetah.

  19. Discrimination of Stem Cell Status after Subjecting Cynomolgus Monkey Pluripotent Stem Cells to Naïve Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Arata; Kawano, Yoshihiro; Izu, Haruna; Choijookhuu, Narantsog; Honsho, Kimiko; Nakamura, Tomonori; Yabuta, Yukihiro; Yamamoto, Takuya; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Michiko; Sankai, Tadashi; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Ogura, Atsuo; Saitou, Mitinori

    2017-01-01

    Experimental animal models have played an indispensable role in the development of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) research. The derivation of high-quality (so-called “true naïve state”) iPSCs of non-human primates enhances their application and safety for human regenerative medicine. Although several attempts have been made to convert human and non-human primate PSCs into a truly naïve state, it is unclear which evaluation methods can discriminate them as being truly naïve. Here we attempted to derive naïve cynomolgus monkey (Cm) (Macaca fascicularis) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and iPSCs. Several characteristics of naïve Cm ESCs including colony morphology, appearance of naïve-related mRNAs and proteins, leukaemia inhibitory factor dependency, and mitochondrial respiration were confirmed. Next, we generated Cm iPSCs and converted them to a naïve state. Transcriptomic comparison of PSCs with early Cm embryos elucidated the partial achievement (termed naïve-like) of their conversion. When these were subjected to in vitro neural differentiation, enhanced differentiating capacities were observed after naïve-like conversion, but some lines exhibited heterogeneity. The difficulty of achieving contribution to chimeric mouse embryos was also demonstrated. These results suggest that Cm PSCs could ameliorate their in vitro neural differentiation potential even though they could not display true naïve characteristics. PMID:28349944

  20. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Byun, Yoon Woo; Zhuang, Katie Z; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2015-07-09

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

  1. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  2. OBSERVATIONS ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF VERVET MONKEYS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an order is admittedly more difficult to evaluate in the Cercopithecus monkeys ... being offered; if, on the other hand, the relationship is in doubt, competition will result ... The fact that size alone is not a significant factor in dominance was well ...

  3. Cell-Type-Specific Optogenetics in Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-09-08

    The recent advent of technologies enabling cell-type-specific recording and manipulation of neuronal activity spurred tremendous progress in neuroscience. However, they have been largely limited to mice, which lack the richness in behavior of primates. Stauffer et al. now present a generalizable method for achieving cell-type specificity in monkeys.

  4. Transcranial photoacoustic tomography of the monkey brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Liming; Huang, Chao; Guo, Zijian; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    A photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using a virtual point ultrasonic transducer was developed for transcranial imaging of monkey brains. The virtual point transducer provided a 10 times greater field-of-view (FOV) than finiteaperture unfocused transducers, which enables large primate imaging. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through up to two skulls ranging from 4 to 8 mm in thickness. The mass density and speed of sound distributions of the skull were estimated from adjunct X-ray CT image data and utilized with a timereversal algorithm to mitigate artifacts in the reconstructed image due to acoustic aberration. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. Our experimental results demonstrate that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull, and the imaging aberration caused by skull can be corrected to a great extent.

  5. Mycobacterium marinum Infection from Sea Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn LeBlanc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection acquired from Artemia nyos (sea monkeys is presented. The infection was unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapies. A biopsy of a lesion revealed granulomatous inflammation with cultures that subsequently grew M marinum. A three-month course of clarithromycin provided complete resolution.

  6. Clinicopathological correlation of parapapillary atrophy in monkeys with experimental glaucoma and temporary central retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological correlation of parapapillary atrophy. Materials and Methods: The study included 16 eyes of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta - 4 eyes with experimental glaucoma, 11 eyes after experimental temporary occlusion of the central retinal artery, and 1 normal eye. On histological sections, we measured zones with different histological characteristics.On fundus photographs, alpha zone and beta zone of parapapillary atrophy were measured and correlated with the histological data. Results: The size of the clinical alpha zone of parapapillary atrophy was significantly correlated with the size of the histological region with irregularities of the retinal pigment epithelium (P = 0.05; correlation coefficient r = 0.49 and with the size of the histological region with a decreased density of retinal photoreceptors (P = 0.01; r = 0.60. The size of clinical beta zone of parapapillary atrophy significantly correlated with the size of the histological region with complete loss of the retinal pigment epithelium (P <0.001; r = 0.91, with the size of the histological zone with a complete loss of photoreceptors (P <0.001; r = 0.81, and with the size of the histological zone with a closed choriocapillaris (P <0.001; r = 0.89. Conclusions: The clinically seen alpha zone of parapapillary atrophy correlates with histological parapapillary irregularities of the retinal pigment epithelium and decreased density of retinal photoreceptors. The clinically seen beta zone of parapapillary atrophy correlates with histological complete loss of the retinal pigment epithelium and of the photoreceptors, and a closure of the choriocapillaris.

  7. Movement-related activity during goal-directed hand actions in the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Luciano; Rozzi, Stefano; Bimbi, Marco; Fogassi, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    Grasping actions require the integration of two neural processes, one enabling the transformation of object properties into corresponding motor acts, and the other involved in planning and controlling action execution on the basis of contextual information. The first process relies on parieto-premotor circuits, whereas the second is considered to be a prefrontal function. Up to now, the prefrontal cortex has been mainly investigated with conditional visuomotor tasks requiring a learned association between cues and behavioural output. To clarify the functional role of the prefrontal cortex in grasping actions, we recorded the activity of ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPF) neurons while monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performed tasks requiring reaching-grasping actions in different contextual conditions (in light and darkness, memory-guided, and in the absence of abstract learned rules). The results showed that the VLPF cortex contains neurons that are active during action execution (movement-related neurons). Some of them showed grip selectivity, and some also responded to object presentation. Most movement-related neurons discharged during action execution both with and without visual feedback, and this discharge typically did not change when the action was performed with object mnemonic information and in the absence of abstract rules. The findings of this study indicate that a population of VLPF neurons play a role in controlling goal-directed grasping actions in several contexts. This control is probably exerted within a wider network, involving parietal and premotor regions, where the role of VLPF movement-related neurons would be that of activating, on the basis of contextual information, the representation of the motor goal of the intended action (taking possession of an object) during action planning and execution.

  8. The pattern of the arterial supply of the pancreas in anthropoid apes, catarrhine monkeys and platyrrhine monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawuti, Alimujiang; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Saito, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2009-11-01

    To get the full understanding of the arterial distribution to the pancreas, the analysis of the distribution of the variety of monkey species would be helpful. In this study, we studied the layout of the pancreatic artery in anthropoids (1 gorilla, 3 chimpanzees and 2 white-handed gibbons), in catarrhine monkeys (1 hamadryas baboon, 2 anubid baboons, 10 savannah monkeys) and in platyrrhine monkeys (6 squirrel monkeys). The pancreas of the monkeys was supplied by the arteries originating from the celiac trunk and/or superior mesenteric artery. There were three patterns in the arterial distribution; (1) the celiac artery supplied the major area of the pancreas. (2) the superior mesenteric artery supplied the major area of the pancreas. (3) the celiac artery supplied the whole pancreas. The pattern of the arterial distribution to the monkey pancreas had a wide variety. The result would be helpful for the elucidation of the development of the vascular distribution in the pancreas.

  9. Construction of an integrated welfare assessment system (MacWel) for Macaques (Macaca spp.) in human husbandry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene; Bakker, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the construction procedure of an assessment protocol for Macaques (Macaca spp.). The authors have chosen an integrative approach, currently frequently used for the construction of such protocols with a clear preference for animal-based parameters to assess the welfare states o...

  10. Dietary Variation of Long Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis in Telaga Warna, Bogor, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Nila

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Macaca, member of sub-family Cercopithecinae, is the most widely distributed non-human primates in Asian countries. The habitats are strongly influence the dietary variation of the populations. The dietary variation of the macaques reflect ecological plasticity in coping with differences both in availability and abundance of food. The macaques are plastic in taking any kind of food that available in their home range and adjust their behaviour according to its abundance. Here, we present the dietary variation of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis in the high altitude rain forest of Telaga Warna, West Java, Indonesia. The proportion of their food from natural sources is greater than those from visitors. The natural food consisted of plants, small animals (insects and earthworm, fungi and water from lake. The plant food comprised of 29 species plus a few mosses. The frequency of eating artificial food was influenced by visitors who come for picnic. In this site, the macaques learned that the visiting of tourists is identical with food.

  11. Inhaled oxytocin amplifies both vicarious reinforcement and self reinforcement in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Barter, Joseph W; Ebitz, R Becket; Watson, Karli K; Platt, Michael L

    2012-01-17

    People attend not only to their own experiences, but also to the experiences of those around them. Such social awareness profoundly influences human behavior by enabling observational learning, as well as by motivating cooperation, charity, empathy, and spite. Oxytocin (OT), a neurosecretory hormone synthesized by hypothalamic neurons in the mammalian brain, can enhance affiliation or boost exclusion in different species in distinct contexts, belying any simple mechanistic neural model. Here we show that inhaled OT penetrates the CNS and subsequently enhances the sensitivity of rhesus macaques to rewards occurring to others as well as themselves. Roughly 2 h after inhaling OT, monkeys increased the frequency of prosocial choices associated with reward to another monkey when the alternative was to reward no one. OT also increased attention to the recipient monkey as well as the time it took to render such a decision. In contrast, within the first 2 h following inhalation, OT increased selfish choices associated with delivery of reward to self over a reward to the other monkey, without affecting attention or decision latency. Despite the differences in species typical social behavior, exogenous, inhaled OT causally promotes social donation behavior in rhesus monkeys, as it does in more egalitarian and monogamous ones, like prairie voles and humans, when there is no perceived cost to self. These findings potentially implicate shared neural mechanisms.

  12. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  13. Similarities in the immunoglobulin response and VH gene usage in rhesus monkeys and humans exposed to porcine hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borie Dominic C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of porcine cells and organs as a source of xenografts for human patients would vastly increase the donor pool; however, both humans and Old World primates vigorously reject pig tissues due to xenoantibodies that react with the polysaccharide galactose α (1,3 galactose (αGal present on the surface of many porcine cells. We previously examined the xenoantibody response in patients exposed to porcine hepatocytes via treatment(s with bioartficial liver devices (BALs, composed of porcine cells in a support matrix. We determined that xenoantibodies in BAL-treated patients are predominantly directed at porcine αGal carbohydrate epitopes, and are encoded by a small number of germline heavy chain variable region (VH immunoglobulin genes. The studies described in this manuscript were designed to identify whether the xenoantibody responses and the IgVH genes encoding antibodies to porcine hepatocytes in non-human primates used as preclinical models are similar to those in humans. Adult non-immunosuppressed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta were injected intra-portally with porcine hepatocytes or heterotopically transplanted with a porcine liver lobe. Peripheral blood leukocytes and serum were obtained prior to and at multiple time points after exposure, and the immune response was characterized, using ELISA to evaluate the levels and specificities of circulating xenoantibodies, and the production of cDNA libraries to determine the genes used by B cells to encode those antibodies. Results Xenoantibodies produced following exposure to isolated hepatocytes and solid organ liver grafts were predominantly encoded by genes in the VH3 family, with a minor contribution from the VH4 family. Immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene (VH cDNA library screening and gene sequencing of IgM libraries identified the genes as most closely-related to the IGHV3-11 and IGHV4-59 germline progenitors. One of the genes most similar to IGHV3-11, VH3-11cyno, has

  14. Teratogenicity studies on late blighted potatoes in nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta and Saguinus labiatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J R; Marlar, R J; Chesney, C F; Helgeson, J P; Kelman, A; Weckel, G; Traisman, E; White, J W

    1977-02-01

    Female rhesus monkeys and marmosets were fed a diet containing blighted potatoes (Phytophthora infestans) at a level of 10g/kg per day for at least two weeks prior to breeding and six weeks following conception in order to gain additional information on the association of blighted potatoes and the development of anencephaly and spina bifida in primate species. There was an absence of either of these neural-tube defects in 32 rhesus and 14 marmoset infants whose mothers had received a blighted potato diet. In addition there were no cranial osseous defects. There were, however, two rhesus monkey infants with internal hydrocephalus whose mothers had consumed blighted potatoes.

  15. Uniformity of colour vision in Old World monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, G.H.; Deegan, J F

    1999-01-01

    It is often assumed that all Old World monkeys share the same trichromatic colour vision, but the evidence in support of this conclusion is sparse as only a small fraction of all Old World monkey species have been tested. To address this issue, spectral sensitivity functions were measured in animals from eight species of Old World monkey (five cercopithecine species and three colobine species) using a non-invasive electrophysiological technique. Each of the 25 animals examined had spectrally ...

  16. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S.; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A.; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L.; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M.; Swanbeck, Sonja N.; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection...

  17. Anatomic brain asymmetry in vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fears, Scott C; Scheibel, Kevin; Abaryan, Zvart; Lee, Chris; Service, Susan K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Woods, Roger P

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetry is a prominent feature of human brains with important functional consequences. Many asymmetric traits show population bias, but little is known about the genetic and environmental sources contributing to inter-individual variance. Anatomic asymmetry has been observed in Old World monkeys, but the evidence for the direction and extent of asymmetry is equivocal and only one study has estimated the genetic contributions to inter-individual variance. In this study we characterize a range of qualitative and quantitative asymmetry measures in structural brain MRIs acquired from an extended pedigree of Old World vervet monkeys (n = 357), and implement variance component methods to estimate the proportion of trait variance attributable to genetic and environmental sources. Four of six asymmetry measures show pedigree-level bias and one of the traits has a significant heritability estimate of about 30%. We also found that environmental variables more significantly influence the width of the right compared to the left prefrontal lobe.

  18. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Justin D.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; Ryu, Stephen I.; Meng, Teresa H.; Murmann, Boris; Black, Michael J.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. Approach. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Main results. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Significance. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic

  19. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Justin D; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; I Ryu, Stephen; H Meng, Teresa; Murmann, Boris; J Black, Michael; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2014-08-01

    Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic motor neuroscience and for the successful

  20. Monkey King —Prime Candidate for 2008 Olympics Mascot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDAOYING; YOUZHENGJUN; LIWUZHOU

    2003-01-01

    IS the monkey an appropriate 2008 Olympic mascot? No one will know for sure until next year. Now that the Chinese Seal has been officially des-ignated as the 2008 Olympics emblem,the games'' mascot has taken over as hot topic. Animal images like the panda, dragon, lion, tiger, Tibetan ante-lope, and rabbit are also under consid-eration, but monkeyking2008.com, a website promoting the Monkey King as 2008 Olympics mascot, reports that 89 percent of its visitors want the monkey. Results of a survey conducted by China''s largest portal site, Sina.com, also indicate the Monkey King as hot favorite for mascot.

  1. Spaceflight and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    In the grant period, we perfected techniques for determination of interleukin production and leukocyte subset analysis of rhesus monkeys. These results are outlined in detail in publication number 2, appended to this report. Additionally, we participated in the ARRT restraint test to determine if restraint conditions for flight in the Space Shuttle could contribute to any effects of space flight on immune responses. All immunological parameters listed in the methods section were tested. Evaluation of the data suggests that the restraint conditions had minimal effects on the results observed, but handling of the monkeys could have had some effect. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 3, appended to this report. Additionally, to help us develop our rhesus monkey immunology studies, we carried out preliminary studies in mice to determine the effects of stressors on immunological parameters. We were able to show that there were gender-based differences in the response of immunological parameters to a stressor. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 4, appended to this report.

  2. Experimentally induced ocular chlamydial infection in infant pig-tailed macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, P A; Patton, D L; Kuo, C C; Wang, S P; Lindquist, T D

    1989-05-01

    Four Macaca nemestrina monkeys were inoculated in the conjunctiva with Chlamydia trachomatis (strain E) at 6 weeks of age. A fifth monkey was inoculated with HeLa cell materials only. Ten weeks later, all monkeys were reinoculated with either strain E or strain C. All inoculated monkeys were susceptible to infection with C. trachomatis as documented by fluorescent antibody staining of smears and reisolation of the organism from conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Rectal and vaginal swab specimens remained negative throughout the study. Three of four inoculated animals responded with IgM titers reaching a peak of 1:16 (M#3) and 1:32 (M#1, M#4) 2 weeks after the primary inoculation. IgG appeared in all inoculated animals and titers rose to peak levels of 1:64 (M#2), 1:128 (M#1, M#3), and 1:256 (M#4). Histopathology documented a dramatic difference in immunological response following secondary inoculation. Primary inoculation elicited a typical inflammatory response characterized by moderate stromal infiltration of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. Plasma cells appeared by week 3 postinoculation (pi). Following a secondary inoculation, classic follicle formation was evident by 1 week pi. Mononuclear markers identified a germinal center composed of B cells and a T cell cap. Epithelial thinning near the cap of the follicle was accompanied by a complete loss of goblet cells. This model may be useful for studying the immunopathology of infant chlamydial infections.

  3. Low Level (Sub Threshold), Large Spot Laser Irradiations of the Foveas of Macaca Mulatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    1068. 1978. Glees, P. Spoerri, P. E. Tubular structures microtubuli and synaptic ribbon in monkey’s retinal receptors. Annales de Anatomia , 25 : 159...153 - 155. 1976. Hogan, M. J., Alvarado, J. A., Weddell, J. E. Histology of the human eye. An atlas and textbook. W. B. Saunders Co. 1971. S om61. Hori

  4. Studies on ’Macaca mulatta’ Infected with Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-10

    serum proteins were analyzed using an automated immuoprecipitin system utilizing available human serum standards and human antiserum.6 Thus, the...spectrophotometry. a Total protein b(TP) was determined using refractometry . Specific serum proteins were analyzed using an automated immuzoprecipitin...system utilizing available 6human serum standards and human antiserum. Thus, the monkey serum a -acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, and albumin values

  5. Interactions between visitors and Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Shou-Shan Nature Park, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Minna J; Kao, Chien-Ching; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2009-03-01

    Ecotourism involving feeding wildlife has raised public attention and is a controversial issue, especially concerning nonhuman primates. Between July 2002 and April 2005, the behavior of monkeys and tourists was collected through scan samplings, focal samplings and behavior samplings at the Shou-Shan Nature Park located in Taiwan's second largest city--Kaohsiung. In addition, the number of tourists and monkeys was counted in different hours and places within the park. Four hundred visitors were interviewed using a questionnaire to gather data on sex, age, purpose and frequency of visit to the park. The number of tourists was significantly higher during weekends than in weekdays in all locations. Humans dominated in the initiation of interspecies interactions--the overall ratio of human-initiated and monkey-initiated interactions was 2.44:1. Human-monkey conflicts accounted for only 16.4% of the total interactions (n=2,166), and adult human males and adult male macaques participated in higher rates than other age/sex groups in these conflicts. Visitors showed more affiliative behavior (15.9%) than agonistic behavior (8%) toward the macaques. In response to visitors' threat or attack, the Formosan macaques mostly showed submissive behavior with bared teeth, squealed or ran away to avoid confrontation (69.1%)--only few responded with counteraggression (18.7%). This study for the first time provided evidence that food provisioning increased both the frequency and duration of aggression among Formosan macaques (P<0.001). During food provisioning, the average frequency and the duration of agonistic events of macaques were more than 4 times higher compared with those without food provisioning. The average frequency of food provision by tourists was 0.73 times/hr--more than twice the incident that monkeys grabbed the food from tourists (0.34 times/hr). If people refrain from feeding monkeys and destroying the city park's natural vegetation, monkeys can be used to educate

  6. Recruitment and monitoring behaviors by leaders predict following in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seltmann

    2016-07-01

    collective movements in a group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus in the Middle Atlas, Morocco. The number of individuals displaying pre-departure behavior predicted the success of an initiation of a collective movement. Pauses of the first departing individual after departure enhanced following behavior and might have served as recruitment signal. However, the opposite was the case for back-glancing, which functions as a monitoring signal in other species. Because in our study frequently back-glancing individuals were also less socially integrated, back glances may better be interpreted as indicators of hesitation and insecurity. To successfully initiate a collective movement, it seemed to be sufficient for a socially integrated group member to take action when other group members signal their willingness prior to departure and to occasionally wait for the group while moving.

  7. AKTIVITAS HARIAN KERA EKOR PANJANG (Macaca fascicularis DI TAMAN WISATA ALAM SANGEH, KABUPATEN BADUNG, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Gede Wahyu Saputra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tentang aktivitas harian kera ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis telah dilakukan di Taman Wisata Alam Sangeh, Kabupaten Badung, Bali dari bulan Oktober – Desember 2012. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perilaku harian kera ekor panjang (M.  fascicularis di Taman Wisata Alam Sangeh. Penelitian perilaku harian kera dilakukan dengan metode Focal Animal Sampling. Data yang terkumpul dari berbagai jenis perilaku di analisa secara deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa frekuensi aktivitas harian kera ekor panjang didominasi oleh perilaku bergerak, kemudian berturut-turut diikuti oleh perilaku istirahat, makan, grooming, mendekap di dada, objek manipulasi, cuddling, agresif. sedangkan perilaku yang paling jarang dilakukan adalah kawin. Berdasarkan jenis kelamin individu dewasa, perilaku istirahat, makan, bergerak, agresif, objek manipulasi dan kawin didominasi oleh jantan sedangkan perilaku mendekap di dada, cuddling, dan grooming di dominasi oleh betina.

  8. Operant Behavior and Colonic Temperature of Rhesus Monkeys, Macaca mulatta, Exposed to Microwaves at Frequencies above and Near Whole-Body Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    this rtudy were handled in accordance with the principles stated in the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals," •,ui Institute of...handled in accordance with the principles stated in the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals," Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources...the manimal was placed into the chamber to when the experimental session was started. A PDP-8A computer in an adjoining room was used to control the

  9. The placenta in toxicology. Part I : Animal models in toxicology: placental morphology and tolerance molecules in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buse, Eberhard; Häeger, Jan-Dirk; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Markert, Udo R; Faas, Marijke M; Ernerudh, Jan; Dixon, Darlene; Cline, J Mark; Pfarrer, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    The immune system represents a key defense mechanism against potential pathogens and adverse non-self materials. During pregnancy, the placenta is the point of contact between the maternal organism and non-self proteins of the fetal allograft and hence undoubtedly fulfils immune functions. In the pl

  10. The placenta in toxicology. Part I : Animal models in toxicology: placental morphology and tolerance molecules in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buse, Eberhard; Häeger, Jan-Dirk; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Markert, Udo R; Faas, Marijke M; Ernerudh, Jan; Dixon, Darlene; Cline, J Mark; Pfarrer, Christiane

    The immune system represents a key defense mechanism against potential pathogens and adverse non-self materials. During pregnancy, the placenta is the point of contact between the maternal organism and non-self proteins of the fetal allograft and hence undoubtedly fulfils immune functions. In the

  11. Visual Expertise Does Not Predict the Composite Effect across Species: A Comparison between Spider ("Ateles geoffroyi") and Rhesus ("Macaca mulatta") Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Jessica; Parr, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are subject to the composite illusion: two identical top halves of a face are perceived as "different" when they are presented with different bottom halves. This observation suggests that when building a mental representation of a face, the underlying system perceives the whole face, and has difficulty decomposing facial features. We…

  12. Aged monkeys as a partial model for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, P J; Elsworth, J D; Whittaker, M C; Roth, R H; Redmond, D E

    2011-09-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the natural aging process share a number of biochemical mechanisms, including reduced function of dopaminergic systems. The present study aims to determine the extent that motor and behavioral changes in aged monkeys resemble parkinsonism induced by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. The behavioral and physiological changes in PD are believed to result largely from selective depletion of dopamine in the nigrostriatal system. In the present study, ten aged female monkeys were compared with three groups: 9 untreated young adult female monkeys, 10 young adult male monkeys and 13 older male monkeys that had been exposed to MPTP. Trained observers, blind as to age and drug condition and without knowledge of the hypotheses, scored the monkeys using the Parkinson's factor score (Parkscore), which has been validated by a high correlation with post mortem striatal dopamine (DA) concentrations. The aged animals had higher scores on the Parkscore compared with the young adults, with most of its component behavioral items showing significance (tremor, Eating Problems, Delayed initiation of movement, and Poverty of Movement). L-Dopa and DA-agonists did not clearly reverse the principal measure of parkinsonism. DA concentrations post mortem were 63% lower in 3 aged monkeys in the ventral putamen compared with 4 young adults, with greater reductions in putamen than in caudate (45%). We conclude that aged monkeys, unexposed to MPTP, show a similar profile of parkinsonism to that seen after the neurotoxin exposure to MPTP in young adult monkeys. The pattern of greater DA depletion in putamen than in caudate in aged monkeys is the same as in human Parkinson's disease and contrasts with the greater depletion in caudate seen after MPTP. Aged monkeys of this species reflect many facets of Parkinson's disease, but like older humans do not improve with standard dopamine replacement pharmacotherapies.

  13. Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Burns, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansen, W.L.; Ferket, P.R.; Heugten, E.

    2007-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions. Six woolly monkeys with known hypertension problems were tested to determine if diabetes mellitus and current dai

  14. Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Burns, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansen, W.L.; Ferket, P.R.; Heugten, E.

    2007-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions. Six woolly monkeys with known hypertension problems were tested to determine if diabetes mellitus and current dai

  15. Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the primate family, their physiology, and habits. Topics described include: (1) kinds of monkeys, including lemur, chimpanzee, gorilla, squirrel monkey, and marmoset; (2) behaviors when…

  16. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Numerical Ordering in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how within-stimulus heterogeneity affects the ability of rhesus monkeys to order pairs of the numerosities 1 through 9. Two rhesus monkeys were tested in a touch screen task where the variability of elements within each visual array was systematically varied by allowing elements to vary in color, size, shape, or any combination of…

  17. "Mohandas Fire" Year of the Fire Monkey (Chinese Zodiac)

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Exhibition of cartoons on the theme of the Fire Monkey - Chinese New Year at the Museo de Humor Grafico Diodenes Taborda, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Only British artist involved, with two works. 29 different nations entered and 51 artists involved. All works different approaches to the year of the Fire Monkey.

  18. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations o

  19. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  20. Discrimination Reversal Learning in Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Klein, Emily D.; Evans, Theodore A.; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M.; Harris, Emily H.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning styles in capuchin monkeys were assessed with a computerized reversal-learning task called the mediational paradigm. First, monkeys were trained to respond with 90% accuracy on a two-choice discrimination (A+B-). Then the authors examined differences in performance on three different types of reversal trials (A-B+, A-C+, B+C-), each of…

  1. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. Zihlman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas’ larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys’ basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas.

  2. Monkeying around: Use of Survey Monkey as a Tool for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massat, Carol Rippey; McKay, Cassandra; Moses, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of an online survey tool called Survey Monkey, which can be used by school social workers and school social work educators for evaluation of practice, needs assessment, and program evaluation. Examples of questions are given. Principles of writing good survey questions are described. (Contains 2 tables and 1…

  3. Impact of human pressure and forest fragmentation on the Endangered Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus in the Middle Atlas of Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Ménard, Nelly; Rantier, Yann; Foulquier, Adrien; Qarro, Mohamed; Chillasse, Lahcen; Vallet, Dominique; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Butet, Alain

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Overexploitation of forests by humans can lead to highly fragmented populations of forest-dependent species that have poor dispersal abilities. We tested the influence of habitat quality, landscape structure and human pressure on densities of the Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus in the largest wild population, in the Middle Atlas of Morocco. We surveyed 14 forest fragments of 5-142 km2 that are separated from each other by an inhospitable matrix. We estimated the habita...

  4. Outbreak of pasteurellosis in captive Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOSHINO, Mizuki; SASAKI, Jun; KURAMOCHI, Konomi; IKEZAWA, Mitsutaka; MUKAIZAWA, Natsuko; GORYO, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    In September 2012, five Bolivian squirrel monkeys housed in a zoological park died within sequential several days without obvious clinical signs. In a necrospy, one monkey presented swelling of the kidney with multifocal white nodules in the parenchyma, and other two had pulmonary congestion. Histopathologically, multifocal bacterial colonies of gram-negative coccobacillus were found in the sinusoid of the liver in all monkeys examined (Nos.1−4). Additionally, purulent pyelonephritis, pneumonia and disseminated small bacterial colonies in blood vessels were observed. Immunohistochemically, the bacterial colonies from two monkeys were positive for P. multocida capsular serotype D. Based on these findings, these monkeys were diagnosed as septicemia caused by acute P. multocida infection. PMID:28190821

  5. Vestibular adaptation to space in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, M.; Raphan, T.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Cohen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Otolith-induced eye movements of rhesus monkeys were studied before and after the 1989 COSMOS 2044 and the 1992 to 1993 COSMOS 2229 flights. Two animals flew in each mission for approximately 2 weeks. After flight, spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was altered. In one animal the time constant of postrotatory nystagmus, which had been shortened by head tilts with regard to gravity before flight, was unaffected by the same head tilts after flight. In another animal, eye velocity, which tended to align with a gravitational axis before flight, moved toward a body axis after flight. This shift of orientation disappeared by 7 days after landing. After flight, the magnitude of compensatory ocular counter-rolling was reduced by about 70% in both dynamic and static tilts. Modulation in vergence in response to naso-occipital linear acceleration during off-vertical axis rotation was reduced by more than 50%. These changes persisted for 11 days after recovery. An up and down asymmetry of vertical nystagmus was diminished for 7 days. Gains of the semicircular canal-induced horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes were unaffected in both flights, but the gain of the roll angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was decreased. These data indicate that there are short- and long-term changes in otolith-induced eye movements after adaptation to microgravity. These experiments also demonstrate the unique value of the monkey as a model for studying effects of vestibular adaptation in space. Eye movements can be measured in three dimensions in response to controlled vestibular and visual stimulation, and the results are directly applicable to human beings. Studies in monkeys to determine how otolith afferent input and central processing is altered by adaptation to microgravity should be an essential component of future space-related research.

  6. Monkeys represent others’ knowledge but not their beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Marticorena, Drew C.W.; Ruiz, April M.; Mukerji, Cora; Goddu, Anna; Santos, Laurie R

    2011-01-01

    The capacity to reason about the false beliefs of others is classically considered the benchmark for a fully fledged understanding of the mental lives of others. Although much is known about the developmental origins of our understanding of others’ beliefs, we still know much less about the evolutionary origins of this capacity. Here, we examine whether non-human primates – specifically, rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) – share this developmental achievement. We presented macaques with a look...

  7. Early life stress and novelty seeking behavior in adolescent monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J; Rainwater, Kimberly L; Buckmaster, Christine L; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lindley, Steven E; Lyons, David M

    2007-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to mild stress promotes the development of novelty seeking behavior. Here we test this hypothesis in squirrel monkeys and investigate whether novelty seeking behavior is associated with differences in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA), the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG), and the neuropeptide corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF). Monkeys were randomized early in life to either mild intermittent stress (IS) or no stress (NS) conditions, and subsequently presented with opportunities to interact with a familiar or novel object in a test box that was connected to each monkey's home cage. To further minimize the potentially stressful nature of the test situation, monkeys were acclimated to the test procedures prior to study initiation. Post-test plasma levels of cortisol in IS and NS monkeys did not differ significantly from baseline levels measured in undisturbed conditions. During testing, more IS than NS monkeys voluntarily left the home cage, and IS monkeys spent more time in the test box compared to NS monkeys. More IS than NS monkeys engaged in object exploration in the test box, and IS monkeys preferred to interact with the novel vs. familiar object. Novelty seeking was not associated with differences in 5HIAA, HVA, MHPG, or CRF, but correlated with differences in object exploration observed in a different test situation at an earlier age. These trait-like differences in novelty seeking appear to reflect mild early stress-induced adaptations that enhance curiosity and resilience.

  8. Short-term testosterone manipulations do not affect cognition or motor function but differentially modulate emotions in young and older male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian; Maguire-Herring, Vanessa; Rose, Christian M; Gore, Heather E; Ferrigno, Stephen; Novak, Melinda A; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2014-11-01

    Human aging is characterized by declines in cognition and fine motor function as well as improved emotional regulation. In men, declining levels of testosterone (T) with age have been implicated in the development of these age-related changes. However, studies examining the effects of T replacement on cognition, emotion and fine motor function in older men have not provided consistent results. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are excellent models for human cognitive aging and may provide novel insights on this issue. We tested 10 aged intact male rhesus monkeys (mean age=19, range 15-25) on a battery of cognitive, motor and emotional tasks at baseline and under low or high T experimental conditions. Their performance was compared to that of 6 young males previously tested in the same paradigm (Lacreuse et al., 2009; Lacreuse et al., 2010). Following a 4-week baseline testing period, monkeys were treated with a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (Depot Lupron, 200 μg/kg) to suppress endogenous T and were tested on the task battery under a 4-week high T condition (injection of Lupron+T enanthate, 20 mg/kg, n=8) or 4-week low T condition (injection of Lupron+oil vehicle, n=8) before crossing over to the opposite treatment. The cognitive tasks consisted of the Delayed Non-Matching-to-Sample (DNMS), the Delayed Response (DR), and the Delayed Recognition Span Test (spatial-DRST). The emotional tasks included an object Approach-Avoidance task and a task in which monkeys were played videos of unfamiliar conspecifics in different emotional context (Social Playbacks). The fine motor task was the Lifesaver task that required monkeys to remove a Lifesaver candy from rods of different complexity. T manipulations did not significantly affect visual recognition memory, working memory, reference memory or fine motor function at any age. In the Approach-Avoidance task, older monkeys, but not younger monkeys, spent more time in proximity of novel objects in the high T condition

  9. ARCTIC MONKEYS:猴子凶猛!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青鸟

    2007-01-01

    @@ 我不是成长于星条旗下的美利坚自由人民,所以英国乐队Arctic Monkeys在我跟前很能吃得开,打从我听到他们的第一个音符起.这或许是我从小看多了充满暴力的电视剧《西游记》,并对猴子产生了偏爱的缘故,而对Arctic Monkeys,来自北极的猴子,更是充满了好奇.

  10. Do wild titi monkeys show empathy?

    OpenAIRE

    Clyvia, A; Kaizer, M. C.; Santos,R.V.; Young, R.J.; C. Cäsar

    2014-01-01

    We observed a putative case of empathy among wild black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons)\\ud from two different groups (D and R). In over 10 years of behavioural observations of five habituated\\ud groups of this species, only low levels of inter-group tolerance have been observed. However, on one day, we\\ud encountered the adult male from group D limping (poor hind limb motor coordination) as he travelled alone\\ud along the ground. Interestingly, we observed that members of group R...

  11. Comparing amyloid-β deposition, neuroinflammation, glucose metabolism, and mitochondrial complex I activity in brain: a PET study in aged monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Hideo; Nishiyama, Shingo; Ohba, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Masakatsu; Kakiuchi, Takeharu; Harada, Norihiro [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Central Research Laboratory, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to compare amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition, translocator protein (TSPO) activity, regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc), and mitochondrial complex I (MC-I) activity in the brain of aged monkeys. PET scans with {sup 11}C-PIB (Aβ), {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF (MC-I), {sup 11}C-DPA-713 (TSPO), and {sup 18}F-FDG (rCMRglc) were performed in aged monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in the conscious state and under isoflurane anaesthesia. {sup 11}C-PIB binding to Aβ and {sup 11}C-DPA-713 binding to TSPO were evaluated in terms of standard uptake values (SUV). The total volume of distribution (V{sub T}) of {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF and rCMRglc with {sup 18}F-FDG were calculated using arterial blood sampling. Isoflurane did not affect MC-I activity measured in terms of {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF uptake in living brain. There was a significant negative correlation between {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF binding (V{sub T}) and {sup 11}C-PIB uptake (SUVR), and there was a significant positive correlation between {sup 11}C-DPA-713 uptake (SUV) and {sup 11}C-PIB uptake. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between rCMRglc ratio and {sup 11}C-PIB uptake. {sup 18}F-BCPP-EF could be a potential PET probe for quantitative imaging of impaired MC-I activity that is correlated with Aβ deposition in the living brain. (orig.)

  12. Spaceflight and immune responses of rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-a (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CD8+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  13. Explicit information reduces discounting behavior in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePearson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals are notoriously impulsive in common laboratory experiments, preferring smaller, sooner rewards to larger, delayed rewards even when this reduces average reward rates. By contrast, the same animals often engage in natural behaviors that require extreme patience, such as food caching, stalking prey, and traveling long distances to high quality food sites. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that standard laboratory delay discounting tasks artificially inflate impulsivity by subverting animals’ common learning strategies. To test this idea, we examined choices made by rhesus macaques in two variants of a standard delay discounting task. In the conventional variant, post-reward delays were uncued and adjusted to render total trial length constant; in the second, all delays were cued explicitly. We found that measured discounting was significantly reduced in the cued task, with discount rates well below those reported in studies using the standard uncued design. When monkeys had complete information, their decisions were more consistent with a strategy of reward rate maximization. These results indicate that monkeys, and perhaps other animals, are more patient than is normally assumed, and that laboratory measures of delay discounting may overstate impulsivity.

  14. Cerebromalacia with epilepsy and cortical blindness in a laboratory Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Nakao, Kazuko; Habiro, Mayu; Hayashi, Kazuko; Kuwata, Maki; Uehara, Norihisa; Yuri, Takashi; Nakamura, Kae; Tsubura, Airo

    2010-12-01

    The authors performed a pathological examination of a 5-year-old female laboratory Japanese monkey who developed cortical blindness and epileptic seizures. Generalized, tonic-clonic seizures started to occur during behavioral training to get the animal to enter a carrying cage for future psychological experiments. Blindness was suspected because of a lack of approaching behavior toward foods such as fruits. Although the monkey was extensively treated with anticonvulsants, the clinical signs did not improve. An increased serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) level and bilateral occipital brain atrophy were detected. Histopathologically, a severe degree of cerebromalacia was detected bilaterally in the occipital lobe, and necrosis and gliosis were seen mainly in the temporal lobe. Focal inflammation was found in the meninges. No other changes were observed in other nervous tissues or organs, and no signs of a parasitic or viral infection were found in the systemic organs. Spontaneously occurring lesions in the central nervous system have been rarely reported in laboratory monkeys. In the present case, the cause of cerebromalacia could not be confirmed, but the relationship between symptoms such as abnormal vision and the presence of brain lesions was distinct. The authors believe that this case is a valuable historical control case for the laboratory Japanese macaque.

  15. Predicting rhesus monkey eye movements during natural-image search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Mark A; Kuo, Emory; Caddigan, Sara; Berthiaume, Emily A; Kording, Konrad P

    2017-03-01

    There are three prominent factors that can predict human visual-search behavior in natural scenes: the distinctiveness of a location (salience), similarity to the target (relevance), and features of the environment that predict where the object might be (context). We do not currently know how well these factors are able to predict macaque visual search, which matters because it is arguably the most popular model for asking how the brain controls eye movements. Here we trained monkeys to perform the pedestrian search task previously used for human subjects. Salience, relevance, and context models were all predictive of monkey eye fixations and jointly about as precise as for humans. We attempted to disrupt the influence of scene context on search by testing the monkeys with an inverted set of the same images. Surprisingly, the monkeys were able to locate the pedestrian at a rate similar to that for upright images. The best predictions of monkey fixations in searching inverted images were obtained by rotating the results of the model predictions for the original image. The fact that the same models can predict human and monkey search behavior suggests that the monkey can be used as a good model for understanding how the human brain enables natural-scene search.

  16. Perception of chasing in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Takeshi; Nagasaka, Yasuo

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the intentions of others is crucial in developing positive social relationships. Comparative human and non-human animal studies have addressed the phylogenetic origin of this ability. However, few studies have explored the importance of motion information in distinguishing others' intentions and goals in non-human primates. This study addressed whether squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) are able to perceive a goal-directed motion pattern-specifically, chasing-represented by two geometric objects. In Experiment 1, we trained squirrel monkeys to discriminate a "Chasing" sequence from a "Random" sequence. We then confirmed that this discrimination transferred to new stimuli ("Chasing" and "Random") in a probe test. To determine whether the monkeys used similarities of trajectory to discriminate chasing from random motion, we also presented a non-chasing "Clone" sequence in which the trajectories of the two figures were identical. Three of six monkeys were able to discriminate "Chasing" from the other sequences. In Experiment 2, we confirmed humans' recognition of chasing with the stimuli from Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, the three monkeys for which discrimination did not transfer to the new stimuli in Experiment 1 were trained to discriminate between "Chasing" and "Clone" sequences. At testing, all three monkeys had learned to discriminate chasing, and two transferred their learning to new stimuli. Our results suggest that squirrel monkeys use goal-directed motion patterns, rather than simply similarity of trajectory, to discriminate chasing. Further investigation is necessary to identify the motion characteristics that contribute to this discrimination.

  17. Induction and inhibition of cytochrome P450 1A1 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in cynomolgus monkey primary hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, L.; Sanderson, J.T.; Berg, M. van den [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Inst. for Risk Assessment Sciences; Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) make up for 39% of the worldwide flame-retardants market. One groups of BFR, Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are used as additive flameretardants in plastic materials, paints, and textile fabrics. Some PBDEs have been found to be lipophilic and persistent, and consequently bioaccumulate. Recently, levels of some PBDEs have been increasing in fish, wildlife, and in human tissue. The structural similarity of certain PBDE congeners to other polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has raised concerns that these compounds might act as agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). If some of these PBDEs were to act as Ah receptor agonists, they would warrant inclusion in the toxic equivalence factor (TEF) concept. CYP1A1 is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme that is involved in phase 1 biotransformation of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds such as estrogens. Many CYP enzymes detoxify xenobiotics or bioactivate xenobiotics to reactive intermediates. Although CYP1A1 is expressed in all mammals, there are differences in expression levels among species and tissues. To study the possible dioxin-like effects of environmentally most relevant PBDEs (BDE47, 77, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183, 209), the Ah receptor-mediated induction CYP1A1 was studied in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) primary hepatocytes. CYP 1A1 is the major enzyme that catalyses the deethylation of 7-ethoxyresorufin to resorufin. This ethoxyresorufin-Odeethylation (EROD) activity was used as a marker for CYP1A1 activity.

  18. Actions of robustoxin, a neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the male funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus), in anaesthetized monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylecharane, E J; Spence, I; Sheumack, D D; Claassens, R; Howden, M E

    1989-01-01

    Robustoxin, a polypeptide consisting of a chain of 42 amino acid residues in a known sequence, has been isolated by cation exchange chromatography from the crude venom of the male funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus). Physiological activity or toxicity in the venom fractions was detected by production of fasciculation in mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations and by lethality in new-born mice. In the present experiments in Macaca fascicularis monkeys anaesthetized with pentobarbitone, robustoxin (5-30 micrograms/kg infused i.v. over 5 min) produced immediate disturbances in respiration (including dyspnoea and apnoea), blood pressure and heart rate followed by severe hypotension (mean systemic blood pressure less than 50 mmHg) or death due to respiratory and circulatory failure within 196 min. Robustoxin also produced lachrymation, salivation, generalized skeletal muscle fasciculation and a parallel increase in body temperature, and increased firing in skeletal motor and autonomic nerves. These effects closely resembled those produced by i.v. infusions over 5 min of 50 micrograms/kg of crude venom from male A. robustus spiders. Crude venom from female A. robustus spiders (500 micrograms/kg i.v. over 5 min) produced some of the effects elicited by robustoxin and crude venom from male spiders, but to a much less marked extent. It was concluded that robustoxin is responsible for the neurotoxic and lethal effects of human envenomation by male A. robustus spiders.

  19. Spontaneous obesity-linked type 2 diabetes in the absence of islet amyloid in a cynomolgus monkey infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, A; Yutzy, B; Kruip, C; Völker, I; Schloot, N C; Roden, M; Scott, F W; Löwer, J; Holznagel, E

    2013-09-01

    A 9-year-old cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) infected orally with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was presented for necropsy following euthanasia 4 years post infection (p.i.). This macaque R984 was exposed to a BSE dose that causes a simian form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) within 5 years p.i. in other macaques. All orally BSE-infected macaques developed a significant weight gain within the first 2 years p.i. compared with non-BSE-infected age- and sex-matched control animals, suggesting increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In contrast, macaque R984 developed rapid weight loss, hyperglycemia, and glucosuria and had to be euthanatized 4 years p.i. before clinical signs of vCJD. Pancreas histopathological evaluation revealed severe islet degeneration but, remarkably, no islet amyloid deposits were present. Immunostaining of pancreas sections for insulin and glucagon confirmed the loss of endocrine cells. In addition, prions were present in the adenohypophysis but not in other areas of the brain, indicating centripetal prion spread from the gut during the preclinical phase of BSE infection. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations of macaque R984 became abnormal with age and resembled T2D. This unusual case of spontaneous T2D in the absence of islet amyloid deposits could have been due to early prion spread from the periphery to the endocrine system or could have occurred spontaneously.

  20. Adaptations in Basal and Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal-Activated Deoxycorticosterone Responses Following Ethanol Self-administration in Cynomolgus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Vanessa A.; Porcu, Patrizia; Morrow, A. Leslie; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Acute ethanol activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, while long-term exposure results in a blunted neuroendocrine state, particularly with regards to the primary endpoint, cortisol, the primary glucocorticoid produced in the adrenal cortex. However, it is unknown if this dampened neuroendocrine status also influences other adrenocortical steroids. Plasma concentration of the mineralocorticoid and neuroactive steroid precursor deoxycorticosterone (DOC) is altered by pharmacological challenges of the HPA axis in cynomolgus monkeys. The present study investigated HPA axis regulation of circulating DOC concentration over the course of ethanol (4% w/v) induction and self-administration in non-human primates (Macaca fasciculata, n = 10). Plasma DOC, measured by radioimmunoassay, was compared at baseline (ethanol naïve), during schedule-induced polydipsia, and following 6-months of 22 h/day access to ethanol and water. The schedule induction of ethanol drinking did not alter basal DOC levels but selectively dampened the DOC response to pharmacological challenges aimed at the anterior pituitary (ovine corticotrophin-releasing hormone) and adrenal gland (post-dexamethasone adrenocorticotropin hormone), while pharmacological inhibition of central opioid receptors with naloxone greatly enhanced the DOC response during induction. Following 6 months of ethanol self-administration, basal DOC levels were increased more than twofold, while responses to each of the challenges normalized somewhat but remained significantly different than baseline. These data show that HPA axis modulation of the neuroactive steroid precursor DOC is markedly altered by the schedule induction of ethanol drinking and long-term voluntary ethanol self-administration. The consequences of chronic ethanol consumption on HPA axis regulation of DOC point toward allostatic modification of hypothalamic and adrenal function. PMID:28220108

  1. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  2. Loss of metabolites from monkey striatum during PET with FDOPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, P; Munk, O L; Doudet, D

    2001-01-01

    constants using data recorded during 240 min of FDOPA circulation in normal monkeys and in monkeys with unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesions. Use of the extended models increased the magnitudes of K(D)(i) and k(D)(3) in striatum; in the case of k(D)(3), variance...... of the estimate was substantially improved upon correction for metabolite loss. The rate constants for metabolite loss were higher in MPTP-lesioned monkey striatum than in normal striatum. The high correlation between individual estimates of k(Lin)(cl) and k(DA)(9) suggests that both rate constants reveal loss...

  3. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lm; Holmes, An; Williams, LE; Brosnan, Sf

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran "open diffusion" tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the "Slide-box"). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a 'ghost' display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys' learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this case, those

  4. Troop Takeover and Reproductive Success of Wild Male Japanese Macaques on Yakushima Island (Macaca fuscata yakui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Hayakawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Troop takeover is common in one-male primate groups, but there are few reports in multimale groups. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata form multimale groups and males commonly join troops at the bottom rank. On Yakushima island, however, where group size is relatively small, entrance into groups at the alpha position is also observed. This paper reports on the general features of troop takeover, on the predictors of takeover events, and on the reproductive success of takeover males. Troop takeovers occurred only in the mating season; nontroop males (NTMs did not cooperate with each other; former alpha males were rarely expelled from the troop; new alpha males did not commit infanticide; new alpha male tenure in the group was usually less than two years. Logistic regression analysis showed that the number of NTMs associating with a troop predicted the occurrence of troop takeover. Paternity discrimination revealed that 33.3% (3/9 of takeover males succeeded in siring offspring. Contrary to this low success rate, binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the takeover males can expect higher reproductive success compared to troop males. Entering a troop and out-competing the alpha male is one of many available strategies to attain reproductive success in male Japanese macaques.

  5. Male mate choice in Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min ZHANG, Jinhua LI, Yong ZHU, Xi WANG, Su WANG

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Though females are generally more selective in mate choice, males may also benefit from mate choice if male reproductive success is limited by factors other than simply the number of female mates, and if females differ in short-term reproductive potential. We studied male mate choice in a free-ranging troop of Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China, from August 2007 to April 2008. We employed focal animal sampling and all occurrence sampling to record sexual related behaviors. Eight adult females were divided into three female quality categories according to the females’ age, rank and parity. Using male mating effort as a proxy for male mate choice, we found that males do distinguish female quality and show time-variant mating strategies. Specifically, females with dominant rank, high fecundity, and middle age attracted significantly more males. Our results suggest that female short-term reproductive potential appears to be an important variable in determining male mating effort. Male Tibetan macaques do exercise mate choice for higher quality females as well as reduce useless reproductive cost, which is consistent with the direct benefits theory of mate choice [Current Zoology 56 (2: 213–221, 2010].

  6. Gene expression profiling in the Cynomolgus macaque Macaca fascicularis shows variation within the normal birth range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers Mark H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an adverse early-life environment has been linked to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered disease susceptibility as well as their relevance to humans are largely unknown. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that these effects operate within the normal range of birth weights and involve mechanisms of developmental palsticity rather than pathology. Method To explore this further, we utilised a non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque which shares with humans the same progressive history of the metabolic syndrome. Using microarray we compared tissues from neonates in the average birth weight (50-75th centile to those of lower birth weight (5-25th centile and studied the effect of different growth trajectories within the normal range on gene expression levels in the umbilical cord, neonatal liver and skeletal muscle. Results We identified 1973 genes which were differentially expressed in the three tissue types between average and low birth weight animals (P Conclusion These differences in gene expression levels between animals in the upper and lower percentiles of the normal birth weight range may point towards early life metabolic adaptations that in later life result in differences in disease risk.

  7. Infeksi Cacing Saluran Pencernaan Monyet Ekor Panjang (Macaca fascicularis Yang Diperdagangkan Di Pasar Satria Denpasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Ari Dwipayanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis dan intensitas serta prevalensi infeksi cacing saluran pencernaan pada monyet ekor panjang (Macaca fascicularis yang diperdagangkan di Pasar Satria Denpasar. Empat puluh lima sampel feses M. fascicularis (24 ekor monyet betina dan 21 ekor monyet jantan diambil secara aseptis, diberi label dan selanjutnya diperiksa di laboratorium Parasitologi FKH Universitas Udayana. Sampel diperiksa menggunakan metode konsentrasi sedimentasi untuk mengidentifikasi jenis cacing dan modifikasi McMaster untuk mengetahui intensitas infeksi. Jenis cacing saluran pencernaan yang berhasil diidentifikasi berturut-turut adalah Ancylostoma sp. (91,1%, Trichostrongylus sp./Oesophagostonum sp. (73,3%, Trichuris sp. (22,2%, Ascaris sp. dan Taenia sp. (4,4%. Rataan intensitas infeksi cacing      Ancylostoma sp. 4913 ± 4849 telur per gram tinja, Thrichostrongylus sp./ Oesophagostonum sp. 871 ± 816 telur per gram tinja, Trichuris sp. berkisar      171 ± 111 telur per gram tinja. Ascaris sp. dan Taenia sp. memiliki intensitas terendah yakni <100 telur per gram tinja. Secara umum prevalensi kecacingan adalah 93,3%. Prevalensi kecacingan pada monyet betina (52,2% sedangkan pada monyet jantan (48,8%. Berdasarkan umur, prevalensi kecacingan pada anakan, bayi, dan dewasa berturut-turut (72,1%, (25,6%, dan (2,3%. Pola infeksi umumnya tipe infeksi campuran (82,3% dibandingkan infeksi tunggal (17,7%.

  8. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), i.e., Arenga pinnata, Areca catechu, Terminalia catappa, Elaeis guineensis, Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Mangifera indica, Cascabela thevetia, Muntingia calabura, Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu, T. catappa, E. guineensis and C. thevetia, respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p < 0.05; crude fibre, F (11,24) = 28.886, p < 0.05; crude fat, F (11,24) = 2081.396, p < 0.05 and ash, F (11,24) = 41.011, p < 0.05). Fibre was found in the highest amount among the four types of nutrients studied. Here, A. catechu had the highest relative fibre content of all tested fruits, E. guineensis had the highest fat content, T. catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia.

  9. New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus After Transplantation in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fasicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kristin A; Tonsho, Makoto; Madsen, Joren C

    2015-08-01

    A 5.5-y-old intact male cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fasicularis) presented with inappetence and weight loss 57 d after heterotopic heart and thymus transplantation while receiving an immunosuppressant regimen consisting of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone to prevent graft rejection. A serum chemistry panel, a glycated hemoglobin test, and urinalysis performed at presentation revealed elevated blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (727 mg/dL and 10.1%, respectively), glucosuria, and ketonuria. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, and insulin therapy was initiated immediately. The macaque was weaned off the immunosuppressive therapy as his clinical condition improved and stabilized. Approximately 74 d after discontinuation of the immunosuppressants, the blood glucose normalized, and the insulin therapy was stopped. The animal's blood glucose and HbA1c values have remained within normal limits since this time. We suspect that our macaque experienced new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation, a condition that is commonly observed in human transplant patients but not well described in NHP. To our knowledge, this report represents the first documented case of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation in a cynomolgus macaque.

  10. Facial width-to-height ratio relates to dominance style in the genus Macaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Borgi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical, visual, chemical, and auditory cues signalling fighting ability have independently evolved in many animal taxa as a means to resolve conflicts without escalating to physical aggression. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR, i.e., the relative width to height of the face has been associated with dominance-related phenotypes both in humans and in other primates. In humans, faces with a larger fWHR are perceived as more aggressive. Methods. We examined fWHR variation among 11 species of the genus Macaca. Macaques have been grouped into four distinct categories, from despotic to tolerant, based on their female dominance style. Female dominance style is related to intra- and inter-sexual competition in both males and females and is the result of different evolutionary pressure across species. We used female dominance style as a proxy of intra-/inter-sexual competition to test the occurrence of correlated evolution between competitive regimes and dominance-related phenotypes. fWHR was calculated from 145 2D photographs of male and female adult macaques. Results. We found no phylogenetic signal on the differences in fWHR across species in the two sexes. However, fWHR was greater, in females and males, in species characterised by despotic female dominance style than in tolerant species. Discussion. Our results suggest that dominance-related phenotypes are related to differences in competitive regimes and intensity of inter- and intra-sexual selection across species.

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) populations in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Sonia; Tan, Soon Guan; Yong Seok Yien, Christina; Ng, Jillian; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Khan, Razib; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine J; Valdiani, Alireza; Khajeaian, Parastoo; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2014-12-01

    The genetic diversity and structure of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Peninsular Malaysia, a widely used non-human primate species in biomedical research, have not been thoroughly characterized. Thirteen sites of wild populations of long-tailed macaques representing six states were sampled and analyzed with 18 STR markers. The Sunggala and Penang Island populations showed the highest genetic diversity estimates, while the Jerejak Island population was the most genetically discrete due to isolation from the mainland shelf. Concordant with pairwise F(st) estimates, STRUCTURE analyses of the seven PCA-correlated clusters revealed low to moderate differentiation among the sampling sites. No association between geographic and genetic distances exists, suggesting that the study sites, including island study sites, are genetically if not geographically contiguous. The status of the genetic structure and composition of long-tailed macaque populations require further scrutiny to develop this species as an important animal model in biomedical research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Exploring the components, asymmetry and distribution of relationship quality in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McFarland

    Full Text Available Social relationships between group members are a key feature of many animal societies. The quality of social relationships has been described by three main components: value, compatibility and security, based on the benefits, tenure and stability of social exchanges. We aimed to analyse whether this three component structure could be used to describe the quality of social relationships in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus. Moreover, we examined whether relationship quality was affected by the sex, age and rank differences between social partners, and investigated the asymmetric nature of social relationships. We collected over 1,900 hours of focal data on seven behavioural variables measuring relationship quality, and used principal component analysis to investigate how these variables clustered together. We found that relationship quality in wild Barbary macaques can be described by a three component structure that represents the value, compatibility and security of a relationship. Female-female dyads had more valuable relationships and same-age dyads more compatible relationships than any other dyad. Rank difference had no effect on the quality of a social relationship. Finally, we found a high degree of asymmetry in how members of a dyad exchange social behaviour. We argue that the asymmetry of social relationships should be taken into account when exploring the pattern and function of social behaviour in animal societies.

  13. Diet of the Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in lime-stone habitats of Nonggang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihai ZHOU, Hua WEI, Zhonghao HUANG, Chengming HUANG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance our understanding of dietary adaptations in macaques we studied the diet of the Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in limestone seasonal rain forests at Nonggang Nature Reserve, China from September 2005 to August 2006. Our results show that although macaques fed on many plant species, 85.2% of the diet came from only 12 species, of which a bamboo species, Indocalamus calcicolus contributed to 62% of the diet. Young leaves were staple food items (74.1% of the diet for Assamese macaques at Nonggang, and constituted the bulk of monthly diets almost year-round, ranging from 44.9% (July to 92.9% (May. Young parts of Indocalamus calcicolus unexpanded leaves contributed to a large proportion of the young leaf diet in most months. Fruit accounted for only 17.4% of the diet, with a peak of consumption in July. We suggest that this highly folivorous diet may be related to the long lean season of fruit availability in limestone habitats as well as the utilization of cliffs of low fruit availability [Current Zoology 57 (1: 18–25, 2011].

  14. A non-invasive study of alopecia in Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    This article provides information on the phenomenon of alopecia in Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, in various environments and proposes a 3-step scoring system for a quantitative assessment of hair loss. Results suggest that alopecia is commonly observed in Japanese macaques, with 20.5% of individuals showing head alopecia and 4.7% showing back alopecia across eight study groups. Alopecia was more commonly observed in adult females (30.8% individuals showing head alopecia and 15.3% showing back alopecia) than in other age-sex classes. Seasonal variation of back alopecia was noted, in particular, individuals with patchy back hair were more frequently observed in winter than in summer. Seasonal variation was not observed in head hair. The distribution of alopecia was also different among study groups. The wild population generally had better hair condition than provisioned populations and captive populations. The present study used a non-invasive alopecia scoring system which can be a useful, rapid and non-invasive tool to monitor animal health and well-being at a population level.

  15. Buton macaques (Macaca ochreata brunnescens): crops, conflict, and behavior on farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priston, Nancy E C; Wyper, Rebecca M; Lee, Phyllis C

    2012-01-01

    One consequence of anthropogenic habitat alteration is that many nonhuman primates are forced into conflict interactions with humans and their livelihood activities, especially through crop raiding. These problems are particularly acute for the endemic and threatened Buton Island macaque (Macaca ochreata brunnescens), in southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Our study investigated the crop raiding behavior of this species over time. Foods eaten and the behavioral repertoire exhibited by macaques during crop raiding at and inside farm perimeters were observed over a period of 8 years (2002-2009). Storage organ crops (e.g. sweet potato) were abundant and most frequently raided by macaques. Individual macaques were most commonly observed to raid close (0-10 m) to farm perimeters. Activities such as feeding, resting, moving, and social interaction varied significantly as a function of penetration distance into the farm, but only marginally between age-sex classes. The annual average raid frequency per farm decreased over the latter years of the study period, raising questions about changes in macaque foraging and ranging behavior over time and their response to farm management and mitigation strategies.

  16. Blood genomic profiles of exposures to Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammamieh Rasha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphocytes provide invaluable whistle blowers of changes due to infections. We use the information registered by these cells using their mRNAs as they encounter the pathogen to develop patterns of expression that correspond to that specific pathogen. Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE is a mosquito-borne viral disease characterized by fever and one or more of the following: severe headache, back pain, myalgias, prostration, chills, nausea, vomiting, weakness and other flu-like symptoms. Screening for host mRNA obtained from blood samples after exposure to VEEV may provide the means for early detection of surrogate markers of the impending illness and provide appropriate strategies for treatment. Results We have been carrying out gene expression analysis of PBMC exposed to VEEV to extract signatures and diagnostic markers of early exposure to be used in non invasive blood analysis methods. In this study, we used high throughput gene expression analysis to identify markers of early and late exposures to VEEV in vivo in Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis. We carried out cDNA microarrays and real time PCR on blood samples obtained from the NHP model resulting in a panel of host genes that are altered in response to VEEV. Conclusion Screening for host mRNA obtained from blood samples after exposure to VEEV may provide the means for early detection of surrogate markers of the impending illness and provide appropriate strategies for treatment.

  17. Nutritional Composition of Fruits Selected by Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Norazila; Hambali, Kamarul; Amir, Aainaa

    2017-01-01

    Proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), i.e., Arenga pinnata, Areca catechu, Terminalia catappa, Elaeis guineensis, Lagerstroemia tomentosa, Mangifera indica, Cascabela thevetia, Muntingia calabura, Musa sp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and Ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. The results showed the following order of nutrients: fibre, protein, fat and ash. Based on the results of the chemical analysis, the highest percentage of fibre content (52.7%), protein (9.9%), fat (77.2%) and ash (8.5%) were found in A. catechu, T. catappa, E. guineensis and C. thevetia, respectively. The nutrient composition of these twelve fruit species was found to differ (ANOVA test: crude protein, F (11,24) = 87.978, p < 0.05; crude fibre, F (11,24) = 28.886, p < 0.05; crude fat, F (11,24) = 2081.396, p < 0.05 and ash, F (11,24) = 41.011, p < 0.05). Fibre was found in the highest amount among the four types of nutrients studied. Here, A. catechu had the highest relative fibre content of all tested fruits, E. guineensis had the highest fat content, T. catappa had the highest protein content, and the total mineral content was highest in C. thevetia. PMID:28228918

  18. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation.

  19. Desferrioxamine suppresses Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, S; Rossan, R N; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A

    1987-02-01

    Clinical observation has suggested that iron deficiency may be protective in malaria, and we have found that desferrioxamine (DF), an iron-specific chelating agent, inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. It was difficult to be confident that DF would be effective in an intact animal, however, because continuous exposure to DF was required in vitro and, in vivo, DF is rapidly excreted. Also, the in vitro effect of DF was overcome by addition of iron to the culture and in vivo there are potentially high local iron concentrations when iron is absorbed from the diet or released from reticuloendothelial cells. We now show that DF given by constant subcutaneous infusion does suppress parasitemia in P. falciparum-infected Aotus monkeys.

  20. Amygdalar vocalization pathways in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, U

    1982-06-10

    In 22 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) vocalization-eliciting electrodes were implanted into the amygdala and along the trajectory of the stria terminalis. Then, lesions were placed in the stria terminalis, its bed nucleus, the ventral amygdalofugal pathway and several di- and mesencephalic structures in order to find out the pathways along which the amygdala exerts its vocalization-controlling influence. It was found that different call types are controlled by different pathways. Purring and chattering calls, which express a self-confident, challenging attitude and an attempt to recruit fellow-combatants in intra-specific mobbing, respectively, are controlled via the stria terminalis; alarm peep and groaning calls, in contrast, which indicate flight motivation and resentment, respectively, are triggered via the ventral amygdalofugal fibre bundle. Both pathways traverse the dorsolateral and dorsomedial hypothalamus, respectively, and unite in the periaqueductal grey of the midbrain.

  1. Keep children away from macaque monkeys!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréhin, Camille; Debuisson, Cécile; Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Niphuis, Henk; Buitendijk, Hester; Mengelle, Catherine; Grouteau, Erick; Claudet, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    To warn physicians and parents about the risk of macaque bites, we present two pediatric cases (a 4-year-old boy and a 10-year-old girl) of bites sustained while on holiday. The young boy developed febrile dermohypodermitis and was hospitalized for IV antibiotic treatment. He received an initial antirabies vaccine while still in the holiday destination. Except for local wound disinfection and antibiotic ointment, the girl did not receive any specific treatment while abroad. Both were negative for simian herpes PCR. When travelling in countries or cities with endemic simian herpes virus, parents should keep children away from monkeys. Travel agencies, pediatricians and family physicians should better inform families about the zoonotic risk.

  2. Molecular cloning of pituitary glycoprotein alpha-subunit and follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunits from New World squirrel monkey and owl monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Jonathan G; Funkhouser, Jane D; Moyer, Felricia S; Gibson, Susan V; Willis, Donna L

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the gonadotropins expressed in pituitary glands of the New World squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) and owl monkey (Aotus sp.). The various subunits were amplified from total RNA from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of other species. Mature squirrel monkey and owl monkey glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides (96 amino acids in length) were determined to be 80% homologous to the human sequence. The sequences of mature beta subunits of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHbeta) from squirrel monkey and owl monkey (111 amino acids in length) are 92% homologous to human FSHbeta. New World primate glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides and FSHbeta subunits showed conservation of all cysteine residues and consensus N-linked glycosylation sites. Attempts to amplify the beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands were unsuccessful. Rather, the beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) was amplified from pituitaries of both New World primates. Squirrel monkey and owl monkey CGbeta are 143 and 144 amino acids in length and 77% homologous with human CGbeta. The greatest divergence is in the C terminus, where all four sites for O-linked glycosylation in human CGbeta, responsible for delayed metabolic clearance, are predicted to be absent in New World primate CGbetas. It is likely that CG secreted from pituitary of New World primates exhibits a relatively short half-life compared to human CG.

  3. jMonkeyEngine 3.0 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Edén, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    If you are a jMonkey developer or a Java developer who is interested to delve further into the game making process to expand your skillset and create more technical games, then this book is perfect for you.

  4. Monkey visual behavior falls into the uncanny valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckenfinger, Shawn A; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2009-10-27

    Very realistic human-looking robots or computer avatars tend to elicit negative feelings in human observers. This phenomenon is known as the "uncanny valley" response. It is hypothesized that this uncanny feeling is because the realistic synthetic characters elicit the concept of "human," but fail to live up to it. That is, this failure generates feelings of unease due to character traits falling outside the expected spectrum of everyday social experience. These unsettling emotions are thought to have an evolutionary origin, but tests of this hypothesis have not been forthcoming. To bridge this gap, we presented monkeys with unrealistic and realistic synthetic monkey faces, as well as real monkey faces, and measured whether they preferred looking at one type versus the others (using looking time as a measure of preference). To our surprise, monkey visual behavior fell into the uncanny valley: They looked longer at real faces and unrealistic synthetic faces than at realistic synthetic faces.

  5. Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys without Anti-Rejection Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160989.html Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys Without Anti-Rejection Drugs Scientists say goal is to create banks of stem cells that could be used for any human patient ...

  6. Monkey King by Zhengjiang General Troupe of Quyi and Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉

    2008-01-01

    Monkey King,the grand acrobatic and magical theme show, has successfully given its first dozen shows at Hangzhou Theater since July 27.The show was presented by Zhejiang General Troupe of Quyi and Acrobatics, and

  7. INTERCEPTIVE EFFECTS OF EPOSTANE IN RATS AND RHESUS MONKEYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINZhong-Ming; LIUChang-Guan; CHENHui-Qing; LIWei-Kang; XURui-Ying

    1989-01-01

    Interceptives arc defined as agents which interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Epostane, a potent 3β-hydroxysteruid dehydrogenase inhibitor, possessed interceptive activities in rats and rhesus monkeys. In rats, day 10 and day 11 of pregnancy were the

  8. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis social learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM Hopper

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran “open diffusion” tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23. Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the “Slide-box”. Two thirds (67% of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a ‘ghost’ display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions and paired controls (28% were successful but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys’ learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert

  9. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A

    1985-11-01

    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains.

  10. Park Rangers' Behaviors and Their Effects on Tourists and Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Rie; Sheeran, Lori K; Li, Jin-Hua; Sun, Lixing; Wang, Xi; Pritchard, Alexander J; DuVall-Lash, Alexander S; Wagner, R Steve

    2014-09-15

    Previous studies have reported the negative impacts of tourism on nonhuman primates (NHPs) and tourists and advocated the improvement of tourism management, yet what constitutes good quality management remains unclear. We explored whether rates of macaque aggression and self-directed behaviors (SDBs) differed under the supervision of two park ranger teams at the Valley of the Wild Monkeys (VWM) in Mt. Huangshan, Anhui Province, China. The two ranger teams provisioned and managed a group of macaques on an alternating monthly basis. Monkey, tourist and ranger behaviors were collected from August 16-September 30, 2012. Macaque aggression and SDB rates did not differ significantly under the management of the two teams. Overall, there was little intervention in tourist-macaque interactions by park rangers, and even when rangers discouraged tourists' undesirable behaviors, tourist interactions with monkeys persisted. Furthermore, only one or sometimes two park rangers managed monkeys and tourists, and rangers established dominance over the monkeys to control them. In order to effectively manage tourists and monkeys by a single park ranger, we recommend that rangers: (1) prohibit tourists from feeding; (2) move around the viewing platform more frequently; and (3) limit the number of tourists each visiting session.

  11. Depth perception from moving cast shadow in macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Saneyuki; Usui, Nobuo; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Taira, Masato; Katsuyama, Narumi

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, we investigate whether the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow. To accomplish this, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, an adult Japanese monkey was trained in a motion discrimination task in depth by binocular disparity. A square was presented on the display so that it appeared with a binocular disparity of 0.12 degrees (initial position), and moved toward (approaching) or away from (receding) the monkey for 1s. The monkey was trained to discriminate the approaching and receding motion of the square by GO/delayed GO-type responses. The monkey showed a significantly high accuracy rate in the task, and the performance was maintained when the position, color, and shape of the moving object were changed. In the next experiment, the change in the disparity was gradually decreased in the motion discrimination task. The results showed that the performance of the monkey declined as the distance of the approaching and receding motion of the square decreased from the initial position. However, when a moving cast shadow was added to the stimulus, the monkey responded to the motion in depth induced by the cast shadow in the same way as by binocular disparity; the reward was delivered randomly or given in all trials to prevent the learning of the 2D motion of the shadow in the frontal plane. These results suggest that the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow as well as using binocular disparity.

  12. Monkey Feeding Assay for Testing Emetic Activity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are unique bacterial toxins that cause gastrointestinal toxicity as well as superantigenic activity. Since systemic administration of SEs induces superantigenic activity leading to toxic shock syndrome that may mimic enterotoxic activity of SEs such as vomiting and diarrhea, oral administration of SEs in the monkey feeding assay is considered as a standard method to evaluate emetic activity of SEs. This chapter summarizes and discusses practical considerations of the monkey feeding assay used in studies characterizing classical and newly identified SEs.

  13. Pulpal Response to Intraligamentary Injection in the Cynomologus Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Peurach, James C.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if intraligamentary injection causes qualitative histopathologic changes in the dental pulp of a Cynomologus monkey. In as much as the pulp and periapical tissues of the monkey are similar to that of humans, nonresolving damage to the pulp would contraindicate periodontal ligament injection in procedures where the tooth would not be extracted or the pulp extirpated. Periodontal ligament injection in this study did not produce any histopathological ...

  14. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic

  15. Monkey and dung beetle activities influence soil seed bank structure

    OpenAIRE

    Feer, François; Ponge, Jean-François; Jouard, Sylvie; Gomez, Doris

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In Neotropical forests, dung beetles act as efficient secondary dispersers of seeds that are dispersed primarily by red howler monkeys. Here, we investigated the origins of soil seed bank variability in relation to monkey and dung beetle activity, to assess the impact of dung beetles on seed fate, and their adaptability to resource availability. This question is important to better understand the process of tree regeneration, and is especially timely in the current con...

  16. Performing monkeys of Bangladesh: characterizing their source and genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Akhtar, Sharmin; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The acquisition and training of monkeys to perform is a centuries-old tradition in South Asia, resulting in a large number of rhesus macaques kept in captivity for this purpose. The performing monkeys are reportedly collected from free-ranging populations, and may escape from their owners or may be released into other populations. In order to determine whether this tradition involving the acquisition and movement of animals has influenced the population structure of free-ranging rhesus macaques in Bangladesh, we first characterized the source of these monkeys. Biological samples from 65 performing macaques collected between January 2010 and August 2013 were analyzed for genetic variation using 716 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA. Performing monkey sequences were compared with those of free-ranging rhesus macaque populations in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar. Forty-five haplotypes with 116 (16 %) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the performing monkeys. As for the free-ranging rhesus population, most of the substitutions (89 %) were transitions, and no indels (insertion/deletion) were observed. The estimate of the mean number of pair-wise differences for the performing monkey population was 10.1264 ± 4.686, compared to 14.076 ± 6.363 for the free-ranging population. Fifteen free-ranging rhesus macaque populations were identified as the source of performing monkeys in Bangladesh; several of these populations were from areas where active provisioning has resulted in a large number of macaques. The collection of performing monkeys from India was also evident.

  17. A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Banerji, Christopher R S; Severini, Simone

    2013-01-01

    We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.

  18. A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.

  19. Dyscoria Associated with Herpesvirus Infection in Owl Monkeys (Aotus nancymae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Montoya, Enrique J; Weller, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Dyscoria was noted in a female owl monkey and 2 of her offspring. The third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two male monkeys paired with the female died, 1 of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all 3 animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring w...

  20. Transcriptional profiling of rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, James A; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Clepper, Lisa; Wolf, Don P

    2006-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) may be able to cure or alleviate the symptoms of various degenerative diseases. However, unresolved issues regarding survival, functionality, and tumor formation mean a prudent approach should be adopted towards advancing ESCs into human clinical trials. The rhesus monkey provides an ideal model organism for developing strategies to prevent immune rejection and test the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of ESC-based medical treatments. Transcriptional profiling of rhesus monkey ESCs provides a foundation for pre-clinical ESC research in this species. In the present study, we used microarray technology, immunocytochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to characterize and transcriptionally profile rhesus monkey ESCs. We identified 367 stemness gene candidates that were highly (>85%) conserved across five different ESC lines. Rhesus monkey ESC lines maintained a pluripotent undifferentiated state over a wide range of POU5F1 (also known as OCT4) expression levels, and comparisons between rhesus monkey, mouse, and human stemness genes revealed five mammalian stemness genes: CCNB1, GDF3, LEFTB, POU5F1, and NANOG. These five mammalian genes are strongly expressed in rhesus monkey, mouse, and human ESCs, albeit only in the undifferentiated state, and represent the core key mammalian stemness factors.

  1. Evaluation of seven hypotheses for metamemory performance in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M; Schroeder, Gabriel R; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2015-02-01

    Knowing the extent to which nonhumans and humans share mechanisms for metacognition will advance our understanding of cognitive evolution and will improve selection of model systems for biomedical research. Some nonhuman species avoid difficult cognitive tests, seek information when ignorant, or otherwise behave in ways consistent with metacognition. There is agreement that some nonhuman animals "succeed" in these metacognitive tasks, but little consensus about the cognitive mechanisms underlying performance. In one paradigm, rhesus monkeys visually searched for hidden food when ignorant of the location of the food, but acted immediately when knowledgeable. This result has been interpreted as evidence that monkeys introspectively monitored their memory to adaptively control information seeking. However, convincing alternative hypotheses have been advanced that might also account for the adaptive pattern of visual searching. We evaluated seven hypotheses using a computerized task in which monkeys chose either to take memory tests immediately or to see the answer again before proceeding to the test. We found no evidence to support the hypotheses of behavioral cue association, rote response learning, expectancy violation, response competition, generalized search strategy, or postural mediation. In contrast, we repeatedly found evidence to support the memory monitoring hypothesis. Monkeys chose to see the answer when memory was poor, either from natural variation or experimental manipulation. We found limited evidence that monkeys also monitored the fluency of memory access. Overall, the evidence indicates that rhesus monkeys can use memory strength as a discriminative cue for information seeking, consistent with introspective monitoring of explicit memory.

  2. Insect-foraging in captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovich, Christy K; Rivera, Jeanette; Evans, Sian

    2010-08-01

    Whereas the diets of diurnal primate species vary greatly, almost all nocturnal primate species consume insects. Insect-foraging has been described in nocturnal prosimians but has not been investigated in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.). We studied 35 captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) in order to describe their foraging behavior and to determine if there were any age or sex differences in their ability to capture insect prey. Because owl monkeys cooperate in parental care and in food-sharing, we expected social interactions involving insect prey. We found that owl monkeys most often snatched flying insects from the air and immobilized crawling insects against a substrate using their hands. Immatures and adult female owl monkeys attempted to capture prey significantly more often than did adult males; however, there was no difference in the proportion of attempts that resulted in capture. Social interactions involving prey appeared similar to those with provisioned food, but possessors of prey resisted begging attempts more so than did possessors of other food. Owl monkeys attempted to capture prey often (mean = 9.5 +/- 5.8 attempts/h), and we speculate that the protein and lipid content of captured prey is important for meeting the metabolic demands for growth and reproduction.

  3. Intrapericardial Denervation: Responses to Water Immersion in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1995-01-01

    Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings.

  4. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M; Swanbeck, Sonja N; Conway, Bevil R

    2014-07-15

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection thresholds from initial testing to plateau performance (“learning”) was similar for +L − M (red) colors and +M − L (bluish-green) colors. But the extent of learning was higher for +S (lavender) than for −S (yellow-lime); moreover, at plateau performance, the cone contrast at the detection threshold was higher for +S than for −S. These asymmetries may reflect differences in retinal circuitry for S-ON and S-OFF. At plateau performance, the two species also had similar detection thresholds for all colors, although monkeys had shorter reaction times than humans and slightly lower thresholds for colors that modulated L/M cones. We discuss whether these observations, together with previous work showing that monkeys have lower spatial acuity than humans, could be accounted for by selective pressures driving higher chromatic sensitivity at the cost of spatial acuity amongst monkeys, specifically for the more recently evolved L − M mechanism.

  5. Auditory artificial grammar learning in macaque and marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Slater, Heather; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2013-11-27

    Artificial grammars (AG) are designed to emulate aspects of the structure of language, and AG learning (AGL) paradigms can be used to study the extent of nonhuman animals' structure-learning capabilities. However, different AG structures have been used with nonhuman animals and are difficult to compare across studies and species. We developed a simple quantitative parameter space, which we used to summarize previous nonhuman animal AGL results. This was used to highlight an under-studied AG with a forward-branching structure, designed to model certain aspects of the nondeterministic nature of word transitions in natural language and animal song. We tested whether two monkey species could learn aspects of this auditory AG. After habituating the monkeys to the AG, analysis of video recordings showed that common marmosets (New World monkeys) differentiated between well formed, correct testing sequences and those violating the AG structure based primarily on simple learning strategies. By comparison, Rhesus macaques (Old World monkeys) showed evidence for deeper levels of AGL. A novel eye-tracking approach confirmed this result in the macaques and demonstrated evidence for more complex AGL. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown level of AGL complexity in Old World monkeys that seems less evident in New World monkeys, which are more distant evolutionary relatives to humans. The findings allow for the development of both marmosets and macaques as neurobiological model systems to study different aspects of AGL at the neuronal level.

  6. Serologic host response to Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni in socially housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienesberger, Sabine; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Rivera-Correa, Juan L; Tosado-Acevedo, Rafael; Li, Huilin; Dubois, Andre; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis A; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Blaser, Martin J

    2012-08-24

    Helicobacter pylori are successful colonizers of the human gastric mucosa. Colonization increases the risk of peptic ulcer disease and adenocarcinoma. However, potential benefits of H. pylori colonization include protection against early-onset asthma and against gastrointestinal infections. Campylobacter jejuni are a leading cause of bacterial diarrhea and complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here, we describe the development of reliable serological assays to detect antibodies against those two bacteria in Rhesus macaques and investigated their distribution within a social group of monkeys. Two cohorts of monkeys were analyzed. The first cohort consisted of 30 monkeys and was used to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for H. pylori antibodies detection. To evaluate colonization of those macaques, stomach biopsies were collected and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori by histology and culture. C. jejuni ELISAs were established using human serum with known C. jejuni antibody status. Next, plasma samples of the 89 macaques (Cohort 2) were assayed for antibodies and then statistically analyzed. An H. pylori IgG ELISA, which was 100% specific and 93% sensitive, was established. In contrast, the IgA ELISA was only 82% specific and 61% sensitive. The CagA IgG assay was 100% sensitive and 61% of the macaques were positive. In cohort 2, 62% macaques were H. pylori sero-positive and 52% were CagA positive. The prevalence of H. pylori IgG and CagA IgG increased with monkey age as described for humans. Of the 89 macaques 52% showed IgG against C. jejuni but in contrast to H. pylori, the sero-prevalence was not associated with increasing age. However, there was a drop in the IgG (but not in IgA) mean values between infant and juvenile macaques, similar to trends described in humans. Rhesus macaques have widespread exposure to H. pylori and C. jejuni, reflecting their social conditions and implying that Rhesus macaques might provide a model to

  7. Serologic host response to Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni in socially housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kienesberger Sabine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori are successful colonizers of the human gastric mucosa. Colonization increases the risk of peptic ulcer disease and adenocarcinoma. However, potential benefits of H. pylori colonization include protection against early-onset asthma and against gastrointestinal infections. Campylobacter jejuni are a leading cause of bacterial diarrhea and complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here, we describe the development of reliable serological assays to detect antibodies against those two bacteria in Rhesus macaques and investigated their distribution within a social group of monkeys. Methods Two cohorts of monkeys were analyzed. The first cohort consisted of 30 monkeys and was used to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for H. pylori antibodies detection. To evaluate colonization of those macaques, stomach biopsies were collected and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori by histology and culture. C. jejuni ELISAs were established using human serum with known C. jejuni antibody status. Next, plasma samples of the 89 macaques (Cohort 2 were assayed for antibodies and then statistically analyzed. Results An H. pylori IgG ELISA, which was 100% specific and 93% sensitive, was established. In contrast, the IgA ELISA was only 82% specific and 61% sensitive. The CagA IgG assay was 100% sensitive and 61% of the macaques were positive. In cohort 2, 62% macaques were H. pylori sero-positive and 52% were CagA positive. The prevalence of H. pylori IgG and CagA IgG increased with monkey age as described for humans. Of the 89 macaques 52% showed IgG against C. jejuni but in contrast to H. pylori, the sero-prevalence was not associated with increasing age. However, there was a drop in the IgG (but not in IgA mean values between infant and juvenile macaques, similar to trends described in humans. Conclusions Rhesus macaques have widespread exposure to H. pylori and C. jejuni, reflecting their social

  8. The influence of exposure to UVβ of fluorescent light on the bone remodeling of hypoestrogenic Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Rachman

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of osteoporosis is a spesific problem that should be dealt with by increasing the women's lift expectation. The decrease of calcitriol and estrogen levels, which have a receptor in the osteoblast, will result in bone mineralization (due to calcitriol and the information of type 1 collagen (due to estrogen. The formation of calcitriol with the main basic materials from vitamin D3 is achieved with the aid of sunray UVβ, The changes in the lifestyle of women, which make them now accustomed to performing indoor activities and prevent them from being exposed to UVβ all day, have resulted in the decrease of vitamin D3 in calcitriol in women. In addition, when entering the menopausal age they will be threatened with early osteoporosis. The exposure to the UVβ of fluorescent light with the wave length identical to sun of 290-320 nm has long been known as a modality for treating skin diseases in the hope that the production of vitamin D3  will be increased. We exposed Macaca fascicularis, whose estrogen levels were set at normal, beginning low, beginning very low levels, to UVβ of fluorescent light. It showed that the Macaca fascicularis that were exposed to UVβ experienced an increase in osteocalcin with unchanged DPD which means that bone remodeling remains unchanged. By contrast, Macaca fascicularis with normal, beginning low, and beginning very low estrogen levels which were not exposed to UVβ were found to experience a decrease in osteocalcin and unchanged DPD levels. This means that a change has occurred in the bone remodeling toward bone resorption. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 63-8Keywords: UVβ, osteoporosis, estrogen, vitamin D3, calcitriol, osteocalcin, DPD

  9. Etiologic structure of bacterial intestinal infections in monkeys of Adler breeding center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardasheliya, S N; Kalashnikova, V A; Dzhikidze, E K

    2011-10-01

    We studied etiologic structure of bacterial intestinal infections in monkeys of Adler nursery. A total of 533 monkeys with diarrhea syndrome and monkeys dead from intestinal infections, as well as clinically healthy monkeys and animals dead from other pathologies were examined by bacteriological and molecular-genetic methods. Pathogenic enterobacteria Shigella and Salmonella and microaerophile Campylobacter were found in 5 and 19%, respectively. A high percentage (49%) of intestinal diseases of unknown etiology was revealed in monkeys. The fact that the number of detected opportunistic enterobacteria did not differ in healthy and diseased monkeys suggests that they are not involved into the etiology of intestinal disease.

  10. Variation in intergroup encounters among two provisioned free-ranging populations of Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG; Kunio WATANABE

    2012-01-01

    Typically,Japanese macaques are thought to avoid encountering other groups wherever possible.Intergroup relations between macaques on Shodoshima Island,however,appear exceptional.We show that neighboring groups of Shodoshima monkeys spent 32.8% of their active time in proximity to (<100 m) and even foraged simultaneously at the same provisioning site with another group.The average duration and rate of intergroup encounters at Shodoshima (59.8 min,0.33 times/hour,n=269)were approximately ten times longer and 16.5 times more frequent than those at Jigokudani (6.1 min,0.02 times/hour,n=14).Since both populations have similar provisioning and ecological conditions,such variation cannot be explained by the socioecology model alone.Compared with other populations of Japanese macaques,intergroup relations of Shodoshima monkeys are also characterized by more frequent neutral encounters,less frequent agonistic encounters,more frequent unsuccessful displacement,a lower intensity of aggression,and more frequent counter-aggression between groups.These characteristics suggest that intergroup relationships on Shodoshima Island are more tolerant than those in other Japanese macaque populations.This study reveals considerable differences in intergroup encounters within local populations of Japanese macaques living in similar environments,and emphasizes the role of social factors in such intra-specific variation.

  11. Anesthetic management in intrauterine surgery to evaluate an experimental model of myelomeningocele in non human primates (Macaca mulatta Anestesia em cirurgia intra-uterina para avaliar um modelo experimental de mielomeningocele em primatas não humanos (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Galván-Montaño

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the anesthetic management in intrauterine surgery to induce myelomeningocele in non human primates Macaca mulatta. METHODS: A total of nine fetuses had intrauterine surgery; laminectomy was performed on them in L5 and L6. The studied variables were: maternal death, fetus death, cardiac frequency, respiratory frequency, arterial pressure, temperature, and oxygen saturation. RESULTS: No maternal or fetal deaths occurred; the only variable that was reported below the normal ranges was temperature. CONCLUSION: No maternal or fetal deaths occurred; the only variable that was reported below the normal ranges was temperature.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o manejo anestésico em cirurgia intra-uterina para induzir mielomeningocelo em primatas não humanos, Macaca mulatta. MÉTODOS: Operaram-se um total de nove fetos in útero que foram submetidos à laminectomia em L5 e L6. As variáveis a estudar foram mortes maternas ou fetais, freqüência cardíaca e respiratória, pressão arterial, temperatura e saturação de oxigênio. RESULTADOS: Não se apresentaram mortes maternas ou fetais, a temperatura se manteve abaixo dos 36°C, não tendo repercussões no bem-estar dos macacos. CONCLUSÃO: Não ocorreu nenhum óbito materno ou fetal, sendo que a única variável abaixo do normal foi a temperatura.

  12. Concealed fertility and extended female sexuality in a non-human primate (Macaca assamensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Fürtbauer

    Full Text Available In numerous primates living in mixed-sex groups, females display probabilistic cues of fertility to simultaneously concentrate paternity to dominant males while diluting it amongst others as a means to reduce the risk of infanticide and to increase male care for offspring. A few species, however, lack these cues and potentially conceal fertility from males; yet, to date, little is known about mating patterns and their underlying proximate mechanisms in such species. Here, we investigated mating activity and sexual consortships relative to female reproductive state in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis, a species where females lack prominent anogenital swellings and copulation calls. During two mating seasons (2837 contact hours we recorded sexual and social behaviors, sexual consortships, and collected 1178 fecal samples (n = 15 females which were analyzed for progestogen concentrations to assess female reproductive state and to determine the timing of ovulation and conception. Although mostly conceiving in their first ovarian cycle, females were sexually receptive throughout the entire 4-month mating season, and within-cycle mating frequencies were not increased during fertile phases. Dominant males did not monopolize fertile matings, and consortships by high-ranking males lasted for long periods, which were not exclusively linked to female fertile phases. Furthermore, females copulated promiscuously but not randomly, i.e. for almost every female, matings were concentrated to a certain male, irrespective of male rank. Collectively, we demonstrate that fertility is undisclosed to males. The extreme extended female sexuality facilitated by concealed fertility may allow females to create differentiated mating relationships within a promiscuous mating system. Our study provides important new insight into the plasticity of female sexuality in non-human primates.

  13. Whom to groom and for what? Patterns of grooming in female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubová, Veronika; Konečná, Martina; Šmilauer, Petr; Wallner, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is one of the most conspicuous social interactions among nonhuman primates. The selection of grooming partners can provide important clues about factors relevant for the distribution of grooming within a social group. We analyzed grooming behavior among 17 semi-free ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). We tested whether grooming is related to kinship, rank and friendship. Furthermore, we tested whether grooming is reciprocated or exchanged for rank related benefits (i.e. lower aggression and increased tolerance whilst feeding). We found that in general grooming was reciprocally exchanged, directed up the hierarchy and at the same time affected by friendship and kinship. Grooming was more frequent among individuals with higher friendship values as well as amongst related individuals. We also divided our data set on the basis of rank difference and tested if different power asymmetries between individuals affected the tendency to exchange grooming for rank related benefits and grooming reciprocation. In support of our initial hypothesis our results show that the reciprocation of grooming was a significant predictor of grooming interactions between individuals of similar rank, but not between those individuals more distantly separated in the social hierarchy. However, we did not find any evidence for grooming being exchanged for rank related benefits in either data set. Our results, together with previously published studies, illustrate the behavioral flexibility of macaques. It is clear that multiple studies of the same species are necessary to gather the data required for the solid comparative studies needed to shed light on patterns of grooming behavior in primates.

  14. Feeding behavior and aggression in wild Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu) living under low predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Christin; Gras, Pierre; Hodges, Keith; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver

    2015-07-01

    Investigating which factors influence feeding competition is crucial for our understanding of the diversity of social relationships. Socio-ecological models differ in their predictions whether predation risk directly influences feeding competition and which factors exactly predict contest competition. We investigated feeding competition in Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu), a species endemic to Siberut Island (West Sumatra, Indonesia). Siberut macaques experience low predation risk, as major predators (felids, raptors) are absent. They are therefore appropriate subjects to test the prediction that low predation risk reduces feeding competition. To estimate contest potential, we quantified size, spatial distribution and density of food plants, and the availability of alternative resources. We recorded behavior in food patches using a modified focal tree method. Food patches, sorted by decreasing average feeding group size, included large trees (40% of focal plant observations), lianas/strangler (16%), medium trees (9%), small (palm) trees (20%), and rattan (15%). Most food patches were clumped but occurred at low densities relative to the area of average group spread. Thus, availability of alternative food patches was low. Although food patch characteristics indicate high contest potential, the observed aggression rate (0.13 bouts between adults/h) was low relative to other primates. Average feeding group size was small relative to total group size, and feeding group size matched crown volume. Perceived predation risk was low, based on spatial and feeding behavior of juveniles. Together, these results suggest that predation risk may influence feeding competition. Social and temporal factors (patch feeding time), but not ecological factors (fruit abundance in patch and forest, alternative resources) predicted aggression frequency in food patches. Overall, comparative data are still relatively scarce, and researchers should collect more data on group spread, sub

  15. Pyrosequencing as a method for SNP identification in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanthaswamy S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta are the primate most used for biomedical research, but phenotypic differences between Indian-origin and Chinese rhesus macaques have encouraged genetic methods for identifying genetic differences between these two populations. The completion of the rhesus genome has led to the identification of many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in this species. These single nucleotide polymorphisms have many advantages over the short tandem repeat (STR loci currently used to assay genetic variation. However, the number of currently identified polymorphisms is too small for whole genome analysis or studies of quantitative trait loci. To that end, we tested a combination of methods to identify large numbers of high-confidence SNPs, and screen those with high minor allele frequencies (MAF. Results By testing our previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms, we identified a subset of high-confidence, high-MAF polymorphisms. Resequencing revealed a large number of regionally specific SNPs not identified through a single pyrosequencing run. By resequencing a pooled sample of four individuals, we reliably identified loci with a MAF of at least 12.5%. Finally, we found that when applied to a larger, geographically variable sample of rhesus, a large proportion of our loci were variable in both populations, and very few loci were ancestry informative. Despite this fact, the SNP loci were more effective at discriminating Indian and Chinese rhesus than STR loci. Conclusion Pyrosequencing and pooled resequencing are viable methods for the identification of high-MAF SNP loci in rhesus macaques. These SNP loci are appropriate for screening both the inter- and intra-population genetic variation.

  16. When dispersal fails: unexpected genetic separation in Gibraltar macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, Lara; Martin, Robert D; van Schaik, Carel P; van Noordwijk, Maria A; Krũtzen, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus), now restricted in the wild to a few isolated forested areas of Morocco and Algeria, are present in a free-ranging colony on Gibraltar. For many decades, the Gibraltar colony was exposed to multiple bottlenecks due to highly nonrandom removal of animals, followed by repeated introductions of animals from North Africa. Moreover, because of complete isolation, Gibraltar's several social groups of macaques provide an ideal system to study the genetic consequences of dispersal in cercopithecines in situ. Predictions of genetic consequences due to male-biased dispersal in cercopithecines will be different for autosomal and maternally inherited genetic markers, such as the control region of the mitochondrial DNA. We used a panel of 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and part of the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial control region to estimate genetic structure between five social groups in Gibraltar. Surprisingly, for autosomal markers, both classical summary statistics and an individual-based method using a Bayesian framework detected significant genetic structure between social groups in Gibraltar, despite much closer proximity than wild Algerian and Moroccan populations. Mitochondrial data support this finding, as a very substantial portion of the total genetic variation (70.2%) was found between social groups. Using two Bayesian approaches, we likewise identified not only a small number of male first-generation immigrants (albeit less than expected for cercopithecines) but also unexpectedly a few females. We hypothesize that the culling of males that are more likely to disperse might slow down genetic homogenization among neighbouring groups, but may also and more perversely produce selection on certain behavioural traits. This may have important repercussions for conservation, as it could lead to evolutionary changes that are not due to inbreeding or genetic drift.

  17. Patterns of infant handling and relatedness in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) on Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmerli, Rolf; Martin, Robert D

    2008-10-01

    Among papionin primates, the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) shows the most extensive interactions between infants and group members other than the mother. Two different types of interactions occur: (1) long-lasting dyadic interactions between a handler and an infant, and (2) brief triadic interactions between two handlers involving an infant. Previous investigations showed that infant handling by males is best explained as use of infants to manage relationships with other males. In contrast, no adaptive explanation for infant handling by females emerged. Here, we compared the infant-handling pattern between subadult/adult males and subadult/adult females in a free-ranging group of 46 Barbary macaques on Gibraltar to test whether the relationship management hypothesis also applies to female handlers. We further investigated the infant-handling pattern of juveniles and used microsatellite markers to estimate relatedness between infant handlers and the infant's mother. We found that males, females and juveniles all participated extensively in triadic interactions using infants of above-average related females. In contrast, only males and juveniles were highly involved in dyadic interactions with infants of related females, while females rarely handled infants other than their own. The pattern of infant handling was entirely compatible with the predictions of the relationship management hypothesis for males and mostly so for females. Moreover, our genetic analysis revealed that males and females differ in their partner choice: while females preferred to interact with related females, males had no significant preference to interact with related males. We further discuss the observed above-average relatedness values between infant handlers and the infant's mother in the light of kin-selection theory.

  18. Factors increasing snake detection and perceived threat in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etting, Stephanie F; Isbell, Lynne A; Grote, Mark N

    2014-02-01

    The primary predators of primates are all ambush hunters, and yet felids, raptors, and snakes differ in aspects of their ecology that affect the evasive strategies of their primate prey. Felids and raptors can traverse long distances quickly, thus the urgency of threat they present increases as they come closer in proximity to primates. In contrast, snakes do not move rapidly over long distances, and so primates may be reasonably safe even at close distances provided snakes can be detected and monitored. We investigated the ability of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to detect snakes at distances ranging from 15 to 1.5 m. We also examined variation in intensity of perceived threat by applying a Hidden Markov Model to infer changes in underlying state from observable behaviors, that is, increased attention and mobbing. We found that the macaques often failed to detect snake models but that closer proximity improved snake detection, which is necessary before threat can be perceived. We also found that having only one individual in fairly close proximity (≤ 7.5 m) was sufficient to alert the rest of the group and so the chances of detection did not increase with increasing group size. Finally, we found that when the snakes were perceived, they did not elicit greater intensity of response with closer proximity. These results provide evidence that the threat from snakes is greatest when they are in proximity to primates but are unseen. When snakes are seen, however, distance appears not to affect primates' perceived risk, in contrast to their perceived risk from raptors and felids.

  19. No-scalpel vasectomy by electrocauterization in free range rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to standardize a new method of vasectomy in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. A total of 208 free range male rhesus macaques captured from different locations in Shivalik Hills in a population control programme of the rhesus macaques in India. General anaesthesia was achieved by using a combination of ketamine hydrochloride at 8 mg/kg body weight and xylazine hydrochloride at 2mg/kg body weight intramuscularly in squeeze cage. Surgical procedure of vasectomy was carried out by single-hole no-scalpel technique using a single pre-scrotal skin incision above the median raphae. Spermatic cord was grasped with ringed forceps and was pulled out through the single-hole incision. Vas deferens was separated from the artery-vein complexus and about 3-4 cm portion of vas deferens was resected. Cauterization of both ends of the vas deferens was achieved with electrocautery. The induction time for anaesthesia was 1.40±0.18 min while surgical time for vasectomy was found to be 5.09±0.22 min. Recovery from general anaesthesia was without side-effects after a mean duration of 36.07±1.22 min, whereas the duration of anaesthesia was observed to be 82.27±4.96 min. There were no major complications following the surgery and recovery of animals was smooth. Animals were kept in postoperative care for five days and released at the same capturing site.

  20. Diversity and molecular phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2014-11-01

    While studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in the eastern (e.g., China) and western (e.g., India) parts of their geographic range have revealed major genetic differences that warrant the recognition of two different subspecies, little is known about genetic characteristics of rhesus macaques in the transitional zone extending from eastern India and Bangladesh through the northern part of Indo-China, the probable original homeland of the species. We analyzed genetic variation of 762 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 86 fecal swab samples and 19 blood samples from 25 local populations of rhesus macaque in Bangladesh collected from January 2010 to August 2012. These sequences were compared with those of rhesus macaques from India, China, and Myanmar. Forty-six haplotypes defined by 200 (26%) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected. Estimates of gene diversity, expected heterozygosity, and nucleotide diversity for the total population were 0.9599 ± 0.0097, 0.0193 ± 0.0582, and 0.0196 ± 0.0098, respectively. A mismatch distribution of paired nucleotide differences yielded a statistically significantly negative value of Tajima's D, reflecting a population that rapidly expanded after the terminal Pleistocene. Most haplotypes throughout regions of Bangladesh, including an isolated region in the southwestern area (Sundarbans), clustered with haplotypes assigned to the minor haplogroup Ind-2 from India reflecting an east to west dispersal of rhesus macaques to India. Haplotypes from the southeast region of Bangladesh formed a cluster with those from Myanmar, and represent the oldest rhesus macaque haplotypes of Bangladesh. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus macaques first entered Bangladesh from the southeast, probably from Indo-China, then dispersed westward throughout eastern and central India.

  1. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, K N; Berman, C M; Ogawa, H; Li, J

    2011-12-01

    Biological markets principles offer testable hypotheses to explain variation in grooming exchange patterns among nonhuman primates. They predict that when within-group contest competition (WGC) is high and dominance hierarchies steep, grooming interchange with other "commodity" behaviors (such as agonistic support) should prevail. In contrast, when WGC is low and gradients shallow, market theory predicts that grooming reciprocity should prevail. We tested these predictions in a wild, provisioned Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana) group across six time periods during which the group had been subjected to varying degrees of range restriction. Data on female-female aggression, grooming, and support were collected using all-occurrences and focal animal sampling techniques, and analyzed using ANCOVA methods and correlation analyses. We found that hierarchical steepness varied significantly across periods, but did not correlate with two indirect indicators of WGC (group size and range restriction) in predicted directions. Contrary to expectations, we found a negative correlation between steepness and group size, perhaps because the responses of group members to external risks (i.e. prolonged and unavoidable exposure to humans) may have overshadowed the effects of WGC. As predicted, grooming reciprocity was significant in each period and negatively correlated with steepness, even after we controlled group size, kinship, rank differences, and proximity. In contrast, there was no evidence for grooming interchange with agonistic support or for a positive relationship between interchange and steepness. We hypothesize that stressful conditions and/or the presence of stable hierarchies during each period may have led to a greater market demand for grooming than support. We suggest that future studies testing these predictions consider more direct measures of WGC and commodities in addition to support, such as feeding tolerance and access to infants.

  2. Urban primate ranging patterns: GPS-collar deployments for Macaca fascicularis and M. sylvanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klegarth, Amy R; Hollocher, Hope; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Shaw, Eric; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Feeney, Tessa; Holmes, Damian; Laguea, Dale; Fuentes, Agustín

    2017-05-01

    The global increase in urbanization is leading to heavier interface between humans and wildlife. Within these anthropogenic landscapes, little is known about ranging patterns, particularly with regard to urban primates. Here we present the results of the first long-term deployment of multiple GPS collars on two species of macaques to investigate the impacts of urbanization on urban primate ranging patterns in Singapore and Gibraltar. Collars data acquisition were excellent with respect to the amount, quality, and accuracy of data collected; however, remote connectivity and drop-off functionality was poor across all deployments. Analyses highlighted high variability in ranging patterns between individuals within each species that aligned with access to human food resources and patterns of tourism. Individuals from troops with less access to human food had much larger home, core, and day ranges relative to those with regular provisioning or raiding opportunities. Almost no temporal range overlap was observed between any focal individuals at either site and spatial overlap was low for all but two troops at each site. We found no relationship between anthropogenic schedules and changes in ranging patterns. Significant seasonal variation existed for daily path length and day range size for both the Singapore long-tailed and the Gibraltar Barbary macaques, with long-tailed macaques increasing their range during the equatorial monsoon season and Barbary macaques increasing their range during drier, summer months. This study highlights how the behavioral plasticity found within the genus Macaca is reflected in ranging pattern variability within urban environments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Concealed Fertility and Extended Female Sexuality in a Non-Human Primate (Macaca assamensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2011-01-01

    In numerous primates living in mixed-sex groups, females display probabilistic cues of fertility to simultaneously concentrate paternity to dominant males while diluting it amongst others as a means to reduce the risk of infanticide and to increase male care for offspring. A few species, however, lack these cues and potentially conceal fertility from males; yet, to date, little is known about mating patterns and their underlying proximate mechanisms in such species. Here, we investigated mating activity and sexual consortships relative to female reproductive state in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis), a species where females lack prominent anogenital swellings and copulation calls. During two mating seasons (2837 contact hours) we recorded sexual and social behaviors, sexual consortships, and collected 1178 fecal samples (n = 15 females) which were analyzed for progestogen concentrations to assess female reproductive state and to determine the timing of ovulation and conception. Although mostly conceiving in their first ovarian cycle, females were sexually receptive throughout the entire 4-month mating season, and within-cycle mating frequencies were not increased during fertile phases. Dominant males did not monopolize fertile matings, and consortships by high-ranking males lasted for long periods, which were not exclusively linked to female fertile phases. Furthermore, females copulated promiscuously but not randomly, i.e. for almost every female, matings were concentrated to a certain male, irrespective of male rank. Collectively, we demonstrate that fertility is undisclosed to males. The extreme extended female sexuality facilitated by concealed fertility may allow females to create differentiated mating relationships within a promiscuous mating system. Our study provides important new insight into the plasticity of female sexuality in non-human primates. PMID:21853074

  4. Male-directed infanticide in spider monkeys (Ateles spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Sara; Di Fiore, Anthony; Champion, Jane; Pavelka, Mary Susan; Páez, Johanna; Link, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Infanticide is considered a conspicuous expression of sexual conflict amongst mammals, including at least 35 primate species. Here we describe two suspected and one attempted case of intragroup infanticide in spider monkeys that augment five prior cases of observed or suspected infanticide in this genus. Contrary to the typical pattern of infanticide seen in most primate societies, where infants are killed by conspecifics independent of their sex, all eight cases of observed or suspected infanticide in spider monkeys have been directed toward male infants within their first weeks of life. Moreover, although data are still scant, infanticides seem to be perpetrated exclusively by adult males against infants from their own social groups and are not associated with male takeovers or a sudden rise in male dominance rank. Although the slow reproductive cycles of spider monkeys might favor the presence of infanticide because of the potential to shorten females' interbirth intervals, infanticide is nonetheless uncommon among spider monkeys, and patterns of male-directed infanticide are not yet understood. We suggest that given the potentially close genetic relationships among adult males within spider monkey groups, and the need for males to cooperate with one another in territorial interactions with other groups of related males, infanticide may be expected to occur primarily where the level of intragroup competition among males outweighs that of competition between social groups. Finally, we suggest that infanticide in spider monkeys may be more prevalent than previously thought, given that it may be difficult for observers to witness cases of infanticide or suspected infanticide that occur soon after birth in taxa that are characterized by high levels of fission-fusion dynamics. Early, undetected, male-biased infanticide could influence the composition of spider monkey groups and contribute to the female-biased adult sex ratios often reported for this genus.

  5. Seroepidemiological survey of pathogenic Yersinia in breeding squirrel monkeys in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Taketoshi; Une, Yumi; Lee, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Taniguchi, Takahide; Hayashidani, Hideki

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of antibodies to pathogenic Yersinia in breeding squirrel monkeys, the serum samples of 252 squirrel monkeys from 9 zoological gardens in Japan were tested by ELISA using plasmid-encoded Yersinia outer membrane protein (Yops) as the antigen. The cutoff value was calculated by using the serum samples of the squirrel monkeys from Suriname, where no prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia have been reported. According to the cutoff value, 164 of 252 (65.1%) squirrel monkeys were considered positive against pathogenic Yersinia. These positive monkeys belonged to 8 of the 9 zoological gardens, and the percentage of the seropositive monkeys ranged from 22.2 to 89.4%. Furthermore, in one zoological garden, the positive rate of the squirrel monkeys which were over 1 year old (95.7%) was significantly higher than those which were under 1 year old (23.3%). These results suggested that pathogenic Yersinia is highly prevalent among breeding monkeys in Japan.

  6. Fetal malformations and early embryonic gene expression response in cynomolgus monkeys maternally exposed to thalidomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was performed to determine experimental conditions for thalidomide induction of fetal malformations and to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying thalidomide teratogenicity in cynomolgus monkeys. Cynomolgus monkeys were orally administered (±)-thalidomid...

  7. Facial paralysis and lymphocytic facial neuritis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) positive for simian retrovirus type D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Anna L; Colby, Lesley A; Bergin, Ingrid L

    2011-12-01

    Simian retrovirus type D (SRVD) is a naturally occurring betaretrovirus in nonhuman primates of the genus Macaca. Infection can lead to a variety of clinical, hematologic, and histopathologic abnormalities. We report an unusual clinical presentation of facial paralysis and histologic lymphocytic neuritis in an SRVD type 2 (SRVD2)-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a catheter-associated vena caval thrombus, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and multisystemic lymphoid hyperplasia. At initial presentation, a right atrial mass was detected by echocardiography. The macaque was clinically asymptomatic but had persistent anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and later neutropenia. It was seropositive for SRV and PCR-positive for SRVD 2. Approximately 1 mo after initial presentation, the macaque developed right facial paralysis and was euthanized. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic aggregates affecting multiple organs, consistent with SRV-related lymphoid hyperplasia. The right facial nerve showed lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. The nerve itself was negative immunohistochemically for SRV antigen, but antigen was present infrequently in pericapillary lymphoid cells within the facial nerve and abundantly within lymphoid aggregates in the adjacent parotid salivary gland, bone marrow, and soft tissue. Known neurotropic viruses could not be identified. Given the widespread inflammation in this macaque, particularly in the area surrounding the facial nerve, lymphocytic neuritis and facial paralysis likely were an indirect effect of SRV infection due to local extension of SRV-related inflammation in the surrounding tissue.

  8. Alzheimer's disease and methanol toxicity (part 2): lessons from four rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) chronically fed methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meifeng; Miao, Junye; Rizak, Joshua; Zhai, Rongwei; Wang, Zhengbo; Huma, Tanzeel; Li, Ting; Zheng, Na; Wu, Shihao; Zheng, Yingwei; Fan, Xiaona; Yang, Jianzhen; Wang, Jianhong; Yang, Shangchuan; Ma, Yuanye; Lü, Longbao; He, Rongqiao; Hu, Xintian

    2014-01-01

    A recently established link between formaldehyde, a methanol metabolite, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology has provided a new impetus to investigate the chronic effects of methanol exposure. This paper expands this investigation to the non-human primate, rhesus macaque, through the chronic feeding of young male monkeys with 3% methanol ad libitum. Variable Spatial Delay Response Tasks of the monkeys found that the methanol feeding led to persistent memory decline in the monkeys that lasted 6 months beyond the feeding regimen. This change coincided with increases in tau protein phosphorylation at residues T181 and S396 in cerebrospinal fluid during feeding as well as with increases in tau phosphorylated aggregates and amyloid plaques in four brain regions postmortem: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and the hippocampus. Tau phosphorylation in cerebrospinal fluid was found to be dependent on methanol feeding status, but phosphorylation changes in the brain were found to be persistent 6 months after the methanol feeding stopped. This suggested the methanol feeding caused long-lasting and persistent pathological changes that were related to AD development in the monkey. Most notably, the presence of amyloid plaque formations in the monkeys highlighted a marked difference in animal systems used in AD investigations, suggesting that the innate defenses in mice against methanol toxicity may have limited previous investigations into AD pathology. Nonetheless, these findings support a growing body of evidence that links methanol and its metabolite formaldehyde to AD pathology.

  9. Microsatellite polymorphisms of Sichuan golden monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Deng; LI Ying; HU Hongxing; MENG Shijie; MEN Zhengrning; FU Yunxin; ZHANG Yaping

    2005-01-01

    Previous study using protein electrophoresis shows no polymorphism in 44 nuclear loci of Sichuan golden monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), which limits our understandings of its population genetic patterns in the nuclear genome. In order to obtain sufficient information, we scanned 14 microsatellite loci in a sample of 32 individuals from its three major habitats (Minshan, Qinling and Shennongjia). A considerable amount of polymorphisms were detected. The average heterozygosities in the local populations were all above 0.5. The differentiations among local populations were significant. There was evidence of geneflow among subpopulations, but geneflow between Qinling and Shennongjia local populations was the weakest. Minshan and Qinling populations might have gone through recent bottlenecks. The estimation of the ratio of the effective population sizes among local populations was close to that from census sizes. Comparisons to available mitochondria data suggested that R. roxellana's social structures played an important role in shaping its population genetic patterns. Our study showed that the polymorphism level of R. roxellana was no higher than other endangered species; therefore, measures should be taken to preserve genetic diversity of this species.

  10. The Thatcher illusion in humans and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Christoph D; Logothetis, Nikos K; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Wallraven, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Primates possess the remarkable ability to differentiate faces of group members and to extract relevant information about the individual directly from the face. Recognition of conspecific faces is achieved by means of holistic processing, i.e. the processing of the face as an unparsed, perceptual whole, rather than as the collection of independent features (part-based processing). The most striking example of holistic processing is the Thatcher illusion. Local changes in facial features are hardly noticeable when the whole face is inverted (rotated 180 degrees ), but strikingly grotesque when the face is upright. This effect can be explained by a lack of processing capabilities for locally rotated facial features when the face is turned upside down. Recently, a Thatcher illusion was described in the macaque monkey analogous to that known from human investigations. Using a habituation paradigm combined with eye tracking, we address the critical follow-up questions raised in the aforementioned study to show the Thatcher illusion as a function of the observer's species (humans and macaques), the stimulus' species (humans and macaques) and the level of perceptual expertise (novice, expert).

  11. 中国食蟹猴脑磁共振图像模板的构建%Construction of MRI template of the chinese cynomolgus monkeys brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁兰; 桑明; 林富春; 曾俊杰; 王勇; 鲜巧阳; 文之; 吴光耀; 霍文哲

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立中国食蟹猴脑结构T 1图像模板,分析其脑灰质、白质及脑脊液组织概率分布图。方法16只健康中国食蟹猴3.0T MRI脑的高分辨3D矢状位 T1WI采集,使用模糊C均值聚类(fuzzy c-meass clusteriag Algorithm , FCM )法对每例图像进行组织分割、插值、空间标准化及图像平滑,建立脑白质、灰质、脑脊液组织概率图和个体脑模板。对所得图像进行配准及平均后,再经过VBM流程分析测试获得食蟹猴M RI图像模板。结果建立了正常中国食蟹猴脑结构3D模板,并获得了食蟹猴脑白质、灰质、脑脊液三种组织的概率图,清晰地显示了全脑T1加权对比结构。结论建立M RI图像模板和组织概率图为中国食蟹猴脑结构VBM 分析和fM RI定位提供了重要的基础和便利。%Objective To establish a T1 image template of the Chinese cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) brain and to perform a analysis brain tissue by developing a digital multi-atlas of grey matter ,whiter matter and cerebrospinal fluid .Methods Sixteen healthy Chinese cynomolgus monkeys were scanned by high resolution 3 .0 T Magnatic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to acquire sagittal 3D T1WI images .An individual brain template and tissue digital atlases of grey matter was conducted ,white matter and cerebrospinal fluid ;segmentation ,interpolation ,spatial normalization and image smoot-hing of the MRIs were carried out using the Fuzzy c-means Clustering Algorithm (FCM) .When co-registration and an av-erage on the reference images were performed ,cynomolgus monkeys brain atlases was then constructed after voxel-based morphometry (VBM) process analysis and testing of the multi-atlas .Results The 3D MRI template of healthy Chinese cynomolgus monkeys was established three tissue digital atlases of grey matter ,white matter and cerebrospinal fluid were developed ,distinctly indicating the whole brain T1-weighted contrast structure .Conclusion

  12. Behavioral effects in monkeys of racemates of two biologically active marijuana constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheckel, C L; Boff, E; Dahlen, P; Smart, T

    1968-06-28

    Both dl-Delta(8)- and dl-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol produced marked alterations of behavior in rhesus and squirrel monkeys. Squirrel monkeys appeared to have visual hallucinations. Continuous avoidance behavior of squirrel monkeys was stimulated by both drugs, but high doses of dl-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol also caused depression after the stimulant phase. Complex behavior involving memory and visual discrimination in rhesus monkeys was markedly disrupted by both drugs.

  13. Chronic experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in Cebus apella monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riarte

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young male Cebus apella monkeys were infected with CAl Trypanosoma cruzi strain and reinfected with CA l or Tulahuen T.cruzi strains, with different doses and parasite source. Subpatent parasitemia was usually demonstrated in acute and chronic phases. Patent parasitemia was evident in one monkey in the acute phase and in four of them in the chronic phase after re-inoculations with high doses of CAl strain. Serological conversion was observed in all monkeys; titers were low, regardless of the methods used to investigate anti-T. cruzi specific antibodies. Higher titers were induced only when re-inoculations were perfomed with the virulent Tulahuén strain or high doses of CAl strain. Clinical electrocardiographic and ajmaline test evaluations did not reveal changes between infected and control monkeys. Histopathologically, cardiac lesions were always characterized by focal or multifocal mononuclear infiltrates and/or isolated fibrosis, as seen during the acute and chronic phases; neither amastigote nests nor active inflammation and fibrogenic processes characteristic of human acute and chronic myocarditis respectively, were observed. These morphological aspects more closely resemble those found in the "indeterminate phase" and contrast with the more diffuse and progressive pattern of the human chagasic myocarditis. All monkeys survived and no mortality was observed.

  14. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  15. Observational learning in capuchin monkeys: a video deficit effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2017-07-01

    Young human children have been shown to learn less effectively from video or televised images than from real-life demonstrations. Although nonhuman primates respond to and can learn from video images, there is a lack of direct comparisons of task acquisition from video and live demonstrations. To address this gap in knowledge, we presented capuchin monkeys with video clips of a human demonstrator explicitly hiding food under one of two containers. The clips were presented at normal, faster than normal, or slower than normal speed, and then the monkeys were allowed to choose between the real containers. Even after 55 sessions and hundreds of video demonstration trials the monkeys' performances indicated no mastery of the task, and there was no effect of video speed. When given live demonstrations of the hiding act, the monkeys' performances were vastly improved. Upon subsequent return to video demonstrations, performances declined to pre-live-demonstration levels, but this time with evidence for an advantage of fast video demonstrations. Demonstration action speed may be one aspect of images that influence nonhuman primates' ability to learn from video images, an ability that in monkeys, as in young children, appears limited compared to learning from live models.

  16. Selective hippocampal lesions yield nonspatial memory impairments in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, F Y; Thornton, J A; White, N M; Murray, E A

    1998-01-01

    Monkeys with removals of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures are widely recognized as valid models of human global anterograde amnesia, a syndrome that arises consequent to damage to a finite set of brain structures situated in the medial temporal lobe and/or medial diencephalon. However, a comparison of memory deficits in human and nonhuman primates with MTL damage has presented a long-standing puzzle. Whereas amnesic patients are impaired in learning object discrimination problems, monkeys with MTL damage are typically not. One possible explanation for this difference is that object discrimination tasks for humans and monkeys differ in that the former but not the latter requires the use of contextual information. If this analysis is correct, monkeys with MTL damage might be disadvantaged in learning to discriminate similar objects presented in different contexts. To test this possibility, we evaluated the effects of excitotoxic lesions of one of the MTL structures, the hippocampus, on the rate of learning of discrimination problems embedded within unique contexts. Monkeys with hippocampal lesions were impaired relative to controls in learning object discrimination problems of this type. These findings strongly support the idea that the difference in the effect on object memory of MTL damage in human and nonhuman primates is due to a difference in the opportunity to employ contextual cues rather than to a difference in the organization of memory.

  17. Monkey steering responses reveal rapid visual-motor feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth W Egger

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms underlying primate locomotion are largely unknown. While behavioral and theoretical work has provided a number of ideas of how navigation is controlled, progress will require direct physiolgical tests of the underlying mechanisms. In turn, this will require development of appropriate animal models. We trained three monkeys to track a moving visual target in a simple virtual environment, using a joystick to control their direction. The monkeys learned to quickly and accurately turn to the target, and their steering behavior was quite stereotyped and reliable. Monkeys typically responded to abrupt steps of target direction with a biphasic steering movement, exhibiting modest but transient overshoot. Response latencies averaged approximately 300 ms, and monkeys were typically back on target after about 1 s. We also exploited the variability of responses about the mean to explore the time-course of correlation between target direction and steering response. This analysis revealed a broad peak of correlation spanning approximately 400 ms in the recent past, during which steering errors provoke a compensatory response. This suggests a continuous, visual-motor loop controls steering behavior, even during the epoch surrounding transient inputs. Many results from the human literature also suggest that steering is controlled by such a closed loop. The similarity of our results to those in humans suggests the monkey is a very good animal model for human visually guided steering.

  18. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  19. Fanjing Mountain:the Only Home of the Guizhou Golden Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    2000-01-01

    THE Guizhou golden monkey is one of three breeds of golden monkey (the others are in Sichuan and Yunnan) that are found only in China, and is an extremely rare and precious wild animal. Inhabiting a very small area around Guizhou's Fanjing Mountain, there are only about 750 monkeys in existence making it

  20. Generalization of category knowledge and dimensional categorization in humans (Homo sapiens) and nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Johnston, Jennifer J R; Roeder, Jessica L; Boomer, Joseph; Ashby, F Gregory; Church, Barbara A

    2015-10-01

    A theoretical framework within neuroscience distinguishes humans' implicit and explicit systems for category learning. We used a perceptual-categorization paradigm to ask whether nonhumans share elements of these systems. Participants learned categories that foster implicit or explicit categorization in humans, because they had a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. Then humans and macaques generalized their category knowledge to new, untested regions of the stimulus space. II generalization was impaired, suggesting that II category learning is conditioned and constrained by stimulus generalization to its original, trained stimulus contexts. RB generalization was nearly seamless, suggesting that RB category knowledge in humans and monkeys has properties that grant it some independence from the original, trained stimulus contexts. These findings raise the questions of (a) how closely macaques' dimensional categorization verges on humans' explicit/declarative categorization, and (b) how far macaques' dimensional categorization has advanced beyond that in other vertebrate species.