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Sample records for monkey kidney sections

  1. Morphofunctional lesions in kidneys of monkeys pretreated with drugs and exposed to proton radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorenko, B.S.; Kabachenko, A.N.; Smirnova, O.A.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of adeturon or complex treatment on the development of structural derangements, the volume of renal glomeruli and Bowman's capsules in kidneys of monkeys exposed to 240 MeV protons in a dosage of 700 rad. Injection or adeturon (100 mg/kg) 15 min before irradiation, or treatment with antibiotics and vitamins fail to lower the degree of morphological damage to kidneys. It is assumed that processes of autosensitization in the irradiated animal organism play an important role in the development of radiation injury to kidneys

  2. Cytogenetic effects of irradiation in epithelial kidney cells of monkeys and possibilities of using these data for evaluation of chromosome aberration level in kidneys of persons subjected to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machavariani, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    Data on somatic mutagenesis, induced by radiation, in epithelial kidney cells of monkeys are presented. It is noted that chromosomal aberrations in the kideny cells of monkeys can be indicator of estimation of hUman kideny state during radiotherapy

  3. The archetype enhancer of simian virus 40 DNA is duplicated during virus growth in human cells and rhesus monkey kidney cells but not in green monkey kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, Frank J.; Greenlee, John E.; Carney, Helen

    2003-01-01

    Archetype SV40, obtained directly from its natural host, is characterized by a single 72-bp enhancer element. In contrast, SV40 grown in cell culture almost invariably exhibits partial or complete duplication of the enhancer region. This distinction has been considered important in studies of human tumor material, since SV40-associated tumor isolates have been described having a single enhancer region, suggesting natural infection as opposed to possible contamination by laboratory strains of virus. However, the behavior of archetypal SV40 in cultured cells has never been methodically studied. In this study we reengineered nonarchetypal 776-SV40 to contain a single 72-bp enhancer region and used this reengineered archetypal DNA to transfect a number of simian and human cell lines. SV40 DNA recovered from these cells was analyzed by restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR, and DNA sequencing. Reengineered archetype SV40 propagated in green monkey TC-7 or BSC-1 kidney cells remained without enhancer region duplication even after extensive serial virus passage. Archetype SV40 grown in all but one of the rhesus or human cell lines initially appeared exclusively archetypal. However, when virus from these cell types was transferred to green monkey cells, variants with partial enhancer duplication appeared after as little as a single passage. These findings suggest (1) that virus with a single 72-bp enhancer may persist in cultured cells of simian and human origin; (2) that variants with partially duplicated enhancer regions may arise within cell lines in quantities below limits of detection; (3) that these variants may enjoy a selective advantage in cell types other than those from which they arose (e.g., green monkey kidney cells); and (4) that certain cell lines may support a selective growth advantage for the variants without supporting their formation. Our data indicate that enhancer duplication may also occur in human as well as rhesus kidney cells. Thus, detection of

  4. Endogenous New World primate type C viruses isolated from owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) kidney cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaro, G J; Sherr, C J; Sen, A; King, N; Daniel, M D; Fleckenstein, B

    1978-01-01

    A type C virus (OMC-1) detected in a culture of owl monkey kidney cells resembled typical type C viruses morphologically, but was slightly larger than previously characterized mammalian type C viruses. OMC-1 can be transmitted to bat lung cells and cat embryo fibroblasts. The virions band at a density of 1.16 g/ml in isopycnic sucrose density gradients and contain reverse transcriptase and a 60-65S RNA genome composed of approximately 32S subunits. The reverse transcriptase is immunologically and biochemically distinct from the polymerases of othe retroviruses. Radioimmunoassays directed to the interspecies antigenic determinants of the major structure proteins of other type C viruses do not detect a related antigen in OMC-1. Nucleic acid hybridization experiments using labeled viral genomic RNA or proviral cDNA transcripts to normal cellular DNA of different species show that OMC-1 is an endogenous virus with multiple virogene copies (20-50 per haploid genome) present in normal owl monkey cells and is distinct from previously isolated type C and D viruses. Sequences related to the OMC-1 genome can be detected in other New World monkeys. Thus, similar to the Old World primates (e.g., baboons as a prototype), the New World monkeys contain endogenous type C viral genes that appear to have been transmitted in the primate germ line. Images PMID:76312

  5. Cytogenetic consequence of radiation in epithelial kidney cells of a monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosichenko, L.P.; Trots, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The cytogenetic consequence of radiation in kidney epithelial cells of monkeys are studied 3.5-9 years after the cessation of everyday irradiation in small doses (2.99-4.9 R daily) and 6.0-12.5 years after single 550-652 R irradiation. The increased amount of reconstructed chromosomes is mainly conditioned by stable chromosome exchange; reconstructions of the non-stable type are also preserved. The cytogenetic consequence of irradiation is determined by various factors, radiation conditions and the total dose of radiation, in particular

  6. Tetraploidy in monkey kidney epithelial cells exposed to various doses of radiation in vitro and in vivo. Comm.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machavariani, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    The tetraploidy phenomenon in three and five day cultures of monkey kidney epithelial cells exposed to various doses of X-rays at Gsub(0) stage has been revealed. The data are presented on simple and complex tetraploidal enclo-reduplicated cells in monkey kidney epithelium after whole-body irradiaiton of animals by 60 Co γ-rays in dosage of 620-660 R. The frequency decrease of endoreduplicated cells at the second month coincides with the frequency increase of simple tetraploidal cells. In the investigated culture of monkey kidney epithelial cells, irradiated in vitro, a trend is observed towards the increase of the number of tetraploidal cells. An assumption is made on the possibility of using the frequency of tetraploidal cells ( including lymphocytes) for the purposes of biological dosimetry

  7. PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN KIDNEY DONORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Jayakumar Edathedathe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  8. Long term lung clearance and cellular retention of cadmium in rats and monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberdorster, G.; Cox, C.; Baggs, R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes experiments to determine the long term lung clearance and cellular retention of cadmium in rats and monkeys. The rats and monkeys were exposed to 109 Cd Cl 2 aerosols, and one monkey was exposed to 115 CdO particles. The thoracic activity of the respective Cd isotopes was measured with time after exposure, for both species. Accumulation of 109 Cd in the kidneys of the monkeys exposed to 109 Cd Cl 2 was also examined, and autoradiographs of lung sections of these monkeys were also prepared. The results showed that the cadmium accumulated differently in the lungs of the rats and primates. (U.K.)

  9. Primary afferent terminal sprouting after a cervical dorsal rootlet section in the macaque monkey.

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    Darian-Smith, Corinna

    2004-03-01

    We examined the role of primary afferent neurons in the somatosensory cortical "reactivation" that occurs after a localized cervical dorsal root lesion (Darian-Smith and Brown [2000] Nat. Neurosci. 3:476-481). After section of the dorsal rootlets that enervate the macaque's thumb and index finger (segments C6-C8), the cortical representation of these digits was initially silenced but then re-emerged for these same digits over 2-4 postlesion months. Cortical reactivation was accompanied by the emergence of physiologically detectable input from these same digits within dorsal rootlets bordering the lesion site. We investigated whether central axonal sprouting of primary afferents spared by the rhizotomy could mediate this cortical reactivation. The cortical representation of the hand was mapped electrophysiologically 15-25 weeks after the dorsal rootlet section to define this reactivation. Cholera toxin subunit B conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was then injected into the thumb and index finger pads bilaterally to label the central terminals of any neurons that innervated these digits. Primary afferent terminal proliferation was assessed in the spinal dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus at 7 days and 15-25 postlesion weeks. Labeled terminal bouton distributions were reconstructed and the "lesion" and control sides compared within each monkey. Distributions were significantly larger on the side of the lesion in the dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus at 15-25 weeks after the dorsal rootlet section, than those mapped only 7 days postlesion. Our results provide direct evidence for localized sprouting of spared (uninjured) primary afferent terminals in the dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus after a restricted dorsal root injury. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Comparison of the effects of 50 MeV/sub d → Be/ neutron and cobalt-60 irradiation of the kidneys of Rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raulston, G.L.; Gray, K.N.; Gleiser, C.A.; Jardine, J.H.; Flow, B.L.; Huchton, J.I.; Bennett, K.R.; Hussey, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty rhesus monkeys had one kidney irradiated (after undergoing unilateral nephrectomies) with one of four doses: 960 or 1080 rads of 50 MeV/sub d→Be/ neutrons, or 2350 or 2700 rads of 60 Co. Whereas animals treated with the lower dose of neutrons or 60 Co are alive with relatively normal renal function, those treated with the higher dose of neutrons died of radiation nephritis. Animals treated with the higher dose of 60 Co developed radiation nephritis but survived. The physiological and histopathological changes of radiation nephritis secondary to neutron irradiation are not qualitatively different from those reported for radiation nephritis secondary to photon irradiation

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys: A comparative study with anatomical sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilch, H.G.; Posel, P.; Muenchen Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Specimens of human kidneys (n=24) were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and compared with the corresponding cross-sections that had been prepared later from the same kidneys. The tomographs reveal detailed informations of renal fine structure. In particular, parenchyma and sinus can be easily differentiated from vasculature. It is possible to visualize vessel arborisation, including the arcuate vessels of the renal cortex. The clinical significance of renal MR tomographs is discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. The influence of 60Co gamma rays to cell reproduction (An experiment using low dose levels on vero and primary monkey kidney cells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danusupadmo, C.J. Sugiarto

    1985-01-01

    Vero and primary monkey kidney cells in culture were gamma irradiated with doses of 0, 0.4 and 0.8 Gy at a dose-rate of 1.30-1.45x10 3 Gy/hour. At harvest time 3 days post irradiation, 0.4 Gy proved to be able to lower the number of vero cells in such a degree that it became significantly different from the control, whereas 0.8 Gy could not suppress the number of primary cells to a level that differed significantly from its control. At harvest time of 7 days post irradiation, 0.4 Gy was found effective in lowering both vero and primary cells so that the number of the harvested cells were significantly different from the controls. At harvest time of 3 days post irradiation, 0.8 Gy caused both cell types reached levels that were not significantly different from 0.4 Gy, but at 7 days post irradiation the number of vero cells was very significantly different from that of 0.4 Gy, while the number of primary cells remained equal to that of 0.4 Gy. This phenomenon showed that irradiation could cause greater injurious effect at more advanced post irradiation times, while the more proliferative vero cells proved to be more susceptible to irradiation than primary cells, but at the same time more potential in performing repair. (author)

  13. Knowledge regarding the prevention of chronic kidney disease in hypertensive and diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study

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    Moura, Elaine Cristina Santa Cruz de; Barbosa, Jefferson Belarmino Nunes; Marinho, Patrícia Érika de Melo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Hypertension (HT) and diabetes mellitus (DM) lead to functional and structural changes in target organs such as the kidneys, characterizing the need for preventive actions to avoid Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Objective: To verify cardiologists’ and endocrinologists’ knowledge, indications and practices regarding prevention of CKD in patients with HT and DM. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 14 cardiologists and 5 endocrinologists applying a questionnaire about ...

  14. Limited knowledge of chronic kidney disease among primary care patients – a cross-sectional survey

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    Chow Wai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney disease is the 9th leading cause of death in Singapore. While preventive effects have focused on early detection and education, little is known about the knowledge level of chronic kidney disease (CKD locally. We seek to evaluate the knowledge of CKD among primary care patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 1520 patients from 3 primary care centers. Those with existing CKD or on dialysis were excluded. Knowledge was assessed based on 7 questions on CKD in the self-administered questionnaire. One point was given for each correct answer with a maximum of 7 points. Results 1435 completed all 7 questions on CKD. Mean age was 48.9 ±15.0 (SD years. 50.9% were male. 62.3% had a secondary and below education and 52.4% had a monthly household income of ≤ $2000. 43.7% had chronic diseases. Mean score was 3.44 ± 1.53 (out of a maximum of 7. Median score was 4. In multivariate logistic regression, being older {>60 years [Odds Ratio (OR 0.50, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.32-0.79]; 40–60 years (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.43,0.89}, less educated [up to primary education (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.22-0.49], having a lower monthly household income [ Conclusion This suggests that CKD education should be targeted at older patients with lower education and lower socioeconomic status.

  15. Gastrointestinal symptoms, inflammation and hypoalbuminemia in chronic kidney disease patients: a cross-sectional study.

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    Zhang, Xuehan; Bansal, Nisha; Go, Alan S; Hsu, Chi-Yuan

    2015-12-11

    Few studies have focused on investigating hypoalbuminemia in patients during earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In particular, little is known about the role of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Our goal in this paper is to study how GI symptoms relate to serum albumin levels in CKD, especially in the context of and compared with inflammation. We performed a cross-sectional study of 3599 patients with chronic kidney disease enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. All subjects were asked to complete the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study patient symptom form. Our main predictor is GI symptom score. Serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured as well. Main outcome measures are serum albumin levels and prevalence of hypoalbuminemia. Of the participants assessed, mean serum albumin was 3.95 ± 0.46 g/dL; 12.7 % had hypoalbuminemia. Patients with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were likely to have more GI symptoms (apparent at an eGFR Patients with worse GI symptoms had lower dietary protein intake. GI symptoms, like inflammation, were risk factors for lower serum albumin levels. However, adding GI symptom score or CRP into the multivariable regression analysis, did not attenuate the association between lower eGFR and lower albumin or hypoalbuminemia. Increased prevalence of GI symptoms become apparent among CKD patients at relatively high eGFR levels (45 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), long before ESRD. Patients with more severe GI symptoms scores are more likely to have hypoalbuminemia. But our data do not support GI symptoms/decreased protein intake or inflammation as being the main determinants of serum albumin level in CKD patients.

  16. Monkey Business

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    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  17. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Histone Deacetylases in Kidney Tissue Sections.

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    Ververis, Katherine; Marzully, Selly; Samuel, Chrishan S; Hewitson, Tim D; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent microscope imaging technologies are increasing in their applications and are being used on a wide scale. However methods used to quantify the level of fluorescence intensity are often not utilized-perhaps given the result may be immediately seen, quantification of the data may not seem necessary. However there are a number of reasons given to quantify fluorescent images including the importance of removing potential bias in the data upon observation as well as quantification of large numbers of images gives statistical power to detect subtle changes in experiments. In addition discreet localization of a protein could be detected without selection bias that may not be detectable by eye. Such data will be deemed useful when detecting the levels of HDAC enzymes within cells in order to develop more effective HDAC inhibitor compounds for use against multiple diseased states. Hence, we discuss a methodology devised to analyze fluorescent images using Image J to detect the mean fluorescence intensity of the 11 metal-dependent HDAC enzymes using murine kidney tissue sections as an example.

  18. A CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY ON LIPID ABNORMALITIES ASSOCIATED WITH NONDIABETIC SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE, STAGE III-V

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    Sibi N. S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide public health problem. The adverse outcomes of chronic kidney disease, such as kidney failure, cardiovascular disease and premature death can be prevented or delayed. Chronic renal disease is accompanied by characteristic abnormalities of lipid metabolism. High cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels have been demonstrated to be independent risk factors for progression of renal disease in humans. The pattern of lipid abnormalities in chronic renal disease patients in Kerala, India, has not been studied. The primary aim of the study is to describe the pattern of lipid profile in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease patients. The secondary objective is to determine the proportion of patients with nondiabetic chronic kidney disease who have lipid abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study is a cross-sectional study conducted in Department of Internal Medicine, Government Medical College, Trivandrum, during the time period of 22-08-2014 to 22-08-2015. The study was conducted after clearance from Institutional Ethics Committee and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. 134 nondiabetic patients who were diagnosed to have Chronic Kidney disease (CKD according to KDOQI and NKF criteria with a GFR 70 years showed significantly higher serum creatinine value and lower EGFR. Significantly, higher values of Total Cholesterol (TC, Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDL, Triglycerides (TG and Very Low-Density Lipoproteins (VLDL were seen in the age group >70 years and in stage V CKD compared to other groups. CONCLUSION Dyslipidaemia is common in nondiabetic CKD patients (67.91%. Higher stages of CKD were associated with more dyslipidaemia.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of medication non-adherence among kidney transplant recipients more than 6 months post-transplant: a cross-sectional study

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    Weng, Francis L; Chandwani, Sheenu; Kurtyka, Karen M; Zacker, Christopher; Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Demissie, Kitaw

    2013-01-01

    Background Among kidney transplant recipients, non-adherence with immunosuppressive medications frequently precedes allograft loss. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of medication non-adherence among kidney transplant recipients. Methods We performed a single-center, cross-sectional study of kidney transplant recipients who were at least 6 months post-transplant. We measured self-reported adherence using the Immunosuppressive Therapy Adherence Scale (ITAS, which is scored f...

  20. Dietary patterns and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional association in the Irish Nun Eye Study.

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    Paterson, Euan N; Neville, Charlotte E; Silvestri, Giuliana; Montgomery, Shannon; Moore, Evelyn; Silvestri, Vittorio; Cardwell, Christopher R; MacGillivray, Tom J; Maxwell, Alexander P; Woodside, Jayne V; McKay, Gareth J

    2018-04-27

    Associations between dietary patterns and chronic kidney disease are not well established, especially in European populations. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1033 older Irish women (age range 56-100 years) with a restricted lifestyle. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Renal function was determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate. Two dietary patterns were identified within the study population using factor analysis. A significant negative association was found between unhealthy dietary pattern adherence and renal function in both unadjusted and adjusted models controlling for potential confounding variables (p for trend <0.001), with a mean difference in estimated glomerular filtration rate of -6 ml/min/1.73 m 2 between those in the highest fifth of adherence to the unhealthy dietary pattern compared to the lowest, in the fully adjusted model. Chronic kidney disease risk was significantly greater for the highest fifth, compared to the lowest fifth of unhealthy dietary pattern adherence in adjusted models (adjusted odds ratio = 2.62, p < 0.001). Adherence to the healthy dietary pattern was not associated with renal function or chronic kidney disease in adjusted models. In this cohort, an unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with lower renal function and greater prevalence of chronic kidney disease.

  1. A single daily dose enhances the adherence to immunosuppressive treatment in kidney transplant recipients: a cross-sectional study.

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    Obi, Yoshitsugu; Ichimaru, Naotsugu; Kato, Taigo; Kaimori, Jun-Ya; Okumi, Masayoshi; Yazawa, Koji; Rakugi, Hiromi; Nonomura, Norio; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Takahara, Shiro

    2013-04-01

    Nonadherence to treatment regimens for immunosuppressive agents is one of the major risk factors for allograft failure in kidney transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to estimate the relative effect of daily dosing on treatment adherence, not to identify how patients are non-adherent, in long-term kidney transplant recipients. In January 2009, a cross-sectional, anonymous, and voluntary questionnaire survey was given to kidney transplant recipients who regularly visited Inoue Hospital. A self-reporting questionnaire underestimates nonadherence, but we reasoned that the effect of the dosing regimen should be estimated with relative accuracy by using the generalized ordered logit/partial proportional hazard odds model given that the distribution patterns in the degree of nonadherence have been shown to be similar with other measures. Of 336 eligible patients, 312 (92.9 %) participated in this study. Two hundred seventy-four patients (87.8 %) were more than 3 years post-transplant. Univariate analysis revealed that a single daily dose was significantly associated with better adherence. After controlling for age, sex, time since transplantation, and the number of prescribed drugs, the effect of a single daily dose still remained significant [odds ratio, 0.40 (95 % confidence interval, 0.19-0.81); p = 0.011]. Several sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. To our knowledge, this is the first report that, in long-term kidney transplant recipients, a single daily regimen-one of few modifiable factors-might improve treatment adherence and allograft survival.

  2. Attitudes and practices of Chinese physicians regarding chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury management: a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey in secondary and tertiary hospitals.

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    Wu, Yanhua; Chen, Yuanhan; Chen, Shixin; He, Yani; Liang, Huaban; Dong, Wei; Liang, Xinling

    2018-05-10

    This questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey reported the attitudes and practices of Chinese doctors regarding chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) management. An online questionnaire consisting of general information, awareness of CKD and AKI, education status, renal laboratory items, and clinical practices between February 20, 2017 and August 15, 2017. Among the 1289 respondents from secondary and tertiary hospitals in 30 provinces, 718 (55.7%) were nephrologists, 94.3% had the ability to evaluate glomerular filtration rates, and 98.8% could evaluate urinary protein excretion, indicating that Chinese doctors met the minimum requirements to manage CKD. However, nearly half of all respondents reported that easy methods for spot urine creatinine-adjusted urinary protein assessments were unavailable. Awareness of the CKD risk stratification system and AKI definition was inadequate, and only 54.2% of respondents reported that they had received nutritional education for renal diseases. Although most of the respondents were nephrologists at university hospitals, 66.4% and 76.3% of respondents reported nephrology referrals and nephrology consultations, respectively, after AKI, suggesting an insufficient role for nephrologists. Finally, management models differed significantly, indicating that universal guidelines for CKD and AKI management are required across China. Several considerable challenges remain regarding CKD and AKI management in China, including inadequate knowledge and training systems, an absence of clinical protocols, and insufficient multidisciplinary cooperation.

  3. Functional independence and mobility in kidney transplanted patients: cross-sectional study

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    Tuíra O. Maia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS To assess functional independence, balance and mobility of kidney transplant recipients, to verify transplant time, donor type, regular exercise practice, musculoskeletal complaints, as well as association among these variables METHODS Observational study with 86 kidney transplant individuals, subjected to evaluation of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM and Timed Up and Go test (TUG. RESULTS The mean age of the study population was 43.98 years old, 50% of these individuals were between 5-10 years of transplantation and 50% between 10-15 years. Changes in mobility and balance (TUG were found in 9.3% of transplant patients, while 2.3% had deficits in functional independence (FIM. The association between TUG and the FIM (χ2= 19.964, p< 0.001 was found in 25% of the 9.3% of individuals who showed changes in TUG. It was found that only 20.9% of kidney transplant between 5-10 years and 14.0% between 11 and 15 years performed regular physical exercises (χ2= 0.727, p= 0.394 and 67.4% presented prevalent complaints on lower limbs musculoskeletal. CONCLUSION Although the level of dependence and impairments in mobility and balance found in renal transplants are low, deficits in mobility and balance may lead to changes in the ability to perform their functional activities independently.

  4. Kidney transplant

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    ... always take your medicine as directed. Alternative Names Renal transplant; Transplant - kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Kidneys Kidney transplant - ...

  5. Pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study

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    Okada Rieko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to explore the associations between common potential functional promoter polymorphisms in pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine genes and kidney function/chronic kidney disease (CKD prevalence in a large Japanese population. Methods A total of 3,323 subjects aged 35-69 were genotyped for all 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the promoter regions of candidate genes with minor allele frequencies of > 0.100 in Japanese populations. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and CKD prevalence (eGFR 2 of the subjects were compared among the genotypes. Results A higher eGFR and lower prevalence of CKD were observed for the homozygous variants of IL4 -33CC (high IL-4 [anti-inflammatory cytokine]-producing genotype and IL6 -572GG (low IL-6 [pro-inflammatory cytokine]-producing genotype. Subjects with IL4 CC + IL6 GG showed the highest mean eGFR (79.1 ml/min/1.73 m2 and lowest CKD prevalence (0.0%, while subjects carrying IL4 TT + IL6 CC showed the lowest mean eGFR (73.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 and highest CKD prevalence (17.9%. Conclusions The functional promoter polymorphisms IL4 T-33C (rs2070874 and IL6 C-572G (rs1800796, which are the only SNPs that affect the IL-4 and IL-6 levels in Japanese subjects, were associated with kidney function and CKD prevalence in a large Japanese population.

  6. Analysis of Zebrafish Kidney Development with Time-lapse Imaging Using a Dissecting Microscope Equipped for Optical Sectioning.

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    Perner, Birgit; Schnerwitzki, Danny; Graf, Michael; Englert, Christoph

    2016-04-07

    In order to understand organogenesis, the spatial and temporal alterations that occur during development of tissues need to be recorded. The method described here allows time-lapse analysis of normal and impaired kidney development in zebrafish embryos by using a fluorescence dissecting microscope equipped for structured illumination and z-stack acquisition. To visualize nephrogenesis, transgenic zebrafish (Tg(wt1b:GFP)) with fluorescently labeled kidney structures were used. Renal defects were triggered by injection of an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against the Wilms tumor gene wt1a, a factor known to be crucial for kidney development. The advantage of the experimental setup is the combination of a zoom microscope with simple strategies for re-adjusting movements in x, y or z direction without additional equipment. To circumvent focal drift that is induced by temperature variations and mechanical vibrations, an autofocus strategy was applied instead of utilizing a usually required environmental chamber. In order to re-adjust the positional changes due to a xy-drift, imaging chambers with imprinted relocation grids were employed. In comparison to more complex setups for time-lapse recording with optical sectioning such as confocal laser scanning or light sheet microscopes, a zoom microscope is easy to handle. Besides, it offers dissecting microscope-specific benefits such as high depth of field and an extended working distance. The method to study organogenesis presented here can also be used with fluorescence stereo microscopes not capable of optical sectioning. Although limited for high-throughput, this technique offers an alternative to more complex equipment that is normally used for time-lapse recording of developing tissues and organ dynamics.

  7. Multilevel Correlates of Non-Adherence in Kidney Transplant Patients Benefitting from Full Cost Coverage for Immunosuppressives: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Marsicano, Elisa Oliveira; Fernandes, Neimar Silva; Colugnati, Fernando Ant?nio Basile; Fernandes, Natalia Maria Silva; De Geest, Sabina; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence is the result of the interaction of the macro, meso, micro, and patient level factors. The macro level includes full coverage of immunosuppressive medications as is the case in Brazil. We studied the correlates of immunosuppressive non-adherence in post kidney transplant patients in the Brazilian health care system. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, adherence to immunosuppressives was assessed in a sample of 100 kidney transplant patients using a composite non-adher...

  8. Confocal microscopy of thick tissue sections: 3D visualizaiton of rat kidney glomeruli

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    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as a technique capable of generating serial sections of whole-mount tissue and then reassembling the computer-acquired images as a virtual 3-dimentional structure. In many ways CLSM offers an alternative to traditional sectioning approac...

  9. Confocal Microscopy of thick tissue sections: 3D Visualization of rat kidney glomeruli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as a technique capable of generating serial sections of whole-mount tissue and then reassembling the computer-acquired images as a virtual 3-dimentional structure. In many ways CLSM offers an alternative to traditional sectioning approac...

  10. Severe mental illness and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study in the United Kingdom

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    Iwagami M

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Masao Iwagami,1 Kathryn E Mansfield,1 Joseph F Hayes,2 Kate Walters,3 David PJ Osborn,2,4 Liam Smeeth,1 Dorothea Nitsch,1 Laurie A Tomlinson1 1Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 2Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, UK; 3Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, London, UK; 4Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK Objective: We investigated the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD among patients with severe mental illness (SMI. Methods: We identified patients with SMI among all those aged 25–74 registered in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink as on March 31, 2014. We compared the prevalence of CKD (two measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for ≥3 months and renal replacement therapy between patients with and without SMI. For patients with and without a history of lithium prescription separately, we used logistic regression to examine the association between SMI and CKD, adjusting for demographics, lifestyle characteristics, and known CKD risk factors. Results: The CKD prevalence was 14.6% among patients with SMI and a history of lithium prescription (n = 4,295, 3.3% among patients with SMI and no history of lithium prescription (n = 24,101, and 2.1% among patients without SMI (n = 2,387,988; P < 0.001. The prevalence of renal replacement therapy was 0.23%, 0.15%, and 0.11%, respectively (P = 0.012. Compared to patients without SMI, the fully adjusted odds ratio for CKD was 6.49 (95% CI 5.84–7.21 for patients with SMI and a history of lithium prescription and 1.45 (95% CI 1.34–1.58 for patients with SMI and no history of lithium prescription. The higher prevalence of CKD in patients with SMI may, in part, be explained by more frequent blood testing as compared to the general population. Conclusion: CKD is identified more commonly among

  11. Serum cystatin C and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in pediatric acute kidney injury; a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamatollah Ataei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI refers to insults that lead to decreased kidney function within hours to weeks and can be associated with complications including chronic kidney failure, end-stage renal disease and even death. Although various biomarkers have been proposed to predict AKI in children, but no consensus has been reached on the best diagnostic method. Accordingly, the present study aimed to assess the correlation between urine NGAL levels and development of AKI in children and determine which one of the biomarkers of urine NGAL, serum Cystatin C and serum creatinine has a stronger association with AKI in the pediatric population. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on children younger than 14 years of age, hospitalized in the intensive care unit of Children’s Medical Centre in Tehran, Iran, during 2016. Urine NGAL, serum Cystatin C and serum creatinine levels of these subjects were measured on admission to the intensive care unit. The concentrations of serum Cystatin C and serum creatinine were measured again after 48 hours to determine the AKI status of the subjects. Data were analyzed to determine the association between GFR and the concentrations of evaluated biomarkers and to compare the levels of biomarkers between the four groups of no AKI, injury, failure, loss and end-stage. Results: A total of 104 children (59 boys and 45 girls, average age=28.0±3.5 months were included in this study. The mean level of uNGAL on admission in the No-AKI group (153.79±29.82 was significantly lower than the children in the injury (1225.0 ±275.0 and failure (756.56±147.79 groups (df:3, 100; F=10.74; p<0.0001. The mean concentration of Cystatin C on admission in the three groups of risk (0.94±0.30, injury (1.75±0.05 and failure (1.75±0.36 was also significantly higher than the No-AKI (0.27±0.04 (df:3, 100; F=19.21; p<0.0001. However, there was no significant correlation between the level of serum creatinine on

  12. Psychological Disorders and Psychosocial Resources of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Bladder and Kidney Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Long Yang

    Full Text Available Psychological disorders have been proven to be associated with poor physiological, psychological and immune outcomes in cancer patients. However, despite of many challenges of the changed self-image/body image and the altered sexual/urinary function, relatively little is known about psychological disorders of patients with newly diagnosed bladder and kidney cancer. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and the associated psychosocial factors among bladder/kidney cancer patients.A cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients with bladder/kidney cancer in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 489 early-stage cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinical variables, depression, anxiety, PTSD, perceived social support and positive psychological variables (hope, optimism and resilience anonymously during October 2013 and August 2014. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between psychosocial resources and psychological disorders, while controlling for possible covariates.The prevalence of depression, anxiety and PTSD was 77.5%, 69.3% and 25.2%, respectively, while 24.9% of patients had psychological co-morbidity. Psychosocial resources together explained more than one-third of the variance on psychological disorders. Under standardized estimate (β sequence, patient's perception of social support from family was significantly associated with depression, anxiety and PTSD (p < 0.01. Optimism and resilience showed integrated and independent effects on psychological disorders, and hope represented the significant association with PTSD only (p < 0.01.The high prevalence of psychological disorders in newly diagnosed patients with early-stage bladder/kidney cancer should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings

  13. Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Kidney Function in Hospitalized Patients: Estimated GFR Versus Renal Scintigraphy

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    Domenico Santoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Accurate staging of chronic kidney disease (CKD is very important. We tried to identify difference in GFR evaluation between CKD-EPI and Gates method with renal scintigraphy and which variables are associated with these differences. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 341 patients who underwent dynamic renal scintigraphy in the last 5 years. Patients were categorized according to KDIGO staging I to V, using the eGFR calculated with the CKD-EPI equation. Secondarily, we stratified patients according to treatment with renin-angiotensin system (RAS inhibitors. Results: Gates method tends to underestimate GFR especially in CKD stage I (mean -22.2 ml/min and II (mean -12.5 ml/min. The division in quartiles of ages showed an underestimation of GFR only in the first quartile of age (Conclusion: The assessment of GFR by the Gates method must be carefully considered in the early stages of CKD, especially in younger patients. Moreover, the difference is more pronounced in patients treated with RAS inhibitors. Longitudinal studies will prove which method better predicts cardiovascular or renal events.

  14. Study of intrarenal vasculature in cases of primary and secondary hypertension (by metallic impregnation technique on whole kidney section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal B

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Study of intrarenal vasculature was carried out by using the metallic impregnation technique on whole kidney sections in 31 [corrected] cases of (primary and secondary hypertension and 10 normal controls. Distinct patterns of intrarenal vasculature were noted in controls and in cases of hypertension. Gradual tapering of vessels, absence of tortuosity and good peripheral vascularisation were noted in controls. Abrupt tapering, tortuosity of vessels and poor peripheral vascularisation were noted in hypertensive cases. In essential hypertension moderate to severe changes of dilatation of the segmental and/or arcuate arteries was noted. The degree of dilatation was related to the level of systolic BP rather than diastolic in cases of essential hypertension. Secondary hypertension even if severe, rarely showed significant dilatation lesions. Avascular zones and conglomeration of vessels at poles was seen only in cases of pyelonephritis. This helped in distinguishing these, from cases of glomerulonephritis.

  15. Distribution of [1-14C]acrylonitrile in rat and monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, E.Ch.; Slanina, P.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of [1- 14 C]acrylonitrile (ACN) in rat and monkey has been studied by whole-body autoradiography, after being administered orally and intravenously to rats and orally to monkeys. Uptake of radioactivity was seen in the blood, liver, kidney, lung, adrenal cortex and stomach mucosa. (Auth.)

  16. Mucocutaneous manifestations in patients with chronic kidney disease: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan S Rashpa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD-associated mucocutaneous manifestations significantly impair the quality of life but often remain understudied. They may also vary across regions, socioeconomic and nutritional status, and racial differences. Objectives: To study the patterns of mucocutaneous disorders and their prevalence in CKD patients irrespective of clinical stage or dialysis status. Materials and Methods: 122 (M:F = 77:45 patients aged 21‒85 (Mean ± SD = 57.5 ± 14.0 years having CKD for 3 month to 5 years were studied for mucocutaneous manifestations. Fifty (41% patients were on hemodialysis for 1‒42 months. Detailed medical history, clinical and mucocutaneous examination, and lab investigations were performed. KOH mounts, skin biopsy, Gram's and Giemsa staining, bacterial or fungal cultures were performed as required. Results: Xerosis in 93 (76.2%, skin pallor in 61 (50%, pruritus in 57 (46.7%, pigmentation in 47 (38.5%, and purpura in 18 (14.8% patients were the major dermatoses. Bullous lesions and perforating folliculitis occurred in 3 (2.5% patients each. Major nail abnormalities were pallor (in 35.2%, absent lunula (in 23.8%, nail discoloration (in 18%, and “half-and-half nails” in 16.4% patients, respectively. Hair abnormalities included sparse scalp and body hairs (in 35.2% and 13.1%, respectively and lusterless hair in 12.3% patients. Coated tongue (in 14.8%, xerostomia (in 12.3%, and macroglossia with teeth indention (in 7.4% patients were the mucosal manifestations. Conclusions: Xerosis, pruritus, skin pallor/pigmentary changes, nail pallor, absent lunula, nail discoloration, sparse hairs, coated tongue, xerostomia, macroglossia, and infections were the most common mucocutaneous manifestations in the studied patients irrespective of hemodialysis status. Cold and dry climates might be additional aggravators for xerosis/pruritus. Lifelong follow-up may be needed to reduce the morbidity associated with CKD

  17. Post-traumatic acute kidney injury: a cross-sectional study of trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-Hung; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Hsieh, Ching-Hua; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun

    2016-11-22

    The causes of post-traumatic acute kidney injury (AKI) are multifactorial, and shock associated with major trauma has been proposed to result in inadequate renal perfusion and subsequent AKI in trauma patients. This study aimed to investigate the true incidence and clinical presentation of post-traumatic AKI in hospitalized adult patients and its association with shock at a Level I trauma center. Detailed data of 78 trauma patients with AKI and 14,504 patients without AKI between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014 were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System. Patients with direct renal trauma were excluded from this study. Two-sided Fisher's exact or Pearson's chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data, unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and Mann-Whitney's U test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. Propensity score matching with a 1:1 ratio with logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of shock on AKI. Patients with AKI presented with significantly older age, higher incidence rates of pre-existing comorbidities, higher odds of associated injures (subdural hematoma, intracerebral hematoma, intra-abdominal injury, and hepatic injury), and higher injury severity than patients without AKI. In addition, patients with AKI had a longer hospital stay (18.3 days vs. 9.8 days, respectively; P < 0.001) and intensive care unit (ICU) stay (18.8 days vs. 8.6 days, respectively; P < 0. 001), higher proportion of admission into the ICU (57.7% vs. 19.0%, respectively; P < 0.001), and a higher odds ratio (OR) of short-term mortality (OR 39.0; 95% confidence interval, 24.59-61.82; P < 0.001). However, logistic regression analysis of well-matched pairs after propensity score matching did not show a significant influence of shock on the occurrence of AKI. We believe that early and aggressive resuscitation, to avoid prolonged untreated shock, may help to prevent the occurrence

  18. Genome Editing of Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Cai, Yijun; Sun, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Gene-modified monkey models would be particularly valuable in biomedical and neuroscience research. Virus-based transgenic and programmable nucleases-based site-specific gene editing methods (TALEN, CRISPR-cas9) enable the generation of gene-modified monkeys with gain or loss of function of specific genes. Here, we describe the generation of transgenic and knock-out (KO) monkeys with high efficiency by lentivirus and programmable nucleases.

  19. Profile of chronic kidney disease related-mineral bone disorders in newly diagnosed advanced predialysis diabetic kidney disease patients: A hospital based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S; Beatrice, A M; Ghosh, A; Pramanik, S; Bhattacharjee, R; Ghosh, S; Raychaudhury, A; Mukhopadhyay, S; Chowdhury, S

    2017-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease related-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) has been poorly studied in pre-dialysis Indian CKD population. There are limited data on the pattern of these disturbances in diabetic CKD patients. Therefore, a study was conducted to find out the profile of mineral bone disorders in T2DM patients with pre-dialysis CKD. In this cross-sectional design, diabetic patients with newly-diagnosed stage 4 and 5 CKD were evaluated. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25 hydroxy vitamin D and total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in all patients. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 72 eligible patients participated (44 males, 28 females; age 54.2±11.7). Patients with CKD Stage 5 had a lower level of corrected serum calcium and significantly higher level of inorganic phosphorus, total ALP and iPTH as compared to stage 4 patients. Overall, 38.5% were hypocalcemic, 31.43% were hyperphosphatemic. 24.2% of CKD subjects were vitamin D deficient (110pg/ml) was detected in nearly 43% of patients. In stage 5, only 32% patients was found to have hyperparathyroidism (iPTH>300pg/ml). There was a good correlation between iPTH and total ALP (r=0.5, p=0.0001) in this cohort. 25 (OH) vitamin D was inversely correlated with ALP (r=-0.39, P=0.001) and showed negative correlation with urine ACR (r=-0.37, P=0.002). As a group, the osteoporotic CKD subjects exhibited higher iPTH (220.1±153.8 vs. 119±108pg/ml, p<0.05) as compared to those who were osteopenic or had normal bone density. There was significant correlation between BMD and iPTH (adjusted r=-0.436; P=0.001). In the multivariate regression model, we found intact PTH to predict BMD even after adjustment of all the confounders. The current study showed that adynamic bone disease is prevalent even in pre-dialysis CKD population. High bone turnover disease may not be the most prevalent type in diabetic CKD. However, it

  20. Chronic kidney disease is common in sickle cell disease: a cross-sectional study in the Tema Metropolis, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim, Richard Kobina Dadzie; Osakunor, Derick Nii Mensah; Cudjoe, Obed; Oduro, Enos Amoako; Asante-Asamani, Lyudmila; Mitchell, Juliana; Agbodzakey, Hope; Adoba, Prince

    2015-05-29

    Renal involvement in sickle cell disease (SCD) contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) amongst SCD patients, and how basic clinical variables differ across haemoglobin genotypes. A hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted from December 2013 to May 2014 at the Sickle cell clinic of the Tema General Hospital. One hundred and ninety-four (194) participants with SCD, receiving medical care at the outpatient sickle cell clinic were enrolled onto the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information on demography, clinical history, blood pressure and anthropometry. Blood and urine samples were taken for serum creatinine and proteinuria determination respectively. The estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated using the CKD-EPI and Schwartz equations. CKD was defined according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. Analysis was performed using GraphPad prism and P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. CKD was present in 39.2% of participants. Using KDIGO guidelines, 40.8% of the HbSS participants had stage 1 CKD and none had stage 2 CKD. In addition, 30.8% of the HbSC participants had stage 1 CKD and 3.8% had stage 2 CKD. There was a trend of increasing age across CKD stages and stage 2 CKD participants were oldest (P < 0.001). Results from the current study suggest that CKD is common amongst SCD patients and prevalence and intensity increases with age. Proteinuria and CKD was more common in HbSS genotype than in HbSC genotype.

  1. The Membranes of the Basal Labyrinth in Kidney Cells of the Stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, Studied in Ultrathin Sections and Freeze-Etch Replicas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Veenhuis, M.

    1974-01-01

    The structure of the basal labyrinth in kidney cells of freshwater sticklebacks was studied in ultrathin sections (after fixation with permanganate, osmium tetroxide, and combinations of glutaraldehyde with osmium tetroxide) and in freeze-etch replicas (after pretreatment with glutaraldehyde and/or

  2. Evaluating the prevalence and opportunity for technology use in chronic kidney disease patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Ann; Gillespie, Kerri; Campbell, Katrina L; Corones-Watkins, Katina; Hayes, Bronwyn; Harvie, Barbara; Kelly, Jaimon T; Havas, Kathryn

    2018-02-02

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide and early education to improve adherence to self-management is a key strategy to slow CKD progression. The use of the internet and mobile phone technologies (mHealth) to support patients is considered an effective tool in many other chronic disease populations. While a number of mHealth platforms for CKD exist, few studies have investigated if and how this population use technology to engage in self-management. Using a cross-sectional design across five health districts in Queensland (Australia), a 38-item self-report survey was distributed to adults with CKD attending outpatient clinics or dialysis units to measure current use and type of engagement with mHealth, perceived barriers to use, and opportunities to support CKD self-management. Odds ratio (OR) were calculated to identify associations between demographic characteristic and mHealth use. Of the 708 participants surveyed, the majority had computer access (89.2%) and owned a mobile phone (83.5%). The most likely users of the internet were those aged ≤ 60 years (OR: 7.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.25-12.75, p higher levels of education (OR: 3.69, CI: 2.38-5.73, p mobile phone for complex communication were also younger (OR: 6.01, 95% CI: 3.55-10.19, p educated (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.29-3.18, p technologies most preferred for communication with their renal healthcare teams were by telephone (56.5%), internet (50%), email (48.3%) and text messages (46%). In the CKD cohort, younger patients are more likely than older patients to use mHealth intensively and interactively although all patients' technology literacy ought to be thoroughly assessed by renal teams before implementing in practice. Further research testing mHealth interventions to improve self-management in a range of patient cohorts is warranted.

  3. Association of anaemia in primary care patients with chronic kidney disease: cross sectional study of quality improvement in chronic kidney disease (QICKD) trial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and treating anaemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) may improve outcomes. However, little is known about the scope to improve primary care management of anaemia in CKD. Methods An observational study (N = 1,099,292) with a nationally representative sample using anonymised routine primary care data from 127 Quality Improvement in CKD trial practices (ISRCTN5631023731). We explored variables associated with anaemia in CKD: eGFR, haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), iron status, cardiovascular comorbidities, and use of therapy which associated with gastrointestinal bleeding, oral iron and deprivation score. We developed a linear regression model to identify variables amenable to improved primary care management. Results The prevalence of Stage 3–5 CKD was 6.76%. Hb was lower in CKD (13.2 g/dl) than without (13.7 g/dl). 22.2% of people with CKD had World Health Organization defined anaemia; 8.6% had Hb ≤ 11 g/dl; 3% Hb ≤ 10 g/dl; and 1% Hb ≤ 9 g/dl. Normocytic anaemia was present in 80.5% with Hb ≤ 11; 72.7% with Hb ≤ 10 g/dl; and 67.6% with Hb ≤ 9 g/dl; microcytic anaemia in 13.4% with Hb ≤ 11 g/dl; 20.8% with Hb ≤ 10 g/dl; and 24.9% where Hb ≤ 9 g/dl. 82.7% of people with microcytic and 58.8% with normocytic anaemia (Hb ≤ 11 g/dl) had a low ferritin (stores may be depleted in over >60% of people with normocytic anaemia. Prescribing oral iron has not corrected anaemia. PMID:23351270

  4. Adherence in patients in the first year after kidney transplantation and its impact on graft loss and mortality: a cross-sectional and prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihodova, Lucia; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Majernikova, Maria; Roland, Robert; Groothoff, Johan W; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2014-12-01

    To explore the predictive value of adherence to their immunosuppressive medication in kidney transplant recipients in the first year after kidney transplantation as a determinant of graft loss and mortality up to 12 years (prospective analysis) and its association with sociodemographic and medical factors and social support (cross-sectional analysis). Poor adherence to their immunosuppressive medication in kidney transplant recipients remains the leading preventable cause of poor patient outcomes. Prospective and cross-sectional study. At baseline, 325 patients 3-12 months posttransplantation were invited to participate. Adherence was assessed using collateral reports - a combination of patients' self-evaluation and an estimate by their nephrologist. The patients provided sociodemographic and medical data and completed the End-Stage Renal Disease Symptom Checklist and Multidimensional scale of perceived social support. At follow-up (average 7·1 years), data on patients and graft survival were obtained. All data were collected from 2002-2013. Multinomial regression analysis and Cox regression were performed. A total of 297 patients (48·1 (12·8) years, 61·6% men) agreed to participate (response rate 91·4%); 67·4% were considered as fully adherent. Poor adherence was associated with higher risk of graft loss and mortality over 12 years. Female sex, higher education, higher perceived side effects of corticosteroids, better perceived cardiac and renal function and higher perceived family social support in the first year posttransplantation were associated with full adherence to immunosuppressive treatment. Patients with poor adherence to the immunosuppressive medication in the first year after kidney transplantation showed increased likelihood of graft loss and death over 12 years compared with the adherent patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Disease KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidney Disease What's in ... Coping With Kidney Conditions Print What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  6. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... kidney (renal) diseases are called nephrologists . What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  7. Prevalence and correlates of medication non-adherence among kidney transplant recipients more than 6 months post-transplant: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Francis L; Chandwani, Sheenu; Kurtyka, Karen M; Zacker, Christopher; Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Demissie, Kitaw

    2013-12-01

    Among kidney transplant recipients, non-adherence with immunosuppressive medications frequently precedes allograft loss. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of medication non-adherence among kidney transplant recipients. We performed a single-center, cross-sectional study of kidney transplant recipients who were at least 6 months post-transplant. We measured self-reported adherence using the Immunosuppressive Therapy Adherence Scale (ITAS, which is scored from 0 to 12, where higher scores indicate increased adherence) and barriers to adherence using the Immunosuppressive Therapy Barriers Scale (ITBS). We also used validated scales to measure perceived stress, health literacy, anxiety, depression, and interpersonal support. The 252 patients included in the study were 59.9% male, 27.0% Black, and at a median of 2.9 years post-transplant (interquartile range [IQR] 1.4-5.8). On the ITAS, 59.1% scored a perfect 12, 26.6% scored 10-11, and 14.3% scored 0-9. In univariate models, non-adherence (defined as ITAS score ≤9) was significantly associated with increased scores on scales for perceived stress (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.25) and depression (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.28), and with more self-reported barriers to adherence on the ITBS (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22). After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, stress and depression were not associated with non-adherence. Higher scores on the ITBS (corresponding to more self-described barriers to adherence) were associated with lower scores on the ITAS (P adherence. Among prevalent kidney transplant recipients, a minority is non-adherent. Practical barriers to adherence may serve as promising targets for future interventions.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of medication non-adherence among kidney transplant recipients more than 6 months post-transplant: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Among kidney transplant recipients, non-adherence with immunosuppressive medications frequently precedes allograft loss. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of medication non-adherence among kidney transplant recipients. Methods We performed a single-center, cross-sectional study of kidney transplant recipients who were at least 6 months post-transplant. We measured self-reported adherence using the Immunosuppressive Therapy Adherence Scale (ITAS, which is scored from 0 to 12, where higher scores indicate increased adherence) and barriers to adherence using the Immunosuppressive Therapy Barriers Scale (ITBS). We also used validated scales to measure perceived stress, health literacy, anxiety, depression, and interpersonal support. Results The 252 patients included in the study were 59.9% male, 27.0% Black, and at a median of 2.9 years post-transplant (interquartile range [IQR] 1.4-5.8). On the ITAS, 59.1% scored a perfect 12, 26.6% scored 10–11, and 14.3% scored 0–9. In univariate models, non-adherence (defined as ITAS score ≤9) was significantly associated with increased scores on scales for perceived stress (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.25) and depression (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.28), and with more self-reported barriers to adherence on the ITBS (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22). After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, stress and depression were not associated with non-adherence. Higher scores on the ITBS (corresponding to more self-described barriers to adherence) were associated with lower scores on the ITAS (P adherence. Conclusions Among prevalent kidney transplant recipients, a minority is non-adherent. Practical barriers to adherence may serve as promising targets for future interventions. PMID:24289809

  9. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  10. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no

  11. Peripheral refraction in normal infant rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Li-Fang; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Huang, Juan; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Smith, Earl L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize peripheral refractions in infant monkeys. Methods Cross-sectional data for horizontal refractions were obtained from 58 normal rhesus monkeys at 3 weeks of age. Longitudinal data were obtained for both the vertical and horizontal meridians from 17 monkeys. Refractive errors were measured by retinoscopy along the pupillary axis and at eccentricities of 15, 30, and 45 degrees. Axial dimensions and corneal power were measured by ultrasonography and keratometry, respectively. Results In infant monkeys, the degree of radial astigmatism increased symmetrically with eccentricity in all meridians. There were, however, initial nasal-temporal and superior-inferior asymmetries in the spherical-equivalent refractive errors. Specifically, the refractions in the temporal and superior fields were similar to the central ametropia, but the refractions in the nasal and inferior fields were more myopic than the central ametropia and the relative nasal field myopia increased with the degree of central hyperopia. With age, the degree of radial astigmatism decreased in all meridians and the refractions became more symmetrical along both the horizontal and vertical meridians; small degrees of relative myopia were evident in all fields. Conclusions As in adult humans, refractive error varied as a function of eccentricity in infant monkeys and the pattern of peripheral refraction varied with the central refractive error. With age, emmetropization occurred for both central and peripheral refractive errors resulting in similar refractions across the central 45 degrees of the visual field, which may reflect the actions of vision-dependent, growth-control mechanisms operating over a wide area of the posterior globe. PMID:18487366

  12. Kidney biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the kidney (in rare cases, may require a blood transfusion) Bleeding into the muscle, which might cause soreness Infection (small risk) Alternative Names Renal biopsy; Biopsy - kidney Images Kidney anatomy ...

  13. Characterizing the relationship between health utility and renal function after kidney transplantation in UK and US: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) occurs in a large share of transplant recipients and it is the leading cause of graft loss despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressants. The reduction in renal function secondary to immunologic and non-immunologic CAN leads to several complications, including anemia and calcium-phosphorus metabolism imbalance and may be associated to worsening Health-Related Quality of Life. We sought to evaluate the relationship between kidney function and Euro-Qol 5 Dimension Index (EQ-5Dindex) scores after kidney transplantation and evaluate whether cross-cultural differences exist between UK and US. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of existing data gathered from two cross-sectional studies. We enrolled 233 and 209 subjects aged 18–74 years who received a kidney transplant in US and UK respectively. For the present analysis we excluded recipients with multiple or multi-organ transplantation, creatinine kinase ≥200 U/L, acute renal failure, and without creatinine assessments in 3 months pre-enrollment leaving 281 subjects overall. The questionnaires were administered independently in the two centers. Both packets included the EQ-5Dindex and socio-demographic items. We augmented the analytical dataset with information abstracted from clinical charts and administrative records including selected comorbidities and biochemistry test results. We used ordinary least squares and quantile regression adjusted for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics to assess the association between EQ-5Dindex and severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Results CKD severity was negatively associated with EQ-5Dindex in both samples (UK: ρ= −0.20, p=0.02; US: ρ= −0.21, p=0.02). The mean adjusted disutility associated to CKD stage 5 compared to CKD stage 1–2 was Δ= −0.38 in the UK sample, Δ= −0.11 in the US sample and Δ= −0.22 in the whole sample. The adjusted median disutility associated to CKD

  14. Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooppil Nandakumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™ has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for haemodialysis patients in Singapore. Methods From December 2006 through January 2007, this cross-sectional study gathered data on patients ≥21 years old, who were undergoing haemodialysis at National Kidney Foundation in Singapore. We used exploratory factor analysis to determine construct validity of the eight KDQOL-SF™ sub-scales, Cronbach's alpha coefficient to determine internal consistency reliability, correlation of the overall health rating with kidney disease-targeted scales to confirm validity, and correlation of the eight sub-scales with age, income and education to determine convergent and divergent validity. Results Of 1980 haemodialysis patients, 1180 (59% completed the KDQOL-SF™. Full information was available for 980 participants, with a mean age of 56 years. The sample was representative of the total dialysis population in Singapore, except Indian ethnicity that was over-represented. The instrument designers' proposed eight sub-scales were confirmed, which together accounted for 68.4% of the variance. All sub-scales had a Cronbach's α above the recommended minimum value of 0.7 to indicate good reliability (range: 0.72 to 0.95, except for Social function (0.66. Correlation of items within subscales was higher than correlation of items outside subscales in 90% of the cases. The overall health rating positively correlated with kidney disease-targeted scales, confirming validity. General health subscales were found to have significant

  15. Validation of the kidney disease quality of life-short form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Veena D; Mooppil, Nandakumar; Lim, Jeremy Fy

    2010-12-20

    In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™) has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for haemodialysis patients in Singapore. From December 2006 through January 2007, this cross-sectional study gathered data on patients ≥21 years old, who were undergoing haemodialysis at National Kidney Foundation in Singapore. We used exploratory factor analysis to determine construct validity of the eight KDQOL-SF™ sub-scales, Cronbach's alpha coefficient to determine internal consistency reliability, correlation of the overall health rating with kidney disease-targeted scales to confirm validity, and correlation of the eight sub-scales with age, income and education to determine convergent and divergent validity. Of 1980 haemodialysis patients, 1180 (59%) completed the KDQOL-SF™. Full information was available for 980 participants, with a mean age of 56 years. The sample was representative of the total dialysis population in Singapore, except Indian ethnicity that was over-represented. The instrument designers' proposed eight sub-scales were confirmed, which together accounted for 68.4% of the variance. All sub-scales had a Cronbach's α above the recommended minimum value of 0.7 to indicate good reliability (range: 0.72 to 0.95), except for Social function (0.66). Correlation of items within subscales was higher than correlation of items outside subscales in 90% of the cases. The overall health rating positively correlated with kidney disease-targeted scales, confirming validity. General health subscales were found to have significant associations with age, income and education

  16. Characterizing the relationship between health utility and renal function after kidney transplantation in UK and US: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Luca

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN occurs in a large share of transplant recipients and it is the leading cause of graft loss despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressants. The reduction in renal function secondary to immunologic and non-immunologic CAN leads to several complications, including anemia and calcium-phosphorus metabolism imbalance and may be associated to worsening Health-Related Quality of Life. We sought to evaluate the relationship between kidney function and Euro-Qol 5 Dimension Index (EQ-5Dindex scores after kidney transplantation and evaluate whether cross-cultural differences exist between UK and US. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of existing data gathered from two cross-sectional studies. We enrolled 233 and 209 subjects aged 18–74 years who received a kidney transplant in US and UK respectively. For the present analysis we excluded recipients with multiple or multi-organ transplantation, creatinine kinase ≥200 U/L, acute renal failure, and without creatinine assessments in 3 months pre-enrollment leaving 281 subjects overall. The questionnaires were administered independently in the two centers. Both packets included the EQ-5Dindex and socio-demographic items. We augmented the analytical dataset with information abstracted from clinical charts and administrative records including selected comorbidities and biochemistry test results. We used ordinary least squares and quantile regression adjusted for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics to assess the association between EQ-5Dindex and severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Results CKD severity was negatively associated with EQ-5Dindex in both samples (UK: ρ= −0.20, p=0.02; US: ρ= −0.21, p=0.02. The mean adjusted disutility associated to CKD stage 5 compared to CKD stage 1–2 was Δ= −0.38 in the UK sample, Δ= −0.11 in the US sample and Δ= −0.22 in the whole sample. The adjusted median

  17. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Simple Kidney Cysts What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled ... that form in the kidneys. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  18. An ontological approach to identifying cases of chronic kidney disease from routine primary care data: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Nicholas I; Liyanage, Harshana; Suckling, Rebecca J; Swift, Pauline A; Gallagher, Hugh; Byford, Rachel; Williams, John; Kumar, Shankar; de Lusignan, Simon

    2018-04-10

    Accurately identifying cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) from primary care data facilitates the management of patients, and is vital for surveillance and research purposes. Ontologies provide a systematic and transparent basis for clinical case definition and can be used to identify clinical codes relevant to all aspects of CKD care and its diagnosis. We used routinely collected primary care data from the Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre. A domain ontology was created and presented in Ontology Web Language (OWL). The identification and staging of CKD was then carried out using two parallel approaches: (1) clinical coding consistent with a diagnosis of CKD; (2) laboratory-confirmed CKD, based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or the presence of proteinuria. The study cohort comprised of 1.2 million individuals aged 18 years and over. 78,153 (6.4%) of the population had CKD on the basis of an eGFR of < 60 mL/min/1.73m 2 , and a further 7366 (0.6%) individuals were identified as having CKD due to proteinuria. 19,504 (1.6%) individuals without laboratory-confirmed CKD had a clinical code consistent with the diagnosis. In addition, a subset of codes allowed for 1348 (0.1%) individuals receiving renal replacement therapy to be identified. Finding cases of CKD from primary care data using an ontological approach may have greater sensitivity than less comprehensive methods, particularly for identifying those receiving renal replacement therapy or with CKD stages 1 or 2. However, the possibility of inaccurate coding may limit the specificity of this method.

  19. Vancomycin-induced acute kidney injury in elderly Chinese patients: a single-centre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Kun-Ming; Wu, Yi; Chen, Can; Chen, Zhang-Zhang; Xu, Jian-An; Cao, Lei; Xu, Qing; Wu, Wei; Dai, Pei-Fang; Li, Xiao-Yu; Lv, Qian-Zhou

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the current situation concerning, and risk factors for, vancomycin (VAN)-induced acute kidney injury (VI-AKI) in elderly Chinese patients, to assess outcomes and risk factors in patients who have developed VI-AKI, in order to provide suggestions for improving the prevention and treatment of this condition in these patients. We retrospectively identified elderly older inpatients who had received four or more doses of VAN treatment. We compared patients with VI-AKI with those who received VAN treatment and had not developed AKI (NO-AKI). We defined VI-AKI as developing AKI during VAN therapy or within 3 days after withdrawal of VAN. A total of 647 out of 862 elderly inpatients were included in the study. Among those excluded, in 89.3% of cases (192/215) this was because of lack of data on serum creatinine (SCr). Among included patients, 32.5% (210/647) of patients received therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) during VAN therapy. In 66.9% of cases (424/634), there was insufficient TDM, and in 3.9% (25/634) this was appropriate. A total of 102 patients had confirmed VI-AKI, with an incidence of 15.8% (102/647). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that hyperuricaemia [odds ratio (OR) = 3.045; P = 0.000)], mechanical ventilation (OR = 1.906; P = 0.022) and concomitant vasopressor therapy (OR = 1.919; P = 0.027) were independent risk factors for VI-AKI; higher serum albumin (OR = 0.885; P = 0.000) was determined to be an independent protective factor for VI-AKI. For the elderly Chinese patients treated with VAN, there was insufficient monitoring of SCr, too little use of VAN TDM, and lower rate of patients whose VAN though serum concentrations were not obtained at the correct time. We recommend that hospital managers increase investment in clinical pharmacists, to strengthen professional management. Patients with concomitant hyperuricaemia and on mechanical ventilation and vasopressor therapy should be paid

  20. Vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury: A cross-sectional study from a single center in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Kunming; Ma, Lingyun; Xiang, Qian; Li, Xueying; Li, Haixia; Zhou, Ying; Yang, Li; Cui, Yimin

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the current situation of vancomycin (VAN)-associated acute kidney injury (VA-AKI) in China and identify the risk factors for VA-AKI, as well as to comprehensively examine the risk related to concurrent drug use. Further, we assessed the outcomes of patients who developed VA-AKI and the risk factors for these outcomes. Finally, we aimed to provide suggestions for improving the prevention and treatment of VA-AKI in China. We conducted a retrospective observational study of inpatients who had been treated with VAN between January 2013 and December 2013 at Peking University First Hospital. AKI was defined as an increase in SCr of ≥0.3 mg/dl (≥26.5 μmol/l) within 48 hours or an increase to ≥1.5 times the baseline certainly or presumably within the past 7 days. VA-AKI was defined as the development of AKI during VAN therapy or within 7 days following the termination of VAN therapy. In addition, we compared patients with NO-AKI, who did not develop AKI during their hospitalization, with those with VA-AKI. Of the 934 patients treated with VAN during their hospital stay, 740 were included in this study. Among those excluded, 38.1% (74/194) were excluded because of a lack of data on serum creatinine (SCr). Among the included patients, 120 had confirmed VA-AKI, with an incidence of 16.2% (120/740). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that an elevated baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.009; p = 0.017) and concomitant vasopressor therapy (OR = 2.942; p = 0.009), nitrate use (OR = 2.869; p = 0.007), imipenem-cilastatin treatment (OR = 4.708; p = 0.000), and contrast medium administration (OR = 6.609 p = 0.005) were independent risk factors for VA-AKI; in addition, the receipt of orthopedic/trauma/burn surgery (OR = 0.3575; p = 0.011) and concomitant compound glycyrrhizin use (OR = 0.290; p = 0.017) were independent protective factors for VA-AKI. Multiple logistic regression

  1. Multilevel Correlates of Non-Adherence in Kidney Transplant Patients Benefitting from Full Cost Coverage for Immunosuppressives: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, Elisa Oliveira; Fernandes, Neimar Silva; Colugnati, Fernando Antônio Basile; Fernandes, Natalia Maria Silva; De Geest, Sabina; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    2015-01-01

    Adherence is the result of the interaction of the macro, meso, micro, and patient level factors. The macro level includes full coverage of immunosuppressive medications as is the case in Brazil. We studied the correlates of immunosuppressive non-adherence in post kidney transplant patients in the Brazilian health care system. Using a cross-sectional design, adherence to immunosuppressives was assessed in a sample of 100 kidney transplant patients using a composite non-adherence score consisting of three methods (self-report [i.e., The Basel Adherence Scale for Assessment of Immunossupressives-BAASIS], collateral report, and immunosuppressive blood levels). Multilevel correlations of non-adherence were assessed (macro, meso, micro and patient level). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the correlates of non-adherence. Our sample consisted primarily of male (65%), Caucasians (72%) with a mean age of 45.0 ± 13.5 years old, who received grafts from a living donor (89%), with a mean time after transplantation of 72.3 ± 44.4 months. Prevalence of non-adherence was 51%. Family income higher than five reference wages (21.6 vs. 4%; OR 6.46 [1.35-30.89], p = 0.009; patient level), and having access to private health insurance (35.3% vs. 18.4%; OR 2.42 [0.96-6.10], p = 0.04; meso level) were associated with non-adherence in univariate analysis. Only the higher family income variable was retained in the multiple logistic regression model (OR 5.0; IC: 1.01-25.14; p = 0.04). Higher family income was the only factor that was associated with immunosuppressive non-adherence. In Brazil, lower income recipients benefit from better access to care and coverage of health care costs after transplantation. This is supposed to result in a better immunosuppressive adherence compared to high-income patients who have experienced these benefits continuously.

  2. Nephrology comanagement and the quality of antibiotic prescribing in primary care for patients with chronic kidney disease: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Justin X G; Nash, Danielle M; McArthur, Eric; Farag, Alexandra; Garg, Amit X; Jain, Arsh K

    2018-04-12

    In primary care, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are frequently prescribed excessive doses of antibiotics relative to their kidney function. We examined whether nephrology comanagement is associated with improved prescribing in primary care. In a retrospective propensity score-matched cross-sectional study, we studied the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions by primary care physicians to Ontarians ≥66 years of age with CKD Stages 4 and 5 (estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 not receiving dialysis) from 1 April 2003 to 31 March 2014. Comanagement was defined as having at least one outpatient visit with a nephrologist within the year prior to antibiotic prescription date. We compared the rate of appropriately dosed antibiotics in primary care between 3937 patients who were comanaged by a nephrologist and 3937 patients who were not. Only 1184 (30%) of 3937 noncomanaged patients had appropriately dosed antibiotic prescriptions prescribed by a primary care physician. Nephrology comanagement was associated with an increased likelihood that an appropriately dosed prescription was prescribed by a primary care physician; however, the magnitude of the effect was modest [1342/3937 (34%); odds ratio 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.09-1.32); P < 0.001]. The majority of antibiotics prescribed by primary care physicians are inappropriately dosed in CKD patients, whether or not a nephrologist is comanaging the patient. Nephrologists have an opportunity to increase awareness of appropriate dosing of medications in primary care through the patients they comanage.

  3. A cross-sectional study on the relationship between hematological data and quantitative morphological indices from kidney biopsies in different glomerular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Michelangelo; Viggiano, Davide; Ragone, Vincenzo; Trabace, Tiziana; di Palma, Annamaria; Rossini, Michele; Capasso, Giovambattista; Gesualdo, Loreto; Gigliotti, Giuseppe

    2018-03-14

    The classical approach to the analysis of kidney biopsies is based on semi-quantitative scores of the amount of sclerosis, inflammatory infiltrate, fibrosis and vascular damage. However, advanced renal lesions may be accompanied by a paucity of clinical features and, conversely, important clinical abnormalities may be accompanied by minimal histopathological changes. The objective of this study is to correlate new, semiautomatic, quantitative features of kidney biopsies (e.g. fractal analysis) with clinical and hematological parameters using a cross-sectional design. Whole slide images from sixty-seven biopsies of patients diagnosed for diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) or IgA nephropathy have been used. The images have been semi-automatically quantified in the ImageJ environment, in order to derive the glomerular density, the tubular density, the number of tubules per glomerulus and the fractal dimension of the tubular lumen in the cortex (an index of complexity of the tubular lumen). For each patient, hemato-chemical data have been retrieved, including the uric acid level and the creatinine-based eGFR. A linear relationship between eGFR and glomerular density was observed in hypertension and FSGS, but not in diabetic nephropathy. Conversely, the eGFR correlated with the tubular density across different glomerular conditions. Moreover, the tubular density was linearly correlated with uric acid levels in different pathological conditions. The fractal dimension of tubular lumen was correlated with the eGFR but only in hypertensive patients. Finally, blood pressure was not correlated to any of the morphological indices tested. We propose the use of the fractal dimension as a new morphological descriptor of the nephron integrity.

  4. What Do Monkey Calls Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-12-01

    A field of primate linguistics is gradually emerging. It combines general questions and tools from theoretical linguistics with rich data gathered in experimental primatology. Analyses of several monkey systems have uncovered very simple morphological and syntactic rules and have led to the development of a primate semantics that asks new questions about the division of semantic labor between the literal meaning of monkey calls, additional mechanisms of pragmatic enrichment, and the environmental context. We show that comparative studies across species may validate this program and may in some cases help in reconstructing the evolution of monkey communication over millions of years. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Kidney function changes with aging in adults: comparison between cross-sectional and longitudinal data analyses in renal function assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang M; Lee, David J; Hand, Austin; Young, Philip; Vaidyanathan, Jayabharathi; Sahajwalla, Chandrahas

    2015-12-01

    The study evaluated whether the renal function decline rate per year with age in adults varies based on two primary statistical analyses: cross-section (CS), using one observation per subject, and longitudinal (LT), using multiple observations per subject over time. A total of 16628 records (3946 subjects; age range 30-92 years) of creatinine clearance and relevant demographic data were used. On average, four samples per subject were collected for up to 2364 days (mean: 793 days). A simple linear regression and random coefficient models were selected for CS and LT analyses, respectively. The renal function decline rates per year were 1.33 and 0.95 ml/min/year for CS and LT analyses, respectively, and were slower when the repeated individual measurements were considered. The study confirms that rates are different based on statistical analyses, and that a statistically robust longitudinal model with a proper sampling design provides reliable individual as well as population estimates of the renal function decline rates per year with age in adults. In conclusion, our findings indicated that one should be cautious in interpreting the renal function decline rate with aging information because its estimation was highly dependent on the statistical analyses. From our analyses, a population longitudinal analysis (e.g. random coefficient model) is recommended if individualization is critical, such as a dose adjustment based on renal function during a chronic therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Adherence in patients in the first year after kidney transplantation and its impact on graft loss and mortality : a cross-sectional and prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prihodova, Lucia; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Majernikova, Maria; Roland, Robert; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To explore the predictive value of adherence to their immunosuppressive medication in kidney transplant recipients in the first year after kidney transplantation as a determinant of graft loss and mortality up to 12 years (prospective analysis) and its association with sociodemographic and

  7. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kind of kidney cancer called Wilms' tumor. The incidence of kidney cancer seems to be increasing. One ... doesn't go away Loss of appetite Unexplained weight loss Tiredness Fever, which usually comes and goes ( ...

  8. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy kidneys clean your blood by removing excess fluid, minerals, and wastes. They also make hormones that keep your ... strong and your blood healthy. But if the kidneys are damaged, they don't work properly. Harmful ...

  9. Urinary excretion of uric acid is negatively associated with albuminuria in patients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqin; Guo, Hui; Zou, Jianan; Chen, Weijun; Lu, Yijun; Zhang, Xiaoli; Fu, Chensheng; Xiao, Jing; Ye, Zhibin

    2018-04-24

    Increasing evidence has shown that albuminuria is related to serum uric acid. Little is known about whether this association may be interrelated via renal handling of uric acid. Therefore, we aim to study urinary uric acid excretion and its association with albuminuria in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A cross-sectional study of 200 Chinese CKD patients recruited from department of nephrology of Huadong hospital was conducted. Levels of 24 h urinary excretion of uric acid (24-h Uur), fractional excretion of uric acid (FEur) and uric acid clearance rate (Cur) according to gender, CKD stages, hypertension and albuminuria status were compared by a multivariate analysis. Pearson and Spearman correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to study the correlation of 24-h Uur, FEur and Cur with urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). The multivariate analysis showed that 24-h Uur and Cur were lower and FEur was higher in the hypertension group, stage 3-5 CKD and macro-albuminuria group (UACR> 30 mg/mmol) than those in the normotensive group, stage 1 CKD group and the normo-albuminuria group (UACRuric acid is negatively associated with albuminuria in patients with CKD. This phenomenon may help to explain the association between albuminuria and serum uric acid.

  10. Identification of subgingival periodontal pathogens and association with the severity of periodontitis in patients with chronic kidney diseases: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Fidan Bahtiar; Ismail, Gener; Dumitriu, Anca Silvia; Baston, Catalin; Berbecar, Vlad; Jurubita, Roxana; Andronesi, Andreea; Dumitriu, Horia Traian; Sinescu, Ioanel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the subgingival profile of 9 periodontal pathogens, by means of real-time PCR, in a group of predialysis chronic kidney disease patients with and without periodontal disease and to identify the risk factors associated with periodontal disease in these patients. This is a single centre cross-sectional cohort study performed on 70 CKD patients. Patients received a full-mouth periodontal examination and the following parameters were assessed: periodontal pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, and plaque index; subgingival biofilm samples were collected from the deepest periodontal pocket of each quadrant and were pooled in one transporting unit. Clinical data were drawn from the medical file of the patients. T. denticola (P = 0.001), T. forsythia (P < 0.001), and P. micros (P = 0.003) are significantly associated with periodontal disease in CKD subjects but in a multivariate model only age and T. forsythia remain independent risk factors for periodontal disease in patients with CKD. In our cohort, age and T. forsythia are independently associated with periodontitis in CKD patients. Within the limits of this study, CKD was not significantly associated with a particular subgingival periodontal pathogens profile in periodontitis patients.

  11. Identification of Subgingival Periodontal Pathogens and Association with the Severity of Periodontitis in Patients with Chronic Kidney Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidan Bahtiar Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of our study was to assess the subgingival profile of 9 periodontal pathogens, by means of real-time PCR, in a group of predialysis chronic kidney disease patients with and without periodontal disease and to identify the risk factors associated with periodontal disease in these patients. Material and Methods. This is a single centre cross-sectional cohort study performed on 70 CKD patients. Patients received a full-mouth periodontal examination and the following parameters were assessed: periodontal pocket depth (PPD, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, and plaque index; subgingival biofilm samples were collected from the deepest periodontal pocket of each quadrant and were pooled in one transporting unit. Clinical data were drawn from the medical file of the patients. Results. T. denticola (P=0.001, T. forsythia (P<0.001, and P. micros (P=0.003 are significantly associated with periodontal disease in CKD subjects but in a multivariate model only age and T. forsythia remain independent risk factors for periodontal disease in patients with CKD. Conclusions. In our cohort, age and T. forsythia are independently associated with periodontitis in CKD patients. Within the limits of this study, CKD was not significantly associated with a particular subgingival periodontal pathogens profile in periodontitis patients.

  12. Evaluation of novel biomarkers of nephrotoxicity in Cynomolgus monkeys treated with gentamicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Jean-Charles; Zhou, Xiaobing; Yang, Yi; Gury, Thierry; Qu, Zhe; Palazzi, Xavier; Léonard, Jean-François; Slaoui, Mohamed; Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Guizon, Isabelle; Boitier, Eric; Filali-Ansary, Aziz; Berg, Bart H.J. van den; Poetz, Oliver; Joos, Thomas; Zhang, Tianyi; Wang, Jufeng; Detilleux, Philippe; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Most studies to evaluate kidney safety biomarkers have been performed in rats. This study was conducted in Cynomolgus monkeys in order to evaluate the potential usefulness of novel biomarkers of nephrotoxicity in this species. Groups of 3 males were given daily intramuscular injections of gentamicin, a nephrotoxic agent known to produce lesions in proximal tubules, at dose-levels of 10, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day for 10 days. Blood and 16-h urine samples were collected on Days − 7, − 3, 2, 4, 7, and at the end of the dosing period. Several novel kidney safety biomarkers were evaluated, with single- and multiplex immunoassays and in immunoprecipitation-LC/MS assays, in parallel to histopathology and conventional clinical pathology parameters. Treatment with gentamicin induced a dose-dependent increase in kidney tubular cell degeneration/necrosis, ranging from minimal to mild severity at 10 mg/kg/day, moderate at 25 mg/kg/day, and to severe at 50 mg/kg/day. The results showed that the novel urinary biomarkers, microalbumin, α1-microglobulin, clusterin, and osteopontin, together with the more traditional clinical pathology parameters, urinary total protein and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), were more sensitive than blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (sCr) to detect kidney injury in the monkeys given 10 mg/kg/day gentamicin for 10 days, a dose leading to an exposure which is slightly higher than the desired therapeutic exposure in clinics. Therefore, these urinary biomarkers represent non-invasive biomarkers of proximal tubule injury in Cynomolgus monkeys which may be potentially useful in humans. - Highlights: • Gentamicin induced kidney tubular cell degeneration/necrosis in Cynomolgus monkey • Urinary clusterin and osteopontin were sensitive biomarkers of kidney injury. • Microalbumin and α1-microglobulin in urine were also more sensitive than serum creatinine.

  13. Evaluation of novel biomarkers of nephrotoxicity in Cynomolgus monkeys treated with gentamicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautier, Jean-Charles, E-mail: jean-charles.gautier@sanofi.com [Sanofi R& D, Vitry-sur-Seine (France); Zhou, Xiaobing [National Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs (NCSED), National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing (China); Yang, Yi [Sanofi R& D, Bridgewater (United States); Gury, Thierry [Sanofi R& D, Vitry-sur-Seine (France); Qu, Zhe [National Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs (NCSED), National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing (China); Palazzi, Xavier; Léonard, Jean-François; Slaoui, Mohamed; Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Guizon, Isabelle; Boitier, Eric; Filali-Ansary, Aziz [Sanofi R& D, Vitry-sur-Seine (France); Berg, Bart H.J. van den; Poetz, Oliver; Joos, Thomas [Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at the University Tübingen (Germany); Zhang, Tianyi [Frontage Laboratories, Shanghai (China); Wang, Jufeng [National Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs (NCSED), National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing (China); Detilleux, Philippe [Sanofi R& D, Vitry-sur-Seine (France); Li, Bo, E-mail: libo@nifdc.org.cn [National Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs (NCSED), National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing (China)

    2016-07-15

    Most studies to evaluate kidney safety biomarkers have been performed in rats. This study was conducted in Cynomolgus monkeys in order to evaluate the potential usefulness of novel biomarkers of nephrotoxicity in this species. Groups of 3 males were given daily intramuscular injections of gentamicin, a nephrotoxic agent known to produce lesions in proximal tubules, at dose-levels of 10, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day for 10 days. Blood and 16-h urine samples were collected on Days − 7, − 3, 2, 4, 7, and at the end of the dosing period. Several novel kidney safety biomarkers were evaluated, with single- and multiplex immunoassays and in immunoprecipitation-LC/MS assays, in parallel to histopathology and conventional clinical pathology parameters. Treatment with gentamicin induced a dose-dependent increase in kidney tubular cell degeneration/necrosis, ranging from minimal to mild severity at 10 mg/kg/day, moderate at 25 mg/kg/day, and to severe at 50 mg/kg/day. The results showed that the novel urinary biomarkers, microalbumin, α1-microglobulin, clusterin, and osteopontin, together with the more traditional clinical pathology parameters, urinary total protein and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), were more sensitive than blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (sCr) to detect kidney injury in the monkeys given 10 mg/kg/day gentamicin for 10 days, a dose leading to an exposure which is slightly higher than the desired therapeutic exposure in clinics. Therefore, these urinary biomarkers represent non-invasive biomarkers of proximal tubule injury in Cynomolgus monkeys which may be potentially useful in humans. - Highlights: • Gentamicin induced kidney tubular cell degeneration/necrosis in Cynomolgus monkey • Urinary clusterin and osteopontin were sensitive biomarkers of kidney injury. • Microalbumin and α1-microglobulin in urine were also more sensitive than serum creatinine.

  14. Multilevel Correlates of Non-Adherence in Kidney Transplant Patients Benefitting from Full Cost Coverage for Immunosuppressives: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Oliveira Marsicano

    Full Text Available Adherence is the result of the interaction of the macro, meso, micro, and patient level factors. The macro level includes full coverage of immunosuppressive medications as is the case in Brazil. We studied the correlates of immunosuppressive non-adherence in post kidney transplant patients in the Brazilian health care system.Using a cross-sectional design, adherence to immunosuppressives was assessed in a sample of 100 kidney transplant patients using a composite non-adherence score consisting of three methods (self-report [i.e., The Basel Adherence Scale for Assessment of Immunossupressives-BAASIS], collateral report, and immunosuppressive blood levels. Multilevel correlations of non-adherence were assessed (macro, meso, micro and patient level. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the correlates of non-adherence.Our sample consisted primarily of male (65%, Caucasians (72% with a mean age of 45.0 ± 13.5 years old, who received grafts from a living donor (89%, with a mean time after transplantation of 72.3 ± 44.4 months. Prevalence of non-adherence was 51%. Family income higher than five reference wages (21.6 vs. 4%; OR 6.46 [1.35-30.89], p = 0.009; patient level, and having access to private health insurance (35.3% vs. 18.4%; OR 2.42 [0.96-6.10], p = 0.04; meso level were associated with non-adherence in univariate analysis. Only the higher family income variable was retained in the multiple logistic regression model (OR 5.0; IC: 1.01-25.14; p = 0.04.Higher family income was the only factor that was associated with immunosuppressive non-adherence. In Brazil, lower income recipients benefit from better access to care and coverage of health care costs after transplantation. This is supposed to result in a better immunosuppressive adherence compared to high-income patients who have experienced these benefits continuously.

  15. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo

    1996-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  16. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  17. Epidurography with metrizamide in Rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, D.K.; Baker, R.A.; Saubermann, A.; Salem, J.; Schoene, W.C.; Fournier, P.

    1980-01-01

    Epidurography with metrizamide was performed on 9 Rhesus monkeys; physiologic saline was substituted for metrizamide in 3 control monkeys. Metrizamide successfully outlined the epidural space without causing any adverse clinical effects or direct tissue injury. (Auth.)

  18. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Vicarious Learning from Human Models in Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Falcone, Rossella; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Genovesio, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether monkeys can learn by observing a human model, through vicarious learning. Two monkeys observed a human model demonstrating an object-reward association and consuming food found underneath an object. The monkeys observed human models as they solved more than 30 learning problems. For each problem, the human models made a choice between two objects, one of which concealed a piece of apple. In the test phase afterwards, the monkeys made a choice of their own. Learning was app...

  20. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  1. Thyrotropin levels are associated with chronic kidney disease among healthy subjects in cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto de Miranda, Érique José F; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; de Oliveira Titan, Silvia Maria; Ladeira, Roberto Marini; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have evaluated a possible relationship between thyrotropin levels and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albumin/creatinine ratio in euthyroid subjects. We aimed to analyze this association using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectionally, we included subjects with normal thyroid function and with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function. Linear and logistic regression models evaluated GFR estimated by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-Epi) and albuminuria/creatinine ratio as dependent variables and thyrotropin quartiles in individuals with euthyroidism and SCH as independent variables, adjusted for demographical characteristics and diseases related to CKD. We included 13,193 subjects with a median age of 51 years [interquartile range, (IQR): 45-58], 6840 (51.8%) women, 12,416 (94.1%) euthyroid, and 777 (5.9%) with SCH. SCH subjects were characterized by higher age, triglycerides, frequency of white race, cardiovascular disease, CKD, and former smokers. In adjusted models, log-transformed TSH in euthyroid subjects was inversely and strongly associated with CKD (β = -2.181, 95% CI -2.714 to -1.648), P < 0.0001 for glomerular filtration rate and 4.528 (1.190-7.865) for albuminuria/creatinine ratio. Multivariate logistic models for euthyroid subjects showed an OR of 1.45 (95% CI 1.15-1.83) for GFR and of 1.95 (95% CI 1.08-3.54) for albuminuria/creatinine ratio in the fourth quartile of TSH using the first as the reference. Thyrotropin levels are independently associated with CKD in euthyroid subjects.

  2. 2D elemental mapping of sections of human kidney stones using laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Possibilities and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vašinová Galiová, Michaela [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Čopjaková, Renata; Škoda, Radek [Department of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Štěpánková, Kateřina; Vaňková, Michaela [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kuta, Jan [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Prokeš, Lubomír [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kynický, Jindřich [Department of Pedology and Geology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-10-01

    A 213 nm Nd:YAG-based laser ablation (LA) system coupled to quadrupole-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and an ArF* excimer-based LA-system coupled to a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer were employed to study the spatial distribution of various elements in kidney stones (uroliths). Sections of the surfaces of uroliths were ablated according to line patterns to investigate the elemental profiles for the different urolith growth zones. This exploratory study was mainly focused on the distinguishing of the main constituents of urinary calculus fragments by means of LA-ICP-mass spectrometry. Changes in the ablation rate for oxalate and phosphate phases related to matrix density and hardness are discussed. Elemental association was investigated on the basis of 2D mapping. The possibility of using NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal as an external standard for calibration was tested. It is shown that LA-ICP-MS is helpful for determination of the mineralogical composition and size of all phases within the analyzed surface area, for tracing down elemental associations and for documenting the elemental content of urinary stones. LA-ICP-MS results (elemental contents and maps) are compared to those obtained with electron microprobe analysis and solution analysis ICP-MS. - Highlights: • Elements in phosphate and oxalate urolith phases were quantified by LA-ICP-MS. • SRM NIST 1486 Bone Meal was proved suitable for quantification in uroliths. • Different ablation rates in particular phases were included at quantification. • Oxalate and apatite phases show opposite hardness order to natural minerals. • Uroliths were classified according to elemental association to phases.

  3. Study of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders in newly detected advanced renal failure patients: A Hospital-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Etta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to evaluate the disturbances in mineral metabolism, abnormalities in bone mineral density (BMD, and extraskeletal calcification in newly detected, untreated predialysis stage 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD patients at a tertiary care hospital in North India. This is cross-sectional observational study. A total of 95 (68 males, 27 females newly detected patients underwent clinical evaluation, biochemical assessment [serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, albumin, creatinine, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, 25- hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD], BMD measurement (at spine, hip, and forearm by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, lateral abdominal radiograph [for abdominal aortic calcification (AAC], skeletal survey (to look for any abnormality including fractures, and echocardiography [for any cardiac valvular calcification (CVC]. Symptoms related to CKD-mineral bone disorder were seen in 33.6% of the study patients. Prevalence of hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and hypovitaminosis D was 64.2%, 81.1%, 49.5%, and 89.5%, respectively. CVC was seen in 22.1% of patients on echocardiography, mostly involving the mitral valve. Patients with CVC were more likely to be males and smokers. There was no significant difference in iPTH levels between patients with or without CVC. AAC was seen in 10.5% of patients on lateral abdominal X-ray. Patients with AAC had higher levels of iPTH, phosphorus, and ALP and lower levels of calcium compared to patients without AAC. BMD by DXA showed a low bone mass in 41.05% of our patients and was more prevalent in CKD stage 5. Most of the study patients had hyperparathyroidism and low 25(OHD levels. Our study shows that newly detected, naïve Indian CKD patients have a high prevalence of disturbances of mineral metabolism including hyperparathyroidism, Vitamin D deficiency, abnormal BMD, and valvular and vascular calcification, even before initiating dialysis.

  4. Vicarious learning from human models in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Rossella; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Genovesio, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether monkeys can learn by observing a human model, through vicarious learning. Two monkeys observed a human model demonstrating an object-reward association and consuming food found underneath an object. The monkeys observed human models as they solved more than 30 learning problems. For each problem, the human models made a choice between two objects, one of which concealed a piece of apple. In the test phase afterwards, the monkeys made a choice of their own. Learning was apparent from the first trial of the test phase, confirming the ability of monkeys to learn by vicarious observation of human models.

  5. Vicarious learning from human models in monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Falcone

    Full Text Available We examined whether monkeys can learn by observing a human model, through vicarious learning. Two monkeys observed a human model demonstrating an object-reward association and consuming food found underneath an object. The monkeys observed human models as they solved more than 30 learning problems. For each problem, the human models made a choice between two objects, one of which concealed a piece of apple. In the test phase afterwards, the monkeys made a choice of their own. Learning was apparent from the first trial of the test phase, confirming the ability of monkeys to learn by vicarious observation of human models.

  6. Monkey alcohol tissue research resource: banking tissues for alcohol research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunais, James B; Davenport, April T; Helms, Christa M; Gonzales, Steven W; Hemby, Scott E; Friedman, David P; Farro, Jonathan P; Baker, Erich J; Grant, Kathleen A

    2014-07-01

    An estimated 18 million adults in the United States meet the clinical criteria for diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcoholism, a disorder ranked as the third leading cause of preventable death. In addition to brain pathology, heavy alcohol consumption is comorbid with damage to major organs including heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Much of what is known about risk for and consequences of heavy consumption derive from rodent or retrospective human studies. The neurobiological effects of chronic intake in rodent studies may not easily translate to humans due to key differences in brain structure and organization between species, including a lack of higher-order cognitive functions, and differences in underlying prefrontal cortical neural structures that characterize the primate brain. Further, rodents do not voluntarily consume large quantities of ethanol (EtOH) and they metabolize it more rapidly than primates. The basis of the Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is that nonhuman primates, specifically monkeys, show a range of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol (>3.0 g/kg or a 12 drink equivalent per day) over long periods of time (12 to 30 months) with concomitant pathological changes in endocrine, hepatic, and central nervous system (CNS) processes. The patterns and range of alcohol intake that monkeys voluntarily consume parallel what is observed in humans with alcohol use disorders and the longitudinal experimental design spans stages of drinking from the EtOH-naïve state to early exposure through chronic abuse. Age- and sex-matched control animals self-administer an isocaloric solution under identical operant procedures. The MATRR is a unique postmortem tissue bank that provides CNS and peripheral tissues, and associated bioinformatics from monkeys that self-administer EtOH using a standardized experimental paradigm to the broader alcohol research community. This resource provides a translational platform from which we can better

  7. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413333450; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  8. Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  9. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  10. Beyond quality of life: a cross sectional study on the mental health of patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Beatriz Dos Santos; Fernandes, Neimar da Silva; de Melo, Nayara Pires; Abrita, Renata; Grincenkov, Fabiane Rossi Dos Santos; Fernandes, Natália Maria da Silva

    2017-04-17

    Patients with terminal chronic kidney disease (CKDT) requiring renal replacement therapies (RRT) undergo important changes in living habits and frequently need caregiving. These patients and their caregivers are risk groups for the development of physical and psychological symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety, depression, stress, fatigue, social support, and quality of life in patients with CKD and their caregivers. This cross sectional study was conducted with 21 patients and their caregivers, from January to September 2015. We included patients aged over 18 years, with at least 6 months on dialysis treatment, and caregivers who were family members. The participants' social, demographic, clinical, laboratory, and psychological variables were evaluated. A descriptive analysis and an examination of the association between patients and caregivers were performed. Among patients, we observed that 38.1% had symptoms that indicated anxiety and depression. The average score for practical social support was 3.15 ± 0.769 and that for emotional social support was 3.16 ± 0.79. As for fatigue, 14.3% of patients reported being 'extremely tired' and 14.3% reported that they engaged in all the activities they usually performed before the illness. Further, 57.1% presented stress, and of these, 66.7% were at the resistance stage, with predominance of psychological symptoms in 60.0%. The quality of life domain in terms of functional capacity (FC) presented a correlation with haemoglobin level (r = 0.581, p = 0.006) and non-anaemic patients presented better FC. Among caregivers, we observed symptoms that indicated anxiety and depression in 33.3% of the sample. Caregivers exhibited an average score of 2.88 ± 0.77 for practical social support and 3.0 ± 0.72 for emotional social support. Further, 14.3% reported being 'extremely tired' and 28.8% reported that they engaged in all activities that they usually performed before the

  11. Health care-seeking behavior among patients with chronic kidney disease: A cross-sectional study of patients presenting at a single teaching hospital in Lagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babawale Taslim Bello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care-seeking behavior of individuals determines how early they present for appropriate care. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, late presentation to the nephrologist is associated with poor outcomes. This study aims to describe the health care-seeking behavior of patients with CKD attending the nephrology outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital located in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted on 104 consecutive adult patients with CKD, presenting for the first time at the nephrology outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital located in Lagos, South West Nigeria. Information was retrieved from the study participants using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, entered into an Excel spreadsheet, and analyzed using Epi Info® statistical software version 7.0. Results: Overall, 74 (71.2% patients sought help, first from a trained health care provider, and their health care-seeking behavior was adjudged to be appropriate. Compared to patients with appropriate health care-seeking behavior, those with inappropriate health care-seeking behavior had a lower mean age (40.4 ± 13.7 years vs 47.3 ± 15.6 years;P = 0.03, were less likely to see their illness as a medical problem (46.7% vs 67.6%;P = 0.04, more likely to have a monthly income less than N25,000 ($150 (80.0% vs 59.5%;P = 0.04, and have received below tertiary level education (20.0% vs 48.6%; P < 0.01. They were also more likely to have consulted more than one health care provider before being referred to our clinic. The factors predicting inappropriate health care-seeking behavior were education below the tertiary level and age less than 45 years. Conclusion: Though health care-seeking behavior was appropriate in majority of our patients with CKD, there remains a need for improved public health awareness.

  12. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, Post-renal failure - injury; Kidney obstruction - injury Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman ...

  13. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth / For Kids / Chronic Kidney Diseases What's ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  14. A brain MRI atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Schilling, Kurt G.; Khare, Shweta P.; Panda, Swetasudha; Choe, Ann S.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Li, Xia; Ding, Zhoahua; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-03-01

    The common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, is a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. It is one of the most commonly used South American primates in biomedical research. Unlike its Old World macaque cousins, no digital atlases have described the organization of the squirrel monkey brain. Here, we present a multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections.

  15. Kidney Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cares Peers Support Ask the Doctor My Food Coach Nutrition Dialysis Patient & Family Resources Emergency Resources A ... State Charity Registration Disclosures © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc., 30 East 33rd Street, New York, NY 10016, ...

  16. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that links the kidney to the bladder — is connected to your bladder. After the procedure After your ... three to eight weeks after transplant. No lifting objects weighing more than 10 pounds or exercise other ...

  17. Kidney School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but food is a major focus of family life and social events. Learn how to balance your food intake so you can eat the foods ... Getting Adequate Dialysis Healthy kidneys work 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. ...

  18. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common cancers in the United States. Cancer Home Kidney Cancer Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and ...

  19. Kidney Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Institute Veterans Administration Special thanks to our corporate sponsor for supporting excellence in transplant education: Learn more about the UNOS Kidney Transplant Learning Center Patient brochures What Every Patient Needs to ...

  20. Kidney Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whose mothers used certain prescription medications or illegal drugs during pregnancy What are the signs of kidney dysplasia? Many ... the use of certain prescription medications or illegal drugs during pregnancy. Pregnant women should talk with their health care ...

  1. Kidney Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... treatment option for kidney failure or disease through organ donation from a healthy, living person who is a ...

  2. An observational, cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes patients in India (START -India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Prasannakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, epidemiological, multi-center, study is enrolling T2DM patients of either gender aged 30 years or above. This study aimed to enroll a total of 3000 T2DM patients at 30 participating hospitals/clinics across India and the data from a planned interim analysis of 1500 patients are presented here. The primary endpoint of the study is to estimate proportion of T2DM patients with CKD (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 or albumin creatinine ratio [ACR] ≥30 mg/g or ≥3 mg/mmol or both. Routine treatment, as administered by the treating physician, was continued without any study specific intervention. Patients′ data pertaining to demographic characteristics, medical history, current medication and physical examination were recorded. The blood/plasma and urine samples, were collected for estimation of hemoglobin A1c, microalbuminuria, serum creatinine, urine creatinine, and routine urine analysis. ACR was calculated from urine creatinine and albumin while GFR was estimated by using a modification of diet in the renal disease equation. Results: Study recruited 1500 patients from 18 centers across India. The study population included 840 (56.05% males. Mean age, body mass index and systolic blood pressure were 55.1 years, 27.4 kg/m 2 and 134.5 mmHg respectively. The mean duration of diabetes was 102.2 months. History of co-morbid diseases such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, microvascular complications and macrovascular complications was present in 657 (43.8%, 655 (43.7%, 268 (17.9% and 104 (6.93%, respectively. This interim analysis revealed that about 46% of the T2DM patients had CKD (urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR ≥30 mg/g and/or estimated GFR [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . The renal dysfunction as per e

  3. Effect of socio-demographic factors on endogenous biomarkers (cystatin C and creatinine) among elderly chronic kidney disease patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irfanullah; Khan, Amer Hayat; Adnan, Azreen Syazril; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Hamzah, Azhar Bin Amir; Ahmed, Nafees; Khan, Amjad

    2018-06-01

    Creatinine is normally used to evaluate kidney function among elderly patients in clinical practice, which has been reported to be affected by socio-demographic factors like BMI and age. Cystatin C a newly introduced biomarker may be more efficient in identifying kidney function in obese and aged CKD patients. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of BMI on endogenous biomarkers (cystatin C and creatinine) among elderly CKD patients in Malaysia, a first such study in the country. The current study was conducted at the Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kelantan. A total of 300 elderly Malay participants ≥ 65 years, with CKD, were taken in study. Demographic data, blood pressure, weight, and height were documented. Serum creatinine was assayed by Chemistry Analyzer Model Architect-C8000 (Jaffe Method), while serum cystatin C was examined by Human cystatin C ELISA kit (Sigma-Aldrich) using Thermo Scientific Varioskan Flash ELISA reader. The study participants were divided into three groups on the basis of age. There was a statistically significant difference at the p value C levels were observed on the basis of patient's age and BMI. Cystatin C is not related to BMI and age among elderly chronic kidney disease patients. The study clearly evaluates the role of serum cystatin C as a good competitor of creatinine among the elderly CKD patients.

  4. Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa

  5. Cup tool use by squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Christine L; Hyde, Shellie A; Parker, Karen J; Lyons, David M

    2015-12-01

    Captive-born male and female squirrel monkeys spontaneously 'invented' a cup tool use technique to Contain (i.e., hold and control) food they reduced into fragments for consumption and to Contain water collected from a valve to drink. Food cup use was observed more frequently than water cup use. Observations indicate that 68% (n = 39/57) of monkeys in this population used a cup (a plastic slip cap) to Contain food, and a subset of these monkeys, 10% (n = 4/39), also used a cup to Contain water. Cup use was optional and did not replace, but supplemented, the hand/arm-to-mouth eating and direct valve drinking exhibited by all members of the population. Strategies monkeys used to bring food and cups together for food processing activity at preferred upper-level perching areas, in the arboreal-like environment in which they lived, provides evidence that monkeys may plan food processing activity with the cups. Specifically, prior to cup use monkeys obtained a cup first before food, or obtained food and a cup from the floor simultaneously, before transporting both items to upper-level perching areas. After food processing activity with cups monkeys rarely dropped the cups and more often placed the cups onto perching. Monkeys subsequently returned to use cups that they previously placed on perching after food processing activity. The latter behavior is consistent with the possibility that monkeys may keep cups at preferred perching sites for future food processing activity and merits experimental investigation. Reports of spontaneous tool use by squirrel monkeys are rare and this is the first report of population-level tool use. These findings offer insights into the cognitive abilities of squirrel monkeys and provide a new context for behavior studies with this genus and for comparative studies with other primates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Spider monkey, Muriqui and Woolly monkey relationships revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Margarida Maria Celeira; Sampaio, Iracilda; Vieira, Ricardo dos Santos; Schneider, Horacio

    2007-01-01

    The taxonomic relationships among the four genera of the Atelidae family, Alouatta (Howler), Ateles (Spider), Lagothrix (Woolly) and Brachyteles (Muriqui), have been the subject of great debate. In general, almost all authors agree with the assignment of Howler monkeys as the basal genus, either in its own tribe Alouattini or in the subfamily Alouattinae, but they disagree on the associations among the other members of the family. Muriquis have been grouped with Spider monkeys based on the fact that they share various behavioral and morphological characteristics. Cladistic analyses using morphological, biochemical, karyotype and behavioral characteristics depicted a phylogenetic tree that places Howler as the basal genus and the remaining genera in an unresolved politomy. More recent studies using molecular data have suggested that Muriqui and Woolly monkeys are sister groups. However, a recent study based on nuclear and mtDNA argued that politomy is what best represents the relationships among Spider, Woolly and Muriqui. To contribute to this debate we have added new data from two nuclear genes, Transferrin and von Willebrand Factor, and using an alignment of 17,997 bp we demonstrate that a total analysis strongly supports the Muriqui-Woolly clade. A gene-to-gene approach showed that four of the eight nuclear genes provide support for the Muriqui-Woolly clade, two strongly and two moderately, while none of the eight genes provide support for any alternative arrangement. The mitochondrial genes were not able to resolve the politomy. A possible reason for the difficulty in resolving atelid relationships may be the short period of time separating each cladogenetic event in the evolutionary process that shaped this family.

  7. Detection of Chronic Kidney Disease by Using Different Equations of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, Sojib Bin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global threat due to its high mortality. It is essential to know the actual magnitude of diabetic CKD to design a specific management program. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the most suitable equation to measure CKD in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This paper aimed to analyze estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on different equations to detect the CKD among T2DM.? Methods A hospital-based cross-sectio...

  8. Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Veena D; Mooppil, Nandakumar; Lim, Jeremy FY

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™) has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for h...

  9. Autoshaping in Japanese Monkeys (Macaca Fuscata)

    OpenAIRE

    Itakura, Shoji; Fushimi, Takao; Asano, Toshio; Shoji, Itakura; Takao, Fushimi; Toshio, Asano

    1992-01-01

    Three Japanese monkeys were exposed to autoshaping and omission procedures. The Japanese momkeys seemed to be more sensitive to response-reinforcer contingency than to stimulus-reinforcer contingency. These results were compared with pigeons and squirrel monkeys in the previous reports.

  10. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  11. Nephrectomy (Kidney Removal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nephrectomy is needed because of other kidney diseases. Kidney function Most people have two kidneys — fist-sized ... and the disease that prompted the surgery? Monitoring kidney function Most people can function well with only ...

  12. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Stones KidsHealth / For Parents / Kidney Stones What's in ... other treatments to help remove the stones. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  13. Studies of tolerance induction through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys. Method for detection of chimeric cells and effect of thymic irradiation on induction of tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Tomoaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo

    1996-01-01

    To establish the method for the detection of chimerism in cynomologus monkeys, we tested cross reactivity of various anti-HLA monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to cynomolgus monkeys. In 29 mAb we tested, only three monoclonal anti-HLA antibodies crossreacted with lymphocytes of monkeys. With these mAb, chimeric cell can be detected up to 1% by flow cytometric analysis (study 1). Utilizing the method we developed in study 1, we applied the regimen that induces mixed chimerism and skin graft tolerance in mice to renal allotransplantation of cynomolgus monkey. Regimen A includes non-lethal dose of total body irradiation (TBI), administration of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) for 3 days, donor bone marrow infusion and 45 days course of cyclosporine (CYA) administration. We added 7 Gy of thymic irradiation on day-6 in regimen B and on day-1 in regimen C. Although all monkeys in regimen A and B consistently developed chimerism, they rejected kidney allografts soon after stopping CYA. In contrast, 4 monkeys out of 5 failed to develop chimerism in regimen C, but renal allograft tolerance was induced in one monkey who developed chimerism in regimen C. In conclusion, the induction of chimerism is considered necessary but not sufficient for tolerance induction. (author)

  14. Studies of tolerance induction through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys. Method for detection of chimeric cells and effect of thymic irradiation on induction of tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Tomoaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    To establish the method for the detection of chimerism in cynomologus monkeys, we tested cross reactivity of various anti-HLA monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to cynomolgus monkeys. In 29 mAb we tested, only three monoclonal anti-HLA antibodies crossreacted with lymphocytes of monkeys. With these mAb, chimeric cell can be detected up to 1% by flow cytometric analysis (study 1). Utilizing the method we developed in study 1, we applied the regimen that induces mixed chimerism and skin graft tolerance in mice to renal allotransplantation of cynomolgus monkey. Regimen A includes non-lethal dose of total body irradiation (TBI), administration of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) for 3 days, donor bone marrow infusion and 45 days course of cyclosporine (CYA) administration. We added 7 Gy of thymic irradiation on day-6 in regimen B and on day-1 in regimen C. Although all monkeys in regimen A and B consistently developed chimerism, they rejected kidney allografts soon after stopping CYA. In contrast, 4 monkeys out of 5 failed to develop chimerism in regimen C, but renal allograft tolerance was induced in one monkey who developed chimerism in regimen C. In conclusion, the induction of chimerism is considered necessary but not sufficient for tolerance induction. (author)

  15. Kidney pain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the size of sand or ... A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the ...

  16. Nuclear weapon testing and the monkey business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.S.S.

    1978-01-01

    Reasons for India's total ban on the export of rhesus monkeys to U.S. have been explained. The major reason is that some of the animals were used in nuclear weapon related radiation experiments. This was a clear violation of a stricture in the agreement about supply of monkeys. The stricture prohibited the use of animals for research concerning military operations, including nuclear weapon testing. It is pleaded that a strict enforcement of strictures rather than a total ban on the export of monkeys would be better in the interest of advancement of knowledge in human medicine and disease control. (M.G.B.)

  17. Comparison of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate in screening for chronic kidney disease in asymptomatic black Africans: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuse, Geoffrey; Maina, Daniel; Mwangi, Jane; Wambua, Caroline; Kanyua, Alice; Kagotho, Elizabeth; Amayo, Angela; Ojwang, Peter; Erasmus, Rajiv

    2017-12-20

    Several equations have been developed to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The common equations used were derived from populations predominantly comprised of Caucasians with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Some of the equations provide a correction factor for African-Americans due to their relatively increased muscle mass and this has been extrapolated to black Africans. Studies carried out in Africa in patients with CKD suggest that using this correction factor for the black African race may not be appropriate. However, these studies were not carried out in healthy individuals and as such the extrapolation of the findings to an asymptomatic black African population is questionable. We sought to compare the proportion of asymptomatic black Africans reported as having reduced eGFR using various eGFR equations. We further compared the association between known risk factors for CKD with eGFR determined using the different equations. We used participant and laboratory data collected as part of a global reference interval study conducted by the Committee of Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL) under the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). Serum creatinine values were used to calculate eGFR using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG), re-expressed 4 variable modified diet in renal disease (4v-MDRD), full age spectrum (FAS) and chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration equations (CKD-EPI). CKD classification based on eGFR was determined for every participant. A total of 533 participants were included comprising 273 (51.2%) females. The 4v-MDRD equation without correction for race classified the least number of participants (61.7%) as having an eGFR equivalent to CKD stage G1 compared to 93.6% for CKD-EPI with correction for race. Only age had a statistically significant linear association with eGFR across all equations after performing multiple regression analysis. The multiple correlation coefficients for CKD risk factors were higher for

  18. Association between dyslipidemia and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Wei; Wan, Jia; Liu, Zhang-Suo; Wang, Pei; Cheng, Gen-Yang; Shi, Xue-Zhong

    2013-04-01

    Dyslipidemia, a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is common in patients with kidney disease. Recent studies discerned that dyslipidemias play a critical role in renal damage progression in renal diseases, but the association between dyslipidemias and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population remains unknown. Thus, we assessed whether the growing prevalence of dyslipidemia could increase the risk of CKD. A total of 4779 middle-aged and elderly participants participated in this study. Dyslipidemias were defined by the 2007 Guidelines in Chinese Adults. Incident CKD was defined as albuminuria and/or reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, dyslipidemia and albuminuria/reduced eGFR. Participants with hypercholesterolemia exhibited a greater prevalence of albuminuria and reduced eGFR (10.0% vs. 6.1%, P = 0.001; 4.0% vs. 2.4%, P = 0.028, respectively). Both hypercholesterolemia and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were independently associated with albuminuria (odds ratio (OR) 1.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 - 2.07 and OR 1.53; 95%CI 1.13 - 2.09, respectively). The multivariable adjusted OR of reduced eGFR in participants with hypercholesterolemia was 1.65 (95%CI 1.03 - 2.65). As the number of dyslipidemia components increased, so did the OR of CKD: 0.87 (95%CI 0.65 - 1.15), 1.29 (95%CI, 0.83 - 2.01), and 7.87 (95%CI, 3.75 - 16.50) for albuminuria, and 0.38 (95%CI 0.21 - 0.69), 1.92 (95%CI 1.14 - 3.25), and 5.85 (95%CI 2.36 - 14.51) for reduced eGFR, respectively. Our findings indicate that dyslipidemias increase the risk of CKD in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. Hypercholesterolemia plays an important role in reducing total eGFR. Both low HDL-C and hypercholesterolemia are associated with an increased risk for albuminuria.

  19. The kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, L.M.; Lutzker, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    It has unfortunately remained true that radionuclide renal imaging studies have not been so widely accepted as other types of scintigraphy, despite improvements in radiopharmaceuticals and imaging techniques. Perhaps this is because of the variety of established radiologic techniques available for the study of the kidneys and the addition of new modalities such as CT scanning and ultrasound. Clinicians may have become confused by the multiplicity of options, which has obscured the distinction between renal scintigraphy and all other methods of imaging the kidney, i.e., that renal scintigraphy provides functional information in an easily quantifiable form. It is interesting that pediatric practitioners have more easily recognized the functional importance of this modality than have the practitioners of adult medicine, who more often prefer anatomic modalities, either traditional or new

  20. Kidney Disease and Diabetes - What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease and Diabetes: What You Need to Know ... page please turn Javascript on. March is National Kidney Month , a good time to check if you ...

  1. Cytogenesis in the monkey retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Vail, M.M.; Rapaport, D.H.; Rakic, P.

    1991-01-01

    Time of cell origin in the retina of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) was studied by plotting the number of heavily radiolabeled nuclei in autoradiograms prepared from 2- to 6-month-old animals, each of which was exposed to a pulse of 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) on a single embryonic (E) or postnatal (P) day. Cell birth in the monkey retina begins just after E27, and approximately 96% of cells are generated by E120. The remaining cells are produced during the last (approximately 45) prenatal days and into the first several weeks after birth. Cell genesis begins near the fovea, and proceeds towards the periphery. Cell division largely ceases in the foveal and perifoveal regions by E56. Despite extensive overlap, a class-specific sequence of cell birth was observed. Ganglion and horizontal cells, which are born first, have largely congruent periods of cell genesis with the peak between E38 and E43, and termination around E70. The first labeled cones were apparent by E33, and their highest density was achieved between E43 and E56, tapering to low values at E70, although some cones are generated in the far periphery as late as E110. Amacrine cells are next in the cell birth sequence and begin genesis at E43, reach a peak production between E56 and E85, and cease by E110. Bipolar cell birth begins at the same time as amacrines, but appears to be separate from them temporally since their production reaches a peak between E56 and E102, and persists beyond the day of birth. Mueller cells and rod photoreceptors, which begin to be generated at E45, achieve a peak, and decrease in density at the same time as bipolar cells, but continue genesis at low density on the day of birth. Thus, bipolar, Mueller, and rod cells have a similar time of origin

  2. Basic Math in Monkeys and College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Beran, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies with humans and monkeys provide compelling evidence of shared numerical capacities across species. Our understanding of the emergence of human mathematical competence is well-served by these kinds of comparative assessments.

  3. Evaluation of neonatal squirrel monkeys receiving tritiated water throughout gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.C.L.; Krebs, J.S.; Sasmore, D.P.; Mitoma, C.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant squirrel monkeys received tritiated water (HTO) in the drinking water throughout gestation at levels ranging from 16 to 1000 times the permissible level for human consumption (0.003 μCi/ml), resulting in mean body water HTO levels ranging from 0.05 to 3.1 μCi/ml. There were no discernible effects of HTO administration on the newborn progeny in terms of body weight, body dimensions, selected organ weights (brain, heart, adrenal, kidney, liver, spleen), hematologic patterns, and histology of selected organs and tissues (adrenal, kidney, liver, lung, brain, pancreas, jejunum, pituitary, spleen, testes, thymus, skin) other than ovaries. The number of primary oocytes in female progeny decreased markedly with increasing levels of HTO in maternal drinking water. Quantitative analysis of neonate ovaries, testes, brain tissue, and retinal tissue is in progress. No effects of HTO administration on maternal body weight, gestation time, or maintenance of pregnancy to full term were observed. Body weights of HTO-treated inseminated females that did not deliver were less than control weights, but the lack of dose dependence implies that this effect may have been associated with a stimulus characteristic of the HTO administration rather than with irradiation

  4. Social participation after successful kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Mei, Sijrike F.; Van Sonderen, Eric L. P.; Van Son, Willem J.; De Jong, Paul E.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To explore and describe the degree of social participation after kidney transplantation and to examine associated factors. Method. A cross-sectional study on 239 adult patients 1-7.3 years after kidney transplantation was performed via in-home interviews on participation in obligatory activities (i.e., employment, education, household tasks) and leisure activities (avolunteer work, assisting others, recreation, sports, clubs/associations, socializing, going out). Results. Kidney tran...

  5. The characteristics and mortality risk factors for acute kidney injury in different age groups in China-a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Hong; Tu, Yan-; Tang, Ri-Ning; Wang, Yan-Li; Pan, Ming-Ming; Liu, Bi-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Age is an independent risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI). The causes and outcomes of AKI in children, middle-aged, and older patients are different. The objective of this country-based study was to identify the characteristics and mortality factors for AKI in different age groups in China. Using data from 374,286 adult patients (≥18 years) admitted to 44 study hospitals, we investigated the characteristics and mortality risk factors for AKI in four different age groups: 18-39 years of age, 40-59 years of age, 60-79 years of age, and ≥80 years of age. The identification criteria for AKI included the 2012 KDIGO AKI definition and an expanded criterion. The country-based survey included 7604 AKI patients (7604/374,286, 2.03%). The proportions of AKI in the four age groups were 11.52%, 30.79%, 41.03%, and 16.66%, respectively. In any age group, the patients with AKI stage 1 were the majority (43.4%, 42.4%, 46.4%, and 52.2%, respectively), and the most common classification of AKI was pre-renal AKI (44.3%, 51.3%, 52.3%, and 56.4%, respectively). The higher AKI peak stage occurred for the in-hospital mortality factors for AKI in all age groups; except for the AKI stage 2 patients in the 18-39 age group. The characteristics and mortality factors for AKI vary by age in China. Elderly patients were the primary population with AKI, and the most common type of AKI was pre-renal AKI. Special caution should be taken to the old population in hospitalized patients to prevent the pre-renal AKI.

  6. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  7. Transport of water in proximal kidney tubules from whole tubules to single channels: length and section of the selectivity filter of aquaporin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittembury, G; González, E; Hernández, C S; Gutiérrez, A M; Echevarría, M

    1997-06-27

    Proximal straight tubule (PST) were dissected from rabbit kidneys, held with crimping pipettes in a chamber bathed in a buffered mannitol isosmotic solution (MBS, 295 mOsm/kg). Tubule cell volume changes with time (dV/Adt) after steps in MBS osmolality (delta Cs) were monitored on line with an inverted microscope, a TV camera and an image processor. Reflection coefficients sigma and osmotic permeability coefficients, Pos, for several solutes were measured using two methods. Method 1: sigma was calculated from the delta Csiso of impermeant and permeant solutes at which (dV/Adt)t-->0 = 0 (i.e., by a null point method). It is denoted as sigma 1. sigma 1 = 1.00 for mannitol (M), raffinose (R), sucrose (S), glycerol (G), acetamide (A) and urea (U). With formamide (F), sigma 1, Formamide = 0.62 +/- 0.05. These findings confirm our previous value of dp = 4.5 A for the diameter of the selectivity filter of the basolateral PST cell membrane water channel AQP1. Method 2: PST were exposed for 20 s to MBS made hyperosmotic by addition of a delta Cs of 35 mOsm/kg of R, S, M, G, A and U. Cells shrunk within 500 ms of t = 0 to their osmometric volume and remained shrunk for the 20 s of the osmotic challenge. Pos was measured from the shrinking curves. P(os) = 3000 +/- 25 microns/s with R, S, M, G, A and U. Method 2 also allowed to calculate sigma, denoted as sigma 2. sigma 2 = 1.00 for R, S, M, G, A and U. By contrast, the shrinking curve produced by a delta Cs of 35 mOsm/kg F was 1/5th to 1/6th slower and smaller (i.e., subosmometric) than that produced by a delta Cs of 35 mOsm/kg R, S, M, G, A and U. Furthermore, with F cells did not remain shrunk but recovered their original volume within 3 s. P(os) (measured with F) is denoted as P(os)*, P(os)* = 480 +/- 30 microns/s. sigma 2, Formamide = 0.16 +/- 0.01. Use of sigma 1, sigma 2 and P(os)* values in Hill's equations for the bimodal theory of osmosis leads to n = 2-9. Where n is the number of water molecules single filling

  8. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute Images Kidney anatomy References Devarajan P. Biomarkers for assessment of renal function during acute kidney injury. In: Alpern RJ, Moe OW, Caplan M, ...

  9. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter your blood. They remove wastes and ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  10. Diabetic Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste ... in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It ...

  11. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... UTI removing any kidney stones Curing an Existing Urinary Tract Infection To treat a UTI , the health care provider ... UTIs and kidney stones. Medications to Prevent Future Urinary Tract Infections and Kidney Stones Health care providers may prescribe ...

  12. Social participation after successful kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mei, Sijrike F.; Van Sonderen, Eric L. P.; Van Son, Willem J.; De Jong, Paul E.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To explore and describe the degree of social participation after kidney transplantation and to examine associated factors. Method. A cross-sectional study on 239 adult patients 1-7.3 years after kidney transplantation was performed via in-home interviews on participation in obligatory

  13. Cadmium and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; cha...

  14. Newly Identified CYP2C93 Is a Functional Enzyme in Rhesus Monkey, but Not in Cynomolgus Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Kohara, Sakae; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Nagata, Ryoichi; Fukuzaki, Koichiro; Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey are used in drug metabolism studies due to their evolutionary closeness and physiological resemblance to human. In cynomolgus monkey, we previously identified cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 2C76 that does not have a human ortholog and is partly responsible for species differences in drug metabolism between cynomolgus monkey and human. In this study, we report characterization of CYP2C93 cDNA newly identified in cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey. The CYP2C9...

  15. Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... death rates limited life expectancy. Some patients were lucky enough to get a kidney transplant, which greatly ... epidemic rates. Through the 1980s and 1990s, the number of patients developing end-stage kidney failure nearly ...

  16. Computerized tomography anatomy of the kidneys and retroperitoneal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, A.P.; Mamaev, V.V.; Pkhakadze, Eh.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors described the anatomy of the kidneys and retroperitoneal space in health on the basis of computerized tomography (CT) of 90 patients. Five typical levels in CT (ensuring all necessary data on roentgenomorphological trains of the kidneys and retroperitoneal space in the kidney area) were singled out. Some roentgenometric data on kidney cross-sections as well as the quantitative densitometric characterization of the parenchyma of the kidneys, renal sinus and adjacent tissues were presented. X-ray anatomy of the renal fiscia, pararenal space and perirenal fatty space of the kidney with different parts of the tetroperitoneal space was described

  17. Somatosensory deficits in monkeys treated with misonidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurissen, J.P.J.; Conroy, P.J.; Passalacqua, W.; Von Burg, R.; Weiss, B.; Sutherland, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Misonidazole, a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, can produce peripheral sensory disorders in humans. It has been studied in monkeys with a computer-controlled system for evaluating vibration sensitivity. Monkeys were trained to report when vibration was stimulating the finger tip. Sinusoidal vibrations of several frequencies were presented. Two monkeys were dosed with misonidazole and their vibration sensitivity tested. They received a dose of 3 g/m 2 (about 180 mg/kg) twice weekly over a period of 6 to 10 weeks. An amplitude-frequency detection function was determined for each monkey before and after drug treatment. An analysis of covariance comparing polynomial regressions was performed. A significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between control and experimental curves in both monkeys. Pharmacokinetic data indicated a half-life of the drug in blood of about 4 to 5 hr. The overall half-life for elimination did not increase throughout prolonged treatment with msonidazole. Neither motor nor sensory nerve conduction velocity was reduced after treatment

  18. Is radiation-induced ovarian failure in rhesus monkeys preventable by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists?: Preliminary observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataya, K.; Pydyn, E.; Ramahi-Ataya

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of cancer therapy, increasing numbers of cancer patients are achieving long term survival. Impaired ovarian function after radiation therapy has been reported in several studies. Some investigators have suggested that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) can prevent radiation-induced ovarian injury in rodents. Adult female rhesus monkeys were given either vehicle or Leuprolide acetate before, during, and after radiation. Radiation was given in a dose of 200 rads/day for a total of 4000 rads to the ovaries. Frequent serum samples were assayed for estradiol (E 2 ) and FSH. Ovariectomy was performed later. Ovaries were processed and serially sectioned. Follicle count and size distribution were determined. Shortly after radiation started, E 2 dropped to low levels, at which it remained, whereas serum FSH level, which was low before radiation, rose soon after starting radiation. In monkeys treated with a combination of LHRHa and radiation, FSH started rising soon after the LHRHa-loaded minipump was removed (after the end of radiation). Serum E 2 increased after the end of LHRHa treatment in the non-irradiated monkey, but not in the irradiated monkey. Follicle counts were not preserved in the LHRHa-treated monkeys that received radiation. The data demonstrated no protective effect of LHRHa treatment against radiation-induced ovarian injury in this rhesus monkey model. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Safety, pharmacokinetic, and efficacy studies of oral DB868 in a first stage vervet monkey model of human African trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Thuita

    Full Text Available There are no oral drugs for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness. A successful oral drug would have the potential to reduce or eliminate the need for patient hospitalization, thus reducing healthcare costs of HAT. The development of oral medications is a key objective of the Consortium for Parasitic Drug Development (CPDD. In this study, we investigated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of a new orally administered CPDD diamidine prodrug, 2,5-bis[5-(N-methoxyamidino-2-pyridyl]furan (DB868; CPD-007-10, in the vervet monkey model of first stage HAT. DB868 was well tolerated at a dose up to 30 mg/kg/day for 10 days, a cumulative dose of 300 mg/kg. Mean plasma levels of biomarkers indicative of liver injury (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase were not significantly altered by drug administration. In addition, no kidney-mediated alterations in creatinine and urea concentrations were detected. Pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma confirmed that DB868 was orally available and was converted to the active compound DB829 in both uninfected and infected monkeys. Treatment of infected monkeys with DB868 began 7 days post-infection. In the infected monkeys, DB829 attained a median C(max (dosing regimen that was 12-fold (3 mg/kg/day for 7 days, 15-fold (10 mg/kg/day for 7 days, and 31-fold (20 mg/kg/day for 5 days greater than the IC50 (14 nmol/L against T. b. rhodesiense STIB900. DB868 cured all infected monkeys, even at the lowest dose tested. In conclusion, oral DB868 cured monkeys with first stage HAT at a cumulative dose 14-fold lower than the maximum tolerated dose and should be considered a lead preclinical candidate in efforts to develop a safe, short course (5-7 days, oral regimen for first stage HAT.

  20. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Katheryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September–December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment. PMID:23017939

  1. The nucleus pararaphales in the human, chimpanzee, and macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baizer, Joan S; Weinstock, Nadav; Witelson, Sandra F; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R

    2013-03-01

    The human cerebral cortex and cerebellum are greatly expanded compared to those of other mammals, including the great apes. This expansion is reflected in differences in the size and organization of precerebellar brainstem structures, such as the inferior olive. In addition, there are cell groups unique to the human brainstem. One such group may be the nucleus pararaphales (PRa); however, there is disagreement among authors about the size and location of this nucleus in the human brainstem. The name "pararaphales" has also been used for neurons in the medulla shown to project to the flocculus in the macaque monkey. We have re-examined the existence and status of the PRa in eight humans, three chimpanzees, and four macaque monkeys using Nissl-stained sections as well as immunohistochemistry. In the human we found a cell group along the midline of the medulla in all cases; it had the form of interrupted cell columns and was variable among cases in rostrocaudal and dorsoventral extent. Cells and processes were highly immunoreactive for non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (NPNFP); somata were immunoreactive to the synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, and for calretinin. In macaque monkey, there was a much smaller oval cell group with NPNFP immunoreactivity. In the chimpanzee, we found a region of NPNFP-immunoreactive cells and fibers similar to what was observed in macaques. These results suggest that the "PRa" in the human may not be the same structure as the flocculus-projecting cell group described in the macaque. The PRa, like the arcuate nucleus, therefore may be unique to humans.

  2. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidneys and Urinary Tract What's ... a sign of diabetes . What the Kidneys and Urinary Tract Do Although the two kidneys work together to ...

  3. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; van Heurn, L.W.; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  4. Ultrasonography of the Kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the kidneys is essential in the diagnosis and management of kidney-related diseases. The kidneys are easily examined, and most pathological changes in the kidneys are distinguishable with ultrasound. In this pictorial review, the most common findings in renal ultrasound...

  5. Basic math in monkeys and college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2007-12-01

    Adult humans possess a sophisticated repertoire of mathematical faculties. Many of these capacities are rooted in symbolic language and are therefore unlikely to be shared with nonhuman animals. However, a subset of these skills is shared with other animals, and this set is considered a cognitive vestige of our common evolutionary history. Current evidence indicates that humans and nonhuman animals share a core set of abilities for representing and comparing approximate numerosities nonverbally; however, it remains unclear whether nonhuman animals can perform approximate mental arithmetic. Here we show that monkeys can mentally add the numerical values of two sets of objects and choose a visual array that roughly corresponds to the arithmetic sum of these two sets. Furthermore, monkeys' performance during these calculations adheres to the same pattern as humans tested on the same nonverbal addition task. Our data demonstrate that nonverbal arithmetic is not unique to humans but is instead part of an evolutionarily primitive system for mathematical thinking shared by monkeys.

  6. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A

    2014-08-06

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of fMRI experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category- and feature-selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation-induced emesis in monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, J.L.; Yochmowitz, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    To determine the emesis ED 50 for 60 Co radiation, 15 male rhesus monkeys were exposed to whole-body radiation doses ranging from 350 to 550 rad midline tissue dose. An up-and-down sequence of exposures was used. Step size between doses was 50 rad, and dose rate was 20 rad/min. There had been no access to food for 1 to 2 h. The ED 50 +- SE was found to be 446 +- 27 rad. To determine the effect of motion on emesis ED 50 , six more monkeys were exposed to 60 Co radiation as above, except that the chair in which they were seated was oscillated forward and backward 5 to 15 0 (pitch axis) at a variable rate not exceeding 0.3 Hz. Radioemesis ED 50 +- SE with motion was 258 +- 19 rad, a value significantly lower (P < 0.01) than for stationary monkeys

  8. The biological importance of cadmium and the absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by laying hens, minipigs and monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anke, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Hennig, A.; Groppel, B.; Kronemann, H.; Gruen, M.

    Absorption, incorporation and distribution of /sup 115m/Cd have been studied in laying hens, minipigs and rhesus monkeys for 96 hours. 4 days after oral /sup 115m/Cd application hens stored 2.3%, minipigs 1.9% and monkeys 4% outside the digestive tract. 45 minutes after administration the hens accumulated 11% with returning to the normal 2.3% within 6 hours and up to 4 days. Skeleton, muscles, lungs, blood and feathers stored the highest Cd amounts shortly after intake. Liver, kidneys and ovaries accumulated Cd slowly with the highest amount after 96 hours. 45 minutes after intake skeleton (53%), muscles (34%) and feathers(9%) stored 96% of the totally incorporated Cd; after 96 hours only 22% of the Cd were localized in these organs, while 50% were stored in the liver and 27% in the kidneys. Per gram organ dry substance 100% were accumulated in the kidneys, 20% in the liver, 10% in the pancreas and 2% in the lungs. All other organs stored < 1% Cd with the lowest amount in the brain. Eggs and meat stored low Cd amounts not being dangerous for man. In Cd-polluted areas animals can really be used as filters for Cd if kidneys and livers are excluded from food-stuffs

  9. Default Mode of Brain Function in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Gerits, Annelis; Nelissen, Koen; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Joly, Olivier; Simone, Luciano; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Wardak, Claire; Orban, Guy A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Vanduffel, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Human neuroimaging has revealed a specific network of brain regions—the default-mode network (DMN)—that reduces its activity during goal-directed behavior. So far, evidence for a similar network in monkeys is mainly indirect, since, except for one positron emission tomography study, it is all based on functional connectivity analysis rather than activity increases during passive task states. Here, we tested whether a consistent DMN exists in monkeys using its defining property. We performed a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in 10 awake monkeys to reveal areas in which activity consistently decreases when task demands shift from passive tasks to externally oriented processing. We observed task-related spatially specific deactivations across 15 experiments, implying in the monkey a functional equivalent of the human DMN. We revealed by resting-state connectivity that prefrontal and medial parietal regions, including areas 9/46d and 31, respectively, constitute the DMN core, being functionally connected to all other DMN areas. We also detected two distinct subsystems composed of DMN areas with stronger functional connections between each other. These clusters included areas 24/32, 8b, and TPOC and areas 23, v23, and PGm, respectively. Such a pattern of functional connectivity largely fits, but is not completely consistent with anatomical tract tracing data in monkeys. Also, analysis of afferent and efferent connections between DMN areas suggests a multisynaptic network structure. Like humans, monkeys increase activity during passive epochs in heteromodal and limbic association regions, suggesting that they also default to internal modes of processing when not actively interacting with the environment. PMID:21900574

  10. Letter regarding the article “The impact of hypomagnesemia on erectile dysfunction in elderly, non-diabetic, stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease patients: a prospective cross-sectional study”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatuzzo P

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pasquale Fatuzzo,* Luca Zanoli,* Viviana Scollo Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Nephrology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work In an article published in a recent issue of Clinical Interventions in Aging, Toprak et al1 found that, among patients with stage 3–4 chronic kidney disease (CKD, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction was higher in patients with hypomagnesemia. This finding is clinically relevant because it supports the hypothesis that hypomagnesemia may lead to inflammation2 and endothelial dysfunction, two causes of erectile dysfunction. Toprak et al1 concluded that the detection of the serum magnesium level in non-diabetic elderly men with CKD could be useful to assess the risk of erectile dysfunction. Consequently, it is important to assess the causes of hypomagnesemia in patients with CKD, in particular the causes that are potentially reversible. With this in mind, hypomagnesemia could be caused by the long-term use of proton pump inhibitors,2,3 widely used in patients with CKD but not reported in the study of Toprak et al,1 alone or in combination with diuretics2 or cyclosporine.4 View the original paper by Toprak and colleagues 

  11. Primary Leiomyosarcoma of the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Venkatesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary leiomyosarcoma of the kidney is a rare tumor with an aggressive behaviour. A 55-year-old woman presented with a left sided abdominal mass in our outpatient department. Radiologic investigations revealed the mass to be renal in origin with colonic adhesions for which radical nephrectomy and hemicolectomy were done. The tumor completely appeared to replace the left kidney and had a whorled character focally on cut section. Microscopically, spindle cells having malignant features with cigar shaped nuclei were seen. The smooth muscle origin of the cells was confirmed by immunohistochemical positivity for smooth muscle actin. Sarcomatoid variant of the renal cell carcinoma was ruled out as the tumor was negative for cytokeratin. Tumors with spindle cell morphology in the kidney should not always be taken for a sarcomatoid variant of renal cell carcinoma and should be investigated thoroughly.

  12. Costimulation blockade and regulatory T-cells in a non-human primate model of kidney allograft transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanstra, Krista Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Successful tolerance induction therapies in rodents are for the most part unsuccessful in larger primates. Costimulation blockade by anti-CD40 or anti-CD40 + anti-CD86 in the life-supporting kidney allograft model in the rhesus monkey prevented graft rejection during treatment but did not induce

  13. Pathobiological and Behavioral Effects of Lead Intoxication in the Infant Rhesus Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. R.; McWey, P. J.; Suomi, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    When infant rhesus monkeys were exposed to lead via the addition of lead acetate (0.5–9 mg/kg body weight) to their formula or by the consumption of lead particles from lead-based surrogate mothers, they developed symptoms of lead intoxication within 6 weeks. Seizures, muscular tremors, and altered social interaction were the predominant changes. Visual impairment was also apparent in the more severely affected animals. In the animals showing obvious symptoms lead levels varied between 300 to 500 μg/100 ml of blood. Even in those animals having blood lead levels below 100 μg, hyperactivity and insomnia were observed. When the exposure to lead was eliminated, seizures subsided and visual impairment was reduced; however, the abnormal social interaction persisted. These animals also experienced a gradual decline in hematocrit and hemoglobin values during the period of examination. Liver and kidney biopsies obtained from these lead-exposed animals revealed characteristic intranuclear inclusions. When adolescent and adult monkeys were exposed to doses of lead acetate similar to those employed in the infant experiments, lead levels in excess of 200 μg/100 ml of blood were recorded. However, there were no obvious behavioral abnormalities observed. There were, however, numerous lead inclusion bodies in kidney biopsy specimens from these animals. These data suggest that, like man, the infant nonhuman primate is much more susceptible to lead intoxication than is the adult. The clinical and behavioral changes recorded in these infant rhesus monkeys suggest their use as an experimental model to evaluate lead intoxication. ImagesFIGURE 6. PMID:4208658

  14. Analysis of prostate-specific antigen transcripts in chimpanzees, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mubiru

    Full Text Available The function of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is to liquefy the semen coagulum so that the released sperm can fuse with the ovum. Fifteen spliced variants of the PSA gene have been reported in humans, but little is known about alternative splicing in nonhuman primates. Positive selection has been reported in sex- and reproductive-related genes from sea urchins to Drosophila to humans; however, there are few studies of adaptive evolution of the PSA gene. Here, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR product cloning and sequencing, we study PSA transcript variant heterogeneity in the prostates of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis, and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops. Six PSA variants were identified in the chimpanzee prostate, but only two variants were found in cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys. In the chimpanzee the full-length transcript is expressed at the same magnitude as the transcripts that retain intron 3. We have found previously unidentified splice variants of the PSA gene, some of which might be linked to disease conditions. Selection on the PSA gene was studied in 11 primate species by computational methods using the sequences reported here for African green monkey, cynomolgus monkey, baboon, and chimpanzee and other sequences available in public databases. A codon-based analysis (dN/dS of the PSA gene identified potential adaptive evolution at five residue sites (Arg45, Lys70, Gln144, Pro189, and Thr203.

  15. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  16. Responsiveness in Behaving Monkeys and Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-31

    Status of Current Research - Statement of Work Each study involving awake , behaving monkey neurophysiological recording used a behavioral paradigm that...anesthesia. A craniotomy was performed at approximately A+ 14.5mm. The recording chamber then was fixed to the skull at a lateral angle of 8’ from

  17. Nutritional and health status of woolly monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Timmer, S.; Jansen, W.L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha and L. flavicauda) are threatened species in the wild and in captivity. Numerous zoological institutions have historically kept Lagothrix lagotricha spp., but only a few of them have succeeded in breeding populations. Therefore the majority of institutions that

  18. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain. PMID:21801646

  19. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Byun, Yoon Woo; Zhuang, Katie Z; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2015-07-09

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

  20. Integrase of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Snášel, Jan; Krejčík, Zdeněk; Jenčová, Věra; Rosenberg, Ivan; Ruml, Tomáš; Alexandratos, J.; Gustchina, A.; Pichová, Iva

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 272, č. 1 (2005), s. 203-216 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4055304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : integrase * Mason-Pfizer monkey virus * HIV-1 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  1. The Development of the Basal Ganglia in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Sobieski, Courtney A.; Gilbert, Valerie R.; Chiappini-Williamson, Christine; Sherwood, Chet C.; Strick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia are subcortical structures involved in the planning, initiation and regulation of movement as well as a variety of non-motor, cognitive and affective functions. Capuchin monkeys share several important characteristics of development with humans, including a prolonged infancy and juvenile period, a long lifespan, and complex manipulative abilities. This makes capuchins important comparative models for understanding age-related neuroanatomical changes in these structures. Here we report developmental volumetric data on the three subdivisions of the basal ganglia, the caudate, putamen and globus pallidus in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Based on a cross-sectional sample, we describe brain development in 28 brown capuchin monkeys (male n = 17, female n = 11; age range = 2 months – 20 years) using high-resolution structural MRI. We found that the raw volumes of the putamen and caudate varied significantly with age, decreasing in volume from birth through early adulthood. Notably, developmental changes did not differ between sexes. Because these observed developmental patterns are similar to humans, our results suggest that capuchin monkeys may be useful animal models for investigating neurodevelopmental disorders of the basal ganglia. PMID:20227397

  2. [Explantation method of isolating a persistent tick-borne encephalitis virus from the organs of infected monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, L S; Pogodina, V V

    1981-01-01

    The method of explantation was used to examine 63 organs from M. rhesus monkeys 92-783 days after intracerebral and subcutaneous inoculation with the Vasilchenko, Aina/1448 and 41/65 strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus. The optimal time for examination of the explants by tests of the hemagglutinating, cytopathogenic activity of the virus and its pathogenicity for mice was found to be the 15th day of cultivation. A comparative study of the properties of 3 isolates obtained from explants of the spleen, liver and subcortical cerebral ganglia 202 and 307 days after inoculation of monkeys was carried out. The isolates differed from the parental TBE virus strains by their capacity to form small plaques in PEKV cell cultures (pig embryo kidney cells in versen medium).

  3. At Risk for Kidney Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Causes of Chronic Kidney Disease Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most ... blood vessels in your kidneys. Other causes of kidney disease Other causes of kidney disease include a genetic ...

  4. Kidney function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: ... Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes ... and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, ...

  5. Pregnancy and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who has a kidney transplant have a baby? Yes. If you have a kidney transplant, you are likely to have regular menstrual periods and good general health. Therefore, getting pregnant and having a child is possible. But ...

  6. A whole-body autoradiographic study on the distribution of tritium in cynomolgus monkeys dosed with a tritiated extract of Ruscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, P.; Rico, A.G.; Cousse, H.; Fauran, F.

    1985-01-01

    A metabolic study has been performed on macaca monkey treated with a tritiated Ruscus extract. There is a rather good absorption of radioactivity when the preparation is delivered orally. The percutaneous absorption is much lower. A large part of the delivered activity is excreted in feces and urine. Sapogenins are the main urinary metabolites. In the body, tritium is mainly localized in the liver, the kidney, the spleen (white pulp) and the bone marrow [fr

  7. Polymorphisms in PPAR Genes (PPARD, PPARG, and PPARGC1A and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in Japanese: Cross-Sectional Data from the J-MICC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asahi Hishida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is well known as a strong risk factor for both end stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease. To clarify the association of polymorphisms in the PPAR genes (PPARD, PPARG, and PPARGC1A with the risk of CKD in Japanese, we examined this association among the Japanese subjects using the cross-sectional data of J-MICC (Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. The subjects for this analysis were 3,285 men and women, aged 35–69 years, selected from J-MICC Study participants; genotyping was conducted by multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based Invader assay. The prevalence of CKD was determined for CKD stages 3–5 (defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Participants with CKD accounted for 17.3% of the study population. When those with PPARD T-842C T/T were defined as reference, those with PPARD T-842C T/C and C/C demonstrated the OR for CKD of 1.26 (95%CI 1.04–1.53 and 1.31 (95%CI 0.83–2.06, respectively. There were no significant associations between the polymorphisms in other PPAR genes and the risk of CKD. The present study found a significantly increased risk of CKD in those with the C allele of PPARD T-842C, which may suggest the possibility of personalized risk estimation of this life-limiting disease in the near future.

  8. Hydronephrosis of one kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydronephrosis; Chronic hydronephrosis; Acute hydronephrosis; Urinary obstruction; Unilateral hydronephrosis; Nephrolithiasis - hydronephrosis; Kidney stone - hydronephrosis; Renal calculi - hydronephrosis; ...

  9. The senile kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisova Т.Р.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The given work summarizes external data and self-obtained results on development and diagnostic of kidney involution modifications. Article discusses definition of "senile kidney" as a clinical and pathomorphological term. Major statements on pathophysiological causes of age-associated renal disorders and their prognosis, specifics of chronic kidney disease in elderly and senile patients have been reviewed. Phenomenon of renal "multimorbidity" in eldely maximizes worsening risk of unmodifiable kidney function.

  10. Intrathoracic kidney. Diagnostic value of CT scan imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillet, A.M.; Escure, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Two cases are reported of an ectopic right kidney that was partially intrathoracic in position. Diagnosis was simple from CT scan imaging appearances, the examination being performed to investigate an intrathoracic mass. Images showed a tissular mass within a fatty zone in sections without contrast and the typical appearance of the kidney on sections with contrast [fr

  11. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  12. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced blood flow through the renal artery can hurt kidney function. ... need include: Duplex Doppler ultrasound exam of the renal arteries to test blood flow MRI of the kidney arteries, which can show ...

  13. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et.al. Clinical manifestations of kidney disease among US adults with diabetes. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2016;316( ... of Washington, Associate Director, Kidney Research Institute ... The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Health Information Center ...

  14. Synaptogenesis in visual cortex of normal and preterm monkeys: evidence for intrinsic regulation of synaptic overproduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, J P; Jastreboff, P J; Rakic, P

    1989-01-01

    We used quantitative electron microscopy to determine the effect of precocious visual experience on the time course, magnitude, and pattern of perinatal synaptic overproduction in the primary visual cortex of the rhesus monkey. Fetuses were delivered by caesarean section 3 weeks before term, exposed to normal light intensity and day/night cycles, and killed within the first postnatal month, together with age-matched controls that were delivered at term. We found that premature visual stimulat...

  15. Metabolism of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in the squirrel monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Hamada, M.; Kato, F.

    1985-01-01

    Metabolism of lithocholic acid (LCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was studied in the squirrel monkey to clarify the mechanism of the lack of toxicity of CDCA in this animal. Radioactive LCA was administered to squirrel monkeys with biliary fistula. Most radioactivity was excreted in the bile in the form of unsulfated lithocholyltaurine. The squirrel monkey thus differs from humans and chimpanzees, which efficiently sulfate LCA, and is similar to the rhesus monkey and baboon in that LCA is poorly sulfated. When labeled CDCA was orally administered to squirrel monkeys, less than 20% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered as LCA and its further metabolites in feces over 3 days, indicating that bacterial metabolism of CDCA into LCA is strikingly less than in other animals and in humans. It therefore appears that LCA, known as a hepatotoxic secondary bile acid, is not accumulated in the squirrel monkey, not because of its rapid turnover through sulfation, but because of the low order of its production

  16. Hemorrhoids: an experimental model in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plapler Hélio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hemorrhoids are a matter of concern due to a painful outcome. We describe a simple, easy and reliable experimental model to produce hemorrhoids in monkeys. METHODS: 14 monkeys (Cebus apella were used. After general anesthesia, hemorrhoids were induced by ligation of the inferior hemorrhoidal vein, which is very alike to humans. The vein was located through a perianal incision, dissected and ligated with a 3-0 vicryl. The skin was sutured with a 4-0 catgut thread. Animals were kept in appropriate cages and evaluated daily. RESULTS: Nine days later there were hemorrhoidal piles in the anus in fifty percent (50% of the animals. Outcome was unremarkable. There was no bleeding and all animals showed no signs of pain or suffering. CONCLUSION: This is an affordable and reliable experimental model to induce hemorrhoids for experimental studies.

  17. Radioprotective effectiveness of adeturone in monkey experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, I.; Pantev, T.; Rogozkin, P.; Chertkov, K.; Dikovenko, E.; Kosarenkov, V.

    1976-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of adeturone (adenosine triphsophate salt of AET) was tested on 28 monkeys (Macaca mulata). The animals were gamma-irradiated (cobalt 60) with a dose of 680 R (17,6 R/min, LDsub(100/18)). Adeturone was administered intravenously for 5 minutes, from 6 to 15 minutes before irradiation in a dose of 150 mg/kg (1/2 of thr maximal tolerable dose). It was found that adeturone administration before the absolute lethal irradiation will ensure survival of 50 % of the monkeys. Radiation sickness in protected animals runs a milder course as shown by the duration of the latency period, the manifestation of the hemorrhagic syndrome, the leukopenia and erythrocytes in the peripheral blood. Some symptoms do not appear at all (diarrhoea) or develop later(hyperthermia, hypodynamia). (A.B.)

  18. The Connective Tissue Components of Optic Nerve Head Cupping in Monkey Experimental Glaucoma Part 1: Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongli; Ren, Ruojin; Lockwood, Howard; Williams, Galen; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, Crawford; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize optic nerve head (ONH) connective tissue change within 21 monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) eyes, so as to identify its principal components. Methods Animals were imaged three to five times at baseline then every 2 weeks following chronic unilateral IOP elevation, and euthanized early through end-stage confocal scanning laser tomographic change. Optic nerve heads were serial-sectioned, three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed, delineated, and quantified. Overall EG versus control eye differences were assessed by general estimating equations (GEE). Significant, animal-specific, EG eye change was required to exceed the maximum physiologic intereye differences in six healthy animals. Results Overall EG eye change was significant (P connective tissue components of ONH “cupping” in monkey EG which serve as targets for longitudinally staging and phenotyping ONH connective tissue alteration within all forms of monkey and human optic neuropathy. PMID:26641545

  19. What do monkeys' music choices mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Alexandra M

    2005-08-01

    McDermott and Hauser have recently shown that although monkeys show some types of preferences for sound, preferences for music are found only in humans. This suggests that music might be a relatively recent adaptation in human evolution. Here, I focus on the research methods used by McDermott and Hauser, and consider the findings in relation to infancy research and music psychology.

  20. Placental Transport of Zidovudine in the Rhesus Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ridgway III, Louis E.; King, Thomas S.; Henderson, George I.; Schenker, Steven; Schenken, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to characterize the pharmacokinetics of zidovudine (ZDV) and ZDV-glucuronide (ZDVG) in the material and :fetal circulations of the rhesus monkey. Methods: Cannulas were placed in the maternal external jugular and the fetal internal jugular and carotid artery in 8 pregnant monkeys at .120–130 days gestation. ZDV (3.5 mg/kg) was administered to 5 monkeys and ZDVG (3.5 mg/kg) to 3 monkeys as single intravenous bolus infusions through the maternal catheter. Ma...

  1. Prevalence and correlates of non-adherence to immunosuppressants and to health behaviours in patients after kidney transplantation in Brazil - the ADHERE BRAZIL multicentre study: a cross-sectional study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady; Colugnati, Fernando Antonio Basile; Marsicano, Elisa Oliveira; De Geest, Sabina; Medina, José Osmar Pestana

    2018-02-20

    Non-adherence to immunosuppressive therapy is a prevalent risk factor for poor clinical and after kidney transplantation (KT), and has contributed to the lack of improvement in long-term graft survival over the past decade. Understanding the multilevel correlates and risk factors of non-adherence is crucial to determine the optimal level for planning interventions, namely at the patient, health care provider, KT centre, and health care system level. Brazil, having the largest public transplantation program in the world and with regional differences regarding access to health services and service implementation, is in a unique position to study this multilevel approach. Therefore, the Adhere Brazil Study (ADHERE BRAZIL) was designed to assess the prevalence and variability of non-adherence to immunosuppressants and to health behaviours among adult KT recipients in Brazil, and to assess the multilevel correlates of non-adherence to immunosuppressive medication. We describe the rationale, design, and methodology of the ADHERE BRAZIL study. This is an observational, cross-sectional, multicentre study that includes 20 Brazilian KT centres. A stratified sampling approach is used, based on strata, with the following characteristics considered: geographical region and transplant activity (number of KTs per year). A random sample of patients (proportional to the size of the centre within each stratum) is selected from each centre. The prevalence of different health behaviours is assessed through self-report. The assessment of multilevel correlates of non-adherence is guided by the ecological model that considers factors at the level of the patient, health-care professional, and transplant centre, using established instruments or instruments developed for this study. Data will be collected over an 18-month period, with information obtained during the regular follow-up visits to the transplant outpatient clinic and directly entered into the Research Electronic Data Capture

  2. Ultrasonography of polycystic kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung Chul; Cho, Seung Gi; Lee, Kwan Seh; Kim, Kun Sang

    1980-01-01

    Polycystic disease is defined as a heritable disorder with diffuse involvement of both kidneys. The term 'Polycystic disease' comprises at least two separate, genetically different disease-one with an onset typically in childhood (infantile polycystic disease) and the other with an onset typically in adulthood (adult polycystic disease). Adult polycystic kidney disease is the most common form of cystic kidney disease in humans. Ultrasonography is a very useful noninvasive diagnostic modality in the patient with clinically suspected renal diseases as well as screening test. 14 cases of ultrasonography in patient with polycystic kidney were reviewed. All cases show unilateral or bilateral enlarged kidneys. 7 cases reveal kidneys and liver replaced by multiple cysts of varing size. Screening ultrasonography for a familial tree is reported

  3. Monkeying around: Use of Survey Monkey as a Tool for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massat, Carol Rippey; McKay, Cassandra; Moses, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of an online survey tool called Survey Monkey, which can be used by school social workers and school social work educators for evaluation of practice, needs assessment, and program evaluation. Examples of questions are given. Principles of writing good survey questions are described. (Contains 2 tables and 1…

  4. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. Zihlman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas’ larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys’ basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas.

  5. Transmission of naturally occurring lymphoma in macaque monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, R D; Blake, B J; Chalifoux, L V; Sehgal, P K; King, N W; Letvin, N L

    1983-01-01

    Spontaneously occurring rhesus monkey lymphomas were transmitted into healthy rhesus monkeys by using tumor cell suspensions. The naturally arising tumors included an immunoblastic sarcoma and an undifferentiated lymphoma. Recipient animals developed undifferentiated lymphomas, poorly differentiated lymphomas, or parenchymal lymphoproliferative abnormalities suggestive of early lesions of lymphoma. Some of these animals developed such opportunistic infections as cytomegalovirus hepatitis and ...

  6. Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Burns, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansen, W.L.; Ferket, P.R.; Heugten, E.

    2007-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions. Six woolly monkeys with known hypertension problems were tested to determine if diabetes mellitus and current

  7. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  8. Epigenetics of kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Nicola; Bechtel-Walz, Wibke

    2017-07-01

    DNA methylation and histone modifications determine renal programming and the development and progression of renal disease. The identification of the way in which the renal cell epigenome is altered by environmental modifiers driving the onset and progression of renal diseases has extended our understanding of the pathophysiology of kidney disease progression. In this review, we focus on current knowledge concerning the implications of epigenetic modifications during renal disease from early development to chronic kidney disease progression including renal fibrosis, diabetic nephropathy and the translational potential of identifying new biomarkers and treatments for the prevention and therapy of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease.

  9. Relationship of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and proteinuria to cardiomyopathy in the owl monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Chavera, Alfonso; Montoya, Enrique J.; Takano, Juan; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum reference values for crea- tine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydroge- nase (LDH) in captive-born and wild-caught owl monkeys to assess their usefulness for diagnosing myocardial disease. Urine samples were also collected and semi-quantitative tests performed. There was no statistically significant difference between CK, AST, and LDH when comparing both groups. However, when comparing monkeys with proteinuria to those without proteinuria, a statistically significant difference in CK value was observed (P = 0.021). In addition, the CK/AST ratio revealed that 29% of the animals included in this study had values suggesting cardiac infarction. Grossly, cardiac concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and small, pitted kidneys were the most common findings. Microscopically, myocardial fibrosis, contraction band necrosis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of coronary arteries, medium-sized renal arteries, and afferent glomerular arteriolae were the most significant lesions, along with increased mesangial matrix and hypercellularity of glomeruli, Bowman’s capsule, and peritubular space fibroplasia. These findings suggest that CK, AST, and LDH along with urinalysis provide a reliable method for diagnosing cardiomyopathies in the owl monkey. In addition, CK/AST ratio, proteinuria, and the observed histological and ultrastructural changes suggest that Aotus vociferans suffer from arterial hypertension and chronic myocardial infarction.

  10. Radioimmunoassay of parathyroid hormone (parathyrin) in monkey and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargis, G.K.; Williams, G.A.; Reynolds, W.A.; Kawahara, W.; Jackson, B.; Bowser, E.N.; Pitkin, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for rhesus monkey and human innumoreactive parathyrin was developed in which a selected anti-bovine parathyrin antiserum, radioiodinated purified bovine parathyrin tracer, and human parathyroid tissue-culture media standards were used. The resulting data indicate that the method is sensitive, specific, accurate and reproducible; it is valid for both the rhesus monkey and the human; the serum immunoreactive parathyrin concentration of the monkey is essentially the same as that in man; monkey immunoreactive parathyrin responds to changes in serum calcium concentration similarly to that in man; and the rhesus monkey is therefore a suitable species in which to study parathyroid physiology, from which conclusions can be applied to the human

  11. Demonstration of synthesis of beta-trace protein in different tissues of squirrel monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, J E; Sandberg, M [Department of Neurology, University Hospital, S-221 85 Lund, Sweden

    1975-01-01

    The sites of synthesis of the low molwculat weight beta-trace protein, present in a seven times higher concentration in normal human CSF than in normal human serum, have been studied by means of a radioactive immunoprecipitation method. Adult squirrel monkey tissue were cultured in Eagle's minium essential medium in the presence of /sup 14/C-labelled valine, threonine and leucine for 24 hours. Synthesis could be demonstrated in cultures of white CNS matter, whereas cultures of grey CNS matter, peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle, kidney and ovary did not show any signs of synthesis. Some cultures of spinal cord, basal ganglia, genital organs except ovary, and liver showed a probable synthesis of beta-trace protein. By means of autoradiography, the synthesis of beta-trace protein in white CNS matter could be confirmed.

  12. Demonstration of synthesis of beta-trace protein in different tissues of squirrel monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, J.-E.; Sandberg, M.

    1975-01-01

    The sites of synthesis of the low molwculat weight beta-trace protein, present in a seven times higher concentration in normal human CSF than in normal human serum, have been studied by means of a radioactive immunoprecipitation method. Adult squirrel monkey tissue were cultured in Eagle's minium essential medium in the presence of 14 C-labelled valine, threonine and leucine for 24 hours. Synthesis could be demonstrated in cultures of white CNS matter, whereas cultures of grey CNS matter, peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle, kidney and ovary did not show any signs of synthesis. Some cultures of spinal cord, basal ganglia, genital organs except ovary, and liver showed a probable synthesis of beta-trace protein. By means of autoradiography, the synthesis of beta-trace protein in white CNS matter could be confirmed. (author)

  13. Neurotoxic response of infant monkeys to methylmercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willes, R.F.; Truelove, J.F.; Nera, E.A.

    1978-02-01

    Four infant monkeys were dosed orally with 500 ..mu..g Hg/kg body wt./day (as methylmercury (MeHg) chloride dissolved sodium carbonate) beginning at 1 day of age. Neurological and behavioral signs of MeHg toxicity and blood Hg levels were monitored weekly. At first sign of MeHg intoxication, dosing with MeHg was terminated and the infants were monitored to assess reversal of the signs of MeHg toxicity. The first signs of MeHg toxicity, exhibited as a loss in dexterity and locomotor ability, were observed after 28 to 29 days of treatment; the blood Hg levels were 8.0 to 9.4 ..mu..g Hg/g blood. Dosing was terminated at 28 to 29 days of treatment but the signs of MeHg toxicity continued to develop. The infants became ataxic, blind, comatose and were necropsied at 35 to 43 days after initiating treatment with MgHg. The mercury concentrations in tissues analyzed after necropsy were highest in liver followed by occipital cortex and renal cortex. The mean blood/brain ratio was 0.21 +- 0.4. Histopathologic lesions were marked in the cerebrum with less severe lesions in the cerebellar nuclei. The Purkinje and granular cells of the cerebellar vermis appeared histologically normal. Lesions were not observed in the peripheral nervous system. The signs of MeHg intoxication, the tissue distribution of MeHg and histopathologic lesions observed in the infant monkeys were similar to those reported for adult monkeys.

  14. Neurotoxic response of infant monkeys to methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willes, R F; Truelove, J F; Nera, E A

    1978-02-01

    Four infant monkeys were dosed orally with 500 microgram Hg/kg body wt./day /as methylmercury (MeHg) chloride dissolved sodium carbonate) beginning at 1 day of age. Neurological and behavioral signs of MeHg toxicity and blood Hg levels were monitored weekly. At first sign of MeHg intoxication, dosing with MeHg was terminated and the infants were monitored to assess reversal of the signs of MeHg toxicity. The first signs of MeHg toxicity, exhibited as a loss in dexterity and locomotor ability, were observed after 28--29 days of treatment; the blood Hg levels were 8.0--9.4 microgram Hg/g blood. Dosing was terminated at 28--29 days of treatment but the signs of MeHg toxicity continued to develop. The infants became ataxic, blind, comatose and were necropsied at 35--43 days after initiating treatment with MgHg. The mercury concentrations in tissues analyzed after necropsy were highest in liver (55.8 +/- 3.2 microgram Hg/g) followed by occipital cortex (35.6 +/- 4.8 microgram Hg/g) renal cortex (32.8 +/- 1.6 microgram Hg/g). The frontal and temporal cortices had 27.0 +/- 3.4 and 29.6 +/- 4.9 microgram Hg/g respectively while the cerebellar Hg concentration averaged 13.0 +/- 1.5 microgram Hg/g. The mean blood/brain ratio was 0.21 +/- 0.4. Histopathologic lesions were marked in the cerebrum with less severe lesions in the cerebellar nuclei. The Purkinje and granular cells of the cerebellar vermis appeared histologically normal. Lesions were not observed in the peripheral nervous system. The signs of MeHg intoxication, the tissue distribution of MeHg and histopathologic lesions observed in the infant monkeys were similar to those reported for adult monkeys.

  15. Face Pareidolia in the Rhesus Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Jessica; Wardle, Susan G; Flessert, Molly; Leopold, David A; Ungerleider, Leslie G

    2017-08-21

    Face perception in humans and nonhuman primates is rapid and accurate [1-4]. In the human brain, a network of visual-processing regions is specialized for faces [5-7]. Although face processing is a priority of the primate visual system, face detection is not infallible. Face pareidolia is the compelling illusion of perceiving facial features on inanimate objects, such as the illusory face on the surface of the moon. Although face pareidolia is commonly experienced by humans, its presence in other species is unknown. Here we provide evidence for face pareidolia in a species known to possess a complex face-processing system [8-10]: the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). In a visual preference task [11, 12], monkeys looked longer at photographs of objects that elicited face pareidolia in human observers than at photographs of similar objects that did not elicit illusory faces. Examination of eye movements revealed that monkeys fixated the illusory internal facial features in a pattern consistent with how they view photographs of faces [13]. Although the specialized response to faces observed in humans [1, 3, 5-7, 14] is often argued to be continuous across primates [4, 15], it was previously unclear whether face pareidolia arose from a uniquely human capacity. For example, pareidolia could be a product of the human aptitude for perceptual abstraction or result from frequent exposure to cartoons and illustrations that anthropomorphize inanimate objects. Instead, our results indicate that the perception of illusory facial features on inanimate objects is driven by a broadly tuned face-detection mechanism that we share with other species. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Psychophysical chromatic mechanisms in macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, Cleo M; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Gagin, Galina; Conway, Bevil R

    2012-10-24

    Chromatic mechanisms have been studied extensively with psychophysical techniques in humans, but the number and nature of the mechanisms are still controversial. Appeals to monkey neurophysiology are often used to sort out the competing claims and to test hypotheses arising from the experiments in humans, but psychophysical chromatic mechanisms have never been assessed in monkeys. Here we address this issue by measuring color-detection thresholds in monkeys before and after chromatic adaptation, employing a standard approach used to determine chromatic mechanisms in humans. We conducted separate experiments using adaptation configured as either flickering full-field colors or heterochromatic gratings. Full-field colors would favor activity within the visual system at or before the arrival of retinal signals to V1, before the spatial transformation of color signals by the cortex. Conversely, gratings would favor activity within the cortex where neurons are often sensitive to spatial chromatic structure. Detection thresholds were selectively elevated for the colors of full-field adaptation when it modulated along either of the two cardinal chromatic axes that define cone-opponent color space [L vs M or S vs (L + M)], providing evidence for two privileged cardinal chromatic mechanisms implemented early in the visual-processing hierarchy. Adaptation with gratings produced elevated thresholds for colors of the adaptation regardless of its chromatic makeup, suggesting a cortical representation comprised of multiple higher-order mechanisms each selective for a different direction in color space. The results suggest that color is represented by two cardinal channels early in the processing hierarchy and many chromatic channels in brain regions closer to perceptual readout.

  17. Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion of 14C-APX001 after Single-Dose Administration to Rats and Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, Robert; Shaw, Karen J; Hodges, Michael R; Coleman, Samantha; Fitzsimmons, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background APX001 is a small-molecule therapeutic agent in clinical development for the treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFI). Methods The absorption, distribution and excretion profiles of [14C]APX001-derived radioactivity were determined in rats (albino and pigmented) and monkeys. Rats (some implanted with bile duct cannulae) were administered a single 100 mg/kg oral dose or a 30 mg/kg intravenous (IV) dose. Monkeys were administered a single 6 mg/kg IV dose. Samples of blood, urine, feces and bile, as well as carcasses, were collected through 168 hours after dosing. Samples were analyzed for total radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting, and carcasses were analyzed by quantitative whole-body autoradiography. Results [14C]APX001-derived radioactivity was rapidly and extensively absorbed and extensively distributed to most tissues for both routes of administration in both species. In rats, tissues with the highest radioactivity Cmax values included bile, abdominal fat, reproductive fat, subcutaneous fat, and liver, but radioactivity was also detected in tissues associated with IFI, including lung, brain and eye. In monkeys, the highest Cmax values were in bile, urine, uveal tract, bone marrow, abdominal fat, liver, and kidney cortex. Liver and kidney were the tissues with highest radioactivity, but as in the rat, radioactivity was also detected in lung, brain and eye tissues. In pigmented rats, radiocarbon was densely distributed into pigmented tissue and more slowly cleared than from other tissues. Mean recovery of radioactivity in rats was approximately 95–100%. In bile duct-intact rats, >90% of radioactivity was recovered in feces. In cannulated rats, biliary excretion of radioactivity was the major route of elimination and accounted for 88.8% of the dose, whereas urinary and fecal excretion of radioactivity was minor and accounted for 2.56% and 5.42% of the dose, respectively. In monkeys, the overall recovery of radioactivity

  18. Total lymphoid irradiation in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Maat, B.; Hogeweg, B.

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) consists of three contiguous fields, a mantle, an inverted Y and a spleen field. TLI induces a state of immunosuppression in patients with Hodgkin disease or in small rodents. Infusion of allogeneic bone marrow cells into mice after TLI led to the development split haemopoietic chimerism and indefinite survival of skin grafts from the bone marrow donor. A protocol for TLI was developed for rhesus monkeys to attempt to verify these interesting observations in a pre-clinical animal model. (Auth.)

  19. Distribution and abundance of sacred monkeys in Igboland, southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lynne R; Tanimola, Adebowale A; Olubode, Oluseun S; Garshelis, David L

    2009-07-01

    Although primates are hunted on a global scale, some species are protected against harassment and killing by taboos or religious doctrines. Sites where the killing of sacred monkeys or the destruction of sacred groves is forbidden may be integral to the conservation of certain species. In 2004, as part of a distribution survey of Sclater's guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri) in southern Nigeria, we investigated reports of sacred monkeys in the Igbo-speaking region of Nigeria. We confirmed nine new sites where primates are protected as sacred: four with tantalus monkeys (Chlorocebus tantalus) and five with mona monkeys (Cercopithecus mona). During 2004-2006, we visited two communities (Akpugoeze and Lagwa) previously known to harbor sacred populations of Ce. sclateri to estimate population abundance and trends. We directly counted all groups and compared our estimates with previous counts when available. We also estimated the size of sacred groves and compared these with grove sizes reported in the literature. The mean size of the sacred groves in Akpugoeze (2.06 ha, n = 10) was similar to others in Africa south of the Sahel, but larger than the average grove in Lagwa (0.49 ha, n = 15). We estimated a total population of 124 Sclater's monkeys in 15 groups in Lagwa and 193 monkeys in 20 groups in Akpugoeze. The Akpugoeze population was relatively stable over two decades, although the proportion of infants declined, and the number of groups increased. As Sclater's monkey does not occur in any official protected areas, sacred populations are important to the species' long-term conservation. Despite the monkeys' destruction of human crops, most local people still adhere to the custom of not killing monkeys. These sites represent ideal locations in which to study the ecology of Sclater's monkey and human-wildlife interactions. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Biodistribution of Idursulfase Formulated for Intrathecal Use (Idursulfase-IT in Cynomolgus Monkeys after Intrathecal Lumbar Administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jou-Ku Chung

    Full Text Available Enzyme replacement therapy with intravenous idursulfase (recombinant iduronate-2-sulfatase is approved for the treatment of Hunter syndrome. Intravenous administration does not, however, treat the neurological manifestations, due to its low central nervous system bioavailability. Using intrathecal-lumbar administration, iduronate-2-sulfatase is delivered directly to the central nervous system. This study investigates the central nervous system biodistribution of intrathecal-lumbar administered iduronate-2-sulfatase in cynomolgus monkeys. Twelve monkeys were administered iduronate-2-sulfatase in one 30 mg intrathecal-lumbar injection. Brain, spinal cord, liver, and kidneys were collected for iduronate-2-sulfatase concentration (measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme activity measurement (via a method utilizing 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-iduronate-2-sulfate at 1, 2, 5, 12, 24, and 48 hours following administration. The tissue enzyme linked immunosorbent assay confirmed iduronate-2-sulfatase uptake to the brain, spinal cord, kidneys, and liver in a time-dependent manner. In spinal cord and brain, iduronate-2-sulfatase appeared as early as 1 hour following administration, and peak concentrations were observed at ~2 and ~5 hours. Iduronate-2-sulfatase appeared in liver and kidneys 1 hour post intrathecal-lumbar dose with peak concentrations between 5 and 24 hours. Liver iduronate-2-sulfatase concentration was approximately 10-fold higher than kidney. The iduronate-2-sulfatase localization and enzyme activity in the central nervous system, following intrathecal administration, demonstrates that intrathecal-lumbar treatment with iduronate-2-sulfatase may be considered for further investigation as a treatment for Hunter syndrome patients with neurocognitive impairment.

  1. End-stage kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage; Kidney failure - end stage; ESRD; ESKD Images Kidney anatomy References Fogarty DG, Taal MW. A stepped care approach to the management of chronic kidney disease. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  2. Correlates and management of anaemia of chronic kidney disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease. There is paucity of published local and regional data regarding its associated factors and management. Objective: To assess the correlates and management of anaemia in chronic kidney disease. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study

  3. Willingness of Nigerians to Donate a Kidney | Adekoya | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Kidney transplantation is a popular modality of RRT in the developed world. Objective: To assess the willingness of the general population of Nigerians across the country to donate a kidney. Methods: This is a multiregional, cross sectional, questionnaire based study. One thousand Three hundred respondents ...

  4. Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the ureters, bladder, and urethra for the passage, storage, and voiding of urine. Serious kidney complications associated with IBD are rare, ... Proteinuria, an elevated level of protein in the urine, is one sign of amyloidosis. A biopsy (tissue sample) of the kidney can confirm the diagnosis. Various ...

  5. Complicated Horseshoe Kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. S.; Kim, S. R.; Cha, K. S.; Park, S. S. [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Horseshoe kidney is an important urological anomaly when it is complicated or accompanied by other diseases. Recently we have experienced four cases of horseshoe kidney which were complicated with hydronephrosis, renal stone and adrenal pheochromocytoma. With review of literatures, we emphasize the importance of detection of these complications.

  6. Complicated Horseshoe Kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. S.; Kim, S. R.; Cha, K. S.; Park, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney is an important urological anomaly when it is complicated or accompanied by other diseases. Recently we have experienced four cases of horseshoe kidney which were complicated with hydronephrosis, renal stone and adrenal pheochromocytoma. With review of literatures, we emphasize the importance of detection of these complications.

  7. Kidney removal - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100069.htm Kidney removal (nephrectomy) - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 5 Go to slide 2 out of ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The kidneys are paired organs that lie posterior to the ...

  8. Kidney Stones in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  9. Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  10. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, you can continue to live a productive life, work, spend time with friends and family, stay physically active, and do other things you enjoy. You may need to change what you eat and add healthy ... active, and enjoy life. Will my kidneys get better? Kidney disease is ...

  11. Metaplasia of the parietal layer of Bowman's capsule in the human kidney. Incidence in alcoholic liver disease and hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Haensly, William E.

    1988-01-01

    This report is the second of two surveys to determine the incidence of metaplasia of Bowman's parietal epithelium in the human kidney. Human kidney sections obtained at autopsy at the Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, were examined with the light microscope. The kidneys were fixed in neutral formalin, sectioned at 6 pm and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Autopsy records were consulted after kidney section exa...

  12. Scleral Biomechanics in the Aging Monkey Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Michaël J. A.; Suh, J-K. Francis; Bottlang, Michael; Burgoyne, Claude F.; Downs, J. Crawford

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the age-related differences in the inhomogeneous, anisotropic, nonlinear biomechanical properties of posterior sclera from old (22.9 ± 5.3 years) and young (1.5 ± 0.7 years) rhesus monkeys. Methods The posterior scleral shell of each eye was mounted on a custom-built pressurization apparatus, then intraocular pressure (IOP) was elevated from 5 to 45 mmHg while the 3D displacements of the scleral surface were measured using speckle interferometry. Each scleral shell geometry was digitally reconstructed from data generated by a 3D digitizer (topography) and 20 MHz ultrasounds (thickness). An inverse finite element (FE) method incorporating a fiber-reinforced constitutive model was used to extract a unique set of biomechanical properties for each eye. Displacements, thickness, stress, strain, tangent modulus, structural stiffness, and preferred collagen fiber orientation were mapped for each posterior sclera. Results The model yielded 3-D deformations of posterior sclera that matched well with those observed experimentally. The posterior sclera exhibited inhomogeneous, anisotropic, nonlinear mechanical behavior. The sclera was significantly thinner (p = 0.038), and tangent modulus and structural stiffness were significantly higher in old monkeys (p biomechanics, and potentially contribute to age-related susceptibility to glaucomatous vision loss. PMID:19494203

  13. Explicit information reduces discounting behavior in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePearson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals are notoriously impulsive in common laboratory experiments, preferring smaller, sooner rewards to larger, delayed rewards even when this reduces average reward rates. By contrast, the same animals often engage in natural behaviors that require extreme patience, such as food caching, stalking prey, and traveling long distances to high quality food sites. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that standard laboratory delay discounting tasks artificially inflate impulsivity by subverting animals’ common learning strategies. To test this idea, we examined choices made by rhesus macaques in two variants of a standard delay discounting task. In the conventional variant, post-reward delays were uncued and adjusted to render total trial length constant; in the second, all delays were cued explicitly. We found that measured discounting was significantly reduced in the cued task, with discount rates well below those reported in studies using the standard uncued design. When monkeys had complete information, their decisions were more consistent with a strategy of reward rate maximization. These results indicate that monkeys, and perhaps other animals, are more patient than is normally assumed, and that laboratory measures of delay discounting may overstate impulsivity.

  14. Subarachnoid administration of iohexol in cynomolgus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobeck, H.P.; Mayes, B.A.; Barbolt, T.A.; Fabian, R.J.; Kimball, J.P.; Slighter, R.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A non-ionic diagnostic medium, iohexol, was administered by subarachnoid injection to groups of six cynomolgus monkeys and compared with the vehicle, physiologically normal saline, and/or saline of equal osmolality to determine its potential for increasing total protein and leucocyte levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Also investigated was the effect of repeated spinal taps not subsequently followed by the intrathecal injection of test or control articles. In the monkey, unlike man, low-level leucocyte counts were consistently observed following initial withdrawal of spinal fluid. Elevated leucocyte and total protein levels were observed in the present investigations one day to a week after intrathecal injection of radiopaque, vehicle or saline solution. Total protein returned to normal levels earlier than did leucocyte counts. However, repeated needle puncture alone was found to be sufficient to cause an elevation of leucocytes 3 to 4 times the baseline level, while inflammatory effects were observed histologically only when autopsy was performed soon after the final spinal tap. (orig.)

  15. Marmoset monkeys evaluate third-party reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yasue, Miyuki; Banno, Taku; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2014-05-01

    Many non-human primates have been observed to reciprocate and to understand reciprocity in one-to-one social exchanges. A recent study demonstrated that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to both third-party reciprocity and violation of reciprocity; however, whether this sensitivity is a function of general intelligence, evidenced by their larger brain size relative to other primates, remains unclear. We hypothesized that highly pro-social primates, even with a relatively smaller brain, would be sensitive to others' reciprocity. Here, we show that common marmosets discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges with others and those who did not. Monkeys accepted rewards less frequently from non-reciprocators than they did from reciprocators when the non-reciprocators had retained all food items, but they accepted rewards from both actors equally when they had observed reciprocal exchange between the actors. These results suggest that mechanisms to detect unfair reciprocity in third-party social exchanges do not require domain-general higher cognitive ability based on proportionally larger brains, but rather emerge from the cooperative and pro-social tendencies of species, and thereby suggest this ability evolved in multiple primate lineages. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Obesity and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD. Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological renal changes, in addition to metabolic and biochemical alterations that lead to kidney disease. Adipose tissue is dynamic and it is involved in the production of "adipokines", such as leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β and angiotensin-II. A series of events is triggered by obesity, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and hypertension. There is evidence that obesity itself can lead to kidney disease development. Further studies are required to better understand the association between obesity and kidney disease.

  17. NAFLD and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuccilli, Morgan; Chonchol, Michel

    2016-04-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and it is now considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence linking NAFLD to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is emerging as a popular area of scientific interest. The rise in simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation as well as the significant cost associated with the presence of chronic kidney disease in the NAFLD population make this entity a worthwhile target for screening and therapeutic intervention. While several cross-sectional and case control studies have been published to substantiate these theories, very little data exists on the underlying cause of NAFLD and CKD. In this review, we will discuss the most recent publications on the diagnosis of NAFLD as well new evidence regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD and CKD as an inflammatory disorder. These mechanisms include the role of obesity, the renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulation of fructose metabolism and lipogenesis in the development of both disorders. Further investigation of these pathways may lead to novel therapies that aim to target the NAFLD and CKD. However, more prospective studies that include information on both renal and liver histology will be necessary in order to understand the relationship between these diseases.

  18. Integrating histology and MRI in the first digital brain of common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peizhen; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Gao, Yurui; Janve, Vaibhav; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    This effort is a continuation of development of a digital brain atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. Here, we present the integration of histology with multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. The central concept of this work is to use block face photography to establish an intermediate common space in coordinate system which preserves the high resolution in-plane resolution of histology while enabling 3-D correspondence with MRI. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging (300 μm isotropic) and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging (600 um isotropic). Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (both 300 μm isotropic). Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections in-plane. We describe mapping of histology and MRI based data of the common squirrel monkey and construction of a viewing tool that enable online viewing of these datasets. The previously descried atlas MRI is used for its deformation to provide accurate conformation to the MRI, thus adding information at the histological level to the MRI volume. This paper presents the mapping of single 2D image slice in block face as a proof of concept and this can be extended to map the atlas space in 3D coordinate system as part of the future work and can be loaded to an XNAT system for further use.

  19. Dissociation of item and source memory in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2017-09-01

    Source memory, or memory for the context in which a memory was formed, is a defining characteristic of human episodic memory and source memory errors are a debilitating symptom of memory dysfunction. Evidence for source memory in nonhuman primates is sparse despite considerable evidence for other types of sophisticated memory and the practical need for good models of episodic memory in nonhuman primates. A previous study showed that rhesus monkeys confused the identity of a monkey they saw with a monkey they heard, but only after an extended memory delay. This suggests that they initially remembered the source - visual or auditory - of the information but forgot the source as time passed. Here, we present a monkey model of source memory that is based on this previous study. In each trial, monkeys studied two images, one that they simply viewed and touched and the other that they classified as a bird, fish, flower, or person. In a subsequent memory test, they were required to select the image from one source but avoid the other. With training, monkeys learned to suppress responding to images from the to-be-avoided source. After longer memory intervals, monkeys continued to show reliable item memory, discriminating studied images from distractors, but made many source memory errors. Monkeys discriminated source based on study method, not study order, providing preliminary evidence that our manipulation of retention interval caused errors due to source forgetting instead of source confusion. Finally, some monkeys learned to select remembered images from either source on cue, showing that they did indeed remember both items and both sources. This paradigm potentially provides a new model to study a critical aspect of episodic memory in nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Social monogamy in wild owl monkeys (Aotus azarae) of Argentina: the potential influences of resource distribution and ranging patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Using published and new data from a population of monogamous owl monkeys in the Argentinean Chaco, I examine the hypothesis that social monogamy is a default social system imposed upon males because the spatial and/or temporal distribution of resources and females makes it difficult for a single male to defend access to more than one mate. First, I examine a set of predictions on ranging patterns, use of space, and population density. This first section is followed by a second one considering predictions related to the abundance and distribution of food. Finally, I conclude with a section attempting to link the ranging and ecological data to demographic and life-history parameters as proxies for reproductive success. In support of the hypothesis, owl monkey species do live at densities (7 to 64 ind/km2) that are predicted for monogamous species, but groups occupy home ranges and core areas that vary substantially in size, with pronounced overlap of home ranges, but not of core areas. There are strong indications that the availability of food sources in the core areas during the dry season may be of substantial importance for regulating social monogamy in owl monkeys. Finally, none of the proxies for the success of groups were strongly related to the size of the home range or core area. The results I present do not support conclusively any single explanation for the evolution of social monogamy in owl monkeys, but they help us to better understand how it may function. Moreover, the absence of conclusive answers linking ranging, ecology, and reproductive success with the evolution of social monogamy in primates, offer renewed motivation for continuing to explore the evolution of monogamy in owl monkeys. PMID:25931263

  1. Kidney Transplantation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as They Affect Physical Fitness: A Physical Therapist's Point of View (National Kidney Foundation) Solitary Kidney (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Travel Tips: A Guide for Kidney Patients (National Kidney ...

  2. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lm; Holmes, An; Williams, LE; Brosnan, Sf

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran "open diffusion" tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the "Slide-box"). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a 'ghost' display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys' learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this case, those

  3. Comment on "Monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2017-07-01

    Monkey vocal tracts are capable of producing monkey speech, not the full range of articulate human speech. The evolution of human speech entailed both anatomy and brains. Fitch, de Boer, Mathur, and Ghazanfar in Science Advances claim that "monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready," and conclude that "…the evolution of human speech capabilities required neural change rather than modifications of vocal anatomy." Neither premise is consistent either with the data presented and the conclusions reached by de Boer and Fitch themselves in their own published papers on the role of anatomy in the evolution of human speech or with the body of independent studies published since the 1950s.

  4. Loss of metabolites from monkey striatum during PET with FDOPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, P; Munk, O L; Doudet, D

    2001-01-01

    constants using data recorded during 240 min of FDOPA circulation in normal monkeys and in monkeys with unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesions. Use of the extended models increased the magnitudes of K(D)(i) and k(D)(3) in striatum; in the case of k(D)(3), variance...... of the estimate was substantially improved upon correction for metabolite loss. The rate constants for metabolite loss were higher in MPTP-lesioned monkey striatum than in normal striatum. The high correlation between individual estimates of k(Lin)(cl) and k(DA)(9) suggests that both rate constants reveal loss...

  5. A modified elliptical formula to estimate kidney collagen content in a model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Jake A; Zhu, Janice; Duan, Bin; Li, Jingsong; Zhou, Ping; Paka, Latha; Yamin, Michael A; Goldberg, Itzhak D; Narayan, Prakash

    2018-01-01

    The extent of scarring or renal interstitial collagen deposition in chronic kidney disease (CKD) can only be ascertained by highly invasive, painful and sometimes risky, tissue biopsy. Interestingly, while CKD-related abnormalities in kidney size can often be visualized using ultrasound, not only does the ellipsoid formula used today underestimate true renal size, but the calculated renal size does not inform tubulointerstitial collagen content. We used coronal kidney sections from healthy mice and mice with kidney disease to develop a new formula for estimating renal parenchymal area. While treating the kidney as an ellipse with the major axis (a) the polar distance, this technique involves extending the minor axis (b) into the renal pelvis to obtain a new minor axis, be. The calculated renal parenchymal area is remarkably similar to the true or measured area. Biochemically determined kidney collagen content revealed a strong and positive correlation with the calculated renal parenchymal area. Picrosirius red staining for tubulointerstitial collagen also correlated with calculated renal parenchymal area. The extent of renal scarring, i.e. kidney interstitial collagen content, can now be computed by making just two axial measurements which can easily be accomplished via noninvasive imaging of this organ.

  6. 77 FR 29676 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Date: June 21, 2012. Time: 3:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m. Agenda: To evaluate requests... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Building 2DEM, Room 788B, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda...

  7. 76 FR 80954 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Date: January 26, 2012. Time: 3 p.m.-5 p.m. Agenda: To evaluate requests for...; 93.848, Digestive Diseases and Nutrition Research; 98.849, Kidney Diseases, Urology and Hematology...

  8. 75 FR 61766 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Liver PPG Application. Date... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the...: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Nutrition Obesity...

  9. 75 FR 57971 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Central Repositories Non-Renewable Sample Access (PAR-10-90)--Liver, Kidney, Urological Sciences. Date: October 12, 2010. Time: 2 p.m. to 4...

  10. 76 FR 36931 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Liver Disease and Transplantation... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Urinary Tract Dysfunction P01...

  11. 75 FR 69685 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Liver Ancillary Studies. Date: December... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Special Emphasis Panel for R01...

  12. 78 FR 50428 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIDDK Ancillary R01 Studies on Liver... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Date: September...

  13. 78 FR 9401 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Liver Related Ancillary... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Beta-Cell Function and Cognition. Date...

  14. 75 FR 4830 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel. Predictors of Genitourinary Disorders... Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Small Grant Program. Date: March 12, 2010. Time: 2 p.m...

  15. [Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Adad, S; Estevão Barbosa, M; Fácio Luíz, J M; Furlan Rodrigues, M C; Iwamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    A 48-year-old male had autosomic dominant polycystic kidneys with dimensions, to the best of our knowledge, never previously reported; the right kidney weighed 15,100 g and measured 53 x 33 x 9cm and the left one 10.200 g and 46 x 21 x 7cm, with cysts measuring up to 14cm in diameter. Nephrectomy was done to control persistent hematuria and to relief disconfort caused by the large kidneys. The renal function is stable four years after transplantation.

  16. Nutrition for Early Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease (CKD) Eating Right Related Topics English English French Español Section Navigation Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) What ... foods, instead of deep frying. Cook with nonstick cooking spray or a small amount of olive oil ...

  17. Transplantation of adult monkey neural stem cells into a contusion spinal cord injury model in rhesus macaque monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, Shiva Nemati; Jabbari, Reza; Hajinasrollah, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    , therefore, to explore the efficacy of adult monkey NSC (mNSC) in a primate SCI model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, isolated mNSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR. Next, BrdU-labeled cells were transplanted into a SCI model. The SCI animal model...... on Tarlov's scale and our established behavioral tests for monkeys. CONCLUSION: Our findings have indicated that mNSCs can facilitate recovery in contusion SCI models in rhesus macaque monkeys. Additional studies are necessary to determine the im- provement mechanisms after cell transplantation....

  18. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cysts Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ... function as well as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs ...

  19. Short parietal lobe connections of the human and monkey brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catani, Marco; Robertsson, Naianna; Beyh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    projections were reconstructed for both species and results compared to identify similarities or differences in tract anatomy (i.e., trajectories and cortical projections). In addition, post-mortem dissections were performed in a human brain. The largest tract identified in both human and monkey brains...... and angular gyri of the inferior parietal lobule in humans but only to the supramarginal gyrus in the monkey brain. The third tract connects the postcentral gyrus to the anterior region of the superior parietal lobule and is more prominent in monkeys compared to humans. Finally, short U-shaped fibres...... and monkeys with some differences for those areas that have cytoarchitectonically distinct features in humans. The overall pattern of intraparietal connectivity supports the special role of the inferior parietal lobule in cognitive functions characteristic of humans....

  20. Thermoregulatory Responses of Febrile Monkeys During Microwave Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adair, E

    1997-01-01

    .... In a controlled ambient temperature of 26 degrees C, autonomic mechanisms of heat production and heat loss were measured in febrile squirrel monkeys during 30-min exposures to 450 or 2450 MHz CW MW...

  1. Single subcutaneous dosing of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, J.; Thuesen, Line Risager; Braskamp, G.

    2011-01-01

    was to determine whether cefovecin is a suitable antibiotic to prevent skin wound infection in rhesus monkeys. Therefore, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of cefovecin after a single subcutaneous injection at 8 mg/kg bodyweight in four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and sensitivity of bacterial isolates from fresh skin...... wounds were determined. After administration, blood, urine, and feces were collected, and concentrations of cefovecin were determined. Further, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for bacteria isolated from fresh skin wounds of monkeys during a health control program were determined. The mean...... maximum plasma concentration (C(max) ) of cefovecin was 78 µg/mL and was achieved after 57 min. The mean apparent long elimination half-life (t½) was 6.6 h and excretion occurred mainly via urine. The MIC for the majority of the bacteria examined was >100 µg/mL. The PK of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys...

  2. jMonkeyEngine 3.0 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Edén, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    If you are a jMonkey developer or a Java developer who is interested to delve further into the game making process to expand your skillset and create more technical games, then this book is perfect for you.

  3. Images in kidney trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Rodriguez, Sonia Pilar; Manzano, Ana Cristina

    2007-01-01

    A case of a 3 years old female patient, who suffered blunt lumbar trauma (horse kick) with secondary kidney trauma, is reported. Imaging findings are described. Renal trauma classification and imaging findings are reviewed

  4. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detect CKD: blood pressure, urine albumin and serum creatinine. What causes CKD? The two main causes of chronic kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure , which are responsible for up to ...

  5. Polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... don't have other diseases may be good candidates for a kidney transplant. Possible Complications Health problems ... www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. ...

  6. Kidney removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schwartz MJ, Rais-Bahrami S, Kavoussi LR. Laparoscopic and robotic surgery of the kidney. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi ... Urology, West Bloomfield, MI. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  7. Kidney Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCI Cancer Information A to Z Treatment Roles Cancer Types Bladder Brain/Spine Breast Cervical Colorectal Esophageal Gallbladder Head/Neck Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Multiple Myeloma Ovarian Pancreatic ...

  8. American Kidney Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you see in the box: Spam Control Text: Please leave this field empty Submit Change ... a kidney health educator Clinical Scientist in Nephrology program Online continuing education Search clinical ...

  9. National Kidney Foundation Newsroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/2018 Using a Home Test Kit and Smartphone to Test for Kidney Disease - 04/10/2018 ... of millions of Americans at risk. The Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Alliance Charity Seal provides the ...

  10. Kidney compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1976-09-01

    A multiparameter kidney compartment model which quantitates the amount of iodohippurate concentration as a function of time in the blood, tissue, kidneys and bladder is developed from a system of differential equations which represent first order kinetics. The kinetic data are obtained using a gamma camera and an HP5407 computer system which allows one to delineate areas of interest for the blood and tissue, kidneys, and bladder thus separating the data into four data sets. The estimated tubular transit times have a high ratio of the signal to the variance whereas the estimates of the amount of iodohippurate in the blood, tissue and kidneys have a low ratio of the signal to the variance. Application of this model to patient data requires better statistics than available with conventional 131 I-hippurate doses; thus a true test of the efficacy awaits availability of 123 I-hippurate

  11. Testing for Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mean for you. If you have kidney disease, measuring the albumin in your urine helps your provider ... Staff Directory Budget & Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs Jobs at NIDDK ...

  12. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and cys tic kidney diseases. Participants in clinical trials can play ... Life Options Rehabilitation Resource Center c/o Medical Education Institute, Inc. 414 D’Onofrio Drive, Suite 200 ...

  13. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic

  14. Depth perception from moving cast shadow in macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Saneyuki; Usui, Nobuo; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Taira, Masato; Katsuyama, Narumi

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, we investigate whether the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow. To accomplish this, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, an adult Japanese monkey was trained in a motion discrimination task in depth by binocular disparity. A square was presented on the display so that it appeared with a binocular disparity of 0.12 degrees (initial position), and moved toward (approaching) or away from (receding) the monkey for 1s. The monkey was trained to discriminate the approaching and receding motion of the square by GO/delayed GO-type responses. The monkey showed a significantly high accuracy rate in the task, and the performance was maintained when the position, color, and shape of the moving object were changed. In the next experiment, the change in the disparity was gradually decreased in the motion discrimination task. The results showed that the performance of the monkey declined as the distance of the approaching and receding motion of the square decreased from the initial position. However, when a moving cast shadow was added to the stimulus, the monkey responded to the motion in depth induced by the cast shadow in the same way as by binocular disparity; the reward was delivered randomly or given in all trials to prevent the learning of the 2D motion of the shadow in the frontal plane. These results suggest that the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow as well as using binocular disparity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Monkey Feeding Assay for Testing Emetic Activity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are unique bacterial toxins that cause gastrointestinal toxicity as well as superantigenic activity. Since systemic administration of SEs induces superantigenic activity leading to toxic shock syndrome that may mimic enterotoxic activity of SEs such as vomiting and diarrhea, oral administration of SEs in the monkey feeding assay is considered as a standard method to evaluate emetic activity of SEs. This chapter summarizes and discusses practical considerations of the monkey feeding assay used in studies characterizing classical and newly identified SEs.

  16. Present and potential distribution of Snub-nosed Monkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nüchel, Jonas; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    are the Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus), a temperate-subtropical East Asian genus. We use species distribution modeling to assess the following question of key relevancy for conservation management of Rhinopithecus; 1. Which climatic factors determine the present distribution of Rhinopithecus within...... distribution of Rhinopithecus within the region, considering climate, habitat availability and the locations of nature reserves. Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, conservation, China, snub-nosed monkey, rhinopithecus, primates, species distribution modeling...

  17. [Chronic kidney disease and kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuret, R; Timsit, M O; Kleinclauss, F

    2016-11-01

    To report epidemiology and characteristics of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and renal transplant candidates, and to evaluate access to waiting list and results of renal transplantation. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords: "chronic kidney disease, epidemiology, kidney transplantation, cost, survival, graft, brain death, cardiac arrest, access, allocation". French legal documents have been reviewed using the government portal (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr). Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance. The reference lists were used to identify additional historical studies of interest. Both prospective and retrospective series, in French and English, as well as review articles and recommendations were selected. In addition, French national transplant and health agencies (http://www.agence-biomedecine.fr and http://www.has-sante.fr) databases were screened using identical keywords. A total of 3234 articles, 6 official reports and 3 newspaper articles were identified; after careful selection 99 publications were eligible for our review. The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to worsen organ shortage. Renal transplantation remains the best treatment option for ESRD, providing recipients with an increased survival and quality of life, at lower costs than other renal replacement therapies. The never-ending lengthening of the waiting list raises issues regarding treatment strategies and candidates' selection, and underlines the limits of organ sharing without additional source of kidneys available for transplantation. Allocation policies aim to reduce medical or geographical disparities regarding enrollment on a waiting list or access to an allotransplant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. [Paired kidneys in transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro López, Juan C; Leva Vallejo, Manuel; Prieto Castro, Rafael; Anglada Curado, Francisco; Vela Jiménez, Francisco; Ruiz García, Jesús

    2009-02-01

    Many factors affect the graft and patient survival on the renal transplant outcome. These factors depend so much of the recipient and donor. We accomplished a study trying to circumvent factors that depend on the donor. We checked the paired kidneys originating of a same donor cadaver. We examined the risk factors in the evolution and follow-up in 278 couples of kidney transplant. We describe their differences, significance, the graft and patient survival, their functionality in 3 and 5 years and the risk factors implicated in their function. We study immunogenic and no immunogenic variables, trying to explain the inferior results in the grafts that are established secondly. We regroup the paired kidneys in those that they did not show paired initial function within the same couple. The results yield a discreet deterioration in the graft and patient survival for second group establish, superior creatinina concentration, without obtaining statistical significance. The Cox regression study establishes the early rejection (inferior to three months) and DR incompatibility values like risk factors. This model of paired kidneys would be able to get close to best-suited form for risk factors analysis in kidney transplant from cadaver donors, if more patients examine themselves in the same way. The paired kidneys originating from the same donor do not show the same function in spite of sharing the same conditions of the donor and perioperative management.

  19. Control of Working Memory in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Hampton, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive control is critical for efficiently using the limited resources in working memory. It is well established that humans use rehearsal to increase the probability of remembering needed information, but little is known in nonhumans, with some studies reporting the absence of active control and others subject to alternative explanations. We trained monkeys in a visual matching-to-sample paradigm with a post-sample memory cue. Monkeys either saw a remember cue that predicted the occurrence of a matching test that required memory for the sample, or a forget cue that predicted a discrimination test that did not require memory of the sample. Infrequent probe trials on which monkeys were given tests of the type not cued on that trial were used to assess whether memory was under cognitive control. Our procedures controlled for reward expectation and for the surprising nature of the probes. Monkeys matched less accurately after forget cues, while discrimination accuracy was equivalent in the two cue conditions. We also tested monkeys with lists of two consecutive sample images that shared the same cue. Again, memory for expected memory tests was superior to that on unexpected tests. Together these results show that monkeys cognitively control their working memory. PMID:25436219

  20. Intrapericardial Denervation: Responses to Water Immersion in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1995-01-01

    Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings.

  1. Phosphorus Regulation in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Wadi N; Moore, Linda W

    2016-01-01

    Serum phosphorus levels stay relatively constant through the influence of multiple factors-such as parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, and vitamin D-on the kidney, bone, and digestive system. Whereas normal serum phosphorus ranges between 3 mg/dL to 4.5 mg/dL, large cross-sectional studies have shown that even people with normal kidney function are sometimes found to have levels ranging between 1.6 mg/dL and 6.2 mg/dL. While this may partially be due to diet and the factors mentioned above, total understanding of these atypical ranges of serum phosphorus remains uncertain. Risks for bone disease are high in people aged 50 and older, and this group comprises a large proportion of people who also have chronic kidney disease. Consuming diets low in calcium and high in phosphorus, especially foods with phosphate additives, further exacerbates bone turnover. Existing bone disease increases the risk for high serum phosphorus, and higher serum phosphorus has been associated with increased adverse events and cardiovascular-related mortality both in people with chronic kidney disease and in those with no evidence of disease. Once kidney function has deteriorated to end-stage disease (Stage 5), maintaining normal serum phosphorus requires dietary restrictions, phosphate-binding medications, and dialysis. Even so, normal serum phosphorus remains elusive in many patients with Stage 5 kidney disease, and researchers are testing novel targets that may inhibit intestinal transport of phosphorus to achieve better phosphate control. Protecting and monitoring bone health should also aid in controlling serum phosphorus as kidney disease advances.

  2. Measurement of kidney by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tatsumi; Nakagawa, Kenichi; Tamura, Kenji; Yoshida, Akio; Fujii, Koichi

    1983-01-01

    Several measurements of normal kidney in vivo were obtained from computed tomography and were correlated with age, sex and body dimensions. Forty four males and 21 females without a history of renal disease were studied. 1. Angle between renal coronal section and body frontal (degree): The mean value (+- SD) of the angle was 44.0 +- 11.1 for right kidney and 42.3 +- 11.2 for left, with a low correlation coefficient. The angle had no significant correlation with age nor sex. 2. The largest width of kidney (cm): The mean value of the width was 4.6 +- 0.6 for male right kidney, 5.1 +- 0.6 for male left, 4.6 +- 0.7 for female right and 4.7 +- 1.0 for female left. The values correlated with age under 40 positively and over 40 negatively. 3. Renal volume (cm 3 ): Renal volume was calculated by adding together the area measurements obtained from successive 1 cm thick scans, excluding renal sinus. The mean volume was 107 +- 27 for male right kidney, 114 +- 24 for male left, 101 +- 33 for female right and 111 +- 41 for female left. The correlation coefficient of right versus left renal volume was significantly high. Total renal volume, i. e. left + right renal volume, had significant negative correlation with age over 40. 4. CT numbers of kidney: Average value of right kidney was 31.4 +- 6.0 and that of left was 30.7 +- 5.9. Though the correlation coefficient between right and left was nearly 1, no significant correlation was found with other values. (author)

  3. Multimodality imaging spectrum of complications of horseshoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik U Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Horseshoe kidney is the most common congenital renal fusion anomaly with an incidence of 1 in 400–600 individuals. The most common type is fusion at the lower poles seen in greater than 90% of the cases, with the rest depicting fusion at the upper poles, resulting in an inverted horseshoe kidney. Embryologically, there are two theories hypothesizing the genesis of horseshoe kidney – mechanical fusion theory and teratogenic event theory. As an entity, horseshoe kidney is an association of two anatomic anomalies, namely, ectopia and malrotation. It is also associated with other anomalies including vascular, calyceal, and ureteral anomalies. Horseshoe kidney is prone to a number of complications due to its abnormal position as well as due to associated vascular and ureteral anomalies. Complications associated with horseshoe kidney include pelviureteric junction obstruction, renal stones, infection, tumors, and trauma. It can also be associated with abnormalities of cardiovascular, central nervous, musculoskeletal and genitourinary systems, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Conventional imaging modalities (plain films, intravenous urogram as well as advanced cross-sectional imaging modalities (ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging play an important role in the evaluation of horseshoe kidney. This article briefly describes the embryology and anatomy of the horseshoe kidney, enumerates appropriate imaging modalities used for its evaluation, and reviews cross-sectional imaging features of associated complications.

  4. Newly identified CYP2C93 is a functional enzyme in rhesus monkey, but not in cynomolgus monkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Uno

    Full Text Available Cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey are used in drug metabolism studies due to their evolutionary closeness and physiological resemblance to human. In cynomolgus monkey, we previously identified cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP 2C76 that does not have a human ortholog and is partly responsible for species differences in drug metabolism between cynomolgus monkey and human. In this study, we report characterization of CYP2C93 cDNA newly identified in cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey. The CYP2C93 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 490 amino acids approximately 84-86% identical to human CYP2Cs. CYP2C93 was located in the genomic region, which corresponded to the intergenic region in the human genome, indicating that CYP2C93 does not correspond to any human genes. CYP2C93 mRNA was expressed predominantly in the liver among 10 tissues analyzed. The CYP2C93 proteins heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli metabolized human CYP2C substrates, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, paclitaxel, S-mephenytoin, and tolbutamide. In addition to a normal transcript (SV1, an aberrantly spliced transcript (SV2 lacking exon 2 was identified, which did not give rise to a functional protein due to frameshift and a premature termination codon. Mini gene assay revealed that the genetic variant IVS2-1G>T at the splice site of intron 1, at least partly, accounted for the exon-2 skipping; therefore, this genotype would influence CYP2C93-mediated drug metabolism. SV1 was expressed in 6 of 11 rhesus monkeys and 1 of 8 cynomolgus monkeys, but the SV1 in the cynomolgus monkey was nonfunctional due to a rare null genotype (c.102T>del. These results suggest that CYP2C93 can play roles as a drug-metabolizing enzyme in rhesus monkeys (not in cynomolgus monkeys, although its relative contribution to drug metabolism has yet to be validated.

  5. Distribution of neurotensin receptors in the primate hippocampal region: a quantitative autoradiographic study in the monkey and the postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, Christer; Radesater, A.; Chan-Palay, V.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of [ 3 H]neurotensin ([ 3 H]NT) binding sites in the monkey and the postmortem human brain was studied by using quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. Biochemical experiments carried out on tissue sections of the monkey hippocampus showed that the binding of [ 3 H]NT was saturable, reversible and of high specificity. The hippocampal [ 3 H]NT binding was displaced by fragment NT 8-13 but not fragment NT 1-8 of the peptide. The anatomical analysis showed a highly heterogeneous distribution of [ 3 H]NT binding sites within both the monkey and the human hippocampal region. In both species the highest density of [ 3 H]NT binding sites was found in the presubiculum (rank order of binding density: layer 2>6>1>3, 4, 5 in both monkey and man) and the entorhinal area (monkey: layer 4>6>5>1>2>3; human: layer 1=2>5>3). The subiculum and Ammon's horn were relatively poor in [ 3 H]NT binding sites in both species. In the area dentata the highest density of [ 3 H]NT binding sites was found in the hilar region. (author)

  6. The Genome Landscape of the African Green Monkey Kidney-Derived Vero Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Naoki; Kohara, Arihiro; Yamaji, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Noriko; Kasai, Fumio; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Hanada, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Continuous cell lines that originate from mammalian tissues serve as not only invaluable tools for life sciences, but also important animal cell substrates for the production of various types of biological pharmaceuticals. Vero cells are susceptible to various types of microbes and toxins and have widely contributed to not only microbiology, but also the production of vaccines for human use. We here showed the genome landscape of a Vero cell line, in which 25,877 putative protein-coding genes were identified in the 2.97-Gb genome sequence. A homozygous ∼9-Mb deletion on chromosome 12 caused the loss of the type I interferon gene cluster and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes in Vero cells. In addition, an ∼59-Mb loss of heterozygosity around this deleted region suggested that the homozygosity of the deletion was established by a large-scale conversion. Moreover, a genomic analysis of Vero cells revealed a female Chlorocebus sabaeus origin and proviral variations of the endogenous simian type D retrovirus. These results revealed the genomic basis for the non-tumourigenic permanent Vero cell lineage susceptible to various pathogens and will be useful for generating new sub-lines and developing new tools in the quality control of Vero cells. PMID:25267831

  7. The Genome Landscape of the African Green Monkey Kidney-Derived Vero Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Osada, Naoki; Kohara, Arihiro; Yamaji, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Noriko; Kasai, Fumio; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Hanada, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Continuous cell lines that originate from mammalian tissues serve as not only invaluable tools for life sciences, but also important animal cell substrates for the production of various types of biological pharmaceuticals. Vero cells are susceptible to various types of microbes and toxins and have widely contributed to not only microbiology, but also the production of vaccines for human use. We here showed the genome landscape of a Vero cell line, in which 25,877 putative protein-coding genes...

  8. The effects of anti-VEGF drugs on the retinal pigment epithelium and inner segment after intravitreal injection in the monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Su

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the effects on the retina inner segment and retinal pigment epithelium(RPEof intravitreally injecting bevacizumab, ranibizumab and aflibercept into monkey eyes.METHODS: Fourteen healthy cynomolgus monkeys(Macaca fascicularis, aged 3-8y,10 males,4 femaleswere raised at the Covance Laboratories under standard conditions. The 14 monkeys were grouped into 4 groups. Three of the groups with 4 monkeys each were injected intravitreally with one of the drugs, either bevacizumab, ranibizumab or aflibercept, while the 4th group with 2 monkeys served as a negative control. On 1d and 7d of injection, 2 monkeys from each drug treatment group were sacrificed under general anaesthesia and the 4 eyes were enucleated. All the enucleated eyes were fixed in formalin, embedded in paraffin wax, cut into 4.0 μm sections and deparaffinized according to standard procedures. Image-Pro Plus was used for all the photos to measure the content of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFin the inner segment and RPE. The ANOVA test from JMP10.0 statistical program was used to evaluate the results.RESULTS: Retinal sections were checked for their anti-VEGF immune reactivity. The untreated control samples had the highest level of VEGF in the RPE and inner segment. All of these three drugs can reduce the level of VEGF in the RPE and inner segment, but Avastin seems to be more effective than Eylea in this regard. Lucentis treatment at 1d seems to be more effective than Eylea at VEGF 1d. But at 7d, both Lucentis and Eylea have the same effect on reducing VEGF expression level in the RPE and inner segment.CONCLUSION: All of these three drugs can reduce the level of VEGF in the RPE and inner segment.

  9. Kidney and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2017-03-01

    Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration. The innate immune response provides the first line of host defense initiated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), together with inflammasomes responsible for early innate immune response. Although the innate immune system is well studied, the research on the detailed relationship between innate immunity and kidney is still very limited. In this review, we will focus on the innate immune sensing system in renal immune homeostasis, as well as the corresponding pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pivotal roles of innate immunity in renal injury and regeneration with special emphasis on kidney disease related immunoregulatory mechanism are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Diabetic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Merlin C; Brownlee, Michael; Susztak, Katalin; Sharma, Kumar; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin A M; Zoungas, Sophia; Rossing, Peter; Groop, Per-Henrik; Cooper, Mark E

    2015-07-30

    The kidney is arguably the most important target of microvascular damage in diabetes. A substantial proportion of individuals with diabetes will develop kidney disease owing to their disease and/or other co-morbidity, including hypertension and ageing-related nephron loss. The presence and severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) identify individuals who are at increased risk of adverse health outcomes and premature mortality. Consequently, preventing and managing CKD in patients with diabetes is now a key aim of their overall management. Intensive management of patients with diabetes includes controlling blood glucose levels and blood pressure as well as blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; these approaches will reduce the incidence of diabetic kidney disease and slow its progression. Indeed, the major decline in the incidence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) over the past 30 years and improved patient prognosis are largely attributable to improved diabetes care. However, there remains an unmet need for innovative treatment strategies to prevent, arrest, treat and reverse DKD. In this Primer, we summarize what is now known about the molecular pathogenesis of CKD in patients with diabetes and the key pathways and targets implicated in its progression. In addition, we discuss the current evidence for the prevention and management of DKD as well as the many controversies. Finally, we explore the opportunities to develop new interventions through urgently needed investment in dedicated and focused research. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/NKHDzg.

  11. [Living kidney donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, M-O; Kleinclauss, F; Mamzer Bruneel, M F; Thuret, R

    2016-11-01

    To review ethical, legal and technical aspects of living kidney donor surgery. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords: Donor nephrectomy; Kidney paired donation; Kidney transplantation; Laparoscopic nephrectomy; Living donor; Organs trafficking; Robotic assisted nephrectomy; Vaginal extraction. French legal documents have been reviewed using the government portal (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr). Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance. A total of 6421 articles were identified; after careful selection, 161 publications were considered of interest and were eligible for our review. The ethical debate focuses on organ shortage, financial incentive, organ trafficking and the recent data suggesting a small but significant increase risk for late renal disease in donor population. Legal decisions aim to increase the number of kidneys available for donation, such as kidney-paired donation that faces several obstacles in France. Laparoscopic approach became widely used, while robotic-assisted donor nephrectomy failed to demonstrate improved outcome as compared with other minimal invasive techniques. Minimally invasive living donor nephrectomy aims to limit side effects in the donor without increasing the morbidity in this specific population of healthy persons; long term surveillance to prevent the onset of renal disease in mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Wave aberrations in rhesus monkeys with vision-induced ametropias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Huang, Juan; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between refractive errors and high-order aberrations in infant rhesus monkeys. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations measured with a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor between normal monkeys and monkeys with vision-induced refractive errors. Shortly after birth, both normal monkeys and treated monkeys reared with optically induced defocus or form deprivation showed a decrease in the magnitude of high-order aberrations with age. However, the decrease in aberrations was typically smaller in the treated animals. Thus, at the end of the lens-rearing period, higher than normal amounts of aberrations were observed in treated eyes, both hyperopic and myopic eyes and treated eyes that developed astigmatism, but not spherical ametropias. The total RMS wavefront error increased with the degree of spherical refractive error, but was not correlated with the degree of astigmatism. Both myopic and hyperopic treated eyes showed elevated amounts of coma and trefoil and the degree of trefoil increased with the degree of spherical ametropia. Myopic eyes also exhibited a much higher prevalence of positive spherical aberration than normal or treated hyperopic eyes. Following the onset of unrestricted vision, the amount of high-order aberrations decreased in the treated monkeys that also recovered from the experimentally induced refractive errors. Our results demonstrate that high-order aberrations are influenced by visual experience in young primates and that the increase in high-order aberrations in our treated monkeys appears to be an optical byproduct of the vision-induced alterations in ocular growth that underlie changes in refractive error. The results from our study suggest that the higher amounts of wave aberrations observed in ametropic humans are likely to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of abnormal refractive development. PMID:17825347

  13. Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Antenatal Diagnosis and Histopathological Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayananda Kumar Rajanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD is one of the most common inheritable disease manifesting in infancy and childhood with a frequency of 1:6,000 to 1:55,000 births. The patient in her second trimester presented with a history of amenorrhea. Ultrasound examination revealed bilateral, enlarged, hyperechogenic kidneys, placentomegaly, and severe oligohydramnios. The pregnancy was terminated. An autopsy was performed on the fetus. Both the kidneys were found to be enlarged and the cut surface showed numerous cysts. The liver sections showed changes due to fibrosis. The final diagnosis of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease was made based on these findings. In this article, we correlate the ante-natal ultrasound and histopathological findings in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

  14. Kidney recipients experiences before during and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte

    Background Kidney transplantation is considered to be the best treatment for terminal renal insufficiency. Kidney transplant patients report higher quality of life because they avoid regular dialysis treatment that causes side effects, complications, restrictions and limitations in their daily...... and after the kidney transplant, through outpatient visits and during possible hospitalization, which can occur due to complications or disease progression. Objective To explore the coherence of the kidney transplant process in order to explain the lived experiences of kidney recipients before, during...... and after kidney transplantation. Method Participant observation and semi-structured individual interviews was conducted with kidney recipients before, during and after kidney transplantation. Data analysis is inspired by Ricoeur's interpretation theory on three levels: Naive reading; structural analysis...

  15. Connexins and the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanner, Fiona; Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Connexins (Cxs) are widely-expressed proteins that form gap junctions in most organs, including the kidney. In the renal vasculature, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 are expressed, with predominant expression of Cx40 in the endothelial cells and Cx45 in the vascular smooth muscle cells. In the tubules......, the major function of Cxs in the kidney appears to be intercellular communication, although they may also form hemichannels that allow cellular secretion of large signaling molecules. Renal Cxs facilitate vascular conduction, juxtaglomerular apparatus calcium signaling, and tubular purinergic signaling....... Accordingly, current evidence points to roles for these Cxs in several important regulatory mechanisms in the kidney, including the renin angiotensin system, tubuloglomerular feedback, and salt and water reabsorption. At the systemic level, renal Cxs may help regulate blood pressure and may be involved...

  16. Serotonin shapes risky decision making in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Arwen B; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Platt, Michael L

    2009-12-01

    Some people love taking risks, while others avoid gambles at all costs. The neural mechanisms underlying individual variation in preference for risky or certain outcomes, however, remain poorly understood. Although behavioral pathologies associated with compulsive gambling, addiction and other psychiatric disorders implicate deficient serotonin signaling in pathological decision making, there is little experimental evidence demonstrating a link between serotonin and risky decision making, in part due to the lack of a good animal model. We used dietary rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) to acutely lower brain serotonin in three macaques performing a simple gambling task for fluid rewards. To confirm the efficacy of RTD experiments, we measured total plasma tryptophan using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. Reducing brain serotonin synthesis decreased preference for the safe option in a gambling task. Moreover, lowering brain serotonin function significantly decreased the premium required for monkeys to switch their preference to the risky option, suggesting that diminished serotonin signaling enhances the relative subjective value of the risky option. These results implicate serotonin in risk-sensitive decision making and, further, suggest pharmacological therapies for treating pathological risk preferences in disorders such as problem gambling and addiction.

  17. Rhesus monkeys attribute perceptions to others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flombaum, Jonathan I; Santos, Laurie R

    2005-03-08

    Paramount among human cognitive abilities is the capacity to reason about what others think, want, and see--a capacity referred to as a theory of mind (ToM). Despite its importance in human cognition, the extent to which other primates share human ToM capacities has for decades remained a mystery. To date, primates [1, 2] have performed poorly in behavioral tasks that require ToM abilities, despite the fact that some macaques are known to encode social stimuli at the level of single neurons [3-5]. Here, we presented rhesus macaques with a more ecologically relevant ToM task in which subjects could "steal" a contested grape from one of two human competitors. In six experiments, monkeys selectively retrieved the grape from an experimenter who was incapable of seeing the grape rather than an experimenter who was visually aware. These results suggest that rhesus macaques possess an essential component of ToM: the ability to deduce what others perceive on the basis of where they are looking. These results converge with new findings illustrating the importance of competitive paradigms in apes [6]. Moreover, they raise the possibility that, in primates, cortical cells thought to encode where others are looking [7] may encode what those individuals see as well.

  18. Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Angela C; Nagler, Evi V; Morton, Rachael L; Masson, Philip

    2017-03-25

    The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m 2 , or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence. Many people are asymptomatic or have non-specific symptoms such as lethargy, itch, or loss of appetite. Diagnosis is commonly made after chance findings from screening tests (urinary dipstick or blood tests), or when symptoms become severe. The best available indicator of overall kidney function is GFR, which is measured either via exogenous markers (eg, DTPA, iohexol), or estimated using equations. Presence of proteinuria is associated with increased risk of progression of CKD and death. Kidney biopsy samples can show definitive evidence of CKD, through common changes such as glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Complications include anaemia due to reduced production of erythropoietin by the kidney; reduced red blood cell survival and iron deficiency; and mineral bone disease caused by disturbed vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate metabolism. People with CKD are five to ten times more likely to die prematurely than they are to progress to end stage kidney disease. This increased risk of death rises exponentially as kidney function worsens and is largely attributable to death from cardiovascular disease, although cancer incidence and mortality are also increased. Health-related quality of life is substantially lower for people with CKD than for the general population, and falls as GFR

  19. Construction and evaluation of novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vaccine vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F; Ng'ang'a, David; Borducchi, Erica N; Iampietro, M Justin; Bricault, Christine A; Teigler, Jeffrey E; Blackmore, Stephen; Parenteau, Lily; Wagh, Kshitij; Handley, Scott A; Zhao, Guoyan; Virgin, Herbert W; Korber, Bette; Barouch, Dan H

    2015-02-01

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. The phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. Here we describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved to have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors. Although there have been substantial efforts in the development of vaccine vectors from human and chimpanzee adenoviruses, far less is known about rhesus monkey adenoviruses. In this report, we describe the isolation and vectorization of three novel rhesus monkey adenoviruses. These vectors exhibit virologic and immunologic characteristics that make them attractive as potential candidate vaccine vectors for both HIV-1 and other pathogens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Analogical reasoning in a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Erica Hoy; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2008-05-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that analogical reasoning (recognizing similarities among object relations when the objects themselves are dissimilar) is limited to humans and apes. This study investigated whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) can use analogical reasoning to solve a 3-dimensional search task. The task involved hiding a food item under 1 of 2 or 3 plastic cups of different sizes and then allowing subjects to search for food hidden under the cup of analogous size in their own set of cups. Four monkeys were exposed to a series of relational matching tasks. If subjects reached criterion on these tasks, they were exposed to relational transfer tasks involving novel stimuli. Three of the monkeys failed to reach criterion on the basic relational matching tasks and therefore were not tested further. One monkey, however, revealed above-chance performance on a series of transfer tasks with 3 novel stimuli. This evidence suggests that contrary to previous arguments, a member of a New World monkey species can solve an analogical problem. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. [Monkey-pox, a model of emergent then reemergent disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, A J; Matton, T; Courbot-Georges, M C

    2004-01-01

    The recent emergence of monkey pox in the United States of America highlights the problem (known for other infectious agents) of dissemination of pathogens outside their endemic area, and of subsequent global threats of variable gravity according to agents. It is a real emergency since monkey pox had been confined to Africa for several decades, where small epidemics occurred from time to time, monkey pox is a "miniature smallpox" which, in Africa, evolves on an endemic (zoonotic) mode with, as reservoirs, several species of wild rodents (mainly squirrels) and some monkey species. It can be accidentally transmitted to man then develops as epidemics, sometimes leading to death. The virus was imported in 2003 in the United States of America, via Gambia rats and wild squirrels (all African species), and infected prairie dogs (which are now in fashion as pets), then crossed the species barrier to man. In the United States of America, screening campaigns, epidemiological investigations, and subsequent treatments led to a rapid control of the epidemic, which is a model of emergent disease for this country. Therapeutic and preventive measures directly applicable to monkey pox are discussed. They can also be applied against other pox virus infections (including smallpox). The risk of criminal introduction of pox viruses is discussed since it is, more than ever, a real worldwide threat.

  2. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  3. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  4. Evaluation of monkey intraocular pressure by rebound tonometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenhan; Cao, Guiqun; Qiu, Jinghua; Ma, Jia; Li, Ni; Yu, Man; Yan, Naihong; Chen, Lei; Pang, Iok-Hou

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the usefulness of the TonoVet™ rebound tonometer in measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) of monkeys. Methods The accuracy of the TonoVet™ rebound tonometer was determined in cannulated eyes of anesthetized rhesus monkeys where IOP was controlled by adjusting the height of a connected perfusate reservoir. To assess the applicability of the equipment through in vivo studies, the diurnal fluctuation of IOP and effects of IOP-lowering compounds were evaluated in monkeys. Results IOP readings generated by the TonoVet™ tonometer correlated very well with the actual pressure in the cannulated monkey eye. The linear correlation had a slope of 0.922±0.014 (mean±SEM, n=4), a y-intercept of 3.04±0.61, and a correlation coefficient of r2=0.97. Using this method, diurnal IOP fluctuation of the rhesus monkey was demonstrated. The tonometer was also able to detect IOP changes induced by pharmacologically active compounds. A single topical ocular instillation (15 μg) of the rho kinase inhibitor, H1152, produced a 5–6 mmHg reduction (pmonkey eye. PMID:19898690

  5. Monkey brain damage from radiation in the therapeutic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagaki, H.; Brunhart, G.; Kemper, T.L.; Caveness, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    Twelve Macaca mulatta monkeys received 200 rads of supervoltage radiation to the whole brain per day, 5 days a week. The course in four monkeys was 4 weeks for a total dose of 4000 rads; in four monkeys, 6 weeks for 6000 rads; and in four monkeys, 8 weeks for 8000 rads. Four unirradiated monkeys served as controls. One from each group, sacrificed at 6 and 12 months from start of irradiation, is reported here. The results from 4000 rads were negligible; those from 8000 rads, profound, with gross brain destruction. The results from 6000 rads, within the therapeutic range, included at 6 months punctate necrotic lesions, 1 mm or less, widely scattered but with a predilection for the forebrain white matter. The reaction to these lesions ranged from an early macrophage response to calcification. Some were accompanied by focal edema. There were occasional examples of vascular endothelial proliferation. In addition, there were patches of dilated capillaries or telangiectasia. Twelve months after 6000 rads there were a few mineralized lesions and innumerable minute deposits of calcium and iron. A more active process was suggested by widely disseminated areas of telangiectasia, 6 to 12 mm in extent. The clinical course from this exposure included papilledema from the third to the sixth month and depressed visual evoked response accompanied by delta activity in the electroencephalogram from the sixth to the twelfth month

  6. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  7. Environmental pollution and kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Nie, Sheng; Ding, Hanying; Hou, Fan Fan

    2018-05-01

    The burden of disease and death attributable to environmental pollution is becoming a public health challenge worldwide, especially in developing countries. The kidney is vulnerable to environmental pollutants because most environmental toxins are concentrated by the kidney during filtration. Given the high mortality and morbidity of kidney disease, environmental risk factors and their effect on kidney disease need to be identified. In this Review, we highlight epidemiological evidence for the association between kidney disease and environmental pollutants, including air pollution, heavy metal pollution and other environmental risk factors. We discuss the potential biological mechanisms that link exposure to environmental pollutants to kidney damage and emphasize the contribution of environmental pollution to kidney disease. Regulatory efforts should be made to control environmental pollution and limit individual exposure to preventable or avoidable environmental risk. Population studies with accurate quantification of environmental exposure in polluted regions, particularly in developing countries, might aid our understanding of the dose-response relationship between pollutants and kidney diseases.

  8. National Kidney Disease Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Tips About WIN NIDDK Information Clearinghouses National Kidney Disease Education Program Improving the understanding, detection, and ... Group Learn more about Working Groups Learn about Kidney Disease Find information for people with or at ...

  9. Kidney stones - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... self-care; Nephrolithiasis and self-care; Stones and kidney - self-care; Calcium stones and self-care; Oxalate ... provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care ...

  10. Cell-poor septa separate representations of digits in the ventroposterior nucleus of the thalamus in monkeys and prosimian galagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hui-Xin; Gharbawie, Omar A; Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H

    2011-03-01

    The architectonic features of the ventroposterior nucleus (VP) were visualized in coronal brain sections from two macaque monkeys, two owl monkeys, two squirrel monkeys, and three galagos that were processed for cytochrome oxidase, Nissl bodies, or the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2). The traditional ventroposterior medial (VPM) and ventroposterior lateral (VPL) subnuclei were easily identified, as well as the forelimb and hindlimb compartments of VPL, as they were separated by poorly staining, cell-poor septa. Septa also separated other cell groups within VPM and VPL, specifically in the medial compartment of VPL representing the hand (hand VPL). In one squirrel monkey and one galago we demonstrated that these five groups of cells represent digits 1-5 in a mediolateral sequence by injecting tracers into the cortical representation of single digits, defined by microelectrode recordings, and relating concentrations of labeled neurons to specific cell groups in hand VPL. The results establish the existence of septa that isolate the representation of the five digits in VPL of primates and demonstrate that the isolated cell groups represent digits 1-5 in a mediolateral sequence. The present results show that the septa are especially prominent in brain sections processed for vGluT2, which is expressed in the synaptic terminals of excitatory neurons in most nuclei of the brainstem and thalamus. As vGluT2 is expressed in the synaptic terminations from dorsal columns and trigeminal brainstem nuclei, the effectiveness of vGluT2 preparations in revealing septa in VP likely reflects a lack of synapses using glutamate in the septa. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artérielle Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in ... as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs in people with chronic kidney ...

  12. Urological Complications in Kidney Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.B. Slagt (Inez)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The kidney is an essential organ that plays an crucial role in acid-base balance, sodium and potassium balance, calcium metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, red blood cell synthesis and excretion of metabolites. Kidney diseases may result in kidney

  13. Chapter 12. Kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyrac, R.; Sulman, C.

    1975-01-01

    The isotopic kidney check-up consists of the isotopic nephrogram with simultaneous clearance measurement. For clinicians it supplies a set of data which no other method can provide so quickly. This check-up offers many advantages. The examination is simple: after intraveinous injection of hippuran 131 I the radioactivity is followed for 20 minutes in the kidney, heart and bladder by external counting. A blood sample is taken between the 10th and 20th minutes and the urine collected at the 20th minute. The glomerular clearance may be calculated by injecting 125 I hypaque at the same time. The examination is fast: the process lasts half an hour altogether. The only preparation is an adequate hydration of the patient before the test. The examination is absolutely harmless: internal irradiation of the patient is negligible. Numerous data are obtained: pathological changes in the nephrogram: reduced affinity of a kidney for hippuran, heterogeneity of the nephrons, slowing down of transit times, intraparenchyme stases; blood concentration of hippuran and hypaque at the 10th or 20th minute, elimination in the urine at the 20th minute; total blood purification and glomerular and tubular excretion clearances, clearance of each kidney separately. No other method as simple, fast and harmless can yield such a complete set of data. Very often the nephrograms are obtained from gamma-camera recording on the dynamic mode, which allows a morphological study to be carried out at the same time [fr

  14. Drugs and the kidney

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occasionally, strategies to prevent acute kidney insufficiency cause irreversible CKD, ... heart failure (acute or chronic), pulmonary ... wide range of pathological and physiological effects. ... and indomethacin have short half-lives, ... Tissue injury .... changed. Maintenance doses or the dosing interval may have to be adjusted.

  15. Kidneys and urinary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, G

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies 9 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Kidney transplantation and hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Vetchinnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful kidney transplantation eliminates endocrine and metabolic disorders that predispose to the development of hyperparathyroidism, the complication typical for the chronic kidney disease; but the process of recovery from mineral and bone disorders is slowed down. The highest incidence of post-transplant hyperparathyroidism is recorded in the first postoperative year. The risk factors for its development or persistence include the high blood levels of parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus, and/or alkaline phosphatase, a prolonged dialysis therapy, severe hyperparathyroidism in the preoperative period, vitamin D deficiency, a suboptimal transplanted kidney function, and also the recipient's previous history of subtotal or incomplete parathyroidectomy. The characteristic clinical and laboratory signs of posttransplant hyperparathyroidism are bone lesions, kidney graft abnormalities, hypercalcemia, and hypophosphatemia. The diagnostic algorithm includes monitoring the markers of mineral and bone metabolism, determining the bone mineral density, and imaging of thyroid glands. Correction of post-transplant hyperparathyroidism is performed surgically or pharmacologically. The article specifies the indications to, the extent and timing of parathyroidectomy, discusses the use of native vitamin D formulations, its analogues, and calcimimetics.

  17. Hypertension after kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrowolski, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension increases the cardiovascular risk in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). In chapter 2 we found that hypertension was highly prevalent in adult (77.2%), paediatric (62.7%) and young adult (86.4%) KTRs. Transition from the paediatric to adult care did not affect hypertension and there

  18. Kidneys and urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies

  19. Kidney injury in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent in patients with cirrhosis. AKI and hyponatraemia are major determinants of the poor prognosis in advanced cirrhosis. The hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) denotes a functional and potential reversible impairment of renal function. Type 1 HRS, a special type of AKI...

  20. Comparative plasma lipidome between human and cynomolgus monkey: are plasma polar lipids good biomarkers for diabetic monkeys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghou Shui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-human primates (NHP are now being considered as models for investigating human metabolic diseases including diabetes. Analyses of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma derived from NHPs can easily be achieved using methods employed in humans. Information pertaining to other lipid species in monkey plasma, however, is lacking and requires comprehensive experimental analysis. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the plasma lipidome from 16 cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS. We established novel analytical approaches, which are based on a simple gradient elution, to quantify polar lipids in plasma including (i glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; phosphatidylinositol, PI; phosphatidylglycerol, PG; phosphatidylserine, PS; phosphatidic acid, PA; (ii sphingolipids (sphingomyelin, SM; ceramide, Cer; Glucocyl-ceramide, GluCer; ganglioside mannoside 3, GM3. Lipidomic analysis had revealed that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, with PC, SM, PE, LPC and PI constituting the major polar lipid species present. Human plasma contained significantly higher levels of plasmalogen PE species (p<0.005 and plasmalogen PC species (p<0.0005, while cynomolgus monkey had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acyls (PUFA in PC, PE, PS and PI. Notably, cynomolgus monkey had significantly lower levels of glycosphingolipids, including GluCer (p<0.0005 and GM(3 (p<0.0005, but higher level of Cer (p<0.0005 in plasma than human. We next investigated the biochemical alterations in blood lipids of 8 naturally occurring diabetic cynomolgus monkeys when compared with 8 healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, but contained different mol distribution of individual molecular species. Diabetic monkeys

  1. Live kidney donations and the ethic of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Francis; Clement, Grace; Kane, Mary

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we seek to re-conceptualize the ethical framework through which ethicists and medical professionals view the practice of live kidney donations. The ethics of organ donation has been understood primarily within the framework of individual rights and impartiality, but we show that the ethic of care captures the moral situation of live kidney donations in a more coherent and comprehensive way, and offers guidance for practitioners that is more attentive to the actual moral transactions among donors and recipients. A final section offers guidelines for the practice of live kidney transplants that emerge from an ethic of care.

  2. Neural Monkey: An Open-source Tool for Sequence Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helcl Jindřich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we announce the development of Neural Monkey – an open-source neural machine translation (NMT and general sequence-to-sequence learning system built over the TensorFlow machine learning library. The system provides a high-level API tailored for fast prototyping of complex architectures with multiple sequence encoders and decoders. Models’ overall architecture is specified in easy-to-read configuration files. The long-term goal of the Neural Monkey project is to create and maintain a growing collection of implementations of recently proposed components or methods, and therefore it is designed to be easily extensible. Trained models can be deployed either for batch data processing or as a web service. In the presented paper, we describe the design of the system and introduce the reader to running experiments using Neural Monkey.

  3. Movement disorders induced in monkeys by chronic haloperidol treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B; Santelli, S; Lusink, G

    1977-01-01

    After several months of treatment, Cebus apella, Cebus albifrons, and Saimiri sciurea monkeys maintained on haloperidol, in doses of 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg orally 5 days per week, began to display severe movement disorders, typically 1 to 6 h post-drug. Cebus monkeys exhibited violent, uncontrolled movements that flung the animals about the cage. Such episodes usually lasted only a few minutes, recurring several times during the period following drug ingestion. Writhing and bizarre postures dominated the response in S. sciurea. Cessation of drug treatment produced no distinctive after-effects. When tested as long as 508 days after the last administration, however, Cebus monkeys responded to haloperidol with several episodes of hyperkinesis, even at challenge doses considerably lower than those in the original treatment.

  4. Comparative imaging study on monkeys with hemi-parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Yu Xiaoping; Mao Jun; Liu Sheng; Wang Xiaoyi; Peng Guangchun; Wang Ruiwen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging appearance of experimental Parkinson's disease (PD) and to evaluate the different medical imaging exams on PD. Methods: CT, MRI, SPECT (dopamine transporter imaging and regional cerebral blood flow imaging, DAT imaging and rCBF imaging), and PET (glucose metabolism imaging) were performed on 8 monkeys before and after the infusion of MPTP into unilateral internal carotid artery to develop hemi-Parkinsonism models. Results: Hemi-Parkinsonism models were successfully induced on all 8 monkeys. On DAT imaging, the uptake values of the lesioned striatums decreased obviously after the MPTP treatment and were lower than that of the contralateral ones. The glucose metabolic rates of the lesioned striatums and thalamus in PD models were lower, compared to that of the healthy monkeys and that of the contralateral sides of themselves. Neither DAT nor glucose metabolism abnormalities was found on both the contralateral sides of the healthy and PD monkeys. On MRI images before MPTP treatment, only 4 of 8 PD models showed hypointense in bilateral globus pallidus. No abnormal MRI findings occurred in the first 2 months after injection of MPTP. At tile third month, hypointense appeared in globus pallidus of three monkeys. Enlarged hyposignal region in globus pallidus were found in three models. Of the above 6 monkeys, two appeared hypointense in putamina. Substantia nigra demonstrated no abnormalities before and after MPTP treatment. All rCBF and CT images were normal. Conclusion: The decreased density of DAT and decreased glucose metabolism on experimental PD can be showed early by DAT imaging and glucose metabolism imaging, MRI can show abnormal signal in the basal ganglia of PD but it is later than DAT and glucose metabolism imaging. CT and rCBF find no abnormality on PD

  5. Socialization of adult owl monkeys (Aotus sp.) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence E; Coke, C S; Weed, J L

    2017-01-01

    Social housing has often been recommended as one-way to address the psychological well-being of captive non-human primates. Published reports have examined methods to socialize compatible animals by forming pairs or groups. Successful socialization rates vary depending on the species, gender, and environment. This study presents a retrospective look at pairing attempts in two species of owl monkeys, Aotus nancymaae and A. azarae, which live in monogamous pairs in the wild. The results of 477 pairing attempt conducted with captive, laboratory housed owl monkeys and 61 hr of behavioral observations are reported here. The greatest success pairing these owl monkeys occurred with opposite sex pairs, with an 82% success rate. Opposite sex pairs were more successful when females were older than males. Female-female pairs were more successful than male-male (MM) pairs (62% vs 40%). Successful pairs stayed together between 3 and 7 years before the animals were separated due to social incompatibility. Vigilance, eating, and sleeping during introductions significantly predicted success, as did the performance of the same behavior in both animals. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to give captive owl monkeys a social alternative even if species appropriate social partners (i.e., opposite sex partners) are not available. The focus of this report is a description of one potential way to enhance the welfare of a specific new world primate, the owl monkey, under laboratory conditions. More important is how the species typical social structure of owl monkeys in nature affects the captive management of this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22521, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Reproductive function of monkeys subjected to chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artem'eva, N.S.; Kosichenko, L.P.; Andreeva, A.V.; Zvereva, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Marked functional disorders have been detected in reproductive glands of eight female monkeys (as compared to twelve control animals) subjected to protracted (up to eight years) irradiation (cumulative doses 826-3282 R). Irradiated monkeys exhibited a drastically decreased reproductive capacity, early menopause and sterility. Irradiation of preadolescent animals inhibited, in most cases, the puberty processes and disturbed sex cycles. Structural disorders in sex glands, inhibition of the processes of maturation and ovulation of folloculi, death of the mass of germ cells, atypical vegetations of the integmentary epithelium, sclerosing and cystic degeneration of the glandular tissue have been revealed

  7. "Zeroing" in on mathematics in the monkey brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    A new study documented that monkeys showed selective neuronal responding to the concept of zero during a numerical task, and that there were two distinct classes of neurons that coded the absence of stimuli either through a discrete activation pattern (zero or not zero) or a continuous one for which zero was integrated with other numerosities in the relative rate of activity. These data indicate that monkeys, like humans, have a concept of zero that is part of their analog number line but that also may have unique properties compared to other numerosities.

  8. Comparison of Object Recognition Behavior in Human and Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalingham, Rishi; Schmidt, Kailyn

    2015-01-01

    Although the rhesus monkey is used widely as an animal model of human visual processing, it is not known whether invariant visual object recognition behavior is quantitatively comparable across monkeys and humans. To address this question, we systematically compared the core object recognition behavior of two monkeys with that of human subjects. To test true object recognition behavior (rather than image matching), we generated several thousand naturalistic synthetic images of 24 basic-level objects with high variation in viewing parameters and image background. Monkeys were trained to perform binary object recognition tasks on a match-to-sample paradigm. Data from 605 human subjects performing the same tasks on Mechanical Turk were aggregated to characterize “pooled human” object recognition behavior, as well as 33 separate Mechanical Turk subjects to characterize individual human subject behavior. Our results show that monkeys learn each new object in a few days, after which they not only match mean human performance but show a pattern of object confusion that is highly correlated with pooled human confusion patterns and is statistically indistinguishable from individual human subjects. Importantly, this shared human and monkey pattern of 3D object confusion is not shared with low-level visual representations (pixels, V1+; models of the retina and primary visual cortex) but is shared with a state-of-the-art computer vision feature representation. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus monkeys and humans share a common neural shape representation that directly supports object perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To date, several mammalian species have shown promise as animal models for studying the neural mechanisms underlying high-level visual processing in humans. In light of this diversity, making tight comparisons between nonhuman and human primates is particularly critical in determining the best use of nonhuman primates to

  9. Functional analysis of aldehyde oxidase using expressed chimeric enzyme between monkey and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kunio; Asakawa, Tasuku; Hoshino, Kouichi; Adachi, Mayuko; Fukiya, Kensuke; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Yorihisa

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. Each subunit consists of about 20 kDa 2Fe-2S cluster domain storing reducing equivalents, about 40 kDa flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain and about 85 kDa molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) domain containing a substrate binding site. In order to clarify the properties of each domain, especially substrate binding domain, chimeric cDNAs were constructed by mutual exchange of 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains between monkey and rat. Chimeric monkey/rat AO was referred to one with monkey type 2Fe-2S/FAD domains and a rat type MoCo domain. Rat/monkey AO was vice versa. AO-catalyzed 2-oxidation activities of (S)-RS-8359 were measured using the expressed enzyme in Escherichia coli. Substrate inhibition was seen in rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, but not in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, suggesting that the phenomenon might be dependent on the natures of MoCo domain of rat. A biphasic Eadie-Hofstee profile was observed in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, but not rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, indicating that the biphasic profile might be related to the properties of MoCo domain of monkey. Two-fold greater V(max) values were observed in monkey AO than in chimeric rat/monkey AO, and in chimeric monkey/rat AO than in rat AO, suggesting that monkey has the more effective electron transfer system than rat. Thus, the use of chimeric enzymes revealed that 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains affect the velocity and the quantitative profiles of AO-catalyzed (S)-RS-8359 2-oxidation, respectively.

  10. Social participation after successful kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mei, Sijrike F; van Sonderen, Eric L P; van Son, Willem J; de Jong, Paul E; Groothoff, Johan W; van den Heuvel, Wim J A

    2007-03-30

    To explore and describe the degree of social participation after kidney transplantation and to examine associated factors. A cross-sectional study on 239 adult patients 1-7.3 years after kidney transplantation was performed via in-home interviews on participation in obligatory activities (i.e., employment, education, household tasks) and leisure activities (volunteer work, assisting others, recreation, sports, clubs/associations, socializing, going out). Kidney transplantation patients had a lower educational level, spent less time on obligatory activities, had part-time jobs more often, and participated less in sports compared to a control group from the general population. No difference was found in socializing, church attendance, volunteer work and going out. Multivariate regression analysis showed a negative association of age and a positive association of educational status and time since transplantation with obligatory participation. Multivariate logistic regression showed positive associations of education and time since transplantation with volunteer work; age was negatively and education positively associated with sports and going out, whereas living arrangement was also associated with going out. Although kidney transplantation patients participate less in employment and sports, they do participate in household tasks, volunteer work, going out, socializing and other leisure activities. Participation is associated with factors as age, educational status and time since transplantation.

  11. Vitamin D status in kidney transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Gasbjerg, Ane; Mølgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency has been found in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine vitamin D status and determinants and metabolic correlates of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a population of adult Danish...... kidney transplant patients. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 173 adult kidney transplant patients with a mean (+/-SD) age of 53.4 +/- 11.7 y and a median graft age of 7.4 y (interquartile range: 3.3-12.7 y). Serum concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone (S-PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25....... Low S-25(OH)D concentrations were associated with 1) increased S-PTH concentrations (P = 0.0002), independently of S-1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations, and 2) decreased S-1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations (P = 0.002), independently of graft function. CONCLUSIONS: Hypovitaminosis D is common among Danish kidney...

  12. Reference values of clinical chemistry and hematology parameters in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Younan; Qin, Shengfang; Ding, Yang; Wei, Lingling; Zhang, Jie; Li, Hongxia; Bu, Hong; Lu, Yanrong; Cheng, Jingqiu

    2009-01-01

    Rhesus monkey models are valuable to the studies of human biology. Reference values for clinical chemistry and hematology parameters of rhesus monkeys are required for proper data interpretation. Whole blood was collected from 36 healthy Chinese rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) of either sex, 3 to 5 yr old. Routine chemistry and hematology parameters, and some special coagulation parameters including thromboelastograph and activities of coagulation factors were tested. We presented here the baseline values of clinical chemistry and hematology parameters in normal Chinese rhesus monkeys. These data may provide valuable information for veterinarians and investigators using rhesus monkeys in experimental studies.

  13. Delayed response task performance as a function of age in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, H S; Call, J; Sajuthi, D

    2014-01-01

    We compared delayed response task performance in young, middle-aged, and old cynomolgus monkeys using three memory tests that have been used with non-human primates. Eighteen cynomolgus monkeys-6 young (4-9 years), 6 middle-aged (10-19 years), and 6 old (above 20 years)-were tested. In general......, the old monkeys scored significantly worse than did the animals in the two other age groups. Longer delays between stimulus presentation and response increased the performance differences between the old and younger monkeys. The old monkeys in particular showed signs of impaired visuo-spatial memory...

  14. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehan; Xie, Na; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya'an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis.

  15. Kyasanur forest disease virus: viremia and challenge studies in monkeys with evidence of cross-protection by Langat virus infection [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/UiWGcy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti V Shah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus (KFDV, discovered in 1957, is a member of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV complex. Diseases caused by members of the TBEV complex occur in many parts of the world. KFDV produces a hemorrhagic fever in humans in South India and fatal illnesses in both species of monkeys in the area, the black faced langur (Presbytis entellus and the bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata. Experimental infection of the langur and the bonnet macaque with early mouse passage KFDV strain P9605 resulted in a viremia of up to 11 days duration, peak viremia titers as high as 109, and death in 82 = 100% of the animals. Prolonged passage of the KFDV strain P9605 in monkey kidney tissue culture resulted in a markedly reduced virulence of the virus for both species; peak viremia titers in monkeys decreased by 2.5 to 4.0 log LD 50 (p= 0.001, and the mortality decreased to 10% (p= 0.001. In challenge experiments, monkeys previously infected with tissue-culture-adapted KFDV, or with the related Langat virus from Malaysia, were fully protected against virulent KFDV. These studies in non-human primates lend support to the idea that a live virus vaccine from a member of the TBEV complex may be broadly protective against infections by other members of the TBEV complex.

  16. Hyperphosphorylated tau in the brains of mice and monkeys with long-term administration of ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, L Y; Wai, Maria S M; Fan, Ming; Mak, Y T; Lam, W P; Li, Zhen; Lu, Gang; Yew, David T

    2010-03-15

    Ketamine, a non-competitive antagonist at the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, might impair memory function of the brain. Loss of memory is also a characteristic of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Hyperphosphorylation of tau is an early event in the aging process and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we aimed to find out whether long-term ketmaine administration is related to hyperphosphorylation of tau or not in the brains of mice and monkeys. Results showed that after 6 months' administration of ketamine, in the prefrontal and entorhinal cortical sections of mouse and monkey brains, there were significant increases of positive sites for the hyperphosphorylated tau protein as compared to the control animals receiving no ketamine administration. Furthermore, about 15% of hyperphosphorylated tau positive cells were also positively labeled by terminal dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) indicating there might be a relationship between hyperphosphorylation of tau and apoptosis. Therefore, the long-term ketamine toxicity might involve neurodegenerative process similar to that of aging and/or Alzheimer's disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Samkari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma is considered the most common soft tissue sarcoma arising in patients younger than 15 years old, accounting for 5%–10% of childhood solid tumors. Sarcoma of the kidney represents 1% of all primary renal malignancies. Primary renal rhabdomyosarcoma is a very rare entity with limited number of cases reported in the literature. In this paper we present two cases of primary renal rhabdomyosarcoma in pediatric patients. The two tumors involved the renal parenchyma and occurred in 2-year-old girl and 6-year-old boy, respectively. Histopathology examination and immunohistochemistry studies confirm the diagnosis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with pleomorphic component, and pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma, respectively. Both cases are treated with chemotherapy and show a good response with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. The aim of this paper is to expand the differential diagnosis of primary mesenchymal kidney tumors in pediatric age group. Keywords: Rhabdomyosarcoma, Renal neoplasm, Pediatric, Oncology

  18. Kidney Transplantation in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Einollahi

    2010-01-01

    Kidney transplantation in patients with end stage renal diseaseis preferred to dialysis because transplantation provides a betterquality of life and improved survival. However, the gapbetween the supply and demand for a renal allograft is wideningand the waiting time is increasing. Iranian protocol, a controlledtransplant program supported by the government forliving unrelated donors, was initiated for solving the problemof organ shortage. Although this system might experiencechallenges, clea...

  19. Deformation of the Early Glaucomatous Monkey Optic Nerve Head Connective Tissue after Acute IOP Elevation in 3-D Histomorphometric Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongli; Thompson, Hilary; Roberts, Michael D.; Sigal, Ian A.; Downs, J. Crawford

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To retest the hypothesis that monkey ONH connective tissues become hypercompliant in early experimental glaucoma (EEG), by using 3-D histomorphometric reconstructions, and to expand the characterization of EEG connective tissue deformation to nine EEG eyes. Methods. Trephinated ONH and peripapillary sclera from both eyes of nine monkeys that were perfusion fixed, with one normal eye at IOP 10 mm Hg and the other EEG eye at 10 (n = 3), 30 (n = 3), or 45 (n = 3) mm Hg were serial sectioned, 3-D reconstructed, 3-D delineated, and quantified with 3-D reconstruction techniques developed in prior studies by the authors. Overall, and for each monkey, intereye differences (EEG eye minus normal eye) for each parameter were calculated and compared by ANOVA. Hypercompliance in the EEG 30 and 45 eyes was assessed by ANOVA, and deformations in all nine EEG eyes were separately compared by region without regard for fixation IOP. Results. Hypercompliant deformation was not significant in the overall ANOVA, but was suggested in a subset of EEG 30/45 eyes. EEG eye deformations included posterior laminar deformation, neural canal expansion, lamina cribrosa thickening, and posterior (outward) bowing of the peripapillary sclera. Maximum posterior laminar deformation and scleral canal expansion co-localized to either the inferior nasal or superior temporal quadrants in the eyes with the least deformation and involved both quadrants in the eyes achieving the greatest deformation. Conclusions. The data suggest that, in monkey EEG, ONH connective tissue hypercompliance may occur only in a subset of eyes and that early ONH connective tissue deformation is maximized in the superior temporal and/or inferior nasal quadrants. PMID:20702834

  20. Comparison of functional recovery of manual dexterity after unilateral spinal cord lesion or motor cortex lesion in adult macaque monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eHoogewoud

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In relation to mechanisms involved in functional recovery of manual dexterity from cervical cord injury or from motor cortical injury, our goal was to determine whether the movements that characterize post-lesion functional recovery are comparable to original movement patterns or do monkeys adopt distinct strategies to compensate the deficits depending on the type of lesion? To this aim, data derived from earlier studies, using a skilled finger task (the modified Brinkman board from which pellets are retrieved from vertical or horizontal slots, in spinal cord and motor cortex injured monkeys were analyzed and compared. Twelve adult macaque monkeys were subjected to a hemi-section of the cervical cord (n=6 or to a unilateral excitotoxic lesion of the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (n=6. In addition, in each subgroup, one half of monkeys (n=3 were treated for 30 days with a function blocking antibody against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A, while the other half (n=3 represented control animals. The motor deficits, and the extent and time course of functional recovery were assessed.For some of the parameters investigated (wrist angle for horizontal slots and movement types distribution for vertical slots after cervical injury; movement types distribution for horizontal slots after motor cortex lesion, post-lesion restoration of the original movement patterns (true recovery led to a quantitatively better functional recovery. In the motor cortex lesion groups, pharmacological reversible inactivation experiments showed that the peri-lesion territory of the primary motor cortex or re-arranged, spared domain of the lesion zone, played a major role in the functional recovery, together with the ipsilesional intact premotor cortex.

  1. Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragasso, Tiziana; Ricci, Zaccaria; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2018-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in children is a serious condition with an important impact on morbidity and mortality. Onset can be insidious and it is frequently unrecognized in the early phase when the therapeutic opportunities are theoretically more effective. The present review focuses on the most recent epidemiology studies and the progress in pediatric AKI (pAKI) research. Standardization of definition (presented in the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) and novel biomarkers have been developed to help clinicians recognize kidney injury in a timely manner, both in adult and pediatric populations. Strengths and weaknesses of these diagnostic tools are discussed and the clinical scoring system (Renal Angina Index), which aims to provide a rational context for biomarker utilization, is also presented. Even if effective treatments are not currently available for established AKI, specific preventive approaches and some promising pharmacological treatments will be detailed. Renal replacement therapy is currently considered the most effective way to manage fluid balance when severe AKI occurs. Key Messages: Great efforts in pAKI research have today led to new strategies for early AKI detection and prevention strategies. Further studies have to be conducted in the next future in order to definitely improve the outcomes of pediatric patients experiencing this deadly syndrome. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Evaluating the habitat of the critically endangered Kipunji monkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective conservation of threatened species requires a good understanding of their habitat. Most primates are threatened by tropical forest loss. One population of the critically endangered kipunji monkey Rungwecebus kipunji occurs in a restricted part of one forest in southern Tanzania. This restricted range is something of ...

  3. Phylogenetic tests of a Cercopithecus monkey hybrid reveal X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A captive Cercopithecus nictitans × C. cephus male was examined at loci on the X- and Y-chromosomes as a test of previously described phylogenetic methods for identifying hybrid Cercopithecus monkeys. The results confirm the reliability of such assays, indicating that they can be of immediate utility for studies of wild ...

  4. Food and Feeding Habits of Mona Monkey Cercopithecus Mona in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding habits of mona monkey Cercopithecus mona in Ayede/Isan forest reserve, Ayede, Ekiti State, Nigeria were studied for six months. Direct observation was used in the data collection. The study area was visited two days per week between 0600-1100hours and 1600-1800hours for the six months in the forest ...

  5. Discovery of a Cynomolgus Monkey Family With Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nishiguchi, Koji M; Miya, Fuyuki; Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Funatsu, Jun; Nakatake, Shunji; Fujiwara, Kohta; Tachibana, Takashi; Murakami, Yusuke; Hisatomi, Toshio; Yoshida, Shigeo; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Nakazawa, Toru; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2018-02-01

    To accelerate the development of new therapies, an inherited retinal degeneration model in a nonhuman primate would be useful to confirm the efficacy in preclinical studies. In this study, we describe the discovery of retinitis pigmentosa in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) pedigree. First, screening with fundus photography was performed on 1443 monkeys at the Tsukuba Primate Research Center. Ophthalmic examinations, such as indirect ophthalmoscopy, ERGs using RETeval, and optic coherent tomography (OCT) measurement, were then performed to confirm diagnosis. Retinal degeneration with cystoid macular edema was observed in both eyes of one 14-year-old female monkey. In her examinations, the full-field ERGs were nonrecordable and the outer layer of the retina in the parafoveal area was not visible on OCT imaging. Moreover, less frequent pigmentary retinal anomalies also were observed in her 3-year-old nephew. His full-field ERGs were almost nonrecordable and the outer layer was not visible in the peripheral retina. His father was her cousin (the son of her mother's older brother) and his mother was her younger half-sibling sister with a different father. The hereditary nature is highly probable (autosomal recessive inheritance suspected). However, whole-exome analysis performed identified no pathogenic mutations in these monkeys.

  6. The Monkey Kid: A Personal Glimpse into the Cultural Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M. Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Wang, Xiao-Yen (Director/Writer, 'The Monkey Kid '(1995. San Francisco, Calif.: Beijing–San Francisco Film Group. Also released in France by Les Films du Parodoxe under the title, 'La Mome Singe '(1997. 95 minutes. Mandarin Chinese with English subtitles.

  7. GLP-1 receptor localization in monkey and human tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Charles; Heller, R Scott; Kirk, Rikke K

    2014-01-01

    and increase heart rate. Using a new monoclonal antibody for immunohistochemistry, we detected GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in important target organs in humans and monkeys. In the pancreas, GLP-1R was predominantly localized in β-cells with a markedly weaker expression in acinar cells. Pancreatic ductal epithelial...

  8. Response of sublethally irradiated monkeys to a replicating viral antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmas, D.E.; Spertzel, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Temporal effects of exposure to sublethal, total-body x radiation (400 R) on responses to vaccination with the attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis vaccine virus, TC-83, were examined in rhesus monkeys. Viremia, often with delayed onset, was prolonged even when irradiation preceded vaccination by 28 days. Virus titers were increased, particularly in groups irradiated 4 or 7 days before vaccination. Delay in appearance of hemagglutination-inhibition and serum-neutralizing antibody correlated closely with persistence of viremia in irradiated-vaccinated monkeys. The temporal course of antibody response was markedly affected by the interval between irradiation and injection of this replicating antigen. With longer intervals between irradiation and vaccination, the somewhat depressed antibody responses approached normal or surpassed those of nonirradiated monkeys. Vaccination 14 days after radiation exposure resulted in lethality to 8 of 12 monkeys, apparently as a result of secondary infection. The additional lymphopenic stress due to the effect of TC-83, superimposed on the severely depressed hematopoietic competence at 14 days, undoubtedly contributed to this increased susceptibility to latent infection

  9. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  10. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...

  11. Risky business: rhesus monkeys exhibit persistent preferences for risky options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Eric R; Kralik, Jerald D

    2014-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys have been shown to prefer risky over safe options in experiential decision-making tasks. These findings might be due, however, to specific contextual factors, such as small amounts of fluid reward and minimal costs for risk-taking. To better understand the factors affecting decision-making under risk in rhesus monkeys, we tested multiple factors designed to increase the stakes including larger reward amounts, distinct food items rather than fluid reward, a smaller number of trials per session, and risky options with greater variation that also included non-rewarded outcomes. We found a consistent preference for risky options, except when the expected value of the safe option was greater than the risky option. Thus, with equivalent mean utilities between the safe and risky options, rhesus monkeys appear to have a robust preference for the risky options in a broad range of circumstances, akin to the preferences found in human children and some adults in similar tasks. One account for this result is that monkeys make their choices based on the salience of the largest payoff, without integrating likelihood and value across trials. A related idea is that they fail to override an impulsive tendency to select the option with the potential to obtain the highest possible outcome. Our results rule out strict versions of both accounts and contribute to an understanding of the diversity of risky decision-making among primates.

  12. Servants, Managers and Monkeys: New Perspectives on Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskey, Frederick C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author questions whether the understanding of teaching and leading is the same today as it was last year? The chances are that the concept of what it means to be a teacher and a leader has changed. After describing three leadership types: servants, managers, and monkeys, Buskey suggest several things that are needed to improve…

  13. Can monkeys make investments based on maximized pay-off?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Steelandt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. We investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. We tested eight capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and thirteen macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca tonkeana in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by two different experimenters. One, the doubling partner, returned a reward that was twice the amount given by the subject, whereas the other, the fixed partner, always returned a constant amount regardless of the amount given. To maximize pay-offs, subjects should invest a maximal amount with the first partner and a minimal amount with the second. When tested with the fixed partner only, one third of monkeys learned to remove a maximal amount of food for immediate consumption before investing a minimal one. With both partners, most subjects failed to maximize pay-offs by using different decision rules with each partner' quality. A single Tonkean macaque succeeded in investing a maximal amount to one experimenter and a minimal amount to the other. The fact that only one of over 21 subjects learned to maximize benefits in adapting investment according to experimenters' quality indicates that such a task is difficult for monkeys, albeit not impossible.

  14. Structural study of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus protease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veverka, V.; Bauerová, Helena; Hrabal, R.; Pichová, Iva

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 269, - (2002), s. 57-58 ISSN 0014-2956. [Meeting of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies /28./. 20.10.2002-25.10.2002, Istanbul] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/1241 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Mason-Pfizer monkey virus Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  15. Implicit and Explicit Learning Mechanisms Meet in Monkey Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafee, Matthew V; Crowe, David A

    2017-10-11

    In this issue, Loonis et al. (2017) provide the first description of unique synchrony patterns differentiating implicit and explicit forms of learning in monkey prefrontal networks. Their results have broad implications for how prefrontal networks integrate the two learning mechanisms to control behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Laminar Differences in Associative Memory Signals in Monkey Perirhinal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogels, Rufin

    2016-10-19

    New research published in Neuron describes assignment of cortical layer to single neurons recorded in awake monkeys. Applying the procedure to perirhinal cortex, Koyano et al. (2016) found marked and unsuspected differences among layers in the coding of associative memory signals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Monkeys Exhibit Prospective Memory in a Computerized Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) involves forming intentions, retaining those intentions, and later executing those intended responses at the appropriate time. Few studies have investigated this capacity in animals. Monkeys performed a computerized task that assessed their ability to remember to make a particular response if they observed a PM cue embedded…

  18. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  19. Dynamic ensemble coding of saccades in the monkey superior colliculus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, H.H.L.M.; Opstal, A.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The deeper layers of the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) contain a topographic motor map in which a localized population of cells is recruited for each saccade, but how the brain stem decodes the dynamic SC output is unclear. Here we analyze saccade-related responses in the monkey SC to test a new

  20. Monkey-derived monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, H.A.; Reese, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    A system has been developed that allows efficient production of monkey monoclonal antibodies from owl monkeys. Splenocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes from monkeys immune to the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, were fused with P3X63 Ag8.653 mouse myelomas. The resulting hybridomas were screened by an indirect fluorescent antibody test for the production of monkey monoclonal antibodies (mAb) reactive with P. falciparum. Most of the mAb reacted with the P. falciparum merozoites and immunoprecipitated a parasite-derived glycoprotein having a relative molecular weight of 185,000. These mAb gave a minimum of five different immunoprecipitation patterns, thus demonstrating that a large number of polypeptides obtained when parasitized erythrocytes are solubilized share epitopes with this large glycoprotein. In addition, mAb were obtained that reacted with antigens associated with the infected erythrocyte membrane. One of these mAb bound a M/sub r/ 95,000 antigen. Radioimmunoprecipitation assays using 125 T-antibodies were done

  1. Novel in vivo techniques to visualize kidney anatomy and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Kidokoro, Kengo; Riquier-Brison, Anne

    2015-07-01

    Intravital imaging using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become an increasingly popular and widely used experimental technique in kidney research over the past few years. MPM allows deep optical sectioning of the intact, living kidney tissue with submicron resolution, which is unparalleled among intravital imaging approaches. MPM has solved a long-standing critical technical barrier in renal research to study several complex and inaccessible cell types and anatomical structures in vivo in their native environment. Comprehensive and quantitative kidney structure and function MPM studies helped our better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the healthy and diseased kidney. This review summarizes recent in vivo MPM studies with a focus on the glomerulus and the filtration barrier, although select, glomerulus-related renal vascular and tubular functions are also mentioned. The latest applications of serial MPM of the same glomerulus in vivo, in the intact kidney over several days, during the progression of glomerular disease are discussed. This visual approach, in combination with genetically encoded fluorescent markers of cell lineage, has helped track the fate and function (e.g., cell calcium changes) of single podocytes during the development of glomerular pathologies, and provided visual proof for the highly dynamic, rather than static, nature of the glomerular environment. Future intravital imaging applications have the promise to further push the limits of optical microscopy, and to advance our understanding of the mechanisms of kidney injury. Also, MPM will help to study new mechanisms of tissue repair and regeneration, a cutting-edge area of kidney research.

  2. Comment: Kidney exchange to overcome financial barriers to kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, L.S.; Jindal, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Rees et al. have shown the feasibility of global kidney exchange (GKE) to overcome financial cost and address the current shortage of organs for transplantation. Wiseman and Gill, question their interpretation of definition of "financial incompatibility". The authors1 do not factor in the well documented cognitive and emotional aspects of kidney transplantation. Particularly, relevant to kidney transplantation is how patients calculate risk and the emotional turmoil characterised by anxiety a...

  3. Enhanced replication of damaged SV40 DNA in carcinogen-treated monkey cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maga, J.A.; Dixon, K.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of mammalian cells with certain chemical or physical carcinogens prior to infection with ultraviolet-irradiated virus results in enhanced survival or reactivation of the damaged virus. To investigate the molecular basis of this enhanced reactivation (ER), Simian virus 40 DNA replication in carcinogen-treated cells was examined. Treatment of monkey kidney cells with N-acetoxy-2-acetylamino-fluorene or UV radiation 24 h prior to infection with ultraviolet-irradiated Simian virus 40 leads to enhancement of viral DNA replication measured at 36 h after infection by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation or hybridization. The enhancement of DNA replication is observed when cells are treated from 1 to 60 h before infection or 1 to 16 h after infection. The fact that enhancement is observed also when cells are treated after infection rules out the possiblity that enhancement occurs at the level of adsorption or penetration of the virus. Measurements of the time course of viral DNA replication indicate that pretreatment of cells does not alter the time of onset of viral DNA replication. It is concluded that ER of Simain virus 40 occurs at the level of viral DNA replication. (author)

  4. ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Titlestad, Kjell; Baudier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO......-incompatible kidney transplantation. We used antigenspecific immunoadsorptions to remove blood group antibodies and anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) to inhibit the antibody production. The aim of introducing the ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation at the OUH was to increase the rate of living donor kidney...... transplantation without increasing rejection or mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation. Eleven patients received ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. The patients were followed for 3-26 months. RESULTS: One patient had an antibody-mediated rejection, one patient suffered T...

  5. Chronic kidney disease and anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciascia, Savino; Radin, Massimo; Schreiber, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Anticoagulation in patients with impaired kidney function can be challenging since drugs' pharmacokinetics and bioavailability are altered in this setting. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) treated with conventional anticoagulant agents [vitamin K antagonist (VKA), low-molecular weight...... are eliminated via the kidneys pose additional challenges. More recently, two classes of direct oral anticoagulant agents (DOACs) have been investigated for the prevention and management of venous thromboembolic events: the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban, and the direct thrombin...

  6. Immune System and Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man

    2017-01-01

    The immune system recognises a transplanted kidney as foreign body and mounts immune response through cellular and humoral mechanisms leading to acute or chronic rejection, which ultimately results in graft loss. Over the last five decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the immune responses to transplanted organs in both experimental and clinical transplant settings. Modulation of the immune response by using immunosuppressive agents has led to successful outcomes after kidney transplantation. The paper provides an overview of the general organisation and function of human immune system, immune response to kidney transplantation, and the current practice of immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom.

  7. Rhesus monkeys see who they hear: spontaneous cross-modal memory for familiar conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuma Adachi

    Full Text Available Rhesus monkeys gather much of their knowledge of the social world through visual input and may preferentially represent this knowledge in the visual modality. Recognition of familiar faces is clearly advantageous, and the flexibility and utility of primate social memory would be greatly enhanced if visual memories could be accessed cross-modally either by visual or auditory stimulation. Such cross-modal access to visual memory would facilitate flexible retrieval of the knowledge necessary for adaptive social behavior. We tested whether rhesus monkeys have cross-modal access to visual memory for familiar conspecifics using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. Monkeys learned visual matching of video clips of familiar individuals to photographs of those individuals, and generalized performance to novel videos. In crossmodal probe trials, coo-calls were played during the memory interval. The calls were either from the monkey just seen in the sample video clip or from a different familiar monkey. Even though the monkeys were trained exclusively in visual matching, the calls influenced choice by causing an increase in the proportion of errors to the picture of the monkey whose voice was heard on incongruent trials. This result demonstrates spontaneous cross-modal recognition. It also shows that viewing videos of familiar monkeys activates naturally formed memories of real monkeys, validating the use of video stimuli in studies of social cognition in monkeys.

  8. Marginal kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Gopalakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of marginal kidney donors in the world. Transplant programs using marginal deceased renal grafts is well established. The focus is now on efforts to improve their results. Utilization of non-heart-beating donors is still in a plateau phase and comprises a minor percentage of deceased donations. The main concern is primary non-function of the renal graft apart from legal and ethical issues. Transplants with living donors outnumbered cadaveric transplants at many centers in the last decade. There has been an increased use of marginal living kidney donors with some acceptable medical risks. Our primary concern is the safety of the living donor. There is not enough scientific data available to quantify the risks involved for such donation. The definition of marginal living donor is still not clear and there are no uniform recommendations. The decision must be tailored to each donor who in turn should be actively involved at all levels of the decision-making process. In the current circumstances, our responsibility is very crucial in making decisions for either accepting or rejecting a marginal living donor.

  9. Transplantation of Kidneys From Donors With Acute Kidney Injury: Friend or Foe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffa, C.; van de Leemkolk, F.; Curnow, E.; Homan van der Heide, J.; Gilbert, J.; Sharples, E.; Ploeg, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    The gap between supply and demand in kidney transplantation has led to increased use of marginal kidneys; however, kidneys with acute kidney injury are often declined/discarded. To determine whether this policy is justified, we analyzed outcomes of donor kidneys with acute kidney injury (AKI) in a

  10. Kidney Exchange to Overcome Financial Barriers to Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, M A; Dunn, T B; Kuhr, C S; Marsh, C L; Rogers, J; Rees, S E; Cicero, A; Reece, L J; Roth, A E; Ekwenna, O; Fumo, D E; Krawiec, K D; Kopke, J E; Jain, S; Tan, M; Paloyo, S R

    2017-03-01

    Organ shortage is the major limitation to kidney transplantation in the developed world. Conversely, millions of patients in the developing world with end-stage renal disease die because they cannot afford renal replacement therapy-even when willing living kidney donors exist. This juxtaposition between countries with funds but no available kidneys and those with available kidneys but no funds prompts us to propose an exchange program using each nation's unique assets. Our proposal leverages the cost savings achieved through earlier transplantation over dialysis to fund the cost of kidney exchange between developed-world patient-donor pairs with immunological barriers and developing-world patient-donor pairs with financial barriers. By making developed-world health care available to impoverished patients in the developing world, we replace unethical transplant tourism with global kidney exchange-a modality equally benefitting rich and poor. We report the 1-year experience of an initial Filipino pair, whose recipient was transplanted in the United states with an American donor's kidney at no cost to him. The Filipino donor donated to an American in the United States through a kidney exchange chain. Follow-up care and medications in the Philippines were supported by funds from the United States. We show that the logistical obstacles in this approach, although considerable, are surmountable. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Placental Transport of Zidovudine in the Rhesus Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Thomas S.; Henderson, George I.; Schenker, Steven; Schenken, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to characterize the pharmacokinetics of zidovudine (ZDV) and ZDV-glucuronide (ZDVG) in the material and :fetal circulations of the rhesus monkey. Methods: Cannulas were placed in the maternal external jugular and the fetal internal jugular and carotid artery in 8 pregnant monkeys at .120–130 days gestation. ZDV (3.5 mg/kg) was administered to 5 monkeys and ZDVG (3.5 mg/kg) to 3 monkeys as single intravenous bolus infusions through the maternal catheter. Maternal and fetal blood , samples were collected every 20 min for the first 2 h and then every hour for the next 4 h. Maternal and fetal concentrations of ZDV and ZDVG were determined using high, performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection. Results: In monkeys who received ZDV, the terminal half-life (T1/2) for ZDV was 37±15 and 33 ± 13 min in the maternal and fetal compartments, respectively. The apparent T1/2 for maternal ZDVG was 124 ± 44 and 142 ± 50 min in the maternal and fetal compartments, respectively. Peak levels of ZDV and ZDVG in the fetal compartment were reached 40 min after injection. The mean fetal/maternal concentration ratios for ZDV and ZDVG ranged from 0.20 ± 0.20 at 20 min to a maximum of 0.74 ± 1.0 at 120 min and from 0.28 ± 0.08 at 20 min to 1.4 ± 1.3 at 180 min, respectively. In monkeys who received ZDVG, the T1/2 for ZDWG in the maternal and fetal compartments was 47 ± 26 and 119 ± 164 min, respectively. ZDVG reached its peak in the fetal compartment at 60 min post-injection. The fetal/maternal rafio ranged from 0.08 ± 0.11 at 20 min to 4.2 ± 4.2 at 180 min post-injection. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that 1) ZDV and ZDVG rapidly cross the placenta to the fetal compartment, 2) ZDV crosses more rapidly than ZDVG, and 3) some metabolism of ZDV to ZDVG occurs in the fetal compartment. PMID:18475334

  12. Functional Imaging of Audio-Visual Selective Attention in Monkeys and Humans: How do Lapses in Monkey Performance Affect Cross-Species Correspondences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Teemu; Muers, Ross S; Salo, Emma; Slater, Heather; Petkov, Christopher I

    2017-06-01

    The cross-species correspondences and differences in how attention modulates brain responses in humans and animal models are poorly understood. We trained 2 monkeys to perform an audio-visual selective attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), rewarding them to attend to stimuli in one modality while ignoring those in the other. Monkey fMRI identified regions strongly modulated by auditory or visual attention. Surprisingly, auditory attention-related modulations were much more restricted in monkeys than humans performing the same tasks during fMRI. Further analyses ruled out trivial explanations, suggesting that labile selective-attention performance was associated with inhomogeneous modulations in wide cortical regions in the monkeys. The findings provide initial insights into how audio-visual selective attention modulates the primate brain, identify sources for "lost" attention effects in monkeys, and carry implications for modeling the neurobiology of human cognition with nonhuman animals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Functional Imaging of Audio–Visual Selective Attention in Monkeys and Humans: How do Lapses in Monkey Performance Affect Cross-Species Correspondences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muers, Ross S.; Salo, Emma; Slater, Heather; Petkov, Christopher I.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The cross-species correspondences and differences in how attention modulates brain responses in humans and animal models are poorly understood. We trained 2 monkeys to perform an audio–visual selective attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), rewarding them to attend to stimuli in one modality while ignoring those in the other. Monkey fMRI identified regions strongly modulated by auditory or visual attention. Surprisingly, auditory attention-related modulations were much more restricted in monkeys than humans performing the same tasks during fMRI. Further analyses ruled out trivial explanations, suggesting that labile selective-attention performance was associated with inhomogeneous modulations in wide cortical regions in the monkeys. The findings provide initial insights into how audio–visual selective attention modulates the primate brain, identify sources for “lost” attention effects in monkeys, and carry implications for modeling the neurobiology of human cognition with nonhuman animals. PMID:28419201

  14. Obesity and kidney protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; Tolouian, Ramin

    2014-07-01

    Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. The concept of the "Metabolic Syndrome" helps us to understand this close link between obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. An elevated body mass index has shown to be one of the major determinants of glomerular hyperfiltration that lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. Interestingly, weight loss can lead to attenuation of hyperfiltration in severely obese patients suggesting a possible therapeutic option to combat obesity-related hyperfiltration. Various treatment strategies had been suggested to decrease impact of obesity on kidneys. These are blood pressure controling, inhibition of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone axis, improving glycemic control, improving dyslipidemia, improving protein uriaand lifestyle modifications. Regardless of the numerous pharmacotherapies, the focus should be on the root cause: obesity.

  15. Mineral & Bone Disorder in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical trials that are currently open and are recruiting can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.gov . This ... about Kidney Failure and How it’s Treated Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Hemodialysis Treatment Methods for Kidney ...

  16. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...

  17. Kidney Tests: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Total protein (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Kidney Tests updates ... hour volume Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Kidney Cancer Kidney Diseases National Institutes of Health ...

  18. 75 FR 11188 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Liver Disease Ancillary Studies. Date... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the.... (301) 594-8895. [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute of Diabetes and...

  19. 76 FR 64358 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, PAR09-247: Ancillary Studies in Liver... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Assistance Program Nos. 93.847, Diabetes, [[Page 64359

  20. 76 FR 63313 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Liver Cell Membrane Proteins. Date... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the..., Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Research; 93.848, Digestive Diseases and Nutrition Research; 93.849...

  1. 77 FR 9671 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Liver Tissue and Cell Distribution... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Assistance Program Nos. 93.847, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Research; 93.848, Digestive Diseases...

  2. 75 FR 38817 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Acute Liver Failure Study. Date: July 22... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.847, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Research; 93.848, Digestive...

  3. 78 FR 34663 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, PAR-12-265 Ancillary Studies: The Microbiome in Child Health, Development and Obesity. Date: June 21, 2013. Time: 1:30 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. Agenda...

  4. 77 FR 36564 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trial Planning Grants in Type 1 Diabetes. Date: July 12, 2012. Time: 4:00 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the...

  5. 76 FR 30370 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Emphasis Panel; RFA-DK-10-012 Type 1 Diabetes Impact Award (DP3). Date: July 11, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p... Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIDDK KUH-Fellowship Review... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Meetings Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of...

  6. 77 FR 38075 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Type 1 Diabetes Mouse Resource. Date: July 23, 2012. Time: 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the...

  7. 76 FR 12125 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; GenitoUrinary Development Molecular Anatomy Project (GUDMAP) Date: March 23, 2011. Time: 12 p.m. to 1 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...

  8. 78 FR 3903 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... Diseases Advisory Council, Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Subcommittee. Date: February 13, 2013... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Advisory Council. The meetings will be open to the public as...

  9. Kidneys and How They Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Anemia High Blood Pressure Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Diabetes Inspidus Glomerular Diseases Goodpasture Syndrome Henoch- ... The kidneys are important because they keep the composition, or makeup, of the blood ... blood cells bones stay strong How do the kidneys work? The ...

  10. Cancer rates after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Ulrik; Bistrup, Claus; Marckmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated a 3-5-fold increased cancer risk in kidney allograft recipients compared with the general population. Our aim was to estimate cancer frequencies among kidney allograft recipients who were transplanted in 1997-2000 and who were immunosuppressed according to a more...

  11. Human-Rhesus Monkey conflict at Rampur Village under Monohardi Upazila in Narsingdi District of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Ahsan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human-Rhesus monkey conflicts were recorded at Rampur Village under Khidirpur Union Parishad of Monohardi upazila under Narsingdi District in Bangladesh from April to September 2012. There were three groups of Rhesus monkeys living in the area. The focal study group comprised 26 individuals (4 adult males, 6 adult females, 10 juveniles and 6 infants. The monkeys consumed parts of 10 plant species. From the questionnaire survey, it was found that the greatest damage caused by monkeys was on betel leaf vines and the least damage on vegetables. Eighty percent respondents opted to conserve the monkeys and 20% opined status quo. Some restricted areas (especially khas lands may be identified and planted with some fruit trees for survival of monkeys and for reducing conflicts with humans.

  12. Captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) arm-raise to solicit allo-grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H; Edwards, Dori

    2012-03-01

    Old World monkeys solicit allo-grooming from conspecifics. However, there are relatively few studies of allo-grooming among spider monkeys, and descriptions of allo-grooming solicitation among spider monkeys are anecdotal. In this study, eighty-one hours of video, shot over eight weeks, captured 271 allo-grooming bouts among small groups of captive spider monkeys. Six of eight monkeys made heretofore unreported arm-raises that solicited higher than normal rates of allo-grooming. Allo-grooming bout durations following arm-raises also tended to be longer than bouts not preceded by arm-raises. The efficacy of the arm-raise at soliciting allo-grooming suggests spider monkeys are capable of intentional communication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical Activity and Kidney Injury in Pediatric and Young Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mattie F; George, Roshan P; Warshaw, Barry; Wang, Elizabeth; Greenbaum, Larry A

    2016-12-01

    To quantify physical activity and grip strength in pediatric kidney transplant recipients and describe attitudes about exercise and exercise counseling given concerns about allograft injury. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 101 kidney transplant recipients (7-21 years old) >6 months post-transplant. Patients completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Grip strength was measured with a dynamometer. We asked about activity limitations and provider counseling. Univariate analysis and multiple linear regression were used to determine independent predictors of PAQ score and grip strength z score. We enrolled 101 of 122 eligible patients. Median PAQ score was 2.2 (range 0-5) and was lower compared with controls (P < .001). The average grip strength z score was -1.1 and -0.7 in the right and left hand, respectively. Predictors of lower grip strength were younger age (P = .036), non-African American race (P = .029), lower height z score (P = .010), and longer percentage of lifetime with kidney disease (P = .029). Although 49% and 67% limited exercise before and after transplant, respectively, 67% reported increased activity after transplant. By parent report, provider counseling included limiting certain activities (71%) and encouraging regular exercise (45%). Physical activity and grip strength are low after kidney transplant. Patients perceive an emphasis on exercise limitations rather than the benefits of regular exercise. Interventions that encourage physical activity may be beneficial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenobarbital treatments lower DDT body burden in rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, P.W.; Clark, C.R.; Gee, S.J.; Krieger, R.I.

    1981-01-01

    Decreased DDT, DDD, DDE in blood and DDA in urine followed phenobarbital treatments (10 mg/kg/day, 11 days, intramuscular (im)) in three male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Animals were fed DDT diets containing up to 500 ppm DDT during a 3-year period. Induction of liver monooxygenases was confirmed by reduced in vivo antipyrine plasma half-life and increased in vitro oxidation rates of dihydroisodrin, p-nitroanisole and benz(alpha)pyrene by homogenates of liver obtained from closed needle biopsy. Chlorohydrocarbon blood levels significantly decreased during the induction period (days 1-11). Concentrations on day 28 were at or below pre-DDT exposure levels. Urine DDA gradually decreased in all monkeys from days 16 to 28.

  15. Metabolic alkalosis during immobilization in monkeys (M. nemestrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. R.; Yeh, I.; Swenson, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systemic and renal acid-base response of monkeys during ten weeks of immobilization was studied. By three weeks of immobilization, arterial pH and bicarbonate concentrations were elevated (chronic metabolic alkalosis). Net urinary acid excretion increased in immobilized animals. Urinary bicarbonate excretion decreased during the first three weeks of immobilization, and then returned to control levels. Sustained increases in urinary ammonium excretion were seen throughout the time duration of immobilization. Neither potassium depletion nor hypokalemia was observed. Most parameters returned promptly to the normal range during the first week of recovery. Factors tentatively associated with changes in acid-base status of monkeys include contraction of extracellular fluid volume, retention of bicarbonate, increased acid excretion, and possible participation of extrarenal buffers.

  16. Neurocognitive functions of pediatric kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar-Varga, Marta; Novak, Marta; Szabo, Attila J; Kelen, Kata; Streja, Elani; Remport, Adam; Mucsi, Istvan; Molnar, Miklos Z; Reusz, Gyorgy

    2016-09-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children is associated with impaired neurocognitive function and development. However, data on factors associated with neurocognitive dysfunctions in children with kidney transplants are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis comparing cognitive functions (using the Woodcock-Johnson International Edition, WJIE) in 35 kidney transplant and 35 healthy control children. Data on laboratory measurements, comorbidities, and social characteristics were collected. Transplant children had significantly worse scores on the intelligence quotient (IQ) test compared with controls [Full Scale IQ score 85 (26) vs 107 (10), p 9 months) were associated with lower test scores. Age-standardized duration of hospitalization was inversely correlated with IQ (r = -0.46, p <0.01) and was an independent significant predictor (Beta = -0.38, p = 0.02) of IQ scores in transplanted children. Child kidney transplant recipients have neurocognitive function impairments that are associated with markers of socioeconomic status (SES) and factors related to disease severity.

  17. Selection and Pairing of ’Normal’ Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-08

    week intervals. Fecal bacteriological cultures did not detect any Salmonella or Shigella car- riers in the population. The male monkeys ranged in age...1Special Roert 78-6 LVEL•$ SELECTION AND PAIRING OF "NORMAL" RHESUS MONKEYS (Macaca mulatto) FOR RESEARC Matthew J. Kessler, James L. Kupper, James D...public release; distribution unlimited. SELECTION AND PAIRING OF "NORMAL" RHESUS MONKEYS (Macaca mulatta) FOR RESEARCH Matthew J. Kessler, James L

  18. Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following monkey bite in a 2-month-old infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Srinivasan; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Raghavan, Renitha; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-05-01

    Although cerebral abscesses caused by animal bites have been reported, they are extremely rare in infants and have not been described following monkey bite. A 55-day-old male infant presented with a multi-loculated Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following a monkey bite on the scalp. There was a clinical response to antibiotic therapy and repeated surgical aspiration followed by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This is the first report of a patient with a brain abscess following a monkey bite.

  19. Pathogenesis of Rift Valley Fever in Rhesus Monkeys: Role of Interferon Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    hemorrhagic fever characterized by epistaxis, petechial to purpuric cutaneous lesions, anorexia, and vomiting prior to death. The 14 remaining monkeys survived...DMI, FILE Copy Arch Virol (1990) 110: 195-212 Amhivesirology ( by Springer-Verlag 1990 00 N Pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever in rhesus monkeys: (NI...inoculated intravenously with Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus presented clinical disease syndromes similar to human cases of RVF. All 17 infected monkeys

  20. HTRA3 expression in non-pregnant rhesus monkey ovary and endometrium, and at the maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findlay Jock K

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTRA3 is a recently identified member of the mammalian serine protease family HTRA (high temperature requirement factor A. In both the rodent and the human HTRA3 is transcribed into two mRNA species (long and short through alternative splicing. We have previously shown that HTRA3 is expressed in the mature rat ovary and may be involved in folliculogenesis and luteinisation. HTRA3 is also upregulated during mouse and human placental development. The current study investigated whether HTRA3 is also localised in the primate ovary (rhesus monkey n = 7. In addition, we examined the non-pregnant rhesus monkey endometrium (n = 4 and maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy (n = 5 to further investigate expression of HTRA3 in primate endometrium and placentation. Methods HTRA3 mRNA levels in several rhesus monkey tissues was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Protein expression and localisation of HTRA3 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Long and short forms of HTRA3 mRNA were detected in the ovary, aorta, bladder, small intestine, skeletal muscle, heart and uterus but not the liver nor the kidney. HTRA3 protein was immunolocalised to the oocyte of all follicular stages in the rhesus monkey ovary. Protein expression in mural and cumulus granulosa cells of late secondary follicles increased significantly compared to granulosa cells of primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Mural and cumulus granulosa cells of antral follicles also showed a significant increase in expression. Staining intensity was higher in the granulosa-lutein cells compared to the theca-lutein cells of corpora lutea (n = 3. In the non-pregnant monkey endometrium, HTRA3 was detected in the glandular epithelium. The basalis endometrial glands showed higher staining intensity than functionalis endometrial glands. During early pregnancy, strong staining for HTRA3 protein was seen in both maternal decidual cells and glands. Conclusion We

  1. Habitat quality of the woolly spider monkey (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Júnior, Wilson Marcelo; Alves Meira-Neto, João Augusto; da Silva Carmo, Flávia Maria; Rodrigues de Melo, Fabiano; Santana Moreira, Leandro; Ferreira Barbosa, Elaine; Dias, Luiz Gustavo; da Silva Peres, Carlos Augusto

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how habitat structure affects the home range use of a group of Brachyteles hypoxanthus in the Brigadeiro State Park, Brazil. It has been reported that most of the annual feeding time of woolly spider monkeys is spent eating leaves, but they prefer fruits when available. We hypothesise that the protein-to-fibre ratio (PF; best descriptor of habitat quality for folivorous primates) is a better descriptor of habitat quality and abundance for these primates than the structural attributes of forests (basal area is the best descriptor of habitat quality for frugivorous primates of Africa and Asia). We evaluated plant community structure, successional status, and PF of leaf samples from the dominant tree populations, both within the core and from a non-core area of the home range of our study group. Forest structure was a combination of stem density and basal area of dominant tree populations. The core area had larger trees, a higher forest basal area, and higher stem density than the non-core area. Mean PF did not differ significantly between these sites, although PF was influenced by differences in tree regeneration guilds. Large-bodied monkeys could be favoured by later successional stages of forests because larger trees and denser stems prevent the need for a higher expenditure of energy for locomotion as a consequence of vertical travel when the crowns of trees are disconnected in early successional forests. Forest structure variables (such as basal area of trees) driven by succession influence woolly spider monkey abundance in a fashion similar to frugivorous monkeys of Asia and Africa, and could explain marked differences in ranging behaviour and home range use by B. hypoxanthus. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. A neural substrate for object permanence in monkey inferotemporal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Puneeth, NC; Arun, SP

    2016-01-01

    We take it for granted that objects continue to exist after being occluded. This knowledge ? known as object permanence ? is present even in childhood, but its neural basis is not fully understood. Here, we show that monkey inferior temporal (IT) neurons carry potential signals of object permanence even in animals that received no explicit behavioral training. We compared two conditions with identical visual stimulation: the same object emerged from behind an occluder as expected following it...

  3. Event-based proactive interference in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkar, Deepna T; Wright, Anthony A

    2016-10-01

    Three rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were tested in a same/different memory task for proactive interference (PI) from prior trials. PI occurs when a previous sample stimulus appears as a test stimulus on a later trial, does not match the current sample stimulus, and the wrong response "same" is made. Trial-unique pictures (scenes, objects, animals, etc.) were used on most trials, except on trials where the test stimulus matched potentially interfering sample stimulus from a prior trial (1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 trials prior). Greater interference occurred when fewer trials separated interference and test. PI functions showed a continuum of interference. Delays between sample and test stimuli and intertrial intervals were manipulated to test how PI might vary as a function of elapsed time. Contrary to a similar study with pigeons, these time manipulations had no discernable effect on the monkey's PI, as shown by compete overlap of PI functions with no statistical differences or interactions. These results suggested that interference was strictly based upon the number of intervening events (trials with other pictures) without regard to elapsed time. The monkeys' apparent event-based interference was further supported by retesting with a novel set of 1,024 pictures. PI from novel pictures 1 or 2 trials prior was greater than from familiar pictures, a familiar set of 1,024 pictures. Moreover, when potentially interfering novel stimuli were 16 trials prior, performance accuracy was actually greater than accuracy on baseline trials (no interference), suggesting that remembering stimuli from 16 trials prior was a cue that this stimulus was not the sample stimulus on the current trial-a somewhat surprising conclusion particularly given monkeys.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Woodling, Kellie A.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production volume industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 is controversial because of the potential for endocrine disruption, particularly during perinatal development, as suggested by in vitro, experimental animal, and epidemiological studies. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal rhesus monkeys by oral (PND 5, 35, 70) and intravenous injection (PND 77) routes using d6-BPA to avoid sample contamination. The concentration-time profiles observed in adult monkeys following oral administration of 100 μg/kg bw were remarkably similar to those previously reported in human volunteers given a similar dose; moreover, minimal pharmacokinetic differences were observed between neonatal and adult monkeys for the receptor-active aglycone form of BPA. Circulating concentrations of BPA aglycone were quite low following oral administration (< 1% of total), which reflects the redundancy of active UDP-glucuronosyl transferase isoforms in both gut and liver. No age-related changes were seen in internal exposure metrics for aglycone BPA in monkeys, a result clearly different from developing rats where significant inverse age-related changes, based on immaturity of Phase II metabolism and renal excretion, were recently reported. These observations imply that any toxicological effect observed in rats from early postnatal exposures to BPA could over-predict those possible in primates of the same age, based on significantly higher internal exposures and overall immaturity at birth.

  5. Autoprocessing of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus protease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauerová, Helena; Rumlová, Michaela; Hunter, E.; Ruml, T.; Pichová, Iva

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2001), s. 131-133 ISSN 0168-1702 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/1241; GA AV ČR IAA4055904 Grant - others:Fogarty International Award(US) TW00050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Mason-Pfizer monkey virus Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2001

  6. Fast optical signal not detected in awake behaving monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Vanduffel, Wim; Deng, Hong Ping; Ekstrom, Leeland; Boas, David A; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2009-04-01

    While the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure cerebral hemodynamic evoked responses (slow optical signal) is well established, its ability to measure non-invasively the 'fast optical signal' is still controversial. Here, we aim to determine the feasibility of performing NIRS measurements of the 'fast optical signal' or Event-Related Optical Signals (EROS) under optimal experimental conditions in awake behaving macaque monkeys. These monkeys were implanted with a 'recording well' to expose the dura above the primary visual cortex (V1). A custom-made optical probe was inserted and fixed into the well. The close proximity of the probe to the brain maximized the sensitivity to changes in optical properties in the cortex. Motion artifacts were minimized by physical restraint of the head. Full-field contrast-reversing checkerboard stimuli were presented to monkeys trained to perform a visual fixation task. In separate sessions, two NIRS systems (CW4 and ISS FD oximeter), which previously showed the ability to measure the fast signal in human, were used. In some sessions EEG was acquired simultaneously with the optical signal. The increased sensitivity to cortical optical changes with our experimental setup was quantified with 3D Monte Carlo simulations on a segmented MRI monkey head. Averages of thousands of stimuli in the same animal, or grand averages across the two animals and across repeated sessions, did not lead to detection of the fast optical signal using either amplitude or phase of the optical signal. Hemodynamic responses and visual evoked potentials were instead always detected with single trials or averages of a few stimuli. Based on these negative results, despite the optimal experimental conditions, we doubt the usefulness of non-invasive fast optical signal measurements with NIRS.

  7. Cognitive performance of juvenile monkeys after chronic fluoxetine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Mari S; Hackett, Edward P; Hogrefe, Casey E; Leranth, Csaba; Elsworth, John D; Roth, Robert H

    2017-08-01

    Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age) were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N=16/group) for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N=8/group) suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention. After dosing was discontinued, sustained attention, recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were evaluated. Sustained attention was affected by fluoxetine, both during and after dosing, as indexed by omission errors. Response accuracy was not affected by fluoxetine in post-dosing recognition memory and cognitive flexibility tests, but formerly fluoxetine-treated monkeys compared to vehicle controls had more missed trial initiations and choices during testing. Drug treatment also interacted with genetic and environmental variables: MAOA genotype (high- and low transcription rate polymorphisms) and testing location (upper or lower tier of cages). Altered development of top-down cortical regulation of effortful attention may be relevant to this pattern of cognitive test performance after juvenile fluoxetine treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased), we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human pricing effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling. PMID:25520677

  9. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhia eCatapano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good’s price can have irrational effects on people’s preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased, we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human price effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling.

  10. [Blood plasma volume dynamics in monkeys during immersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotov, V P; Burkovskaia, T E; Dotsenko, M A; Gordeev, Iu V; Nosovskiĭ, A M; Chel'naia, N A

    2004-01-01

    Dynamics of blood plasma volume (PV) was studied with indirect methods (hematocrit count, hemoglobin, total protein and high-molecular protein) during 9-d immersion of monkeys Macaca mulatta. The animals were donned in waterproof suits, motor restrained in space seat liners and immersed down to the xiphisternum. Two monkeys were immersed in the bath at one time. The suits were changed every day under ketamine (10 mg/kg of body mass). There were two groups with 12 animals in each. The first group was kept in the bath 3 days and the second--9 days. Prior to the experiment, the animals had been trained to stay in the seat liner put down into the dry bath. It was shown that already two days of exposure to the hydrostatic forces (approximately 15 mm Hg) and absence of negative pressure breathing reduced PV by 18-20% on the average in all animals. Subsequent PV dynamics was individual by character; however, PV deficit persisted during 4 days of immersion in the whole group. In this period, albumin filtration was increased significantly, whereas high-molecular protein filtration was increased to a less degree. During the remaining days in immersion PV regained normal values. Ten days of readaptation (reclined positioning of monkeys brought back into cage) raised VP beyond baseline values. This phenomenon can be attributed to the necessity to provide appropriate venous return and sufficient blood supply of organs and tissues following extension of blood vessels capacity.

  11. Prenatal methylmercury exposure affects spatial vision in adult monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbacher, Thomas M.; Grant, Kimberly S.; Mayfield, David B.; Gilbert, Steven G.; Rice, Deborah C.

    2005-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated that exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, can have both early and long-term neurobehavioral consequences in exposed offspring. The present study assessed visual functioning in adult macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) exposed in utero to 0, 50, 70, or 90 μg/kg/day of MeHg hydroxide. Twenty-one full-term, normal birth weight offspring (9 controls, 12 exposed) were tested at approximately 11-14.5 years of age on a visual contrast sensitivity task. A forced-choice tracking procedure was utilized with spatial frequencies of 1, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle. On each test session, a single spatial frequency was presented across five levels of contrast, each differing by 3 dB. Methylmercury-exposed monkeys exhibited reduced contrast sensitivity thresholds, particularly at the higher spatial frequencies. The degree of visual impairment was not related to MeHg body burden or clearance and almost half of the exposed animals were unimpaired. The results from this study demonstrate that chronic in utero MeHg exposure, at subclinical levels, is associated with permanent adverse effects on spatial vision in adult monkeys

  12. De novo DNA methylation during monkey pre-implantation embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Niu, Yuyu; Sun, Yi Eve; Lu, Hanlin; Chen, Yongchang; Li, Siguang; Kang, Yu; Luo, Yuping; Si, Chenyang; Yu, Juehua; Li, Chang; Sun, Nianqin; Si, Wei; Wang, Hong; Ji, Weizhi; Tan, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Critical epigenetic regulation of primate embryogenesis entails DNA methylome changes. Here we report genome-wide composition, patterning, and stage-specific dynamics of DNA methylation in pre-implantation rhesus monkey embryos as well as male and female gametes studied using an optimized tagmentation-based whole-genome bisulfite sequencing method. We show that upon fertilization, both paternal and maternal genomes undergo active DNA demethylation, and genome-wide de novo DNA methylation is also initiated in the same period. By the 8-cell stage, remethylation becomes more pronounced than demethylation, resulting in an increase in global DNA methylation. Promoters of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation are preferentially remethylated at the 8-cell stage, suggesting that this mode of energy metabolism may not be favored. Unlike in rodents, X chromosome inactivation is not observed during monkey pre-implantation development. Our study provides the first comprehensive illustration of the 'wax and wane' phases of DNA methylation dynamics. Most importantly, our DNA methyltransferase loss-of-function analysis indicates that DNA methylation influences early monkey embryogenesis.

  13. Electrons at the monkey saddle: A multicritical Lifshitz point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyk, A.; Goldstein, G.; Chamon, C.

    2017-01-01

    We consider two-dimensional interacting electrons at a monkey saddle with dispersion ∝px3-3 pxpy2 . Such a dispersion naturally arises at the multicritical Lifshitz point when three Van Hove saddles merge in an elliptical umbilic elementary catastrophe, which we show can be realized in biased bilayer graphene. A multicritical Lifshitz point of this kind can be identified by its signature Landau level behavior Em∝(Bm ) 3 /2 and related oscillations in thermodynamic and transport properties, such as de Haas-Van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, whose period triples as the system crosses the singularity. We show, in the case of a single monkey saddle, that the noninteracting electron fixed point is unstable to interactions under the renormalization-group flow, developing either a superconducting instability or non-Fermi-liquid features. Biased bilayer graphene, where there are two non-nested monkey saddles at the K and K' points, exhibits an interplay of competing many-body instabilities, namely, s -wave superconductivity, ferromagnetism, and spin- and charge-density waves.

  14. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased), we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human pricing effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling.

  15. Molecular characterization of Blastocystis isolates from children and rhesus monkeys in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hisao; Wu, Zhiliang; Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2009-03-23

    To investigate the possible transmission of Blastocystis organisms between local rhesus monkeys and children in Kathmandu, Nepal, we compared the subtype (ST) and sequence of Blastocystis isolates from children with gastrointestinal symptoms and local rhesus monkeys. Twenty and 10 Blastocystis isolates were established from 82 and 10 fecal samples obtained from children and monkeys, respectively. Subtype analysis with seven sequence-tagged site (STS) primers indicated that the prevalence of Blastocystis sp. ST1, ST2 and ST3 was 20%, 20% and 60% in the child isolates, respectively. In contrast to human isolates, ST3 was not found in monkey isolates and the prevalence of ST1 and ST2 was 50% and 70%, respectively, including three mixed STs1 and 2 and one isolate not amplified by any STS primers, respectively. Since Blastocystis sp. ST2 has been reported as the most dominant genotype in the survey of Blastocystis infection among the various monkey species, sequence comparison of the 150bp variable region of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene was conducted among ST2 isolates of humans and monkeys. Sequence alignment of 24 clones developed from ST2 isolates of 4 humans and 4 monkeys showed three distinct subgroups, defined as ST2A, ST2B and ST2C. These three subgroups were shared between the child and monkey isolates. These results suggest that the local rhesus monkeys are a possible source of Blastocystis sp. ST2 infection of humans in Kathmandu.

  16. A preliminary report on oral fat tolerance test in rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Di; Liu, Qingsu; Wei, Shiyuan; Zhang, Yu Alex; Yue, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) has been widely used to assess the postprandial lipemia in human beings, but there is few studies concerning OFTT in nonhuman primates. This study is designed to explore the feasibility of OFTT in rhesus monkeys. Methods In a cross-over study, a total of 8 adult female rhesus monkeys were fed with normal monkey diet (NND), high sugar high fat diet (HHD), and extremely high fat diet (EHD), respectively. Each monkey consumed NND, HHD and EHD respectivel...

  17. Allergic asthma induced in rhesus monkeys by house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelegle, E S; Gershwin, L J; Miller, L A; Fanucchi, M V; Van Winkle, L S; Gerriets, J P; Walby, W F; Omlor, A M; Buckpitt, A R; Tarkington, B K; Wong, V J; Joad, J P; Pinkerton, K B; Wu, R; Evans, M J; Hyde, D M; Plopper, C G

    2001-01-01

    To establish whether allergic asthma could be induced experimentally in a nonhuman primate using a common human allergen, three female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were sensitized with house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) allergen (HDMA) by subcutaneous injection, followed by four intranasal sensitizations, and exposure to allergen aerosol 3 hours per day, 3 days per week for up to 13 weeks. Before aerosol challenge, all three monkeys skin-tested positive for HDMA. During aerosol challenge with HDMA, sensitized monkeys exhibited cough and rapid shallow breathing and increased airway resistance, which was reversed by albuterol aerosol treatment. Compared to nonsensitized monkeys, there was a fourfold reduction in the dose of histamine aerosol necessary to produce a 150% increase in airway resistance in sensitized monkeys. After aerosol challenge, serum levels of histamine were elevated in sensitized monkeys. Sensitized monkeys exhibited increased levels of HDMA-specific IgE in serum, numbers of eosinophils and exfoliated cells within lavage, and elevated CD25 expression on circulating CD4(+) lymphocytes. Intrapulmonary bronchi of sensitized monkeys had focal mucus cell hyperplasia, interstitial infiltrates of eosinophils, and thickening of the basement membrane zone. We conclude that a model of allergic asthma can be induced in rhesus monkeys using a protocol consisting of subcutaneous injection, intranasal instillation, and aerosol challenge with HDMA.

  18. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4% and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35% from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  19. Effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy on bone turnover in periarticular tibial osteophytes in surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Erik J; Lindgren, Bruce R; Carlson, Cathy S

    2008-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on size and indices of bone turnover in periarticular osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys and to compare dynamic indices of bone turnover in osteophyte bone with those of subchondral bone (SCB) and epiphyseal/metaphyseal cancellous (EMC) bone. One hundred sixty-five adult female cynomolgus macaques were bilaterally ovariectomized and randomly divided into three age- and weight-matched treatment groups for a 36-month treatment period. Group 1 (OVX control) received no treatment, Group 2 (SPE) received soy phytoestrogens, and Group 3 (ERT) received conjugated equine estrogens in the diet; all monkeys were labeled with calcein before necropsy. A midcoronal, plastic-embedded section of the right proximal tibia from 20 randomly selected animals per treatment group was examined histologically. Forty-nine of the sections (OVX control, n=16; SPE, n=16; ERT, n=17) contained lateral abaxial osteophytes, and static and dynamic histomorphometry measurements were taken from osteophyte bone, SCB from the lateral tibial plateau, and EMC bone. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test, correlation and regression methods, and the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank test. There was no significant effect of long-term ERT on osteophyte area or on any static or dynamic histomorphometry parameters. The bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness in osteophyte bone were considerably higher than in EMC bone; whereas, trabecular separation was considerably lower in osteophyte bone. In all three treatment groups, BS/BV was significantly lower in osteophyte bone vs. EMC bone and significantly higher in osteophyte bone vs. lateral SCB. We conclude that osteophyte area and static and dynamic histomorphometry parameters within periarticular tibial osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys are not significantly influenced by long-term ERT, but

  20. Effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy on bone turnover in periarticular tibial osteophytes in surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Erik J.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Carlson, Cathy S.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on size and indices of bone turnover in periarticular osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys and to compare dynamic indices of bone turnover in osteophyte bone with those of subchondral bone (SCB) and epiphyseal/metaphyseal cancellous (EMC) bone. One hundred sixty-five adult female cynomolgus macaques were bilaterally ovariectomized and randomly divided into three age- and weight-matched treatment groups for a 36-month treatment period. Group 1 (OVX control) received no treatment, Group 2 (SPE) received soy phytoestrogens, and Group 3 (ERT) received conjugated equine estrogens in the diet; all monkeys were labeled with calcein before necropsy. A midcoronal, plastic-embedded section of the right proximal tibia from 20 randomly selected animals per treatment group was examined histologically. Forty-nine of the sections (OVX control, n=16; SPE, n=16; ERT, n=17) contained lateral abaxial osteophytes, and static and dynamic histomorphometry measurements were taken from osteophyte bone, SCB from the lateral tibial plateau, and EMC bone. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test, correlation and regression methods, and the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank test. There was no significant effect of long-term ERT on osteophyte area or on any static or dynamic histomorphometry parameters. The bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness in osteophyte bone were considerably higher than in EMC bone; whereas, trabecular separation was considerably lower in osteophyte bone. In all three treatment groups, BS/BV was significantly lower in osteophyte bone vs. EMC bone and significantly higher in osteophyte bone vs. lateral SCB. We conclude that osteophyte area and static and dynamic histomorphometry parameters within periarticular tibial osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys are not significantly influenced by long-term ERT, but

  1. Susceptibility and lack of evidence for a viremic state of rabies in the night owl monkey, Aotus nancymaae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reaves Erik J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies causes an acute fatal encephalomyelitis in most mammals following infection with rhabdovirus of the genus Lyssavirus. Little is known about rabies virus infection in species of New World non-human Primates (NHP. To investigate the suitability of the owl monkey Aotus nancymaae asissue sections examined were unremarkable for inflammation or other histologic signs of rabies a viable animal model for rabies virus candidate vaccine testing, we used clinical presentation, serology, viral isolation, and PCR to evaluate the incubation period, immunity, and pathogenesis of infected animals. We tested the hypothesis that no viremic state exists for rabies virus. Methods Eight monkeys divided into two equal groups were inoculated intramuscularly either in the neck or footpad with 105 pfu of rabies virus (Pasteur/V-13R and observed for >130 days. Oral and blood samples were collected and analyzed. Results Two monkeys inoculated in the neck displayed classic paralytic rabies. The mean incubation period was 11.5 days. The average maximum IgG response (antibody titer >0.200 O.D. was achieved at day 10.0 and 62.3 in the clinical rabies and non-clinical rabies cases, respectively (p = 0.0429. No difference in IgM or IgG time to seroconversion or average maximum IgM level was observed between neck versus footpad inoculation groups. No viremia or viral shedding was detected by PCR or viral isolation during the observation period, including within the two symptomatic animals three days after disease onset. Tissue sections examined were unremarkable for inflammation or other histologic signs of rabies within the asymptomatic animal. Similarly none of the brain sections exhibited immunoreactivity for rabies virus antibody. Discussion This study demonstrates there is no difference in time to immune response between inoculation sites and distance to the brain; however, immune response tends to be more rapid in cases of clinically

  2. Chronic kidney disease in HIV patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, S.; Rasyid, H.; Kasim, H.; Katu, S.

    2018-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a health problem in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population. Prediction of CKD in HIV patients needsto have done. This study aimis to identify the prevalence of CKD in HIV patients.Thisis a cross-sectional studyofmale and female, age 18-60 years old, diagnosedHIVat Wahidin Sudirohusodo & Hasanuddin University Hospital Makassar. Diagnosed as CKD if estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) HIV patients included in the analyses. Distribution of CKD, showed 3 (3.5%) subjects with eGFRHIV populations in Makassar is still quite low.

  3. Epidemiology of Kidney Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pascual

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Some tumors are known to have a definite cause-effect etiology, but renal cell carcinoma (RCC is not one of them precisely. With regard to RCC we can only try to identify some clinical and occupational factors as well as substances related to tumorigenesis. Smoking, chemical carcinogens like asbestos or organic solvents are some of these factors that increase the risk of the RCC. Viral infections and radiation therapy have also been described as risk factors. Some drugs can increase the incidence of RCC as well as other neoplasms. Of course, genetics plays an outstanding role in the development of some cases of kidney cancer. Chronic renal failure, hypertension, and dialysis need to be considered as special situations. Diet, obesity, lifestyle, and habits can also increase the risk of RCC. The aim of this review is to summarize the well-defined causes of renal cell carcinoma.

  4. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Left ventricular hypertrophy among chronic kidney disease patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is associated with worsening cardiovascular outcomes. There is a dearth of data on LVH in Ghanaian CKD patients. Methods: This was a cross sectional study carried out at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital ...

  6. Chronic kidney disease in rheumatoid arthritis at Kenyatta National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among patients with rheumatoid arthritis on follow up at the rheumatology outpatient clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Setting: Rheumatology outpatient clinic at the Kenyatta National Hospital, a public national ...

  7. Sonographic Determination of Spleen to Left Kidney Ratio among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Clinical determination of mild splenomegaly is notoriously inaccurate. Objectives: To determine sonographically the spleen to left kidney ratio according to age and somatometric parameters among school age children in a tropical environment. Methods: A cross sectional study and convenience sampling were ...

  8. Comparison of effective atomic numbers of the cancerous and normal kidney tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    The effective atomic number (Z eff ) and electron density (N e ) of normal kidney and cancerous kidney have been computed for total and partial photon interactions by computing the molecular, atomic, and electronic cross section in the wide energy range of 1 keV-100 GeV using WinXCOM. The mean Z eff and N e of normal kidney and cancerous kidney in the various energy ranges and for total and partial photon interactions are tabulated. The variation of effective N e with energy is shown graphically for all photon interactions. In addition to this computer tomography (CT), numbers of normal kidney and cancerous kidney for photon interaction and energy absorption is also computed. The role of Z eff in the dual-energy dividing radiography is also discussed. The values of Z eff and N e for cancerous kidney are higher than normal kidney. This is due to the levels of elements K, Ca, Fe, Ni, and Se are lower and those of the elements Ti, Co, Zn, As, and Cd are higher in the cancer tissue of kidney than those observed in the normal tissue. The soft tissue and cancerous tissue are very similar, but their atomic number differs. The cancerous tissue exhibits a higher Z eff than the normal tissue. This fact helps in the dual-energy dividing radiography which enables to improve the diagnosis of the kidney cancer. Hence, the computed values may be useful in the diagnosis of the kidney cancer. CT numbers for normal kidney are higher than cancerous kidney. (author)

  9. Keep Your Kidneys Healthy: Catch Kidney Disease Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood. Each kidney contains about a million tiny filters that can process around 40 gallons of fluid every day—about enough to fill a house’s hot water heater. When blood passes through the ...

  10. Diagnosis of diabetic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 20% to 40% of patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus develop diabetic kidney disease. This is a clinical syndrome characterized by persistent albuminuria (> 300 mg/24 h, or > 300 mg/g creatinine), a relentless decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), raised arterial...... sign of diabetic nephropathy, the first symptom is usually peripheral edema, which occurs at a very late stage. Regular, systematic screening for diabetic kidney disease is needed in order to identify patients at risk of or with presymptomatic diabetic kidney disease. Annual monitoring of urinary...

  11. Upregulation of Aβ42 in the Brain and Bodily Fluids of Rhesus Monkeys with Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiao; Lu, Jing; Yao, Zitong; Wang, Shubo; Zhu, Liming; Wang, Ju; Chen, Baian

    2017-01-01

    The cerebral accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) is one of the key pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ is also found in bodily fluids such as the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. However, the significance of Aβ accumulation in the brain and different bodily pools, as well as its correlation with aging and cerebral amyloid pathology, is not completely understood. To better understand this question, we selected the rhesus monkey, which is phylogenetically and physiologically highly similar to the human, as a model to study. We quantified the levels of the two main Aβ isoforms (Aβ42 and Aβ40) in different sections of the brain (frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and hippocampus) and bodily fluids (CSF and plasma) of rhesus monkeys at different developmental phases (young, 5-9 years of age; mature, 10-19 years of age; and old, 21-24 years of age). We found that the levels of neuronal and insoluble Aβ42 increased significantly in the brain with aging, suggesting that this specific isoform might be directly involved in aging and AD-like pathophysiology. There was no significant change in the Aβ40 level in the brain with aging. In addition, the Aβ42 level, but not the Aβ40 level, in both the CSF and plasma increased with aging. We also identified a positive correlation between Aβ42 in the CSF and plasma and Aβ42 in the brain. Taken collectively, our results indicate that there is an association between Aβ accumulation and age. These results support the increased incidence of AD with aging.

  12. Experimentally induced gestational androgen excess disrupts glucoregulation in rhesus monkey dams and their female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, David H; Bruns, Cristin R; Barnett, Deborah K; Dunaif, Andrea; Goodfriend, Theodore L; Dumesic, Daniel A; Tarantal, Alice F

    2010-11-01

    Discrete fetal androgen excess during early gestation in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) promotes endocrine antecedents of adult polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like traits in female offspring. Because developmental changes promoting such PCOS-like metabolic dysfunction remain unclear, the present study examined time-mated, gravid rhesus monkeys with female fetuses, of which nine gravid females received 15 mg of testosterone propionate (TP) subcutaneously daily from 40 to 80 days (first to second trimesters) of gestation [term, mean (range): 165 (155-175) days], whereas an additional six such females received oil vehicle injections over the same time interval. During gestation, ultrasonography quantified fetal growth measures and was used as an adjunct for fetal blood collections. At term, all fetuses were delivered by cesarean section for postnatal studies. Blood samples were collected from dams and infants for glucose, insulin, and total free fatty acid (FFA) determinations. TP injections transiently accelerated maternal weight gain in dams, very modestly increased head diameter of prenatally androgenized (PA) fetuses, and modestly increased weight gain in infancy compared with concurrent controls. Mild to moderate glucose intolerance, with increased area-under-the-curve circulating insulin values, occurred in TP-injected dams during an intravenous glucose tolerance test in the early second trimester. Moreover, reduced circulating FFA levels occurred in PA fetuses during a third trimester intravenous glucagon-tolbutamide challenge (140 days gestation), whereas excessive insulin sensitivity and increased insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity occurred in PA infants during an intravenous glucose-tolbutamide test at ∼1.5 mo postnatal age. Data from these studies suggest that experimentally induced fetal androgen excess may result in transient hyperglycemic episodes in the intrauterine environment that are sufficient to induce relative increases in

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Japanese monkey brains compared with X-ray photography and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Shinji; Matsuda, Keiji; Kawano, Kenji; Komatsu, Hidehiko; Yamane, Shigeru; Yoshizawa, Takashi; Nose, Tadao.

    1991-01-01

    The localization of a small target area in the brain is usually estimated by using stereotaxic atlases, assisted by X-ray photography or electrophysiological mapping, and determined finally by histological reconstruction. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can visualize, noninvasively cross sections in any plane of three dimensional structures of the brain. We compared images of MRI, X-ray, and histology from a monkey brain. A Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata, male, 11 kg) was anesthetised, fixed in a newly developed magnetic-free stereotaxic apparatus, and mounted in the MRI scanner unit (BRUKER, BIOSPEC 24/40, 2.4 Tesla). Some para-saggital (5 mm thick) and para-frontal (2.5 mm thick, every 5 mm distance) images were obtained. The outline of the bone on the MRI image was compared with that on the X-ray photograph taken by an X-ray instrument (Toshiba, TR-80A). The two images fitted very well. The animal was sacrificed, the brain was sliced in 100 μm and stained with Cresyl violet. The histological preparations were shrunk some 10 % during the process, which was revealed by comparison of MRI, X-ray, and histological images. In conclusion, MRI images are reliable enough to determine a small target in deep structures of the brain, and their superimposed images on X-rays will assist in identifying the location of electrode or needle tips. We constructed a data base of these MRI and histological images on a Macintosh computer, and they can be easily accessed by a mouse operation. (author)

  14. SV40 host-substituted variants: a new look at the monkey DNA inserts and recombinant junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Maxine; Winocour, Ernest

    2011-04-10

    The available monkey genomic data banks were examined in order to determine the chromosomal locations of the host DNA inserts in 8 host-substituted SV40 variant DNAs. Five of the 8 variants contained more than one linked monkey DNA insert per tandem repeat unit and in all cases but one, the 19 monkey DNA inserts in the 8 variants mapped to different locations in the monkey genome. The 50 parental DNAs (32 monkey and 18 SV40 DNA segments) which spanned the crossover and flanking regions that participated in monkey/monkey and monkey/SV40 recombinations were characterized by substantial levels of microhomology of up to 8 nucleotides in length; the parental DNAs also exhibited direct and inverted repeats at or adjacent to the crossover sequences. We discuss how the host-substituted SV40 variants arose and the nature of the recombination mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer. Start here to find information on kidney cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  16. Flu Season and Your Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cares Peers Support Ask the Doctor My Food Coach Nutrition Dialysis Patient & Family Resources Emergency Resources A ... State Charity Registration Disclosures © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc., 30 East 33rd Street, New York, NY 10016, ...

  17. Compensative hypertrophy of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    Several measurement methods are available to practitioners to reveal a compensative hypertrophy. Mensuration of the kidney has the advantage of simplicity but is in fact an unreliable and inaccurate method. Separate clearances in their traditional form have never entered into routine use because of the disadvantages of ureteral catheterism. The use of radioactive tracers avoids this drawback, but clearances calculated in this way are only valid in the absence of obstructive urinary disorders. Solutions have been proposed, but the values obtained are no longer identical with the clearances. The Hg uptake test quantifies quite accurately the function of each kidney. From the results obtained a complete compensative hypertrophy developed on a healthy kidney and an incomplete compensative hypertrophy developed on the diseased kidney have been described. In each of these situations the degree to which compensative hypertrophy develops seems to be fixed at a given level peculiar to each patient [fr

  18. Sexuality and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Sexuality and Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Can ... It's something everyone needs. Many people think that sexuality refers only to sexual intercourse. But sexuality includes ...

  19. Organoids: Modelling polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnani, Paola

    2017-11-01

    Cysts were generated from organoids in vitro and the removal of adherent cues was shown to play a key role in polycystic kidney disease progression. These cysts resembled those of diseased tissue phenotypically and were capable of remodelling their microenvironment.

  20. Kidney transplantation in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj; Nori, Uday; Pesavento, Todd

    2009-08-01

    Recent outcome data, ongoing organ shortage and proposed changes in allocation policies are driving the need to review current practices and possible future course of kidney transplantation in the elderly patients. A proposed new kidney allocation system based on matching donor and recipient characteristics to enable 'age-matched' kidney allocation is currently being discussed in the USA. While this system benefits younger recipients, implications for elderly recipients receiving older grafts remain a matter of debate. Despite improved outcomes, there remain significant challenges to kidney transplantation in the elderly, including organ shortage, poor transplant rate, evolving allocation policies, high wait-list mortality and nonstandardized immunosuppression. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the strategies to meet these challenges and to study the impact of proposed new allocation system.

  1. Pain Medicines and Kidney Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acute illnesses involving fluid loss or decreased fluid intake. Other patients in these reports had risk factors such as systemic lupus erythematosus, advanced age, chronic kidney disease, or recent heavy alcohol consumption. These cases involved a single dose in ...

  2. Imaging of a supernumerary kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koureas, A.P.; Panourgias, E.C.; Gouliamos, A.D.; Trakadas, S.J.; Vlahos, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    A 33-year-old female patient was investigated for a right lower quadrant pain. The investigation, which included an excretory urography and a computed tomography examination, revealed a normal kidney on the right side and another two normal sized, complete kidneys on the left side, which appeared to have a small parenchymal bridge. The patient was treated surgically for a cyst of the right ovary. (orig.)

  3. Imaging of a supernumerary kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koureas, A.P.; Panourgias, E.C.; Gouliamos, A.D.; Trakadas, S.J.; Vlahos, L.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Areteion Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2000-11-01

    A 33-year-old female patient was investigated for a right lower quadrant pain. The investigation, which included an excretory urography and a computed tomography examination, revealed a normal kidney on the right side and another two normal sized, complete kidneys on the left side, which appeared to have a small parenchymal bridge. The patient was treated surgically for a cyst of the right ovary. (orig.)

  4. Repair and mutagenesis of herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated monkey cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, C.D.; Goddard, J.G.; Lin, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    Mutagenic repair in mammalian cells was investigated by determining the mutagenesis of UV-irradiated or unirradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cells. These results were compared with the results for UV-enhanced virus reactivation (UVER) in the same experimental situation. High and low multiplicities of infection were used to determine the effects of multiplicity reactivation (MR). UVER and MR were readily demonstrable and were approximately equal in amount in an infectious center assay. For this study, a forward-mutation assay was developed to detect virus mutants resistant to iododeoxycytidine (ICdR), probably an indication of the mutant virus being defective at its thymidine kinase locus. ICdR-resistant mutants did not have a growth advantage over wild-type virus in irradiated or unirradiated cells. Thus, higher fractions of mutant virus indicated greater mutagenesis during virus repair and/or replication. The data showed that: (1) unirradiated virus was mutated in unirradiated cells, providing a background level of mutagenesis; (2) unirradiated virus was mutated about 40% more in irradiated cells, indicating that virus replication (DNA synthesis) became more mutagenic as a result of cell irradiation; (3) irradiated virus was mutated much more (about 6-fold) than unirradiated virus, even in unirradiated cells; (4) cell irradiation did not change the mutagenesis of irradiated virus except at high multiplicity of infection. High multiplicity of infection did not demonstrate UVER or MR alone to be either error-free or error-prone. When the two processes were present simultaneously, they were mutagenic. (orig.)

  5. Differences in behaviour and physiology between adult surrogate-reared and mother-reared Cynomolgous monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, I.A.F. van; Timmermans, P.J.A.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Willems, J.; Vossen, J.M.H.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of the effects of rearing conditions on exploratory behaviour revealed that 80% of monkeys reared in peer groups with surrogate mothers developed neophobia, whereas only 15 % of mother-reared monkeys did. Young surrogate-reared and, especially, isolated rhesus monkeys are known to

  6. No effects of dioxin singly on limb malformations in macaque monkeys through epidemiological and treated studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaoka, Kazuo; Iida, Hiroko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Insitute, Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry; Watanabe, Kunio [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Institute, Field Research Center; Goda, Hiroshi [Towa Kagaku Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ihara, Toshio; Nagata, Ryoichi [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd. (Japan). Safety Research Facility; Yasuda, Mineo [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan). Fac. of Health Sciences, Dept. of Clinical Engineering; Kubata, Shunichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Life Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

    2004-09-15

    Human populations exposed with highly dioxin were suspected to be caused immunological dysfunctions, carcinogenesis, and developmental and reproductive dysfunctions. Because of species resemblances, the dioxin effects have been investigating using monkeys as a model for assessment of dioxin exposure on human health. Since 1957 the limb malformations of monkeys in Japan have been reported. The higher frequency of them was found in provisional groups of monkeys who were given the same kind of food for human. The chromosomal abnormalities are excluded from the factor for the congenital limb malformations that are still producing in Japan. In this study, the relations between dioxin and the limb malformations of macaque monkeys were estimated by the epidemiological and administered researches. The dioxin levels in monkeys were measured at two districts that one has the provisional groups including monkeys with limb malformations and the other has breeding groups never seeing the malformations for a long time. TEQ was calculated by the levels of dioxin isomers in the monkeys and the values show no difference between the two places and between the individuals with and without the limb malformations. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was administered via subcutaneous to pregnant rhesus monkeys from the day 20 of gestation to the day 90 after birth. The exposed babies, including the offspring and died in neonatal, had observed normal limbs in the range of 30-300 ng TCDD /kg of body weight.

  7. Rod photoreceptors express GPR55 in the adult vervet monkey retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Casanova, Christian

    2013-01-01

    . Yet, its formal classification is still a matter of debate. CB1R and CB2R expression patterns are well described for rodent and monkey retinas. In the monkey retina, CB1R has been localized in its neural (cone photoreceptor, horizontal, bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells) and CB2R in glial...

  8. Stimulus Similarity and Encoding Time Influence Incidental Recognition Memory in Adult Monkeys with Selective Hippocampal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeamer, Alyson; Meunier, Martine; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory impairment after selective hippocampal lesions in monkeys is more profound when measured with visual paired-comparison (VPC) than with delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). To clarify this issue, we assessed the impact of stimuli similarity and encoding duration on the VPC performance in monkeys with hippocampal lesions and…

  9. Macaque monkeys can learn token values from human models through vicarious reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Sara; Cerasti, Erika; Falcone, Rossella; Cervelloni, Milena; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Ferraina, Stefano; Genovesio, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Monkeys can learn the symbolic meaning of tokens, and exchange them to get a reward. Monkeys can also learn the symbolic value of a token by observing conspecifics but it is not clear if they can learn passively by observing other actors, e.g., humans. To answer this question, we tested two monkeys in a token exchange paradigm in three experiments. Monkeys learned token values through observation of human models exchanging them. We used, after a phase of object familiarization, different sets of tokens. One token of each set was rewarded with a bit of apple. Other tokens had zero value (neutral tokens). Each token was presented only in one set. During the observation phase, monkeys watched the human model exchange tokens and watched them consume rewards (vicarious rewards). In the test phase, the monkeys were asked to exchange one of the tokens for food reward. Sets of three tokens were used in the first experiment and sets of two tokens were used in the second and third experiments. The valuable token was presented with different probabilities in the observation phase during the first and second experiments in which the monkeys exchanged the valuable token more frequently than any of the neutral tokens. The third experiments examined the effect of unequal probabilities. Our results support the view that monkeys can learn from non-conspecific actors through vicarious reward, even a symbolic task like the token-exchange task.

  10. Plasma disappearance, urine excretion, and tissue distribution of ribavirin in rats and rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, E.A.; Oishi, J.S.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.; Stephen, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Ribavirin has been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral. To study its tissue distribution and disappearance rate, a single dose of 10 mg/kg which contained 10 microCi of [14C]ribavirin was injected intravenously into rhesus monkeys and intramuscularly into monkeys and rats. Except for peak plasma concentrations and the initial phases of the plasma disappearance and urine excretion curves, no significant difference was observed between plasma, tissue, or urine values for intramuscularly or intravenously injected monkeys. Plasma disappearance curves were triphasic; plasma concentrations of ribavirin were similar for both monkeys and rats. Rats excreted ribavirin in the urine more rapidly and to a greater extent (82% excreted in 24 h) than did monkeys (60% excreted in 72 h). In the rat, only 3% of the injected [14C]ribavirin was detected in expired CO2. Therefore, for both species, urine was the major route for the elimination of labeled ribavirin and its metabolites from the body. In monkeys, the amount of parent drug in blood cells increased through 48 h and remained stable for 72 h, whereas in rats, ribavirin decreased at a rate similar to the plasma disappearance curve. Concentrations of ribavirin at 8 h were consistently higher in monkeys than in rats for all tissues except the brain. Thus, these differences in blood cellular components and organ content and in urine excretion suggested that there was greater tissue retention of ribavirin in monkeys than in rats

  11. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Physiology and Cognitive Control of Behavior in Stress Inoculated Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J.; Buckmaster, Christine L.; Lindley, Steven E.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Lyons, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Monkeys exposed to stress inoculation protocols early in life subsequently exhibit diminished neurobiological responses to moderate psychological stressors and enhanced cognitive control of behavior during juvenile development compared to non-inoculated monkeys. The present experiments extended these findings and revealed that stress inoculated…

  12. Hemopoietic stem cells in rhesus monkeys : surface antigens, radiosensitivity, and responses to GM-CSF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Wielenga (Jenne)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractRhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were bred at the Primate Center TNO, Rijswijk, The Netherlands!. Both male and female animals were used for the experiments. The monkeys weighed 2.5-4 kg and were 2-4 years old at the time of the experiment. They were all typed for RhLA-A, -B and -DR

  13. Radiological imaging of the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaia, Emilio (ed.) [Trieste Univ. Ospedale di Cattinara (Italy). Ist. Radiologia

    2011-07-01

    This book provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the normal anatomy and pathology of the kidney and upper urinary tract from the modern diagnostic imaging point of view. The first part is dedicated to the embryology and normal radiological anatomy of the kidney and anatomic variants. The second part presents in detail all of the imaging modalities which can be employed to assess the kidney and the upper urinary tract, including ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. Patient preparation and investigation protocols are accurately described, and the principal fields of application of each imaging modality are clearly highlighted. The entire spectrum of kidney pathologies is then presented in a series of detailed chapters. Each pathology is illustrated by high-quality images obtained with state of the art equipment and the most advanced imaging modalities, as well as by figures showing macroscopic and microscopic specimens. The latest innovations in interventional radiology, biopsy procedures, and parametric and molecular imaging are also described, as is the relationship between contrast media and kidney function. This book will be of great interest to all radiologists, oncologists, and urologists who are involved in the management of kidney pathologies in their daily clinical practice. (orig.)

  14. Radiological imaging of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaia, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the normal anatomy and pathology of the kidney and upper urinary tract from the modern diagnostic imaging point of view. The first part is dedicated to the embryology and normal radiological anatomy of the kidney and anatomic variants. The second part presents in detail all of the imaging modalities which can be employed to assess the kidney and the upper urinary tract, including ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. Patient preparation and investigation protocols are accurately described, and the principal fields of application of each imaging modality are clearly highlighted. The entire spectrum of kidney pathologies is then presented in a series of detailed chapters. Each pathology is illustrated by high-quality images obtained with state of the art equipment and the most advanced imaging modalities, as well as by figures showing macroscopic and microscopic specimens. The latest innovations in interventional radiology, biopsy procedures, and parametric and molecular imaging are also described, as is the relationship between contrast media and kidney function. This book will be of great interest to all radiologists, oncologists, and urologists who are involved in the management of kidney pathologies in their daily clinical practice. (orig.)

  15. The three-kidney rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1984-01-01

    In contrast to the numerous research into the adaption of renal function when nephons are lost, much less attention has been paid to the effects of an extra kidney. Through the availability of inbred rat strains, techniques to transplant rat kidneys, and methods to measure total and individual kidney function repeatedly in the same animal, it became possible to study the renal function in rats with three kidneys. Adult male rats of a highly inbred Wistar strain were used. Nine recipients of a third kidney (3-K) were compared with 5 sham operated control (2-K) rats. The total GFR, as measured by the plasma clearance of Cr-5l EDTA, was taken 1,3,6,9, and 15 weeks after operation. The contribution of each kidney to the total renal function was determined by a Tc-99m DTPA scan performed at weeks 10 and 16. After transplantation the total GFR of 3-K rats was, in general, not different from the value before transplantation or from that of 2-K rats. The lack of increase of the GFR of 3-K rats was not the result of a non-functioning graft

  16. Cesarean Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth after a C-section, called a VBAC ) Emergency C-Sections Some C-sections are unexpected emergency ... side to nurse or using the clutch (or football) hold can take the pressure off your abdomen. ...

  17. Practical application of stereological methods in experimental kidney animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández García, María Teresa; Núñez Martínez, Paula; García de la Fuente, Vanessa; Sánchez Pitiot, Marta; Muñiz Salgueiro, María Del Carmen; Perillán Méndez, Carmen; Argüelles Luis, Juan; Astudillo González, Aurora

    The kidneys are vital organs responsible for excretion, fluid and electrolyte balance and hormone production. The nephrons are the kidney's functional and structural units. The number, size and distribution of the nephron components contain relevant information on renal function. Stereology is a branch of morphometry that applies mathematical principles to obtain three-dimensional information from serial, parallel and equidistant two-dimensional microscopic sections. Because of the complexity of stereological studies and the lack of scientific literature on the subject, the aim of this paper is to clearly explain, through animal models, the basic concepts of stereology and how to calculate the main kidney stereological parameters that can be applied in future experimental studies. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Intranasal oxytocin enhances socially-reinforced learning in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Parr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of social deficits associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. One hypothesis for these deficits is that individuals with ASD lack the motivation to attend to social cues because those cues are not implicitly rewarding. Therefore, any drug that could enhance the rewarding quality of social stimuli could have a profound impact on the treatment of ASD, and other social disorders. Oxytocin (OT is a neuropeptide that has been effective in enhancing social cognition and social reward in humans. The present study examined the ability of OT to selectively enhance learning after social compared to nonsocial reward in rhesus monkeys, an important species for modeling the neurobiology of social behavior in humans. Monkeys were required to learn an implicit visual matching task after receiving either intranasal (IN OT or Placebo (saline. Correct trials were rewarded with the presentation of positive and negative social (play faces/threat faces or nonsocial (banana/cage locks stimuli, plus food. Incorrect trials were not rewarded. Results demonstrated a strong effect of socially-reinforced learning, monkeys’ performed significantly better when reinforced with social versus nonsocial stimuli. Additionally, socially-reinforced learning was significantly better and occurred faster after IN-OT compared to placebo treatment. Performance in the IN-OT, but not Placebo, condition was also significantly better when the reinforcement stimuli were emotionally positive compared to negative facial expressions. These data support the hypothesis that OT may function to enhance prosocial behavior in primates by increasing the rewarding quality of emotionally positive, social compared to emotionally negative or nonsocial images. These data also support the use of the rhesus monkey as a model for exploring the neurobiological basis of social behavior and its impairment.

  19. Derivation and characterization of monkey embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Don P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Embryonic stem (ES cell based therapy carries great potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, before clinical application is realized, the safety, efficacy and feasibility of this therapeutic approach must be established in animal models. The rhesus macaque is physiologically and phylogenetically similar to the human, and therefore, is a clinically relevant animal model for biomedical research, especially that focused on neurodegenerative conditions. Undifferentiated monkey ES cells can be maintained in a pluripotent state for many passages, as characterized by a collective repertoire of markers representing embryonic cell surface molecules, enzymes and transcriptional factors. They can also be differentiated into lineage-specific phenotypes of all three embryonic germ layers by epigenetic protocols. For cell-based therapy, however, the quality of ES cells and their progeny must be ensured during the process of ES cell propagation and differentiation. While only a limited number of primate ES cell lines have been studied, it is likely that substantial inter-line variability exists. This implies that diverse ES cell lines may differ in developmental stages, lineage commitment, karyotypic normalcy, gene expression, or differentiation potential. These variables, inherited genetically and/or induced epigenetically, carry obvious complications to therapeutic applications. Our laboratory has characterized and isolated rhesus monkey ES cell lines from in vitro produced blastocysts. All tested cell lines carry the potential to form pluripotent embryoid bodies and nestin-positive progenitor cells. These ES cell progeny can be differentiated into phenotypes representing the endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal lineages. This review article describes the derivation of monkey ES cell lines, characterization of the undifferentiated phenotype, and their differentiation into lineage-specific, particularly neural, phenotypes

  20. Traditions in spider monkeys are biased towards the social domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Santorelli

    Full Text Available Cross-site comparison studies of behavioral variation can provide evidence for traditions in wild species once ecological and genetic factors are excluded as causes for cross-site differences. These studies ensure behavior variants are considered within the context of a species' ecology and evolutionary adaptations. We examined wide-scale geographic variation in the behavior of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi across five long-term field sites in Central America using a well established ethnographic cross-site survey method. Spider monkeys possess a relatively rare social system with a high degree of fission-fusion dynamics, also typical of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and humans (Homo sapiens. From the initial 62 behaviors surveyed 65% failed to meet the necessary criteria for traditions. The remaining 22 behaviors showed cross-site variation in occurrence ranging from absent through to customary, representing to our knowledge, the first documented cases of traditions in this taxon and only the second case of multiple traditions in a New World monkey species. Of the 22 behavioral variants recorded across all sites, on average 57% occurred in the social domain, 19% in food-related domains and 24% in other domains. This social bias contrasts with the food-related bias reported in great ape cross-site comparison studies and has implications for the evolution of human culture. No pattern of geographical radiation was found in relation to distance across sites. Our findings promote A. geoffroyi as a model species to investigate traditions with field and captive based experiments and emphasize the importance of the social domain for the study of animal traditions.

  1. Teratogenic effects of lead acetate on kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, R.; Tahir, M.; Waqas, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Lead remains a considerable occupational and public health problem, which is known to cause a number of adverse effects in both men and women. Conflicting reports have appeared on lead induced nephrotoxicity in experimental studies in the past. There is hardly any work on its teratogenic effects on kidney. Present study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of lead acetate on developing kidney. Methods: Twelve mice were used as experimental model and were divided into two groups of six animals each; group A served as control group and B was used as an experimental group. Lead acetate (10 mg/kg) dissolved in 0.02 ml of distilled water was administered as a single daily dose orally to group B whereas weight related amount of distilled water was given to group A for the entire period of experiment. On 18 day of gestation foetuses were dissected free of uterine wall under the dissecting microscope and were sacrificed; kidneys were removed and fixed in 10% formalin, dehydrated in ascending grades of alcohol, cleared in xylene and infiltrated with filtered paraffin. The paraffin blocks were made and five micron thin sections were obtained using a rotary microtome. The sections were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin and, PAS; these were examined under light microscope. Results: Significant decrease in cortical thickness was observed which varied from 578.6 +- 1.4 mu m in group A to 515.6 +- 5 mu m in group B (p<0.001). Diameter of renal corpuscles varied from 57.7 +- 0.07 mu m in group A to 50.5 +- 0.07 mu m in group B (p<0.001). Moderate cortical tubular atrophy showing thickening of endothelial basement membrane in glomeruli, desquamated epithelium with degenerated nuclei in proximal and distal tubules were observed in group B in contrast to group A. Conclusion: The results of the investigation indicated that lead acetate administration to the dams produced deleterious effects on the developing kidney in mice. (author)

  2. Use of Readily Accessible Inflammatory Markers to Predict Diabetic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Winter

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic kidney disease is a common complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and is the primary cause of end-stage renal disease in developed countries. Early detection of diabetic kidney disease will facilitate early intervention aimed at reducing the rate of progression to end-stage renal disease. Diabetic kidney disease has been traditionally classified based on the presence of albuminuria. More recently estimated glomerular filtration rate has also been incorporated into the staging of diabetic kidney disease. While albuminuric diabetic kidney disease is well described, the phenotype of non-albuminuric diabetic kidney disease is now widely accepted. An association between markers of inflammation and diabetic kidney disease has previously been demonstrated. Effector molecules of the innate immune system including C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α are increased in patients with diabetic kidney disease. Furthermore, renal infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes are observed in renal biopsies of patients with diabetic kidney disease. Similarly high serum neutrophil and low serum lymphocyte counts have been shown to be associated with diabetic kidney disease. The neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is considered a robust measure of systemic inflammation and is associated with the presence of inflammatory conditions including the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated a link between high levels of the above inflammatory biomarkers and diabetic kidney disease. Further longitudinal studies will be required to determine if these readily available inflammatory biomarkers can accurately predict the presence and prognosis of diabetic kidney disease, above and beyond albuminuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate.

  3. ‘‘What's wrong with my monkey?''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    in marmosets in some areas of research. The mainstream, broadly utilitarian view of animal research suggests that such a transition will not give rise to greater ethical problems than those presently faced. It can be argued that using marmosets rather than mice will not result in more animal suffering......, readily available in the way that transgenic laboratory mice are currently, prompts excitement in the scientific community; but the idea of monkeys being bred to carry diseases is also contentious. We structure an ethical analysis of the transgenic marmoset case around three questions: whether...

  4. Aggression and conflict management at fusion in spider monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Filippo; Schaffner, Colleen M

    2007-04-22

    In social systems characterized by a high degree of fission-fusion dynamics, members of a large community are rarely all together, spending most of their time in smaller subgroups with flexible membership. Although fissioning into smaller subgroups is believed to reduce conflict among community members, fusions may create conflict among individuals from joining subgroups. Here, we present evidence for aggressive escalation at fusion and its mitigation by the use of embraces in wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Our findings provide the first systematic evidence for conflict management at fusion and may have implications for the function of human greetings.

  5. Noisy Spiking in Visual Area V2 of Amblyopic Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Zhang, Bin; Tao, Xiaofeng; Wensveen, Janice M; Smith, Earl L; Chino, Yuzo M

    2017-01-25

    Interocular decorrelation of input signals in developing visual cortex can cause impaired binocular vision and amblyopia. Although increased intrinsic noise is thought to be responsible for a range of perceptual deficits in amblyopic humans, the neural basis for the elevated perceptual noise in amblyopic primates is not known. Here, we tested the idea that perceptual noise is linked to the neuronal spiking noise (variability) resulting from developmental alterations in cortical circuitry. To assess spiking noise, we analyzed the contrast-dependent dynamics of spike counts and spiking irregularity by calculating the square of the coefficient of variation in interspike intervals (CV 2 ) and the trial-to-trial fluctuations in spiking, or mean matched Fano factor (m-FF) in visual area V2 of monkeys reared with chronic monocular defocus. In amblyopic neurons, the contrast versus response functions and the spike count dynamics exhibited significant deviations from comparable data for normal monkeys. The CV 2 was pronounced in amblyopic neurons for high-contrast stimuli and the m-FF was abnormally high in amblyopic neurons for low-contrast gratings. The spike count, CV 2 , and m-FF of spontaneous activity were also elevated in amblyopic neurons. These contrast-dependent spiking irregularities were correlated with the level of binocular suppression in these V2 neurons and with the severity of perceptual loss for individual monkeys. Our results suggest that the developmental alterations in normalization mechanisms resulting from early binocular suppression can explain much of these contrast-dependent spiking abnormalities in V2 neurons and the perceptual performance of our amblyopic monkeys. Amblyopia is a common developmental vision disorder in humans. Despite the extensive animal studies on how amblyopia emerges, we know surprisingly little about the neural basis of amblyopia in humans and nonhuman primates. Although the vision of amblyopic humans is often described as

  6. Emesis in monkeys following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, G.R.; Young, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    There were 129 male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) exposed to prompt radiations (neutron/gamma = 0.4 and pulse width = 50 ms) ranging from 700 to 5600 rad (midhead dose). The animals were fasted 18 h preexposure and observed for incidence of vomiting for 2 h postexposure. For doses less than 1000 rads, the number of animals that vomited increased directly with dose. Above 1000 rads, the number of animals that vomited decreased with increasing dose. The total number of vomits per dose group followed a nearly identical pattern to the incidence of emesis. In all dose groups, most of the emetic episodes occurred between 20 and 50 min postirradiation

  7. The rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) as a flight candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debourne, M. N. G.; Bourne, G. H.; Mcclure, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    The intelligence and ruggedness of rhesus monkeys, as well as the abundance of normative data on their anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry, and the availability of captive bred animals qualify them for selection as candidates for orbital flight and weightlessness studies. Baseline data discussed include: physical characteristics, auditory thresholds, visual accuity, blood, serological taxomony, immunogenetics, cytogenics, circadian rhythms, respiration, cardiovascular values, corticosteroid response to charr restraint, microscopy of tissues, pathology, nutrition, and learning skills. Results from various tests used to establish the baseline data are presented in tables.

  8. [Hybrids of human and monkey adenoviruses (adeno-adeno hybrids) that can reproduce in monkey cells: biological and molecular genetic peculiarities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinenko, N F; Savitskaia, N V; Pashvykina, G V; Al'tshteĭn, A D

    2003-06-01

    A highly oncogenic monkey adenovirus SA7(C8) facilitates the reproduction of human adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) in monkey cells. Upon mixed infection of monkey cells with both viruses, these viruses recombine producing defective adeno-adeno hybrids Ad2C8 serologically identical to Ad2 and capable of assisting Ad2 to reproduce in monkey cells. Ad2C8 and Ad2 form an intercomplementary pair inseparable in monkey cells. Unlike oncogenic SA7(C8), Ad2C8 is a nononcogenic virus for hamsters but is able to induce tumor antigens of this virus (T and TSTA). Molecular genetic analysis of 68 clones of adeno-adeno hybrids revealed that the left part of their genome consists of Ad2 DNA, and the right part contains no less than 40% of the viral SA7(C8) genome where E2A, E3, and E4 genes are located. Apparently, the products of these genes contribute to the composition of adenoviral tumor antigens, while the E4 gene is involved in complementation of monkey and human adenoviruses and makes a contribution to host range determination of these viruses.

  9. The Monkey Puzzle: A Systematic Review of Studies of Stress, Social Hierarchies, and Heart Disease in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, Mark; Davey Smith, George

    2012-01-01

    Background It is often suggested that psychosocial factors, such as stress, or one's social position, may play an important role in producing social gradients in human disease. Evidence in favour of this model of health inequalities has relied, in part, on studies of the health effects of the natural social hierarchies found among non-human primates. This study aimed to assess the strength of this evidence. Methodology/Principal Findings A systematic review was carried out to identify all studies of psychosocial factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) in non-human primates. We searched databases (MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and Primatelit from inception to November 2010) to identify experimental and observational studies of the impact of social reorganisation, social instability, and disruption of dominance hierarchies on primate CAD outcomes. We also handsearched bibliographies and examined the citations to those studies in public health articles. Fourteen studies were found which presented evidence on CAD and social status and/or psychosocial stress. These suggested that the association between social status and disease may be sex-specific: in female monkeys dominant status may be protective, with subordinate females having a greater extent of atherosclerosis. In male monkeys the reverse may be the case. Conclusions/Significance Overall, non-human primate studies present only limited evidence for an association between social status and CAD, Despite this, there is selective citation of individual non-human primate studies in reviews and commentaries relating to human disease aetiology. Such generalisation of data from monkey studies to human societies does not appear warranted. PMID:22470414

  10. Hereditary Causes of Kidney Stones and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Vidar O.; Goldfarb, David S.; Lieske, John C.; Beara-Lasic, Lada; Anglani, Franca; Milliner, Dawn S.; Palsson, Runolfur

    2013-01-01

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) and primary hyperoxaluria (PH) are rare but important causes of severe kidney stone disease and/or chronic kidney disease in children. Recurrent kidney stone disease and nephrocalcinosis, particularly in pre-pubertal children, should alert the physician to the possibility of an inborn error of metabolism as the underlying cause. Unfortunately, the lack of recognition and knowledge of the five disorders has frequently resulted in an unacceptable delay in diagnosis and treatment, sometimes with grave consequences. A high index of suspicion coupled with early diagnosis may reduce or even prevent the serious long-term complications of these diseases. In this paper, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of patients with APRT deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, FHHNC and PH with emphasis on childhood manifestations. PMID:23334384

  11. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference of vascular endothelial growth factor in monkey eyes with iris neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Meng-Ke; Tao, Yong; Yu, Wen-Zhen; Kai, Wang; Jiang, Yan-Rong

    2010-08-25

    To explore the in vivo anti-angiogenesis effects resulting from lentivirus-mediated RNAi of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in monkeys with iris neovascularization (INV). Five specific recombinant lentiviral vectors for RNA interference, targeting Macaca mulatta VEGFA, were designed and the one with best knock down efficacy (LV-GFP-VEGFi1) in H1299 cells and RF/6A cells was selected by real-time PCR for in vivo use. A laser-induced retinal vein occlusion model was established in one eye of seven cynomolgus monkeys. In monkeys number 1, 3, and 5 (Group 1), the virus (1x10(8) particles) was intravitreally injected into the preretinal space of the animal's eye immediately after laser coagulation; and in monkeys number 2, 4, and 6 (Group 2), the virus (1x10(8) particles) was injected at 10 days after laser coagulation. In monkey number 7, a blank control injection was performed. In monkeys number 1 and 2, virus without RNAi sequence was used; in monkeys number 3 and 4, virus with nonspecific RNAi sequence was used; and in monkeys 5 and 6, LV-GFP-VEGFi1 was used. In monkey number 5, at 23 days after laser treatment, no obvious INV was observed, while fluorescein angiography of the iris revealed high fluorescence at the margin of pupil and point posterior synechiae. At 50 days after laser treatment, only a slight ectropion uvea was found. However, in the other eyes, obvious INV or hyphema was observed. The densities of new iridic vessels all significantly varied: between monkey number 5 and number 3 (36.01+/-4.49/mm(2) versus 48.68+/-9.30/mm(2), p=0.025), between monkey number 3 and monkey number 7 (48.68+/-9.30/mm(2) versus 74.38+/-9.23/mm(2), p=0.002), and between monkey number 5 and number 7 (36.01+/-4.49/mm(2) versus 74.38+/-9.23/mm(2), p<0.001). Lentivirus-mediated RNAi of VEGF may be a new strategy to treat iris neovascularization, while further studies are needed to investigate the long-term effect.

  12. Perspectives of Older Kidney Transplant Recipients on Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Jule; Hanson, Camilla S; Chapman, Jeremy R; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Schell, Jane O; Tong, Allison

    2017-03-07

    Older kidney transplant recipients are susceptible to cognitive impairment, frailty, comorbidities, immunosuppression-related complications, and chronic graft failure, however, there has been limited focus on their concerns and expectations related to transplantation. This study aims to describe the perspectives of older kidney transplant recipients about their experience of kidney transplantation, self-management, and treatment goals to inform strategies and interventions that address their specific needs. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 30 kidney transplant recipients aged 65-80 years from five renal units in Australia. Transcripts were analyzed thematically. Six themes were identified: restoring vitality of youth (with subthemes of revived mindset for resilience, embracing enjoyment in life, drive for self-actualization); persisting through prolonged recovery (yielding to aging, accepting functional limitations, pushing the limit, enduring treatment responsibilities); imposing sicknesses (combatting devastating comorbidities, painful restrictions, emerging disillusionment, anxieties about accumulating side effects, consuming treatment burden); prioritizing graft survival (privileged with a miracle, negotiating risks for longevity, enacting a moral duty, preserving the last opportunity); confronting health deterioration (vulnerability and helplessness, narrowing focus to immediate concerns, uncertainty of survival); and value of existence (purpose through autonomy, refusing the burden of futile treatment, staying alive by all means). Older kidney transplant recipients felt able to enjoy life and strived to live at their newly re-established potential and capability, which motivated them to protect their graft. However, some felt constrained by slow recuperation and overwhelmed by unexpected comorbidities, medication-related side effects, and health decline. Our findings suggest the need to prepare and support older recipients for self

  13. Giant hydronephrosis in horseshoe kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesh, I-V. Malla; Zlatareva, D.; Milenova, V.; Krasteva, R.; Bogov, B.

    2016-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney, also known as ren arcuatus is a congenital anomaly with incidence 1 in 500 people and it is more common in males. Usually this anomaly is asymptomatic and most of the cases are undiagnosed. This condition may contribute to upper Gl tract dyspeptic syndrome, abdominal discomfort, nephrolithiasis and frequent infections of the urinary system. Horseshoe kidney may lead to complications such as renal obstruction, recurrent inflammatory conditions and malignant diseases. The authors describe the case of 58y.o. male who had suffered acute renal failure. The patient presented with pain in the lumbar area and abode the symphysis, reduction of diuresis and fever 38° C. The laboratory findings showed slight anemic syndrome and preserved renal function. The US examination revealed low positioned right kidney with enlarged sizes and numerous cysts. The left kidney was visualized as gigantic hydronephrosis. Color and Power Doppler didn't show signal from the vessels. MRT of the abdomen and pelvis was performed with intravenous application of contrast medium. The examination showed horseshoe kidney with excessive hydro-nephrosis with massive dilation of the pyelocalyceal system and reduced parenchyma

  14. Whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry in monkeys and humans of the phosphodiesterase 4 radioligand [11C](R)-rolipram: comparison of two-dimensional planar, bisected and quadrisected image analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprague, David R.; Fujita, Masahiro; Ryu, Yong Hoon; Liow, Jeih-San; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: [ 11 C](R)-Rolipram is a selective radioligand for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of phosphodiesterase 4, an enzyme that metabolizes 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The aim of this study was to estimate the human radiation absorbed dose of the radioligand based on its biodistribution in both monkeys and humans. Methods: Whole-body PET images were acquired for 2 h after injecting [ 11 C](R)-rolipram in eight healthy humans and three monkeys. The simple method of using a single two-dimensional (2D) planar image was compared to more time-consuming methods that used two (bisected) or four (quadrisected) tomographic images in the anteroposterior direction. Results: Effective dose was 4.8 μGy/MBq based on 2D planar images. The effective dose was only slightly lower by 1% and 5% using the bisected and quadrisected images, respectively. Nevertheless, the two tomographic methods may have more accurately estimated the exposure of some organs (e.g., kidneys) that are asymmetrically located in the body or have radioactivity that appears to overlap on 2D planar images. Monkeys had a different biodistribution pattern compared to humans (e.g., greater urinary excretion) such that their data overestimated the effective dose in humans by 40%. Conclusions: The effective dose of [ 11 C](R)-rolipram was modest and comparable to that of other 11 C-labeled radioligands. The simple and far less time-consuming 2D planar method provided accurate and somewhat more conservative estimates of effective dose than the two tomographic methods. Although monkeys are commonly used to estimate human radiation exposures, their data gave a considerable overestimation for this radioligand

  15. Intersection of reward and memory in monkey rhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew M; Bouret, Sebastien; Young, Adrienne M; Richmond, Barry J

    2012-05-16

    In humans and other animals, the vigor with which a reward is pursued depends on its desirability, that is, on the reward's predicted value. Predicted value is generally context-dependent, varying according to the value of rewards obtained in the recent and distant past. Signals related to reward prediction and valuation are believed to be encoded in a circuit centered around midbrain dopamine neurons and their targets in the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. Notably absent from this hypothesized reward pathway are dopaminergic targets in the medial temporal lobe. Here we show that a key part of the medial temporal lobe memory system previously reported to be important for sensory mnemonic and perceptual processing, the rhinal cortex (Rh), is required for using memories of previous reward values to predict the value of forthcoming rewards. We tested monkeys with bilateral Rh lesions on a task in which reward size varied across blocks of uncued trials. In this experiment, the only cues for predicting current reward value are the sizes of rewards delivered in previous blocks. Unexpectedly, monkeys with Rh ablations, but not intact controls, were insensitive to differences in predicted reward, responding as if they expected all rewards to be of equal magnitude. Thus, it appears that Rh is critical for using memory of previous rewards to predict the value of forthcoming rewards. These results are in agreement with accumulating evidence that Rh is critical for establishing the relationships between temporally interleaved events, which is a key element of episodic memory.

  16. Meaningful gesture in monkeys? Investigating whether mandrills create social culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Laidre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human societies exhibit a rich array of gestures with cultural origins. Often these gestures are found exclusively in local populations, where their meaning has been crafted by a community into a shared convention. In nonhuman primates like African monkeys, little evidence exists for such culturally-conventionalized gestures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here I report a striking gesture unique to a single community of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx among nineteen studied across North America, Africa, and Europe. The gesture was found within a community of 23 mandrills where individuals old and young, female and male covered their eyes with their hands for periods which could exceed 30 min, often while simultaneously raising their elbow prominently into the air. This 'Eye covering' gesture has been performed within the community for a decade, enduring deaths, removals, and births, and it persists into the present. Differential responses to Eye covering versus controls suggested that the gesture might have a locally-respected meaning, potentially functioning over a distance to inhibit interruptions as a 'do not disturb' sign operates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The creation of this gesture by monkeys suggests that the ability to cultivate shared meanings using novel manual acts may be distributed more broadly beyond the human species. Although logistically difficult with primates, the translocation of gesturers between communities remains critical to experimentally establishing the possible cultural origin and transmission of nonhuman gestures.

  17. Bimatoprost Effects on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Woodward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bimatoprost on aqueous humor dynamics were quantified in monkey eyes. Uveoscleral outflow was measured by the anterior chamber perfusion method, using FITC-dextran. Total outflow facility was determined by the two-level constant pressure method. Aqueous flow was measured with a scanning ocular fluorophotometer. Uveoscleral outflow was 0.96±0.19 L min−1 in vehicle-treated eyes and 1.37±0.27 L min−1 (=6; <.05 in eyes that received bimatoprost 0.01% b.i.d. × 5 days. Bimatoprost had no effect on total outflow facility, which was 0.42±0.05 L min−1 at baseline and 0.42±0.04 L min−1 after bimatoprost treatment. Bimatoprost had no significant effect on aqueous humor flow. This study demonstrates that bimatoprost increases uveoscleral outflow but not total outflow facility or aqueous humor flow, indicating that it lowers intraocular pressure in ocular normotensive monkeys by a mechanism that exclusively involves uveoscleral outflow.

  18. Electrical Microstimulation of the Superior Colliculus in Strabismic Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M G; Ono, Seiji; Mustari, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Visually guided saccades are disconjugate in human and nonhuman strabismic primates. The superior colliculus (SC) is a region of the brain topographically organized in visual and motor maps where the saccade goal is spatially coded. The present study was designed to investigate if a site of stimulation on the topographic motor map was evoking similar or different saccade vectors for each eye. We used microelectrical stimulation (MS) of the SC in two strabismic (one esotrope and one exotrope) and two control macaques under binocular and monocular viewing conditions. We compared the saccade amplitudes and directions for each SC site and each condition independently of the fixating eye and then between each fixating eye. A comparison with disconjugacies of visually guided saccades was also performed. We observed different saccade vectors for the two eyes in strabismic monkeys, but conjugate saccades in normal monkeys. Evoked saccade vectors for the left eye when that eye was fixating the target were different from those of the right eye when it was fixating. The disconjugacies evoked by the MS were not identical but similar to those observed for visually guided saccades especially for the dominant eye. Our results suggest that, in strabismus, the saccade generator does not interpret activation of a single location of the SC as the same desired displacement for each eye. This finding is important for advancing understanding of the development of neural circuits in strabismus. French Abstract.

  19. Color discrimination in the tufted capuchin monkey, Sapajus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Paulo Roney Kilpp; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Galvão, Olavo de Faria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an "ML protanope." For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u'v' diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the "classic" protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the "classic" and "ML" protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats.

  20. Two processes support visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guderian, Sebastian; Brigham, Danielle; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2011-11-29

    A large body of evidence in humans suggests that recognition memory can be supported by both recollection and familiarity. Recollection-based recognition is characterized by the retrieval of contextual information about the episode in which an item was previously encountered, whereas familiarity-based recognition is characterized instead by knowledge only that the item had been encountered previously in the absence of any context. To date, it is unknown whether monkeys rely on similar mnemonic processes to perform recognition memory tasks. Here, we present evidence from the analysis of receiver operating characteristics, suggesting that visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys also can be supported by two separate processes and that these processes have features considered to be characteristic of recollection and familiarity. Thus, the present study provides converging evidence across species for a dual process model of recognition memory and opens up the possibility of studying the neural mechanisms of recognition memory in nonhuman primates on tasks that are highly similar to the ones used in humans.

  1. Monkeys fail to reciprocate in an exchange task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelé, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Call, Josep; Dufour, Valérie

    2010-09-01

    Exchanges form the basis of human economies. Animals too can engage in reciprocal interactions but they do not barter goods like humans, which raises the question of the abilities necessary for trading to occur. Previous studies have shown that non-human primates can exchange food with human partners. Here, we tested the ability of brown capuchin monkeys and Tonkean macaques to reciprocate in a task requiring two conspecifics to exchange tokens in order to obtain rewards from an experimenter. We recorded 56 transfers between subjects in capuchin monkeys and 10 in Tonkean macaques. All transfers were passive in both species. Capuchins preferentially picked up tokens valuable for them in the partner's compartment. They tended to manipulate the partner-valued tokens more often than the no-value ones, leading to more opportunities for these tokens to end up within reach of the partner. Despite optimal conditions where values of goods were defined and known by partners, however, none of the pairs tested engaged in short-term reciprocal interactions. These results indicate that calculated reciprocity was difficult if not impossible in the animals tested.

  2. Fluoxetine Administration in Juvenile Monkeys: Implications for Pharmacotherapy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari S. Golub

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluoxetine therapy has been approved for children with major depressive disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder for over 14 years and has expanded to other childhood behavior disorders. As use increases, more detail on fluoxetine effects during juvenile brain development can help maintain safe and effective use of this therapy. Here, a narrative review is provided of previously published findings from a large nonhuman primate project. Fluoxetine was administered to juvenile male rhesus monkeys for an extended period (2 years prior to puberty. Compared to controls, treated monkeys showed sleep disruption, facilitated social interaction, greater impulsivity, and impaired sustained attention during treatment. No effects on growth were seen. Metabolomics assays characterized a distinctive response to fluoxetine and demonstrated individual differences that were related to the impulsivity measure. Fluoxetine interactions with monoamine oxidase A polymorphisms that influenced behavior and metabolomics markers were an important, previously unrecognized finding of our studies. After treatment was discontinued, some behavioral effects persisted, but short-term memory and cognitive flexibility testing did not show drug effects. This detailed experimental work can contribute to clinical research and continued safe and effective fluoxetine pharmacotherapy in children.

  3. Monkey Viperin Restricts Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jianyu; Wang, Haiyan; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Qiaoya; Li, Yufeng; Liu, Fei; Jiang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen which causes huge economic damage globally in the swine industry. Current vaccination strategies provide only limited protection against PRRSV infection. Viperin is an interferon (IFN) stimulated protein that inhibits some virus infections via IFN-dependent or IFN-independent pathways. However, the role of viperin in PRRSV infection is not well understood. In this study, we cloned the full-length monkey viperin (mViperin) complementary DNA (cDNA) from IFN-α-treated African green monkey Marc-145 cells. It was found that the mViperin is up-regulated following PRRSV infection in Marc-145 cells along with elevated IRF-1 gene levels. IFN-α induced mViperin expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner and strongly inhibits PRRSV replication in Marc-145 cells. Overexpression of mViperin suppresses PRRSV replication by blocking the early steps of PRRSV entry and genome replication and translation but not inhibiting assembly and release. And mViperin co-localized with PRRSV GP5 and N protein, but only interacted with N protein in distinct cytoplasmic loci. Furthermore, it was found that the 13-16 amino acids of mViperin were essential for inhibiting PRRSV replication, by disrupting the distribution of mViperin protein from the granular distribution to a homogeneous distribution in the cytoplasm. These results could be helpful in the future development of novel antiviral therapies against PRRSV infection.

  4. Brain-Machine Interface Enables Bimanual Arm Movements in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifft, Peter J.; Shokur, Solaiman; Li, Zheng; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are artificial systems that aim to restore sensation and movement to severely paralyzed patients. However, previous BMIs enabled only single arm functionality, and control of bimanual movements was a major challenge. Here, we developed and tested a bimanual BMI that enabled rhesus monkeys to control two avatar arms simultaneously. The bimanual BMI was based on the extracellular activity of 374–497 neurons recorded from several frontal and parietal cortical areas of both cerebral hemispheres. Cortical activity was transformed into movements of the two arms with a decoding algorithm called a 5th order unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The UKF is well-suited for BMI decoding because it accounts for both characteristics of reaching movements and their representation by cortical neurons. The UKF was trained either during a manual task performed with two joysticks or by having the monkeys passively observe the movements of avatar arms. Most cortical neurons changed their modulation patterns when both arms were engaged simultaneously. Representing the two arms jointly in a single UKF decoder resulted in improved decoding performance compared with using separate decoders for each arm. As the animals’ performance in bimanual BMI control improved over time, we observed widespread plasticity in frontal and parietal cortical areas. Neuronal representation of the avatar and reach targets was enhanced with learning, whereas pairwise correlations between neurons initially increased and then decreased. These results suggest that cortical networks may assimilate the two avatar arms through BMI control. PMID:24197735

  5. Campbell's monkeys concatenate vocalizations into context-specific call sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Karim; Lemasson, Alban; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Primate vocal behavior is often considered irrelevant in modeling human language evolution, mainly because of the caller's limited vocal control and apparent lack of intentional signaling. Here, we present the results of a long-term study on Campbell's monkeys, which has revealed an unrivaled degree of vocal complexity. Adult males produced six different loud call types, which they combined into various sequences in highly context-specific ways. We found stereotyped sequences that were strongly associated with cohesion and travel, falling trees, neighboring groups, nonpredatory animals, unspecific predatory threat, and specific predator classes. Within the responses to predators, we found that crowned eagles triggered four and leopards three different sequences, depending on how the caller learned about their presence. Callers followed a number of principles when concatenating sequences, such as nonrandom transition probabilities of call types, addition of specific calls into an existing sequence to form a different one, or recombination of two sequences to form a third one. We conclude that these primates have overcome some of the constraints of limited vocal control by combinatorial organization. As the different sequences were so tightly linked to specific external events, the Campbell's monkey call system may be the most complex example of ‘proto-syntax’ in animal communication known to date. PMID:20007377

  6. Hepatic folate metabolism in the chronic alcoholic monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, T.; Romero, J.J.; Watson, J.E.; Gong, E.J.; Halsted, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the role of altered hepatic folate metabolism in the pathogenesis of the folate deficiency of chronic alcoholism, the hepatic metabolism of a tracer dose of 3 H-PteGlu was compared in monkeys given 50% of energy as ethanol for 2 years and in control monkeys. Long-term ethanol feeding resulted in mild hepatic injury, with a significant decrease in hepatic folate levels. Chromatographic studies of liver biopsies obtained after the tracer dose indicated that the processes of reduction, methylation, and formylation of reduced folate and the synthesis of polyglutamyl folates were not affected by long-term ethanol feeding. Hepatic tritium levels were significantly decreased in the ethanol-fed group. These studies suggest that the decrease in hepatic folate levels observed after long-term ethanol ingestion is due to a decrease in hepatic folate levels observed after long-term ethanol ingestion is due to a decreased ability to retain folates in the liver, whereas reduction and further metabolism of folates is not affected

  7. Role of basal stress hormones and amygdala dimensions in stress coping strategies of male rhesus monkeys in response to a hazard-reward conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Tekieh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In the present study the effect of stress on monkeys that had learned to retrieve food from a five-chamber receptacle, as well as the relationship between their behavior and the serum cortisol and epinephrine levels and relative size of the amygdala was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Six male rhesus monkeys were individually given access to the food reward orderly. They could easily retrieve the rewards from all chambers except for the chamber 4, which a brief, mild electric shock (3 V was delivered to them upon touching the chamber’s interior. The coping behaviors were video-recorded and analyzed offline. Baseline serum cortisol and epinephrine levels were measured before the experiments using monkey enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. One week after the behavioral experiment, the monkeys’ brains were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging under general anesthesia. The cross-sectional area of the left amygdala in sagittal plane relative to the area of the whole brain in the same slice was evaluated by the planimetric method using ImageJ software. Results: Exposure to the distressing condition caused different behavioral responses. Monkeys with higher baseline levels of serum cortisol and epinephrine and larger amygdala behaved more violently in the face of stress, indicating adopting emotion-focused stress-coping strategies. Conversely, those with low plasma epinephrine, moderate cortisol, and smaller amygdala showed perseverative behavior, indicating a problem-focused coping style. Conclusion: In dealing with the same stress, different responses might be observed from nonhuman primates according to their cortisol and epinephrine levels as well as their amygdala dimensions.

  8. Kidney Function and Plasma Copeptin Levels in Healthy Kidney Donors and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zittema, Debbie; van den Berg, Else; Meijer, Esther; Boertien, Wendy E.; Muller Kobold, Anneke C.; Franssen, Casper F. M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Background and objectives Plasma copeptin, a marker of arginine vasopressin, is elevated in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and predicts disease progression. It is unknown whether elevated copeptin levels result from decreased kidney clearance or as compensation for

  9. Computational analysis of kidney scintigrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrincianu, D.; Puscasu, E.; Creanga, D. [University Al. I. Cuza, Faculty of Physics, 11 Blvd. Carol I, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Stefanescu, C. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy Gr. T. Popa, Iasi (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    The scintigraphic investigation of normal and pathological kidneys was carried out using specialized gamma-camera device from nuclear medicine hospital department. Technetium 90m isotope with gamma radiation emission, coupled with vector molecules for kidney tissues was introduced into the subject body, its dynamics being recorded as data source for kidney clearance capacity. Two representative data series were investigated, corresponding to healthy and pathological organs respectively. The semi-quantitative tests applied for the comparison of the two distinct medical situations were: the shape of probability distribution histogram, the power spectrum, the auto-correlation function and the Lyapunov exponent. While power spectrum led to similar results in both cases, significant differences were revealed by means of distribution probability, Lyapunov exponent and correlation time, recommending these numerical tests as possible complementary tools in clinical diagnosis.

  10. Lethal canine distemper virus outbreak in cynomolgus monkeys in Japan in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kouji; Nagata, Noriyo; Ami, Yasushi; Seki, Fumio; Suzaki, Yuriko; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Tadaki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Otsuki, Noriyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Komase, Katsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Hasegawa, Hideki; Saijo, Masayuki; Takeda, Makoto; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has recently expanded its host range to nonhuman primates. A large CDV outbreak occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi Province, China, in 2006, followed by another outbreak in rhesus monkeys at an animal center in Beijing in 2008. In 2008 in Japan, a CDV outbreak also occurred in cynomolgus monkeys imported from China. In that outbreak, 46 monkeys died from severe pneumonia during a quarantine period. A CDV strain (CYN07-dV) was isolated in Vero cells expressing dog signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). Phylogenic analysis showed that CYN07-dV was closely related to the recent CDV outbreaks in China, suggesting continuing chains of CDV infection in monkeys. In vitro, CYN07-dV uses macaca SLAM and macaca nectin4 as receptors as efficiently as dog SLAM and dog nectin4, respectively. CYN07-dV showed high virulence in experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys and excreted progeny viruses in oral fluid and feces. These data revealed that some of the CDV strains, like CYN07-dV, have the potential to cause acute systemic infection in monkeys.

  11. Geophagy in brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a lowland tropical rainforest in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Andres; de Luna, Ana Gabriela; Arango, Ricardo; Diaz, Maria Clara

    2011-01-01

    Spider monkeys and howler monkeys are the only Neotropical primates that eat soil from mineral licks. Not all species within these genera visit mineral licks, and geophagy has been restricted to populations of Ateles belzebuth belzebuth,Ateles belzebuth chamek and Alouatta seniculus in western Amazonian rainforests. With the aid of a camera trap we studied the visitation patterns of a group of brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) to a mineral lick at Serrania de Las Quinchas, in Colombia. Spider monkeys visited the lick frequently throughout the year, with a monthly average of 21.7 ± 7.2 visits per 100 days of camera trapping (n = 14 months). Spider monkeys visited the mineral lick almost always on days with no rain, or very little (<3 mm) rain, suggesting that proximate environmental variables might determine spider monkeys' decisions to come to the ground at the licks. This study expands the geographical occurrence of mineral lick use by spider monkeys providing additional data for future assessments on the biogeographical correlates of mineral lick use by platyrrhines. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences parallel those of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Janice M.; Siebert, Erin R.; Wallen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Socialization processes, parents, or peers encouraging play with gender specific toys are thought to be the primary force shaping sex differences in toy preference. A contrast in view is that toy preferences reflect biologically determined preferences for specific activities facilitated by specific toys. Sex differences in juvenile activities, such as rough and tumble play, peer preferences, and infant interest, share similarities in humans and monkeys. Thus if activity preferences shape toy preferences, male and female monkeys may show toy preferences similar to those seen in boys and girls. We compared the interactions of 34 rhesus monkeys, living within a 135 monkey troop, with human wheeled toys and plush toys. Male monkeys, like boys, showed consistent and strong preferences for wheeled toys, while female monkeys, like girls, showed greater variability in preferences. Thus, the magnitude of preference for wheeled over plush toys differed significantly between males and females. The similarities to human findings demonstrate that such preferences can develop without explicit gendered socialization. We offer the hypothesis that toy preferences reflect hormonally influenced behavioral and cognitive biases which are sculpted by social processes into the sex differences seen in monkeys and humans. PMID:18452921

  13. The properties of B-form monoamine oxidase in mitochondria from monkey platelet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Toshio; Aomine, Masahiro

    The present study was examined the effect of the properties of monkey platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) based on inhibitor sensitivity. Monkey platelet showed a high MAO activity with beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA) as substrate and a very low A-form MAO activity with 5 hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) as substrate. Moreover, monkey platelet MAO was sensitive to the drugs deprenyl as B-form MAO inhibitor and less sensitive to clorgyline and harmaline as A form MAO inhibitor with beta-PEA as the B-form MAO substrate. B-form MAO from monkey platelet was more stable against heat treatment at 55 degrees C than B-form MAO in brain. After digestion with trypsin at 37 degrees C for 4 hrs, it was found that MAO from platelet was inhibited about 70% with beta-PEA as substrate with brain. The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine and nortriptyline inhibited B-form MAO activity more potency than B-form MAO in brain. However, when the noncyclic antidepressant nomifensine was used, monkey platelet B-form MAO activities were less potently inhibited. All these reagents were noncompetitive inhibitors of B form MAO in monkey platelet. The present studies demonstrated that monkey platelet MAO is a single of B-form MAO and sensitive to tricyclic antidepressants.

  14. Rhesus monkey lens as an in vitro model for studying oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigler, J.S. Jr.; Lucas, V.A.; Du, X.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Lenses from young rhesus monkeys were incubated in the presence of H 2 O 2 or oxygen radical generating systems to determine their suitability as a model for investigating lenticular oxidative stress. Additionally, direct comparisons were made between the effects found with the monkey lenses and those observed with cultured rat lenses exposed to the same oxidizing systems. As in earlier studies with rat lenses the monkey lenses exhibited impaired ability to actively accumulate from the medium radioactively labelled rubidium and choline following exposure to oxidative stress. Based on the effects of various scavengers of oxygen radicals it appeared that the mechanisms responsible for lens damage were the same for both rat and monkey lenses. However, rat lenses were damaged by lower concentrations of oxidants than were monkey lenses. It was concluded that oxidative stress affects both rat and monkey lenses by similar mechanisms but that lenses from monkeys, and probably other primates, are more resistant to these effects because they have better endogenous antioxidant defenses

  15. Monkey-based research on human disease: the implications of genetic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jarrod

    2014-11-01

    Assertions that the use of monkeys to investigate human diseases is valid scientifically are frequently based on a reported 90-93% genetic similarity between the species. Critical analyses of the relevance of monkey studies to human biology, however, indicate that this genetic similarity does not result in sufficient physiological similarity for monkeys to constitute good models for research, and that monkey data do not translate well to progress in clinical practice for humans. Salient examples include the failure of new drugs in clinical trials, the highly different infectivity and pathology of SIV/HIV, and poor extrapolation of research on Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and stroke. The major molecular differences underlying these inter-species phenotypic disparities have been revealed by comparative genomics and molecular biology - there are key differences in all aspects of gene expression and protein function, from chromosome and chromatin structure to post-translational modification. The collective effects of these differences are striking, extensive and widespread, and they show that the superficial similarity between human and monkey genetic sequences is of little benefit for biomedical research. The extrapolation of biomedical data from monkeys to humans is therefore highly unreliable, and the use of monkeys must be considered of questionable value, particularly given the breadth and potential of alternative methods of enquiry that are currently available to scientists. 2014 FRAME.

  16. Sporadic Premature Aging in a Japanese Monkey: A Primate Model for Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Takao; Imai, Hiroo; Go, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Masanori; Hirai, Hirohisa; Takada, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    In our institute, we have recently found a child Japanese monkey who is characterized by deep wrinkles of the skin and cataract of bilateral eyes. Numbers of analyses were performed to identify symptoms representing different aspects of aging. In this monkey, the cell cycle of fibroblasts at early passage was significantly extended as compared to a normal control. Moreover, both the appearance of senescent cells and the deficiency in DNA repair were observed. Also, pathological examination showed that this monkey has poikiloderma with superficial telangiectasia, and biochemical assay confirmed that levels of HbA1c and urinary hyaluronan were higher than those of other (child, adult, and aged) monkey groups. Of particular interest was that our MRI analysis revealed expansion of the cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles probably due to shrinkage of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, the conduction velocity of a peripheral sensory but not motor nerve was lower than in adult and child monkeys, and as low as in aged monkeys. However, we could not detect any individual-unique mutations of known genes responsible for major progeroid syndromes. The present results indicate that the monkey suffers from a kind of progeria that is not necessarily typical to human progeroid syndromes. PMID:25365557

  17. Coumarin–pyrene conjugate: Synthesis, structure and Cu-selective fluorescent sensing in mammalian kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, Manzoor Ahmad [Department of Chemistry, Dr. H. S. Gour Central University Sagar, MP 470003 (India); Singh, Pankaj Kumar [Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Pandey, Rampal, E-mail: rpvimlesh@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dr. H. S. Gour Central University Sagar, MP 470003 (India); Pandey, Mrituanjay D., E-mail: mdpandey@dhsgsu.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Dr. H. S. Gour Central University Sagar, MP 470003 (India)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, we report a coumarin–pyrene based fluorescent probes (E)-7-(diethylamino)-3-((pyren-1-ylimino)methyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and (E)-7-(diethylamino)-3-((pyren-1-ylmethylimino)methyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (2) for the selective detection of Cu{sup 2+} ion. Receptor 1 upon binding with Cu{sup 2+} exhibited substantial fluorescence quenching as a detection response. Probe 1 induces green fluorescence in a cell lines derived from monkey kidney tissue and subsequent quenching of fluorescence in these cells manifest that 1 can probably be used as a potential fluorescent sensor for the detection of Cu{sup 2+} in biological samples too. However, 2 does not reveal any significant fluorescence change in presence of different metal ions. It is assumed that conjugation might be accountable for the discrete fluorescent behavior of 1 and 2.

  18. HIV and chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Naicker, Saraladevi; Rahmania, Sadaf; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent complication of HIV infection, occurring in 3.5 – 48.5%, and occurs as a complication of HIV infection, other co-morbid disease and infections and as a consequence of therapy of HIV infection and its complications. The classic involvement of the kidney by HIV infection is HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), occurring typically in young adults of African ancestry with advanced HIV disease in association with APOL1 high-risk variants. HIV-immune comple...

  19. Spectrometric kidney depth measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, P.; Soussaline, F.; Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    The method proposed uses the single posterior surface measurement of the kidney radioactivity distribution. The ratio C/P of the number of scattered photons to the number of primary photons, which is a function of the tissue depth penetrated, is calculated for a given region. The parameters on which the C/P value depends are determined from studies on phantoms. On the basis of these results the kidney depth was measured on a series of 13 patients and a correlation was established between the value thus calculated and that obtained by the profile method. The reproducibility of the method is satisfactory [fr

  20. [Kidney transplantation epidemiology in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesse, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Kidney transplantation activity in France is among the most important worldwide: in 2011, 2976 transplants have been performed (47.5 per million population), and the number of patients living with a functional graft is estimated around 30,000, representing 44.7% of all patients (n = 67,270) treated for end-stage renal failure. However, the rate of preemptive kidney transplants remains very low, only 3.3% of incident patients starting renal replacement therapy. The analysis of demand showed a progressive increase in recent years, as demonstrated by the registration rate on the kidney transplantation waiting list, increasing by 5% yearly between 2006 and 2010, but with huge differences according to age categories and regional registration areas, reflecting discrepant appreciations in indications for kidney transplantation. The median waiting time between registration and transplantation increased progressively in recent years, reaching 22.3 months with considerable variations according to regional areas and transplantation teams. Kidney transplantation activity, while increasing continuously, is far to cover the rising demand, and inexorably patients accumulate on the waiting list (around 9000 patients were registered by January 2012). This situation is the consequence of insufficient organ procurement activity. The deceased organ procurement rate remained high: 1572 harvested donors in 2011 (24.1 per million population), but the proportion of older donors rose in recent years, to reach the rate of 26% of donors older than 65 years in 2011. The procurement activity of donors after cardiac arrest was reintroduced in 2006, but increased slowly: 65 transplants were performed in 2011 using kidney procured in non heart-beating donors. The living donor kidney transplantation activity has markedly increased recently: 302 living donor transplantations were performed in 2011, representing 10.1% of the kidney transplantations. Facing the predictable increase in the number of

  1. Epidermoid cyst in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Saral; Thakur, Sudeep; Menon, Santosh; Desai, Sangeeta B

    2011-09-01

    We report an extremely rare case of an epidermoid cyst in the kidney of a 74-year-old man who had presented with painless hematuria. Radiologic examination revealed a cyst in the kidney that was thought to be neoplastic. The patient underwent surgery to remove the cyst, and we received the nephrectomy specimen. A 6-cm cyst with no solid areas was seen. On histologic examination, this was an epidermoid cyst. We reviewed the published data and discuss the possible theories of origin of this rare condition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of UGT2B9*2 and UGT2B33 isolated from female rhesus monkey liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Brian; Arison, Byron; Chang, Steve; Thomas, Paul E; King, Christopher

    2004-06-01

    Two UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT2B9(*)2 and UGT2B33) have been isolated from female rhesus monkey liver. Microsomal preparations of the cell lines expressing the UGTs catalyzed the glucuronidation of the general substrate 7-hydroxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin in addition to selected estrogens (beta-estradiol and estriol) and opioids (morphine, naloxone, and naltrexone). UGT2B9(*)2 displayed highest efficiency for beta-estradiol-17-glucuronide production and did not catalyze the glucuronidation of naltrexone. UGT2B33 displayed highest efficiency for estriol and did not catalyze the glucuronidation of beta-estradiol. UGT2B9(*)2 was found also to catalyze the glucuronidation of 4-hydroxyestrone, 16-epiestriol, and hyodeoxycholic acid, while UGT2B33 was capable of conjugating 4-hydroxyestrone, androsterone, diclofenac, and hyodeoxycholic acid. Three glucocorticoids (cortisone, cortisol, and corticosterone) were not substrates for glucuronidation by liver or kidney microsomes or any expressed UGTs. Our current data suggest the use of beta-estradiol-3-glucuronidation, beta-estradiol-17-glucuronidation, and estriol-17-glucuronidation to assay UGT1A01, UGT2B9(*)2, and UGT2B33 activity in rhesus liver microsomes, respectively.

  3. Clinical approach to kidney disease in kidney recipients in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Campistol

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: Secondary markers and factors resulting in CKD progression, particularly anemia, are still frequently uncontrolled after kidney transplantation. Only about 2% of patients benefit from a therapeutic intervention based on a biopsy. Clinical perception differs from objective measures, which results in an obvious clinical inertia regarding risk factor control in such patients.

  4. Tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp) learning how to crack nuts: does variability decline throughout development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Briseida Dogo; Nagy-Reis, Mariana Baldy; Lacerda, Fernanda Neves; Pagnotta, Murillo; Savalli, Carine

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the process of nut-cracking acquisition in a semi-free population of tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp) in São Paulo, Brazil. We analyzed the cracking episodes from monkeys of different ages and found that variability of actions related to cracking declined. Inept movements were more frequent in juveniles, which also showed an improvement on efficient striking. The most effective behavioral sequence for cracking was more frequently used by the most experienced monkeys, which also used non-optimal sequences. Variability in behavior sequences and actions may allow adaptive changes to behavior under changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Widespread and evolutionary analysis of a MITE family Monkey King in Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shutao; Hou, Jinna; Long, Yan; Wang, Jing; Li, Cong; Xiao, Qinqin; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling

    2015-06-19

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are important components of eukaryotic genomes, with hundreds of families and many copies, which may play important roles in gene regulation and genome evolution. However, few studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms involved. In our previous study, a Tourist-like MITE, Monkey King, was identified from the promoter region of a flowering time gene, BnFLC.A10, in Brassica napus. Based on this MITE, the characteristics and potential roles on gene regulation of the MITE family were analyzed in Brassicaceae. The characteristics of the Tourist-like MITE family Monkey King in Brassicaceae, including its distribution, copies and insertion sites in the genomes of major Brassicaceae species were analyzed in this study. Monkey King was actively amplified in Brassica after divergence from Arabidopsis, which was indicated by the prompt increase in copy number and by phylogenetic analysis. The genomic variations caused by Monkey King insertions, both intra- and inter-species in Brassica, were traced by PCR amplification. Genomic sequence analysis showed that most complete Monkey King elements are located in gene-rich regions, less than 3kb from genes, in both the B. rapa and A. thaliana genomes. Sixty-seven Brassica expressed sequence tags carrying Monkey King fragments were also identified from the NCBI database. Bisulfite sequencing identified specific DNA methylation of cytosine residues in the Monkey King sequence. A fragment containing putative TATA-box motifs in the MITE sequence could bind with nuclear protein(s) extracted from leaves of B. napus plants. A Monkey King-related microRNA, bna-miR6031, was identified in the microRNA database. In transgenic A. thaliana, when the Monkey King element was inserted upstream of 35S promoter, the promoter activity was weakened. Monkey King, a Brassicaceae Tourist-like MITE family, has amplified relatively recently and has induced intra- and inter-species genomic

  6. Nature of the Refractive Errors in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Experimentally Induced Ametropias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao-Grider, Ying; Hung, Li-Fang; Kee, Chea-su; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Smith, Earl L.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the contribution of individual ocular components to vision-induced ametropias in 210 rhesus monkeys. The primary contribution to refractive-error development came from vitreous chamber depth; a minor contribution from corneal power was also detected. However, there was no systematic relationship between refractive error and anterior chamber depth or between refractive error and any crystalline lens parameter. Our results are in good agreement with previous studies in humans, suggesting that the refractive errors commonly observed in humans are created by vision-dependent mechanisms that are similar to those operating in monkeys. This concordance emphasizes the applicability of rhesus monkeys in refractive-error studies. PMID:20600237

  7. Aging changes in the kidneys and bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect kidney function. COMMON PROBLEMS Aging increases the risk of kidney and bladder problems such as: Bladder control issues, such as leakage or urinary incontinence (not being able to hold your urine), or ...

  8. Tailor-Made Live Kidney Donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.W.J. Klop (Karel)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis describes several aspects of live kidney donation, such as surgical techniques, cost-effectivity, cosmetics en quality of life. Kidney transplantation offer several benefits when compared to dialysis. These benefits include better recipient and graft

  9. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... not listed here. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Afinitor (Everolimus) Aldesleukin Avastin (Bevacizumab) Axitinib Bevacizumab Cabometyx ( ...

  10. Health Literacy of Living Kidney Donors and Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dageforde, Leigh Anne; Petersen, Alec W.; Feurer, Irene D.; Cavanaugh, Kerri L.; Harms, Kelly A.; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M.; Moore, Derek E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health literacy (HL) may be a mediator for known socioeconomic and racial disparities in living kidney donation. Methods We evaluated the associations of patient and demographic characteristics with HL in living kidney donors (LD), living donor kidney transplant recipients (LDR), and deceased donor recipients (DDR) in a single center retrospective review of patients undergoing kidney donation or transplantation from September 2010 to July 2012. HL and demographic data were collected. HL was assessed via the Short Literacy Survey (SLS) comprising three self-reported screening questions scored using the 5-point Likert scale [low (3-8), moderate (9-14), high (15)]. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to test factors associated with lower HL. Results The sample included 360 adults (105 LD, 103 LDR, 152 DDR; 46±14 years; 70% white; 56% male; 14±3 years of education). HL scores were skewed (49% high, 41% moderate, 10% low). The distribution of HL categories differed significantly among groups (p=0.019). After controlling for age, race, gender, education and a race-education interaction term, DDR were more likely to have moderate or low HL than LDR (OR 1.911; 95%CI 1.096, 3.332; p=0.022) Conclusions Overall, living donors had high HL. The distribution of low, moderate and high HL differed significantly between LD, DDR and LDR. DDR had a higher likelihood of having low HL than LDR. Screening kidney transplant candidates and donors for lower HL may identify barriers to living donation. Future interventions addressing HL may be important to increase living donation and reduce disparities. PMID:24573114

  11. To evaluate vascular complications of transplant kidney examined by multislice spiral CT angiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Qian; Fan Miao; Luo Xiaomei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of multislice CT angiography (MSCTA) in vascular complications of transplant kidney. Methods: Six transplant kidneys were undergone enhanced MSCT scanning postoperation. MPR, CPR, VR and VP reformation were performed to observe transplant kidney's parenchyma, renal artery, and renal vein. To analysis all the reconstruction technique and find the advantage and shortage of them. Results: One case showed enhanced function of transplant kidney decreased. Vascular stenosis was found in one case and false aneurysm was found in another transplant kidney. Transplant kidney were enhanced normal in the left three cases. MPR couldn't reconstruct all the tortuous vessel of renal hilus in one plane. But all six cases could expose the vessel of renal hilus very clearly in coronal section and sagittal plane of CPR. Six cases of VR could observe the vessel direction and lesions outside vessel through rotate the reconstruction image. VP could see through inside the vessel of transplant kidney. Conclusion: MSCTA has an important role as an imaging technique to evaluate vascular complications of transplant kidney, it can replace DSA. (authors)

  12. Photoacoustic imaging for assessing ischemic kidney damage in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndl, Elizabeth S. L.; He, Xiaolin; Yuen, Darren A.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2018-02-01

    Ischemic reperfusion injuries (IRIs) occur after blood returns to a tissue or organ after a period without oxygen or nutrients, which causes an inflammatory response leading to heterogeneous scarring of the nearby tissue and vasculature. This is associated with long-term decreases blood flow, and necrosis. Although most commonly associated with heart attacks and strokes, IRIs are also a side effect of organ transplants, when the organ is reperfused in the recipient's body after being transported from the donor to the transplant hospital. Currently, the optimal method of monitoring for IRI is limited to biopsies, which are invasive and poorly monitor the spatial heterogeneity of the damage. To non-invasively identify changes in kidneys, the left renal artery in mice (n=3) was clamped for 45 minutes to create an IRI event. Both kidneys of each animal were monitored using photoacoustics (PA) with the VevoLAZR system (Fujifilm-VisualSonics, Toronto) three, four and eight weeks after surgery. IRI-treated kidneys show increased picosirius red staining, indicative of collagen (0.601 vs 0.042, p < 0.0001), decreased size as assessed by cross-sectional area (7.8 mm2 vs 35.9 mm2 , p < 0.0001), and decreased oxygen saturation (sO2; 62% vs 77%, p = 0.02). Analysis of the photoacoustic data shows that a two-point metric, the 715:930 nm ratio of the whole kidney (1.05 vs 0.57, p = 0.049) and the optical spectral slope (OSS) (0.8 * 10-3 vs 3.0 * 10-3, p = 0.013) are both able to differentiate between IRI-treated and healthy kidneys. These data suggest that photoacoustics can be used as a non-invasive method to observe in vivo changes in the kidney due to IRI.

  13. Acute Kidney Injury in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Palevsky, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis The aging kidney undergoes a number of important anatomic and physiologic changes that increase the risk of acute kidney injury (formerly acute renal failure) in the elderly. This article reviews these changes and discusses the diagnoses frequently encountered in the elderly patient with acute kidney injury. The incidence, staging, evaluation, management, and prognosis of acute kidney injury are also examined with special focus given to older adults. PMID:19765485

  14. Skin changes in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M. Przepiórka-Kosińska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease causes skin changes which may sometimes be the first sign of kidney failure. Specific skin changes include acquired perforating dermatosis, porphyria cutanea tarda, pseudoporphyria, calcinosis and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The majority of patients present with cutaneous manifestations which are classified as non-specific, including xerosis, pruritus, pigmentation disturbances, nail plate abnormalities, uraemic frost and gynaecomastia. Treatment improving kidney function (dialysis therapy or kidney transplantation also leads to the resolution of skin lesions.

  15. Asymmetric Dichoptic Masking in Visual Cortex of Amblyopic Macaque Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooner, Christopher; Hallum, Luke E; Kumbhani, Romesh D; García-Marín, Virginia; Kelly, Jenna G; Majaj, Najib J; Movshon, J Anthony; Kiorpes, Lynne

    2017-09-06

    In amblyopia, abnormal visual experience leads to an extreme form of eye dominance, in which vision through the nondominant eye is degraded. A key aspect of this disorder is perceptual suppression: the image seen by the stronger eye often dominates during binocular viewing, blocking the image of the weaker eye from reaching awareness. Interocular suppression is the focus of ongoing work aimed at understanding and treating amblyopia, yet its physiological basis remains unknown. We measured binocular interactions in visual cortex of anesthetized amblyopic monkeys (female Macaca nemestrina ), using 96-channel "Utah" arrays to record from populations of neurons in V1 and V2. In an experiment reported recently (Hallum et al., 2017), we found that reduced excitatory input from the amblyopic eye (AE) revealed a form of balanced binocular suppression that is unaltered in amblyopia. Here, we report on the modulation of the gain of excitatory signals from the AE by signals from its dominant fellow eye (FE). Using a dichoptic masking technique, we found that AE responses to grating stimuli were attenuated by the presentation of a noise mask to the FE, as in a normal control animal. Responses to FE stimuli, by contrast, could not be masked from the AE. We conclude that a weakened ability of the amblyopic eye to modulate cortical response gain creates an imbalance of suppression that favors the dominant eye. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In amblyopia, vision in one eye is impaired as a result of abnormal early visual experience. Behavioral observations in humans with amblyopia suggest that much of their visual loss is due to active suppression of their amblyopic eye. Here we describe experiments in which we studied binocular interactions in macaques with experimentally induced amblyopia. In normal monkeys, the gain of neuronal response to stimulation of one eye is modulated by contrast in the other eye, but in monkeys with amblyopia the balance of gain modulation is altered so that

  16. Tahyna virus genetics, infectivity, and immunogenicity in mice and monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tahyna virus (TAHV is a human pathogen of the California encephalitis virus (CEV serogroup (Bunyaviridae endemic to Europe, Asia, and Africa. TAHV maintains an enzootic life cycle with several species of mosquito vectors and hares, rabbits, hedgehogs, and rodents serving as small mammal amplifying hosts. Human TAHV infection occurs in summer and early fall with symptoms of fever, headache, malaise, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and nausea. TAHV disease can progress to CNS involvement, although unlike related La Crosse virus (LACV, fatalities have not been reported. Human infections are frequent with neutralizing antibodies present in 60-80% of the elderly population in endemic areas. Results In order to determine the genomic sequence of wild-type TAHV, we chose three TAHV isolates collected over a 26-year period from mosquitoes. Here we present the first complete sequence of the TAHV S, M, and L segments. The three TAHV isolates maintained a highly conserved genome with both nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity greater than 99%. In order to determine the extent of genetic relatedness to other members of the CEV serogroup, we compared protein sequences of TAHV with LACV, Snowshoe Hare virus (SSHV, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV, and Inkoo virus (INKV. By amino acid comparison, TAHV was most similar to SSHV followed by LACV, JCV, and INKV. The sequence of the GN protein is most conserved followed by L, N, GC, NSS, and NSM. In a weanling Swiss Webster mouse model, all three TAHV isolates were uniformly neurovirulent, but only one virus was neuroinvasive. In rhesus monkeys, the virus was highly immunogenic even in the absence of viremia. Cross neutralization studies utilizing monkey immune serum demonstrated that TAHV is antigenically distinct from North American viruses LACV and JCV. Conclusions Here we report the first complete sequence of TAHV and present genetic analysis of new-world viruses, LACV, SSHV, and JCV with old

  17. Non-Linear Relationships between Aflatoxin B1 Levels and the Biological Response of Monkey Kidney Vero Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel Friedman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during pre-harvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, aflatoxins (AFs accumulate in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. Most human exposure to AF seems to be a result of consumption of contaminated plant and animal products. The policy of blending and dilution of grain containing higher levels of aflatoxins with uncontaminated grains for use in animal feed implicitly assumes that the deleterious effects of low levels of the toxins are linearly correlated to concentration. This assumption may not be justified, since it involves extrapolation of these nontoxic levels in feed, which are not of further concern. To develop a better understanding of the significance of low dose effects, in the present study, we developed quantitative methods for the detection of biologically active aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 in Vero cells by two independent assays: the green fluorescent protein (GFP assay, as a measure of protein synthesis by the cells, and the microculture tetrazolium (MTT assay, as a measure of cell viability. The results demonstrate a non-linear dose-response relationship at the cellular level. AFB1 at low concentrations has an opposite biological effect to higher doses that inhibit protein synthesis. Additional studies showed that heat does not affect the stability of AFB1 in milk and that the Vero cell model can be used to determine the presence of bioactive AFB1 in spiked beef, lamb and turkey meat. The implication of the results for the cumulative effects of low amounts of AFB1 in numerous foods is discussed.

  18. Light-induced translocation of Pyronine G from mitochondria to nucleoli in monkey kidney CV-1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geze, Marc; Dellinger, M.; Bazin, M.; Santus, Rene C.

    1996-12-01

    Pyronine G (3,6-bis-N,N-dimethylaminoxanthylium chloride; PG) is a cationic dye that concentrates in mitochondria of living cells due to the high membrane potential of these organelles, similarly to rhodamine 123 and many other cationic dyes. Pyronine G also shows a preferential affinity for RNA. Upon light irradiation PG has been shown to induce cell death, but the photosensitizing properties of this molecule and the mechanism of cell death are not well understood. Microfluorometry and most particularly microspectrofluorometry are now powerful non-invasive techniques for quantitative studies of single living cells in real time which allow, for example, knowing how living cells are affected by photosensitization. To demonstrate the usefulness of image acquisition with high resolution and high sensitive camera, we present data on photosensitizer relocalization during illumination leading to functional and structural damage in the cells.

  19. Non-linear relationships between aflatoxin B1 levels and the biological response of monkey kidney vero cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin (AF)-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during preharvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, AF accumulates in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. At least 20 different types of AFs have been identified, and of these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most ubiqui...

  20. Kidney regeneration and repair after transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Franquesa (Marcella); M. Flaquer (Maria); J.M. Cruzado; J. Grinyo (Josep)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To briefly show which are the mechanisms and cell types involved in kidney regeneration and describe some of the therapies currently under study in regenerative medicine for kidney transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: The kidney contains cell progenitors that under