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Sample records for monkey kidney sections

  1. Immunocytochemical localization of L-alpha-hydroxyacid oxidase in dense bar of dumb-bell-shaped peroxisomes of monkey kidney.

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    Yokota, S; Hashimoto, T

    1995-07-01

    Localization of the B of L-alpha hydroxyacid oxidase (HOX-B) in monkey kidney peroxisomes was investigated by immunoelectron microscopic techniques. Kidneys of Japanese monkeys, Macaca fuscata, were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde + 0.25% glutaraldehyde and embedded in LR White resin. Thin sections were stained for HOX-B and catalase by the immunogold technique. HOX-B was localized in the marginal plates of normal peroxisomes and the dense bar of dumb-bell-shaped peroxisomes. Catalase was detected in the matrix of normal peroxisomes and in the terminal dilatations of dumb-bell-shaped peroxisomes. There were no gold particles indicating presence of catalase associated with the marginal plates or with the dense bars. Immunoblot analysis of monkey kidney homogenate showed that HOX-B has a molecular mass of 42 kDa that was slightly larger than that of rat kidney HOX-B (39 kDa). The results show that the dense bar of dumb-bell-shaped peroxisomes in monkey kidney is composed of at least HOX-B and is a variation of the marginal plates.

  2. Immunohistochemical identification of kidney nephron segments in the dog, rat, mouse, and cynomolgus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchet, Anne-Laure; Masson, Regis; Guffroy, Magali; Slaoui, Mohamed

    2011-12-01

    Kidney is a major target organ in preclinical studies. In recent years, intense research has been undertaken to characterize novel renal toxicity biomarkers. In this context, we studied nephron segment specific antibodies against aquaporin-1 (AQP-1), α-glutathione-S-transferase (alpha-GST), Tamm-Horsfall protein (TH), calbindin-D(28K) (CalD), and aquaporin-2 (AQP-2), using an immunoperoxidase method on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded kidney tissues of dogs, rats, mice, and Cynomolgus monkeys. AQP-1 was specific for proximal tubules and thin descending limbs of Henle's loops and AQP-2 for connecting and collecting ducts in dogs, rats, mice, and Cynomolgus monkeys. Alpha-GST stained the straight part of proximal tubules in dogs and proximal convoluted tubule and straight part of proximal tubules in rats. TH was specific for thick ascending limbs of Henle's loops in mice, rats, dogs, and Cynomolgus monkeys and stained additionally scattered cells in cortical connecting/collecting ducts of dogs. CalD was found in distal convoluted tubules and cortical connecting and collecting ducts of dogs, rats, and mice and in distal convoluted tubules, connecting ducts, and cortical and medullary collecting ducts of Cynomolgus monkey. This panel of antibodies may be a helpful tool to identify renal tubules by light microscopy in preclinical studies and to validate new biomarkers of renal toxicity.

  3. Effect of monensin on Mayaro virus replication in monkey kidney and Aedes albopictus cells.

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    De Campos, R M; Ferreira, D F; Da Veiga, V F; Rebello, M A; Rebello, M C S

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a cationic ionophore, monensin, on the replication of Mayaro virus in monkey kidney TC7 and Aedes albopictus cells has been studied. Treatment of these cells with 1 micromol/l monensin during infection did not affect the virus protein synthesis but inhibited severely the virus replication. Electron microscopy of the cells infected with Mayaro virus and treated with monensin revealed that the morphogenesis of Mayaro virus was impaired in TC7 but not in A. albopictus cells.

  4. Early cytoplasmic vacuolization of African green monkey kidney cells by SV40.

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    Miyamura, T; Kitahara, T

    1975-01-01

    As early as 3--4 hours after infection with SV40 at a high input multiplicity, African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cells developed cytoplasmic vacuolization. At 10--20 hours after infection, the vacuolization reached its maximal level, then disappeared and SV40 specific cytopathic change followed. This vacuolization developed before the synthesis of the specific T and V antigens. This early cytoplasmic vacuolization (ECV) was prevented by preincubating the virus with specific antiserum, or by heating the virus with MgCl2. The ECV could be induced by UV-irradiated SV40. Addition of metabolic inhibitors had no effect on the induction of the ECV. These results suggest that the capacity to induce the ECV resides in a structural component(s) of SV40 virion and the vacuolization is not associated with the replication of SV40.

  5. Early cytoplasmic vacuolization of African green monkey kidney cells by SV40. [uv radiation

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    Miyamura, T.; Kitahara, T.

    1975-01-01

    As early as 3 to 4 hours after infection with SV 40 at a high input multiplicity, African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cells developed cytoplasmic vacuolization. At 10 to 20 hours after infection, the vacuolization reached its maximal level, then disappeared and SV 40 specific cytopathic change followed. This vacuolization developed before the synthesis of the specific T and V antigens. This early cytoplasmic vacuolization (ECV) was prevented by pre-incubating the virus with specific antiserum, or by heating the virus with MgCl/sub 2/. The ECV could be induced by uv-irradiated SV 40. Addition of metabolic inhibitors had no effect on the induction of the ECV. These results suggest that the capacity to induce the ECV resides in a structural component(s) of SV 40 virion and the vacuolization is not associated with the replication of SV 40.

  6. Propagation of human hepatitis A virus in African green monkey kidney cell culture: primary isolation and serial passage.

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    Daemer, R J; Feinstone, S M; Gust, I D; Purcell, R H

    1981-01-01

    Human hepatitis A virus (HAV) was propagated in primary African Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cell cultures. Three strains of HAV were used: MS-1, SD-11, and HM-175. Cells were inoculated with marmoset-passaged material or human clinical specimens and were stained by direct immunofluorescence to establish the identity of the virus. Both clinical samples and marmoset-passaged material produced immunofluorescence. HAV antigen was found scattered throughout the cytoplasm of...

  7. Completion of the Entire Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle in Vero Cells Derived from Monkey Kidney

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    Asako Murayama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A hepatitis C virus (HCV cell culture system incorporating the JFH-1 strain and the human hepatoma cell line HuH-7 enabled the production of infectious HCV particles. Several host factors were identified as essential for HCV replication. Supplementation of these factors in nonhepatic human cell lines enabled HCV replication and particle production. Vero cells established from monkey kidney are commonly used for the production of vaccines against a variety of viruses. In this study, we aimed to establish a novel Vero cell line to reconstruct the HCV life cycle. Unmodified Vero cells did not allow HCV infection or replication. The expression of microRNA 122 (miR-122, an essential factor for HCV replication, is notably low in Vero cells. Therefore, we supplemented Vero cells with miR-122 and found that HCV replication was enhanced. However, Vero cells that expressed miR-122 still did not allow HCV infection. We supplemented HCV receptor molecules and found that scavenger receptor class B type I (SRBI was essential for HCV infection in Vero cells. The supplementation of apolipoprotein E (ApoE, a host factor important for virus production, enabled the production of infectious virus in Vero cells. Finally, we created a Vero cell line that expressed the essential factors miR-122, SRBI, and ApoE; the entire HCV life cycle, including infection, replication, and infectious virus production, was completed in these cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that miR-122, SRBI, and ApoE were necessary and sufficient for the completion of the entire HCV life cycle in nonhuman, nonhepatic Vero cells.

  8. Effect of input multiplicity on the establishment of simian virus 40 persistent infections in rhesus monkey kidney cells.

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    Norkin, L C

    1977-12-01

    Monolayer cultures of LLC-MK2 rhesus monkey kidney cells become persistently infected with simian virus 40 after infection at input multiplicities of 100, 10, or 1 plaque-forming unit per cell. After 3 weeks, all cells of the cultures infected at a multiplicity of 1 plaque-forming unit per cell produced the simian virus 40 T antigen. In contrast, 8 to 11 weeks elapsed before all the cells in the cultures infected at a multiplicity of 100 plaque-forming units per cell produced T antigen. Defective interfering particles and interferon production were not evident during this time.

  9. PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN KIDNEY DONORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Jayakumar Edathedathe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  10. Propagation of human hepatitis A virus in African green monkey kidney cell culture: primary isolation and serial passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemer, R J; Feinstone, S M; Gust, I D; Purcell, R H

    1981-04-01

    Human hepatitis A virus (HAV) was propagated in primary African Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cell cultures. Three strains of HAV were used: MS-1, SD-11, and HM-175. Cells were inoculated with marmoset-passaged material or human clinical specimens and were stained by direct immunofluorescence to establish the identity of the virus. Both clinical samples and marmoset-passaged material produced immunofluorescence. HAV antigen was found scattered throughout the cytoplasm of inoculated cultures. The HM-175 strain produced the most intense immunofluorescence. This strain of HAV had been serially passaged in cell culture seven times. Blocking experiments with paired human sera from naturally acquired HAV infections and hyperimmune chimpanzee serum from an experimentally infected animal established that the immunofluorescence was specific. The viral antigen was found to be exclusively intracellular. The interval to maximum HAV antigen expression was decreased by serial passage. The HAV strain described herein, which was recovered directly from the stool specimen of a patient with HAV in primary AGMK cell culture, may prove useful as a source of antigen for serological tests and as a candidate vaccine strain.

  11. Prophylactic orthosteric inhibition of leukocyte integrin CD11b/CD18 prevents long-term fibrotic kidney failure in cynomolgus monkeys

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    Dehnadi, Abbas; Benedict Cosimi, A.; Neal Smith, Rex; Li, Xiangen; Alonso, José L.; Means, Terry K.; Arnaout, M. Amin

    2017-01-01

    Ischaemic acute kidney injury (AKI), an inflammatory disease process, often progresses to chronic kidney disease (CKD), with no available effective prophylaxis. This is in part due to lack of clinically relevant CKD models in non-human primates. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of the archetypal innate immune receptor CD11b/CD18 prevents progression of AKI to CKD in cynomolgus monkeys. Severe ischaemia-reperfusion injury of the right kidney, with subsequent periods of the left ureter ligation, causes irreversible right kidney failure 3, 6 or 9 months after AKI. Moreover, prophylactic inactivation of CD11b/CD18, using the orthosteric CD11b/CD18 inhibitor mAb107, improves microvascular perfusion and histopathology, reduces intrarenal pro-inflammatory mediators and salvages kidney function long term. These studies reveal an important early role of CD11b+ leukocytes in post-ischaemic kidney fibrosis and failure, and suggest a potential early therapeutic intervention to mitigate progression of ischaemic AKI to CKD in humans. PMID:28071653

  12. A novel fully human anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, 4D11, for kidney transplantation in cynomolgus monkeys.

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    Imai, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tomomi; Sugitani, Atsushi; Itoh, Tomoo; Ueki, Shinya; Aoyagi, Takeshi; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Miura, Toru; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Todo, Satoru

    2007-10-27

    CD40-CD154 pathway blockade by anti-CD154 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) significantly prolongs allograft survival in nonhuman primates. However, thromboembolic complications have prevented clinical application. Thus, blockade of the counter molecule by a novel fully human anti-CD40 mAb, 4D11, is an attractive alternative. Kidney transplantations were performed between outbred cynomolgus monkeys (stimulation index >3 in a mixed lymphocyte reaction). The animals were divided into five groups: nontreatment control (Group 1, n=3), 10-week treatment with either 10 mg/kg (Group 2, n=3), 20 mg/kg (Group 3, n=3), or 40 mg/kg (Group 4, n=1), and 4-week treatment (Group 5, n=1 each) with 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, or 40 mg/kg followed by monthly administration. Graft survival, biochemistry, complete blood counts, lymphocyte phenotypes, blood drug levels, antidonor and antidrug antibodies, and renal histology were examined. Survival (days) was as follows: Group 1 (5, 6, 7), Group 2 (150, 108, 108), Group 3 (84, 108, 379), Group 4 (147), and Group 5 (147, 102, 112). Two animals in Group 3 with normal graft function were killed upon development of hydronephrosis and cerebral infarction. B lymphocytes fell to one-third of the preoperative value at 4 weeks after transplantation in all animals. Antidonor antibodies developed in most of the animals after stopping drug treatment or at the time of death. No animals except for one formed anti-4D11 antibody. 4D11 appears to be a promising agent for antirejection treatment in clinical organ transplantation.

  13. Polycystic Kidney Disease

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    ... Kidney Disease Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) Related Topics Section Navigation Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Amyloidosis & ... for a Child with Kidney Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Failure Choosing a ...

  14. Simple Kidney Cysts

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    ... Information Kidney Disease Simple Kidney Cysts Related Topics Section Navigation Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Amyloidosis & ... for a Child with Kidney Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Failure Choosing a ...

  15. Rhesus monkeys kidney cells persistently infected with Simian Virus 40: production of defective interfering virus and acquisition of the transformed phenotype.

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    Norkin, L C

    1976-09-01

    Monolayer cultures of LLC-MK2 rhesus monkey kidney cells became persistently infected with simian virus 40 (SV40) when infected at a multiplicity of infection of 100 plaque-forming units/cell. A stable carrier state developed characterized by extensive viral proliferation without obvious cytopathic effect other than the slow growth of these cultures. By 11 weeks all cells produced the SV40 T antigen. In contrast, less than 5% of the cells produced V antigen. Virus-free clonal isolates were obtained by cloning in SV40 antiserum. Continuous cultivation in antiserum resulted in a temporary cure of unclone cultures. When virus did eventually reappear in the "cured" cultures the titers remained low. The virus produced by the carrier culture was defective at both 31 and 37% c, and it interfered with the growth of standard s40 during mixed infection of CV-1 green monkey kidney cells. All of the interfering activity in carrier culture homogenates could be sedimented by centrifugation at 109,000 x g for 3 h. These cultures were completely susceptible to vesicular stomatitis virus. Extensive viral deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis occurred in CV-1 cells infected with carrier culture virus. Carrier culture homogenates are only slightly less cytopathic to CV-1 cells than standard SV40. The carrier culture express several properties of SV40 transformation.

  16. Injury to a transplanted kidney during caesarean section: a case report.

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    Shrestha, Badri Man; Throssell, David; McKane, William; Raftery, Andrew Thomas

    2007-06-01

    As fertility is restored after renal transplant, more female recipients of a renal transplant successfully complete pregnancies that are safe for the mother, the fetus, and the renal allograft. Although the transplanted kidney lies in one of the iliac fossae, normal vaginal delivery is not impeded by this positioning. Caesarean section is indicated in many scenarios, primarily for obstetric reasons, particularly when the transplanted kidney lies in a position where it could be injured. Here, we report our experiences managing a rare instance of injury to a transplanted kidney during caesarean section and discuss the relevant aspects of its management. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the English literature of an injury to a transplanted kidney during caesarean section.

  17. Pain Medicines and Kidney Damage

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    ... Kidney Disease Pain Medicine & Kidney Damage Related Topics Section Navigation Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Amyloidosis & ... for a Child with Kidney Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Failure Choosing a ...

  18. Depth-section imaging of swine kidney by spectrally encoded microscopy

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    Liao, Jiuling; Gao, Wanrong

    2016-10-01

    The kidneys are essential regulatory organs whose main function is to regulate the balance of electrolytes in the blood, along with maintaining pH homeostasis. The study of the microscopic structure of the kidney will help identify kidney diseases associated with specific renal histology change. Spectrally encoded microscopy (SEM) is a new reflectance microscopic imaging technique in which a grating is used to illuminate different positions along a line on the sample with different wavelengths, reducing the size of system and imaging time. In this paper, a SEM device is described which is based on a super luminescent diode source and a home-built spectrometer. The lateral resolution was measured by imaging the USAF resolution target. The axial response curve was obtained as a reflect mirror was scanned through the focal plane axially. In order to test the feasibility of using SEM for depth-section imaging of an excised swine kidney tissue, the images of the samples were acquired by scanning the sample at 10 μm per step along the depth direction. Architectural features of the kidney tissue could be clearly visualized in the SEM images, including glomeruli and blood vessels. Results from this study suggest that SEM may be useful for locating regions with probabilities of kidney disease or cancer.

  19. Advantages of COS-1 monkey kidney epithelial cells as packaging host for small-volume production of high-quality recombinant lentiviruses.

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    Smith, Shannon L; Shioda, Toshi

    2009-04-01

    The HEK293T human embryonic kidney cells have been used widely as a packaging host for transfection-based production of recombinant lentiviruses. The present study describes advantages of using COS-1 African green monkey kidney cells versus HEK293T cells as a packaging host for small-volume production of high-quality recombinant lentiviruses. The particle performance index, defined as the ratio of infection-competent viral particles to the total number of particles, was three- to four-fold greater in transfection supernatants generated using COS-1 cells than that generated using HEK293T cells. Adhesion of HEK293T cells to the cell culture-treated plastic surface was weak, causing significant HEK293T cell contamination in the transfection supernatants produced by laboratory automation using the 96-well cell culture plates. In contrast, COS-1 cells adhered strongly to the plastic surface, and cell contamination was not detected in the transfection supernatants. These results suggest that COS-1 cells may be a useful alternative packaging host for use for automated generation of large numbers of high-quality lentivirus reagents, particularly because they eliminate the need for additional purification steps to remove viral particles from cell culture supernatant.

  20. Development of Eimeria bovis in vitro: suitability of several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells.

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    Hermosilla, C; Barbisch, B; Heise, A; Kowalik, S; Zahner, H

    2002-04-01

    Several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal cells (BFGC), Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells were exposed in vitro to sporozoites of Eimeria bovis. Parasites invaded all cells used and changed their shape to more stumpy forms within 12 h. Sporozoites left their host cells and invaded new ones frequently within the first 12 h post-infection. Further development took place only in bovine cells, although parasites survived in the other cells for at least 3 weeks. Within the non-bovine cells, conspicuously enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles developed in VERO cells and reached a diameter of 15-20 microm. The best development to first generation schizonts with regard both to time required to mature, to schizont size and to merozoite yields was observed in BFGC, followed by bovine umbilical vein and bovine spleen lymphatic endothelial cells. MDBK cells were less suitable. The life cycle was completed (development of oocysts) only occasionally in BFGC. Results are considered under several aspects. Thus, infected VERO cells may represent a suitable tool for studying the parasitophorous vacuole, while infected endothelial cells represent a system quite narrow to the in vivo situation and should allow basic studies on parasite/host cell interactions and BFGC can be used for the mass production of E. bovis first generation merozoites.

  1. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography.

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    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V

    2006-03-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head containing inserted needles. We also image the coronal and axial sections of a 7-month-old monkey head. Brain features that are 3 cm deep in the head are imaged clearly. Our results demonstrate that TAT has potential for use in portable, cost-effective imagers for pediatric brains.

  2. Kidneys and How They Work

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    ... How They Work Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Amyloidosis & ... for a Child with Kidney Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Failure Choosing a ...

  3. Artificial Nursing Procedure Establishment for Infant Rhesus Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong; Si Wei; Zhou Yin; Chen Lixian

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus monkey can not achieve natural delivery due to various reasons,and cesarean section becomes an important midwifery to get infant monkeys. After caesarean section,the pregnant monkey is weak and postoperative wound pain,so it can not personally feed infant monkeys which must be artificially fed. Thus,establishing suitable feeding management program is very important for improving survival rate of infant rhesus monkey and maintaining good health. We summarized food preparation method for infant rhesus monkeys as well as temperature setting and light control,and established the nursing program for newborn infant monkey and daily management process for infant monkeys.

  4. Hypertension, kidney disease, HIV and antiretroviral therapy among Tanzanian adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Robert N; Shedafa, Rehema; Kalluvya, Samuel; Downs, Jennifer A; Todd, Jim; Suthanthiran, Manikkam; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Kataraihya, Johannes B

    2014-07-29

    The epidemics of HIV and hypertension are converging in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to antiretroviral therapy (ART), more HIV-infected adults are living longer and gaining weight, putting them at greater risk for hypertension and kidney disease. The relationship between hypertension, kidney disease and long-term ART among African adults, though, remains poorly defined. Therefore, we determined the prevalences of hypertension and kidney disease in HIV-infected adults (ART-naive and on ART >2 years) compared to HIV-negative adults. We hypothesized that there would be a higher hypertension prevalence among HIV-infected adults on ART, even after adjusting for age and adiposity. In this cross-sectional study conducted between October 2012 and April 2013, consecutive adults (>18 years old) attending an HIV clinic in Tanzania were enrolled in three groups: 1) HIV-negative controls, 2) HIV-infected, ART-naive, and 3) HIV-infected on ART for >2 years. The main study outcomes were hypertension and kidney disease (both defined by international guidelines). We compared hypertension prevalence between each HIV group versus the control group by Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression was used to determine if differences in hypertension prevalence were fully explained by confounding. Among HIV-negative adults, 25/153 (16.3%) had hypertension (similar to recent community survey data). HIV-infected adults on ART had a higher prevalence of hypertension (43/150 (28.7%), P = 0.01) and a higher odds of hypertension even after adjustment (odds ratio (OR) = 2.19 (1.18 to 4.05), P = 0.01 in the best model). HIV-infected, ART-naive adults had a lower prevalence of hypertension (8/151 (5.3%), P = 0.003) and a lower odds of hypertension after adjustment (OR= 0.35 (0.15 to 0.84), P = 0.02 in the best model). Awareness of hypertension was ≤ 25% among hypertensive adults in all three groups. Kidney disease was common in all three groups (25.6% to 41.3%) and strongly associated with

  5. Limited knowledge of chronic kidney disease among primary care patients – a cross-sectional survey

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    Chow Wai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney disease is the 9th leading cause of death in Singapore. While preventive effects have focused on early detection and education, little is known about the knowledge level of chronic kidney disease (CKD locally. We seek to evaluate the knowledge of CKD among primary care patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 1520 patients from 3 primary care centers. Those with existing CKD or on dialysis were excluded. Knowledge was assessed based on 7 questions on CKD in the self-administered questionnaire. One point was given for each correct answer with a maximum of 7 points. Results 1435 completed all 7 questions on CKD. Mean age was 48.9 ±15.0 (SD years. 50.9% were male. 62.3% had a secondary and below education and 52.4% had a monthly household income of ≤ $2000. 43.7% had chronic diseases. Mean score was 3.44 ± 1.53 (out of a maximum of 7. Median score was 4. In multivariate logistic regression, being older {>60 years [Odds Ratio (OR 0.50, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.32-0.79]; 40–60 years (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.43,0.89}, less educated [up to primary education (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.22-0.49], having a lower monthly household income [ Conclusion This suggests that CKD education should be targeted at older patients with lower education and lower socioeconomic status.

  6. What I Need to Know about Living with Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Kidney Disease Kidney Failure Related Topics Section Navigation Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Amyloidosis & ... for a Child with Kidney Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Failure Choosing a ...

  7. Unusual malignant solid neoplasms of the kidney: Cross-sectional imaging findings

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    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Hahn, Peter F. [Dept. of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Shirkhoda, Ali [Dept. of Radiology, University of California School of Medicine, Irvine (United States); Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Ozmen, Mustafa [Dept. of Radiology, University of Hacettepe School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2015-08-15

    Malignant kidney neoplasms are the most frequently encountered solid kidney masses. Although renal cell carcinoma is the major renal malignancy, other solid malignant renal masses should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid renal masses that do not contain a macroscopic fatty component. In this pictorial essay, we present the imaging findings of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, primary liposarcoma of the kidney, primary neuroendocrine tumor, leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, sclerosing fibrosarcoma and renal metastasis of osteosarcoma.

  8. Unusual Malignant Solid Neoplasms of the Kidney: Cross-Sectional Imaging Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Devrim; Shirkhoda, Ali; Ozmen, Mustafa; Hahn, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant kidney neoplasms are the most frequently encountered solid kidney masses. Although renal cell carcinoma is the major renal malignancy, other solid malignant renal masses should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid renal masses that do not contain a macroscopic fatty component. In this pictorial essay, we present the imaging findings of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, primary liposarcoma of the kidney, primary neuroendocrine tumor, leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, sclerosing fibrosarcoma and renal metastasis of osteosarcoma. PMID:26175585

  9. Medication safety and chronic kidney disease in older adults prescribed metformin: a cross-sectional analysis

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    Huang, Deborah L.; Abrass, Itamar B; Young, Bessie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication safety in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing concern. This is particularly relevant in older adults due to underlying CKD. Metformin use is contraindicated in patients with abnormal kidney function; however, many patients are potentially prescribed metformin inappropriately. We evaluated the prevalence of CKD among older adults prescribed metformin for type 2 diabetes mellitus using available equations to estimate kidney function and examined demogra...

  10. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of Fabry nephropathy and localisation of globotriaosylceramide deposits in paraffin-embedded kidney tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Carmen; Leitão, Dina; Carneiro, Fátima; Oliveira, João Paulo

    2012-02-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder of glycosphingolipids, mostly globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Proteinuric chronic kidney disease develops frequently, and recognition of Fabry nephropathy on a kidney biopsy may be the first clue to the underlying diagnosis. Since the accumulated glycosphingolipids are largely extracted by the paraffin-embedding procedure, the most characteristic feature of Fabry nephropathy on routine light microscopy (LM) is nonspecific cell vacuolization. To test whether residual Gb3 in kidney tissue might be exploited for the specific diagnosis of Fabry nephropathy, paraffin-embedded kidney biopsies of nine FD patients (one boy, four men, four women) and of a female carrier of a mild genetic mutation, with no evidence of Fabry nephropathy, were immunostained with an anti-Gb3 antibody. The adult biopsies were additionally co-stained with a lysosomal marker (anti-lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (anti-LAMP2) antibody). The distribution of Gb3 deposits was scored per cell type and compared to the histological scorings of glycosphingolipid inclusions on semi-thin sections. FD patients had residual Gb3 in all types of glomerular, tubular, interstitial and vascular kidney cells. The highest expression of LAMP2 was seen in tubular cells, but there were no meaningful associations between LAMP2 expression and prevalence of Gb3 deposits on different kidney cell types. The histological scorings of glycosphingolipid inclusions were relatively higher than the corresponding immunohistochemical scorings of Gb3 deposits. In the mildly affected female, Gb3 expression was limited to tubular cells, a pattern similar to controls. Gb3 immunostaining allows the specific diagnosis of Fabry nephropathy even in kidney biopsies routinely processed for LM.

  11. Anesthetic considerations in a patient of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease on hemodialysis for emergency cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita D Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal disease, either preexisting or occurring during gestation may impair maternal and fetal health. A 35-year-old primigravida with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease on hemodialysis was scheduled for emergency cesarean section. She was managed successfully with low-dose intrathecal bupivacaine and fentanyl. In the case of pregnancy in such a patient, early involvement of the nephrologists along with the obstetrician can improve maternal and fetal outcome.

  12. Kidney function and multiple hemostatic markers: cross sectional associations in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta Carmen A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR Methods We tested cross-sectional associations between (eGFR and multiple hemostatic markers among 6751 participants representing a broad spectrum of kidney function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA. Kidney function was measured using cystatin C (eGFRcys or creatinine, using CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (eGFRcr. Hemostatic markers included soluble thrombomodulin (sTM, soluble tissue factor (sTF, D-Dimer, von Willebrand factor (vWF, factor VIII, plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and fibrinogen. Associations were tested using multivariable linear regression with adjustment for demographics and comorbidities. Results In comparison to persons with eGFRcys >90 ml/min/1.73 m2, subjects with eGFRcys 2 had adjusted levels of sTM, sTF, D-Dimer, PAP, Factor VIII, TFPI, vWF and fibrinogen that were respectively 86%, 68%, 44%, 22%, 17%, 15%, 12% and 6% higher. Subjects with eGFRcys 60-90 ml/min/1.73 m2 had adjusted levels that were respectively 16%, 14%, 12%, 6%, 6%, 6%, 11% and 4% higher (p Conclusions Throughout a broad spectrum of kidney function, lower eGFR was associated with higher levels of hemostatic markers. Dysregulation of hemostasis may be a mechanism by which reduced kidney function promotes higher cardiovascular risk.

  13. Monkey Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  14. Monkey Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  15. Cross-sectional study of kidney stones by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V K; Rai, A K; Rai, P K; Jindal, P K

    2009-09-01

    We performed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the in situ quantitative estimation of elemental constituents distributed in different parts of kidney stones obtained directly from patients by surgery. We did this by focusing the laser light directly on the center, shell, and surface of the stones to find the spatial distribution of the elements inside the stone. The elements detected in the stones were calcium, magnesium, manganese, copper, iron, zinc, strontium, sodium, potassium, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine (Cl), etc. We optimized the LIBS signals by varying the laser energy from 10 mJ to 40 mJ to obtain the best signal-to-background and signal-to-noise ratios. We estimated the quantities of different elements in the stones by drawing calibration curves, plotting graphs of the analyte signal versus the absolute concentration of the elements in standard samples. The detection limits of the calibration curves were discussed. The concentrations of the different elements were found to be widely different in different stones found in different age groups of patients. It was observed that stones containing higher amounts of copper also possessed higher amounts of zinc. In general, the concentrations of trace elements present in the kidney stones decreased as we moved from center to shell and surface. Our results also revealed that the concentrations of elements present in the stones increased with the age of the patients. The results obtained from the calibration curves were compared with results from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We also used the intensity ratios of different elemental lines to find the spatial distribution of different elements inside the kidney stones.

  16. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Kidney Tissue Sections of Rat Subjected to Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Li, Wan; He, Qing; Xue, Jinjuan; Wang, Jiyun; Xiong, Caiqiao; Pu, Xiaoping; Nie, Zongxiu

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) poses a serious threat to the quality of human life and health with an increasing incidence worldwide. Renal fibrosis is closely related to CKD and regarded as the final common pathophysiological pathway in most cases of end-stage renal diseases. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying renal fibrosis and developing novel therapeutic strategies are of great importance. Herein, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) based on 1, 5-diaminonaphthalene hydrochloride was applied to the rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) to investigate metabolic changes during renal fibrosis. Among identified endogenous compounds, twenty-one metabolites involved in metabolic networks such as glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, ATP metabolism, fatty acids metabolism, antioxidants, and metal ions underwent relatively obvious changes after 1 and 3 weeks of UUO. Unique distribution of the metabolites was obtained, and metabolic changes of kidneys during renal fibrosis were investigated simultaneously for the first time. These findings once again highlighted the promising potential of the organic salt matrix for application in small molecule in situ MSI and in the field of biomedical research. PMID:28157191

  17. Analysis of Zebrafish Kidney Development with Time-lapse Imaging Using a Dissecting Microscope Equipped for Optical Sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Birgit; Schnerwitzki, Danny; Graf, Michael; Englert, Christoph

    2016-04-07

    In order to understand organogenesis, the spatial and temporal alterations that occur during development of tissues need to be recorded. The method described here allows time-lapse analysis of normal and impaired kidney development in zebrafish embryos by using a fluorescence dissecting microscope equipped for structured illumination and z-stack acquisition. To visualize nephrogenesis, transgenic zebrafish (Tg(wt1b:GFP)) with fluorescently labeled kidney structures were used. Renal defects were triggered by injection of an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against the Wilms tumor gene wt1a, a factor known to be crucial for kidney development. The advantage of the experimental setup is the combination of a zoom microscope with simple strategies for re-adjusting movements in x, y or z direction without additional equipment. To circumvent focal drift that is induced by temperature variations and mechanical vibrations, an autofocus strategy was applied instead of utilizing a usually required environmental chamber. In order to re-adjust the positional changes due to a xy-drift, imaging chambers with imprinted relocation grids were employed. In comparison to more complex setups for time-lapse recording with optical sectioning such as confocal laser scanning or light sheet microscopes, a zoom microscope is easy to handle. Besides, it offers dissecting microscope-specific benefits such as high depth of field and an extended working distance. The method to study organogenesis presented here can also be used with fluorescence stereo microscopes not capable of optical sectioning. Although limited for high-throughput, this technique offers an alternative to more complex equipment that is normally used for time-lapse recording of developing tissues and organ dynamics.

  18. Kidney Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Dysplasia What is kidney dysplasia? Kidney dysplasia is a condition in which ... Kidney dysplasia in one kidney What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  19. Maximising Acute Kidney Injury Alerts--A Cross-Sectional Comparison with the Clinical Diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Sawhney

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is serious and widespread across healthcare (1 in 7 hospital admissions but recognition is often delayed causing avoidable harm. Nationwide automated biochemistry alerts for AKI stages 1-3 have been introduced in England to improve recognition. We explored how these alerts compared with clinical diagnosis in different hospital settings.We used a large population cohort of 4464 patients with renal impairment. Each patient had case-note review by a nephrologist, using RIFLE criteria to diagnose AKI and chronic kidney disease (CKD. We identified and staged AKI alerts using the new national NHS England AKI algorithm and compared this with nephrologist diagnosis across hospital settings.Of 4464 patients, 525 had RIFLE AKI, 449 had mild AKI, 2185 had CKD (without AKI and 1305 were of uncertain chronicity. NHS AKI algorithm criteria alerted for 90.5% of RIFLE AKI, 72.4% of mild AKI, 34.1% of uncertain cases and 14.0% of patients who actually had CKD.The algorithm identified AKI particularly well in intensive care (95.5% and nephrology (94.6%, but less well on surgical wards (86.4%. Restricting the algorithm to stage 2 and 3 alerts reduced the over-diagnosis of AKI in CKD patients from 14.0% to 2.1%, but missed or delayed alerts in two-thirds of RIFLE AKI patients.Automated AKI detection performed well across hospital settings, but was less sensitive on surgical wards. Clinicians should be mindful that restricting alerts to stages 2-3 may identify fewer CKD patients, but including stage 1 provides more sensitive and timely alerting.

  20. Confocal Microscopy of thick tissue sections: 3D Visualization of rat kidney glomeruli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as a technique capable of generating serial sections of whole-mount tissue and then reassembling the computer-acquired images as a virtual 3-dimentional structure. In many ways CLSM offers an alternative to traditional sectioning approac...

  1. Confocal microscopy of thick tissue sections: 3D visualizaiton of rat kidney glomeruli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as a technique capable of generating serial sections of whole-mount tissue and then reassembling the computer-acquired images as a virtual 3-dimentional structure. In many ways CLSM offers an alternative to traditional sectioning approac...

  2. Confocal microscopy of thick tissue sections: 3D visualizaiton of rat kidney glomeruli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as a technique capable of generating serial sections of whole-mount tissue and then reassembling the computer-acquired images as a virtual 3-dimentional structure. In many ways CLSM offers an alternative to traditional sectioning approac...

  3. Confocal Microscopy of thick tissue sections: 3D Visualization of rat kidney glomeruli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as a technique capable of generating serial sections of whole-mount tissue and then reassembling the computer-acquired images as a virtual 3-dimentional structure. In many ways CLSM offers an alternative to traditional sectioning approac...

  4. Psychological Disorders and Psychosocial Resources of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Bladder and Kidney Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Long Yang

    Full Text Available Psychological disorders have been proven to be associated with poor physiological, psychological and immune outcomes in cancer patients. However, despite of many challenges of the changed self-image/body image and the altered sexual/urinary function, relatively little is known about psychological disorders of patients with newly diagnosed bladder and kidney cancer. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and the associated psychosocial factors among bladder/kidney cancer patients.A cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients with bladder/kidney cancer in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 489 early-stage cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinical variables, depression, anxiety, PTSD, perceived social support and positive psychological variables (hope, optimism and resilience anonymously during October 2013 and August 2014. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between psychosocial resources and psychological disorders, while controlling for possible covariates.The prevalence of depression, anxiety and PTSD was 77.5%, 69.3% and 25.2%, respectively, while 24.9% of patients had psychological co-morbidity. Psychosocial resources together explained more than one-third of the variance on psychological disorders. Under standardized estimate (β sequence, patient's perception of social support from family was significantly associated with depression, anxiety and PTSD (p < 0.01. Optimism and resilience showed integrated and independent effects on psychological disorders, and hope represented the significant association with PTSD only (p < 0.01.The high prevalence of psychological disorders in newly diagnosed patients with early-stage bladder/kidney cancer should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings

  5. Study of intrarenal vasculature in cases of primary and secondary hypertension (by metallic impregnation technique on whole kidney section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal B

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Study of intrarenal vasculature was carried out by using the metallic impregnation technique on whole kidney sections in 31 [corrected] cases of (primary and secondary hypertension and 10 normal controls. Distinct patterns of intrarenal vasculature were noted in controls and in cases of hypertension. Gradual tapering of vessels, absence of tortuosity and good peripheral vascularisation were noted in controls. Abrupt tapering, tortuosity of vessels and poor peripheral vascularisation were noted in hypertensive cases. In essential hypertension moderate to severe changes of dilatation of the segmental and/or arcuate arteries was noted. The degree of dilatation was related to the level of systolic BP rather than diastolic in cases of essential hypertension. Secondary hypertension even if severe, rarely showed significant dilatation lesions. Avascular zones and conglomeration of vessels at poles was seen only in cases of pyelonephritis. This helped in distinguishing these, from cases of glomerulonephritis.

  6. Ectopic Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Ectopic Kidney What is an ectopic kidney? An ectopic kidney is a birth defect in ... has an ectopic kidney. 1 What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  7. Outbreak of pasteurellosis in captive Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOSHINO, Mizuki; SASAKI, Jun; KURAMOCHI, Konomi; IKEZAWA, Mitsutaka; MUKAIZAWA, Natsuko; GORYO, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    In September 2012, five Bolivian squirrel monkeys housed in a zoological park died within sequential several days without obvious clinical signs. In a necrospy, one monkey presented swelling of the kidney with multifocal white nodules in the parenchyma, and other two had pulmonary congestion. Histopathologically, multifocal bacterial colonies of gram-negative coccobacillus were found in the sinusoid of the liver in all monkeys examined (Nos.1−4). Additionally, purulent pyelonephritis, pneumonia and disseminated small bacterial colonies in blood vessels were observed. Immunohistochemically, the bacterial colonies from two monkeys were positive for P. multocida capsular serotype D. Based on these findings, these monkeys were diagnosed as septicemia caused by acute P. multocida infection. PMID:28190821

  8. A cross-sectional study of dialysis practice-patterns in patients with chronic kidney disease on maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manjunath Jeevanna; Jamale, Tukaram; Hase, Niwrutti K; Jagdish, Pradeep Kiggal; Keskar, Vaibhav; Patil, Harsha; Shete, Abhijeet; Patil, Chetan

    2015-09-01

    We studied the dialysis practice-patterns with regard to various aspects of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5D, like anemia, mineral bone disease, vaccination, hospitalization, hypertension and cost of therapy. Four hundred and sixty-four adult hemodialysis (HD) patients from various dialysis centers of Mumbai were included in the study. The mean age of the study patients was 47.2 years. Temporary dialysis catheters were the most common initial vascular access. Thirteen percent of prevalent HD patients were on temporary catheters; 33% of patients had history of failure of arterio-venous fistula. The most common cause of failure was access thrombosis. About 75% of the patients had hemoglobin dialysis treatment is no panacea to renal failure; HD patients have higher hospitalization rates and lower quality of life than the general population. The therapy itself brings with it a unique set of problems, such as vascular access-related complications, which cause significant mortality and morbidity. This study was a study of the current HD practices. The primary goal of this cross-sectional observational study is to understand dialysis practices and obtain data that can be used to improve care in the future.

  9. Prevalence, awareness, and treatment of anemia in Chinese patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease: First multicenter, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Shi, Hao; Wang, Wei-Ming; Peng, Ai; Jiang, Geng-Ru; Zhang, Jin-Yuan; Ni, Zhao-Hui; He, Li-Qun; Niu, Jian-Ying; Wang, Nian-Song; Mei, Chang-Lin; Xu, Xu-Dong; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Wei-Jie; Yan, Hai-Dong; Deng, Yue-Yi; Yu, Chen; Cen, Jun; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Nan

    2016-06-01

    This was the first multicenter, cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of anemia, patient awareness, and treatment status in China. Data of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD; age, 18-75 years; both out- and inpatients) from 25 hospitals in Shanghai, seeking medical treatment at the nephrology department, were collected between July 1, 2012 and August 31, 2012. The prevalence, awareness, and treatment of anemia in patients with nondialysis CKD (ND-CKD) were assessed. Anemia was defined as serum hemoglobin (Hb) levels ≤12 g/dL in women and ≤13 g/dL in men. A total of 2420 patients with ND-CKD were included. Anemia was established in 1246 (51.5%) patients: 639 (51.3%) men and 607 (48.7%) women. The prevalence of anemia increased with advancing CKD stage (χtrend = 675.14, P Anemia was more prevalent in patients with diabetic nephropathy (68.0%) than in patients with hypertensive renal damage (56.6%) or chronic glomerulonephritis (46.1%, both P anemia patients, only 7.5% received more effective and recommended intravenous supplementation. Anemia is highly prevalent in patients with ND-CKD in China, with a low target-achieving rate and poor treatment patterns. The study highlights the need to improve multiple aspects of CKD management to delay the progression of renal failure.

  10. Salty taste thresholds and preference in patients with chronic kidney disease according to disease stage: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hee; Kim, Young Hoon; Bae, Na Yeong; Kang, Shin Sook; Lee, Jung Bok; Kim, Soon Bae

    2017-08-09

    The present study was performed to evaluate the differences in salty taste thresholds among normal controls and non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients according to disease stage and to evaluate the relationship between salty taste thresholds or preferences and mean spot urine sodium concentrations. This cross-sectional study enrolled 436 patients with non-dialysis CKD and 74 normal controls. We evaluated detection and recognition thresholds, salty taste preferences and salt usage behaviours (through a questionnaire) in CKD patients and normal controls. We averaged the three most recent spot urine sodium concentrations and used this 'mean spot urine sodium' value to estimate sodium intake in CKD patients. Detection thresholds of stages 3 and 5 and recognition thresholds of stage 3 CKD patients were higher than those of normal controls. Salty taste preferences of stage 5 and salt usage behaviour scores of stages 4 and 5 CKD patients were lower than those of normal controls. Univariate analysis showed that estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), salt usage behaviour score, salty taste preference, smoking, gender and zinc level were significantly associated with mean spot urine sodium in CKD patients. Multiple regression analysis showed that the eGFR and salty taste preference were independently correlated with mean spot urine sodium. Education to change salty taste preferences and regular follow up are necessary to decrease salt intake in CKD patients. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  11. A cross-sectional study of dialysis practice-patterns in patients with chronic kidney disease on maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Jeevanna Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the dialysis practice-patterns with regard to various aspects of chronic kidney disease (CKD stage 5D, like anemia, mineral bone disease, vaccination, hospitalization, hypertension and cost of therapy. Four hundred and sixty-four adult hemodialysis (HD patients from various dialysis centers of Mumbai were included in the study. The mean age of the study patients was 47.2 years. Temporary dialysis catheters were the most common initial vascular access. Thirteen percent of prevalent HD patients were on temporary catheters; 33% of patients had history of failure of arterio-venous fistula. The most common cause of failure was access thrombosis. About 75% of the patients had hemoglobin <11 g/dL and 35% had uncontrolled blood pressure. The prevalence of positive hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus antibody was 6% and 2%, respectively. The average cost of HD treatment was approximately 6100 Indian rupees (about US $100. HD is helpful in treating many of the clinical manifestations of CKD and postpones otherwise imminent death. However, dialysis treatment is no panacea to renal failure; HD patients have higher hospitalization rates and lower quality of life than the general population. The therapy itself brings with it a unique set of problems, such as vascular access-related complications, which cause significant mortality and morbidity. This study was a study of the current HD practices. The primary goal of this cross-sectional observational study is to understand dialysis practices and obtain data that can be used to improve care in the future.

  12. The Oxford Renal (OxRen) cross-sectional study of chronic kidney disease in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nathan R; Lasserson, Daniel; Fatoba, Samuel; O'Callaghan, Chris A; Pugh, Chris; Perera-Salazar, Rafael; Shine, Brian; Thompson, Ben; Wolstenholme, Jane; McManus, Richard; Hobbs, F D Richard

    2013-12-17

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosed with objective measures of kidney damage and function has been recognised as a major public health burden. Independent of age, sex, ethnicity and comorbidity, strong associations exist between cardiovascular disease, mortality, morbidity and CKD, defined by reduced glomerular filtration rate and increased urinary albumin excretion. Detection of CKD within the population is therefore a priority for health systems. 15 000 patients aged 60 years or over meeting the inclusion criteria will be invited to the study. Recruitment will be stratified to represent the distribution of socioeconomic position in the UK general population. Patients will be excluded if terminally ill (expected survival Oxford B-Reference 13/SC/0020.

  13. Kenya's Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐天麒

    2004-01-01

    It's difficult to get close to patas monkeys(花脸猴). Clever and nervous, they run away at the sight of humans. The long-legged monkeys, clocked ( 记录 [ 速度 ] ) at 34 miles an hour, easily escaped from the zoologist Lynne Isbell when she arrived in Kenya in 1992.

  14. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood smear and was subsequently diagnosed with symptomatic malaria. In this animal, congestion and accumulation of hemozoin (malaria pigment) in macrophages were noted in the enlarged and darkly discolored spleen. As a follow-up for the experience, spleen sections from 800 cynomolgus monkeys in toxicity studies conducted between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively examined for hemozoin deposition as a marker of Plasmodium infection. The origin of the animals included Cambodia, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Hemozoin deposition was confirmed in 44% of all examined monkeys. Monkeys from Indonesia showed the highest incidence of hemozoin deposition (approx. 80%). A high prevalence of Plasmodium infection in laboratory monkeys was also confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using Plasmodium genus-specific primers. Although Japan is not a country with endemic malaria, it is important to be aware of the prevalence and potential impact of background infection with Plasmodium spp. and recrudescence of symptomatic malaria in imported laboratory monkeys on pharmaceutical toxicity studies.

  15. Prevalence of herbal and dietary supplement usage in Thai outpatients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tangkiatkumjai, Mayuree; Boardman, Helen; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Walker, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:\\ud There are few studies of the prevalence and patterns of herbal and dietary supplement (HDS) use in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), although many researchers and health professionals worldwide have raised concern about the potential effects of HDS on patients with renal insufficiency. A survey was conducted to determine: the prevalence and patterns of HDS use in Thai patients with CKD; the demographic factors related to HDS use; the reasons why Thai patients with CKD...

  16. Association of anaemia in primary care patients with chronic kidney disease: cross sectional study of quality improvement in chronic kidney disease (QICKD) trial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and treating anaemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) may improve outcomes. However, little is known about the scope to improve primary care management of anaemia in CKD. Methods An observational study (N = 1,099,292) with a nationally representative sample using anonymised routine primary care data from 127 Quality Improvement in CKD trial practices (ISRCTN5631023731). We explored variables associated with anaemia in CKD: eGFR, haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), iron status, cardiovascular comorbidities, and use of therapy which associated with gastrointestinal bleeding, oral iron and deprivation score. We developed a linear regression model to identify variables amenable to improved primary care management. Results The prevalence of Stage 3–5 CKD was 6.76%. Hb was lower in CKD (13.2 g/dl) than without (13.7 g/dl). 22.2% of people with CKD had World Health Organization defined anaemia; 8.6% had Hb ≤ 11 g/dl; 3% Hb ≤ 10 g/dl; and 1% Hb ≤ 9 g/dl. Normocytic anaemia was present in 80.5% with Hb ≤ 11; 72.7% with Hb ≤ 10 g/dl; and 67.6% with Hb ≤ 9 g/dl; microcytic anaemia in 13.4% with Hb ≤ 11 g/dl; 20.8% with Hb ≤ 10 g/dl; and 24.9% where Hb ≤ 9 g/dl. 82.7% of people with microcytic and 58.8% with normocytic anaemia (Hb ≤ 11 g/dl) had a low ferritin (anaemia; 61% had been prescribed aspirin; 73% non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); 14.1% warfarin 12.4% clopidogrel; and 53.1% aspirin and NSAID. 56.3% of people with CKD and anaemia had been prescribed oral iron. The main limitations of the study are that routine data are inevitably incomplete and definitions of anaemia have not been standardised. Conclusions Medication review is needed in people with CKD and anaemia prior to considering erythropoietin or parenteral iron. Iron stores may be depleted in over >60% of people with normocytic anaemia. Prescribing oral

  17. [The history of kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzinger, M; Stastny, M; Grützmacher, P; Sohn, M

    2016-10-01

    The history of kidney transplantation is a history of many unsuccessful efforts and setbacks, but also the history of perseverance, pioneering spirit, and steadfast courage. The first successful transplantation of a dog kidney was done by the Austrian Emerich Ullmann (1861-1937) in 1902. The kidney was connected to the carotid artery of the dog and the ureter ended freely. The organ produced urine for a couple of days before it died. In 1909, there were efforts to transplant human kidneys from deceased patients to monkeys and in the following year the first xenotransplantation in humans was completed. Different kinds of donors were tried: dogs, monkeys, goats and lambs, all without success. In 1939, the first transplantation from a deceased human donor was done by the Russion Yurii Voronoy, the patient survived for only a couple of days, and the organ never worked. In 1953, the first temporarily successful transplantation of a human kidney was performed by Jean Hamburger in Paris. A 16-year-old boy received the kidney of his mother as living donor transplantation. Then in 1954, a milestone was made with the first long-term successful kidney transplantation by Joseph Murray: the transplantation was done between monozygotic twins; the organ survived for 8 years. For his efforts in kidney transplantation, Murray was honored with the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1990. In 1962, the first kidney transplantation between genetically nonrelated patients was done using immunosuppression and in 1963 the first kidney transplantation in Germany was done by Reinhard Nagel and Wilhelm Brosig in Berlin. The aim of this article is to present the history of kidney transplantation from the beginning until today.

  18. Factors affecting willingness to receive a kidney transplant among hemodialysis patients in West China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiling; Song, Turun; Jiang, Yamei; Qiu, Yang; Liu, Jingpeng; Huang, Zhongli; Wang, Xianding; Lin, Tao

    2017-05-01

    Many factors are associated with the willingness of ESRD patients to receive a kidney transplant. No data are available for patients in China. The study aim was to describe the attitudes toward transplantation in a cohort of patients at a single dialysis center in China.A study questionnaire derived from previously published literature was completed by 239 hemodialysis outpatients. Factors associated with willingness to receive a transplant were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.The respondents were primarily men 50.7 ± 15.1 years of age; 46.4% were willing to receive a transplant. Younger age (OR = 0.928, 95% CI: 0.898-0.959), good self-reported health (OR = 0.203, 95% CI: 0.081-0.51), and awareness of the benefits of transplantation (OR = 0.195, 95% CI: 0.083-0.456) were less likely to deny the transplant. Patients ≤60 years of age were about 13 times more likely to favor transplantation than those >60 years of age (OR = 12.99, 95% CI: 3.75-45.45). For every 10 years under 60, participants were 2.16 times more willing to receive a kidney transplant (OR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.53-3.02). Older patients were also less likely to be referred for evaluation (OR = 0.955, 95% CI: 0.923-0.989, P = .009).The percentage of ESRD patients in China, particularly older patients, who are willing to accept a transplant, is relatively low. A better understanding of the benefits of transplantation is needed to increase their acceptance.

  19. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (< 1 MHz) are used to reconstruct the TAT images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head co...

  20. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vascular function in patients with chronic kidney disease and healthy subjects: a cross-sectional and comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Morten; Svensson, My; Povlsen, Johan V; Schmidt, Erik B; Aalkjær, Christian; Christensen, Jeppe H; Ivarsen, Per

    2016-11-21

    Patients with chronic kidney disease have a markedly increased cardiovascular mortality compared with the general population. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to possess cardioprotective properties. This cross-sectional and comparative study evaluated correlations between hemodynamic measurements, resistance artery function and fish consumption to the content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue, a long-term marker of seafood intake. Seventeen patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 + 5d and 27 healthy kidney donors were evaluated with hemodynamic measurements before surgery; from these subjects, 11 patients and 11 healthy subjects had vasodilator properties of subcutaneous resistance arteries examined. The measurements were correlated to adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Information on fish intake was obtained from a dietary questionnaire and compared with adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fish intake and the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue did not differ between patients and controls. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in adipose tissue were positively correlated to systemic vascular resistance index; (r = 0.44; p = 0.07 and r = 0.62; p fatty acid levels in adipose tissue and vasodilator properties in resistance arteries. n-3 PUFA content in adipose tissue increased with increasing self-reported fish intake. The correlations found, suggest a role for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemodynamic properties. However, this is apparently not due to changes in intrinsic properties of the resistance arteries as no correlation was found to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  1. Your Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Kidneys KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Kidneys A A A ... and it will be lighter. What Else Do Kidneys Do? Kidneys are always busy. Besides filtering the ...

  2. Kidney Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Kidney Facts The kidneys are a pair of reddish-brown ... Camps for kids Contacting my donor family Data Facts about living donation Financing a transplant Matching organs ...

  3. Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluid-filled sac. There are two types of kidney cysts. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) runs in families. In PKD, the ... place of the normal tissue. They enlarge the kidneys and make them work poorly, leading to kidney ...

  4. Peripheral Regulatory Cells Immunophenotyping in Kidney Transplant Recipients with Different Clinical Profiles: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Furuzawa-Carballeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory Foxp3-expressing T cells (Tregs, IL-10-producing B cells (Bregs, and IDO-expressing dendritic cells (DCregs downregulate inflammatory processes and induces peripheral tolerance. These subpopulations also might participate in maintaining allograft immunological quiescence in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs with an excellent long-term graft function under immunosuppression (ELTGF. The aim of the study was to characterize and to enumerate peripheral Tregs, Bregs, and DCregs in KTR with an ELTGF for more than 5 years after transplant. Fourteen KTR with an ELTGF, 9 KTR with chronic graft dysfunction (CGD, and 12 healthy donors (HDs were included in the study. CD19+-expressing peripheral B lymphocytes were purified by positive selection. IL-10-producing B cells, CD4+/CD25hi, and CD8+/CD28− Tregs, as well as CCR6+/CD123+/IDO+ DCs, were quantitated by flow cytometry. IL-10-producing Bregs (immature/transitional, but not CD19+/CD38hi/CD24hi/CD27+B10 cells, CCR6+/CD123+/IDO+ DCs, and Tregs from ELTGF patients had similar or higher percentages versus HD (P<0.05. By contrast, number of Tregs, DCregs, and Bregs except for CD27+B10 cells from CGD patients had lower levels versus HD and ELTGF patients (P<0.05. The findings of this exploratory study might suggest that in ELTGF patients, peripheral tolerance mechanisms could be directly involved in the maintenance of a quiescent immunologic state and graft function stability.

  5. Intrahepatic triglyceride content is independently associated with chronic kidney disease in obese adults: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Huang, Zhu-Feng; Sun, Qian; Chen, Zheng; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ying; Li, Xue-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with some common critical cardio-metabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to explore the association between intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and CKD in obese subjects. A total of 1068 obese participants received anthropometric, biochemical measurements and hepatic ultrasonography. Of those, 485 participants received magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) for the determination of IHTG content. CKD was defined as a urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR)≥30 mg/g and/or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). The prevalence of CKD was significantly higher in NAFLD subjects compared to subjects without NAFLD, while the prevalence of CKD was gradually increased as the IHTG content increased by quartiles (P for trend<0.001). After adjustment for multivariate metabolic factors, the risk of abnormal albuminuria and CKD was increased by 68% [OR (95% CI): 1.68 (1.21-2.33), P<0.01] and 54% [OR (95% CI): 1.54 (1.14-2.07), P<0.01] respectively per one standard deviation (SD) increase in IHTG content. The association between IHTG content and CKD was not changed by conventional risk factors, including age, BMI and hypertension (all P<0.05). IHTG content is independently associated with CKD in obese adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Genial Monkeys of Emei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOHONG

    2004-01-01

    MANY of China's beautiful mountainous areas are home to monkeys,the most famous monkey resort being Emei Mountain. Perhaps affected by the mountain's Buddhist atmosphere, Emei's monkeys are gentle and often approach tourists for food and play. Cute and impish, these delightful creatures are the main attraction for many visitors.

  7. Screening for colorectal cancer and advanced colorectal neoplasia in kidney transplant recipients: cross sectional prevalence and diagnostic accuracy study of faecal immunochemical testing for haemoglobin and colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael G; Teo, Edward; Cole, Stephen R; Chan, Choy-Yoke; McDonald, Stephen P; Russ, Graeme R; Young, Graeme P; Bampton, Peter A; Coates, P Toby

    2012-07-25

    To investigate whether screening kidney transplant recipients aged over 50 years for colorectal cancer with a faecal immunochemical test for haemoglobin might be justified, by determining the prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasia and evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of faecal haemoglobin testing compared with colonoscopy in a population of kidney transplant recipients at otherwise average risk. Cross sectional prevalence and diagnostic accuracy study with index test of faecal haemoglobin and reference standard of colonoscopy. Outpatient clinics in metropolitan and regional hospitals in South Australia. 229 kidney transplant recipients aged 50 years and over, who were at least 6 months (mean 9.0 (SD 8.4) years) post-transplant and otherwise at average risk of colorectal cancer, completed the study between June 2008 and October 2011. Faecal immunochemical testing (Enterix Insure) for human haemoglobin, followed by colonoscopy with histological evaluation of retrieved samples. Prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasia, defined as an adenoma at least 10 mm in diameter, villous features, high grade dysplasia, or colorectal cancer; sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of faecal haemoglobin testing for advanced neoplasia compared with colonoscopy. Advanced colorectal neoplasia was found in 29 (13%, 95% confidence interval 9% to 18%) participants, including 2% (n=4) with high grade dysplasia and 2% (n=5) with colorectal cancer. Faecal testing for haemoglobin was positive in 12% (n=28); sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for advanced neoplasia were 31.0% (15.3% to 50.8%), 90.5% (85.6% to 94.2%), 32.1% (15.9% to 52.4%), and 90.1% (85.1% to 93.8%). Colonoscopy was well tolerated, with no significant adverse outcomes. To identify one case of advanced neoplasia, 8 (6 to 12) colonoscopies were needed. Kidney transplant recipients aged over 50 years have a high prevalence of advanced colorectal neoplasia. Faecal haemoglobin

  8. Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooppil Nandakumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™ has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for haemodialysis patients in Singapore. Methods From December 2006 through January 2007, this cross-sectional study gathered data on patients ≥21 years old, who were undergoing haemodialysis at National Kidney Foundation in Singapore. We used exploratory factor analysis to determine construct validity of the eight KDQOL-SF™ sub-scales, Cronbach's alpha coefficient to determine internal consistency reliability, correlation of the overall health rating with kidney disease-targeted scales to confirm validity, and correlation of the eight sub-scales with age, income and education to determine convergent and divergent validity. Results Of 1980 haemodialysis patients, 1180 (59% completed the KDQOL-SF™. Full information was available for 980 participants, with a mean age of 56 years. The sample was representative of the total dialysis population in Singapore, except Indian ethnicity that was over-represented. The instrument designers' proposed eight sub-scales were confirmed, which together accounted for 68.4% of the variance. All sub-scales had a Cronbach's α above the recommended minimum value of 0.7 to indicate good reliability (range: 0.72 to 0.95, except for Social function (0.66. Correlation of items within subscales was higher than correlation of items outside subscales in 90% of the cases. The overall health rating positively correlated with kidney disease-targeted scales, confirming validity. General health subscales were found to have significant

  9. Characterizing the relationship between health utility and renal function after kidney transplantation in UK and US: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Luca

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN occurs in a large share of transplant recipients and it is the leading cause of graft loss despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressants. The reduction in renal function secondary to immunologic and non-immunologic CAN leads to several complications, including anemia and calcium-phosphorus metabolism imbalance and may be associated to worsening Health-Related Quality of Life. We sought to evaluate the relationship between kidney function and Euro-Qol 5 Dimension Index (EQ-5Dindex scores after kidney transplantation and evaluate whether cross-cultural differences exist between UK and US. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of existing data gathered from two cross-sectional studies. We enrolled 233 and 209 subjects aged 18–74 years who received a kidney transplant in US and UK respectively. For the present analysis we excluded recipients with multiple or multi-organ transplantation, creatinine kinase ≥200 U/L, acute renal failure, and without creatinine assessments in 3 months pre-enrollment leaving 281 subjects overall. The questionnaires were administered independently in the two centers. Both packets included the EQ-5Dindex and socio-demographic items. We augmented the analytical dataset with information abstracted from clinical charts and administrative records including selected comorbidities and biochemistry test results. We used ordinary least squares and quantile regression adjusted for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics to assess the association between EQ-5Dindex and severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Results CKD severity was negatively associated with EQ-5Dindex in both samples (UK: ρ= −0.20, p=0.02; US: ρ= −0.21, p=0.02. The mean adjusted disutility associated to CKD stage 5 compared to CKD stage 1–2 was Δ= −0.38 in the UK sample, Δ= −0.11 in the US sample and Δ= −0.22 in the whole sample. The adjusted median

  10. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  11. Defensive coping and health-related quality of life in chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonomou Margarita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coping with the stresses of chronic disease is considered as a key factor in the perceived impairment of health related quality of life (HRQL. Little is known though about these associations in chronic kidney disease (CKD. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of defensive coping and HRQL among patients in different CKD stages, after adjusting for psychological distress, sociodemographic and disease-related variables. Methods The sample consisted of 98 CKD patients, attending a university nephrology department. Seventy-nine (79 pre-dialysis patients of disease stages 3 to 4 and 19 dialysis patients were included. HRQL was assessed by the 36-item Short-Form health survey (SF-36, defensive coping by the Rationality/Emotional Defensiveness (R/ED scale of the Lifestyle Defense Mechanism Inventory (LDMI and psychological distress by the depression and anxiety scales of the revised Hopkins Symptom CheckList (SCL-90-R. Regression analyses were carried out to examine the association between SF-36 dimensions and defensive coping style. Results Patients on dialysis had worse scores on SF-36 scales measuring physical aspects of HRQL. In the fully adjusted analysis, a higher defensive coping score was significantly associated with a lower score on the mental component summary (MCS scale of the SF-36 (worse mental health. In contrast, a higher defensive score showed a small positive association with the physical component summary (PCS scale of the SF-36 (better health, but this was marginally significant. Conclusions The results provided evidence that emotional defensiveness as a coping style tends to differentially affect the mental and the physical component of HRQL in CKD. Clinicians should be aware of the effects of long-term denial and could examine the possibility of screening for defensive coping and depression in recently diagnosed CKD patients with the aim to improve both physical and mental health.

  12. TOF-SIMS imaging of halide/thiocyanate anions and hydrogen sulfide in mouse kidney sections using silver-deposited plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahoshi, Noriyuki; Ishizaki, Itsuko; Naya, Masayuki; Maekawa, Toshihiko; Yamazoe, Shougo; Horiuchi, Tadashi; Kajimura, Mayumi; Ohashi, Yoshiharu; Suematsu, Makoto; Ishii, Isao

    2012-02-01

    In vivo imaging of reactive small molecule metabolites with high spatial resolution and specificity could give clues to understanding pathophysiology of various diseases. We herein applied time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to newly developed silver-deposited plates that were stamped on mouse tissues, and succeeded in visualization of halide (Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-)) and pseudohalide thiocyanate (SCN(-)) anions, a class of substrates for neutrophils/eosinophil peroxidases to produce hypohalous acids (HOX/OX(-) mixture; X: (pseudo)halides), as well as hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Forty-micrometer frozen mouse kidney sections on cover glasses were attached to 37 °C preheated silver-deposited plates and incubated at -10 °C for 1 h. After sputter cleaning to remove surface contaminants, the plates were analyzed by TOF-SIMS to identify distribution of Br(-), AgBr(2)(-), I(-), AgI(2)(-), SCN(-), as well as S(2-) and AgS(-) as products of tissue-derived H(2)S. Br(-), AgBr(2)(-), I(-), and SCN(-) anions were mainly distributed in core regions including the inner medulla and inner stripe of the outer medulla (except for I(-)), rather than outer regions such as the cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla. AgI(2)(-) anion was spread over the whole kidney, although its levels were relatively low. In contrast, S(2-) and AgS(-) anions were mainly present in the outer regions. To our knowledge, this is the first imaging study to reveal the distribution of (pseudo)halides and H(2)S in animal tissue sections.

  13. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no

  14. THE CLEVER MONKEYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付惠娟

    2004-01-01

    A man was walking through a forest. He had a few caps in his hands. In the forest there were a lot of monkeys. The day was hot, so he decided to have a rest under a tree. I-le put one cap on his head and lay down to sleep.

  15. Multilevel Correlates of Non-Adherence in Kidney Transplant Patients Benefitting from Full Cost Coverage for Immunosuppressives: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, Elisa Oliveira; Fernandes, Neimar Silva; Colugnati, Fernando Antônio Basile; Fernandes, Natalia Maria Silva; De Geest, Sabina; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    2015-01-01

    Adherence is the result of the interaction of the macro, meso, micro, and patient level factors. The macro level includes full coverage of immunosuppressive medications as is the case in Brazil. We studied the correlates of immunosuppressive non-adherence in post kidney transplant patients in the Brazilian health care system. Using a cross-sectional design, adherence to immunosuppressives was assessed in a sample of 100 kidney transplant patients using a composite non-adherence score consisting of three methods (self-report [i.e., The Basel Adherence Scale for Assessment of Immunossupressives-BAASIS], collateral report, and immunosuppressive blood levels). Multilevel correlations of non-adherence were assessed (macro, meso, micro and patient level). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the correlates of non-adherence. Our sample consisted primarily of male (65%), Caucasians (72%) with a mean age of 45.0 ± 13.5 years old, who received grafts from a living donor (89%), with a mean time after transplantation of 72.3 ± 44.4 months. Prevalence of non-adherence was 51%. Family income higher than five reference wages (21.6 vs. 4%; OR 6.46 [1.35-30.89], p = 0.009; patient level), and having access to private health insurance (35.3% vs. 18.4%; OR 2.42 [0.96-6.10], p = 0.04; meso level) were associated with non-adherence in univariate analysis. Only the higher family income variable was retained in the multiple logistic regression model (OR 5.0; IC: 1.01-25.14; p = 0.04). Higher family income was the only factor that was associated with immunosuppressive non-adherence. In Brazil, lower income recipients benefit from better access to care and coverage of health care costs after transplantation. This is supposed to result in a better immunosuppressive adherence compared to high-income patients who have experienced these benefits continuously.

  16. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Kidney Disease What is Kidney Disease? What the Kidneys Do Click for more information You have two ... damaged, wastes can build up in the body. Kidney Function and Aging Kidney function may be reduced ...

  17. Metallothionein MT2A A-5G Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Chronic Kidney Disease and Diabetes: Cross-Sectional and Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuta; Naito, Mariko; Satoh, Masahiko; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Naito, Hisao; Kato, Masashi; Takagi, Sahoko; Matsunaga, Takashi; Seiki, Toshio; Sasakabe, Tae; Suma, Shino; Kawai, Sayo; Okada, Rieko; Hishida, Asahi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Wakai, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are proteins that protect cells from toxic agents such as heavy metal ions or reactive oxygen species. MT2A A-5G is a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the MT2A gene, and the minor G allele results in lower transcription efficiency. We aimed to elucidate associations between MT2A A-5G and risks of 2 diseases potentially related to lowered MT expression, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetes mellitus (DM), in a community-dwelling population. Study subjects were Nagoya city residents participating in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study (J-MICC) Daiko Study, comprised 749 men and 2,025 women, aged 39-75 years. CKD (>stage 3) and DM were defined by standard guidelines. Associations were evaluated using logistic regression models with adjustments for age, sex and potential confounders in a cross-sectional study, and verified in a 5-year longitudinal study. Odds ratios (OR [95% confidence interval]) were calculated relative to the AA genotype. Serum MT (I + II), Cd and zinc levels were also determined by genotype. The OR of the GG genotype for CKD risk was 3.98 (1.50, 10.58) in the cross-sectional study and 5.17 (1.39, 19.28) in the longitudinal study. The OR of the GA genotype for DM was 1.86 (1.26, 2.75) in the cross-sectional study and 2.03 (1.19, 3.46) in the longitudinal study. MT2A A-5G may be associated with CKD and DM risks. This polymorphism is a promising target for evaluations of CKD and DM risks with possible involvement of low-dose chronic exposure to environmental pollutants.

  18. Kidney Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X-ray called a voiding cystourethrogram. Antibiotics for kidney infections Antibiotics are the first line of treatment ... the infection is completely eliminated. Hospitalization for severe kidney infections For a severe kidney infection, your doctor ...

  19. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... the production of red blood cells. What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  20. Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  1. The Elephant and the Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ Once an Elephant met a Monkey."Look how big and strong I am!"he said."I can break a tree.Can you break a tree?" "Look how quickly I can run and climb!"said the Monkey."Can you climb a tree?" The elephant was proud because he was so strong,and the Monkey Was proud because she was so quick.

  2. 2D elemental mapping of sections of human kidney stones using laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Possibilities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vašinová Galiová, Michaela; Čopjaková, Renata; Škoda, Radek; Štěpánková, Kateřina; Vaňková, Michaela; Kuta, Jan; Prokeš, Lubomír; Kynický, Jindřich; Kanický, Viktor

    2014-10-01

    A 213 nm Nd:YAG-based laser ablation (LA) system coupled to quadrupole-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and an ArF* excimer-based LA-system coupled to a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer were employed to study the spatial distribution of various elements in kidney stones (uroliths). Sections of the surfaces of uroliths were ablated according to line patterns to investigate the elemental profiles for the different urolith growth zones. This exploratory study was mainly focused on the distinguishing of the main constituents of urinary calculus fragments by means of LA-ICP-mass spectrometry. Changes in the ablation rate for oxalate and phosphate phases related to matrix density and hardness are discussed. Elemental association was investigated on the basis of 2D mapping. The possibility of using NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal as an external standard for calibration was tested. It is shown that LA-ICP-MS is helpful for determination of the mineralogical composition and size of all phases within the analyzed surface area, for tracing down elemental associations and for documenting the elemental content of urinary stones. LA-ICP-MS results (elemental contents and maps) are compared to those obtained with electron microprobe analysis and solution analysis ICP-MS.

  3. Multilevel Correlates of Non-Adherence in Kidney Transplant Patients Benefitting from Full Cost Coverage for Immunosuppressives: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, Elisa Oliveira; Fernandes, Neimar Silva; Colugnati, Fernando Antônio Basile; Fernandes, Natalia Maria Silva; De Geest, Sabina; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence is the result of the interaction of the macro, meso, micro, and patient level factors. The macro level includes full coverage of immunosuppressive medications as is the case in Brazil. We studied the correlates of immunosuppressive non-adherence in post kidney transplant patients in the Brazilian health care system. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, adherence to immunosuppressives was assessed in a sample of 100 kidney transplant patients using a composite non-adherence score consisting of three methods (self-report [i.e., The Basel Adherence Scale for Assessment of Immunossupressives–BAASIS], collateral report, and immunosuppressive blood levels). Multilevel correlations of non-adherence were assessed (macro, meso, micro and patient level). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the correlates of non-adherence. Results Our sample consisted primarily of male (65%), Caucasians (72%) with a mean age of 45.0 ± 13.5 years old, who received grafts from a living donor (89%), with a mean time after transplantation of 72.3 ± 44.4 months. Prevalence of non-adherence was 51%. Family income higher than five reference wages (21.6 vs. 4%; OR 6.46 [1.35–30.89], p = 0.009; patient level), and having access to private health insurance (35.3% vs. 18.4%; OR 2.42 [0.96–6.10], p = 0.04; meso level) were associated with non-adherence in univariate analysis. Only the higher family income variable was retained in the multiple logistic regression model (OR 5.0; IC: 1.01–25.14; p = 0.04). Conclusions Higher family income was the only factor that was associated with immunosuppressive non-adherence. In Brazil, lower income recipients benefit from better access to care and coverage of health care costs after transplantation. This is supposed to result in a better immunosuppressive adherence compared to high-income patients who have experienced these benefits continuously. PMID:26619070

  4. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and risk factors for its progression: A cross-sectional comparison of Indians living in Indian versus U.S. cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Shuchi; Kondal, Dimple; Montez-Rath, Maria; Zheng, Yuanchao; Shivashankar, Roopa; Singh, Kalpana; Gupta, Priti; Gupta, Ruby; Ajay, Vamadevan S.; Mohan, Viswanathan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Tandon, Nikhil; Ali, Mohammed K.; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Chertow, Glenn M.; Kandula, Namratha; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Kanaya, Alka M.

    2017-01-01

    Background While data from the latter part of the twentieth century consistently showed that immigrants to high-income countries faced higher cardio-metabolic risk than their counterparts in low- and middle-income countries, urbanization and associated lifestyle changes may be changing these patterns, even for conditions considered to be advanced manifestations of cardio-metabolic disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease [CKD]). Methods and findings Using cross-sectional data from the Center for cArdiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS, n = 5294) and Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA, n = 748) studies, we investigated whether prevalence of CKD is similar among Indians living in Indian and U.S. cities. We compared crude, age-, waist-to-height ratio-, and diabetes- adjusted CKD prevalence difference. Among participants identified to have CKD, we compared management of risk factors for its progression. Overall age-adjusted prevalence of CKD was similar in MASALA (14.0% [95% CI 11.8–16.3]) compared with CARRS (10.8% [95% CI 10.0–11.6]). Among men the prevalence difference was low (prevalence difference 1.8 [95% CI -1.6,5.3]) and remained low after adjustment for age, waist-to-height ratio, and diabetes status (-0.4 [-3.2,2.5]). Adjusted prevalence difference was higher among women (prevalence difference 8.9 [4.8,12.9]), but driven entirely by a higher prevalence of albuminuria among women in MASALA. Severity of CKD—-i.e., degree of albuminuria and proportion of participants with reduced glomerular filtration fraction-—was higher in CARRS for both men and women. Fewer participants with CKD in CARRS were effectively treated. 4% of CARRS versus 51% of MASALA participants with CKD had A1c < 7%; and 7% of CARRS versus 59% of MASALA participants blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg. Our analysis applies only to urban populations. Demographic—-particularly educational attainment—-differences among participants in the two

  5. Multilevel Correlates of Non-Adherence in Kidney Transplant Patients Benefitting from Full Cost Coverage for Immunosuppressives: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Oliveira Marsicano

    Full Text Available Adherence is the result of the interaction of the macro, meso, micro, and patient level factors. The macro level includes full coverage of immunosuppressive medications as is the case in Brazil. We studied the correlates of immunosuppressive non-adherence in post kidney transplant patients in the Brazilian health care system.Using a cross-sectional design, adherence to immunosuppressives was assessed in a sample of 100 kidney transplant patients using a composite non-adherence score consisting of three methods (self-report [i.e., The Basel Adherence Scale for Assessment of Immunossupressives-BAASIS], collateral report, and immunosuppressive blood levels. Multilevel correlations of non-adherence were assessed (macro, meso, micro and patient level. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the correlates of non-adherence.Our sample consisted primarily of male (65%, Caucasians (72% with a mean age of 45.0 ± 13.5 years old, who received grafts from a living donor (89%, with a mean time after transplantation of 72.3 ± 44.4 months. Prevalence of non-adherence was 51%. Family income higher than five reference wages (21.6 vs. 4%; OR 6.46 [1.35-30.89], p = 0.009; patient level, and having access to private health insurance (35.3% vs. 18.4%; OR 2.42 [0.96-6.10], p = 0.04; meso level were associated with non-adherence in univariate analysis. Only the higher family income variable was retained in the multiple logistic regression model (OR 5.0; IC: 1.01-25.14; p = 0.04.Higher family income was the only factor that was associated with immunosuppressive non-adherence. In Brazil, lower income recipients benefit from better access to care and coverage of health care costs after transplantation. This is supposed to result in a better immunosuppressive adherence compared to high-income patients who have experienced these benefits continuously.

  6. Solitary Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Causes of CKD Tests & Diagnosis Managing CKD Eating Right Preventing CKD What If My Kidneys Fail? Clinical Trials Anemia High Blood Pressure Heart ... Nephropathy Kidney Disease in Children Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome Hemolytic ...

  7. Characterization of Sitagliptin Use in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease by Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Medical Insurance Claims Database

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brodovicz, Kimberly G; Chen, Yong; Liu, Zhiwen; Ritchey, Mary E; Liao, Jane; Engel, Samuel S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and makes them particularly susceptible to safety/tolerability issues related to many classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents (OAHA...

  8. Age-related changes in prevalence and symptom characteristics in kidney deficiency syndrome with varied health status: a cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence and symptom characteristics of KDS were found to increase consistently with increasing age and deteriorating health status. Kidney deficiency may be an important mechanism of aging in the subhealthy and chronic disease states.

  9. Thyrotropin levels are associated with chronic kidney disease among healthy subjects in cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto de Miranda, Érique José F; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; de Oliveira Titan, Silvia Maria; Ladeira, Roberto Marini; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins

    2017-03-27

    Few studies have evaluated a possible relationship between thyrotropin levels and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albumin/creatinine ratio in euthyroid subjects. We aimed to analyze this association using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectionally, we included subjects with normal thyroid function and with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function. Linear and logistic regression models evaluated GFR estimated by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-Epi) and albuminuria/creatinine ratio as dependent variables and thyrotropin quartiles in individuals with euthyroidism and SCH as independent variables, adjusted for demographical characteristics and diseases related to CKD. We included 13,193 subjects with a median age of 51 years [interquartile range, (IQR): 45-58], 6840 (51.8%) women, 12,416 (94.1%) euthyroid, and 777 (5.9%) with SCH. SCH subjects were characterized by higher age, triglycerides, frequency of white race, cardiovascular disease, CKD, and former smokers. In adjusted models, log-transformed TSH in euthyroid subjects was inversely and strongly associated with CKD (β = -2.181, 95% CI -2.714 to -1.648), P < 0.0001 for glomerular filtration rate and 4.528 (1.190-7.865) for albuminuria/creatinine ratio. Multivariate logistic models for euthyroid subjects showed an OR of 1.45 (95% CI 1.15-1.83) for GFR and of 1.95 (95% CI 1.08-3.54) for albuminuria/creatinine ratio in the fourth quartile of TSH using the first as the reference. Thyrotropin levels are independently associated with CKD in euthyroid subjects.

  10. Vitamin D on early stages of diabetic kidney disease: A cross-sectional study in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Soares Felício

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, and vitamin D deficiency appears as a candidate to risk factor for developing diabetic kidney disease (DKD. Objective: The purpose of study was to evaluate the existence of an association between low levels of vitamin D and the presence and degree of DKD in T1DM. Patients and methods: We performed a cross-sectional study, between November 2014 and December 2015. Levels of 25(OHD and albuminuria were analyzed in 37 patients with T1DM and normal glomerular filtration rate. Thirty- six subjects were evaluated as a control group. Results: Patients with T1DM and hypovitaminosis D had higher levels of albuminuria compared to those with normal vitamin D levels (albuminuria (log10 = 1.92 vs 1.44; p <0.05. When we have separated the group of patients according to stage of DKD in patients with normo, micro and macroalbuminuria, there are lower levels of 25(OHD in the last when compared to the first two groups (26.7 ± 6.2, 24.8 ± 7,0 and 15.9 ± 7.6 ng/ml; p <0.05, respectively. In T1DM group, we have found correlations between vitamin D levels and both albuminuria and DKD stages (r= -0.5, p <0.01 and r= -0.4; p <0.05, respectively. A simple linear regression model, with albuminuria as the dependent variable and vitamin D as an independent variable, showed r2= 0.2 and p <0.01. Conclusions: Our data suggest an association between reduced levels of vitamin D and the presence and severity of DKD.

  11. A population-based, cross-sectional survey of the Zuni Pueblo: a collaborative approach to an epidemic of kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidley, Christine A; Shah, Vallabh O; Narva, Andrew S; Dalton, Diane; MacCluer, Jean W; Bobelu, Arlene; Scavini, Marina; Welty, Thomas K; Zager, Philip G

    2002-02-01

    Approximately 80% of the Zuni Indians live in Zuni Pueblo in rural New Mexico. The Zuni are relatively endogamous and differ culturally and ethnically from neighboring tribes. The Zuni Pueblo is experiencing an epidemic of renal disease. The prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among the Zuni Indians, adjusted for age and gender, is 6-fold and 21-fold higher than the prevalence rates for Native Americans and European Americans. Almost all Zuni tribal members have a relative with ESRD. This has led to strong public support for renal research. In response, the Zuni community has partnered with the Indian Health Service (IHS), University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (UNMHSC), Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research (SFBR), Dialysis Clinic Inc (DCI), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to establish a research consortium, the Zuni Kidney Project (ZKP). The goal of the ZKP is to reduce the burden of renal disease in the Zuni community. The ZKP combines traditional, population-based, epidemiologic methods with modern techniques of population genetics. The foundation of the ZKP is a population-based, cross-sectional survey (PBCSS). The PBCSS has 3 specific aims: (1) estimate the prevalence of renal disease in Zuni; (2) assess risk factors for renal disease susceptibility; and (3) identify participants for planned case-control, longitudinal cohort, and family studies designed to identify environmental, familial, and genetic risk factors for the susceptibility and/or progression of renal disease. Preliminary results of the PBCSS confirm that the epidemic of renal disease in Zuni Indians is due to high rates of both diabetic and nondiabetic renal disease.

  12. 2D elemental mapping of sections of human kidney stones using laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Possibilities and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vašinová Galiová, Michaela [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Čopjaková, Renata; Škoda, Radek [Department of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Štěpánková, Kateřina; Vaňková, Michaela [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kuta, Jan [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Prokeš, Lubomír [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kynický, Jindřich [Department of Pedology and Geology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-10-01

    A 213 nm Nd:YAG-based laser ablation (LA) system coupled to quadrupole-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and an ArF* excimer-based LA-system coupled to a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer were employed to study the spatial distribution of various elements in kidney stones (uroliths). Sections of the surfaces of uroliths were ablated according to line patterns to investigate the elemental profiles for the different urolith growth zones. This exploratory study was mainly focused on the distinguishing of the main constituents of urinary calculus fragments by means of LA-ICP-mass spectrometry. Changes in the ablation rate for oxalate and phosphate phases related to matrix density and hardness are discussed. Elemental association was investigated on the basis of 2D mapping. The possibility of using NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal as an external standard for calibration was tested. It is shown that LA-ICP-MS is helpful for determination of the mineralogical composition and size of all phases within the analyzed surface area, for tracing down elemental associations and for documenting the elemental content of urinary stones. LA-ICP-MS results (elemental contents and maps) are compared to those obtained with electron microprobe analysis and solution analysis ICP-MS. - Highlights: • Elements in phosphate and oxalate urolith phases were quantified by LA-ICP-MS. • SRM NIST 1486 Bone Meal was proved suitable for quantification in uroliths. • Different ablation rates in particular phases were included at quantification. • Oxalate and apatite phases show opposite hardness order to natural minerals. • Uroliths were classified according to elemental association to phases.

  13. Spaceflight and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    In the grant period, we perfected techniques for determination of interleukin production and leukocyte subset analysis of rhesus monkeys. These results are outlined in detail in publication number 2, appended to this report. Additionally, we participated in the ARRT restraint test to determine if restraint conditions for flight in the Space Shuttle could contribute to any effects of space flight on immune responses. All immunological parameters listed in the methods section were tested. Evaluation of the data suggests that the restraint conditions had minimal effects on the results observed, but handling of the monkeys could have had some effect. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 3, appended to this report. Additionally, to help us develop our rhesus monkey immunology studies, we carried out preliminary studies in mice to determine the effects of stressors on immunological parameters. We were able to show that there were gender-based differences in the response of immunological parameters to a stressor. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 4, appended to this report.

  14. Influenza Alone and in Sequence with Pneumonia Due to ’Streptococcus pneumoniae’ in the Squirrel Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-28

    rights reserved. . . . . t Influenza Alone and In Sequence with Pneumonia Due to-, Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Squirrel Monkey VI / !.llendt, G.G...rhesus drome of sequential respiratory infections. monkeys with the virus alone or in sequence with Streptococcus pneumoniae I1 l. Since that report...were also BC 0 0 observed in the glomeruli of the kidney. S 0 1027 S. pneumoniae-induced pathology. The results Streptococcus pneumoniae obtained in

  15. 慢性肾脏病的单中心横断面流行病学研究%Cross-sectional study of chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迅; 唐骅; 彭晖; 石成钢; 陈珠江; 娄探奇

    2009-01-01

    目的 调查单中心肾内科门诊慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者的基础状况,判断CKD患者肾功能下降的危险因素.方法 对门诊就诊的CKD患者进行为期9个月的前瞻性横断面调查.结果 共有780例CKD病例入选.前4位CKD的病因分别为原发性肾小球疾病(59.0%),高血压肾病(7.6%),狼疮肾炎(6.4%),糖尿病肾病(6.3%).病例平均年龄41.9岁.CKD各期的分布为CKD 1期47.8%、2期18.7%、3期14.0%、4期8.1%、5期11.4%.多因素回归提示年龄、蛋白尿、高血压与CKD患者的肾功能下降独立相关.结论 目前针对中国CKD患者最大规模的单中心横断面调查,有助于确定CKD患者的基本状况,为进一步纵向随访奠定基础.%Objective To present the baseline characteristics of serum uric acid level in patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD)in single.centre nephrology clinic and judge the risk factor for decreased renal function of CKD Datients.Methods A cross-sectional study on CKD patients in clinic was carried out for 9 months.Results 780 CKD cases were enrolled in the study.The top four causes of CKD in these patients were primary glomerular disease(59.0%),essential hypertension(7.6%),lupus nephritis(6.4%)and diabetic nephropathy(6.3%).The average age was 41.9.The distribution of CKD stage was 47.8%of CKD1,18.7%of CKD2,14.0%of CKD3,8.1% of CKD4 and 11.4%of CKD5.Multivariate Logistic regression regression analysis indicated that age,proteinuria,hypertension were independently correlated with decreased renal function.Conclusion This is the largest cross-sectional study of CKD in China,which will help to determine the basic status of Chinese CKD patients,laying a basis for further followup.

  16. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney damage; Toxic injury of the kidney; Kidney injury; Traumatic injury of the kidney; Fractured kidney; Inflammatory injury of the kidney; Bruised kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, ...

  17. Kidney School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dialysis replaces only a small part of kidney function, so getting adequate treatment is key to living long and living well with kidney ... Sexuality and Fertility Maintaining a healthy sex life and ...

  18. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy kidneys clean your blood by removing excess fluid, minerals, and wastes. They also make hormones that keep your ... strong and your blood healthy. But if the kidneys are damaged, they don't work properly. Harmful ...

  19. Health care-seeking behavior among patients with chronic kidney disease: A cross-sectional study of patients presenting at a single teaching hospital in Lagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babawale Taslim Bello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care-seeking behavior of individuals determines how early they present for appropriate care. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, late presentation to the nephrologist is associated with poor outcomes. This study aims to describe the health care-seeking behavior of patients with CKD attending the nephrology outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital located in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted on 104 consecutive adult patients with CKD, presenting for the first time at the nephrology outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital located in Lagos, South West Nigeria. Information was retrieved from the study participants using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, entered into an Excel spreadsheet, and analyzed using Epi Info® statistical software version 7.0. Results: Overall, 74 (71.2% patients sought help, first from a trained health care provider, and their health care-seeking behavior was adjudged to be appropriate. Compared to patients with appropriate health care-seeking behavior, those with inappropriate health care-seeking behavior had a lower mean age (40.4 ± 13.7 years vs 47.3 ± 15.6 years;P = 0.03, were less likely to see their illness as a medical problem (46.7% vs 67.6%;P = 0.04, more likely to have a monthly income less than N25,000 ($150 (80.0% vs 59.5%;P = 0.04, and have received below tertiary level education (20.0% vs 48.6%; P < 0.01. They were also more likely to have consulted more than one health care provider before being referred to our clinic. The factors predicting inappropriate health care-seeking behavior were education below the tertiary level and age less than 45 years. Conclusion: Though health care-seeking behavior was appropriate in majority of our patients with CKD, there remains a need for improved public health awareness.

  20. Metabolic Syndrome without Diabetes or Hypertension Still Necessitates Early Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease: Information from a Chinese National Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqing Hong

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is prevalent, with an increasing contribution to the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD. The study of the relationship between them is important. The CKD survey, a national cross-sectional study, provided a large database to accomplish this study. The study population were 41 131 adults from this survey between 2008 and 2009. CKD was defined as estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or the presence of albuminuria. MS was diagnosed by National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII, ATPIII-modified or International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. Logistic regression model was applied to study the impact of MS or its components on CKD or its components. The age and sex standardized prevalence of MS by ATPIII, ATPIII-modified and IDF criteria was 11.77% (11.13%-12.40%, 21.51% (20.69%-22.34% and 16.67% (15.92-17.42% respectively. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that MS and its components were associated with higher CKD prevalence. The risk for CKD and its components increased with the number of MS components. After adjusting for hypertension and diabetes, the odds ratios of MS for CKD decreased, but remained significantly more than 1 between 1.16(95%CI 1.07-1.26 and 1.37 (95% CI 1.25-1.50 across the different models. Similar results were found with albuminuria, while for decreased eGFR, after adjusting for hypertension and diabetes, the odds ratios of MS and MS components (except elevated TG became insignificant. In conclusion, MS is prevalent and associated with a higher prevalence of CKD. Different MS components are associated with different risks for CKD, even after adjusting for hypertension and diabetes, which may mainly be contributed more by the increased risk for albuminuria than that for decreased eGFR. More attention must be paid to the population with MS, including those with elevated blood pressure and serum glucose.

  1. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (KIM1) in patients with diabetic nephropathy: a cross-sectional study and the effects of lisinopril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S E; Schjoedt, K J; Astrup, A S

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the markers of tubulointerstitial damage, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule1 (KIM1) in Type 1 diabetic patients with different levels of albuminuria and in control subjects. In addition, the effect of renoprotective treatment...... on urinary NGAL was evaluated in diabetic nephropathy....

  2. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  3. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponge Kidney? Complications of medullary sponge kidney include hematuria, or blood in the urine kidney stones urinary ... both kidneys. Complications of medullary sponge kidney include hematuria, or blood in the urine kidney stones urinary ...

  4. Role of the Kidney in Staphylococcal Enterotoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Edward V.; Niederhuber, John; Rhoda, David A.; Faulkner, Charles S.; Beisel, William R.

    1969-01-01

    Highly purified staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is known to accumulate rapidly within the kidneys of experimental animals. The present study was performed to determine whether the predominant renal localization of SEB was of fundamental pathophysiologic importance in the development of lethal shock after the intravenous administration of this toxin to monkeys. Eight bilaterally nephrectomized Macaca mulatta given 10 μg of SEB per kg survived for an average time period less than half that of nephrectomized control animals (P < 0.001). Their survival time, however, was similar to that of control, sham-nephrectomized monkeys given an equal amount of SEB. Thus, no evidence was obtained to suggest that the kidney converted purified SEB to a more potent toxin. The glomerular filtration and proximal tubule cell accumulation of SEB possibly occurred as a nonspecific consequence of its molecular size, and such localization within the kidney might have served to reduce the quantity of SEB reaching some other site of toxic activity. Similar pathological and clinical findings were demonstrated in monkeys from both experimental and control groups; these could not be ascribed to SEB alone. PMID:4976324

  5. An observational, cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes patients in India (START -India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Prasannakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, epidemiological, multi-center, study is enrolling T2DM patients of either gender aged 30 years or above. This study aimed to enroll a total of 3000 T2DM patients at 30 participating hospitals/clinics across India and the data from a planned interim analysis of 1500 patients are presented here. The primary endpoint of the study is to estimate proportion of T2DM patients with CKD (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 or albumin creatinine ratio [ACR] ≥30 mg/g or ≥3 mg/mmol or both. Routine treatment, as administered by the treating physician, was continued without any study specific intervention. Patients′ data pertaining to demographic characteristics, medical history, current medication and physical examination were recorded. The blood/plasma and urine samples, were collected for estimation of hemoglobin A1c, microalbuminuria, serum creatinine, urine creatinine, and routine urine analysis. ACR was calculated from urine creatinine and albumin while GFR was estimated by using a modification of diet in the renal disease equation. Results: Study recruited 1500 patients from 18 centers across India. The study population included 840 (56.05% males. Mean age, body mass index and systolic blood pressure were 55.1 years, 27.4 kg/m 2 and 134.5 mmHg respectively. The mean duration of diabetes was 102.2 months. History of co-morbid diseases such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, microvascular complications and macrovascular complications was present in 657 (43.8%, 655 (43.7%, 268 (17.9% and 104 (6.93%, respectively. This interim analysis revealed that about 46% of the T2DM patients had CKD (urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR ≥30 mg/g and/or estimated GFR [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . The renal dysfunction as per e

  6. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Drug Related Crystal-Like Structures in Formalin-Fixed Frozen and Paraffin-Embedded Rabbit Kidney Tissue Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinen, Anne L; van Oevelen, Cateau; Eijkel, Gert B; Van Heerden, Marjolein; Cuyckens, Filip; Heeren, Ron M A

    2016-01-01

    A multimodal mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) based approach was used to characterize the molecular content of crystal-like structures in a frozen and paraffin embedded piece of a formalin-fixed rabbit kidney. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) imaging and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging were combined to analyze the frozen and paraffin embedded sample without further preparation steps to remove the paraffin. The investigated rabbit kidney was part of a study on a drug compound in development, in which severe renal toxicity was observed in dosed rabbits. Histological examination of the kidney showed tubular degeneration with precipitation of crystal-like structures in the cortex, which were assumed to cause the renal toxicity. The MS imaging approach was used to find out whether the crystal-like structures were composed of the drug compound, metabolites, or an endogenous compound as a reaction to the drug administration. The generated MALDI-MSI data were analyzed using principal component analysis. In combination with the MS/MS results, this way of data processing demonstrates that the crystal structures were mainly composed of metabolites and relatively little parent drug.

  7. Methotrexate for immunosuppression in life-supporting pig-to-cynomolgus monkey renal xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Emanuele; Cadrobbi, Roberto; Baldan, Nicola; Dedja, Arben; Calabrese, Fiorella; Castagnaro, Massimo; Fante, Fabio; Boldrin, Massimo; Iacopetti, Ilaria; Ravarotto, Licia; Carraro, Paolo; Bronte, Vincenzo; De Santo, Carmela; Busetto, Roberto; Plebani, Mario; Cancellotti, Francesco Maria; Rigotti, Paolo; Thiene, Gaetano; Ancona, Ermanno

    2003-11-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) has been used successfully as an immunosuppressant in rodent xenotransplantation models, but the data generated so far with MTX in pig-to-baboon cardiac transplantation studies have been disappointing. The potential of this agent was consequently explored in a life-supporting pig-to-primate renal model using the cynomolgus monkey as the recipient species. Introductory in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies with MTX were conducted in three cynomolgus monkeys. Subsequently, 10 cynomolgus monkey recipients of a life-supporting kidney from human decay-accelerating factor transgenic pigs were administered MTX intravenously according to three different regimens. All the animals also received cyclosporine A and steroids. In addition, mycophenolate sodium (MPS) was administered post-operatively in two of the three groups of transplanted animals. At clinically relevant concentrations, MTX is able in vitro to inhibit the mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) in cynomolgus monkeys. After intravenous administration, moreover, exposure of cynomolgus monkeys to MTX appeared to be higher than had been previously reported in baboons. Graft function was observed in the transplanted animals, which survived from 0 to 41 days. All but two animals revealed acute humoral rejection in the explanted graft and developed diarrhea. Diarrhea was the cause of euthanasia in five cases. It was unrelated to the administration of MPS and associated with severe histopathological signs of enteritis. This study demonstrates that the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles if MTX vary substantially between non-human primate species. In vitro, MTX has immunosuppressive properties in the cynomolgus monkey at clinically relevant concentrations. In vivo, MTX has a very narrow therapeutic window in cynomolgus monkeys, however, as it does in baboons. We conclude that MTX is scarcely effective as an immunosuppressant, be it for induction or maintenance, in pig

  8. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience.

  9. Rhesus monkey heart rate during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorge, J.; Thach, J. S., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Various schedules of reinforcement and their relation to heart rates of rhesus monkeys during exercise are described. All the reinforcement schedules produced 100 per cent or higher increments in the heart rates of the monkeys during exercise. Resting heart rates were generally much lower than those previously reported, which was attributed to the lack of physical restraint of the monkeys during recording.

  10. Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities across Senses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kerry E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys…

  11. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  12. Larva migrans in squirrel monkeys experimentally infected with Baylisascaris potosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Tsugo, Kosuke; Nakamura, Shohei; Taira, Kensuke; Une, Yumi

    2015-10-01

    Roundworms of the genus Baylisascaris are natural parasites primarily of wild carnivores, and they can occasionally cause infection in humans and animals. Infection results in visceral larva migrans and/or neural larva migrans, which can be severe or fatal in some animals. Recently, Baylisascaris nematodes isolated from kinkajous (Potos flavus) and previously referred to as Baylisascaris procyonis were renamed as Baylisascaris potosis; however, data regarding the pathogenicity of B. potosis towards animals and humans are lacking. In the present study, we experimentally infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with B. potosis to determine the suitability of the monkey as a primate model. We used embryonated eggs of B. potosis at two different doses (10,000 eggs and 100,000 eggs) and examined the animals at 30 days post-infection. Histopathological examination showed the presence of B. potosis larvae and infiltration of inflammatory cells around a central B. potosis larvae in the brain, intestines, and liver. Nevertheless, the monkeys showed no clinical signs associated with infection. Parasitological examination revealed the presence of B. potosis larvae in the intestines, liver, lung, muscles, brain, kidney, and diaphragm. Our findings extend the range of species that are susceptible to B. potosis and provide evidence for the zoonotic potential of larva migrans in high dose infections.

  13. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  14. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  15. Distribution of inorganic mercury in liver and kidney of beluga and bowhead whales through autometallographic development of light microscopic tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woshner, Victoria M; Ohara, Todd M; Eurell, Jo Ann; Wallig, Matthew A; Bratton, Gerald R; Suydam, Robert S; Beasley, Val R

    2002-01-01

    Inorganic mercury was localized through autometallography (AMG) in kidney and liver of free-ranging, subsistence-harvested beluga (Delphinapterus leucus: n = 20) and bowhead (Balaena mysticetrus: n = 5) whales. AMG granules were not evident in bowhead tissues, confirming nominal mercury (Hg) concentrations (range = 0.011 to 0.038 microg/g ww for total Hg). In belugas, total Hg ranged from 0.30 to 17.11 and from 0.33 to 82.47 microg/g ww in liver and kidney, respectively. AMG granules were restricted to cortical tubular epithelial cytoplasm in belugas with lower tissue burdens; whales with higher tissue burdens had granules throughout the uriniferous tubular epithelium. In liver, AMG granular densities differed between lobular zones, concentrating in stellate macrophages and bile cannalicular domains of hepatocytes. AMG granules aggregated in periportal regions in belugas with lower hepatic Hg concentrations, yet among whales with higher Hg, AMG granule deposition extended to pericentral and midzonal regions of liver lobules. Mean areas occupied by AMG granules correlated well with hepatic Hg concentrations and age. In beluga livers, AMG staining density was not associated with lipofuscin quantity (an index of oxidative damage). Occasionally, AMG granules and lipofuscin were colocalized, but more often were not, implying that Hg was not a prominent factor in hepatic lipofuscin deposition in belugas.

  16. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ... marrow and strengthen the bones. The term kidney (renal) failure describes a situation in which the kidneys have ...

  17. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  18. Monkeys in a prisoner's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ju; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-03-12

    Haroush and Williams trained pairs of monkeys to play in a prisoner's dilemma game, a model of social interactions. Recording from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), they find neurons whose activity reflects the anticipation of the opponent's yet unknown choice, which may be important in guiding animals' performance in the game.

  19. Modelling Social Learning in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Jeremy R.

    2008-01-01

    The application of modelling to social learning in monkey populations has been a neglected topic. Recently, however, a number of statistical, simulation and analytical approaches have been developed to help examine social learning processes, putative traditions, the use of social learning strategies and the diffusion dynamics of socially…

  20. The impact of hypomagnesemia on erectile dysfunction in elderly, non-diabetic, stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease patients: a prospective cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, Omer; Sarı, Yasin; Koç, Akif; Sarı, Erhan; Kırık, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common in older men with chronic kidney disease. Magnesium is essential for metabolism of nitric oxide which helps in penile erection. There is little information available about the influence of serum magnesium on ED. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of hypomagnesemia on ED in elderly chronic kidney disease patients. Subjects and methods A total of 372 patients aged 65–85 years, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 60–15 mL/min/1.73 m2, were divided into two groups according to serum magnesium levels: hypomagnesemia, n=180; and normomagnesemia, n=192. ED was assessed through the International Index of Erectile Function-5. Hypomagnesemia is defined as serum magnesium <1.8 mg/dL. Results The prevalence of ED was higher among hypomagnesemic subjects compared to that among normomagnesemics (93.3% vs 70.8%, P<0.001). Severe ED (62.8% vs 43.8%, P=0.037), mild-to-moderate ED (12.2% vs 5.2%, P=0.016), abdominal obesity (37.2% vs 22.9%, P=0.003), metabolic syndrome (38.4% vs 19.2%, P=0.026), proteinuria (0.83±0.68 vs 0.69±0.48 mg/dL, P=0.023), and C-reactive protein (6.1±4.9 vs 4.1±3.6 mg/L, P<0.001) were high; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (48.8±14.0 vs 52.6±13.5 mg/dL, P=0.009), and albumin (4.02±0.53 vs 4.18±0.38 g/dL, P=0.001) were low in the hypomagnesemia group. Serum magnesium ≤1.85 mg/dL was the best cutoff point for prediction of ED. Hypomagnesemia (relative risk [RR] 2.27), age ≥70 (RR 1.74), proteinuria (RR 1.80), smoking (RR 21.12), C-reactive protein (RR 1.34), abdominal obesity (RR 3.92), and hypertension (RR 2.14) were predictors of ED. Conclusion Our data support that ED is related to hypomagnesemia in elderly patients with moderately to severely reduced kidney function. PMID:28280316

  1. Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Body Fluid Composition in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study to Evaluate the Relationship between Volume Overload and Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yasushi; Saito, Akinobu; Yamazaki, Keisuke; Tai, Reibin; Matsukiyo, Tatsuru; Aikawa, Atsushi; Sakai, Ken

    2016-08-01

    Fluid volume overload occurs in chronic kidney disease (CKD), leading to the compensatory release of natriuretic peptides. However, the elevated cardiac peptides may also be associated with malnutrition as well as volume overload. Body fluid composition was measured in 147 patients with CKD between 2009 and 2015, and its relationship to brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels was examined. Body fluid composition was separated into three components: (a) a water-free mass consisting of muscle, fat, and minerals; (b) intracellular water (ICW) content, and (c) extracellular water (ECW) content. Excess fluid mass was calculated using Chamney's formula. The measured BNP levels in the tertile groups were 10.9 ± 5.4, 36.3 ± 12.5, and 393 ± 542 pg/ml, respectively. Patients in a higher log-transformed BNP level tertile were more likely to be older, to have a higher frequency of cardiac comorbidities, pulse pressure, C-reactive protein levels, and proteinuria, and to have lower serum sodium, kidney function, and serum albumin (p < 0.05). In body fluid composition, decreased body mass was significantly associated with the ECW-to-ICW ratio in relation to the downward ICW slope (r = -0.235, p = 0.004) and was strongly correlated with excess fluid mass (r = -0.701, p < 0.001). The ECW-to-ICW ratio and excess fluid mass was independently associated with the BNP levels. Fluid volume imbalance between intra- and extracellular water regulated by decreased cell mass was independently associated with BNP levels, which may explain the reserve capacity for fluid accumulation in patients with CKD.

  2. Effects elicited by toxaphene in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, F; Iverson, F; Andrews, P; Barker, M; Cherry, W; Mueller, R; Pulido, O; Hayward, S; Fernie, S; Arnold, D L

    2001-12-01

    Toxaphene, which was added to glycerol/corn oil, was administered at a level of 1 mg/kg body weight/day in gelatin capsules to four healthy young adult cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys for 52 weeks. Four control monkeys ingested capsules containing only glycerol/corn oil. Each group had two males and two females. On a daily basis, each monkey's feed and water consumption was determined, its health was monitored and the females were swabbed to evaluate menstrual status. On a weekly basis, each monkey's body weight was determined and a detailed clinical evaluation was performed. At 4-week intervals, blood samples were taken for serum biochemistry, haematology and toxaphene analysis. Also, a local anaesthetic was administered to the nuchal fat pad area of each monkey, and adipose samples were obtained for toxaphene analysis. 1 day prior to the biopsies, a 24-h urine and faecal collection was obtained for toxaphene analysis. After 34 weeks of treatment, the immune system of the monkeys was evaluated. After 52 weeks of dosing, all treated and two control animals were necropsied. Liver samples were obtained and microsomal fractions were prepared immediately. A portion of liver and kidney was taken for toxaphene analysis. All of the major internal organs were weighed and bone marrow evaluations were conducted. Organ and tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin and processed for light microscopy. There was no effect of treatment on body weight gain, feed consumption, water consumption or haematological parameters. Two major clinical findings were inflammation and/or enlargement of the tarsal gland and impacted diverticulae in the upper and lower eye lids. At necropsy, the relative spleen and thymus weights were greater for the treated monkeys than the controls. Toxaphene administration produced an increase in metabolism of aminopyrene, methoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin, three substrates that are altered specifically by cytochrome P450-based hepatic

  3. 卵磷脂对砷染毒非洲绿猴肾细胞细胞膜损伤的作用%Intervention effect of lecithin on cell membrane injury of African green monkey kidney exposed to sodium arsenite in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷婷; 张亚楼; 刘继文; 王生玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the lecithin's effect on membrane of African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) exposed to sodium arsenite(NaAsO2). Methods Vero cells cultured in vitro were divided into 4 groups:control group (saline), model group (2.20 mg/L NaAsO2), high eoncentration of lecithin and arsenic group (53.33mg/L lecithin + 2.20 mg/L NaAsO2), low eoncentration of lecithin and arsenic group( 13.32 mg/L lecithin + 2.20 mg/L NaAsO2), 6 bottles of cells in each group, medium was changed every 2 days, cultured for 120 h. Na+ ,K+-ATPase activities of membrane were measured by spectrophotometry, and membrane phospholipids composition including phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethano-lamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingmyelin (SM) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The Na~, K+-ATPase activities of membrane of control group, model group, high concentration of lecithin and arsenic group, low concentration of lecithin and arsenic group were (0.962 ± 0.081) × 106, (0.544 ± 0.037) × 106, (0.647 ± 0.043) x 106, (0.550±Compared with control group, the Na+ ,K+-ATPase activities of other 3 groups were significantly reduced (all P 0.05). Compared with control group[(0.087 ± 0.003), (0.127 ± 0.053), (0.588 ± 0.105),(0.071 ± 0.029)g/L], PS, PE, PC, SM levels in model group[(0.051 ± 0.018), (0.073 + 0.030), (0.240 ±0.038), (0.047 ± 0.121 )g/L] were significantly lower(all P 0.05), but SM[(0.057 ± 0.004)g/L] significantly decreased(P 0.05]. Compared with model group,the levels of PS, PE, PC, SM in high concentration of lecithin and arsenic group were significantly higher(all P 0.05), and PC was significantly higher(P 0.05).与对照组[(0.087±0.003)、(0.127±0.053)、(0.588±0.105)、(0.07l±0.029)g/L]比较,砷模型组PS、PE、PC、SM水平[(0.051±0.018)、(0.073±0.030)、(0.240 4-0.038)、(0.047±0.121)g/L]均明显降低(P均0.05),而SM[(0.057±0.004)g/L]明显降低(P0.05).与砷模型组比较,卵磷脂高剂

  4. A brain MRI atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Schilling, Kurt G.; Khare, Shweta P.; Panda, Swetasudha; Choe, Ann S.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Li, Xia; Ding, Zhoahua; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-03-01

    The common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, is a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. It is one of the most commonly used South American primates in biomedical research. Unlike its Old World macaque cousins, no digital atlases have described the organization of the squirrel monkey brain. Here, we present a multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections.

  5. A brain MRI atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Khare, Shweta P; Panda, Swetasudha; Choe, Ann S; Stepniewska, Iwona; Li, Xia; Ding, Zhoahua; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A

    2014-03-13

    The common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, is a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. It is one of the most commonly used South American primates in biomedical research. Unlike its Old World macaque cousins, no digital atlases have described the organization of the squirrel monkey brain. Here, we present a multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. In vivo MRI acquisitions include T2 structural imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include T2 structural imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections.

  6. Behavioral sleep in captive owl monkey (Aotus azarae) and squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Kantha, Sachi; Suzuki, Juri; Hirai, Yuriko; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that activity-behavioral sleep parameters differ between nocturnallyactive owl monkeys and diurnally-active squirrel monkeys which are sympatric and of Bolivian origin. The total sleep time (TST) and sleep episode length (SEL) of 7 adult owl monkey siblings and 4 adult squirrel monkeys were quantitated by actigraphy for 7 days under captive conditions. The higher TST/24 h values and longer SEL/12 h quiescent phase quantitated for owl monkeys in comparison to that of squirrel monkeys clearly indicate that the behavioral sleep is markedly different between these two groups, though they are sympatric in wild. Significant differences noted in the sleep architecture between squirrel monkeys and owl monkeys can be attributed to the influences in the selected sleep niche, threat perception from predators, and disturbances from natural elements (especially rain) in the natural habitat.

  7. 9 CFR 310.19 - Inspection of kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of kidneys. 310.19 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.19 Inspection of kidneys. An employee of the establishment shall open the kidney capsule and expose the kidneys of all livestock at the time of slaughter...

  8. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no lon

  9. Cooperation and competition in two forest monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Eckardt, Winnie; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Putty-nosed monkeys, Cercopithecus nictitans stampflii, occur at various sites in West Africa, particularly in the transition zone between rainforest and savannah. The species is sometimes seen in primary rainforest, although at a curiously low density compared with that of other monkey species. We conducted a 24-month field study in the tropical rainforest of Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, and found that putty-nosed monkeys require an ecological niche almost identical to that of the Diana m...

  10. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Macaque monkeys experience visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Erin A; Olson, Carl R

    2015-01-01

    In peripheral vision, objects that are easily discriminated on their own become less discriminable in the presence of surrounding clutter. This phenomenon is known as crowding.The neural mechanisms underlying crowding are not well understood. Better insight might come from single-neuron recording in nonhuman primates, provided they exhibit crowding; however, previous demonstrations of crowding have been confined to humans. In the present study, we set out to determine whether crowding occurs in rhesus macaque monkeys. We found that animals trained to identify a target letter among flankers displayed three hallmarks of crowding as established in humans. First, at a given eccentricity, increasing the spacing between the target and the flankers improved recognition accuracy. Second, the critical spacing, defined as the minimal spacing at which target discrimination was reliable, was proportional to eccentricity. Third, the critical spacing was largely unaffected by object size. We conclude that monkeys, like humans, experience crowding. These findings open the door to studies of crowding at the neuronal level in the monkey visual system.

  12. Organ Facts: Kidney / Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Kidney/Pancreas Facts The kidneys are a pair of reddish- ... the chemical (electrolyte) composition of the blood. The pancreas is a five to six inch gland located ...

  13. Kidney Disease (Nephropathy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Kidneys are remarkable organs. Inside them ... resulting in kidney disease. How Does Diabetes Cause Kidney Disease? When our bodies digest the protein we ...

  14. Polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysts - kidneys; Kidney - polycystic; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ADPKD ... Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is passed down through families (inherited). The 2 inherited forms of PKD are autosomal dominant ...

  15. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Take the first step Alternate Language URL Kidney Disease Basics Page Content Your kidneys filter extra ... blood pressure are the most common causes of kidney disease. ​These conditions can slowly damage the kidneys ...

  16. Quantitative (stereological) study on the spermatozoal storage capacity of epididymis in rats and monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-HongWEN; Zheng-WeiYANG

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the spermatozoal production rate of the testis and the spermatozoal storage capacity of the epididyrnis in monkeys and rats. Methods: The number of the late spermatids (steps 13 - 14 in the monkey or steps 15 - 19 in the rat) per testis and the number of spermatozoa per epididymis were estimated in 6 normal adult monkeys (Macaca fascicularis ) and 6 normal adult SD rats on 25 μm-thick methacrylate-embedded sections using a contemporary unbiased and efficient stereological method-the optical disector. The diameter and length of the efferent ductules and ductus epididyrnidis and the volume of the epididymal fluid in the tubules were also estimated. Results: The total number of the late spermatids per testis was 2902 ± 749 (million, x ± s ) in the monkey, or 179 ± 31 in the rat; the number of spermatozoa per epididymis was 3235 ± 1835 in the monkey, or 241 ± 76 in the rat. Conclusion: A large number of spermatozoa was densely packed and stored in the ductus epididymidis; the epididymal transit time for spermatozoa was around 5 days in monkeys or 11 days in rats. (Asian J Androl 2000; 2:73 - 77)

  17. Cup tool use by squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Christine L; Hyde, Shellie A; Parker, Karen J; Lyons, David M

    2015-12-01

    Captive-born male and female squirrel monkeys spontaneously 'invented' a cup tool use technique to Contain (i.e., hold and control) food they reduced into fragments for consumption and to Contain water collected from a valve to drink. Food cup use was observed more frequently than water cup use. Observations indicate that 68% (n = 39/57) of monkeys in this population used a cup (a plastic slip cap) to Contain food, and a subset of these monkeys, 10% (n = 4/39), also used a cup to Contain water. Cup use was optional and did not replace, but supplemented, the hand/arm-to-mouth eating and direct valve drinking exhibited by all members of the population. Strategies monkeys used to bring food and cups together for food processing activity at preferred upper-level perching areas, in the arboreal-like environment in which they lived, provides evidence that monkeys may plan food processing activity with the cups. Specifically, prior to cup use monkeys obtained a cup first before food, or obtained food and a cup from the floor simultaneously, before transporting both items to upper-level perching areas. After food processing activity with cups monkeys rarely dropped the cups and more often placed the cups onto perching. Monkeys subsequently returned to use cups that they previously placed on perching after food processing activity. The latter behavior is consistent with the possibility that monkeys may keep cups at preferred perching sites for future food processing activity and merits experimental investigation. Reports of spontaneous tool use by squirrel monkeys are rare and this is the first report of population-level tool use. These findings offer insights into the cognitive abilities of squirrel monkeys and provide a new context for behavior studies with this genus and for comparative studies with other primates.

  18. Identification of a novel polyomavirus from vervet monkeys in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Nakamura, Ichiro; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Thomas, Yuka; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi; Orba, Yasuko

    2013-06-01

    To examine polyomavirus (PyV) infection in wildlife, we investigated the presence of PyVs in Zambia with permission from the Zambia Wildlife Authority. We analysed 200 DNA samples from the spleens and kidneys (n = 100 each) of yellow baboons and vervet monkeys (VMs) (n = 50 each). We detected seven PyV genome fragments in 200 DNA samples using a nested broad-spectrum PCR method, and identified five full-length viral genomes using an inverse PCR method. Phylogenetic analysis of virally encoded proteins revealed that four PyVs were closely related to either African green monkey PyV or simian agent 12. Only one virus detected from a VM spleen was found to be related, with relatively low nucleotide sequence identity (74 %), to the chimpanzee PyV, which shares 48 % nucleotide sequence identity with the human Merkel cell PyV identified from Merkel cell carcinoma. The obtained entire genome of this virus was 5157 bp and had large T- and small t-antigens, and VP1 and VP2 ORFs. This virus was tentatively named vervet monkey PyV 1 (VmPyV1) as a novel PyV. Comparison with other PyVs revealed that VmPyV1, like chimpanzee PyV, had a longer VP1 ORF. To examine whether the VmPyV1 genome could produce viral proteins in cultured cells, the whole genome was transfected into HEK293T cells. We detected VP1 protein expression in the transfected HEK293T cells by immunocytochemical and immunoblot analyses. Thus, we identified a novel PyV genome from VM spleen.

  19. Kidney pain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the size of sand or ... A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the ...

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections in cynomolgus monkey transplant recipients and institution of a screening program for the prevention and control of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Wha; Lee, Kyo Won; Kim, Tae Min; Park, Hyojun; Jeon, Mi Ri; Cho, Chan Woo; Park, Jae Berm; Kim, Sungjoo

    2016-12-20

    Tuberculosis is a major health concern in not only humans, but also in non-human primates. In this paper, we report recent cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cynomolgus monkeys from Cambodia used in transplantation research in a Korean facility and describe a program instituted to prevent and control subsequent infections. All monkeys were antibody negative for tuberculosis during quarantine; however, suspected tuberculosis gross lesions were observed in two cynomolgus monkeys who underwent allograft kidney transplantation. Lung tissue from one monkey was found to be weakly positive by PCR for detection of M. tuberculosis. After PCR confirmation of tuberculosis, we decided to sacrifice the remaining animals and instituted a program for preventing subsequent infections. During necropsy of the remaining monkeys, two additional suspected tuberculosis cases were observed. A total of four monkeys with nodular lesions in the respiratory tract, suspected to be tuberculosis, demonstrated no clinical signs. Acid-fast bacilli were identified on slides from the lung or liver in all four monkeys. Two of four monkeys tested PCR positive. We decided that new monkeys entering from Cambodia should undergo a single gastric aspiration PCR and tuberculin skin testing (TST) every 2 weeks until four consecutive negatives to detect latent tuberculosis are obtained before starting experiments. Monkeys should then undergo a chest X-ray monthly and TST every 6 months. Detection of latent tuberculosis by an effective preventive screening program before starting experiments is an essential process to reduce the risk of reactivation of tuberculosis, especially in studies using immunosuppressive drugs. It also serves to protect the health of captive non-human primates, their caretakers and researchers.

  1. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  2. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  3. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  4. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  5. Spatial information processing in humans and monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis a series of experiments are described on human volunteers and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in the context of spatial information processing. In the first single-unit recording experiments in monkeys a spatial summation algorithm was investigated. The responses of single neurons to

  6. Kidney Disease and Diabetes - What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease and Diabetes: What You Need to Know ... page please turn Javascript on. March is National Kidney Month , a good time to check if you ...

  7. Studies of tolerance induction through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys. Method for detection of chimeric cells and effect of thymic irradiation on induction of tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Tomoaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    To establish the method for the detection of chimerism in cynomologus monkeys, we tested cross reactivity of various anti-HLA monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to cynomolgus monkeys. In 29 mAb we tested, only three monoclonal anti-HLA antibodies crossreacted with lymphocytes of monkeys. With these mAb, chimeric cell can be detected up to 1% by flow cytometric analysis (study 1). Utilizing the method we developed in study 1, we applied the regimen that induces mixed chimerism and skin graft tolerance in mice to renal allotransplantation of cynomolgus monkey. Regimen A includes non-lethal dose of total body irradiation (TBI), administration of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) for 3 days, donor bone marrow infusion and 45 days course of cyclosporine (CYA) administration. We added 7 Gy of thymic irradiation on day-6 in regimen B and on day-1 in regimen C. Although all monkeys in regimen A and B consistently developed chimerism, they rejected kidney allografts soon after stopping CYA. In contrast, 4 monkeys out of 5 failed to develop chimerism in regimen C, but renal allograft tolerance was induced in one monkey who developed chimerism in regimen C. In conclusion, the induction of chimerism is considered necessary but not sufficient for tolerance induction. (author)

  8. Primary and Secondary Vestibular Connections in the Brain Stem and Cerebellum: An Axoplasmic Transport Study in the Monkey and Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-25

    cervical, thoracic and lumbar levels were cut at 40 um on a freezing microtome. Selected sections were treated by the method described above for HRP...spinal cord of the rhesus monkey: A correlation of the findings of cytoarchl- tectonics and sympathectomy with fiber degeneration following dorsal...Stein, B.M. and Carpenter, M.B., Central projections of spinal dorsal roots in the monkey. I. Cervical and upper thoracic dorsal roots, Amer. J. Anat

  9. Exocrine contamination impairs implantation of pancreatic islets transplanted beneath the kidney capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D W; Sutton, R; McShane, P; Peters, M; Morris, P J

    1988-11-01

    The effect of exocrine contamination on islets implanted under the kidney capsule has been studied by histological examination of pure or exocrine-contamination human, monkey, or rat islets transplanted to the kidney capsule of the nude rat, monkey, or rat, respectively. Exocrine contamination resulted in an appearance suggestive of impaired islet implantation, due to tissue necrosis and subsequent fibrosis. The effect of exocrine contamination was examined quantitatively in a rat islet isograft model in which handpicked DA rat islets were transplanted under the kidney capsule of normal DA rats. The islets were either pure or deliberately recontaminated with exocrine tissue (50 or 90% contamination). Four hundred pure islets were placed under one kidney capsule and 400 islets (of similar size and from the same islet preparation) were contaminated and then placed under the contralateral kidney capsule. After 2 weeks the kidneys were removed and extracted for insulin content. The insulin content of kidneys bearing islets contaminated by either 50 or 90% exocrine tissue was significantly reduced when compared to the contralateral kidney bearing pure islets. These findings support the view that exocrine contamination of islets resulted in impaired islet implantation when transplanted to a confined site such as the kidney subcapsule.

  10. Pluripotent hybrid stem cells from transgenic Huntington's disease monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laowtammathron, Chuti; Chan, Anthony W S

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating disease that currently has no cure. Transgenic HD monkeys have developed key neuropathological and cognitive behavioral impairments similar to HD patients. Thus, pluripotent stem cells derived from transgenic HD monkeys could be a useful comparative model for clarifying HD pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic approaches, which could be validated in HD monkeys. In order to create personal pluripotent stem cells from HD monkeys, here we present a tetraploid technique for deriving pluripotent hybrid HD monkey stem cells.

  11. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly.

  12. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease (CKD) What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Causes of CKD Tests & Diagnosis Managing CKD Eating Right Preventing CKD ... as polycystic kidney disease (PKD), another disease that causes the kidneys to ... chronic kidney disease (CKD)—a condition that develops over many years ...

  13. KIDNEY ANOMALIES: HORSE SHOE KIDNEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Horse Shoe Kidney was first recognized during an autopsy by De Carpi in 1521. This anomaly consists of two distinct renal masses lying vertically on either side of the midline and connected at their respective lower poles by a parenchymatous or fibrous isthmus that crosses the mid pl ane of the body. This isthmus lies at the level of 4th lumbar vertebra just beneath the origin of inferior mesenteric artery in about 40% of cases. Fusion of upper poles instead of the lower poles results in a n inverted horse Shoe Kidney which constitute 5 - 10% of ail Horse - Shoe kidneys , (i.e. in 95% of HSK , fusion is at lower poles. HSK is found more commonly in males by a 2 : 1 margin. AIM OF STUDY : An attempt has been made to know the various anomalies . The study has been taken up with the fond hope of helping the clinician , sonologist , and surgeons during their routine work. To apply this knowledge to the incoming post graduates in their research works. EMBRIOLOGICAL BASIS & KDNEY : The abnormality originates between 4th and 6th weeks of gestation , after the ureteral bud has entered the renal blastema. Boyden (1931 postulated that at the 14mm stage (4.5 weeks the developing metanephric masses lie close to one another , any disturbance in their relationship may result in joining at their inferior poles. A slight alteration in the position of the umbilical or common iliac artery could change the orientation of migrating kidneys thus leading to contact and fusion. In 1941 Dees (Nation 1945 , Bell 1946 , Gleen 1959 , Campbell 1970 described horse - shoe kidney di sease occurrence in 0.25% of the population or about 1 in 400. OBSERVATION : In the present study 176 specimens of kidneys were studied out of which 40 were fetal specimens and the rest were adult specimens consisting of both cadaveric and sonograms. The ad ult specimens from cadavers were 76 and 60 from sonograms. MATERIAL & METHODS : Abdomen is opened ; superficial viscera and

  14. Generation of chimeric rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Ramsey, Cathy; Ma, Hong; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2012-01-20

    Totipotent cells in early embryos are progenitors of all stem cells and are capable of developing into a whole organism, including extraembryonic tissues such as placenta. Pluripotent cells in the inner cell mass (ICM) are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into any cell type of a body except extraembryonic tissues. The ability to contribute to chimeric animals upon reintroduction into host embryos is the key feature of murine totipotent and pluripotent cells. Here, we demonstrate that rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and isolated ICMs fail to incorporate into host embryos and develop into chimeras. However, chimeric offspring were produced following aggregation of totipotent cells of the four-cell embryos. These results provide insights into the species-specific nature of primate embryos and suggest that a chimera assay using pluripotent cells may not be feasible.

  15. Vitreal syneresis in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, B E; Talsma, D M; Beatrice, E S

    1977-11-01

    The eyes of 15 rhesus monkeys were evaluated. Various degrees of vitreal syneresis were observed in 28 of the 30 eyes. The observed vitreal structures varied from fine strands randomly spaced throughout the vitreous to thick, intertwining, fibrous networks with some clumping of the collagenous condensate at the fiber junctions. Qualitatively, the degree of syneresis was slightly more extensive in the eight older mature males than in the seven younger animals. In all animals a clear view of the fundus could be obtained with the ophthalmoscope. The vitreous structures may be one cause of variability in ocular dose-response relationships for exposure to laser radiation. The effect on retinal exposure experiments of the finer vitreal structure is considered minimal.

  16. 3 Zika Vaccines Effective in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160252.html 3 Zika Vaccines Effective in Monkeys Human trial set to ... In another key step toward a vaccine against Zika virus, scientists have found that three different experimental ...

  17. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  18. Tests for Kidney Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... giving Gift and estate planning Circle of Champions Corporate sponsorship Join us at an event The Hope ... factors Types Symptoms Tests Prevention Treatments Complications Kidney failure Other kidney problems Kidney Transplants Preparing for transplant ...

  19. Diabetic Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste ... in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It ...

  20. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  1. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  2. Acute Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out of balance. Acute kidney failure — also called acute renal failure or acute kidney injury — develops rapidly over ... 2015. Palevsky PM. Definition of acute kidney injury (acute renal failure). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April ...

  3. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  4. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V.

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultras...

  5. [Human physiology: kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  6. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  7. Squirrel monkey cytomegalovirus antibodies in free-ranging black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya), Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Argibay, Hernan; Rinas, Miguel A; Uhart, Marcela

    2012-04-01

    Serum from four black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) was screened for antibodies to seven viruses by dot immunoassay. Cytomegalovirus antibodies were detected in three of four individuals and provide the first evidence of exposure by black howler monkeys to this virus.

  8. Establishment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC model by a single iv administration of Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS to cynomolgus monkeys and evaluation of its pathophysiological status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Minomo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We prepared a DIC model by administrating LPS to cynomolgus monkeys, and investigated its potential for evaluations of new medicines for DIC therapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC collected from cynomolgus monkeys were incubated with LPS (8 types, and TNF-α levels in the media were measured. LPS from Escherichia coli (K-235 was most appropriate in terms of larger increases and smaller variation in TNF-α levels. PBMC from rats, cynomolgus monkeys or humans were incubated with LPS (K-235, and the TNF-α response to LPS was investigated. The response was comparable between cynomolgus monkeys and humans but small in rats. In an in vivo experiment, LPS (K-235 was administered once intravenously to cynomolgus monkeys with or without recombinant human thrombomodulin (rhTM to investigate any changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis biomarkers and the suppressive effect of rhTM. The liver, kidney, and lung were examined histopathologically. Almost all of the changes resembled the pathophysiological status of human DIC and were suppressed by co-administration of rhTM. The DIC model resembling human DIC was established by LPS (K-235 treatment in cynomolgus monkeys, and therapeutic effect of rhTM was noted, suggesting that this model is useful in evaluations of the efficacy of new medicines for DIC therapy.

  9. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage for Kidney Cancer Kidney Cancer Treating Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer The goal of biologic therapy ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ...

  10. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; Heurn, L.W. van; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  11. Ultrasonography of the Kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the kidneys is essential in the diagnosis and management of kidney-related diseases. The kidneys are easily examined, and most pathological changes in the kidneys are distinguishable with ultrasound. In this pictorial review, the most common findings in renal ultrasound are hig...

  12. Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Causes of CKD Tests & Diagnosis Managing CKD Eating Right Preventing CKD What If My Kidneys Fail? Clinical Trials Anemia High Blood Pressure Heart ... Nephropathy Kidney Disease in Children Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome Hemolytic ...

  13. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; Heurn, L.W. van; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  14. DNA-Based Vaccine Guards Against Zika in Monkey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161106.html DNA-Based Vaccine Guards Against Zika in Monkey Study ... THURSDAY, Sept. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental DNA-based vaccine protected monkeys from infection with the ...

  15. Atlas-Guided Segmentation of Vervet Monkey Brain MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoxing; Pohl, Kilian M.; Styner, Martin; Addicott, Merideth; Wyatt, Chris; Daunais, James B.; Fedorov, Andriy; Bouix, Sylvain; Wells, William Mercer; Kikinis, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI anal...

  16. A Paradoxical Property of the Monkey Book

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Minnhagen, Petter

    2011-01-01

    A "monkey book" is a book consisting of a random distribution of letters and blanks, where a group of letters surrounded by two blanks is defined as a word. We compare the statistics of the word distribution for a monkey book with the corresponding distribution for the general class of random books, where the latter are books for which the words are randomly distributed. It is shown that the word distribution statistics for the monkey book is different and quite distinct from a typical sampled book or real book. In particular the monkey book obeys Heaps' power law to an extraordinary good approximation, in contrast to the word distributions for sampled and real books, which deviate from Heaps' law in a characteristics way. The somewhat counter-intuitive conclusion is that a "monkey book" obeys Heaps' power law precisely because its word-frequency distribution is not a smooth power law, contrary to the expectation based on simple mathematical arguments that if one is a power law, so is the other.

  17. Somatosensory thresholds in monkeys exposed to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurissen, J.P.J.; Weiss, B.; Davis, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    Six monkeys were trained to report detection of a vibratory or electrical stimulus applied to the fingertip. The vibratory stimuli were presented at two frequencies (40 and 150 Hz). Thresholds were determined with a tracking procedure before, during, and after dosing. Each monkey served as its own control. Four monkeys were dosed orally with 10 mg/kg of acrylamide 5 days a week until the appearance of toxic signs. The total administered dose varied between 320 and 450 mg/kg. The other two monkeys served as time-matched controls. All the monkeys were observed 5 days a week. They were also weighed and presented with a visuomotor task twice a week. Weight loss usually preceded the onset of gross behavioral disturbances, such as loss of balance, tremor, or decreased activity. Impaired coordination, as revealed with the pickup test, paralleled weight loss. Electrical sensitivity was not affected. Vibration sensitivity, however, fell during dosing and remained impaired for several months after dosing ended. These data indicate that vibration sensitivity testing can trace the time course of intoxication and recovery in toxic peripheral neuropathies. Furthermore, the differential results obtained with vibratory and electrical stimulation are consonant with a primary effect on end-organ receptors.

  18. Primary Leiomyosarcoma of the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Venkatesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary leiomyosarcoma of the kidney is a rare tumor with an aggressive behaviour. A 55-year-old woman presented with a left sided abdominal mass in our outpatient department. Radiologic investigations revealed the mass to be renal in origin with colonic adhesions for which radical nephrectomy and hemicolectomy were done. The tumor completely appeared to replace the left kidney and had a whorled character focally on cut section. Microscopically, spindle cells having malignant features with cigar shaped nuclei were seen. The smooth muscle origin of the cells was confirmed by immunohistochemical positivity for smooth muscle actin. Sarcomatoid variant of the renal cell carcinoma was ruled out as the tumor was negative for cytokeratin. Tumors with spindle cell morphology in the kidney should not always be taken for a sarcomatoid variant of renal cell carcinoma and should be investigated thoroughly.

  19. Safety, pharmacokinetic, and efficacy studies of oral DB868 in a first stage vervet monkey model of human African trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Thuita

    Full Text Available There are no oral drugs for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness. A successful oral drug would have the potential to reduce or eliminate the need for patient hospitalization, thus reducing healthcare costs of HAT. The development of oral medications is a key objective of the Consortium for Parasitic Drug Development (CPDD. In this study, we investigated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of a new orally administered CPDD diamidine prodrug, 2,5-bis[5-(N-methoxyamidino-2-pyridyl]furan (DB868; CPD-007-10, in the vervet monkey model of first stage HAT. DB868 was well tolerated at a dose up to 30 mg/kg/day for 10 days, a cumulative dose of 300 mg/kg. Mean plasma levels of biomarkers indicative of liver injury (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase were not significantly altered by drug administration. In addition, no kidney-mediated alterations in creatinine and urea concentrations were detected. Pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma confirmed that DB868 was orally available and was converted to the active compound DB829 in both uninfected and infected monkeys. Treatment of infected monkeys with DB868 began 7 days post-infection. In the infected monkeys, DB829 attained a median C(max (dosing regimen that was 12-fold (3 mg/kg/day for 7 days, 15-fold (10 mg/kg/day for 7 days, and 31-fold (20 mg/kg/day for 5 days greater than the IC50 (14 nmol/L against T. b. rhodesiense STIB900. DB868 cured all infected monkeys, even at the lowest dose tested. In conclusion, oral DB868 cured monkeys with first stage HAT at a cumulative dose 14-fold lower than the maximum tolerated dose and should be considered a lead preclinical candidate in efforts to develop a safe, short course (5-7 days, oral regimen for first stage HAT.

  20. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A

    2014-08-06

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of fMRI experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category- and feature-selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging.

  1. Default mode of brain function in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Gerits, Annelis; Nelissen, Koen; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Joly, Olivier; Simone, Luciano; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Wardak, Claire; Orban, Guy A; Buckner, Randy L; Vanduffel, Wim

    2011-09-07

    Human neuroimaging has revealed a specific network of brain regions-the default-mode network (DMN)-that reduces its activity during goal-directed behavior. So far, evidence for a similar network in monkeys is mainly indirect, since, except for one positron emission tomography study, it is all based on functional connectivity analysis rather than activity increases during passive task states. Here, we tested whether a consistent DMN exists in monkeys using its defining property. We performed a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in 10 awake monkeys to reveal areas in which activity consistently decreases when task demands shift from passive tasks to externally oriented processing. We observed task-related spatially specific deactivations across 15 experiments, implying in the monkey a functional equivalent of the human DMN. We revealed by resting-state connectivity that prefrontal and medial parietal regions, including areas 9/46d and 31, respectively, constitute the DMN core, being functionally connected to all other DMN areas. We also detected two distinct subsystems composed of DMN areas with stronger functional connections between each other. These clusters included areas 24/32, 8b, and TPOC and areas 23, v23, and PGm, respectively. Such a pattern of functional connectivity largely fits, but is not completely consistent with anatomical tract tracing data in monkeys. Also, analysis of afferent and efferent connections between DMN areas suggests a multisynaptic network structure. Like humans, monkeys increase activity during passive epochs in heteromodal and limbic association regions, suggesting that they also default to internal modes of processing when not actively interacting with the environment.

  2. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultrasound signal attenuation and distortion caused by a relatively thick skull.

  3. [Cycloferon therapy of cytomegalovirus infection in monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezentseva, M V; Agrba, V Z; Karal-ogly, D D; Agumava, A A

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a wide-spread disease throw humans and monkeys, which and associated with various diseases. The development of this infection in human organism is much like that in rhesus macaque, which makes CMV-infected monkeys adequate model for studying and elaborating prophylactic and therapeutic measures against this disease in humans. This article presents data on the efficiency of cycloferon action on animals with the M. mulatta CMV infection. Cycloferon stimulated an increase in the IFN-alpha production and promoted the period of remission in CMV-infected animals.

  4. 慢性肾脏病不同分期血红蛋白水平的变化及其影响因素分析%Cross-sectional Study of Hemoglobin Level in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迅; 吕凛生; 王成; 彭晖; 石成钢; 陈珠江; 娄探奇

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者血红蛋白水平的基础状况.方法 对中山大学附属第三医院肾内科门诊就诊的CKD患者进行为期9个月的前瞻性横断面调查.结果 共有655例CKD病例入选.前四位慢性肾脏病的病因分别为原发性肾小球疾病、狼疮肾炎、高血压肾病和糖尿病肾病.CKD3期以后,患者血红蛋白水平逐级降低,贫血发生率逐级上升,差异均有显著性(P<0.01).多元回归分析结果显示,血红蛋白水平与肾小球滤过率、体质指数、血白蛋白水平、原发性肾小球疾病呈显著性正相关(P<0.01),与收缩压、年龄呈显著性负相关(P<0.05).结论 血红蛋白水平是慢性肾脏病患者CKD3期以后肾脏病情动态变化的重要指标.%Objective To present the baseline characteristics of hemoglobin level in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out Results 655 outpatients were enrolled in a period of 9 months study. The top four cause of CKD in these patients were primary glomerular disease, lupus nephritis,essential hypertension and diabetic nephropathy. In patients with GFR<60 ml/min, hemoglobin level and the incidence of anemia were associated with the stage of CKD. A significantly positive correlation of hemoglobin level was found with glomerular filtration rate, BMI, chronic glomerulone-phritis as well as serum albumin level. A significantly negative correlation was discovered between hemoglobin level and the level of systolic blood pressure and age. Conclusion Hemoglobin level is an important indicator for the dynamic change of the CKD with GFR<60 ml/min.

  5. Measurement of fetal biparietal diameter in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, A Michele; Brady, Alan G; Tustin, George W; Parks, Virginia L; Morris, Chris G; Abee, Christian R

    2010-09-01

    Owl monkeys are New World primates frequently used in biomedical research. Despite the historical difficulty of breeding owl monkeys in captivity, several productive owl monkey breeding colonies exist currently. The animals in the colony we describe here are not timed-pregnant, and determination of gestational age is an important factor in prenatal care. Gestational age of human fetuses is often determined by using transabdominal measurements of fetal biparietal diameter. The purpose of this study was to correlate biparietal diameter measurements with gestational age in owl monkeys. We found that biparietal diameter can be used to accurately predict gestational age in owl monkeys.

  6. Kidney function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010356 Association of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the rate of glomerular filtration:a cross-sectional study in the population from certain areas of Beijing. WANG Fan(王凡),et al.Dept Geriat Cardiol,Chin PLA General Hosp,Beijing 100853.Chin J Epidemiol 2010;31(3):256-259. Objective To explore the correlation between risks factors of cardiovascular

  7. Oxidoreductases in early gestational monkey placenta during maternal malarial infection : histochemical localisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishi Saxena , P.S.R. Murthy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Early gestational malaria is more deleterious than late gestational infection.Still the pathophysiology of maternofoetal organ—the placenta in malaria remains almost unexploredduring early gestation. Present study dealing with oxidoreductases in early gestational placenta duringmaternal malarial infection of Plasmodium cynomolgi bastianellii in rhesus monkeys was anticipatedto provide a better insight into the functional impairment of this organ leading to foetal abnormalities.Methods: Three control and four experimental monkeys (Macaca mulatta were quarantined for onemonth prior to experimentation. Experimental monkeys at 2–2½ months of gestation were inoculatedwith P. cynomolgi bastianellii. On attaining first peak of parasitaemia the placentae were collectedfrom anesthetised animals. The snap-frozen, cryostat sections were subjected to histochemicallocalisation for 3 (or 17 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (β-HSD [3 (or 17 β-hydroxysteroid:NAD (P+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.51 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases] and NADPH-tetrazoliumreductase [NADPH : (acceptor oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.99.1 NADPH-TR]. Comparative microscopyof control and malaria infected placental sections was performed and analysed.Results: A localised decrease in both the enzymes was observed in syncytiotrophoblast layer ofmalaria infected monkey placenta. The areas showing morphological damage of syncytiotrophoblastwere also depicting gross reduction in NADPH-TR activity.Interpretation & conclusion: The altered enzymatic activities [3 (or 17 β-HSD and NADPH-TR] inmalaria infected early gestational monkey placenta have been discussed in the light of placentalfunction. It could be concluded by present studies that these alterations would affect the cellularmetabolism especially steroidogenesis and detoxification process which in turn would affect thenormal development of the foetus as well as maintenance of gestation.

  8. Molecular detection of Yaba monkey tumour virus from a vervet monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Brettschneider

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Yaba monkey tumour virus (YMTV was first diagnosed in a colony of captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Yaba, Nigeria. It has been implicated as the cause of cutaneous nodules in wild baboons (Papio species, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis. This article reports a case of cutaneous pox lesions caused by YMTV in a  free-ranging  adult  female  vervet  monkey  (Chlorocebus  pygerythrus  from  the  Umkomaas coastal area in South Africa. The virus was identified by molecular sequencing from fragments of the insulin metalloprotease-like protein and intracellular mature virion membrane protein as well as the DNA polymerase genes. Phylogenetic analyses of these gene regions revealed a 99% similarity of the sample to YMTV. Although human disease caused by YMTV is normally mild,  it  is  recommended  that  persons  in  contact  with  non-human  primates  in  the  area  of Umkomaas who develop cutaneous lesions should inform their doctors of the possibility of this infection. The extent and significance of the virus to human and non-human primates in South Africa are not known. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first diagnosis of YMTV in South Africa and in vervet monkeys.

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of first-degree relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease toward kidney donation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Babawale T; Raji, Yemi R

    2016-01-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, kidney transplant programs are dependent on the willingness of relatives of patients with kidney failure to donate kidneys. This study assessed the attitudes of relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) toward kidney donation. This was a cross-sectional survey of relatives of patients with CKD attending the nephrology service of our hospital. The respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge and beliefs about kidney transplantation, as well as their willingness to donate a kidney, were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. There were 161 respondents who returned completed questionnaires; the mean age of the respondents was 34.8±12.6 years and 52.2% of them were female. About 85.1% of the respondents were aware that kidney transplantation was a treatment option for end-stage renal failure, while 70% of them believed that kidney transplantation resulted in an improvement in the quality of life of these patients. However, 25.5% of the respondents believed that kidney donors were at risk of developing kidney failure in the future. Overall, 77.6% of the respondents were willing to donate a kidney, especially if the affected individual was their offspring. The majority of the respondents were willing to donate a kidney to a relative with CKD.

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of first-degree relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease toward kidney donation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babawale T Bello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, kidney transplant programs are dependent on the willingness of relatives of patients with kidney failure to donate kidneys. This study assessed the attitudes of relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD toward kidney donation. This was a cross-sectional survey of relatives of patients with CKD attending the nephrology service of our hospital. The respondents′ socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge and beliefs about kidney transplantation, as well as their willingness to donate a kidney, were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. There were 161 respondents who returned completed questionnaires; the mean age of the respondents was 34.8 ± 12.6 years and 52.2% of them were female. About 85.1% of the respondents were aware that kidney transplantation was a treatment option for end-stage renal failure, while 70% of them believed that kidney transplantation resulted in an improvement in the quality of life of these patients. However, 25.5% of the respondents believed that kidney donors were at risk of developing kidney failure in the future. Overall, 77.6% of the respondents were willing to donate a kidney, especially if the affected individual was their offspring. The majority of the respondents were willing to donate a kidney to a relative with CKD.

  11. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Byun, Yoon Woo; Zhuang, Katie Z; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2015-07-09

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

  12. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  13. OBSERVATIONS ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF VERVET MONKEYS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an order is admittedly more difficult to evaluate in the Cercopithecus monkeys ... being offered; if, on the other hand, the relationship is in doubt, competition will result ... The fact that size alone is not a significant factor in dominance was well ...

  14. Japanese monkeys perceive sensory consonance of chords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, A

    2000-12-01

    Consonance/dissonance affects human perception of chords from early stages of development [e.g., Schellenberg and Trainor, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3321-3328 (1996)]. To examine whether consonance has some role in audition of nonhumans, three Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) were trained to discriminate simultaneous two-tone complexes (chords). The task was serial discrimination (AX procedure) with repetitive presentation of background stimuli. Each tone in a chord was comprised of six harmonics, and chords with complex ratios of fundamental frequency (e.g., frequency ratio of 8:15 in major seventh) resulted in dissonance. The chords were transposed for each presentation to make monkeys attend to cues other than the absolute frequency of a component tone. Monkeys were initially trained to detect changes from consonant (octave) to dissonant (major seventh). Following the successful acquisition of the task, transfer tests with novel chords were conducted. In these transfer tests, the performances with detecting changes from consonant to dissonant chords (perfect fifth to major seventh; perfect fourth to major seventh) were better than those with detecting reverse changes. These results suggested that the consonance of chords affected the performances of monkeys.

  15. Cell-Type-Specific Optogenetics in Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-09-08

    The recent advent of technologies enabling cell-type-specific recording and manipulation of neuronal activity spurred tremendous progress in neuroscience. However, they have been largely limited to mice, which lack the richness in behavior of primates. Stauffer et al. now present a generalizable method for achieving cell-type specificity in monkeys.

  16. Transcranial photoacoustic tomography of the monkey brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Liming; Huang, Chao; Guo, Zijian; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    A photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using a virtual point ultrasonic transducer was developed for transcranial imaging of monkey brains. The virtual point transducer provided a 10 times greater field-of-view (FOV) than finiteaperture unfocused transducers, which enables large primate imaging. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through up to two skulls ranging from 4 to 8 mm in thickness. The mass density and speed of sound distributions of the skull were estimated from adjunct X-ray CT image data and utilized with a timereversal algorithm to mitigate artifacts in the reconstructed image due to acoustic aberration. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. Our experimental results demonstrate that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull, and the imaging aberration caused by skull can be corrected to a great extent.

  17. Mycobacterium marinum Infection from Sea Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn LeBlanc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection acquired from Artemia nyos (sea monkeys is presented. The infection was unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapies. A biopsy of a lesion revealed granulomatous inflammation with cultures that subsequently grew M marinum. A three-month course of clarithromycin provided complete resolution.

  18. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CKD treated? Kidney-friendly diet for CKD What causes chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Anyone can get CKD. Some people are ... and high blood pressure are the most common causes of CKD. If you have diabetes or high blood pressure, ...

  19. Nephrectomy (Kidney Removal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if your entire kidney needs to be removed. Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. In a variation of laparoscopic ... living kidney donor. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014. AskMayoExpert. Partial nephrectomy. Rochester, ...

  20. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease of diabetes, or diabetic nephropathy. How does diabetes cause kidney disease? High blood glucose , also called ... I keep my kidneys healthy if I have diabetes? The best way to slow or prevent diabetes- ...

  1. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002442.htm Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease. These changes may include limiting fluids, eating a ...

  2. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidney can often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury or trauma to ...

  3. The pattern of the arterial supply of the pancreas in anthropoid apes, catarrhine monkeys and platyrrhine monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawuti, Alimujiang; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Saito, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2009-11-01

    To get the full understanding of the arterial distribution to the pancreas, the analysis of the distribution of the variety of monkey species would be helpful. In this study, we studied the layout of the pancreatic artery in anthropoids (1 gorilla, 3 chimpanzees and 2 white-handed gibbons), in catarrhine monkeys (1 hamadryas baboon, 2 anubid baboons, 10 savannah monkeys) and in platyrrhine monkeys (6 squirrel monkeys). The pancreas of the monkeys was supplied by the arteries originating from the celiac trunk and/or superior mesenteric artery. There were three patterns in the arterial distribution; (1) the celiac artery supplied the major area of the pancreas. (2) the superior mesenteric artery supplied the major area of the pancreas. (3) the celiac artery supplied the whole pancreas. The pattern of the arterial distribution to the monkey pancreas had a wide variety. The result would be helpful for the elucidation of the development of the vascular distribution in the pancreas.

  4. The senile kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisova Т.Р.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The given work summarizes external data and self-obtained results on development and diagnostic of kidney involution modifications. Article discusses definition of "senile kidney" as a clinical and pathomorphological term. Major statements on pathophysiological causes of age-associated renal disorders and their prognosis, specifics of chronic kidney disease in elderly and senile patients have been reviewed. Phenomenon of renal "multimorbidity" in eldely maximizes worsening risk of unmodifiable kidney function.

  5. Hydronephrosis of one kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute hydronephrosis; Urinary obstruction; Unilateral hydronephrosis; Nephrolithiasis - hydronephrosis; Kidney stone - hydronephrosis; Renal calculi - hydronephrosis; Ureteral calculi - hydronephrosis; ...

  6. Stereotaxic coordinates for the Rhesus monkey thalamus and mesencephalon referencing visual afferents and cytoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevento, L A

    1975-01-01

    When using a stereotaxic instrument for visual field stimulation we found that electrode placements in the thalamus and mesencephalon of prone rhesus monkeys with the aid of avaiable atlases showed considerable errors. As these animals are valuable for primate visual system reseach an atlas was constructed with methods that have not been used before for rhesus. In addition, the specific connections from the visual cortices, superior colliculus and retina to the thalamus and mesencephalon are also shown. Anesthetized monkeys of specific body dimensions had a matrix of pins inserted into the brain before fixation. A matrix was used so that the penetrations seen in the sectioned brain could be cross related as a control for accurate measurements of the stereotaxic planes throughout the brain. The surface of the whole brain frozen blocks were photographed on the microtome just before a cut section was taken. These calibrated pictures formed the "floor plan" of the atlas as they represent more accurately the brain geometry than individual sections which are distorted by cutting, staining and mounting. Cytoarchitectural (Nissl stain) and axonal connectional (Fink-Heimer stain) information was transferred and adjusted onto the block pictures from their corresponding stained sections. Follow up experiments showed that the present coordinates are accurate for these monkeys of restricted body dimensions. In addition, referencing visual axonal projections onto the same cytoarchitectural map in stereotaxic coordinates provides an atlas for localizing areas of the thalamus, on a basis other than cytoarchitecture, which receive combinations of visual inputs for further anatomical and physiological studies of the rhesus monkey visual system. The atlas further demonstrates that projections do not necessarily follow the cytoarchitectural definition of an area, but rather redefine the thalamus on the basis of specific axonal connections.

  7. Extensive Spinal Decussation and Bilateral Termination of Cervical Corticospinal Projections in Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    To examine neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying fine motor control of the primate hand, adult Rhesus monkeys underwent injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the right motor cortex. Spinal axonal anatomy was examined using detailed serial-section reconstruction and modified stereological quantification. 87% of corticospinal tract (CST) axons decussated in the medullary pyramids and descended through the contralateral dorsolateral tract of the spinal cord. 11% of CST axons projec...

  8. Use of dual section mRNA in situ hybridisation/immunohistochemistry to clarify gene expression patterns during the early stages of nephron development in the embryo and in the mature nephron of the adult mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgas, Kylie; Rumballe, Bree; Wilkinson, Lorine; Chiu, Han Sheng; Lesieur, Emmanuelle; Gilbert, Thierry; Little, Melissa H

    2008-11-01

    The kidney is the most complex organ within the urogenital system. The adult mouse kidney contains in excess of 8,000 mature nephrons, each of which can be subdivided into a renal corpuscle and 14 distinct tubular segments. The histological complexity of this organ can make the clarification of the site of gene expression by in situ hybridisation difficult. We have defined a panel of seven antibodies capable of identifying the six stages of early nephron development, the tubular nephron segments and the components of the renal corpuscle within the embryonic and adult mouse kidney. We have analysed in detail the protein expression of Wt1, Calb1 Aqp1, Aqp2 and Umod using these antibodies. We have then coupled immunohistochemistry with RNA in situ hybridisation in order to precisely identify the expression pattern of different genes, including Wnt4, Umod and Spp1. This technique will be invaluable for examining at high resolution, the structure of both the developing and mature nephron where standard in situ hybridisation and histological techniques are insufficient. The use of this technique will enhance the expression analyses of genes which may be involved in nephron formation and the function of the mature nephron in the mouse.

  9. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  10. Axon morphology at the lamina cribrosa in monkey eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Klewin, K M

    1986-01-01

    The eyes of 8 monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus) were studied. The mean cross-section area and the least diameter of axon cylinders were calculated from measurements made by computer assisted planimetry of electron photomicrographs of sections through the optic nerve head at the level of the lamina cribrosa. The density of intrabundle connective tissue and glial cell elements in nerve fiber bundles was also calculated. The mean cross-section area and minimum diameter of axons in the temporal part were less than in the nasal part of the nerve. The values for axons in the superior and inferior parts of the nerve were intermediate. A similar pattern of increasing dimensions was seen in axons from the more axial nerve compared to neurons in the more circumferential nerve sectors. The density of the intrabundle, nonaxonal tissue elements did not differ significantly across the nerve. Although axon dimensions may play some role in defining the vulnerability of neuronal tissue to a pressure insult, the results of this anatomic investigation do not support the hypothesis that differences in axonal distribution by size across the nerve section define the regional vulnerability of the nerve head to elevated intraocular pressure.

  11. What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment? Kidney Cancer About Kidney Cancer What Is Kidney Cancer? Kidney cancer is a cancer that starts ... and spread, see What Is Cancer? About the kidneys To understand more about kidney cancer, it helps ...

  12. Uniformity of colour vision in Old World monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, G.H.; Deegan, J F

    1999-01-01

    It is often assumed that all Old World monkeys share the same trichromatic colour vision, but the evidence in support of this conclusion is sparse as only a small fraction of all Old World monkey species have been tested. To address this issue, spectral sensitivity functions were measured in animals from eight species of Old World monkey (five cercopithecine species and three colobine species) using a non-invasive electrophysiological technique. Each of the 25 animals examined had spectrally ...

  13. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S.; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A.; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L.; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M.; Swanbeck, Sonja N.; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection...

  14. Anatomic brain asymmetry in vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fears, Scott C; Scheibel, Kevin; Abaryan, Zvart; Lee, Chris; Service, Susan K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Woods, Roger P

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetry is a prominent feature of human brains with important functional consequences. Many asymmetric traits show population bias, but little is known about the genetic and environmental sources contributing to inter-individual variance. Anatomic asymmetry has been observed in Old World monkeys, but the evidence for the direction and extent of asymmetry is equivocal and only one study has estimated the genetic contributions to inter-individual variance. In this study we characterize a range of qualitative and quantitative asymmetry measures in structural brain MRIs acquired from an extended pedigree of Old World vervet monkeys (n = 357), and implement variance component methods to estimate the proportion of trait variance attributable to genetic and environmental sources. Four of six asymmetry measures show pedigree-level bias and one of the traits has a significant heritability estimate of about 30%. We also found that environmental variables more significantly influence the width of the right compared to the left prefrontal lobe.

  15. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Justin D.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; Ryu, Stephen I.; Meng, Teresa H.; Murmann, Boris; Black, Michael J.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. Approach. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Main results. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Significance. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic

  16. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Justin D; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; I Ryu, Stephen; H Meng, Teresa; Murmann, Boris; J Black, Michael; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2014-08-01

    Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic motor neuroscience and for the successful

  17. Monkey King —Prime Candidate for 2008 Olympics Mascot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDAOYING; YOUZHENGJUN; LIWUZHOU

    2003-01-01

    IS the monkey an appropriate 2008 Olympic mascot? No one will know for sure until next year. Now that the Chinese Seal has been officially des-ignated as the 2008 Olympics emblem,the games'' mascot has taken over as hot topic. Animal images like the panda, dragon, lion, tiger, Tibetan ante-lope, and rabbit are also under consid-eration, but monkeyking2008.com, a website promoting the Monkey King as 2008 Olympics mascot, reports that 89 percent of its visitors want the monkey. Results of a survey conducted by China''s largest portal site, Sina.com, also indicate the Monkey King as hot favorite for mascot.

  18. Tissue engineering the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerman, Marc R

    2003-04-01

    The means by which kidney function can be replaced in humans include dialysis and renal allotransplantation. Dialytic therapies are lifesaving, but often poorly tolerated. Transplantation of human kidneys is limited by the availability of donor organs. During the past decades, a number of different approaches have been applied toward tissue engineering the kidney as a means to replace renal function. The goals of one or another of them included the recapitulation of renal filtration, reabsorptive and secretory functions, and replacement of endocrine/metabolic activities. This review will delineate the progress to date recorded for five approaches: (1) integration of new nephrons into the kidney; (2) growing new kidneys in situ; (3) use of stem cells; (4) generation of histocompatible tissues using nuclear transplantation; and (5) bioengineering of an artificial kidney. All five approaches utilize cellular therapy. The first four employ transplantation as well, and the fifth uses dialysis.

  19. Cuba's kidney transplantation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mármol, Alexander; Pérez, Alexis; Pérez de Prado, Juan C; Fernández-Vega, Silvia; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Arce, Sergio

    2010-10-01

    The first kidney transplant in Cuba was performed on 24 February 1970, using a cadaveric donor. In 1979, living donor kidney transplantation began between first-degree relatives. A total of 2775 patients are enrolled in renal replacement therapy in 47 hospitals across the country, 1440 of whom are awaiting kidney transplantation. Organs for the kidney program are procured in 63 accredited hospitals equipped for multidisciplinary management of brain death. Accordingly, over 90% of transplanted kidneys are from cadaveric donors. Identification of potential recipients is carried out through a national, computerized program that affords all patients the same opportunity regardless of distance from a transplant center, and selection of the most suitable candidate is based primarily on HLA compatibility. KEYWORDS Chronic renal failure, kidney transplantation.

  20. Aged monkeys as a partial model for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, P J; Elsworth, J D; Whittaker, M C; Roth, R H; Redmond, D E

    2011-09-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the natural aging process share a number of biochemical mechanisms, including reduced function of dopaminergic systems. The present study aims to determine the extent that motor and behavioral changes in aged monkeys resemble parkinsonism induced by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. The behavioral and physiological changes in PD are believed to result largely from selective depletion of dopamine in the nigrostriatal system. In the present study, ten aged female monkeys were compared with three groups: 9 untreated young adult female monkeys, 10 young adult male monkeys and 13 older male monkeys that had been exposed to MPTP. Trained observers, blind as to age and drug condition and without knowledge of the hypotheses, scored the monkeys using the Parkinson's factor score (Parkscore), which has been validated by a high correlation with post mortem striatal dopamine (DA) concentrations. The aged animals had higher scores on the Parkscore compared with the young adults, with most of its component behavioral items showing significance (tremor, Eating Problems, Delayed initiation of movement, and Poverty of Movement). L-Dopa and DA-agonists did not clearly reverse the principal measure of parkinsonism. DA concentrations post mortem were 63% lower in 3 aged monkeys in the ventral putamen compared with 4 young adults, with greater reductions in putamen than in caudate (45%). We conclude that aged monkeys, unexposed to MPTP, show a similar profile of parkinsonism to that seen after the neurotoxin exposure to MPTP in young adult monkeys. The pattern of greater DA depletion in putamen than in caudate in aged monkeys is the same as in human Parkinson's disease and contrasts with the greater depletion in caudate seen after MPTP. Aged monkeys of this species reflect many facets of Parkinson's disease, but like older humans do not improve with standard dopamine replacement pharmacotherapies.

  1. National Kidney Disease Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from our online catalog . Alternate Language URL National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP) Page Content Improving the ... kidney disease. Minorities Are at Higher Risk for Kidney Disease. If you are African American, Hispanic, or ...

  2. Eating Right for Kidney Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eating Right for Kidney Health Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) National Kidney Disease Education Program hat ... eat healthier. These tips will help you eat right as you manage your CKD. The First Steps ...

  3. Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Burns, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansen, W.L.; Ferket, P.R.; Heugten, E.

    2007-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions. Six woolly monkeys with known hypertension problems were tested to determine if diabetes mellitus and current dai

  4. Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Burns, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansen, W.L.; Ferket, P.R.; Heugten, E.

    2007-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions. Six woolly monkeys with known hypertension problems were tested to determine if diabetes mellitus and current dai

  5. Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the primate family, their physiology, and habits. Topics described include: (1) kinds of monkeys, including lemur, chimpanzee, gorilla, squirrel monkey, and marmoset; (2) behaviors when…

  6. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  7. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Numerical Ordering in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how within-stimulus heterogeneity affects the ability of rhesus monkeys to order pairs of the numerosities 1 through 9. Two rhesus monkeys were tested in a touch screen task where the variability of elements within each visual array was systematically varied by allowing elements to vary in color, size, shape, or any combination of…

  8. "Mohandas Fire" Year of the Fire Monkey (Chinese Zodiac)

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Exhibition of cartoons on the theme of the Fire Monkey - Chinese New Year at the Museo de Humor Grafico Diodenes Taborda, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Only British artist involved, with two works. 29 different nations entered and 51 artists involved. All works different approaches to the year of the Fire Monkey.

  9. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations o

  10. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  11. Discrimination Reversal Learning in Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Klein, Emily D.; Evans, Theodore A.; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M.; Harris, Emily H.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning styles in capuchin monkeys were assessed with a computerized reversal-learning task called the mediational paradigm. First, monkeys were trained to respond with 90% accuracy on a two-choice discrimination (A+B-). Then the authors examined differences in performance on three different types of reversal trials (A-B+, A-C+, B+C-), each of…

  12. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. Zihlman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas’ larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys’ basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas.

  13. Monkeying around: Use of Survey Monkey as a Tool for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massat, Carol Rippey; McKay, Cassandra; Moses, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of an online survey tool called Survey Monkey, which can be used by school social workers and school social work educators for evaluation of practice, needs assessment, and program evaluation. Examples of questions are given. Principles of writing good survey questions are described. (Contains 2 tables and 1…

  14. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Remember Future Responses in a Computerized Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Klein, Emily D.; Einstein, Gilles O.

    2012-01-01

    Planning is an important aspect of many daily activities for humans. Planning involves forming a strategy in anticipation of a future need. However, evidence that nonhuman animals can plan for future situations is limited, particularly in relation to the many other kinds of cognitive capacities that they appear to share with humans. One critical aspect of planning is the ability to remember future responses, or what is called prospective coding. Two monkey species performed a series of computerized tasks that required encoding a future response at the outset of each trial. Monkeys of both species showed competence in all tests that were given, providing evidence that they anticipated future responses, and that they appropriately engaged in those responses when the time was right for such responses. In addition, some tests demonstrated that monkeys even remembered future responses that were not as presently motivating as were other aspects of the task environment. These results indicated that monkeys can anticipate future responses and retain and implement those responses when appropriate. PMID:22545901

  15. Relationship of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and proteinuria to cardiomyopathy in the owl monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Chavera, Alfonso; Montoya, Enrique J.; Takano, Juan; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum reference values for crea- tine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydroge- nase (LDH) in captive-born and wild-caught owl monkeys to assess their usefulness for diagnosing myocardial disease. Urine samples were also collected and semi-quantitative tests performed. There was no statistically significant difference between CK, AST, and LDH when comparing both groups. However, when comparing monkeys with proteinuria to those without proteinuria, a statistically significant difference in CK value was observed (P = 0.021). In addition, the CK/AST ratio revealed that 29% of the animals included in this study had values suggesting cardiac infarction. Grossly, cardiac concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and small, pitted kidneys were the most common findings. Microscopically, myocardial fibrosis, contraction band necrosis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of coronary arteries, medium-sized renal arteries, and afferent glomerular arteriolae were the most significant lesions, along with increased mesangial matrix and hypercellularity of glomeruli, Bowman’s capsule, and peritubular space fibroplasia. These findings suggest that CK, AST, and LDH along with urinalysis provide a reliable method for diagnosing cardiomyopathies in the owl monkey. In addition, CK/AST ratio, proteinuria, and the observed histological and ultrastructural changes suggest that Aotus vociferans suffer from arterial hypertension and chronic myocardial infarction.

  16. NAFLD and Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuccilli, Morgan; Chonchol, Michel

    2016-04-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries and it is now considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence linking NAFLD to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is emerging as a popular area of scientific interest. The rise in simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation as well as the significant cost associated with the presence of chronic kidney disease in the NAFLD population make this entity a worthwhile target for screening and therapeutic intervention. While several cross-sectional and case control studies have been published to substantiate these theories, very little data exists on the underlying cause of NAFLD and CKD. In this review, we will discuss the most recent publications on the diagnosis of NAFLD as well new evidence regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD and CKD as an inflammatory disorder. These mechanisms include the role of obesity, the renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulation of fructose metabolism and lipogenesis in the development of both disorders. Further investigation of these pathways may lead to novel therapies that aim to target the NAFLD and CKD. However, more prospective studies that include information on both renal and liver histology will be necessary in order to understand the relationship between these diseases.

  17. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    11.1.Kidney function2005391 Increased levels of advanced oxidationproducts are associated with atherosclerosis in chron-ic kidney disease.YANG Xiaobing(杨小兵),et al.Dept Nephrol,Nanfang Hops,1st Milit Med Univ,Guangzhou.Chin J Intern Med 2005;44(5):342-346.Objective:Accumulation of advanced oxidation protein

  18. Complicated Horseshoe Kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. S.; Kim, S. R.; Cha, K. S.; Park, S. S. [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Horseshoe kidney is an important urological anomaly when it is complicated or accompanied by other diseases. Recently we have experienced four cases of horseshoe kidney which were complicated with hydronephrosis, renal stone and adrenal pheochromocytoma. With review of literatures, we emphasize the importance of detection of these complications.

  19. Fatal Angiostrongylus dujardini infection in callitrichid monkeys and suricates in an Italian zoological garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleni, Claudia; Di Cesare, Angela; Cavicchio, Paolo; Tonnicchia, Maria Cristina; Meoli, Roberta; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane; Paoletti, Barbara; Pietrobelli, Mario; De Liberato, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports four fatal cases of metastrongylid nematode Angiostrongylus dujardini infection observed in a Saguinus oedipus and a Callimico goeldii monkey and in two suricates (Suricata suricatta). All animals were kept in captivity in a zoo of central Italy. The two monkeys died with no premonitory signs, while the two-month-old suricates showed malaise, anorexia and tachypnea for a few days prior to death. Cardiomegaly and/or granulomatous pneumonia were the major anatomo-pathological findings. Inflammatory lesions were observed in the liver, heart and kidney of the suricates at histology. A. dujardini diagnosis was confirmed through both morphological identification of adult worms recovered at necropsy and molecular characterization of larvae in tissue samples. Callitrichidae and suricates are active predators and maintain their hunting behaviour in captivity and it is then likely that they were exposed to infection by preying on parasitized gastropods, intermediate hosts of A. dujardini, entering zoo enclosures from the surrounding environment. This is the first report of A. dujardini in Italy and in S. suricatta.

  20. Acute kidney injury during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, James W

    2014-12-01

    Acute kidney injury complicates the care of a relatively small number of pregnant and postpartum women. Several pregnancy-related disorders such as preeclampsia and thrombotic microangiopathies may produce acute kidney injury. Prerenal azotemia is another common cause of acute kidney injury in pregnancy. This manuscript will review pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury from a renal functional perspective. Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury will be reviewed. Specific conditions causing acute kidney injury and treatments will be compared.

  1. Obesity and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD. Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological renal changes, in addition to metabolic and biochemical alterations that lead to kidney disease. Adipose tissue is dynamic and it is involved in the production of "adipokines", such as leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β and angiotensin-II. A series of events is triggered by obesity, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and hypertension. There is evidence that obesity itself can lead to kidney disease development. Further studies are required to better understand the association between obesity and kidney disease.

  2. Vestibular adaptation to space in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, M.; Raphan, T.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Cohen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Otolith-induced eye movements of rhesus monkeys were studied before and after the 1989 COSMOS 2044 and the 1992 to 1993 COSMOS 2229 flights. Two animals flew in each mission for approximately 2 weeks. After flight, spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was altered. In one animal the time constant of postrotatory nystagmus, which had been shortened by head tilts with regard to gravity before flight, was unaffected by the same head tilts after flight. In another animal, eye velocity, which tended to align with a gravitational axis before flight, moved toward a body axis after flight. This shift of orientation disappeared by 7 days after landing. After flight, the magnitude of compensatory ocular counter-rolling was reduced by about 70% in both dynamic and static tilts. Modulation in vergence in response to naso-occipital linear acceleration during off-vertical axis rotation was reduced by more than 50%. These changes persisted for 11 days after recovery. An up and down asymmetry of vertical nystagmus was diminished for 7 days. Gains of the semicircular canal-induced horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes were unaffected in both flights, but the gain of the roll angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was decreased. These data indicate that there are short- and long-term changes in otolith-induced eye movements after adaptation to microgravity. These experiments also demonstrate the unique value of the monkey as a model for studying effects of vestibular adaptation in space. Eye movements can be measured in three dimensions in response to controlled vestibular and visual stimulation, and the results are directly applicable to human beings. Studies in monkeys to determine how otolith afferent input and central processing is altered by adaptation to microgravity should be an essential component of future space-related research.

  3. Early life stress and novelty seeking behavior in adolescent monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J; Rainwater, Kimberly L; Buckmaster, Christine L; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lindley, Steven E; Lyons, David M

    2007-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to mild stress promotes the development of novelty seeking behavior. Here we test this hypothesis in squirrel monkeys and investigate whether novelty seeking behavior is associated with differences in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA), the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG), and the neuropeptide corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF). Monkeys were randomized early in life to either mild intermittent stress (IS) or no stress (NS) conditions, and subsequently presented with opportunities to interact with a familiar or novel object in a test box that was connected to each monkey's home cage. To further minimize the potentially stressful nature of the test situation, monkeys were acclimated to the test procedures prior to study initiation. Post-test plasma levels of cortisol in IS and NS monkeys did not differ significantly from baseline levels measured in undisturbed conditions. During testing, more IS than NS monkeys voluntarily left the home cage, and IS monkeys spent more time in the test box compared to NS monkeys. More IS than NS monkeys engaged in object exploration in the test box, and IS monkeys preferred to interact with the novel vs. familiar object. Novelty seeking was not associated with differences in 5HIAA, HVA, MHPG, or CRF, but correlated with differences in object exploration observed in a different test situation at an earlier age. These trait-like differences in novelty seeking appear to reflect mild early stress-induced adaptations that enhance curiosity and resilience.

  4. Screening of Elderly for Chronic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezaic, Visnja; Bajcetic, Sanja; Perunicic-Pekovic, Gordana; Bukvic, Danica; Dimkovic, Nada; Djukanovic, Ljubica

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: The frequency of chronic kidney disease (CKD) markers was assessed in two groups of patients over 60 years - one without and the other with hypertension. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 585 asymptomatic elderly patients (227 males), 93 without and 492 with hypertensi

  5. ARCTIC MONKEYS:猴子凶猛!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青鸟

    2007-01-01

    @@ 我不是成长于星条旗下的美利坚自由人民,所以英国乐队Arctic Monkeys在我跟前很能吃得开,打从我听到他们的第一个音符起.这或许是我从小看多了充满暴力的电视剧《西游记》,并对猴子产生了偏爱的缘故,而对Arctic Monkeys,来自北极的猴子,更是充满了好奇.

  6. Do wild titi monkeys show empathy?

    OpenAIRE

    Clyvia, A; Kaizer, M. C.; Santos,R.V.; Young, R.J.; C. Cäsar

    2014-01-01

    We observed a putative case of empathy among wild black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons)\\ud from two different groups (D and R). In over 10 years of behavioural observations of five habituated\\ud groups of this species, only low levels of inter-group tolerance have been observed. However, on one day, we\\ud encountered the adult male from group D limping (poor hind limb motor coordination) as he travelled alone\\ud along the ground. Interestingly, we observed that members of group R...

  7. Awareness, knowledge and perception of chronic kidney disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-29

    Jun 29, 2015 ... We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to assess the level of awareness, knowledge and ... who had diabetes or hypertension was aware of kidney disease. ..... resides in rural communities where the literacy rate is.

  8. The Effect of Acute Superior Oblique Palsy on Torsional Optokinetic Nystagmus in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiaoyan; Tian, Jing; Ying, Howard S.; Walker, Mark F.; Guyton, David; Quaia, Christian; Optican, Lance M.; Tamargo, Rafael J.; Zee, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of acquired superior oblique palsy (SOP) and corrective strabismus surgery on torsional optokinetic nystagmus (tOKN) in monkeys. Methods The trochlear nerve was severed intracranially in two rhesus monkeys (M1 and M2). For each monkey, more than 4 months after the SOP, the ipsilateral inferior oblique muscle was denervated and extirpated. For M2, 4 months later, the contralateral inferior rectus muscle was recessed by 2 mm. tOKN was elicited during monocular viewing of a rotating stimulus that was rear projected onto a screen 43.5 cm in front of the animal. Angular rotation of the stimulus about the center was 40 deg/s clockwise or counterclockwise. Results The main findings after trochlear nerve sectioning were (1) the amplitude and peak velocity of torsional quick and slow phases of the paretic eye was less than that in the normal eye for both intorsion and extorsion, and (2) the vertical motion of the paretic eye increased during both torsional slow and quick phases. After corrective inferior oblique surgery, both of these effects were even greater. Conclusions Acquired SOP and corrective inferior oblique–weakening surgery create characteristic patterns of change in tOKN that reflect alterations in the dynamic properties of the extraocular muscles involved in eye torsion. tOKN also provides information complementary to that provided by the traditional Bielschowsky head-tilt test and potentially can help distinguish among different causes of vertical ocular misalignment. PMID:18385059

  9. Integrating histology and MRI in the first digital brain of common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peizhen; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G; Gao, Yurui; Janve, Vaibhav; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A

    2015-03-17

    This effort is a continuation of development of a digital brain atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. Here, we present the integration of histology with multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. The central concept of this work is to use block face photography to establish an intermediate common space in coordinate system which preserves the high resolution in-plane resolution of histology while enabling 3-D correspondence with MRI. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging (300 µm isotropic) and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging (600 um isotropic). Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (both 300 µm isotropic). Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections in-plane. We describe mapping of histology and MRI based data of the common squirrel monkey and construction of a viewing tool that enable online viewing of these datasets. The previously descried atlas MRI is used for its deformation to provide accurate conformation to the MRI, thus adding information at the histological level to the MRI volume. This paper presents the mapping of single 2D image slice in block face as a proof of concept and this can be extended to map the atlas space in 3D coordinate system as part of the future work and can be loaded to an XNAT system for further use.

  10. Integrating histology and MRI in the first digital brain of common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peizhen; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Gao, Yurui; Janve, Vaibhav; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    This effort is a continuation of development of a digital brain atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. Here, we present the integration of histology with multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. The central concept of this work is to use block face photography to establish an intermediate common space in coordinate system which preserves the high resolution in-plane resolution of histology while enabling 3-D correspondence with MRI. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging (300 μm isotropic) and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging (600 um isotropic). Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (both 300 μm isotropic). Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections in-plane. We describe mapping of histology and MRI based data of the common squirrel monkey and construction of a viewing tool that enable online viewing of these datasets. The previously descried atlas MRI is used for its deformation to provide accurate conformation to the MRI, thus adding information at the histological level to the MRI volume. This paper presents the mapping of single 2D image slice in block face as a proof of concept and this can be extended to map the atlas space in 3D coordinate system as part of the future work and can be loaded to an XNAT system for further use.

  11. Spaceflight and immune responses of rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-a (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CD8+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  12. Explicit information reduces discounting behavior in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePearson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals are notoriously impulsive in common laboratory experiments, preferring smaller, sooner rewards to larger, delayed rewards even when this reduces average reward rates. By contrast, the same animals often engage in natural behaviors that require extreme patience, such as food caching, stalking prey, and traveling long distances to high quality food sites. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that standard laboratory delay discounting tasks artificially inflate impulsivity by subverting animals’ common learning strategies. To test this idea, we examined choices made by rhesus macaques in two variants of a standard delay discounting task. In the conventional variant, post-reward delays were uncued and adjusted to render total trial length constant; in the second, all delays were cued explicitly. We found that measured discounting was significantly reduced in the cued task, with discount rates well below those reported in studies using the standard uncued design. When monkeys had complete information, their decisions were more consistent with a strategy of reward rate maximization. These results indicate that monkeys, and perhaps other animals, are more patient than is normally assumed, and that laboratory measures of delay discounting may overstate impulsivity.

  13. Social monogamy in wild owl monkeys (Aotus azarae) of Argentina: the potential influences of resource distribution and ranging patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Using published and new data from a population of monogamous owl monkeys in the Argentinean Chaco, I examine the hypothesis that social monogamy is a default social system imposed upon males because the spatial and/or temporal distribution of resources and females makes it difficult for a single male to defend access to more than one mate. First, I examine a set of predictions on ranging patterns, use of space, and population density. This first section is followed by a second one considering predictions related to the abundance and distribution of food. Finally, I conclude with a section attempting to link the ranging and ecological data to demographic and life-history parameters as proxies for reproductive success. In support of the hypothesis, owl monkey species do live at densities (7-64 ind/km(2) ) that are predicted for monogamous species, but groups occupy home ranges and core areas that vary substantially in size, with pronounced overlap of home ranges, but not of core areas. There are strong indications that the availability of food sources in the core areas during the dry season may be of substantial importance for regulating social monogamy in owl monkeys. Finally, none of the proxies for the success of groups were strongly related to the size of the home range or core area. The results I present do not support conclusively any single explanation for the evolution of social monogamy in owl monkeys, but they help us to better understand how it may function. Moreover, the absence of conclusive answers linking ranging, ecology, and reproductive success with the evolution of social monogamy in primates, offer renewed motivation for continuing to explore the evolution of monogamy in owl monkeys.

  14. Vitamin D status in kidney transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Gasbjerg, Ane; Moelgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    kidney transplant patients. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 173 adult kidney transplant patients with a mean (+/-SD) age of 53.4 +/- 11.7 y and a median graft age of 7.4 y (interquartile range: 3.3-12.7 y). Serum concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone (S-PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25...... transplant patients and is associated with reduced concentrations of S-1,25(OH)(2)D and increased S-PTH concentrations. Sun avoidance and vitamin D supplementation are important determinants of vitamin D status. The observed hypovitaminosis D might be corrected by intensified routine vitamin D...

  15. Predicting rhesus monkey eye movements during natural-image search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Mark A; Kuo, Emory; Caddigan, Sara; Berthiaume, Emily A; Kording, Konrad P

    2017-03-01

    There are three prominent factors that can predict human visual-search behavior in natural scenes: the distinctiveness of a location (salience), similarity to the target (relevance), and features of the environment that predict where the object might be (context). We do not currently know how well these factors are able to predict macaque visual search, which matters because it is arguably the most popular model for asking how the brain controls eye movements. Here we trained monkeys to perform the pedestrian search task previously used for human subjects. Salience, relevance, and context models were all predictive of monkey eye fixations and jointly about as precise as for humans. We attempted to disrupt the influence of scene context on search by testing the monkeys with an inverted set of the same images. Surprisingly, the monkeys were able to locate the pedestrian at a rate similar to that for upright images. The best predictions of monkey fixations in searching inverted images were obtained by rotating the results of the model predictions for the original image. The fact that the same models can predict human and monkey search behavior suggests that the monkey can be used as a good model for understanding how the human brain enables natural-scene search.

  16. Perception of chasing in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Takeshi; Nagasaka, Yasuo

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the intentions of others is crucial in developing positive social relationships. Comparative human and non-human animal studies have addressed the phylogenetic origin of this ability. However, few studies have explored the importance of motion information in distinguishing others' intentions and goals in non-human primates. This study addressed whether squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) are able to perceive a goal-directed motion pattern-specifically, chasing-represented by two geometric objects. In Experiment 1, we trained squirrel monkeys to discriminate a "Chasing" sequence from a "Random" sequence. We then confirmed that this discrimination transferred to new stimuli ("Chasing" and "Random") in a probe test. To determine whether the monkeys used similarities of trajectory to discriminate chasing from random motion, we also presented a non-chasing "Clone" sequence in which the trajectories of the two figures were identical. Three of six monkeys were able to discriminate "Chasing" from the other sequences. In Experiment 2, we confirmed humans' recognition of chasing with the stimuli from Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, the three monkeys for which discrimination did not transfer to the new stimuli in Experiment 1 were trained to discriminate between "Chasing" and "Clone" sequences. At testing, all three monkeys had learned to discriminate chasing, and two transferred their learning to new stimuli. Our results suggest that squirrel monkeys use goal-directed motion patterns, rather than simply similarity of trajectory, to discriminate chasing. Further investigation is necessary to identify the motion characteristics that contribute to this discrimination.

  17. Tail growth tracks the ontogeny of prehensile tail use in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and C. apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Young, Jesse W

    2011-11-01

    Physical anthropologists have devoted considerable attention to the structure and function of the primate prehensile tail. Nevertheless, previous morphological studies have concentrated solely on adults, despite behavioral evidence that among many primate taxa, including capuchin monkeys, infants and juveniles use their prehensile tails during a greater number and greater variety of positional behaviors than do adults. In this study, we track caudal vertebral growth in a mixed longitudinal sample of white-fronted and brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella). We hypothesized that young capuchins would have relatively robust caudal vertebrae, affording them greater tail strength for more frequent tail-suspension behaviors. Our results supported this hypothesis. Caudal vertebral bending strength (measured as polar section modulus at midshaft) scaled to body mass with negative allometry, while craniocaudal length scaled to body mass with positive allometry, indicating that infant and juvenile capuchin monkeys are characterized by particularly strong caudal vertebrae for their body size. These findings complement previous results showing that long bone strength similarly scales with negative ontogenetic allometry in capuchin monkeys and add to a growing body of literature documenting the synergy between postcranial growth and the changing locomotor demands of maturing animals. Although expanded morphometric data on tail growth and behavioral data on locomotor development are required, the results of this study suggest that the adult capuchin prehensile-tail phenotype may be attributable, at least in part, to selection on juvenile performance, a possibility that deserves further attention. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  19. Amyloidosis and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Amyloid proteins in blood may indicate amyloidosis. Kidney Biopsy Only a biopsy can show the amyloid protein ... Grants & Grant History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Diabetes Digestive ...

  20. Kidneys in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Bandegi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: These observations indicate that saffron and its active constituent crocin can prevent chronic stress–induced oxidative stress damage of the brain, liver and kidneys and suggest that these substances may be useful against oxidative stress.

  1. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011229 Combined detection of markers in the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery. CHE Miaolin (车妙琳) ,et al. Renal Division,Renji Hosp,Med Sch,Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai 200127.

  2. Chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or blood in the stool Excessive thirst Frequent hiccups Problems with sexual function Menstrual periods stop (amenorrhea) ... most of their kidney function. There is no cure for CKD. If it worsens to ESD , and ...

  3. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... en los riñones Kidney stones are small, solid masses that can develop in the urinary tract . Also ... of salt and protein in their diet limit consumption of soda/soft/sports drinks If dietary changes ...

  4. Loss of metabolites from monkey striatum during PET with FDOPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, P; Munk, O L; Doudet, D

    2001-01-01

    constants using data recorded during 240 min of FDOPA circulation in normal monkeys and in monkeys with unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesions. Use of the extended models increased the magnitudes of K(D)(i) and k(D)(3) in striatum; in the case of k(D)(3), variance...... of the estimate was substantially improved upon correction for metabolite loss. The rate constants for metabolite loss were higher in MPTP-lesioned monkey striatum than in normal striatum. The high correlation between individual estimates of k(Lin)(cl) and k(DA)(9) suggests that both rate constants reveal loss...

  5. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lm; Holmes, An; Williams, LE; Brosnan, Sf

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran "open diffusion" tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the "Slide-box"). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a 'ghost' display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys' learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this case, those

  6. Signaling during Kidney Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirja Krause

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The kidney plays an essential role during excretion of metabolic waste products, maintenance of key homeostasis components such as ion concentrations and hormone levels. It influences the blood pressure, composition and volume. The kidney tubule system is composed of two distinct cell populations: the nephrons forming the filtering units and the collecting duct system derived from the ureteric bud. Nephrons are composed of glomeruli that filter the blood to the Bowman’s capsule and tubular structures that reabsorb and concentrate primary urine. The collecting duct is a Wolffian duct-derived epithelial tube that concentrates and collects urine and transfers it via the renal pelvis into the bladder. The mammalian kidney function depends on the coordinated development of specific cell types within a precise architectural framework. Due to the availability of modern analysis techniques, the kidney has become a model organ defining the paradigm to study organogenesis. As kidney diseases are a problem worldwide, the understanding of mammalian kidney cells is of crucial importance to develop diagnostic tools and novel therapies. This review focuses on how the pattern of renal development is generated, how the inductive signals are regulated and what are their effects on proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis.

  7. Species-specific inflammatory responses as a primary component for the development of glomerular lesions in mice and monkeys following chronic administration of a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Kendall S; Sobry, Cécile; Derr, Victoria; Adams, Mike J; Besten, Cathaline Den; De Kimpe, Sjef; Francis, Ian; Gales, Tracy L; Haworth, Richard; Maguire, Shaun R; Mirabile, Rosanna C; Mullins, David; Palate, Bernard; Doorten, Yolanda Ponstein-Simarro; Ridings, James E; Scicchitano, Marshall S; Silvano, Jérémy; Woodfine, Jennie

    2014-07-01

    Chronic administration of drisapersen, a 2'-OMe phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide (AON) to mice and monkeys resulted in renal tubular accumulation, with secondary tubular degeneration. Glomerulopathy occurred in both species with species-specific characteristics. Glomerular lesions in mice were characterized by progressive hyaline matrix accumulation, accompanied by the presence of renal amyloid and with subsequent papillary necrosis. Early changes involved glomerular endothelial hypertrophy and degeneration, but the chronic glomerular amyloid and hyaline alterations in mice appeared to be species specific. An immune-mediated mechanism for the glomerular lesions in mice was supported by early inflammatory changes including increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and other immunomodulatory genes within the renal cortex, increased stimulation of CD68 protein, and systemic elevation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1. In contrast, kidneys from monkeys given drisapersen chronically showed less severe glomerular changes characterized by increased mesangial and inflammatory cells, endothelial cell hypertrophy, and subepithelial and membranous electron-dense deposits, with ultrastructural and immunohistochemical characteristics of complement and complement-related fragments. Lesions in monkeys resembled typical features of C3 glomerulopathy, a condition described in man and experimental animals to be linked to dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway. Thus, inflammatory/immune mechanisms appear critical to glomerular injury with species-specific sensitivities for mouse and monkey. The lower observed proinflammatory activity in humans as compared to mice and monkeys may reflect a lower risk of glomerular injury in patients receiving AON therapy.

  8. Multimodality imaging spectrum of complications of horseshoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik U Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Horseshoe kidney is the most common congenital renal fusion anomaly with an incidence of 1 in 400–600 individuals. The most common type is fusion at the lower poles seen in greater than 90% of the cases, with the rest depicting fusion at the upper poles, resulting in an inverted horseshoe kidney. Embryologically, there are two theories hypothesizing the genesis of horseshoe kidney – mechanical fusion theory and teratogenic event theory. As an entity, horseshoe kidney is an association of two anatomic anomalies, namely, ectopia and malrotation. It is also associated with other anomalies including vascular, calyceal, and ureteral anomalies. Horseshoe kidney is prone to a number of complications due to its abnormal position as well as due to associated vascular and ureteral anomalies. Complications associated with horseshoe kidney include pelviureteric junction obstruction, renal stones, infection, tumors, and trauma. It can also be associated with abnormalities of cardiovascular, central nervous, musculoskeletal and genitourinary systems, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Conventional imaging modalities (plain films, intravenous urogram as well as advanced cross-sectional imaging modalities (ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging play an important role in the evaluation of horseshoe kidney. This article briefly describes the embryology and anatomy of the horseshoe kidney, enumerates appropriate imaging modalities used for its evaluation, and reviews cross-sectional imaging features of associated complications.

  9. Nuclear microscopic investigations into the elemental changes in the substantia nigra of unilaterally MPTP-lesioned Parkinsonian monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, P. S. P.; He, Y.; Lee, T.; Watt, F.

    1997-07-01

    Various transition metals, particularly iron, have been implicated in the aetiology of the neurodegenerative disease, Parkinson's disease, in which there is a characteristic loss of cells in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain. In this study, monkeys were unilaterally lesioned with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridine (MPTP) to obtain primate models of parkinsonism, with the non-lesioned side of the brain serving as controls. The monkeys were sacrificed at one day, one week, two weeks, one month and one year after lesioning to investigate the time dependent elemental changes in the parkinsonian SN. Sections of the brain encompassing both the lesioned and non-lesioned SNs were analysed using the National University of Singapore nuclear microscope. Adjacent sections were tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemically stained to provide complementary information on dopaminergic cell loss and to facilitate definition of the SN boundaries during data analysis. In one-day and one-week monkeys (representing early stages of the disease), there were no changes in elemental concentrations within experimental errors and the adjacent TH-stained sections did not show apparent cell loss in the SN. At two weeks, cell loss was seen in the lesioned SN compared to the control SN. Although there was no bulk increase in SN iron, localised accumulation of iron in granules containing up to 15% by weight iron was observed in the lesioned SN of one of the two-week monkeys. An average 15% increase in nigral iron, significant at the 90% confidence level ( p copper. Here an almost complete loss of cells in the lesioned SN was apparent from the adjacent TH-stained sections. These preliminary results suggest that while bulk increase in iron may seem to follow cell death, localised accumulation of SN iron in the early stages of the disease may play an important role in initiating and/or accelerating nigral cell death.

  10. Measuring glomerular number from kidney MRI images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J.; Natesan Ramamurthy, Karthikeyan; Kanberoglu, Berkay; Frakes, David; Bennett, Kevin; Spanias, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Measuring the glomerular number in the entire, intact kidney using non-destructive techniques is of immense importance in studying several renal and systemic diseases. Commonly used approaches either require destruction of the entire kidney or perform extrapolation from measurements obtained from a few isolated sections. A recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, based on the injection of a contrast agent (cationic ferritin), has been used to effectively identify glomerular regions in the kidney. In this work, we propose a robust, accurate, and low-complexity method for estimating the number of glomeruli from such kidney MRI images. The proposed technique has a training phase and a low-complexity testing phase. In the training phase, organ segmentation is performed on a few expert-marked training images, and glomerular and non-glomerular image patches are extracted. Using non-local sparse coding to compute similarity and dissimilarity graphs between the patches, the subspace in which the glomerular regions can be discriminated from the rest are estimated. For novel test images, the image patches extracted after pre-processing are embedded using the discriminative subspace projections. The testing phase is of low computational complexity since it involves only matrix multiplications, clustering, and simple morphological operations. Preliminary results with MRI data obtained from five kidneys of rats show that the proposed non-invasive, low-complexity approach performs comparably to conventional approaches such as acid maceration and stereology.

  11. Desferrioxamine suppresses Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, S; Rossan, R N; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A

    1987-02-01

    Clinical observation has suggested that iron deficiency may be protective in malaria, and we have found that desferrioxamine (DF), an iron-specific chelating agent, inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. It was difficult to be confident that DF would be effective in an intact animal, however, because continuous exposure to DF was required in vitro and, in vivo, DF is rapidly excreted. Also, the in vitro effect of DF was overcome by addition of iron to the culture and in vivo there are potentially high local iron concentrations when iron is absorbed from the diet or released from reticuloendothelial cells. We now show that DF given by constant subcutaneous infusion does suppress parasitemia in P. falciparum-infected Aotus monkeys.

  12. Amygdalar vocalization pathways in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, U

    1982-06-10

    In 22 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) vocalization-eliciting electrodes were implanted into the amygdala and along the trajectory of the stria terminalis. Then, lesions were placed in the stria terminalis, its bed nucleus, the ventral amygdalofugal pathway and several di- and mesencephalic structures in order to find out the pathways along which the amygdala exerts its vocalization-controlling influence. It was found that different call types are controlled by different pathways. Purring and chattering calls, which express a self-confident, challenging attitude and an attempt to recruit fellow-combatants in intra-specific mobbing, respectively, are controlled via the stria terminalis; alarm peep and groaning calls, in contrast, which indicate flight motivation and resentment, respectively, are triggered via the ventral amygdalofugal fibre bundle. Both pathways traverse the dorsolateral and dorsomedial hypothalamus, respectively, and unite in the periaqueductal grey of the midbrain.

  13. Keep children away from macaque monkeys!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréhin, Camille; Debuisson, Cécile; Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Niphuis, Henk; Buitendijk, Hester; Mengelle, Catherine; Grouteau, Erick; Claudet, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    To warn physicians and parents about the risk of macaque bites, we present two pediatric cases (a 4-year-old boy and a 10-year-old girl) of bites sustained while on holiday. The young boy developed febrile dermohypodermitis and was hospitalized for IV antibiotic treatment. He received an initial antirabies vaccine while still in the holiday destination. Except for local wound disinfection and antibiotic ointment, the girl did not receive any specific treatment while abroad. Both were negative for simian herpes PCR. When travelling in countries or cities with endemic simian herpes virus, parents should keep children away from monkeys. Travel agencies, pediatricians and family physicians should better inform families about the zoonotic risk.

  14. Molecular cloning of pituitary glycoprotein alpha-subunit and follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunits from New World squirrel monkey and owl monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Jonathan G; Funkhouser, Jane D; Moyer, Felricia S; Gibson, Susan V; Willis, Donna L

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the gonadotropins expressed in pituitary glands of the New World squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) and owl monkey (Aotus sp.). The various subunits were amplified from total RNA from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of other species. Mature squirrel monkey and owl monkey glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides (96 amino acids in length) were determined to be 80% homologous to the human sequence. The sequences of mature beta subunits of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHbeta) from squirrel monkey and owl monkey (111 amino acids in length) are 92% homologous to human FSHbeta. New World primate glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides and FSHbeta subunits showed conservation of all cysteine residues and consensus N-linked glycosylation sites. Attempts to amplify the beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands were unsuccessful. Rather, the beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) was amplified from pituitaries of both New World primates. Squirrel monkey and owl monkey CGbeta are 143 and 144 amino acids in length and 77% homologous with human CGbeta. The greatest divergence is in the C terminus, where all four sites for O-linked glycosylation in human CGbeta, responsible for delayed metabolic clearance, are predicted to be absent in New World primate CGbetas. It is likely that CG secreted from pituitary of New World primates exhibits a relatively short half-life compared to human CG.

  15. jMonkeyEngine 3.0 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Edén, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    If you are a jMonkey developer or a Java developer who is interested to delve further into the game making process to expand your skillset and create more technical games, then this book is perfect for you.

  16. Monkey visual behavior falls into the uncanny valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckenfinger, Shawn A; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2009-10-27

    Very realistic human-looking robots or computer avatars tend to elicit negative feelings in human observers. This phenomenon is known as the "uncanny valley" response. It is hypothesized that this uncanny feeling is because the realistic synthetic characters elicit the concept of "human," but fail to live up to it. That is, this failure generates feelings of unease due to character traits falling outside the expected spectrum of everyday social experience. These unsettling emotions are thought to have an evolutionary origin, but tests of this hypothesis have not been forthcoming. To bridge this gap, we presented monkeys with unrealistic and realistic synthetic monkey faces, as well as real monkey faces, and measured whether they preferred looking at one type versus the others (using looking time as a measure of preference). To our surprise, monkey visual behavior fell into the uncanny valley: They looked longer at real faces and unrealistic synthetic faces than at realistic synthetic faces.

  17. Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys without Anti-Rejection Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160989.html Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys Without Anti-Rejection Drugs Scientists say goal is to create banks of stem cells that could be used for any human patient ...

  18. Monkey King by Zhengjiang General Troupe of Quyi and Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉

    2008-01-01

    Monkey King,the grand acrobatic and magical theme show, has successfully given its first dozen shows at Hangzhou Theater since July 27.The show was presented by Zhejiang General Troupe of Quyi and Acrobatics, and

  19. INTERCEPTIVE EFFECTS OF EPOSTANE IN RATS AND RHESUS MONKEYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINZhong-Ming; LIUChang-Guan; CHENHui-Qing; LIWei-Kang; XURui-Ying

    1989-01-01

    Interceptives arc defined as agents which interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Epostane, a potent 3β-hydroxysteruid dehydrogenase inhibitor, possessed interceptive activities in rats and rhesus monkeys. In rats, day 10 and day 11 of pregnancy were the

  20. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis social learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM Hopper

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran “open diffusion” tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23. Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the “Slide-box”. Two thirds (67% of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a ‘ghost’ display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions and paired controls (28% were successful but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys’ learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert

  1. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A

    1985-11-01

    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains.

  2. Depth perception from moving cast shadow in macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Saneyuki; Usui, Nobuo; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Taira, Masato; Katsuyama, Narumi

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, we investigate whether the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow. To accomplish this, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, an adult Japanese monkey was trained in a motion discrimination task in depth by binocular disparity. A square was presented on the display so that it appeared with a binocular disparity of 0.12 degrees (initial position), and moved toward (approaching) or away from (receding) the monkey for 1s. The monkey was trained to discriminate the approaching and receding motion of the square by GO/delayed GO-type responses. The monkey showed a significantly high accuracy rate in the task, and the performance was maintained when the position, color, and shape of the moving object were changed. In the next experiment, the change in the disparity was gradually decreased in the motion discrimination task. The results showed that the performance of the monkey declined as the distance of the approaching and receding motion of the square decreased from the initial position. However, when a moving cast shadow was added to the stimulus, the monkey responded to the motion in depth induced by the cast shadow in the same way as by binocular disparity; the reward was delivered randomly or given in all trials to prevent the learning of the 2D motion of the shadow in the frontal plane. These results suggest that the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow as well as using binocular disparity.

  3. Monkey Feeding Assay for Testing Emetic Activity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are unique bacterial toxins that cause gastrointestinal toxicity as well as superantigenic activity. Since systemic administration of SEs induces superantigenic activity leading to toxic shock syndrome that may mimic enterotoxic activity of SEs such as vomiting and diarrhea, oral administration of SEs in the monkey feeding assay is considered as a standard method to evaluate emetic activity of SEs. This chapter summarizes and discusses practical considerations of the monkey feeding assay used in studies characterizing classical and newly identified SEs.

  4. Pulpal Response to Intraligamentary Injection in the Cynomologus Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Peurach, James C.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if intraligamentary injection causes qualitative histopathologic changes in the dental pulp of a Cynomologus monkey. In as much as the pulp and periapical tissues of the monkey are similar to that of humans, nonresolving damage to the pulp would contraindicate periodontal ligament injection in procedures where the tooth would not be extracted or the pulp extirpated. Periodontal ligament injection in this study did not produce any histopathological ...

  5. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic

  6. Monkey and dung beetle activities influence soil seed bank structure

    OpenAIRE

    Feer, François; Ponge, Jean-François; Jouard, Sylvie; Gomez, Doris

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In Neotropical forests, dung beetles act as efficient secondary dispersers of seeds that are dispersed primarily by red howler monkeys. Here, we investigated the origins of soil seed bank variability in relation to monkey and dung beetle activity, to assess the impact of dung beetles on seed fate, and their adaptability to resource availability. This question is important to better understand the process of tree regeneration, and is especially timely in the current con...

  7. Performing monkeys of Bangladesh: characterizing their source and genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Akhtar, Sharmin; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The acquisition and training of monkeys to perform is a centuries-old tradition in South Asia, resulting in a large number of rhesus macaques kept in captivity for this purpose. The performing monkeys are reportedly collected from free-ranging populations, and may escape from their owners or may be released into other populations. In order to determine whether this tradition involving the acquisition and movement of animals has influenced the population structure of free-ranging rhesus macaques in Bangladesh, we first characterized the source of these monkeys. Biological samples from 65 performing macaques collected between January 2010 and August 2013 were analyzed for genetic variation using 716 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA. Performing monkey sequences were compared with those of free-ranging rhesus macaque populations in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar. Forty-five haplotypes with 116 (16 %) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the performing monkeys. As for the free-ranging rhesus population, most of the substitutions (89 %) were transitions, and no indels (insertion/deletion) were observed. The estimate of the mean number of pair-wise differences for the performing monkey population was 10.1264 ± 4.686, compared to 14.076 ± 6.363 for the free-ranging population. Fifteen free-ranging rhesus macaque populations were identified as the source of performing monkeys in Bangladesh; several of these populations were from areas where active provisioning has resulted in a large number of macaques. The collection of performing monkeys from India was also evident.

  8. A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Banerji, Christopher R S; Severini, Simone

    2013-01-01

    We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.

  9. A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.

  10. Dyscoria Associated with Herpesvirus Infection in Owl Monkeys (Aotus nancymae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Montoya, Enrique J; Weller, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Dyscoria was noted in a female owl monkey and 2 of her offspring. The third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two male monkeys paired with the female died, 1 of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all 3 animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring w...

  11. Cesarean Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cesarean Sections (C-Sections) KidsHealth > For Parents > Cesarean Sections (C-Sections) A A A What's in this ... babies in the United States are delivered via cesarean section (C-section). Even if you're envisioning a ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links) Genetic Testing Registry: Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease Genetic Testing Registry: Polycystic kidney disease 2 Genetic Testing Registry: Polycystic kidney disease 3 Genetic Testing ...

  13. Transcriptional profiling of rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, James A; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Clepper, Lisa; Wolf, Don P

    2006-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) may be able to cure or alleviate the symptoms of various degenerative diseases. However, unresolved issues regarding survival, functionality, and tumor formation mean a prudent approach should be adopted towards advancing ESCs into human clinical trials. The rhesus monkey provides an ideal model organism for developing strategies to prevent immune rejection and test the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of ESC-based medical treatments. Transcriptional profiling of rhesus monkey ESCs provides a foundation for pre-clinical ESC research in this species. In the present study, we used microarray technology, immunocytochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to characterize and transcriptionally profile rhesus monkey ESCs. We identified 367 stemness gene candidates that were highly (>85%) conserved across five different ESC lines. Rhesus monkey ESC lines maintained a pluripotent undifferentiated state over a wide range of POU5F1 (also known as OCT4) expression levels, and comparisons between rhesus monkey, mouse, and human stemness genes revealed five mammalian stemness genes: CCNB1, GDF3, LEFTB, POU5F1, and NANOG. These five mammalian genes are strongly expressed in rhesus monkey, mouse, and human ESCs, albeit only in the undifferentiated state, and represent the core key mammalian stemness factors.

  14. Evaluation of seven hypotheses for metamemory performance in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M; Schroeder, Gabriel R; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2015-02-01

    Knowing the extent to which nonhumans and humans share mechanisms for metacognition will advance our understanding of cognitive evolution and will improve selection of model systems for biomedical research. Some nonhuman species avoid difficult cognitive tests, seek information when ignorant, or otherwise behave in ways consistent with metacognition. There is agreement that some nonhuman animals "succeed" in these metacognitive tasks, but little consensus about the cognitive mechanisms underlying performance. In one paradigm, rhesus monkeys visually searched for hidden food when ignorant of the location of the food, but acted immediately when knowledgeable. This result has been interpreted as evidence that monkeys introspectively monitored their memory to adaptively control information seeking. However, convincing alternative hypotheses have been advanced that might also account for the adaptive pattern of visual searching. We evaluated seven hypotheses using a computerized task in which monkeys chose either to take memory tests immediately or to see the answer again before proceeding to the test. We found no evidence to support the hypotheses of behavioral cue association, rote response learning, expectancy violation, response competition, generalized search strategy, or postural mediation. In contrast, we repeatedly found evidence to support the memory monitoring hypothesis. Monkeys chose to see the answer when memory was poor, either from natural variation or experimental manipulation. We found limited evidence that monkeys also monitored the fluency of memory access. Overall, the evidence indicates that rhesus monkeys can use memory strength as a discriminative cue for information seeking, consistent with introspective monitoring of explicit memory.

  15. Insect-foraging in captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovich, Christy K; Rivera, Jeanette; Evans, Sian

    2010-08-01

    Whereas the diets of diurnal primate species vary greatly, almost all nocturnal primate species consume insects. Insect-foraging has been described in nocturnal prosimians but has not been investigated in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.). We studied 35 captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) in order to describe their foraging behavior and to determine if there were any age or sex differences in their ability to capture insect prey. Because owl monkeys cooperate in parental care and in food-sharing, we expected social interactions involving insect prey. We found that owl monkeys most often snatched flying insects from the air and immobilized crawling insects against a substrate using their hands. Immatures and adult female owl monkeys attempted to capture prey significantly more often than did adult males; however, there was no difference in the proportion of attempts that resulted in capture. Social interactions involving prey appeared similar to those with provisioned food, but possessors of prey resisted begging attempts more so than did possessors of other food. Owl monkeys attempted to capture prey often (mean = 9.5 +/- 5.8 attempts/h), and we speculate that the protein and lipid content of captured prey is important for meeting the metabolic demands for growth and reproduction.

  16. Intrapericardial Denervation: Responses to Water Immersion in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1995-01-01

    Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings.

  17. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M; Swanbeck, Sonja N; Conway, Bevil R

    2014-07-15

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection thresholds from initial testing to plateau performance (“learning”) was similar for +L − M (red) colors and +M − L (bluish-green) colors. But the extent of learning was higher for +S (lavender) than for −S (yellow-lime); moreover, at plateau performance, the cone contrast at the detection threshold was higher for +S than for −S. These asymmetries may reflect differences in retinal circuitry for S-ON and S-OFF. At plateau performance, the two species also had similar detection thresholds for all colors, although monkeys had shorter reaction times than humans and slightly lower thresholds for colors that modulated L/M cones. We discuss whether these observations, together with previous work showing that monkeys have lower spatial acuity than humans, could be accounted for by selective pressures driving higher chromatic sensitivity at the cost of spatial acuity amongst monkeys, specifically for the more recently evolved L − M mechanism.

  18. Auditory artificial grammar learning in macaque and marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Slater, Heather; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2013-11-27

    Artificial grammars (AG) are designed to emulate aspects of the structure of language, and AG learning (AGL) paradigms can be used to study the extent of nonhuman animals' structure-learning capabilities. However, different AG structures have been used with nonhuman animals and are difficult to compare across studies and species. We developed a simple quantitative parameter space, which we used to summarize previous nonhuman animal AGL results. This was used to highlight an under-studied AG with a forward-branching structure, designed to model certain aspects of the nondeterministic nature of word transitions in natural language and animal song. We tested whether two monkey species could learn aspects of this auditory AG. After habituating the monkeys to the AG, analysis of video recordings showed that common marmosets (New World monkeys) differentiated between well formed, correct testing sequences and those violating the AG structure based primarily on simple learning strategies. By comparison, Rhesus macaques (Old World monkeys) showed evidence for deeper levels of AGL. A novel eye-tracking approach confirmed this result in the macaques and demonstrated evidence for more complex AGL. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown level of AGL complexity in Old World monkeys that seems less evident in New World monkeys, which are more distant evolutionary relatives to humans. The findings allow for the development of both marmosets and macaques as neurobiological model systems to study different aspects of AGL at the neuronal level.

  19. Ear length and kidney function decline after kidney donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavetin, Pisut; Watanatorn, Salin; Townamchai, Natavudh; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat

    2016-11-01

    The preservation of kidney function after kidney donation depends on the kidney reserve - the potential of the remaining kidney to boost their function after loss of the other kidney. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, size and shape of the external ears are examined to evaluate the person's kidney health. We hypothesized that ear size might be a practical yet overlooked marker of kidney reserve. Fifty kidney transplantation donors were participated in this study. The length and width of both ears of all participants were measured during one of the post-donation visits. Pre-donation serum creatinine and post-donation serum creatinine as well as other relevant parameters (age, sex, weight, height, etc.) of the participants were extracted from medical records. The estimated GFR was calculated from serum creatinine, age and sex using the CKD-EPI equation. Ear length negatively associated with %GFR decline after kidney donation. For every 1 cm increase in ear length, it was associated with 5.7% less GFR decline after kidney donation (95% Confidence Interval 0.2 to 11.3, P = 0.04). Ear width, as well as age, sex, body weight, height, body mass index, and pre-donation eGFR did not significantly associate with the GFR decline. Our findings support the notion of Traditional Chinese Medicine that ear morphology may be associated with kidney health and suggest that ear length might be a useful predictor of kidney function decline after kidney donation.

  20. [Autophagy in the kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallet, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved, physiological, catabolic process, involving the lysosomal degradation of cytosolic components, including macromolecules (such as proteins and lipids) and cytosolic organelles. Autophagy is believed to be essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, for a number of fundamental biological activities, and an important component of the complex response of cells to multiple forms of stress. Autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of a number of clinically important disorders but, until recently, little was known about its connection to kidney diseases. However, there is now growing evidence that autophagy is specifically linked to the pathogenesis of important renal diseases such as acute kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy and polycystic kidney disease. However, an understanding of the precise role of autophagy in the course of kidney diseases is still in its infancy. The review points out areas of particular interest for future research, and also discusses the importance of such information on whether the pharmacologic agents that modulate autophagy are potentially usable as novel forms of treatment for various kidney diseases. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  1. Necroinflammation in Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Shrikant R; Linkermann, Andreas; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The bidirectional causality between kidney injury and inflammation remains an area of unexpected discoveries. The last decade unraveled the molecular mechanisms of sterile inflammation, which established danger signaling via pattern recognition receptors as a new concept of kidney injury-related inflammation. In contrast, renal cell necrosis remained considered a passive process executed either by the complement-related membrane attack complex, exotoxins, or cytotoxic T cells. Accumulating data now suggest that renal cell necrosis is a genetically determined and regulated process involving specific outside-in signaling pathways. These findings support a unifying theory in which kidney injury and inflammation are reciprocally enhanced in an autoamplification loop, referred to here as necroinflammation. This integrated concept is of potential clinical importance because it offers numerous innovative molecular targets for limiting kidney injury by blocking cell death, inflammation, or both. Here, the contribution of necroinflammation to AKI is discussed in thrombotic microangiopathies, necrotizing and crescentic GN, acute tubular necrosis, and infective pyelonephritis or sepsis. Potential new avenues are further discussed for abrogating necroinflammation-related kidney injury, and questions and strategies are listed for further exploration in this evolving field.

  2. Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cena Rivero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD is a genetic disease which is characterized by the gradual emergence of cystic lesions in the kidneys, which replace the renal parenchyma causing deterioration of its function to stage 5. The PKD is one of the causes of Chronic Kidney Disease on renal replacement therapy (RRT. The Polycystic Kidney Disease has two patterns of inheritance: autosomal dominant pattern and the autosomal recessive pattern. The dominant form is more common but less severe than autosomal recessive form. PKD is known that is caused by mutations in several loci of the human genome. The autosomal dominant form can be caused by mutations in two different genes (PKD1 and PKD2, unlike the autosomal recessive form only has a causal gene (PKHD1. At present the international scientific community efforts toward deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of this entity for the purpose of developing therapeutic alternatives that avoid the appearance of cysts or progression of those already in place. The aim is to systematize the available scientific knowledge about Polycystic Kidney Disease and provide a source of consultation update on clinical characteristics and therapeutic options for patients with PKD

  3. Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Antenatal Diagnosis and Histopathological Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayananda Kumar Rajanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD is one of the most common inheritable disease manifesting in infancy and childhood with a frequency of 1:6,000 to 1:55,000 births. The patient in her second trimester presented with a history of amenorrhea. Ultrasound examination revealed bilateral, enlarged, hyperechogenic kidneys, placentomegaly, and severe oligohydramnios. The pregnancy was terminated. An autopsy was performed on the fetus. Both the kidneys were found to be enlarged and the cut surface showed numerous cysts. The liver sections showed changes due to fibrosis. The final diagnosis of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease was made based on these findings. In this article, we correlate the ante-natal ultrasound and histopathological findings in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

  4. 老年慢性肾脏病患者临床特点分析——单中心队列研究%Clinical characteristics of the chronic kidney disease in the elderly: a cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧; 王玉; 孟立强; 张路霞; 王芳; 曾强; 李晓玫

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the baseline clinical characteristics of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) in aged people in the clinic.Methods Patients aged 18 years or older in our CKD clinic from October 2003 to December 2012 were included in this study.According to their age patients were divided into 2 groups:aged CKD group:aged 65 or older and non-aged CKD group:younger than 65.A group of the elderly without CKD from health screening program were selected as aged non-CKD control group.Causes,distributions of stages and complications of CKD in three groups were analyzed.Results The major cause of the elderly CKD was hypertension,different from that of younger CKD.The distribution of CKD stage in the elderly was mainly in the G3b stage,different from that in the younger.Anemia and mineral bone disease presented in earlier CKD stage in the aged CKD patients and the prevalence was higher than in the aged non-CKD group.The prevalence of hypertension had no statistical difference between the two CKD groups,but hypertension control rate was lower in aged CKD patients.Conclusions The clinical characteristics including causes and renal stage are different between the young and aged CKD patients.Complications such as anemia and mineral bone disease presents in earlier renal stage in aged CKD patients which means we should monitor and interfere earlier.%目的 了解慢性肾脏病(CKD)专业门诊老年患者的临床特点.方法 分析2006年6月至2012年12月于北京大学第一医院肾内科CKD专业门诊就诊的老年CKD患者(年龄≥65岁)基线临床资料,以同期该专业门诊就诊的非老年CKD患者(18岁<年龄≤65岁)为CKD对照组,以体检中心的非CKD老年人为老年非CKD对照组,分别比较上述人群在CKD病因、血压、贫血及钙磷代谢等方面的异同.结果 高血压肾损害为老年CKD患者最常见病因.两组CKD患者高血压患病率无显著差异,但老年CKD患者以单纯收缩期高血压为主,治疗率及控制

  5. 慢性肾脏疾病3~5期矿物质异常的横断面研究%Crass-sectional study on mineral metabolism abnormalities in chronic kidney disease by 3-5 stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣; 王小琴; 韩四萍

    2014-01-01

    目的 了解湖北地区慢性肾脏疾病(chronic kidney diseases,CKD)3~5期患者矿物质代谢异常的现状及影响因素,为非透析CKD 3~5期矿物质及骨代谢紊乱的患者提供诊治依据.方法 将湖北省中医院肾内科门诊及住院的123例CKD 3~5期患者分为3组(根据肾小球滤过率分组:CKD 3组、CKD4组、CKD 5组),比较CKD患者的血钙、血磷、钙磷乘积、碱性磷酸酶(alkaline phosphatase,ALP)、全段甲状旁腺素(immunoreactive parathyroid hormone,iPTH)水平,并评估继发性甲状旁腺功能亢进的发病率及其相关影响因素.结果 患者血钙、血磷、钙磷乘积、ALP及iPTH水平在CKD 3~5期之间比较均有统计学差异(P<0.01,P<0.001).随着CKD病程的进展,血钙逐渐下降,血清磷、钙磷乘积及iPTH水平逐渐上升.根据统计结果,CKD 5期血钙水平较CKD3、4期明显下降(P<0.05,P<0.001),CKD 5期患者的钙磷乘积、ALP水平比CKD 3、4期明显升高(P<0.01,P<0.001),CKD 3期患者血清磷、钙磷乘积及iPTH水平与CKD 4期相比有显著统计学差异(P<0.05,P<0.001),而CKD 3期和CKD 4期患者的血钙、ALP水平无显著差异(P>0.05).以iPTH为因变量,性别、年龄、病程、血钙、血磷、钙磷乘积、ALP和肾小球滤过率(glomerular filtration rate,GFR)为自变量线性相关分析,结果提示iPTH水平与血钙、GFR成负相关(P<0.001)、与血磷、ALP成正相关(P<0.01),与钙磷乘积无相关性,再次基础上做多元相关回归分析,结果显示相关回归系数R=0.51,血钙、ALP、GFR是iPTH升高的独立相关因素(P<0.01和P<0.001).结论 CKD患者的钙磷代谢紊乱在疾病的早期即存在,且随疾病的进展而不断加重.继发性甲状旁腺功能亢进的发病与CKD进程、血钙及ALP有密切关系.

  6. Isolation of saffold virus type 2 in green monkey kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Soile; Lappalainen, Maija; Paananen, Anja; Ylipaasto, Petri; Roivainen, Merja

    2012-09-01

    Saffold viruses (SAFV) have been discovered recently and they are classified into Theilovirus species in genus Cardiovirus in the Picornaviridae family. SAFV, especially those belonging to the genotype 2, have been difficult to propagate in laboratory cell lines. This study describes the successful isolation of an efficiently growing SAFV-2 strain directly from a stool specimen by standard virological methods. The availability of SAFV isolates that can be propagated to high titers is crucial to the future studies on pathogenesis and epidemiology of these novel human viruses. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Etiologic structure of bacterial intestinal infections in monkeys of Adler breeding center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardasheliya, S N; Kalashnikova, V A; Dzhikidze, E K

    2011-10-01

    We studied etiologic structure of bacterial intestinal infections in monkeys of Adler nursery. A total of 533 monkeys with diarrhea syndrome and monkeys dead from intestinal infections, as well as clinically healthy monkeys and animals dead from other pathologies were examined by bacteriological and molecular-genetic methods. Pathogenic enterobacteria Shigella and Salmonella and microaerophile Campylobacter were found in 5 and 19%, respectively. A high percentage (49%) of intestinal diseases of unknown etiology was revealed in monkeys. The fact that the number of detected opportunistic enterobacteria did not differ in healthy and diseased monkeys suggests that they are not involved into the etiology of intestinal disease.

  8. Kidney recipients experiences before during and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte

    Background Kidney transplantation is considered to be the best treatment for terminal renal insufficiency. Kidney transplant patients report higher quality of life because they avoid regular dialysis treatment that causes side effects, complications, restrictions and limitations in their daily...... and after the kidney transplant, through outpatient visits and during possible hospitalization, which can occur due to complications or disease progression. Objective To explore the coherence of the kidney transplant process in order to explain the lived experiences of kidney recipients before, during...... and after kidney transplantation. Method Participant observation and semi-structured individual interviews was conducted with kidney recipients before, during and after kidney transplantation. Data analysis is inspired by Ricoeur's interpretation theory on three levels: Naive reading; structural analysis...

  9. A STUDY OF KIDNEY ANOMALIES - HYPO PLASTIC KIDNEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarabattina Rattaia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: T he subject of kidney anomalies has created much interest to the scientists in late 1950 and 1960 with the aim of prevention and curing. E tiological factors includes variou s genetic environmental factors , teratogens such as physical, chemical, nutritional, causing mutations in the genes. Hypoplastic kidney indicates small kidney that have less normal number of calices and nephrons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: T he present study has been under taken on 76 kidneys from cadavers and 60 from sonograms and 40 from fetal kidneys. Kidneys identified and photographs are taken in situ wherever necessary OBSERVATION : 10 hypo plastic kidneys were observed. SUMM A RY AND CONCLUSION: The cause for this is many birth defects, it may be unilateral or bilateral, in unilateral the oth er kidney shows greater compensatory group

  10. Connexins and the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanner, Fiona; Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Connexins (Cxs) are widely-expressed proteins that form gap junctions in most organs, including the kidney. In the renal vasculature, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 are expressed, with predominant expression of Cx40 in the endothelial cells and Cx45 in the vascular smooth muscle cells. In the tubules......, the major function of Cxs in the kidney appears to be intercellular communication, although they may also form hemichannels that allow cellular secretion of large signaling molecules. Renal Cxs facilitate vascular conduction, juxtaglomerular apparatus calcium signaling, and tubular purinergic signaling....... Accordingly, current evidence points to roles for these Cxs in several important regulatory mechanisms in the kidney, including the renin angiotensin system, tubuloglomerular feedback, and salt and water reabsorption. At the systemic level, renal Cxs may help regulate blood pressure and may be involved...

  11. [Pregnancy and kidney diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekierka-Harreis, M; Rump, L C

    2011-10-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in women of childbearing age reaches approximately 0.2%. Under physiological conditions pregnancy results in important hemodynamic changes on the maternal organism. In the case of chronic kidney disease these adaptations often are only partial. Physiological changes of immune response during pregnancy may contribute to the progress of renal disease. Regardless of the underlying kidney disease, one can assume that the better the glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure are the more favorable the course of pregnancy will be with the chance for a healthy child and stable renal function. To achieve this goal, a close interaction is required between gynecologist, nephrologist, and other specialists in a center with appropriate experience.

  12. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... International TSC Research Conference Text Size Get Involved RENAL (KIDNEY) MANIFESTATIONS IN TSC Download a PDF of ... sclerosis complex (TSC) will develop some form of renal (kidney) disease during their lifetime. There are three ...

  13. Kidney Transplantation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diet and Transplantation (National Kidney Foundation) Also in Spanish From Illness to Wellness: Life After Transplantation (National Kidney Foundation) - PDF Related Issues Flu Season and Your Kidneys (National Kidney Foundation) Metabolic ...

  14. Live kidney donations and the ethic of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Francis; Clement, Grace; Kane, Mary

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we seek to re-conceptualize the ethical framework through which ethicists and medical professionals view the practice of live kidney donations. The ethics of organ donation has been understood primarily within the framework of individual rights and impartiality, but we show that the ethic of care captures the moral situation of live kidney donations in a more coherent and comprehensive way, and offers guidance for practitioners that is more attentive to the actual moral transactions among donors and recipients. A final section offers guidelines for the practice of live kidney transplants that emerge from an ethic of care.

  15. COMBINED HEART-KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Poptsov

    2016-01-01

    Combined heart-kidney transplantation may be performed in carefully selected patients with end-stage heart disease and renal failure. There are two types of combined transplantation of heart and kidney: 1) simultaneous heart-kidney transplantation (SHKT) from the same donor; 2) staged transplantation of heart and kidneys from two genetically different donors. The ISHLT registry in 2014 reported an increase in the number of SHKT over the years: from 22 in 1994 to 97 in 2012. World experience d...

  16. Male-directed infanticide in spider monkeys (Ateles spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Sara; Di Fiore, Anthony; Champion, Jane; Pavelka, Mary Susan; Páez, Johanna; Link, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Infanticide is considered a conspicuous expression of sexual conflict amongst mammals, including at least 35 primate species. Here we describe two suspected and one attempted case of intragroup infanticide in spider monkeys that augment five prior cases of observed or suspected infanticide in this genus. Contrary to the typical pattern of infanticide seen in most primate societies, where infants are killed by conspecifics independent of their sex, all eight cases of observed or suspected infanticide in spider monkeys have been directed toward male infants within their first weeks of life. Moreover, although data are still scant, infanticides seem to be perpetrated exclusively by adult males against infants from their own social groups and are not associated with male takeovers or a sudden rise in male dominance rank. Although the slow reproductive cycles of spider monkeys might favor the presence of infanticide because of the potential to shorten females' interbirth intervals, infanticide is nonetheless uncommon among spider monkeys, and patterns of male-directed infanticide are not yet understood. We suggest that given the potentially close genetic relationships among adult males within spider monkey groups, and the need for males to cooperate with one another in territorial interactions with other groups of related males, infanticide may be expected to occur primarily where the level of intragroup competition among males outweighs that of competition between social groups. Finally, we suggest that infanticide in spider monkeys may be more prevalent than previously thought, given that it may be difficult for observers to witness cases of infanticide or suspected infanticide that occur soon after birth in taxa that are characterized by high levels of fission-fusion dynamics. Early, undetected, male-biased infanticide could influence the composition of spider monkey groups and contribute to the female-biased adult sex ratios often reported for this genus.

  17. Functional organization of motor cortex of adult macaque monkeys is altered by sensory loss in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hui-Xin; Jain, Neeraj; Collins, Christine E; Lyon, David C; Kaas, Jon H

    2010-02-16

    When somatosensory cortex (S1) is deprived of some of its inputs after section of ascending afferents in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, it reorganizes to overrepresent the surviving inputs. As somatosensory cortex provides guiding sensory information to motor cortex, such sensory loss and representational reorganization could affect the development of the motor map in primary motor cortex (M1), especially if the sensory loss occurs early in development. To address this possibility, the dorsal columns of the spinal cord were sectioned between cervical levels (C3-5) 3-12 days after birth in five macaque monkeys. After 3-5 years of maturation (young adults), we determined how movements were represented in M1 contralateral to the lesion by using microelectrodes to electrically stimulate sites in M1 to evoke movements. Although the details of the motor maps in these five monkeys varied, the forelimb motor maps were abnormal. The representations of digit movements were reduced and abnormally arranged. Current levels for evoking movements from the forelimb region of M1 were in the normal range, but the lowest mean stimulation thresholds were for wrist or elbow instead of digit movements. Incomplete lesions and bilateral lesions produced fewer abnormalities. The results suggest that the development of normal motor cortex maps in M1 depends on sensory feedback from somatosensory maps.

  18. Effect of membranes and porous hydroxyapatite on healing in bone defects around titanium dental implants. An experimental study in monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Warrer, K; Hjørting-Hansen

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of treating bony craters around titanium dental implant with polytetrafluoroethylene membranes (PTFE), with and without grafting of hydroxyapatite (HA), and with HA alone. 4 standardized bone defects were prepared in the alveolar ridge...... of edentulous areas in each of 7 monkeys. A titanium implant was then placed centrally in each defect, and in each monkey, the defects were treated with 1 of the following 4 treatment modalities: (1) coverage with PTFE membrane; (2) grafting of HA and covering with a PTFE membrane; (3) HA grafting; (4......) no treatment. Following a healing period of 12 weeks, all animals were sacrificed and mesio-distal ground sections of the treated areas were prepared. The histological analysis showed that all bone defects around the implants treated with PTFE membranes and 5 of the defects treated with HA and PTFE membranes...

  19. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the feet and ankles Causes & Risk FactorsWhat causes CKD?The most common causes of CKD are high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease. ... caused by CKD.How else is CKD treated?Chronic kidney disease can cause other problems. Talk with your doctor about how ...

  20. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    13.1 Kidney function2004258 Safety and efficacy of very low protein di-et in the treatment of patients withsevere chronic renal insufficiency. LIU Yan (刘岩), et al. Dept Nephrol Guangzhou Red Cross Hosp, Guangzhou 510220. Chin J Nephrol 2004;20(1):18-22.Objective: To investigate the effects of long-term

  1. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    10.1 Kidney function2004116 Measurement of urinary neutral endopeptid-ase and its significance in diagnosing renal tubular injury. ZHANG Zhi (张智), et al. Div Nephrol, Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Nephrol 2003; 19(6) :392-396.

  2. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    11.1 Kidney function2004416 The role of adhesion molecules and dendritic cells in hepatic/renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and the effect of antiadhesive treatment in rats.ZHOU Tong(周同), et al. Dept Nephrol, Ruijing Hosp Shanghai 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Emerg Med 2004; 13(5):315 -318.

  3. Everolimus in kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper JE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available James E Cooper¹, Uwe Christians², Alexander C Wiseman¹¹Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Transplant Center, ²iC42 Integrated Solutions in Systems Biology for Clinical Research and Development, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Everolimus is a novel target of rapamycin (mTOR-I analog that has recently been approved in combination with cyclosporine A and steroids for use in the prevention of organ rejection in kidney transplant recipients. Compared with rapamycin, everolimus is characterized by a shorter half-life and improved bioavailability. Prior to US Food and Drug Administration approval, a number of Phase II and III clinical trials were undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of everolimus in combination with calcineurin inhibitors for preventing acute rejection and promoting allograft survival in kidney transplant recipients. In this report, we review the pharmacokinetic properties of everolimus, the clinical efficacy studies that led to its approval for use in kidney transplantation, as well as reported data on patient safety and tolerability associated with its use.Keywords: mTOR inhibitors, kidney transplantation, everolimus

  4. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    11.1 Kidney function2003454 Effects of protein kinase C on type 1 inosi-tol 1,4, 5-triphosphate receptor expression in smooth muscle cells of rat glomerular afferent arterioles.WANG Jingyan(王静艳), et al. Dept Infect DLs, 2nd Affili Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110004. China World J Digestol 2003; (11)6:705-707.

  5. Kidney Cancer in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as our body's filter to control electrolytes, fluid balance, blood pressure and pH balance. The kidneys are strong organs. In most cases, ... often, children experience problems with the way their spine grows. Physical therapy is helpful to strengthen muscles ...

  6. Urological Complications in Kidney Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.B. Slagt (Inez)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The kidney is an essential organ that plays an crucial role in acid-base balance, sodium and potassium balance, calcium metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, red blood cell synthesis and excretion of metabolites. Kidney diseases may result in kidney

  7. Urological Complications in Kidney Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.B. Slagt (Inez)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The kidney is an essential organ that plays an crucial role in acid-base balance, sodium and potassium balance, calcium metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, red blood cell synthesis and excretion of metabolites. Kidney diseases may result in kidney failure with the

  8. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from our online catalog. Alternate Language URL Español Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines: What You Need to Know Page ... What you need to know Because you have chronic kidney disease, you should take steps to protect your kidneys. ...

  9. Seroepidemiological survey of pathogenic Yersinia in breeding squirrel monkeys in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Taketoshi; Une, Yumi; Lee, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Taniguchi, Takahide; Hayashidani, Hideki

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of antibodies to pathogenic Yersinia in breeding squirrel monkeys, the serum samples of 252 squirrel monkeys from 9 zoological gardens in Japan were tested by ELISA using plasmid-encoded Yersinia outer membrane protein (Yops) as the antigen. The cutoff value was calculated by using the serum samples of the squirrel monkeys from Suriname, where no prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia have been reported. According to the cutoff value, 164 of 252 (65.1%) squirrel monkeys were considered positive against pathogenic Yersinia. These positive monkeys belonged to 8 of the 9 zoological gardens, and the percentage of the seropositive monkeys ranged from 22.2 to 89.4%. Furthermore, in one zoological garden, the positive rate of the squirrel monkeys which were over 1 year old (95.7%) was significantly higher than those which were under 1 year old (23.3%). These results suggested that pathogenic Yersinia is highly prevalent among breeding monkeys in Japan.

  10. Fetal malformations and early embryonic gene expression response in cynomolgus monkeys maternally exposed to thalidomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was performed to determine experimental conditions for thalidomide induction of fetal malformations and to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying thalidomide teratogenicity in cynomolgus monkeys. Cynomolgus monkeys were orally administered (±)-thalidomid...

  11. Cell-poor septa separate representations of digits in the ventroposterior nucleus of the thalamus in monkeys and prosimian galagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hui-Xin; Gharbawie, Omar A; Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H

    2011-03-01

    The architectonic features of the ventroposterior nucleus (VP) were visualized in coronal brain sections from two macaque monkeys, two owl monkeys, two squirrel monkeys, and three galagos that were processed for cytochrome oxidase, Nissl bodies, or the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2). The traditional ventroposterior medial (VPM) and ventroposterior lateral (VPL) subnuclei were easily identified, as well as the forelimb and hindlimb compartments of VPL, as they were separated by poorly staining, cell-poor septa. Septa also separated other cell groups within VPM and VPL, specifically in the medial compartment of VPL representing the hand (hand VPL). In one squirrel monkey and one galago we demonstrated that these five groups of cells represent digits 1-5 in a mediolateral sequence by injecting tracers into the cortical representation of single digits, defined by microelectrode recordings, and relating concentrations of labeled neurons to specific cell groups in hand VPL. The results establish the existence of septa that isolate the representation of the five digits in VPL of primates and demonstrate that the isolated cell groups represent digits 1-5 in a mediolateral sequence. The present results show that the septa are especially prominent in brain sections processed for vGluT2, which is expressed in the synaptic terminals of excitatory neurons in most nuclei of the brainstem and thalamus. As vGluT2 is expressed in the synaptic terminations from dorsal columns and trigeminal brainstem nuclei, the effectiveness of vGluT2 preparations in revealing septa in VP likely reflects a lack of synapses using glutamate in the septa.

  12. Microsatellite polymorphisms of Sichuan golden monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Deng; LI Ying; HU Hongxing; MENG Shijie; MEN Zhengrning; FU Yunxin; ZHANG Yaping

    2005-01-01

    Previous study using protein electrophoresis shows no polymorphism in 44 nuclear loci of Sichuan golden monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), which limits our understandings of its population genetic patterns in the nuclear genome. In order to obtain sufficient information, we scanned 14 microsatellite loci in a sample of 32 individuals from its three major habitats (Minshan, Qinling and Shennongjia). A considerable amount of polymorphisms were detected. The average heterozygosities in the local populations were all above 0.5. The differentiations among local populations were significant. There was evidence of geneflow among subpopulations, but geneflow between Qinling and Shennongjia local populations was the weakest. Minshan and Qinling populations might have gone through recent bottlenecks. The estimation of the ratio of the effective population sizes among local populations was close to that from census sizes. Comparisons to available mitochondria data suggested that R. roxellana's social structures played an important role in shaping its population genetic patterns. Our study showed that the polymorphism level of R. roxellana was no higher than other endangered species; therefore, measures should be taken to preserve genetic diversity of this species.

  13. The Thatcher illusion in humans and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Christoph D; Logothetis, Nikos K; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Wallraven, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Primates possess the remarkable ability to differentiate faces of group members and to extract relevant information about the individual directly from the face. Recognition of conspecific faces is achieved by means of holistic processing, i.e. the processing of the face as an unparsed, perceptual whole, rather than as the collection of independent features (part-based processing). The most striking example of holistic processing is the Thatcher illusion. Local changes in facial features are hardly noticeable when the whole face is inverted (rotated 180 degrees ), but strikingly grotesque when the face is upright. This effect can be explained by a lack of processing capabilities for locally rotated facial features when the face is turned upside down. Recently, a Thatcher illusion was described in the macaque monkey analogous to that known from human investigations. Using a habituation paradigm combined with eye tracking, we address the critical follow-up questions raised in the aforementioned study to show the Thatcher illusion as a function of the observer's species (humans and macaques), the stimulus' species (humans and macaques) and the level of perceptual expertise (novice, expert).

  14. [Visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality in female macaque monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, M

    1997-04-01

    Visual information about face and body including facial expression and bodily behavioral patterns has been known to play an important role in social and emotional communication in monkeys. Its involvement in sexual activity has also been demonstrated in male monkeys but it is poorly understood in female monkeys. In the present study, visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality were investigated in female macaque monkeys performing operant bar-press tasks in an experimental cage which had a transparent panel facing a display. In the sex discrimination task, two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate sex of a monkey shown in a picture which was randomly selected from six photographs (three males and three females) and was presented on the display. The monkey pressed a right or left bar for male or female monkey, respectively, to get water as a reward. Under this discrimination task, the monkeys could discriminate the sexes of monkeys shown in newly presented pictures. When choice bars were reversed, correct responses significantly decreased below chance level. In the sex preference task, three rhesus monkeys and three Japanese monkeys (M. juscata) were used. The monkeys voluntarily pressed the bar to watch the video movie showing either male or female rhesus monkeys. The movies were presented as long as the subject kept pressing the bar. The same movie was continued when the monkey pressed the bar again within 10s after the previous release of the bar, while it was changed to the other when 10s passed after the subject released the bar. The total duration of the responses in daily sessions was measured. In this visual preference task, four out of six monkeys showed sex preference. Three adult Japanese monkeys (6-8 y) pressed the bar to watch the video movie of male monkeys which was taken in breeding season with longer duration than that of female monkeys taken in the same season. The other two adult rhesus monkeys (7 8 y) did not

  15. Behavioral effects in monkeys of racemates of two biologically active marijuana constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheckel, C L; Boff, E; Dahlen, P; Smart, T

    1968-06-28

    Both dl-Delta(8)- and dl-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol produced marked alterations of behavior in rhesus and squirrel monkeys. Squirrel monkeys appeared to have visual hallucinations. Continuous avoidance behavior of squirrel monkeys was stimulated by both drugs, but high doses of dl-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol also caused depression after the stimulant phase. Complex behavior involving memory and visual discrimination in rhesus monkeys was markedly disrupted by both drugs.

  16. Chronic experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in Cebus apella monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riarte

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young male Cebus apella monkeys were infected with CAl Trypanosoma cruzi strain and reinfected with CA l or Tulahuen T.cruzi strains, with different doses and parasite source. Subpatent parasitemia was usually demonstrated in acute and chronic phases. Patent parasitemia was evident in one monkey in the acute phase and in four of them in the chronic phase after re-inoculations with high doses of CAl strain. Serological conversion was observed in all monkeys; titers were low, regardless of the methods used to investigate anti-T. cruzi specific antibodies. Higher titers were induced only when re-inoculations were perfomed with the virulent Tulahuén strain or high doses of CAl strain. Clinical electrocardiographic and ajmaline test evaluations did not reveal changes between infected and control monkeys. Histopathologically, cardiac lesions were always characterized by focal or multifocal mononuclear infiltrates and/or isolated fibrosis, as seen during the acute and chronic phases; neither amastigote nests nor active inflammation and fibrogenic processes characteristic of human acute and chronic myocarditis respectively, were observed. These morphological aspects more closely resemble those found in the "indeterminate phase" and contrast with the more diffuse and progressive pattern of the human chagasic myocarditis. All monkeys survived and no mortality was observed.

  17. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  18. NUTRITIONAL CYTOPENIA (VITAMIN M DEFICIENCY) IN THE MONKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, W C; Darby, W J; Shukers, C F; Day, P L

    1938-10-31

    Young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were given a diet containing casein, polished rice, whole wheat, salt mixture, sodium chloride, cod liver oil, and ascorbic acid. They developed a syndrome characterized by anemia, leukopenia, and loss of weight. Ulceration of the gums and diarrhea were common, and death occurred between the 26th and 100th day. 4 monkeys were given the deficient diet supplemented with 1 mg. of riboflavin daily, and these developed the characteristic signs and died. in periods of time similar to the survival of monkeys receiving the deficient diet alone. Nicotinic acid, either alone or in combination with riboflavin and thiamin chloride, failed to alter appreciably the course of the deficiency manifestations. Thus, it is evident that this nutritional cytopenia is not the result of a deficiency of vitamin B, riboflavin, or nicotinic acid. The deficient diet supplemented with either 10 gm. of dried brewers' yeast or 2 gm. of liver extract (Cohn fraction G) daily supported good growth, permitted normal body development, and maintained a normal blood picture over long periods. It is obvious that yeast and liver extract contain a substance essential to the nutrition of the monkey which is not identical with any of those factors of the vitamin B complex that have been chemically identified. We have proposed the term vitamin M for this factor which prevents nutritional cytopenia in the monkey.

  19. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. (Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab., Pensacola, FL (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  20. Observational learning in capuchin monkeys: a video deficit effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2017-07-01

    Young human children have been shown to learn less effectively from video or televised images than from real-life demonstrations. Although nonhuman primates respond to and can learn from video images, there is a lack of direct comparisons of task acquisition from video and live demonstrations. To address this gap in knowledge, we presented capuchin monkeys with video clips of a human demonstrator explicitly hiding food under one of two containers. The clips were presented at normal, faster than normal, or slower than normal speed, and then the monkeys were allowed to choose between the real containers. Even after 55 sessions and hundreds of video demonstration trials the monkeys' performances indicated no mastery of the task, and there was no effect of video speed. When given live demonstrations of the hiding act, the monkeys' performances were vastly improved. Upon subsequent return to video demonstrations, performances declined to pre-live-demonstration levels, but this time with evidence for an advantage of fast video demonstrations. Demonstration action speed may be one aspect of images that influence nonhuman primates' ability to learn from video images, an ability that in monkeys, as in young children, appears limited compared to learning from live models.

  1. Selective hippocampal lesions yield nonspatial memory impairments in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, F Y; Thornton, J A; White, N M; Murray, E A

    1998-01-01

    Monkeys with removals of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures are widely recognized as valid models of human global anterograde amnesia, a syndrome that arises consequent to damage to a finite set of brain structures situated in the medial temporal lobe and/or medial diencephalon. However, a comparison of memory deficits in human and nonhuman primates with MTL damage has presented a long-standing puzzle. Whereas amnesic patients are impaired in learning object discrimination problems, monkeys with MTL damage are typically not. One possible explanation for this difference is that object discrimination tasks for humans and monkeys differ in that the former but not the latter requires the use of contextual information. If this analysis is correct, monkeys with MTL damage might be disadvantaged in learning to discriminate similar objects presented in different contexts. To test this possibility, we evaluated the effects of excitotoxic lesions of one of the MTL structures, the hippocampus, on the rate of learning of discrimination problems embedded within unique contexts. Monkeys with hippocampal lesions were impaired relative to controls in learning object discrimination problems of this type. These findings strongly support the idea that the difference in the effect on object memory of MTL damage in human and nonhuman primates is due to a difference in the opportunity to employ contextual cues rather than to a difference in the organization of memory.

  2. Monkey steering responses reveal rapid visual-motor feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth W Egger

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms underlying primate locomotion are largely unknown. While behavioral and theoretical work has provided a number of ideas of how navigation is controlled, progress will require direct physiolgical tests of the underlying mechanisms. In turn, this will require development of appropriate animal models. We trained three monkeys to track a moving visual target in a simple virtual environment, using a joystick to control their direction. The monkeys learned to quickly and accurately turn to the target, and their steering behavior was quite stereotyped and reliable. Monkeys typically responded to abrupt steps of target direction with a biphasic steering movement, exhibiting modest but transient overshoot. Response latencies averaged approximately 300 ms, and monkeys were typically back on target after about 1 s. We also exploited the variability of responses about the mean to explore the time-course of correlation between target direction and steering response. This analysis revealed a broad peak of correlation spanning approximately 400 ms in the recent past, during which steering errors provoke a compensatory response. This suggests a continuous, visual-motor loop controls steering behavior, even during the epoch surrounding transient inputs. Many results from the human literature also suggest that steering is controlled by such a closed loop. The similarity of our results to those in humans suggests the monkey is a very good animal model for human visually guided steering.

  3. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  4. Ultrastructure of basement membranes in monkey and shark teeth at an early stage of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    The basement membrane, which separates the inner enamel epithelium from the dental papilla in the early stages of tooth development, is known to play a significant role in odontogenesis. In this review article, this basement membrane was described in detail based on our recent findings with the use of high-resolution electron microscopy. Tooth germs of a monkey (Macaca fuscata) and a shark (Cephaloscyllium umbratile) were processed for thin-section observations. During the early stage of development, the basement membrane of the inner enamel (dental) epithelium was composed of a lamina lucida, lamina densa, and much wider lamina fibroreticularis. At higher magnification, the lamina densa in both species was made up of a fine network of cords, which are generally the main constituents of the basement membranes. In the monkey tooth, the lamina fibroreticularis was rich in fibrils, which were now characterized as basotubules, 10-nm-wide microfibril-like structures. The space between the basotubules was filled with a cord network that extended from the lamina densa. Dental papilla cell processes were inserted into the lamina fibroreticularis, and their surface was closely associated with numerous parallel basotubules via 1.5- to 3-nm-wide filaments. In the shark tooth during its early stage of development, the basotubules were absent in the lamina fibroreticularis and only narrow extensions, 60-90 nm wide and 1-2 microm long, of the cord network of the lamina densa were present. The dental papilla cells were immobilized by means of the binding of their processes to the extensions. These results indicate that basement membranes in both monkey and shark teeth at early stage of development are specialized for functions as anchoring and firm binding, which are essential for the successful differentiation of the odontoblasts.

  5. Fanjing Mountain:the Only Home of the Guizhou Golden Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    2000-01-01

    THE Guizhou golden monkey is one of three breeds of golden monkey (the others are in Sichuan and Yunnan) that are found only in China, and is an extremely rare and precious wild animal. Inhabiting a very small area around Guizhou's Fanjing Mountain, there are only about 750 monkeys in existence making it

  6. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    12.1 Kidney function2007244 Short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. JIANG suhua(蒋素华), et al. Dept Nephrol, Zhongshan Hosp, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Chin J Nephrol 2007;23(4):246-250. Objective To investigate short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Methods Rat model of renal IR was established by clamping both pedicles for 40 min followed by reperfusion. Blood sample and kidneys were collected at indicated times. Serum creatinine levels, mortality and histological change were observed throughout the study. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe tubular ultra-structure. Apoptosis was confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Masson trichome staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Extensive proximal tubular necrosis, functional impairment and high mortality (32%, 8/25) were found in the early phase after renal IR injury, accompanied by a small number of apoptotic cells. Patchy tubulointerstitial fibrosis was obvious at 5th and 10th week postischemia in correlation with renal hypertrophy and increased urinary output. Moreover, the expression of a-SMA and TGF-β1 increased significantly at first, 5th and 10th week in the kidneys of IR group compared to sham-operated group. The expression mentioned above was localized mainly in the injured tubulointerstitium, consistent with the distribution of renal fibrosis. Conclusion Severe renal IR injury may lead to acute tubular necrosis, functional disorder and high mortality in short term. The initial structural injury in the kidney is irreversible and tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the final outcome. Increased myofibrolasts (s-SMA positive) and

  7. Hepatitis C and Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Marco; Cockwell, Paul; Neuberger, James

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively common among patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) on dialysis and kidney transplant recipients. HCV infection in hemodialysis patients is associated with an increased mortality due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The severity of hepatitis C-related liver disease in kidney transplant candidates may predict patient and graft survival after transplant. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard in the assessment of liver fibrosis in this setting. Kidney transplantation, not haemodialysis, seems to be the best treatment for HCV+ve patients with ESKD. Transplantation of kidneys from HCV+ve donors restricted to HCV+ve recipients is safe and associated with a reduction in the waiting time. Simultaneous kidney/liver transplantation (SKL) should be considered for kidney transplant candidates with HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis. Treatment of HCV is more complex in hemodialysis patients, whereas treatment of HCV recurrence in SLK recipients appears effective and safe. PMID:21755059

  8. Hepatitis C and Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is relatively common among patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD on dialysis and kidney transplant recipients. HCV infection in hemodialysis patients is associated with an increased mortality due to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The severity of hepatitis C-related liver disease in kidney transplant candidates may predict patient and graft survival after transplant. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard in the assessment of liver fibrosis in this setting. Kidney transplantation, not haemodialysis, seems to be the best treatment for HCV+ve patients with ESKD. Transplantation of kidneys from HCV+ve donors restricted to HCV+ve recipients is safe and associated with a reduction in the waiting time. Simultaneous kidney/liver transplantation (SKL should be considered for kidney transplant candidates with HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis. Treatment of HCV is more complex in hemodialysis patients, whereas treatment of HCV recurrence in SLK recipients appears effective and safe.

  9. Comparative plasma lipidome between human and cynomolgus monkey: are plasma polar lipids good biomarkers for diabetic monkeys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghou Shui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-human primates (NHP are now being considered as models for investigating human metabolic diseases including diabetes. Analyses of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma derived from NHPs can easily be achieved using methods employed in humans. Information pertaining to other lipid species in monkey plasma, however, is lacking and requires comprehensive experimental analysis. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the plasma lipidome from 16 cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS. We established novel analytical approaches, which are based on a simple gradient elution, to quantify polar lipids in plasma including (i glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; phosphatidylinositol, PI; phosphatidylglycerol, PG; phosphatidylserine, PS; phosphatidic acid, PA; (ii sphingolipids (sphingomyelin, SM; ceramide, Cer; Glucocyl-ceramide, GluCer; ganglioside mannoside 3, GM3. Lipidomic analysis had revealed that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, with PC, SM, PE, LPC and PI constituting the major polar lipid species present. Human plasma contained significantly higher levels of plasmalogen PE species (p<0.005 and plasmalogen PC species (p<0.0005, while cynomolgus monkey had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acyls (PUFA in PC, PE, PS and PI. Notably, cynomolgus monkey had significantly lower levels of glycosphingolipids, including GluCer (p<0.0005 and GM(3 (p<0.0005, but higher level of Cer (p<0.0005 in plasma than human. We next investigated the biochemical alterations in blood lipids of 8 naturally occurring diabetic cynomolgus monkeys when compared with 8 healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, but contained different mol distribution of individual molecular species. Diabetic monkeys

  10. In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation of Intestinal Availability for Carboxylesterase Substrates Using Portal Vein-Cannulated Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapa, Patrick E; Beaumont, Kevin; Atkinson, Karen; Eng, Heather; King-Ahmad, Amanda; Scott, Dennis O; Maurer, Tristan S; Di, Li

    2017-03-01

    Prediction of intestinal availability (FaFg) of carboxylesterase (CES) substrates is of critical importance in designing oral prodrugs with optimal properties, projecting human pharmacokinetics and dose, and estimating drug-drug interaction potentials. A set of ester prodrugs were evaluated using in vitro permeability (parallel artificial membrane permeability assay and Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line-low efflux) and intestinal stability (intestine S9) assays, as well as in vivo portal vein-cannulated cynomolgus monkey. In vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of FaFg was developed with a number of modeling approaches, including a full physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model as well as a simplified competitive-rate analytical solution. Both methods converged as in the PBPK simulations enterocyte blood flow behaved as a sink, a key assumption in the competitive-rate analysis. For this specific compound set, the straightforward analytical solution therefore can be used to generate in vivo predictions. Strong IVIVE of FaFg was observed for cynomolgus monkey with R(2) of 0.71-0.93. The results suggested in vitro assays can be used to predict in vivo FaFg for CES substrates with high confidence. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Movement disorders induced in monkeys by chronic haloperidol treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.; Santelli, S.; Lusink, G.

    1977-01-01

    After several months of treatment, Cebus apella, Cebus albifrons, and Saimiri sciurea monkeys maintained on haloperidol, in doses of 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg orally 5 days per week, began to display severe movement disorders, typically 1 to 6 h post-drug. Cebus monkeys exhibited violent, uncontrolled movements that flung the animals about the cage. Such episodes usually lasted only a few minutes, recurring several times during the period following drug ingestion. Writhing and bizarre postures dominated the response in S. sciurea. Cessation of drug treatment produced no distinctive after-effects. When tested as long as 508 days after the last administration, however, Cebus monkeys responded to haloperidol with several episodes of hyperkinesis, even at challenge doses considerably lower than those in the original treatment.

  12. Movement disorders induced in monkeys by chronic haloperidol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B; Santelli, S; Lusink, G

    1977-08-16

    After several months of treatment, Cebus apella, Cebus albifrons, and Saimiri sciurea monkeys maintained on haloperidol, in doses of 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg orally 5 days per week, began to display severe movement disorders, typically 1-6 h post-drug. Cebus monkeys exhibited violent, uncontrolled movements that flung the animals about the cage. Such episodes usually lasted only a few minutes, recurring several times during the period following drug ingestion. Writhing and bizarre postures dominated the response in S. sciurea. Cessation of drug treatment produced no distinctive after-effects. When tested as long as 508 days after the last administration, however, Cebus monkeys responded to haloperidol with several episodes of hyperkinesis, even at challenge doses considerably lower than those in the original treatment.

  13. Dyskinesias evoked in monkeys by weekly administration of haloperidol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.; Santelli, S.

    1978-05-19

    In two cebus (Cebus albifrons) monkeys given weekly oral doses of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram, movement disorders appeared 1 to 8 hours after drug administration following the tenth weekly dose. These disorders included oral movements, peculiar postures, writhing, and stretching. Such reactions faded in intensity after the next two doses. Increasing the dose to 0.5 milligram per kilogram has elicited the disorders reliably after each weekly dose for almost 2 years. Similar reactions also developed in a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) treated weekly with haloperidol and in a third cebus monkey previously maintained for a year on a regimen of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram on 5 days per week. These findings suggest an experimental model for determining the etiology of drug-induced movement disorders. They also suggest an unrecognized clinical problem.

  14. Dyskinesias evoked in monkeys by weekly administration of haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B; Santelli, S

    1978-05-19

    In two cebus (Cebus albifrons) monkeys given weekly oral doses of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram, movement disorders appeared 1 to 8 hours after drug administration following the tenth weekly dose. These disorders included oral movements, peculiar postures, writhing, and stretching. Such reactions faded in intensity after the next two doses. Increasing the dose to 0.5 milligram per kilogram has elicited the disorders reliably after each weekly dose for almost 2 years. Similar reactions also developed in a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) treated weekly with haloperidol and in a third cebus monkey previously maintained for a year on a regimen of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram on 5 days per week. These findings suggest an experimental model for determining the etiology of drug-induced movement disorders. They also suggest an unrecognized clinical problem.

  15. Photoacoustic tomography of monkey brain using virtual point ultrasonic transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Liming; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-07-01

    A photoacoustic tomography system (PAT) using virtual point ultrasonic transducers was developed and applied to image a monkey brain. The custom-built transducers provide a 10-fold greater field-of-view (FOV) than finite-aperture unfocused transducers as well as an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reduced artifacts rather than negative-lens transducers. Their tangential resolution, radial resolution, and (SNR) improvements were quantified using tissue phantoms. Our PAT system can achieve high uniformity in both resolution (8) within a large FOV of 6 cm in diameter, even when the imaging objects are enclosed by a monkey skull. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through a skull ranging from 2 to 4 mm in thickness. This study demonstrates that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull and can potentially be applied to human neonatal brain imaging.

  16. Predation of wild spider monkeys at La Macarena, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ikki; Izawa, Kosei

    2008-01-01

    The killing of an adult male spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth ) by a jaguar (Panthera onca) and a predation attempt by a puma (Felis concolor) on an adult female spider monkey have been observed at the CIEM (Centro de Investigaciones Ecológicas La Macarena), La Macarena, Colombia. These incidents occurred directly in front of an observer, even though it is said that predation under direct observation on any type of primate rarely occurs. On the basis of a review of the literature, and the observations reported here, we suggest that jaguars and pumas are likely to be the only significant potential predators on adult spider monkeys, probably because of their large body size.

  17. Neural Monkey: An Open-source Tool for Sequence Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helcl Jindřich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we announce the development of Neural Monkey – an open-source neural machine translation (NMT and general sequence-to-sequence learning system built over the TensorFlow machine learning library. The system provides a high-level API tailored for fast prototyping of complex architectures with multiple sequence encoders and decoders. Models’ overall architecture is specified in easy-to-read configuration files. The long-term goal of the Neural Monkey project is to create and maintain a growing collection of implementations of recently proposed components or methods, and therefore it is designed to be easily extensible. Trained models can be deployed either for batch data processing or as a web service. In the presented paper, we describe the design of the system and introduce the reader to running experiments using Neural Monkey.

  18. Kidney Transplantation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Einollahi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation in patients with end stage renal diseaseis preferred to dialysis because transplantation provides a betterquality of life and improved survival. However, the gapbetween the supply and demand for a renal allograft is wideningand the waiting time is increasing. Iranian protocol, a controlledtransplant program supported by the government forliving unrelated donors, was initiated for solving the problemof organ shortage. Although this system might experiencechallenges, clearly it has advantages over other organ procurementsystems primarily that thousands in need do not diewhile waiting for a compatible donor.In the present review I discuss the history of renal transplantationin Iran, "Iranian model" protocol, the situation ofIran’s kidney transplantation from either living or deceaseddonors compared with the Middle East countries, and our experiencesof unrelated renal transplantation.

  19. The kidney research predicament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Lisa; Ibrahim, Tod; Zent, Roy; Fischer, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Research funding from public and private sources has reached an all-time low. Economic conditions, sequestration, and a trend of low award success rates have created an imbalance between the supply of highly qualified research investigators and the availability of critically necessary research dollars. This grim environment continues to hinder the success of established investigators and deter potential investigators from joining the research workforce. Without action and support of innovative science, the future of the US health care system is in jeopardy, and its leadership role in medical research will decrease. This work discusses the effects of the decline in research funding, the plight of kidney research, and the impact of the American Society of Nephrology Grants Program on scientists. The ASN also calls on the entire nephrology community to rejuvenate the research environment, improve the lives of millions of people with kidney disease, and ultimately, find a cure.

  20. Acupuncture and kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gabriela E; Ma, Sheng-Xing; Feng, Lili

    2005-07-01

    Acupuncture as a complex therapeutic system has been used to treat a variety of diseases and pathological conditions. Although the exact mechanism(s) of acupuncture remains unknown, some evidence suggests a mechanism initially involving signal transduction through connective tissue, with secondary involvement of other systems including the nervous system. Acupuncture has become increasingly popular in the Western countries as a therapy for pain and several chronic disorders difficult to manage with conventional treatments. Acupuncture and acupuncture-like somatic nerve stimulation have been used in different kidney diseases and several complications related to them. The effect of acupuncture techniques in some kidney diseases is reviewed on the basis of clinical reports as well as mechanisms that may possibly explain the beneficial effects mediated by acupressure/acupuncture. The potential effect of acupressure techniques in renal inflammation and whether these effects could be mediated through the newly identified cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway are discussed.

  1. Kidney Transplantation in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Kidney transplantation in patients with end stage renal diseaseis preferred to dialysis because transplantation provides a betterquality of life and improved survival. However, the gapbetween the supply and demand for a renal allograft is wideningand the waiting time is increasing. Iranian protocol, a controlledtransplant program supported by the government forliving unrelated donors, was initiated for solving the problemof organ shortage. Although this system might experiencechallenges, clea...

  2. Kidney Cell Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, P.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated, ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry was provided and cells returned from space flight were analyzed. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. The protocol established and utilized is given.

  3. [Acute Kidney Injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Silke; Stahl, Rolf

    2017-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important part of renal diseases and a common clinical problem. AKI is an acute decline in renal function. Due to a lack of therapeutic options, prevention and optimal management of patients with AKI are the most important strategies. Although seldom the sole cause of patients' death, AKI is associated with a significant increase in mortality. Our objective is to draw the attention towards the prevention of AKI of non-renal causes.

  4. Oct-4 expression in pluripotent cells of the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Hennebold, Jon D; Wolf, Don P

    2003-12-01

    The POU (Pit-Oct-Unc)-domain transcription factor, Oct-4, has become a useful marker of pluripotency in the mouse. It is found exclusively in mouse preimplantation-stage embryos after embryonic genome activation and is a characteristic of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and its absence in knockout mice precludes inner cell mass (ICM) formation in blastocysts. Expression of Oct-4 has also been associated with pluripotency in primate cells. Here, we undertook a systematic study of Oct-4 expression in rhesus macaque preimplantation embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and in ES cells before and after exposure to differentiating conditions in vitro. We also evaluated Oct-4 expression as a means of monitoring the extent of reprogramming following somatic cell nuclear transfer. Oct-4 was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry with a monoclonal antibody. Monkey pronuclear-stage zygotes and cleaving embryos up to the 8-cell stage showed no detectable Oct-4. Nuclear staining for Oct-4 first became obvious at the 16-cell stage, and a strong signal was observed in morula and compact morula stages. Both ICM and trophectodermal cell nuclei of monkey early blastocysts were positive for Oct-4. However, the signal was diminished in trophectodermal cells of expanded blastocysts, whereas expression remained high in ICM nuclei. Similar to the mouse, hatched monkey blastocysts showed strong Oct-4 expression in the ICM, with no detectable signal in the trophectoderm. Undifferentiated monkey ES cells derived from the ICM of in vitro-produced blastocysts expressed Oct-4, consistent with their pluripotent nature, whereas ES cell differentiation was associated with signal loss. Therefore, Oct-4 expression in the monkey, as in the mouse, provides a useful marker for pluripotency after activation of the embryonic genome. Finally, the observed lack or abnormal expression of Oct-4 in monkey nuclear transfer embryos suggests

  5. Socialization of adult owl monkeys (Aotus sp.) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence E; Coke, C S; Weed, J L

    2017-01-01

    Social housing has often been recommended as one-way to address the psychological well-being of captive non-human primates. Published reports have examined methods to socialize compatible animals by forming pairs or groups. Successful socialization rates vary depending on the species, gender, and environment. This study presents a retrospective look at pairing attempts in two species of owl monkeys, Aotus nancymaae and A. azarae, which live in monogamous pairs in the wild. The results of 477 pairing attempt conducted with captive, laboratory housed owl monkeys and 61 hr of behavioral observations are reported here. The greatest success pairing these owl monkeys occurred with opposite sex pairs, with an 82% success rate. Opposite sex pairs were more successful when females were older than males. Female-female pairs were more successful than male-male (MM) pairs (62% vs 40%). Successful pairs stayed together between 3 and 7 years before the animals were separated due to social incompatibility. Vigilance, eating, and sleeping during introductions significantly predicted success, as did the performance of the same behavior in both animals. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to give captive owl monkeys a social alternative even if species appropriate social partners (i.e., opposite sex partners) are not available. The focus of this report is a description of one potential way to enhance the welfare of a specific new world primate, the owl monkey, under laboratory conditions. More important is how the species typical social structure of owl monkeys in nature affects the captive management of this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22521, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Positive reinforcement training in squirrel monkeys using clicker training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Timothy E; Janes, Amy C; Kaufman, Marc J

    2012-08-01

    Nonhuman primates in research environments experience regular stressors that have the potential to alter physiology and brain function, which in turn can confound some types of research studies. Operant conditioning techniques such as positive reinforcement training (PRT), which teaches animals to voluntarily perform desired behaviors, can be applied to improve behavior and reactivity. PRT has been used to train rhesus macaques, marmosets, and several other nonhuman primate species. To our knowledge, the method has yet to be used to train squirrel monkeys to perform complex tasks. Accordingly, we sought to establish whether PRT, utilizing a hand-box clicker (which emits a click sound that acts as the conditioned reinforcer), could be used to train adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis, N = 14). We developed and implemented a training regimen to elicit voluntary participation in routine husbandry, animal transport, and injection procedures. Our secondary goal was to quantify the training time needed to achieve positive results. Squirrel monkeys readily learned the connection between the conditioned reinforcer (the clicker) and the positive reinforcer (food). They rapidly developed proficiency on four tasks of increasing difficulty: target touching, hand sitting, restraint training, and injection training. All subjects mastered target touching behavior within 2 weeks. Ten of 14 subjects (71%) mastered all tasks in 59.2 ± 2.6 days (range: 50-70 days). In trained subjects, it now takes about 1.25 min per monkey to weigh and administer an intramuscular injection, one-third of the time it took before training. From these data, we conclude that clicker box PRT can be successfully learned by a majority of squirrel monkeys within 2 months and that trained subjects can be managed more efficiently. These findings warrant future studies to determine whether PRT may be useful in reducing stress-induced experimental confounds in studies involving squirrel monkeys.

  7. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhao; Fauzia Akbary; Shengli Li; Jing Lu; Feng Ling; Xunming Ji; Guowei Shang; Jian Chen; Xiaokun Geng; Xin Ye; Guoxun Xu; Ju Wang; Jiasheng Zheng; Hongjun Li

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiol-ogy in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group:middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood lfow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood lfow was restored. A revers-ible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identiifed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symp-toms of neurological deifcits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental ifndings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the ifeld of brain injury research.

  8. Atlas-guided segmentation of vervet monkey brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Andriy; Li, Xiaoxing; Pohl, Kilian M; Bouix, Sylvain; Styner, Martin; Addicott, Merideth; Wyatt, Chris; Daunais, James B; Wells, William M; Kikinis, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI analysis. In this paper we developed an open source image analysis framework based on the tools available within the 3D Slicer software to support a biological study that investigates the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on brain morphometry in a longitudinally followed population of male vervets. We first developed a computerized atlas of vervet monkey brain MRI, which was used to encode the typical appearance of the individual brain structures in MRI and their spatial distribution. The atlas was then used as a spatial prior during automatic segmentation to process two longitudinal scans per subject. Our evaluation confirms the consistency and reliability of the automatic segmentation. The comparison of atlas construction strategies reveals that the use of a population-specific atlas leads to improved accuracy of the segmentation for subcortical brain structures. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we describe an image processing workflow specifically tuned towards the analysis of vervet MRI that consists solely of the open source software tools. Second, we develop a digital atlas of vervet monkey brain MRIs to enable similar studies that rely on the vervet model.

  9. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Shang, Guowei; Chen, Jian; Geng, Xiaokun; Ye, Xin; Xu, Guoxun; Wang, Ju; Zheng, Jiasheng; Li, Hongjun; Akbary, Fauzia; Li, Shengli; Lu, Jing; Ling, Feng; Ji, Xunming

    2014-12-01

    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiology in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group: middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood flow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood flow was restored. A reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identified by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symptoms of neurological deficits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental findings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the field of brain injury research.

  10. Characteristics of histologically confirmed endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto-Kakiuchi, A.; Netsu, S.; Matsuo, S.; Hayashi, S.; Ito, T.; Okabayashi, S.; Yasmin, L.; Yuzawa, K.; Kondoh, O.; Kato, A.; Suzuki, M.; Konno, R.; Sankai, T.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the characteristics of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys? SUMMARY ANSWER Spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys exhibited similar characteristics to the human disease. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY One previous report described the prevalence and the basic histopathology of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Endometriotic lesions that had been histologically confirmed in 8 female cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 21 years old were subjected to study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The monkeys died of, or were sacrificed because of, sickness consequent on endometriosis. Specimens were evaluated histopathologically with haematoxylin and eosin staining, iron staining and immunohistochemistry (CD10, CD31, α-SMA and PGP9.5), and by observing them under a microscope. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Endometriotic and stromal cells (CD10-positive) with haemorrhage and inflammation were observed. Smooth muscle metaplasia and nerve fibres were also noted in the endometriotic lesions. Endometriotic lesions in lymph nodes were incidentally found. LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION Since laparoscopic analysis for monitoring the disease state was not set as a parameter of the current study, time course changes (progression) of the disease were not assessed. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Further investigation of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys may contribute to better understanding of the disease pathobiology. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) No external funds were used for this study. A.N.K., S.M., S.H., T.I., O.K., A.K. and M.S. are full-time employees of Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. R.K. received lecture fees from Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., unrelated to the submitted work. S.N., S. O., L.Y., K.Y. and T.S. have nothing to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER N/A. PMID:27591226

  11. Comparative Overview of Visuospatial Working Memory in Monkeys and Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Oyama, Kei; Nakamura, Shinya; Iijima, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Neural mechanisms of working memory, particularly its visuospatial aspect, have long been studied in non-human primates. On the other hand, rodents are becoming more important in systems neuroscience, as many of the innovative research methods have become available for them. There has been a question on whether primates and rodents have similar neural backgrounds for working memory. In this article, we carried out a comparative overview of the neural mechanisms of visuospatial working memory in monkeys and rats. In monkeys, a number of lesion studies indicate that the brain region most responsible for visuospatial working memory is the ventral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (vDLPFC), as the performance in the standard tests for visuospatial working memory, such as delayed response and delayed alternation tasks, are impaired by lesions in this region. Single-unit studies revealed a characteristic firing pattern in neurons in this area, a sustained delay activity. Further studies indicated that the information maintained in the working memory, such as cue location and response direction in a delayed response, is coded in the sustained delay activity. In rats, an area comparable to the monkey vDLPFC was found to be the dorsal part of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as the delayed alternation in a T-maze is impaired by its lesion. Recently, the sustained delay activity similar to that found in monkeys has been found in the dorsal mPFC of rats performing the delayed response task. Furthermore, anatomical studies indicate that the vDLPFC in monkeys and the dorsal mPFC in rats have much in common, such as that they are both the major targets of parieto-frontal projections. Thus lines of evidence indicate that in both monkeys and rodents, the PFC plays a critical role in working memory.

  12. Atlas-Guided Segmentation of Vervet Monkey Brain MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Andriy; Li, Xiaoxing; Pohl, Kilian M; Bouix, Sylvain; Styner, Martin; Addicott, Merideth; Wyatt, Chris; Daunais, James B; Wells, William M; Kikinis, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI analysis. In this paper we developed an open source image analysis framework based on the tools available within the 3D Slicer software to support a biological study that investigates the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on brain morphometry in a longitudinally followed population of male vervets. We first developed a computerized atlas of vervet monkey brain MRI, which was used to encode the typical appearance of the individual brain structures in MRI and their spatial distribution. The atlas was then used as a spatial prior during automatic segmentation to process two longitudinal scans per subject. Our evaluation confirms the consistency and reliability of the automatic segmentation. The comparison of atlas construction strategies reveals that the use of a population-specific atlas leads to improved accuracy of the segmentation for subcortical brain structures. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we describe an image processing workflow specifically tuned towards the analysis of vervet MRI that consists solely of the open source software tools. Second, we develop a digital atlas of vervet monkey brain MRIs to enable similar studies that rely on the vervet model. PMID:22253661

  13. Stereopsis and disparity vergence in monkeys with subnormal binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwerth, R S; Smith, E L; Crawford, M L; von Noorden, G K

    1997-02-01

    The surgical treatment for strabismus in infants generally results in microtropia or subnormal binocular vision. Although the clinical characteristics of these conditions are well established, there are important questions about the mechanisms of binocular vision in these patients that can best be investigated in an appropriate animal model. In the present psychophysical investigations, spatial frequency response functions for disparity-induced fusional vergence and for local stereopsis were studied in macaque monkeys, who demonstrated many of the major visual characteristics of patients whose eyes were surgically aligned during infancy. In six rhesus monkeys, unilateral esotropia was surgically induced at various ages (30-184 days of age). However, over the next 12 months, all of the monkeys recovered normal eye alignment. Behavioral measurements at 4-6 years of age showed that the monkeys' prism-induced fusional vergence responses were indistinguishable from those of control monkeys or humans with normal binocular vision. Investigations of stereo-depth discrimination demonstrated that each of the experimental monkeys also had stereoscopic vision, but their stereoacuities varied from being essentially normal to severely stereo-deficient. The degree of stereo-deficiency was not related to the age at which surgical esotropia was induced, or to the presence or absence of amblyopia, and was not dependent on the spatial frequency of the test stimulus. Altogether, these experiments demonstrate that a temporary, early esotropia can affect the binocular disparity responses of motor and sensory components of binocular vision differently, probably because of different sensitive periods of development for the two components.

  14. Connexins and the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, Fiona; Sorensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2010-05-01

    Connexins (Cxs) are widely-expressed proteins that form gap junctions in most organs, including the kidney. In the renal vasculature, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 are expressed, with predominant expression of Cx40 in the endothelial cells and Cx45 in the vascular smooth muscle cells. In the tubules, there is morphological evidence for the presence of gap junction plaques only in the proximal tubules. In the distal nephron, Cx30, Cx30.3, and Cx37 are expressed, but it is not known whether they form gap junctions connecting neighboring cells or whether they primarily act as hemichannels. As in other systems, the major function of Cxs in the kidney appears to be intercellular communication, although they may also form hemichannels that allow cellular secretion of large signaling molecules. Renal Cxs facilitate vascular conduction, juxtaglomerular apparatus calcium signaling, and tubular purinergic signaling. Accordingly, current evidence points to roles for these Cxs in several important regulatory mechanisms in the kidney, including the renin angiotensin system, tubuloglomerular feedback, and salt and water reabsorption. At the systemic level, renal Cxs may help regulate blood pressure and may be involved in hypertension and diabetes.

  15. Kidney stones during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semins, Michelle J; Matlaga, Brian R

    2014-03-01

    Kidney stones affect 10% of people at some point in their lives and, for some unfortunate women, this happens during pregnancy. Pregnancy is a complex state and both physiological and mechanical changes alter risk factors for kidney stone formation. When a pregnant woman develops acute nephrolithiasis, the situation is more complicated than in nonpregnant women. Imaging limitations and treatment restrictions mean that special diagnostic and management algorithms are needed upon presentation. Ultrasonography remains the gold-standard first-line diagnostic imaging modality for kidney stones during pregnancy but several second-line alternatives exist. Acute renal colic during pregnancy is associated with risks to both mother and fetus. As such, these patients need to be handled with special attention. First-line management is generally conservative (trial of passage and pain management) and is associated with a high rate of stone passage. Presentation of obstructive nephrolithiasis with associated infection represents a unique and serious clinical situation requiring immediate drainage. If infection is not present and conservative management fails, ureteroscopy can be offered if clinically appropriate, but, in some circumstances, temporary drainage with ureteral stent or nephrostomy tube might be indicated. Shockwave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are contraindicated during pregnancy.

  16. Pregnancy and kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Michelle A; McKay, Dianne B

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of experience with child bearing in women with kidney transplants, these pregnancies remain high risk with an increased prevalence of hypertension and pre-eclampsia. Infertility, common in women with end-stage renal disease, is rapidly restored after transplant although pregnancy rates appear lower in transplant recipients than the general public. Many unanswered questions exist, some old questions such as what is the optimal timing of pregnancy after transplant, whether breast feeding is safe, the long-term impact if any on the offspring, and whether pregnancy negatively affects the kidney graft; and some new questions such as whether to modify immunosuppression in a patient taking a mycophenolic acid-containing drug, whether kidney donation has a deleterious impact on future pregnancies, whether to use erythropoietin-stimulating agents, and the role of BK virus. Counseling about contraception and pregnancy after transplant should be initiated during the pretransplant evaluation process. It is important because of the rapid restoration of fertility that occurs after transplant as well as the many risks and unanswered questions that remain.

  17. Functional analysis of aldehyde oxidase using expressed chimeric enzyme between monkey and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kunio; Asakawa, Tasuku; Hoshino, Kouichi; Adachi, Mayuko; Fukiya, Kensuke; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Yorihisa

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. Each subunit consists of about 20 kDa 2Fe-2S cluster domain storing reducing equivalents, about 40 kDa flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain and about 85 kDa molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) domain containing a substrate binding site. In order to clarify the properties of each domain, especially substrate binding domain, chimeric cDNAs were constructed by mutual exchange of 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains between monkey and rat. Chimeric monkey/rat AO was referred to one with monkey type 2Fe-2S/FAD domains and a rat type MoCo domain. Rat/monkey AO was vice versa. AO-catalyzed 2-oxidation activities of (S)-RS-8359 were measured using the expressed enzyme in Escherichia coli. Substrate inhibition was seen in rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, but not in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, suggesting that the phenomenon might be dependent on the natures of MoCo domain of rat. A biphasic Eadie-Hofstee profile was observed in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, but not rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, indicating that the biphasic profile might be related to the properties of MoCo domain of monkey. Two-fold greater V(max) values were observed in monkey AO than in chimeric rat/monkey AO, and in chimeric monkey/rat AO than in rat AO, suggesting that monkey has the more effective electron transfer system than rat. Thus, the use of chimeric enzymes revealed that 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains affect the velocity and the quantitative profiles of AO-catalyzed (S)-RS-8359 2-oxidation, respectively.

  18. Novel in vivo techniques to visualize kidney anatomy and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Kidokoro, Kengo; Riquier-Brison, Anne

    2015-07-01

    Intravital imaging using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become an increasingly popular and widely used experimental technique in kidney research over the past few years. MPM allows deep optical sectioning of the intact, living kidney tissue with submicron resolution, which is unparalleled among intravital imaging approaches. MPM has solved a long-standing critical technical barrier in renal research to study several complex and inaccessible cell types and anatomical structures in vivo in their native environment. Comprehensive and quantitative kidney structure and function MPM studies helped our better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the healthy and diseased kidney. This review summarizes recent in vivo MPM studies with a focus on the glomerulus and the filtration barrier, although select, glomerulus-related renal vascular and tubular functions are also mentioned. The latest applications of serial MPM of the same glomerulus in vivo, in the intact kidney over several days, during the progression of glomerular disease are discussed. This visual approach, in combination with genetically encoded fluorescent markers of cell lineage, has helped track the fate and function (e.g., cell calcium changes) of single podocytes during the development of glomerular pathologies, and provided visual proof for the highly dynamic, rather than static, nature of the glomerular environment. Future intravital imaging applications have the promise to further push the limits of optical microscopy, and to advance our understanding of the mechanisms of kidney injury. Also, MPM will help to study new mechanisms of tissue repair and regeneration, a cutting-edge area of kidney research.

  19. A computer-aided diagnostic system for kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahantigh, Farzad Firouzi; Malmir, Behnam; Avilaq, Behzad Aslani

    2017-01-01

    Background Disease diagnosis is complicated since patients may demonstrate similar symptoms but physician may diagnose different diseases. There are a few number of investigations aimed to create a fuzzy expert system, as a computer aided system for disease diagnosis. Methods In this research, a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in a kidney clinic in Tehran, Iran in 2012. Medical diagnosis fuzzy rules applied, and a set of symptoms related to the set of considered diseases defined. The input case to be diagnosed defined by assigning a fuzzy value to each symptom and then three physicians asked about each suspected diseases. Then comments of those three physicians summarized for each disease. The fuzzy inference applied to obtain a decision fuzzy set for each disease, and crisp decision values attained to determine the certainty of existence for each disease. Results Results indicated that, in the diagnosis of seven cases of kidney disease by examining 21 indicators using fuzzy expert system, kidney stone disease with 63% certainty was the most probable, renal tubular was at the lowest level with 15%, and other kidney diseases were at the other levels. The most remarkable finding of this study was that results of kidney disease diagnosis (e.g., kidney stone) via fuzzy expert system were fully compatible with those of kidney physicians. Conclusion The proposed fuzzy expert system is a valid, reliable, and flexible instrument to diagnose several typical input cases. The developed system decreases the effort of initial physical checking and manual feeding of input symptoms.

  20. Aortic PWV in Chronic Kidney Disease: A CRIC Ancillary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Raymond R.; Wimmer, Neil J.; Chirinos, Julio A.; Parsa, Afshin; Weir, Matthew; Perumal, Kalyani; Lash, James P.; Chen, Jing; Steigerwalt, Susan P.; Flack, John; Go, Alan S.; Rafey, Mohammed; Rahman, Mahboob; Sheridan, Angela; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Robinson, Nancy A.; Joffe, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Background Aortic PWV is a measure of arterial stiffness and has proved useful in predicting cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in several populations of patients, including the healthy elderly, hypertensives and those with end stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis. Little data exist characterizing aortic stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease who are not receiving dialysis, and in particular the effect of reduced kidney function on aortic PWV. Methods We performed measurements of aortic PWV in a cross-sectional cohort of participants enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study to determine factors which predict increased aortic PWV in chronic kidney disease. Results PWV measurements were obtained in 2564 participants. The tertiles of aortic PWV (adjusted for waist circumference) were 10.2 m/sec with an overall mean (± S.D.) value of 9.48 ± 3.03 m/sec [95% CI = 9.35–9.61 m/sec]. Multivariable regression identified significant independent positive associations of age, blood glucose concentrations, race, waist circumference, mean arterial blood pressure, gender, and presence of diabetes with aortic PWV and a significant negative association with the level of kidney function. Conclusions The large size of this unique cohort, and the targeted enrollment of chronic kidney disease participants provides an ideal situation to study the role of reduced kidney function as a determinant of arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness may be a significant component of the enhanced cardiovascular risk associated with kidney failure. PMID:20019670

  1. Infection of capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons) with Herpesvirus saimiri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, H; Pearson, G R; Wallen, W C; Neubauer, R H; Cicmanec, J L; Orr, T W

    1975-03-01

    Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) induced persistent, clinically inapparent infections of long-term duration in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons). The infections were characterized by development of antibody to HVS-associated antigens and recovery of low levels of virus-genome-carrying lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Peripheral lymphocyte counts remained in low-normal to normal ranges and no physical signs of lymphoma were evident. Prednisolone treatment caused immunosuppression in one monkey; this was accompanied by a progressive loss of humoral antibody to HVS-associated antigens, but neoplastic disease did not develop.

  2. Electroretinogram measurements of cone spectral sensitivity in dichromatic monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitz, J; Jacobs, G H

    1984-12-01

    The corneal electroretinogram (ERG) was used to investigate the spectral sensitivities of cones in 12 dichromatic squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) whose color-vision capacities were established in behavioral tests. Three different varieties of dichromacy were represented among these animals. A flicker-photometric procedure was used in which the ERG response to a rapidly flickering monochromatic test light was compared with the response elicited by a similarly flickering reference light. The spectral-sensitivity functions obtained by the use of this technique are similar to previous estimates of cone spectral sensitivity in dichromatic squirrel monkeys derived from direct microspectrophotometric measurements.

  3. "Zeroing" in on mathematics in the monkey brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    A new study documented that monkeys showed selective neuronal responding to the concept of zero during a numerical task, and that there were two distinct classes of neurons that coded the absence of stimuli either through a discrete activation pattern (zero or not zero) or a continuous one for which zero was integrated with other numerosities in the relative rate of activity. These data indicate that monkeys, like humans, have a concept of zero that is part of their analog number line but that also may have unique properties compared to other numerosities.

  4. Terminal leptospirosis in a woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagothricha in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana González A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A captive woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagothricha displayed severe lethargy, vomiting and diarrhea. Laboratory tests revealed anemia, leukopenia, hypoproteinemia, severe azotemia and positive Leptospira IgM ELISA. The monkey was humanely euthanized and the necropsy revealed a multifocal tubulointerstitial glomerulonephritis; in addition to splenic lymphoid depletion, and interstitial pneumonia, all of which are compatible with leptospirosis. Rodent control and biosecurity measures should be done at all zoological collections in order to prevent transmission to facility personnel and to threatened mammals maintained in captivity.

  5. Bat Predation by Cercopithecus Monkeys: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapanes, Elizabeth; Detwiler, Kate M; Cords, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between bats and primates, which may contribute to zoonotic disease transmission, is poorly documented. We provide the first behavioral accounts of predation on bats by Cercopithecus monkeys, both of which are known to harbor zoonotic disease. We witnessed 13 bat predation events over 6.5 years in two forests in Kenya and Tanzania. Monkeys sometimes had prolonged contact with the bat carcass, consuming it entirely. All predation events occurred in forest-edge or plantation habitat. Predator-prey relations between bats and primates are little considered by disease ecologists, but may contribute to transmission of zoonotic disease, including Ebolavirus.

  6. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  7. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia in a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, L R; DiLoreto, C; Leite, M C; Wakamatsu, A; Santos, R T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2000-09-01

    Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare and seldom reported disease in animals and humans induced by a papillomavirus. The present report is the first description of this disease in a Neotropical primate, a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca). The diagnosis was based on gross and microscopic findings. The generic papillomavirus antigen was identified by immunohistochemistry and was found not to be related to any human papillomavirus DNA tested by in situ hybridization. This virus is probably a specific papillomavirus of the howler monkey (HMPV).

  8. A hybrid monkey search algorithm for clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zhou, Yongquan; Luo, Qifang

    2014-01-01

    Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique. The k-means clustering algorithm is one of the most commonly used methods. However, it highly depends on the initial solution and is easy to fall into local optimum solution. In view of the disadvantages of the k-means method, this paper proposed a hybrid monkey algorithm based on search operator of artificial bee colony algorithm for clustering analysis and experiment on synthetic and real life datasets to show that the algorithm has a good performance than that of the basic monkey algorithm for clustering analysis.

  9. A Hybrid Monkey Search Algorithm for Clustering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique. The k-means clustering algorithm is one of the most commonly used methods. However, it highly depends on the initial solution and is easy to fall into local optimum solution. In view of the disadvantages of the k-means method, this paper proposed a hybrid monkey algorithm based on search operator of artificial bee colony algorithm for clustering analysis and experiment on synthetic and real life datasets to show that the algorithm has a good performance than that of the basic monkey algorithm for clustering analysis.

  10. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M.; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  11. Four miniature kidneys: supernumerary kidney and multiple organ system anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrouzian, Marjan; Sonstein, Joseph; Dadfarnia, Tahereh; Sreshta, J Nicholas; Hawkins, Hal K

    2014-05-01

    More than 350 years after Martius's first reported case in 1656, supernumerary kidney (SNK) continues to fascinate the world of medicine, generating new ideas in the domain of embryogenesis. Association of a normal kidney with a second or third ipsilateral smaller kidney is an extremely rare anomaly with only a total of 81 cases reported until today. We are reporting a case of SNK, clinically diagnosed as right hydronephrosis, associated with an ipsilateral ectopic ureter, a contralateral partially duplicated ureter, and a multiseptate gallbladder. Pathologic examination of the nephrectomy revealed 4 miniature kidneys, joining a dilated ureter through 4 separate conduits. Our patient is the first reported case of SNK with absent ipsilateral normal kidney, presence of more than 3 kidneys on 1 side, and associated anomaly in the gallbladder. This case represents a unique combination of rarities, suggesting insights in the domain of molecular embryology.

  12. The effects of long-term soy protein and milk protein feeding on the pancreas of Cebus albifrons monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, L M; Harwood, J P; King, N W; Sehgal, P K; Nicolosi, R J; Hegsted, D M; Liener, I E; Donatucci, D; Tarcza, J

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-seven 2- to 4-yr-old cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) were fed from infancy purified diets containing lactalbumin, soy isolate, casein or soy concentrate as the sole protein source. Hematologic and clinical chemistry values were similar for all groups. Head and tail portions of each pancreas were surgically removed for histopathologic evaluation and determination of protein, RNA and DNA content, and for trypsin and chymotrypsin activity. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from 26 of 27 monkeys showed normal pancreatic tissue with occasional acinar vacuolation in all diet groups. The remaining animal, one of only two fed soy concentrate, had diffuse interstitial fibrosis of the pancreas associated with mild to moderate atrophy of acinar tissue. Biochemical analyses of the pancreatic biopsies indicated no group differences among animals fed lactalbumin, soy isolate or casein. One of two monkeys in the soy concentrate group showed decreased pancreatic protein, RNA and trypsin concentrations; this was probably due to the fibrosis in this animal. No evidence of pancreatic hypertrophy or hyperplasia, as measured by RNA/DNA and protein/DNA ratios, respectively, was seen in any diet group.

  13. Trasplante renal Kidney transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martín

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante renal es la terapia de elección para la mayoría de las causas de insuficiencia renal crónica terminal porque mejora la calidad de vida y la supervivencia frente a la diálisis. El trasplante renal de donante vivo es una excelente alternativa para el paciente joven en situación de prediálisis porque ofrece mejores resultados. El tratamiento inmunosupresor debe ser individualizado buscando la sinergia inmunosupresora y el mejor perfil de seguridad, y debe adaptarse a las diferentes etapas del trasplante renal. En el seguimiento del trasplante renal hay que tener muy en cuenta los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y los tumores puesto que la muerte del paciente con injerto funcionante es la segunda causa de pérdida del injerto tras el primer año del trasplante. La función alterada del injerto es un factor de mortalidad cardiovascular independiente que requerirá seguimiento y control de todas sus complicaciones para retrasar la entrada en diálisis.The kidney transplant is the therapy of choice for the majority of the causes of chronic terminal kidney insufficiency, because it improves the quality of life and survival in comparison with dialysis. A kidney transplant from a live donor is an excellent alternative for the young patient in a state of pre-dialysis because it offers the best results. Immunosuppressive treatment must be individualised, seeking immunosuppressive synergy and the best safety profile, and must be adapted to the different stages of the kidney transplant. In the follow-up to the kidney transplant, cardiovascular risk factors and tumours must be especially taken into account, given that the death of the patient with a working graft is the second cause of loss of the graft following the first year of the transplant. The altered function of the graft is a factor of independent cardiovascular mortality that will require follow-up and the control of all its complications to postpone the entrance in dialysis.

  14. Kyasanur forest disease virus: viremia and challenge studies in monkeys with evidence of cross-protection by Langat virus infection [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/UiWGcy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti V Shah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus (KFDV, discovered in 1957, is a member of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV complex. Diseases caused by members of the TBEV complex occur in many parts of the world. KFDV produces a hemorrhagic fever in humans in South India and fatal illnesses in both species of monkeys in the area, the black faced langur (Presbytis entellus and the bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata. Experimental infection of the langur and the bonnet macaque with early mouse passage KFDV strain P9605 resulted in a viremia of up to 11 days duration, peak viremia titers as high as 109, and death in 82 = 100% of the animals. Prolonged passage of the KFDV strain P9605 in monkey kidney tissue culture resulted in a markedly reduced virulence of the virus for both species; peak viremia titers in monkeys decreased by 2.5 to 4.0 log LD 50 (p= 0.001, and the mortality decreased to 10% (p= 0.001. In challenge experiments, monkeys previously infected with tissue-culture-adapted KFDV, or with the related Langat virus from Malaysia, were fully protected against virulent KFDV. These studies in non-human primates lend support to the idea that a live virus vaccine from a member of the TBEV complex may be broadly protective against infections by other members of the TBEV complex.

  15. Ultrastructural evidence for impaired mitochondrial fission in the aged rhesus monkey dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Yury M; Datta, Dibyadeep; Paspalas, Constantinos D; Arnsten, Amy F T

    2017-03-01

    Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex mediates high-order cognitive functions that are impaired early in the aging process in monkeys and humans. Here, we report pronounced changes in mitochondrial morphology in dendrites of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex neurons from aged rhesus macaques. Electron microscopy paired with 3D reconstruction from serial sections revealed an age-related increase in mitochondria with thin segments that intermingled with enlarged ones, the 'mitochondria-on-a-string' phenotype, similar to those recently reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The thin mitochondrial segments were associated with endoplasmic reticulum cisterns, and the mitochondrial proteins Fis1 and Drp1, all of which initiate mitochondrial fission. These data suggest that the 'mitochondria-on-a-string' phenotype may reflect malfunction in mitochondrial dynamics, whereby fission is initiated, but the process is incomplete due to malfunction of subsequent step(s). Thus, aged rhesus monkeys may be particularly helpful in exploring the age-related changes that render higher cortical circuits so vulnerable to degeneration.

  16. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehan; Xie, Na; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya'an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis.

  17. Cynomolgus monkey induced pluripotent stem cells established by using exogenous genes derived from the same monkey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Ono, Ryoichi; Shimada, Manami; Shibata, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Inada, Hiroyasu; Takada, Tatsuyuki; Nosaka, Tetsuya; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells established by introduction of the transgenes POU5F1 (also known as Oct3/4), SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC have competence similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells. iPS cells generated from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells by using genes taken from the same species would be a particularly important resource, since various biomedical investigations, including studies on the safety and efficacy of drugs, medical technology development, and research resource development, have been performed using cynomolgus monkeys. In addition, the use of xenogeneic genes would cause complicating matters such as immune responses when they are expressed. In this study, therefore, we established iPS cells by infecting cells from the fetal liver and newborn skin with amphotropic retroviral vectors containing cDNAs for the cynomolgus monkey genes of POU5F1, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. Flat colonies consisting of cells with large nuclei, similar to those in other primate ES cell lines, appeared and were stably maintained. These cell lines had normal chromosome numbers, expressed pluripotency markers and formed teratomas. We thus generated cynomolgus monkey iPS cell lines without the introduction of ecotropic retroviral receptors or other additional transgenes by using the four allogeneic transgenes. This may enable detailed analysis of the mechanisms underlying the reprogramming. In conclusion, we showed that iPS cells could be derived from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on iPS cell lines established from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells by using genes from the same species.

  18. Experimental hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis): evidence of active extrahepatic site of HAV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Luciane A; Marchevsky, Renato S; de Paula, Vanessa S; Hooper, Cleber; Freire, Marcos da S; Gaspar, Ana Maria C; Pinto, Marcelo A

    2010-02-01

    This work studied the replication sites of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) after intravenous inoculation. The cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated with the Brazilian hepatitis A virus strain (HAF-203). Monkeys were euthanized on days 15, 30, 45 and 60 postinoculation (pi). Liver samples, submandibular salivary gland, mesenteric lymph node and tonsils were removed for virological and pathological evaluation. Immunofluorescence analyses on liver and salivary gland sections using confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the presence of HAV antigen (HAV Ag). The presence of HAV genome was monitored by real-time PCR. The HAV RNA was detected at 7 days postinoculation (dpi), concomitantly in serum, saliva and faeces. The highest HAV viral load was observed in faeces at 15 dpi (10(5) copies/ml), followed by serum viral load of 10(4) copies/ml at 20 dpi and saliva viral load of 10(3 )copies/ml at 7 dpi. The animals showed first histological and biochemical signs of hepatitis at 15 dpi. The HAV antigen (Ag) was present from day 7 until day 60 pi in the liver and salivary glands. The HAV replicative intermediate was also detected in the liver (4.5 x 10(4) copies/mg), salivary glands (1.9 x 10(3) copies/mg), tonsils (4.2 x 10(1) copies/mg) and lymph nodes (3.4 x 10(1) copies/mg). Our data demonstrated that the salivary gland as an extrahepatic site of early HAV replication could create a potential risk of saliva transmitted infection. In addition, the cynomolgus monkey was confirmed as a suitable model to study the pathogenesis of HAV human infection.

  19. Comparison of functional recovery of manual dexterity after unilateral spinal cord lesion or motor cortex lesion in adult macaque monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eHoogewoud

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In relation to mechanisms involved in functional recovery of manual dexterity from cervical cord injury or from motor cortical injury, our goal was to determine whether the movements that characterize post-lesion functional recovery are comparable to original movement patterns or do monkeys adopt distinct strategies to compensate the deficits depending on the type of lesion? To this aim, data derived from earlier studies, using a skilled finger task (the modified Brinkman board from which pellets are retrieved from vertical or horizontal slots, in spinal cord and motor cortex injured monkeys were analyzed and compared. Twelve adult macaque monkeys were subjected to a hemi-section of the cervical cord (n=6 or to a unilateral excitotoxic lesion of the hand representation in the primary motor cortex (n=6. In addition, in each subgroup, one half of monkeys (n=3 were treated for 30 days with a function blocking antibody against the neurite growth inhibitory protein Nogo-A, while the other half (n=3 represented control animals. The motor deficits, and the extent and time course of functional recovery were assessed.For some of the parameters investigated (wrist angle for horizontal slots and movement types distribution for vertical slots after cervical injury; movement types distribution for horizontal slots after motor cortex lesion, post-lesion restoration of the original movement patterns (true recovery led to a quantitatively better functional recovery. In the motor cortex lesion groups, pharmacological reversible inactivation experiments showed that the peri-lesion territory of the primary motor cortex or re-arranged, spared domain of the lesion zone, played a major role in the functional recovery, together with the ipsilesional intact premotor cortex.

  20. Interactions of motivation and reinforcement during the performance of a simple instrumental reflex by a monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, I M; Shul'govskii, V V

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of the performance of an instrumental task by Macaca rhesus monkeys was investigated in an automated experiment. Three monkeys were trained to complete a movement with a lever in response to a light stimulus. It was demonstrated that the performance of the instrumental reflex by the monkeys is comprised of the alternation of blocks of more or less continuous realizations and pauses between them. The relationship of the intensity of the work of the monkeys to the time from the beginning of the experiment was studied, and a comparison was made of the magnitude of the intensity for the three monkeys. The average intensity of the work of the monkeys within the blocks of continuous realizations is a constant and individual value. The influence of the degree of deprivation and of the delivery of out-of-turn reinforcement on the work of the monkeys was also investigated.

  1. A Deficit in Face-Voice Integration in Developing Vervet Monkeys Exposed to Ethanol during Gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenehpour, Shahin; Javadi, Pasha; Ervin, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    monkey model of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) provides an unparalleled opportunity to study the neurobehavioral outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure in a controlled experimental setting. Recent work has revealed a significant reduction of the neuronal population in the frontal lobes of these monkeys. We...... used an intersensory matching procedure to investigate audiovisual perception of socially relevant stimuli in young FAE vervet monkeys. Here we show a domain-specific deficit in audiovisual integration of socially relevant stimuli. When FAE monkeys were shown a pair of side-by-side videos of a monkey....... However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face...

  2. ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Titlestad, Kjell; Baudier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO......-incompatible kidney transplantation. We used antigenspecific immunoadsorptions to remove blood group antibodies and anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) to inhibit the antibody production. The aim of introducing the ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation at the OUH was to increase the rate of living donor kidney...... transplantation without increasing rejection or mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation. Eleven patients received ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. The patients were followed for 3-26 months. RESULTS: One patient had an antibody-mediated rejection, one patient suffered T...

  3. Living Kidney Donors and ESRD

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2015-01-01

    There are over 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These two locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry s...

  4. CD74 in kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara eValiño-Rivas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available CD74 (invariant MHC class II regulates protein trafficking and is a receptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF and D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT/MIF-2. CD74 expression is increased in tubular cells and/or glomerular podocytes and parietal cells in human metabolic nephropathies, polycystic kidney disease, graft rejection and kidney cancer and in experimental diabetic nephropathy and glomerulonephritis. Stressors like abnormal metabolite (glucose, lyso-Gb3 levels and inflammatory cytokines increase kidney cell CD74. MIF activates CD74 to increase inflammatory cytokines in podocytes and tubular cells and proliferation in glomerular parietal epithelial cells and cyst cells. MIF overexpression promotes while MIF targeting protects from experimental glomerular injury and kidney cysts, and interference with MIF/CD74 signaling or CD74 deficiency protected from crescentic glomerulonephritis. However, CD74 may protect from interstitial kidney fibrosis. Furthermore, CD74 expression by stressed kidney cells raises questions about the kidney safety of cancer therapy strategies delivering lethal immunoconjugates to CD74-expressing cells. Thus, understanding CD74 biology in kidney cells is relevant for kidney therapeutics.

  5. Laparoscopic en bloc kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjal Modi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is well establish procedure and having advantages over open donor nephrectomy in terms of having less pain, early ambulation and rapid post operative recovery. To extend the advantages of laparoscopic surgery to the recipient, recently we have performed laparoscopic kidney transplantations when kidney was procured from deceased donors. As a further extension of the procedure, here we present a case of laparoscopic en bloc kidney transplantation in obese diabetic recipient who received kidneys from 70 year old non-heart beating donor.

  6. Monkey hybrid stem cells develop cellular features of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorthongpanich Chanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluripotent stem cells that are capable of differentiating into different cell types and develop robust hallmark cellular features are useful tools for clarifying the impact of developmental events on neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. Additionally, a Huntington's cell model that develops robust pathological features of Huntington's disease would be valuable for drug discovery research. Results To test this hypothesis, a pluripotent Huntington's disease monkey hybrid cell line (TrES1 was established from a tetraploid Huntington's disease monkey blastocyst generated by the fusion of transgenic Huntington's monkey skin fibroblast and a wild-type non-transgenic monkey oocyte. The TrES1 developed key Huntington's disease cellular pathological features that paralleled neural development. It expressed mutant huntingtin and stem cell markers, was capable of differentiating to neural cells, and developed teratoma in severely compromised immune deficient (SCID mice. Interestingly, the expression of mutant htt, the accumulation of oligomeric mutant htt and the formation of intranuclear inclusions paralleled neural development in vitro , and even mutant htt was ubiquitously expressed. This suggests the development of Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. Conclusions Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. These results are the first to demonstrate that a pluripotent stem cell line is able to mimic Huntington's disease progression that parallels neural development, which could be a useful cell model for investigating the developmental impact on Huntington's disease pathogenesis.

  7. Effect of physical restraint on glucose tolerance in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Yasufumi; Yoshioka, Naoya; Kanazawa, Kanpei; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi; Horikawa, Tadahiro; Hayashi, Toshiaki

    2013-06-01

    Physiologic stress has been demonstrated to impair glucose tolerance. Glucose tolerance tests were performed using six cynomolgus monkeys. Chair-restrained subjects elicited higher elevations of plasma glucose and cortisol compared with squeezing device-restrained subjects. The responses to a glucose challenge are altered by different restraint procedures.

  8. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Desiré L; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  9. Mononeuropathy multiplex in rhesus monkeys with chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J D; Bohm, R P; Roberts, E D; Philipp, M T

    1997-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a recognized but poorly understood manifestation of Lyme disease. We performed serial electrophysiological studies on 8 rhesus monkeys chronically infected with the JD1 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi and compared the results with those of similar studies on 10 uninfected control monkeys. Four infected and 2 uninfected animals underwent sural nerve biopsy. Five of the infected and 1 of the uninfected animals also had postmortem neuropathological examinations. Altogether, 5 of the infected monkeys demonstrated primarily axonal-loss-variety multifocal neuropathies. Only one nerve lesion exhibited findings compatible with demyelination. Pathologically, peripheral nerve specimens showed multifocal axonal degeneration and regeneration and occasional perivascular inflammatory cellular infiltrates without vessel wall necrosis. Free spirochetal structures were not seen, but several macrophages exhibited positive immunostaining with a highly specific anti-B. burgdorferi, 7.5-kd lipoprotein monoclonal antibody. In the infected animals, serial analysis of serum antibodies to B. burgdorferi showed increasing numbers of IgG specificities and new IgM specificities, suggesting persistent infection. Thus, peripheral neuropathy in the form of a mononeuropathy multiplex develops frequently in rhesus monkeys chronically infected with B. burgdorferi. The pathogenesis of these nerve lesions is not yet known, but our studies suggest an immune-mediated process perhaps driven by persistent infection with B. burgdorferi.

  10. GLP-1 receptor localization in monkey and human tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Charles; Heller, R Scott; Kirk, Rikke Kaae

    2014-01-01

    and increase heart rate. Using a new monoclonal antibody for immunohistochemistry, we detected GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in important target organs in humans and monkeys. In the pancreas, GLP-1R was predominantly localized in β-cells with a markedly weaker expression in acinar cells. Pancreatic ductal epithelial...

  11. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  12. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiré L Dalton

    Full Text Available The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  13. Prospective and Retrospective Metacognitive Abilities in Rhesus Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ding

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Metacognition refers to a knowledge of one’s own cognitive abilities and one’s aptitude to alter these abilities if necessary. Previous research from our lab shows that monkeys exhibit metacognitive abilities by accurately judging their own performance on perceptual and serial working memory tasks. The present study includes two phases during which a monkey makes retrospective and prospective judgments of confidence. In the retrospective phase of this experiment, the subject completes a recall task, and then judges his performance on the test phase by choosing from high and low-risk confidence choices. In the prospective task, the monkey makes his confidence judgment before the test, instead judging how well he learned during the study phase. An analysis of results indicates that monkeys can immediately transfer the ability to make metacognitive judgments from the serial working memory tasks in previous experiments to retrospective and prospective recall tasks in the present study. These findings underline the similarity between the non-human primate and human abilities to make confidence judgments. Further, they are the first evidence to date of a non-human primate making a prospective judgment of future performance, suggesting that the ability to use a metacognitive state to control one’s actions is not uniquely human.

  14. Phospholipid organization in monkey erythrocytes upon Plasmodium knowlesi infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, P.H. van der; Beaumelle, B.; Vial, H.; Roelofsen, B.; Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1987-01-01

    The phospholipid organization in monkey erythrocytes upon Plasmodium knowlesi infection has been studied. Parasitized and nonparasitized erythrocytes from malaria-infected blood were separated and pure erythrocyte membranes from parasitized cells were isolated using Affi-Gel beads. In this way, the

  15. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...

  16. Serial memory strategies in macaque monkeys: behavioral and theoretical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Tanya; Yakovlev, Volodya; Amit, Daniel; Hochstein, Shaul; Zohary, Ehud

    2002-03-01

    Serial memory is the ability to encode and retrieve a list of items in their correct temporal order. To study nonverbal strategies involved in serial memory, we trained four macaque monkeys on a novel delayed sequence-recall task and analysed the mechanisms underlying their performance in terms of a neural network model. Thirty fractal images, divided into 10 triplets, were presented repeatedly in fixed temporal order. On each trial the monkeys viewed three sequentially presented sample images, followed by a test stimulus consisting of the same triplet of images and a distractor image (chosen randomly from the remaining 27). The task was to touch the three images in their original order, avoiding the distractor. The monkeys' most common error was touching the distractor when it had the same ordinal position (in its own triplet) as the correct image. This finding suggests that monkeys naturally categorize images by their ordinal number. Additional, secondary strategies were eventually used to avoid distractor images. These include memory of the sample images (working memory) and associations between triplet members. Further direct evidence for ordinal number categorization was provided by a transfer of learning to untrained images of the same ordinal category, following reassignment of image categories within each triplet. We propose a generic three-tier neuronal framework that can explain the components and complex set of characteristics of the observed behavior. This framework, with its intermediate level representing ordinal categories, can also explain the transfer of learning following category reassignment.

  17. Monkey Malaria in a European Traveler Returning from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Hanspeter; Felger, Ingrid; Müller, Dania; Jokiranta, T. Sakari

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, a Finnish traveler was infected in Peninsular Malaysia with Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite that usually causes malaria in monkeys. P. knowlesi has established itself as the fifth Plasmodium species that can cause human malaria. The disease is potentially life-threatening in humans; clinicians and laboratory personnel should become more aware of this pathogen in travelers. PMID:18760013

  18. [The principles of the therapy of glanders in monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomiakov, Iu N; Manzeniuk, I N; Naumov, D V; Svetoch, E A

    1998-01-01

    The effect of pathogenetic therapy in the normalization of homeostasis disturbances in monkeys has been shown under experimental conditions. Data on the possibility of using hemosorption in the treatment of severe forms of glanders are presented. The conclusion on the necessity of using complex treatment for the effective therapy of glanders in humans has been made.

  19. Multimodal convergence within the intraparietal sulcus of the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guipponi, Olivier; Wardak, Claire; Ibarrola, Danielle; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique; Pinède, Serge; Ben Hamed, Suliann

    2013-02-27

    The parietal cortex is highly multimodal and plays a key role in the processing of objects and actions in space, both in human and nonhuman primates. Despite the accumulated knowledge in both species, we lack the following: (1) a general description of the multisensory convergence in this cortical region to situate sparser lesion and electrophysiological recording studies; and (2) a way to compare and extrapolate monkey data to human results. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the monkey to provide a bridge between human and monkey studies. We focus on the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and specifically probe its involvement in the processing of visual, tactile, and auditory moving stimuli around and toward the face. We describe three major findings: (1) the visual and tactile modalities are strongly represented and activate mostly nonoverlapping sectors within the IPS. The visual domain occupies its posterior two-thirds and the tactile modality its anterior one-third. The auditory modality is much less represented, mostly on the medial IPS bank. (2) Processing of the movement component of sensory stimuli is specific to the fundus of the IPS and coincides with the anatomical definition of monkey ventral intraparietal area (VIP). (3) A cortical sector within VIP processes movement around and toward the face independently of the sensory modality. This amodal representation of movement may be a key component in the construction of peripersonal space. Overall, our observations highlight strong homologies between macaque and human VIP organization.

  20. Monkeys Exhibit Prospective Memory in a Computerized Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) involves forming intentions, retaining those intentions, and later executing those intended responses at the appropriate time. Few studies have investigated this capacity in animals. Monkeys performed a computerized task that assessed their ability to remember to make a particular response if they observed a PM cue embedded…

  1. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  2. Servants, Managers and Monkeys: New Perspectives on Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskey, Frederick C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author questions whether the understanding of teaching and leading is the same today as it was last year? The chances are that the concept of what it means to be a teacher and a leader has changed. After describing three leadership types: servants, managers, and monkeys, Buskey suggest several things that are needed to improve…

  3. MAC of xenon and halothane in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, S L; Nemoto, E M; Yao, L; Yonas, H

    1994-10-01

    Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) maps produced by 33% xenon-enhanced computed tomographic scanning (Xe/CT LCBF) are useful in the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with cerebrovascular disorders. However, observations in humans that 25-35% xenon (Xe) inhalation increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) have raised concerns that Xe/CT LCBF measurements may be inaccurate and that Xe inhalation may be hazardous in patients with decreased intracranial compliance. In contrast, 33% Xe does not increase CBF in rhesus monkeys. To determine whether this interspecies difference in the effect of Xe on CBF correlates with an interspecies difference in the anesthetic potency of Xe, we measured the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of Xe preventing movement to a tail-clamp stimulus in rhesus monkeys. Using a standard protocol for the determination of MAC in animals, we first measured the MAC of halothane (n = 5), and then used a combination of halothane and Xe to measure the MAC of Xe (n = 7). The halothane MAC was 0.99 +/- 0.12% (M +/- SD), and the Xe MAC was 98 +/- 15%. These results suggest that the MAC of Xe in rhesus monkeys is higher than the reported human Xe MAC value of 71%. Thus the absence of an effect of 33% Xe on CBF in the rhesus monkey may be related to its lower anesthetic potency.

  4. Assessing Unit-Price Related Remifentanil Choice in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuska, Chad M.; Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    Given a commodity available at different prices, a unit-price account of choice predicts preference for the cheaper alternative. This experiment determined if rhesus monkeys preferred remifentanil (an ultra-short-acting [mu]-opioid agonist) delivered at a lower unit price over a higher-priced remifentanil alternative (Phases 1 and 3). Choice…

  5. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  6. Monkey malaria in a European traveler returning from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantele, Anu; Marti, Hanspeter; Felger, Ingrid; Müller, Dania; Jokiranta, T Sakari

    2008-09-01

    In 2007, a Finnish traveler was infected in Peninsular Malaysia with Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite that usually causes malaria in monkeys. P. knowlesi has established itself as the fifth Plasmodium species that can cause human malaria. The disease is potentially life-threatening in humans; clinicians and laboratory personnel should become more aware of this pathogen in travelers.

  7. Polioencephalomalacia secondary to hypernatremia in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macri, S M Cummings; Masek-Hammerman, K; Crowell, A M; Fenn, M S; Knight, H L; Westmoreland, S V; Miller, A D

    2014-05-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp) are one of the most consistently used New World primates in biomedical research and are increasingly being used in neuroscience research, including models of drug abuse and addiction. Spontaneous neurologic disease in the squirrel monkey is uncommonly reported but includes various infectious diseases as well as cerebral amyloidosis. Hypernatremia is an extremely serious condition of hyperosmolarity that occurs as a result of water loss, adipsia, or excess sodium intake. Neurologic effects of hypernatremia reflect the cellular dehydration produced by the shift of water from the intracellular fluid space into the hypertonic extracellular fluid space. Severe hypernatremia may result in cerebrocortical laminar necrosis (polioencephalomalacia) in human patients as well as in a number of domestic species, including pigs, poultry, and ruminants. We report the clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings of polioencephalomalacia in 13 squirrel monkeys. Polioencephalomalacia in these animals was associated with hypernatremia that was confirmed by serum levels of sodium greater than 180 mmol/L (reference range, 134.0-154.0 mmol/L [mEq/L]). All animals had concurrent diseases or experimental manipulation that predisposed to adipsia. Immunohistochemical investigation using antibodies to neuronal nuclei (NeuN), CNPase, Iba-1, and CD31 revealed necrosis of predominantly cerebral cortical layers 3, 4, and 5 characterized by neuronal degeneration and loss, oligodendrocytic loss, microglial proliferation, and vascular reactivity. The squirrel monkey is exquisitely sensitive to hyperosmolar metabolic disruption and it is associated with laminar cortical necrosis.

  8. The Monkey Kid: A Personal Glimpse into the Cultural Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M. Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Wang, Xiao-Yen (Director/Writer, 'The Monkey Kid '(1995. San Francisco, Calif.: Beijing–San Francisco Film Group. Also released in France by Les Films du Parodoxe under the title, 'La Mome Singe '(1997. 95 minutes. Mandarin Chinese with English subtitles.

  9. Boron and the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Madeleine V; Culver, B Dwight; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2005-10-01

    Boron, the fifth element in the periodic table, is ubiquitous in nature. It is present in food and in surface and ocean waters, and is frequently used in industrial, cosmetic, and medical settings. Exposure to boron and related compounds has been recently implicated as a potential cause of chronic kidney disease in Southeast Asia. This observation prompted the present review of the published data on the effects of acute and chronic exposure to boron on renal function and structure in human beings and in experimental animals.

  10. The Vulcan kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waud, D R

    1999-02-01

    One can often gain new insights into a topic when approaching it from a new angle. The paradigm example involves the insights into histology that can be gained from studying pathology. For example, a rare cell type in the pituitary suddenly becomes very easy to recognize once a whole field of them can be seen in a tumour. Similarly, one can gain insights by looking at species other than our own. In this article, Doug Waud, using the kidney in Vulcans, takes this latter theme one step further to provide useful insights into renal physiology and pharmacology.

  11. [Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, V; Penkova, S; Lalev, I

    1990-01-01

    A case of a 22 years old woman with autosomal-recessive form of kidney polycystosis is presented. The diagnosis was made in early childhood. A combination of renal anomaly and hepatic fibrosis with manifestations of portal hypertension was present. No deviations from the other internal organs were found. At the age of 12 she entered into the stage of chronic renal failure. The last five years she is on dialysis treatment. She had survived several acute bleedings from esophageal varices. The authors are of the opinion that the case is of interest since patients with autosomal-recessive renal polycystosis very rarely reach majority.

  12. 77 FR 3479 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Initial Review Group; Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic... Program Nos. 93.847, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Research; 93.848, Digestive Diseases and... Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of...

  13. 78 FR 79706 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Program Nos. 93.847, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Research; 93.848, Digestive Diseases and... Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Fellowships in...

  14. 42 CFR 410.55 - Services related to kidney donations: Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services related to kidney donations: Conditions. 410.55 Section 410.55 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Services § 410.55 Services related to kidney donations: Conditions. Medicare Part B pays for medical and...

  15. 75 FR 4830 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel. Predictors of Genitourinary Disorders Studies. Date: February 23..., Ls38z@Nih.Gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney...

  16. 42 CFR 482.104 - Condition of participation: Additional requirements for kidney transplant centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for kidney transplant centers. 482.104 Section 482.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... PARTICIPATION FOR HOSPITALS Requirements for Specialty Hospitals Transplant Center Process Requirements § 482.104 Condition of participation: Additional requirements for kidney transplant centers. (a) Standard...

  17. 78 FR 36554 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Artificial Pancreas SBIR Applications. Date: July 31, 2013... Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Gene-Environment Interactions in TEDDY. Date: July 25, 2013....

  18. 77 FR 2076 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Artificial Pancreas Review. Date: February 22-23, 2012... Diseases Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIDDK DEM Fellowship Review. Date: January 31-February 1,...

  19. Experimental toxoplasmosis and vaccine tests in Aotus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escajadillo, A; Frenkel, J K

    1991-04-01

    We studied Aotus lemurinus, Panamanian night monkeys, for susceptibility to Toxoplasma infection and for their capacity to develop immunity using either sufadiazine prophylaxis or the non-persistent ts-4 vaccine. The animals were highly susceptible to infection with a mouse pathogenic (T265) and a mouse nonpathogenic (T163) Toxoplasma isolate. A calculated single bradyzoite by mouth gave rise to infection which was fatal in nine to 12 days. Chemoprophylaxis with 60-300 of sulfadiazine mg per day for up to 40 days protected the animals; however this was followed by fatal reactivation of infection between 11 and 70 days after treatment was stopped. Vaccination was carried out in two or three doses subcutaneously. Challenge was performed in 26 animals using both Toxoplasma isolates. Five monkeys (19%) survived for over a year, 10 died after a prolonged illness, and 11 died as rapidly as the seven controls. Safety tests showed the vaccine to be nonpathogenic in 111 adults except for slight fever and local inflammation, although one of four juveniles died from disseminated infection. Vaccination of 25 pregnant monkeys was non-pathogenic; however two of 25 fetuses were aborted, one of which was infected and one newborn had microphthalmia, retinitis and a cataract; four of the offspring were not tested. When six lactating monkeys were vaccinated, Toxoplasma was not transmitted to the infants. The high susceptibility to Toxoplasma and the low immunizability was circumstantially attributed to absence of exposure and lack of selection by Toxoplasma of these arboreal monkeys even though about 50% of terrestrial animals from the same area were infected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Cross-sectional study of serum uric acid level in patients with chronic kidney disease and its influence fac-tors%慢性肾脏病不同分期血尿酸的变化及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迅; 唐骅; 彭晖; 石成钢; 陈珠江; 娄探奇

    2009-01-01

    目的 单中心横断面调查慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者血尿酸(UA)水平的基础状况.方法 对我院肾内科门诊就诊的CKD患者进行为期9个月的前瞻性横断面调查.结果 共有713例CKD患者入选.前3位CKD的病因分别为原发性肾小球疾病(61.2%,436/713)、高血压肾病(7.2%,51/713)和糖尿病肾病(5.8%,41/713).随着CKD分期的进展,UA水平(F=73.569,P=0.000)和高尿酸血症的发生率(χ2=138.156,P=0.000)显著上升.多元回归分析结果显示,UA水平和GFR呈显著负相关(RR=-1.045,P=0.000),UA水平和DBP、尿蛋白、吸烟、BMI呈显著正相关(RR分别为1.400、15.149、37.696和3.421,P均<0.05).结论 针对CKD患者UA水平进行单中心横断面调查,有助于确定CKD患者UA水平的变化规律,为进一步综合防治CKD及其心血管并发症奠定基础.%Objective To present the baseline characteristics of serum uric acid level in patients with chro-nic kidney disease(CKD). Methods A cross-sectional study on CKD patients was carried out in our hospital for 9 months. Results 713 patients were enrolled. The top three causes of CKD in these patients were primary glomerular disease(61.2%, 436/713), essential hypertensive kidney disease (7. 2%, 51/713 ) and diabetic nephropathy (5.8% ,41/713). Serum uric acid level and the incidence of hyperuricemia were associated with the stage of CKD (F = 73. 569, P = 0. 000;χ2= 138. 156, P = 0.000). A significantly negative correlation was discovered between ser-um uric acid level and the level of glomerular filtration rate(RR = - 1. 045 ,P =0. 000). A significantly positive cor-relation of serum uric acid level was found with diastohc blood pressure, proteinuia level, smoking and BMI ( RR = 1.400,15. 149,37. 696,and 3.421 ,P <0.05 ,respectively). Conclusions The cross-sectional study of serum uric acid level in patients with CKD will help to determine the dynamic changes of serum uric acid level in Chinese CKD patients and lay a solid basis for the

  1. Obesity and kidney protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; Tolouian, Ramin

    2014-07-01

    Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. The concept of the "Metabolic Syndrome" helps us to understand this close link between obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. An elevated body mass index has shown to be one of the major determinants of glomerular hyperfiltration that lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. Interestingly, weight loss can lead to attenuation of hyperfiltration in severely obese patients suggesting a possible therapeutic option to combat obesity-related hyperfiltration. Various treatment strategies had been suggested to decrease impact of obesity on kidneys. These are blood pressure controling, inhibition of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone axis, improving glycemic control, improving dyslipidemia, improving protein uriaand lifestyle modifications. Regardless of the numerous pharmacotherapies, the focus should be on the root cause: obesity.

  2. Knowledge of Kidney Donation Among Care Givers in Two Tertiary Hospitals in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejumo, Oluseyi A; Solarin, Adaobi U; Abiodun, Moses T; Akinbodewa, Ayodeji A

    2016-09-22

    One of the major challenges of kidney transplantation is shortage of kidney donors. Care givers (CGs) are potential kidney donors, but the majority of them are unwilling to donate due to inadequate knowledge on kidney donation. This study evaluated the knowledge of kidney donation and its determinants among CGs in two tertiary hospitals in Southwest Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out in the Kidney Care Centre (KCC), Ondo and Babcock University Teaching Hospital (BUTH), Ilishan-Remo using a self-administered pretested questionnaire that assessed knowledge of kidney donation and its determinants. Pvalue of donation was 63.4%. More respondents from BUTH compared to KCC had adequate knowledge of kidney donation (80% vs. 46.7%, P ≤ 0.001). Similarly, the mean knowledge score was higher in respondents from BUTH (P ≤ 0.001). Factors that determined knowledge of kidney donation were female gender (AOR: 3.43, 95% CI: 1.25-9.40, P = 0.02) and social class (AOR: 1.22, 95% CI: 0.50-2.95, P ≤ 0.001). There was positive correlation between knowledge of kidney donation among the respondents from both hospitals and their willingness to donate kidneys (r = 0.439, P ≤ 0.001). Knowledge of kidney donation was better among BUTH's respondents. Gender and social class were predictors of knowledge of kidney donation. Improving knowledge of kidney donation may improve willingness to donate among the public.

  3. Effect of diazepam on kidney function and histological structure of white rat’s kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Gede Martha Setiawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of NAPZA (Narcotics, Alcohol, Psychotropic, and other addictive substances in Indonesia keeps increasing. One type of frequently used NAPZAs is diazepam. Diazepam is a kind of sedative-hypnotics drug which belongs to benzodiazepine. The objective of this study was to determine kidney function by examining the level of urine ureum and creatinine also histological structure in rat after treated with diazepam. Rats were divided into one control group and three diazepam treatment groups which were solvent control (PEG 1%, treatment I (62.25 mg/kg BW, treatment II (83 mg/kg BW, and treatment III (124.5 mg/kg BW of diazepam. These doses were based on LD50 in human. Rat urine was taken on the D0, D7, D14, D21, and D28. The ureum level was examined by ureumse-GLDH method and the creatinine level was analyzed by Jaffe method. The histological section was made by paraffin method with Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE staining. Results showed that diazepam given to rat for 28 days led the increase of urine ureum and creatinine levels compare to control group. Furthermore, histological damages of the kidney also detected including cellular injuries, both reversible and irreversible injuries, congestion, hemorrhage, and glomerular damage. In conclusion, the use of diazepam for 28 days affected kidney function in rat. Key words: diazepam, ureum, creatinine, kidney.

  4. Rhesus monkeys see who they hear: spontaneous cross-modal memory for familiar conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuma Adachi

    Full Text Available Rhesus monkeys gather much of their knowledge of the social world through visual input and may preferentially represent this knowledge in the visual modality. Recognition of familiar faces is clearly advantageous, and the flexibility and utility of primate social memory would be greatly enhanced if visual memories could be accessed cross-modally either by visual or auditory stimulation. Such cross-modal access to visual memory would facilitate flexible retrieval of the knowledge necessary for adaptive social behavior. We tested whether rhesus monkeys have cross-modal access to visual memory for familiar conspecifics using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. Monkeys learned visual matching of video clips of familiar individuals to photographs of those individuals, and generalized performance to novel videos. In crossmodal probe trials, coo-calls were played during the memory interval. The calls were either from the monkey just seen in the sample video clip or from a different familiar monkey. Even though the monkeys were trained exclusively in visual matching, the calls influenced choice by causing an increase in the proportion of errors to the picture of the monkey whose voice was heard on incongruent trials. This result demonstrates spontaneous cross-modal recognition. It also shows that viewing videos of familiar monkeys activates naturally formed memories of real monkeys, validating the use of video stimuli in studies of social cognition in monkeys.

  5. Evaluation of third-party reciprocity by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and the question of mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Bucher, Benoit; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    Social evaluation during third-party interactions emerges early in human ontogeny, and it has been shown in adult capuchin monkeys who witness violations of reciprocity in object exchanges: Monkeys were less inclined to accept food from humans who refused to reciprocate with another human. A recent study reporting similar evidence in marmoset monkeys raised the possibility that such evaluations might be based on species' inherent cooperativeness. We tested a species not renowned for cooperativeness-squirrel monkeys-using the procedure used with marmosets and found a similar result. This finding rules out any crucial role for cooperative tendencies in monkeys' responses to unfair exchanges. We then tested squirrel monkeys using procedures more similar to those used in the original study with capuchins. Squirrel monkeys again accepted food less frequently from non-reciprocators, but unlike capuchins, they also strongly preferred reciprocators. We conclude that neither squirrel monkeys nor marmoset monkeys engaged in emotional bookkeeping of the type that probably underlies social evaluation in capuchin monkeys; instead, they employed one or more simple behavioral rules. Further comparative studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying social evaluation processes across species.

  6. Interleukin-17 and kidney allograft outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispim, J C O; Grespan, R; Martelli-Palomino, G; Rassi, D M; Costa, R S; Saber, L T; Cunha, F Q; Donadi, E A

    2009-06-01

    Acute rejection episodes (ARE) are important complications that involve the interplay between mechanisms that maintain graft tolerance and promote rejection. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17) has been implicated in many conditions in humans and mice. In kidney transplant patients, the evaluation IL-17 levels has been performed in only a few patients. We performed a cross-sectional study correlating quantitative IL-17 levels and clinical outcomes. We studied 19 specimens from biopsies performed in patients (n = 19) who received isolated kidney grafts. ARE signs were present in 9 (47%) patients who provide specimens; whereas, 10 (53%) others showed no signs of rejection. Eighteen healthy control sample IL-17 underwent measurement, all of which were performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. We assessed other factors, such as the recipients demographic data, cold ischemia time, HLA mismatches, time elapsed from transplantation to the biopsy, posttransplantation status, antibody panel, donor type, and immunosuppressive treatment. IL-17 levels were clearly increased among samples derived from patients with ongoing rejection (125.7 +/- 27.06 pg/mL) in contrast, to the nonrejection group, (30 +/- 13.32 pg/mL) (P < .05). Healthy controls showed no detectable IL-17 levels. These findings suggested that IL-17 was important in the pathophysiology of acute kidney rejection.

  7. Vitamin D status in kidney transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Bettina; Gasbjerg, Ane; Moelgaard, Christian

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency has been found in the general population and in patients with chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine vitamin D status and determinants and metabolic correlates of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a population of adult Danish...... kidney transplant patients. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 173 adult kidney transplant patients with a mean (+/-SD) age of 53.4 +/- 11.7 y and a median graft age of 7.4 y (interquartile range: 3.3-12.7 y). Serum concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone (S-PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25......(OH)D], and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [S-1,25(OH)(2)D] were measured. Dietary and supplementary intake of vitamin D, avoidance of solar ultraviolet B exposure, and selected lifestyle factors were assessed in a subgroup (n = 97). RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of the patients had vitamin D insufficiency [S...

  8. Characterization of PrPc-immunoreactive cells in monkey (Macaca fascicularis) gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Z; Bodegas, M E; Sesma, M P; Guembe, L

    2005-04-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is one of the most likely entry sites for the pathological isoform of prions (PrP(sc)). To understand how PrP(sc) crosses the digestive mucosa, it is crucial to characterize the cells expressing normal prion protein (PrP(c)). By means of double immunofluorescence applied to sections of the monkey GIT, we demonstrated that, in the stomach, PrP(c) immunostaining occurs in subsets of histamine, somatostatin (Som), ghrelin (Ghr), gastrin (G), and serotonin (5HT) cells. In the small and large bowels, PrP(c) cells were found in subpopulations of cells immunolabeled for 5HT, Som, G, and peptide YY (PYY).

  9. Cancer rates after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Ulrik; Bistrup, Claus; Marckmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated a 3-5-fold increased cancer risk in kidney allograft recipients compared with the general population. Our aim was to estimate cancer frequencies among kidney allograft recipients who were transplanted in 1997-2000 and who were immunosuppressed according to a more...

  10. Vascular complications in kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocak, Gürbey

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis were to investigate the association between kidney disease and venous and arterial thrombosis and to provide insight in the mechanism of the association between kidney disease and thrombosis. Furthermore, the mortality risks for hemodialysis patients with catheter,

  11. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ... function as well as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs ...

  12. Dual kidney transplantation: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidas, Zeljko; Kocman, Branislav; Knotek, Mladen; Skegro, Dinko

    2010-06-01

    Chronic shortage of kidney transplants worldwide has led to the use of organs from so called marginal or borderline donors, now termed "expanded-criteria donors". There has been an emerging practice of dual kidney transplantation (DKT) to compensate for sub optimal nephron mass of such kidneys. We performed DKT in "Merkur" University Hospital in August 2005. The donor was a 72-year old female with a history of long-term hypertension, aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery, cerebrovascular insult (CVI), and with normal creatinine values and kidney function at the time of explantation. Initial biopsy of donor kidneys revealed acute tubular damage, with connective changes in 22% and 11% of glomeruli in the left and the right kidney, respectively. The recipient was a 60-year old male diagnosed with the IgA nephropathy on the last biopsy in 1999, and on dialysis since November 2003. Postoperative course was uneventful without any surgical complications. A triple immunosuppressive protocol was used. On follow-up ultrasonography 4 years posttransplantation both kidneys appeared of normal size and parenchymal pattern and with no signs of dilatation of the canal system, and color Doppler examination demonstrated normal flow in both kidneys. In conclusion, the use of DKT ie. donors by the expanded-criteria will continue to increase, and further studies of the results will, with no doubt, support this method.

  13. ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morath, Christian; Zeier, Martin; Döhler, Bernd; Opelz, Gerhard; Süsal, Caner

    2017-01-01

    ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation has long been considered a contraindication to successful kidney transplantation. During the last 25 years, increasing organ shortage enforced the development of strategies to overcome the ABO antibody barrier. In the meantime, ABOi kidney transplantation has become a routine procedure with death-censored graft survival rates comparable to the rates in compatible transplantations. Desensitization is usually achieved by apheresis and B cell-depleting therapies that are accompanied by powerful immunosuppression. Anti-A/B antibodies are aimed to be below a certain threshold at the time of ABOi kidney transplantation and during the first 2 weeks after surgery. Thereafter, even a rebound of anti-A/B antibodies does not appear to harm the kidney transplant, a phenomenon that is called accommodation, but is poorly understood. There is still concern, however, that infectious complications such as viral disease, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and severe urinary tract infections are increased after ABOi transplantations. Recent data from the Collaborative Transplant Study show that during the first year after kidney transplantation, one additional patient death from an infectious complication occurs in 100 ABOi kidney transplant recipients. Herein, we review the recent evidence on ABOi kidney transplantation with a focus on desensitization strategies and respective outcomes. PMID:28321223

  14. ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Titlestad, Kjell; Baudier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO-incompatible ......INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO......-incompatible kidney transplantation. We used antigenspecific immunoadsorptions to remove blood group antibodies and anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) to inhibit the antibody production. The aim of introducing the ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation at the OUH was to increase the rate of living donor kidney...... transplantation without increasing rejection or mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation. Eleven patients received ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. The patients were followed for 3-26 months. RESULTS: One patient had an antibody-mediated rejection, one patient suffered T...

  15. Cancer rates after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Ulrik; Bistrup, Claus; Marckmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated a 3-5-fold increased cancer risk in kidney allograft recipients compared with the general population. Our aim was to estimate cancer frequencies among kidney allograft recipients who were transplanted in 1997-2000 and who were immunosuppressed according to a more...

  16. Leptospira spp detection by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR in clinical samples of captive black-capped Capuchin monkey (Cebus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarcelli Eliana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a widely distributed zoonosis that affects domestic and wild animals, and that has the man as the end point of its epidemiological chain. Leptospirosis diagnosis in primates is more difficult than in other animal species, as clinical signs and lesions are less evident and antibody response is detected only for short periods. The aim of this article was to describe the detection of Leptospira spp using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, in clinical samples from one captive black-capped Capuchin monkey (Cebus apella, which presented characteristics compatible with leptospirosis (jaundice and haemorrhagic kdney in the macroscopic post-mortem examination. A friable kidney fragment and urine sample were cultured and submitted to experimental inoculation in guinea pigs and PCR using genus specific primer pair targeting the 16S rRNA region from Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola. Isolation of the agent was negative both in culture and experimental inoculation. The PCR amplification of the clinical samples showed a 330 pb amplified fragment that corresponds to the Leptospira genus. Based on these results PCR was considered an important tool for leptospira detection in nonhumam primates, more sensitive and specific than other techniques, especially considering that the viability of the pathogen was not possible. These advantages enable the detection of the leptospiras in urine and kidney, even when autolysed, frozen or badly conserved, which prevented the isolation and experimental inoculation from positive results.

  17. Tissue distribution and subcellular binding of arsenic in marmoset monkeys after injection of /sup 74/As-arsenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahter, M.; Marafante, E.; Lindgren, A.; Dencker, L.

    1982-10-01

    The distribution and retention of arsenic in Marmoset monkeys, given /sup 74/As-arsenite (0.4 mg As/kg body weight) i.p., were studied by means of whole-body autoradiography and determination of /sup 74/As-levels in tissues and excreta. Only about 30% of the dose was eliminated over 4 days, mainly via the kidneys. All of the arsenic in urine and tissues was found to be in inorganic form. Tissues with highest accumulation 4 days after dosing were liver (about 20% of the dose), squamous epithelium of oral cavity and esophagus, kidney cortex, skin, testes (mainly tubuli seminiferi) and intestinal wall. As a rule the major part of the arsenic in these tissues was found to be associated with cellular organelles. In the liver about 50% of the arsenic was strongly bound to the rough microsomal membranes. In the soluble extract of tissues, arsenic was mainly associated with macromolecular constituents. The long retention time and tight binding of arsenic could partly be explained by the fact that no biotransformation into methylated arsenic occurred, in contrast to all other species studied so far.

  18. Immunological relationships of OMC-1, an endogenous virus of owl monkeys, with mammalian and avian type C viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbacid, M; Daniel, M D; Aaronson, S A

    1980-01-01

    The relationships between OMC-1, an endogenous oncovirus of owl monkey, and representatives of the three oncoviral genera have been investigated by radioimmunological techniques. The major structural protein of OMC-1 was shown to share antigenic determinants with the corresponding proteins of certain type C viruses of rodent, feline, and cervine origin. It was not possible to demonstrate antigenic cross-reactivity between OMC-1 and endogenous type C viruses of baboons. These findings argue that OMC-1 and baboon endogenous viruses do not represent direct descendants of an ancestor virus that became integrated within primates prior to the divergence of New and Old World species. A close antigenic relationship was established between the major structural proteins of OMC-1, an endogenous virus of deer (deer kidney virus), and avian reticuloendotheliosis viruses. These findings establish OMC-1 and deer kidney virus in the evolutionary lineage that may have led to the generation of avian reticuloendotheliosis virus, a group of oncogenic viruses capable of crossing the interclass barrier between mammals and birds. PMID:6154152

  19. Development and validation of a questionnaire to assess fear of kidney failure following living donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R; Fleishman, Aaron; Vishnevsky, Tanya; Whiting, James; Vella, John P; Garrison, Krista; Moore, Deonna; Kayler, Liise; Baliga, Prabhakar; Chavin, Kenneth D; Karp, Seth; Mandelbrot, Didier A

    2014-06-01

    Living kidney donors (LKDs) may feel more anxious about kidney failure now that they have only one kidney and the security of a second kidney is gone. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to develop and empirically validate a self-report scale for assessing fear of kidney failure in former LKDs. Participants were 364 former LKDs within the past 10 years at five US transplant centers and 219 healthy nondonor controls recruited through Mechanical Turk who completed several questionnaires. Analyses revealed a unidimensional factor structure, excellent internal consistency (α = 0.88), and good convergent validity for the Fear of Kidney Failure questionnaire. Only 13% of former donors reported moderate to high fear of kidney failure. Nonwhite race (OR = 2.9, P = 0.01), genetic relationship with the recipient (OR = 2.46, P = 0.04), and low satisfaction with the donation experience (OR = 0.49, P = 0.002) were significant predictors of higher fear of kidney failure. We conclude that while mild anxiety about kidney failure is common, high anxiety about future renal failure among former LKDs is uncommon. The Fear of Kidney Failure questionnaire is reliable, valid, and easy to use in the clinical setting.

  20. Pharmacotherapy of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Charles Y C

    2008-06-01

    Kidney stones are associated with various biochemical disturbances in urine. Various drugs and dietary changes have been recommended to halt stone recurrence. To determine whether a correction of urinary abnormalities by appropriate pharmacological agents and dietary modification may ameliorate stone disease. A review of the literature was conducted on the role of diet, metabolic disorders and drugs for stone prevention. Metabolic risk factors are hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, and abnormally low urinary pH. Dietary-environmental risk factors include high urinary sodium and low urine volume. Rare or less commonly encountered risk factors are high urinary cystine, and alkaline urine from an infection with urea-splitting organisms. To ameliorate or correct the above disturbances, all patients should be offered dietary modification, including restricted intake of sodium, oxalate and animal proteins. Useful drugs include thiazide or indapamide to control hypercalciuria, potassium citrate to correct hypocitraturia and undue urinary acidity, and allopurinol for co-existing hyperuricemia or marked hyperuricosuria.

  1. A study on the change of autophagy in skeletal muscle of patients with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study skeletal muscle atrophy and the change of autophagy in skeletal muscle of patients with chronic kidney disease.Methods Mean muscle cross sectional area,mRNA and protein expression of

  2. Intestinal microbiota-kidney cross talk in acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Sanjeev; Martina-Lingua, Maria N; Bandapalle, Samatha; Pluznick, Jennifer; Hamad, Abdel Rahim A; Peterson, Daniel A; Rabb, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) involves multiple and overlapping immunological, biochemical, and hemodynamic mechanisms that modulate the effects of both the initial insult and the subsequent repair. Limited but recent experimental data have revealed that the intestinal microbiota significantly affects outcomes in AKI. Additional evidence shows significant changes in the intestinal microbiota in chronic kidney disease patients and in experimental AKI. In this minireview, we discuss the current status of the effect of intestinal microbiota on kidney diseases, the immunomodulatory effects of intestinal microbiota, and the potential mechanisms by which microbiota can modify kidney diseases and vice versa. We also propose future studies to clarify the role of intestinal microbiota in kidney diseases and to explore how the modification of gut microbiota may be a potential therapeutic tool.

  3. Growth and immunity conferred by a Plasmodium falciparum temperature sensitive mutant in Panamanian owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inselburg, J; Rossan, R N; Escajadillo, A

    1989-05-01

    We have compared the growth of the wild type Plasmodium falciparum strain Honduras 1 and a previously isolated temperature sensitive mutant of it, AP1-16, in Panamanian owl monkeys. We examined serially infected splenectomized and normal animals that were initially infected with cultured parasites that had been grown in a mixture of owl monkey and human erythrocytes. Initial infections in splenectomized monkeys were marked by multiple recrudescences. The mutant grew less well than the wild type in the splenectomized monkeys, as determined by lower peak and total parasitemias. In the splenectomized monkeys tested by rechallenge with the wild type parasite, the mutant stimulated a comparable degree of protection. That protection was manifested in 2 ways. There was a marked reduction in the level of the primary parasitemia in the rechallenged monkeys and an absence of recrudescent parasitemias after the primary parasitemia. The potential value of generating and studying temperature sensitive P. falciparum strains that show attenuated growth is considered.

  4. Captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) arm-raise to solicit allo-grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H; Edwards, Dori

    2012-03-01

    Old World monkeys solicit allo-grooming from conspecifics. However, there are relatively few studies of allo-grooming among spider monkeys, and descriptions of allo-grooming solicitation among spider monkeys are anecdotal. In this study, eighty-one hours of video, shot over eight weeks, captured 271 allo-grooming bouts among small groups of captive spider monkeys. Six of eight monkeys made heretofore unreported arm-raises that solicited higher than normal rates of allo-grooming. Allo-grooming bout durations following arm-raises also tended to be longer than bouts not preceded by arm-raises. The efficacy of the arm-raise at soliciting allo-grooming suggests spider monkeys are capable of intentional communication.

  5. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  6. Uric acid metabolism of kidney and intestine in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagura, Michito; Tamura, Yoshifuru; Kumagai, Takanori; Hosoyamada, Makoto; Uchida, Shunya

    2016-12-01

    Uric acid (UA) is a potential risk factor of the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recently, we reported that intestinal UA excretion might be enhanced via upregulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (Abcg2) in a 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) rat model. In the present study, we examined the mRNA and protein expressions of UA transporters, URAT1, GLUT9/URATv1, ABCG2 and NPT4 in the kidney and ileum in the same rat model. Additionally, we investigated the Abcg2 mRNA expression of ileum in hyperuricemic rat model by orally administering oxonic acid. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups consisting of Nx group, oxonic acid-treated (Ox) group and sham-operated control group, and sacrificed at 8 weeks. Creatinine and UA were measured and the mRNA expressions of UA transporters in the kidney and intestine were evaluated by a real time PCR. UA transporters in the kidney sections were also examined by immunohistochemistry. Serum creatinine elevated in the Nx group whereas serum UA increased in the Ox group. Both the mRNA expression and the immunohistochemistry of the UA transporters were decreased in the Nx group, suggesting a marginal role in UA elevation in decreased kidney function. In contrast, the mRNA expression of Abcg2 in the ileum significantly increased in the Ox group. These results suggest that the upregulation of Abcg2 mRNA in the ileum triggered by an elevation of serum UA may play a compensatory role in increasing intestinal UA excretion.

  7. Susceptibility and lack of evidence for a viremic state of rabies in the night owl monkey, Aotus nancymaae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reaves Erik J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies causes an acute fatal encephalomyelitis in most mammals following infection with rhabdovirus of the genus Lyssavirus. Little is known about rabies virus infection in species of New World non-human Primates (NHP. To investigate the suitability of the owl monkey Aotus nancymaae asissue sections examined were unremarkable for inflammation or other histologic signs of rabies a viable animal model for rabies virus candidate vaccine testing, we used clinical presentation, serology, viral isolation, and PCR to evaluate the incubation period, immunity, and pathogenesis of infected animals. We tested the hypothesis that no viremic state exists for rabies virus. Methods Eight monkeys divided into two equal groups were inoculated intramuscularly either in the neck or footpad with 105 pfu of rabies virus (Pasteur/V-13R and observed for >130 days. Oral and blood samples were collected and analyzed. Results Two monkeys inoculated in the neck displayed classic paralytic rabies. The mean incubation period was 11.5 days. The average maximum IgG response (antibody titer >0.200 O.D. was achieved at day 10.0 and 62.3 in the clinical rabies and non-clinical rabies cases, respectively (p = 0.0429. No difference in IgM or IgG time to seroconversion or average maximum IgM level was observed between neck versus footpad inoculation groups. No viremia or viral shedding was detected by PCR or viral isolation during the observation period, including within the two symptomatic animals three days after disease onset. Tissue sections examined were unremarkable for inflammation or other histologic signs of rabies within the asymptomatic animal. Similarly none of the brain sections exhibited immunoreactivity for rabies virus antibody. Discussion This study demonstrates there is no difference in time to immune response between inoculation sites and distance to the brain; however, immune response tends to be more rapid in cases of clinically

  8. [MicroRNAs and kidneys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stříteská, Jana; Nekvindová, Jana; Cerný, Vladimír; Palička, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short non-coding ribonucleic acid molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level thus affecting important physiological as well as pathophysiological processes in the organism, for example cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. They are involved in pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer. Many microRNAs are tissue or organ-specific which implies their possible potential as biomarkers or maybe even therapeutical agents as documented by microRNA research interest rising exponentially during last years. Among all, microRNAs are important also for physiological function of the kidney and they are involved in various renal disorders. Today research is focused mainly on renal and urinary tract carcinogenesis, acute kidney injury, chronic renal diseases (polycystic kidney disease) or renal complications of systemic diseases such as diabetic or hypertension nephropathy and autoimmune kidney injury including acute allograft rejection after kidney transplantation. The review summarizes current information about microRNA effect on kidney development and function and also on the most common kidney diseases.

  9. Mitochondria Damage and Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui

    2017-01-01

    The kidney is a vital organ that demands an extraordinary amount of energy to actively maintain the body's metabolism, plasma hemodynamics, electrolytes and water homeostasis, nutrients reabsorption, and hormone secretion. Kidney is only second to the heart in mitochondrial count and oxygen consumption. As such, the health and status of the energy power house, the mitochondria, is pivotal to the health and proper function of the kidney. Mitochondria are heterogeneous and highly dynamic organelles and their functions are subject to complex regulations through modulation of its biogenesis, bioenergetics, dynamics and clearance within cell. Kidney diseases, either acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD), are important clinical issues and global public health concerns with high mortality rate and socioeconomic burden due to lack of effective therapeutic strategies to cure or retard the progression of the diseases. Mitochondria-targeted therapeutics has become a major focus for modern research with the belief that maintaining mitochondria homeostasis can prevent kidney pathogenesis and disease progression. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular events that govern mitochondria functions in health and disease will potentially lead to improved therapeutics development.

  10. [The interrelationships of motivation and reinforcement in the performance of a simple instrumental reflex by the monkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, I M; Shul'govskiĭ, V V

    1991-01-01

    The dynamics of instrumental reflex of rhesus monkey was studied in automatic experiment. Three monkeys performed a movement of the lever in response to the light stimulus. It was shown, that the realization of the instrumental reflex by monkeys represented blocks of continuous or interrupted realizations and pauses between them. The dependence was studied of intensity of performance upon the time from the beginning of the experiment, and a comparison was drawn of intensities for three monkeys. The average intensity in block is constant and individual for each monkey. Also the influence of food deprivation and complementary reinforcement on the monkey's performance was studied.

  11. Horseshoe kidney: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The horseshoe kidney was originally regarded as a rare anatomical curiosity, but with the aid of retrograde pyelogram, intravenous urogram and renal arteriograms in this present age of diagnosis, the incidence of horseshoe kidney is estimated at 1 in 200-400 individuals or 1 in 700 autopsies and usually remains asymptomatic. The present report is concerned with a case of horseshoe kidney, which was observed during routine cadaveric dissection, for student education in anatomy dissection hall of Osmania medical college, in a male cadaver. The kidneys formed a U-shaped structure as a result of fusion at the inferior poles of the original kidneys by a parenchymatous isthmus. As a whole, the structure presented a typical horseshoe shape. The location of the kidney was lower than that of the normal kidney. The renal arterial system was almost normal except for a surplus artery into the isthmus that directly originated from the aorta, at the origin of inferior mesenteric artery. Venous drainage of both the kidneys and the isthmus was through two veins which opened independently into the inferior vena cava. The hila on both sides opened towards the ventral direction, and the ureters descended in front of the isthmus and entered the bladder normally. This report is being made because it affords material for a review of embryological and gross anatomy findings in a case of horseshoe kidney, which could help in a thorough urologic evaluation in diagnosed cases prior to any surgical intervention. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 304-307

  12. Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following monkey bite in a 2-month-old infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Srinivasan; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Raghavan, Renitha; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-05-01

    Although cerebral abscesses caused by animal bites have been reported, they are extremely rare in infants and have not been described following monkey bite. A 55-day-old male infant presented with a multi-loculated Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following a monkey bite on the scalp. There was a clinical response to antibiotic therapy and repeated surgical aspiration followed by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This is the first report of a patient with a brain abscess following a monkey bite.

  13. Immunization with Recombinant Helicobacter pylori Urease in Specific-Pathogen-Free Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Solnick, Jay V.; Canfield, Don R.; Hansen, Lori M.; Torabian, Sima Z.

    2000-01-01

    Immunization with urease can protect mice from challenge with Helicobacter pylori, though results vary depending on the particular vaccine, challenge strain, and method of evaluation. Unlike mice, rhesus monkeys are naturally colonized with H. pylori and so may provide a better estimate of vaccine efficacy in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of H. pylori urease as a vaccine in specific-pathogen (H. pylori)-free rhesus monkeys. Monkeys raised from birth and do...

  14. HTRA3 expression in non-pregnant rhesus monkey ovary and endometrium, and at the maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findlay Jock K

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTRA3 is a recently identified member of the mammalian serine protease family HTRA (high temperature requirement factor A. In both the rodent and the human HTRA3 is transcribed into two mRNA species (long and short through alternative splicing. We have previously shown that HTRA3 is expressed in the mature rat ovary and may be involved in folliculogenesis and luteinisation. HTRA3 is also upregulated during mouse and human placental development. The current study investigated whether HTRA3 is also localised in the primate ovary (rhesus monkey n = 7. In addition, we examined the non-pregnant rhesus monkey endometrium (n = 4 and maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy (n = 5 to further investigate expression of HTRA3 in primate endometrium and placentation. Methods HTRA3 mRNA levels in several rhesus monkey tissues was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Protein expression and localisation of HTRA3 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Long and short forms of HTRA3 mRNA were detected in the ovary, aorta, bladder, small intestine, skeletal muscle, heart and uterus but not the liver nor the kidney. HTRA3 protein was immunolocalised to the oocyte of all follicular stages in the rhesus monkey ovary. Protein expression in mural and cumulus granulosa cells of late secondary follicles increased significantly compared to granulosa cells of primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Mural and cumulus granulosa cells of antral follicles also showed a significant increase in expression. Staining intensity was higher in the granulosa-lutein cells compared to the theca-lutein cells of corpora lutea (n = 3. In the non-pregnant monkey endometrium, HTRA3 was detected in the glandular epithelium. The basalis endometrial glands showed higher staining intensity than functionalis endometrial glands. During early pregnancy, strong staining for HTRA3 protein was seen in both maternal decidual cells and glands. Conclusion We

  15. ‘‘What's wrong with my monkey?''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    it is acceptable to use animals as models of human disease; whether it is acceptable to genetically modify animals; and whether these animals' being monkeys makes a difference. The analysis considers the prospect of transgenic marmoset studies coming to replace transgenic mouse studies and lesion studies......, readily available in the way that transgenic laboratory mice are currently, prompts excitement in the scientific community; but the idea of monkeys being bred to carry diseases is also contentious. We structure an ethical analysis of the transgenic marmoset case around three questions: whether...... in marmosets in some areas of research. The mainstream, broadly utilitarian view of animal research suggests that such a transition will not give rise to greater ethical problems than those presently faced. It can be argued that using marmosets rather than mice will not result in more animal suffering...

  16. Protein deficiency and energy restriction in young cebus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, K W; Hegsted, D M

    1978-03-01

    Infant cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) were fed liquid formulas that were limited in protein, energy, or a combination of the two restrictions. Weight gain, food intake, hematological development, and plasma protein and cholesterol levels were monitored over a 20-week period. The animals restricted in protein developed the classical signs of protein deficiency--reductions in plasma albumin, a mild anemia, accumulation of fat in the liver, and, in a few cases, facial edema. These animals maintained a relatively high energy intake, and apparently wasted energy when compared to similarly non-growing energy-restricted animals. Energy-restricted animals did not exhibit these symptoms, even when their daily protein intake was reduced to match that of protein-restricted monkeys. It is concluded that an energy restriction superimposed upon a limited protein intake did not increase protein requirements or precipitate protein deficiency.

  17. Grooming, rank, and agonistic support in tufted capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Studies investigating the relation between allogrooming and social rank in capuchin monkeys (genus Cebus) have yielded inconsistent results. In this study, we investigated the relation between grooming, agonistic support, aggression and social rank in a captive group of tufted capuchin monkeys (C. apella). Differently from most previous studies, we based our analyses on a relatively large database and studied a group with known genealogical relationships. Tufted capuchin females did not exchange grooming for rank-related benefits such as agonistic support or reduced aggression. Coherently with this picture, they did not groom up the hierarchy and did not compete for accessing high-ranking grooming partners. It is suggested that a small group size, coupled with a strong kin bias, may make the exchange of grooming for rank-related benefits impossible or unprofitable, thus eliminating the advantages of grooming up the hierarchy. We provide several possible explanations for the heterogeneity of results across capuchin studies that have addressed similar questions.

  18. Metabolic alkalosis during immobilization in monkeys (M. nemestrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. R.; Yeh, I.; Swenson, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systemic and renal acid-base response of monkeys during ten weeks of immobilization was studied. By three weeks of immobilization, arterial pH and bicarbonate concentrations were elevated (chronic metabolic alkalosis). Net urinary acid excretion increased in immobilized animals. Urinary bicarbonate excretion decreased during the first three weeks of immobilization, and then returned to control levels. Sustained increases in urinary ammonium excretion were seen throughout the time duration of immobilization. Neither potassium depletion nor hypokalemia was observed. Most parameters returned promptly to the normal range during the first week of recovery. Factors tentatively associated with changes in acid-base status of monkeys include contraction of extracellular fluid volume, retention of bicarbonate, increased acid excretion, and possible participation of extrarenal buffers.

  19. Protein composition of rhesus monkey milk: comparison to human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, C; Lönnerdal, B

    1993-04-01

    1. Proteins in human milk and Rhesus monkey milk have been compared by FPLC gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography, SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, nitrogen and protein determination. 2. Mature Rhesus milk is higher in protein concentration (15-20 mg/ml) than human milk (8-9 mg/ml). 3. Non-Protein nitrogen is 6-13% in Rhesus milk but 25-30% in human milk. 4. Secretory IgA, lactoferrin, serum albumin, alpha-lactalbumin and lysozyme are present in Rhesus milk, but at a lower concentration than in human milk. 5. The casein subunit pattern is more complex in Rhesus milk compared to human milk. 6. The ratio of whey proteins to casein is similar in both milks (approximately 60/40). 7. A protein with a M(r) of 21,600 is a major component in monkey whey but is not found in human milk.

  20. Hemodynamic effects of barnidipine hydrochloride in conscious squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, M; Inagaki, O; Takenaka, T

    1994-05-01

    1. The effects of barnidipine, a new dihydropyridine Ca2+ antagonist, on cardiovascular and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems were investigated in conscious squirrel monkeys. 2. Barnidipine (0.3-3 mg/kg p.o.) produced a dose-related decrease in systolic blood pressure. The hypotensive action after 3 mg/kg p.o. lasted more than 8 hr. 3. Barnidipine increased heart rate, but did not affect the PQ-interval of the electrocardiograph. 4. Barnidipine (1 and 3 mg/kg p.o.) increased plasma renin activity dose-dependently. However, it had no significant effect on plasma aldosterone concentration. 5. These results indicate that barnidipine produces a sustained hypotension without affecting atrioventricular conduction time and plasma aldosterone concentration in conscious squirrel monkeys.

  1. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Danilo B; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Ferreira, Paulo C P

    2016-03-01

    Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest.

  2. Spontaneous Cholelithiasis in a Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Mia T; Wachtman, Lynn M; Marini, Robert P; Bakthavatchalu, Vasu; Fox, James G

    2016-02-01

    A mature female squirrel monkey was noted during routine semiannual examinations to have moderate progressive weight loss. Serum chemistry panels revealed marked increases in hepatic enzyme, bilirubin, and bile salt concentrations and hypoalbuminemia. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed echogenic, shadowing debris in the gallbladder, consistent with cholelithiasis. At necropsy, marked thickening and distension of the gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct was noted, and more than 50 irregularly shaped, black gallstones were removed from the biliary tract. Gallbladder tissue, bile, and gallstones cultured positive for Escherichia coli and Proteus spp., suggesting a brown-pigment gallstone type secondary to a bacterial nidus. Histopathology revealed severe chronic-active diffuse cholecystitis and severe chronic-active hepatic degeneration and necrosis with severe cholestasis. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of spontaneous choleilthiasis in a squirrel monkey.

  3. A monkey metabolism pod for space-flight weightlessness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Grunbaum, B. W.

    1973-01-01

    The system described will permit quantitative physiological studies in adult monkeys, weighing from 8 to 14 kg, during future space flights. The system comprises a fiberglass pod containing a comfortable restraint couch for the animal. The pod is divided into upper and lower halves. When the monkey occupies the couch, a rubber belly-band forms a gas seal between the upper and lower portions of the animal. The upper-pod ventilating air stream is monitored for the partial pressures of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water to permit continuous metabolic gas-exchange measurements for computation of metabolic energy expediture. The lower pod is lined with ashless filter paper for excreta collection.

  4. Dyscoria associated with herpesvirus infection in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Montoya, Enrique J; Weller, Richard E

    2008-07-01

    "Dyscoria was noted in a female owl monkey and 2 of her offspring. The third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two male monkeys paired with the female died, 1 of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all 3 animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring were positive for Herpesvirus simplex antibodies by ELISA. The clinical history, gross and microscopic lesions, and serology results suggests a herpesviral etiology, possibly H. simplex or H. saimiri 1. This report underscores the risks associated with introducing into breeding or research colonies animals that previously were kept as pets or those from unknown origin that could carry asymptomatic pathogenic Herpesvirus infections. In addition, herpesviral infection should be considered among the differential diagnoses if dyscoria is noted in nonhuman primates."

  5. Monkeying with the Goodness-of-Fit Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The familiar Σ(OBS - EXP 2/EXP goodness-of-fit measure is commonly used to test whether an observed sequence came from the realization of n independent identically distributed (iid discrete random variables. It can be quite effective for testing for identical distribution, but is not suited for assessing independence, as it pays no attention to the order in which output values are received. This note reviews a way to adjust or tamper, that is, monkey-with the classical test to make it test for independence as well as identical distribution--in short, to test for both the i's in iid, using monkey tests similar to those in the Diehard Battery of Tests of Randomness (Marsaglia 1995.

  6. Present and potential distribution of Snub-nosed Monkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nüchel, Jonas; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    are the Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus), a temperate-subtropical East Asian genus. We use species distribution modeling to assess the following question of key relevancy for conservation management of Rhinopithecus; 1. Which climatic factors determine the present distribution of Rhinopithecus within...... distribution of Rhinopithecus within the region, considering climate, habitat availability and the locations of nature reserves. Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, conservation, China, snub-nosed monkey, rhinopithecus, primates, species distribution modeling......Around 28 % of mammal species are threatened or near threatened with extinction. One of the mammal taxa with many threatened species are the primates. Of which more than 65 % of the world’s 424 know species are threatened or near threatened (IUCN, 2014). One group of threatened primates...

  7. Photoacoustic tomography of monkey brain using virtual point ultrasonic transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Liming; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-01-01

    A photoacoustic tomography system (PAT) using virtual point ultrasonic transducers was developed and applied to image a monkey brain. The custom-built transducers provide a 10-fold greater field-of-view (FOV) than finite-aperture unfocused transducers as well as an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reduced artifacts rather than negative-lens transducers. Their tangential resolution, radial resolution, and (SNR) improvements were quantified using tissue phantoms. Our PAT system can achi...

  8. Mirror neurons and mirror systems in monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2008-06-01

    Mirror neurons are a distinct class of neurons that transform specific sensory information into a motor format. Mirror neurons have been originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey. Subsequent neurophysiological (TMS, EEG, MEG) and brain imaging studies have shown that a mirror mechanism is also present in humans. According to its anatomical locations, mirror mechanism plays a role in action and intention understanding, imitation, speech, and emotion feeling.

  9. Monkeys get a silver in Abstract Art Olympics

    CERN Document Server

    Simkin, M V

    2011-01-01

    Experiment shows that art students prefer abstract art to monkey art in about two-third of the cases. Since the number is above 50%, some argue that abstract art is different and better than animal art. I compare this result with figure skating competitions, where on average 73% of judges prefer gold medalist to silver medalist. This means that the difference between abstract artists and animal artists is less than the difference between gold and silver medalists.

  10. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space

    OpenAIRE

    Drucker, Caroline B.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance...

  11. The blind kidney: disorders affecting kidneys and eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Eggitt, Isabelle; Bockenhauer, Detlef

    2013-12-01

    There are many disorders that can affect both the kidneys and the eyes. Awareness of the ocular manifestations of kidney disorders is important as it can guide the diagnosis and facilitate the choice of a specific treatment. Conversely, ophthalmologists need to be aware of potential renal manifestations in disorders presenting initially with visual failure. We review disorders affecting both of these organ systems, based upon cases from our clinical practice to highlight the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration.

  12. Genetic loci influencing kidney function and chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Lord, Graham M.; van der Harst, Pim; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Sehmi, Joban S.; Gale, Daniel P.; Wass, Mark N.; Ahmadi, Kourosh R.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beckmann, Jacqui; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris J.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Connell, John M. C.; Cook, H. Terence; Cotlarciuc, Ioana; Smith, George Davey; de Silva, Ranil; Deng, Guohong; Devuyst, Olivier; Dikkeschei, Lambert D.; Dimkovic, Nada; Dockrell, Mark; Dominiczak, Anna; Ebrahim, Shah; Eggermann, Thomas; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Floege, Jurgen; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Han, Xijin; Hedblad, Bo; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Hepkema, Bouke G.; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria; Hypponen, Elina; Johnson, Toby; de Jong, Paul E.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lapsley, Marta; Li, Yun; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Luan, Jian'an; Luttropp, Karin; Marechal, Celine; Melander, Olle; Munroe, Patricia B.; Nordfors, Louise; Parsa, Afshin; Peltonen, Leena; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perucha, Esperanza; Pouta, Anneli; Prokopenko, Inga; Roderick, Paul J.; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sanna, Serena; Schalling, Martin; Schlessinger, David; Schlieper, Georg; Seelen, Marc A. J.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sjogren, Marketa; Smit, Johannes H.; Snieder, Harold; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Timothy D.; Stenvinkel, Peter; Sternberg, Michael J. E.; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Tanaka, Toshiko; Ubink-Veltmaat, Lielith J.; Uda, Manuela; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallace, Chris; Waterworth, Dawn; Zerres, Klaus; Waeber, Gerard; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Maxwell, Patrick H.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Mooser, Vincent; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Lightstone, Liz; Scott, James; Navis, Gerjan; Elliott, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S.

    2010-01-01

    Using genome-wide association, we identify common variants at 2p12-p13, 6q26, 17q23 and 19q13 associated with serum creatinine, a marker of kidney function (P = 10(-10) to 10(-15)). Of these, rs10206899 (near NAT8, 2p12-p13) and rs4805834 (near SLC7A9, 19q13) were also associated with chronic kidney

  13. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4% and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35% from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  14. Effect of new training technique on affinity of cynomolgus monkeys for animal care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Ai; Tachibana, Yuki; Takaura, Kaoru; Ochi, Takehiro; Koyama, Hironari

    2015-01-01

    To confirm our hypothesis that the sex and age of cynomolgus monkeys influences the effect of training, we employed a new training technique designed to increase the animal's affinity for animal care personnel. During 151 days of training, monkeys aged 2 to 10 years accepted each 3 raisins/3 times/day, and communicated with animal care personnel (5 times/day). Behavior was scored using integers between -1 and 5. Before training, 35 of the 61 monkeys refused raisins offered directly by animal care personnel (Score -1, 0 and 1). After training, 28 of these 35 monkeys (80%) accepted raisins offered directly by animal care personnel (>Score 2). The mean score of monkeys increased from 1.2 ± 0.1 to 4.3 ± 0.2. The minimum training period required for monkeys to reach Score 2 was longer for females than for males. After 151 days, 6 of the 31 females and 1 of the 30 males still refused raisins offered directly by animal care personnel. Beneficial effects of training were obtained in both young and adult monkeys. These results indicate that our new training technique markedly improves the affinity of monkeys for animal care personnel, and that these effects tend to vary by sex but not age. In addition, abnormal behavior and symptoms of monkeys were improved by this training.

  15. A coprological survey of parasites of wild mantled howling monkeys, Alouatta palliata palliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, M D; Greenspan, L L; Glander, K E; Clarke, M R

    1990-10-01

    Fecal samples from 155 mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata palliata) examined at Centro Ecologico La Pacifica, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, revealed 75 (48%) had parasitic infections. A sampling of nine howling monkeys from Santa Rosa National Park. Costa Rica indicated only one infected animal (11%). Only three of 19 (16%) spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) also from Santa Rosa were infected. Controrchis biliophilus, Trypanoxyuris minutus, unidentified strongylid eggs and Isospora sp. oocysts were found. Three monkeys from La Pacifica died and were examined for adult helminths. They were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, C. biliophilus and T. minutus.

  16. Color vision test for dichromatic and trichromatic macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koida, Kowa; Yokoi, Isao; Okazawa, Gouki; Mikami, Akichika; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2013-11-01

    Dichromacy is a color vision defect in which one of the three cone photoreceptors is absent. Individuals with dichromacy are called dichromats (or sometimes "color-blind"), and their color discrimination performance has contributed significantly to our understanding of color vision. Macaque monkeys, which normally have trichromatic color vision that is nearly identical to humans, have been used extensively in neurophysiological studies of color vision. In the present study we employed two tests, a pseudoisochromatic color discrimination test and a monochromatic light detection test, to compare the color vision of genetically identified dichromatic macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with that of normal trichromatic macaques. In the color discrimination test, dichromats could not discriminate colors along the protanopic confusion line, though trichromats could. In the light detection test, the relative thresholds for longer wavelength light were higher in the dichromats than the trichromats, indicating dichromats to be less sensitive to longer wavelength light. Because the dichromatic macaque is very rare, the present study provides valuable new information on the color vision behavior of dichromatic macaques, which may be a useful animal model of human dichromacy. The behavioral tests used in the present study have been previously used to characterize the color behaviors of trichromatic as well as dichromatic new world monkeys. The present results show that comparative studies of color vision employing similar tests may be feasible to examine the difference in color behaviors between trichromatic and dichromatic individuals, although the genetic mechanisms of trichromacy/dichromacy is quite different between new world monkeys and macaques.

  17. Vitamins in the monkey brain: An immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, A; Coveñas, R; Bodet, D; Duleu, S; Marcos, P; Geffard, M

    2009-09-01

    Using highly specific antisera directed against vitamins, the distribution of pyridoxal-, pyridoxine-, vitamin C- and nicotinamide-immunoreactive structures in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis) brain was studied. Neither immunoreactive structures containing pyridoxine or nicotinamide, nor immunoreactive fibers containing vitamin C were found in the monkey brain. However, this work reports the first visualization and the morphological characteristics of pyridoxal- and vitamin C-immunoreactive cell bodies in the mammalian central nervous system using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. A high density of pyridoxal-immunoreactive cell bodies was found in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and in the supraoptic nucleus and a low density of the same was observed in the periventricular hypothalamic region, whereas a moderate density of vitamin C-immunoreactive cell bodies was observed in the somatosensorial cortex (precentral gyrus). Immunoreactive fibers containing pyridoxal were only visualized in the anterior commissure. The restricted distribution of pyridoxal and vitamin C in the monkey brain suggests that both vitamins could be involved in very specific physiological mechanisms.

  18. Cognitive performance of juvenile monkeys after chronic fluoxetine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari S. Golub

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N = 16/group for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N = 8/group suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention. After dosing was discontinued, sustained attention, recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were evaluated. Sustained attention was affected by fluoxetine, both during and after dosing, as indexed by omission errors. Response accuracy was not affected by fluoxetine in post-dosing recognition memory and cognitive flexibility tests, but formerly fluoxetine-treated monkeys compared to vehicle controls had more missed trial initiations and choices during testing. Drug treatment also interacted with genetic and environmental variables: MAOA genotype (high- and low transcription rate polymorphisms and testing location (upper or lower tier of cages. Altered development of top-down cortical regulation of effortful attention may be relevant to this pattern of cognitive test performance after juvenile fluoxetine treatment.

  19. The cortical motor system of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakola, Sophia; Burman, Kathleen J; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2015-04-01

    Precise descriptions of the anatomical pathways that link different areas of the cerebral cortex are essential to the understanding of the sensorimotor and association processes that underlie human actions, and their impairment in pathological situations. Many years of research in macaque monkeys have critically shaped how we currently think about cortical motor function in humans. However, it is important to obtain additional understanding about the homologies between cortical areas in human and various non-human primates, and in particular how evolutionary changes in connectivity within specific neural circuits impact on the capacity for different behaviors. Current research has converged on the New World marmoset monkey as an important animal model for cortical function and dysfunction, emphasizing advantages unique to this species. However, the motor repertoire of the marmoset differs from that of the macaque in many ways, including the capacity for skilled use of the hands. Here, we review current knowledge about the cortical frontal areas in marmosets, which are key to the generation and control of motor behaviors, with focus on comparative analyses. We note significant parallels with the macaque monkey, as well as a few potentially important differences, which suggest future directions for work involving architectonic and functional analyses.

  20. Atopic dermatitis with possible polysensitization and monkey esophagus reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease resulting from interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Recent studies link atopic dermatitis with asthma and with eosinophilic esophagitis. Case Report: Based on this association, we investigated by indirect immunofluorescence the immunoreactivity patterns on monkey esophagus substrate utilizing the serum of a patient with severe atopic dermatitis. We also examined the patient′s skin biopsy by H&E histology and immunohistochemistry. We detected strong deposits of albumin, IgE, IgG, IgD, IgA, Complement/C1q and mast cell tryptase in multiples structures of the skin, as well as a broad pattern of intraepithelial staining on monkey esophagus. Strong staining positivity was also detected within the inflammatory infiltrate around the upper dermal vessels, as well as additional positive staining for the human leukocyte antigen system antigens DR DP and DQ. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that there could be an indication for testing patients with severe atopic dermatitis for autoreactivity to filaggrin (anti-keratin antibodies utilizing monkey esophagus. Larger studies are needed to clarify any immunologic interaction between the reactivity to albumin and food allergens that may sensitize patients via the esophageal mucosa.