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Sample records for monk parakeet myiopsitta

  1. Distribution patterns of invasive Monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus in an urban habitat

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    Rodríguez–Pastor, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several invasive species have been shown to have a marked preference for urban habitats. The study of the variables responsible for the distribution of these species within urban habitats should allow to predict which environmental variables are indicative of preferred habitat, and to design landscape characteristics that make these areas less conducive to these species. The Monk parakeet Myiopsitta monachus is an invasive species in many American and European countries, and cities are one of its most usual habitats in invaded areas. The aim of this paper was to identify the main factors that determine distribution of the Monk parakeet in Barcelona, one of the cities in the world with the highest parakeet density. We defined our model based on eight preselected variables using a generalized linear model (GLZ and evaluated the strength of support for each model using the AIC–based multi–model inference approach. We used parakeet density as a dependent variable, and an analysis restricted to occupied neighbourhoods provided a model with two key variables to explain the distribution of the species. Monk parakeets were more abundant in neighbourhoods with a high density of trees and a high percentage of people over 65 years. This is interpreted by the fact that parakeets use trees as food sources and support for the nests, and that older people often feed the species. Data support the ‘human–activity’ hypothesis to explain how invasive species can successfully establish in a non–native habitat, and stress how limiting food resources, especially food supplied by humans, may be the easiest way to exert some control on Monk parakeet populations.

  2. Unrelenting spread of the alien monk parakeet Myiopsitta monachus in Israel. Is it time to sound the alarm?

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    Postigo, Jose-Luis; Shwartz, Assaf; Strubbe, Diederik; Muñoz, Antonio-Román

    2017-02-01

    Monk parakeets, Myiopsitta monachus Boddaert, are native to South America but have established populations in North America, Europe, Africa and Asia. They are claimed to act as agricultural pests in their native range, and their communal stick nests may damage human infrastructure. Although several monk parakeet populations are present in the Mediterranean Basin and temperate Europe, little empirical data are available on their population size and growth, distribution and potential impact. We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics of monk parakeets in Israel to assess their invasion success and potential impact on agriculture. Monk parakeet populations are growing exponentially at a higher rate than that reported elsewhere. The current Israeli population of monk parakeets comprises approximately 1500 individuals. The distribution of the species has increased and shifted from predominantly urban areas to agricultural landscapes. In Israel, monk parakeet populations are growing fast and have dispersed rapidly from cities to agricultural areas. At present, reports of agricultural damage are scarce. A complete assessment of possible management strategies is urgently needed before the population becomes too large and widespread to allow for cost-effective mitigation campaigns to be implemented. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Temperature regulation and water requirements of the monk parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus.

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    Weathers, Wesley W; Caccamise, Donald F

    1975-12-01

    Monk parakeets have been introduced into North America within the past 15 years and are apparently becoming established in several geographical regions. Several physiological responses of monk parakeets related to climatic tolerance were examined, and it is concluded that the species is equipped physiologically to occupy most climatic situations with the exception of arctic and subarctic regions and waterless deserts. The standard metabolic rate, determined during the winter, was 44% lower at night (1.17 ml O2 g(-1) hr(-1)) than during the day (1.68 ml O2 g(-1) hr(-1)). Monk parakeets are relatively tolerant of low air temperature (Ta) and showed no signs of hypothermia at Ta's as low as-8°C. The birds were unable to maintain body weight on a diet of air-dried seeds without supplemental water. Monk parakeets possess excellent capabilities for increasing evaporative water loss at high Ta's, being able to dissipate up to 153% of their metabolic heat production at 44°C. This species responds to high Ta's with open-mouthed panting. During panting the thick, moist tongue is raised and lowered in synchrony with the thorax. Thus, monk parakeets may employ lingual flutter to augment evaporative cooling; a mechanism analogous to the gular flutter of other nonpasserine birds.

  4. Genetic evidence for high propagule pressure and long-distance dispersal in monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) invasive populations.

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    Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Eberhard, Jessica R; Wright, Timothy F; Avery, Michael L; Russello, Michael A

    2010-08-01

    The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) is a successful invasive species that does not exhibit life history traits typically associated with colonizing species (e.g., high reproductive rate or long-distance dispersal capacity). To investigate this apparent paradox, we examined individual and population genetic patterns of microsatellite loci at one native and two invasive sites. More specifically, we aimed at evaluating the role of propagule pressure, sexual monogamy and long-distance dispersal in monk parakeet invasion success. Our results indicate little loss of genetic variation at invasive sites relative to the native site. We also found strong evidence for sexual monogamy from patterns of relatedness within sites, and no definite cases of extra-pair paternity in either the native site sample or the examined invasive site. Taken together, these patterns directly and indirectly suggest that high propagule pressure has contributed to monk parakeet invasion success. In addition, we found evidence for frequent long-distance dispersal at an invasive site (approximately 100 km) that sharply contrasted with previous estimates of smaller dispersal distance made in the native range (approximately 2 km), suggesting long-range dispersal also contributes to the species' spread within the United States. Overall, these results add to a growing body of literature pointing to the important role of propagule pressure in determining, and thus predicting, invasion success, especially for species whose life history traits are not typically associated with invasiveness.

  5. Parasitic survey on introduced monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus in Santiago, Chile

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    Cristóbal Briceño

    Full Text Available Abstract Central Chile has been identified as a unique ecosystem with high conservation priority because of its high levels of endemism and intensive anthropic pressure. Over a period of almost four decades, the monk parakeet has been successful in establishing and dispersing in urban Santiago, although little is known about its potential impact. Furthermore, nothing is known about its epidemiological risks towards animals or even humans. For this reason, we conducted the first parasitic survey of monk parakeets in Chile through capture, necropsy and thorough external and internal inspection of 92 adult individuals. Among these, 45.7% presented lice that were identified as Paragoniocotes fulvofasciatum, 1.1% had mesostigmatid acari and 8.9% had free-ranging acari. Among 89 parakeets, 19.1% had structures identified as Cryptosporidium sp. This study provides the first description of Cryptosporidium sp. in monk parakeets. Along with the presence of a mesostigmatid acarus in one parakeet, this serves as a public health warning, given that both of these parasites have zoonotic potential.

  6. Parasitic survey on introduced monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) in Santiago, Chile.

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    Briceño, Cristóbal; Surot, Dominique; González-Acuña, Daniel; Martínez, Francisco Javier; Fredes, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Central Chile has been identified as a unique ecosystem with high conservation priority because of its high levels of endemism and intensive anthropic pressure. Over a period of almost four decades, the monk parakeet has been successful in establishing and dispersing in urban Santiago, although little is known about its potential impact. Furthermore, nothing is known about its epidemiological risks towards animals or even humans. For this reason, we conducted the first parasitic survey of monk parakeets in Chile through capture, necropsy and thorough external and internal inspection of 92 adult individuals. Among these, 45.7% presented lice that were identified as Paragoniocotes fulvofasciatum, 1.1% had mesostigmatid acari and 8.9% had free-ranging acari. Among 89 parakeets, 19.1% had structures identified as Cryptosporidium sp. This study provides the first description of Cryptosporidium sp. in monk parakeets. Along with the presence of a mesostigmatid acarus in one parakeet, this serves as a public health warning, given that both of these parasites have zoonotic potential.

  7. History of nonnative Monk Parakeets in Mexico.

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    Hobson, Elizabeth A; Smith-Vidaurre, Grace; Salinas-Melgoza, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Nonnative Monk Parakeets have been reported in increasing numbers across many cities in Mexico, and were formally classified as an invasive species in Mexico in late 2016. However, there has not been a large-scale attempt to determine how international pet trade and national and international governmental regulations have played a part in colonization, and when the species appeared in different areas. We describe the changes in regulations that led the international pet trade market to shift to Mexico, then used international trade data to determine how many parakeets were commercially imported each year and where those individuals originated. We also quantified the recent increases in Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) sightings in Mexico in both the scientific literature and in citizen science reports. We describe the timeline of increased reports to understand the history of nonnative Monk Parakeets in Mexico. As in other areas where the species has colonized, the main mode of transport is through the international pet trade. Over half a million Monk Parakeets were commercially imported to Mexico during 2000-2015, with the majority of importation (90%) occurring in 2008-2014, and almost all (98%) were imported from Uruguay. The earliest record of a free-flying Monk Parakeet was observed during 1994-1995 in Mexico City, but sightings of the parakeets did not become geographically widespread in either the scientific literature or citizen science databases until 2012-2015. By 2015, parakeets had been reported in 97 cities in Mexico. Mexico City has consistently seen steep increases in reporting since this species was first reported in Mexico. Here we find that both national and international legal regulations and health concerns drove a rise and fall in Monk Parakeet pet trade importations, shortly followed by widespread sightings of feral parakeets across Mexico. Further monitoring of introduced Monk Parakeet populations in Mexico is needed to understand the

  8. Pretty, but dangerous! Records of non-native Monk Parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) in Mexico ¡Bonita pero peligrosa! Registros de la cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus) en México

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    Ian MacGregor-Fors; Rafael Calderón-Parra; Alejandro Meléndez-Herrada; Silvia López-López; Jorge E Schondube

    2011-01-01

    The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) is native to South America and has been introduced by the pet market to several countries around the world. In this note, we compiled records for this species in Mexico and report the first sight-recording of this species in the state of Michoacán and several nesting localities within the Metropolitan area of México City. Most records are of individuals escaped or released from captivity. Also, we review the negative effects that this species has had in...

  9. Computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna), African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), and monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus).

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    Veladiano, Irene A; Banzato, Tommaso; Bellini, Luca; Montani, Alessandro; Catania, Salvatore; Zotti, Alessandro

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To create an atlas of the normal CT anatomy of the head of blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna), African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), and monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus). ANIMALS 3 blue-and-gold macaws, 5 African grey parrots, and 6 monk parakeets and cadavers of 4 adult blue-and-gold macaws, 4 adult African grey parrots, and 7 monk parakeets. PROCEDURES Contrast-enhanced CT imaging of the head of the live birds was performed with a 4-multidetector-row CT scanner. Cadaveric specimens were stored at -20°C until completely frozen, and each head was then sliced at 5-mm intervals to create reference cross sections. Frozen cross sections were cleaned with water and photographed on both sides. Anatomic structures within each head were identified with the aid of the available literature, labeled first on anatomic photographs, and then matched to and labeled on corresponding CT images. The best CT reconstruction filter, window width, and window level for obtaining diagnostic images of each structure were also identified. RESULTS Most of the clinically relevant structures of the head were identified in both the cross-sectional photographs and corresponding CT images. Optimal visibility of the bony structures was achieved via CT with a standard soft tissue filter and pulmonary window. The use of contrast medium allowed a thorough evaluation of the soft tissues. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled CT images and photographs of anatomic structures of the heads of common pet parrot species created in this study may be useful as an atlas to aid interpretation of images obtained with any imaging modality.

  10. Artrópodos presentes en nidos de cotorra Myiopsitta monachus monachus (Aves: Psittacidae Arthropods in Monk Parakeet nests (Aves: Psittacidae

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    Rosana Aramburú

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es comunicar una lista de la artropodofauna que se encuentra en los nidos de cotorra (Myiopsitta monachus monachus en distintas localidades de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se colectó un nido y 43 camas de material vegetal fresco que las cotorras depositan en las cámaras de cría. Se extrajeron los artrópodos, que se identificaron bajo lupa binocular y se caracterizaron por su nicho trófico. Se encontraron especies de la clase Arachnida (Acarina, Pseudoescorpionida y Araneae, principalmente depredadoras y hematófagas; mientras que dentro de la clase Insecta se encontraron especies hematófagas, depredadoras, detritívoras, fitófagas, nectarívoras, y xilófagas. Los órdenes más representados fueron Diptera (8 familias y Coleoptera (12 familias. El resto de las especies pertenecieron a los órdenes Collembola, Psocoptera, Hymenoptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera y Lepidoptera.The objective of this work is to communicate a list of artropodofauna which is in Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus monachus nests at several localities in Buenos Aires province. One nest and 43 beds of fresh green material that the Monk Parakeets deposited in the breeding chamber were collected. Arthropods were extracted, identified under binocular microscope, and characterized by their diets. Species were found whitin class Arachnida (Acarina, Pseudoescorpionida and Araneae, mainly predators and hematophagous. Within class Insecta, were found blood-sucking species, predators, detritivores, phytophagous, nectarivorous, and xilophagous, among others. The orders most represented were Diptera (8 families and Coleoptera (12 families. The rest of the species belonged to the orders Collembola, Psocoptera, Hymenoptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera and Lepidoptera.

  11. Pretty, but dangerous! Records of non-native Monk Parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus in Mexico ¡Bonita pero peligrosa! Registros de la cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian MacGregor-Fors

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus is native to South America and has been introduced by the pet market to several countries around the world. In this note, we compiled records for this species in Mexico and report the first sight-recording of this species in the state of Michoacán and several nesting localities within the Metropolitan area of México City. Most records are of individuals escaped or released from captivity. Also, we review the negative effects that this species has had in invaded areas from around the world. Our analysis suggests the possible beginning of an invasion in Mexico that could have dramatic negative ecological and economic effects throughout this biodiverse country.La cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus es nativa de Sudamérica y ha sido introducida a través del comercio de mascotas en diversos países del mundo. En esta nota compilamos los registros de esta especie para México, además de reportarla por primera vez para el estado de Michoacán y diversas localidades de anidación en la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de México. La mayoría de los registros son de individuos que han escapado o han sido liberados intencionalmente del cautiverio. Además, discutimos los efectos que ha tenido esta especie en otros lugares del mundo. Los registros compilados en esta nota sugieren el inicio de un proceso masivo de invasión por parte de la cotorra argentina, el cual podría tener efectos económicos y ecológicos dramáticos en un país biodiverso como México.

  12. Development of the Superaltricial Monk Parakeet (Aves, Psittaciformes): Embryo Staging, Growth, and Heterochronies.

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    Carril, Julieta; Tambussi, Claudia P

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge about the embryonic stages of birds is important in answering many questions about development and evolution. We give the first description of 41 embryological stages of the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) on the basis of external morphology and comparison with the chicken. We also provide measurements of some external morphological characters (i.e. body mass, crown-rump, beak, forelimb, and third toe lengths) and perform comparisons with other precocial and altricial birds with the aim of identifying heterochronous developmental features. The following differences in the development of characters in the monk parakeet when compared with other birds were found: (1) delay of the feathers primordia, (2) wing buds initially greater than leg buds, (3) forelimbs and hindlimbs with similar relative size, (4) retroversion of the toe IV, (5) ventral curvature of the upper jaw, (6) positive regressions between stages and beak length with acceleration and higher values and III toe lengths with deceleration and lower values in the monk parakeet compared to the chicken. The growth pattern of the monk paraket Myiopsitta monachus could be influenced by some heterochronic processes like post-displacement, acceleration and/or deceleration. Results of this research allow the standard identification of stages in different species of parrots, recognize similarities and differences between precocial (the chicken) and altricial species (Myiopsitta), and provide planning data for future studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Nest-building behavior of Monk Parakeets and insights into potential mechanisms for reducing damage to utility poles.

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    Burgio, Kevin R; Rubega, Margaret A; Sustaita, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) commonly uses utility poles as a substrate for building large, bulky nests. These nests often cause fires and electric power outages, creating public safety risks and increasing liability and maintenance costs for electric companies. Previous research has focused on lethal methods and chemical contraception to prevent nesting on utility poles and electrical substations. However, implementation of lethal methods has led to public protests and lawsuits, while chemical contraception may affect other than the targeted species, and must be continually reapplied for effectiveness. One non-lethal alternative, nest removal, is costly and may not be a sustainable measure if Monk Parakeet populations continue to grow. In order to identify cost-effective non-lethal solutions to problems caused by Monk Parakeet nesting, we studied their behavior as they built nests on utility poles. Monk Parakeets initiate nests by attaching sticks at the intersection of the pole and electric lines. We found that parakeets use the electric lines exclusively to gain access to the intersection of lines and pole during nest initiation, and continue to use the lines intensively throughout construction. Monk Parakeets also have more difficulty attaching sticks during the early stages of nest construction than when the nest is nearing completion. These findings suggest that intervention during the earlier stages of nest building, by excluding Monk Parakeets from electric lines adjacent to poles, may be an effective, non-lethal method of reducing or eliminating parakeets nesting on, and damaging, utility poles.

  14. Nest-building behavior of Monk Parakeets and insights into potential mechanisms for reducing damage to utility poles

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    Kevin R. Burgio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus commonly uses utility poles as a substrate for building large, bulky nests. These nests often cause fires and electric power outages, creating public safety risks and increasing liability and maintenance costs for electric companies. Previous research has focused on lethal methods and chemical contraception to prevent nesting on utility poles and electrical substations. However, implementation of lethal methods has led to public protests and lawsuits, while chemical contraception may affect other than the targeted species, and must be continually reapplied for effectiveness. One non-lethal alternative, nest removal, is costly and may not be a sustainable measure if Monk Parakeet populations continue to grow. In order to identify cost-effective non-lethal solutions to problems caused by Monk Parakeet nesting, we studied their behavior as they built nests on utility poles. Monk Parakeets initiate nests by attaching sticks at the intersection of the pole and electric lines. We found that parakeets use the electric lines exclusively to gain access to the intersection of lines and pole during nest initiation, and continue to use the lines intensively throughout construction. Monk Parakeets also have more difficulty attaching sticks during the early stages of nest construction than when the nest is nearing completion. These findings suggest that intervention during the earlier stages of nest building, by excluding Monk Parakeets from electric lines adjacent to poles, may be an effective, non-lethal method of reducing or eliminating parakeets nesting on, and damaging, utility poles.

  15. Hindlimb myology of the monk parakeet (Aves, Psittaciformes).

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    Carril, Julieta; Mosto, María C; Picasso, Mariana B J; Tambussi, Claudia P

    2014-07-01

    We studied the hindlimb myology of the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus). Like all parrots, it has zygodactyl feet enabling perching, climbing, hanging, moving easily among trees, and handling food. Muscles were described and weighed, and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of four flexors and one extensor was calculated. In comparison to other muscles, the M. tibialis cranialis and the M. fibularis brevis show increased development and high PCSA values, and therefore, large potential force production. Also, a large proportion of muscle mass was involved in flexing the digits. We hypothesize that these muscle traits are associated with the arboreal locomotion and food manipulation habits. In the monk parakeet, the M. extensor digitorum longus sends a branch to the hallux, and the connection between the M. flexor digitorum longus and the M. flexor hallucis longus is type I (Gadow's classification). We reaffirm the presence of the M. ambiens as a plesiomorphic condition that disappears in most members of the order. Among Psittaciformes, the M. fibularis brevis is stronger and the M. fibularis weaker in arboreal species than in basal terrestrial ones (e.g., Strigops). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. An evaluation of monk parakeet damage to crops in the metropolitan area of Barcelona

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    Senar, J. C.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated damage to commercial crops caused by the monk parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus, in the Baix Llobregat agricultural area (1,024 ha bordering the city of Barcelona, Spain. Average crop loss was 0.4% for tomatoes, 28% for corn, 9% for red plums, 36% for round plums, 37% for pears, 17% for persimmons, and 7% for quinces. Our data show that the potential damage to crops by monk parakeets in this invaded area is now a reality. As a wait–and–see approach is likely to be a more costly strategy in the long–term, policy makers should assess issues such as the extent of damage, feasibility/cost benefit analysis, and public opinion so as to avoid greater damage and loss in the future.

  17. An evaluation of monk parakeet damage to crops in the metropolitan area of Barcelona

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    Senar, J.C.; Domenech, J.; Arroyo, L.; Torre, I.; Gordo, O.

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated damage to commercial crops caused by the monk parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus, in the Baix Llobregat agricultural area (1,024 ha) bordering the city of Barcelona, Spain. Average crop loss was 0.4% for tomatoes, 28% for corn, 9% for red plums, 36% for round plums, 37% for pears, 17% for persimmons, and 7% for quinces. Our data show that the potential damage to crops by monk parakeets in this invaded area is now a reality. As a wait–and–see approach is likely to be a more costly strategy in the long–term, policy makers should assess issues such as the extent of damage, feasibility/cost benefit analysis, and public opinion so as to avoid greater damage and loss in the future. (Author)

  18. Genetic evidence links invasive monk parakeet populations in the United States to the international pet trade

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    Avery Michael L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe ecological and economic impacts caused by some invasive species make it imperative to understand the attributes that permit them to spread. A notorious crop pest across its native range in South America, the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus has become established on four other continents, including growing populations in the United States. As a critical first step to studying mechanisms of invasion success in this species, here we elucidated the geographical and taxonomic history of the North American invasions of the monk parakeet. Specifically, we conducted a genetic assessment of current monk parakeet taxonomy based on mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 73 museum specimens. These data supported comparative analyses of mtDNA lineage diversity in the native and naturalized ranges of the monk parakeet and allowed for identification of putative source populations. Results There was no molecular character support for the M. m. calita, M. m. cotorra, and M. m. monachus subspecies, while the Bolivian M. m. luchsi was monophyletic and diagnosably distinct. Three haplotypes sampled in the native range were detected within invasive populations in Florida, Connecticut, New Jersey and Rhode Island, the two most common of which were unique to M. m. monachus samples from eastern Argentina and bordering areas in Brazil and Uruguay. Conclusion The lack of discrete morphological character differences in tandem with the results presented here suggest that M. m. calita, M. m. cotorra and M. m. monachus are in need of formal taxonomic revision. The genetic distinctiveness of M. m. luchsi is consistent with previous recommendations of allospecies status for this taxon. The geographic origins of haplotypes sampled in the four U.S. populations are concordant with trapping records from the mid-20th century and suggest that propagule pressure exerted by the international pet bird trade contributed to the establishment of

  19. Genetic evidence of extra-pair paternity and intraspecific brood parasitism in the monk parakeet.

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    Martínez, Juan José; de Aranzamendi, María Carla; Masello, Juan F; Bucher, Enrique H

    2013-11-09

    The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) is a widespread invasive species native to southern South America that has become established in many regions of the world. Monk parakeets breed in a large, fully enclosed structure built from twigs, which consist of one to many individual brooding chambers. The species has been considered to be socially and genetically monogamous. However, genetic relatedness of adults to juveniles in the native area was found to be lower than expected for monogamy. To assess the significance of this discrepancy, we examined individual and population genetic patterns of microsatellite loci at two sites in Córdoba province, Argentina. We sampled 154 nestlings and 42 adults in Córdoba, Argentina. Mean value of pairwise relatedness of nestlings within chambers was about 0.40. Contrarily, relatedness of nestlings between chambers was close to zero. We found a considerable degree of variation in nestling pairwise relatedness and parentage within chambers, including chambers with combinations of unrelated, half-sib, and full-sib nestlings. The proportion of sibling relatedness indicated monogamy in 47% and extra pair-paternity in 40% of the chambers. We also found intra-brood parasitism in 3% of the chambers. Our results indicate that the monk parakeet is sexually polygamous in its native range in Argentina, which is consistent with the observed mean value of relatedness of adults to juveniles of about 0.4. We also confirm the existence of intra-brood parasitism. High density of monk parakeets may favor occurrence of extra-pair paternity and intra-brood parasitism in the native sites.

  20. Genetic evidence links invasive monk parakeet populations in the United States to the international pet trade.

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    Russello, Michael A; Avery, Michael L; Wright, Timothy F

    2008-07-24

    Severe ecological and economic impacts caused by some invasive species make it imperative to understand the attributes that permit them to spread. A notorious crop pest across its native range in South America, the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) has become established on four other continents, including growing populations in the United States. As a critical first step to studying mechanisms of invasion success in this species, here we elucidated the geographical and taxonomic history of the North American invasions of the monk parakeet. Specifically, we conducted a genetic assessment of current monk parakeet taxonomy based on mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 73 museum specimens. These data supported comparative analyses of mtDNA lineage diversity in the native and naturalized ranges of the monk parakeet and allowed for identification of putative source populations. There was no molecular character support for the M. m. calita, M. m. cotorra, and M. m. monachus subspecies, while the Bolivian M. m. luchsi was monophyletic and diagnosably distinct. Three haplotypes sampled in the native range were detected within invasive populations in Florida, Connecticut, New Jersey and Rhode Island, the two most common of which were unique to M. m. monachus samples from eastern Argentina and bordering areas in Brazil and Uruguay. The lack of discrete morphological character differences in tandem with the results presented here suggest that M. m. calita, M. m. cotorra and M. m. monachus are in need of formal taxonomic revision. The genetic distinctiveness of M. m. luchsi is consistent with previous recommendations of allospecies status for this taxon. The geographic origins of haplotypes sampled in the four U.S. populations are concordant with trapping records from the mid-20th century and suggest that propagule pressure exerted by the international pet bird trade contributed to the establishment of invasive populations in the United States.

  1. Vocal tract articulation revisited: the case of the monk parakeet.

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    Ohms, Verena R; Beckers, Gabriël J L; ten Cate, Carel; Suthers, Roderick A

    2012-01-01

    Birdsong and human speech share many features with respect to vocal learning and development. However, the vocal production mechanisms have long been considered to be distinct. The vocal organ of songbirds is more complex than the human larynx, leading to the hypothesis that vocal variation in birdsong originates mainly at the sound source, while in humans it is primarily due to vocal tract filtering. However, several recent studies have indicated the importance of vocal tract articulators such as the beak and oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity. In contrast to most other bird groups, parrots have a prominent tongue, raising the possibility that tongue movements may also be of significant importance in vocal production in parrots, but evidence is rare and observations often anecdotal. In the current study we used X-ray cinematographic imaging of naturally vocalizing monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) to assess which articulators are possibly involved in vocal tract filtering in this species. We observed prominent tongue height changes, beak opening movements and tracheal length changes, which suggests that all of these components play an important role in modulating vocal tract resonance. Moreover, the observation of tracheal shortening as a vocal articulator in live birds has to our knowledge not been described before. We also found strong positive correlations between beak opening and amplitude as well as changes in tongue height and amplitude in several types of vocalization. Our results suggest considerable differences between parrot and songbird vocal production while at the same time the parrot's vocal articulation might more closely resemble human speech production in the sense that both make extensive use of the tongue as a vocal articulator.

  2. Jaw myology and bite force of the monk parakeet (Aves, Psittaciformes).

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    Carril, Julieta; Degrange, Federico J; Tambussi, Claudia P

    2015-07-01

    Psittaciform birds exhibit novelties in jaw bone structure and musculature that are associated with strong bite forces. These features include an ossified arcus suborbitalis and the muscles ethmomandibularis and pseudomasseter. We analyse the jaw musculature of the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) to enable future studies aimed at understanding craniofacial development, morphology, function and evolution. We estimate bite force based on muscle dissections, physiological cross-sectional area and skull biomechanical modelling. We also compare our results with available data for other birds and traced the evolutionary origin of the three novel diagnostic traits. Our results indicate that, in Myiopsitta, (i) the arcus suborbitalis is absent and the orbit is ventrally closed by an elongate processus orbitalis and a short ligamentum suborbitale; (ii) the ethmomandibularis muscle is a conspicuous muscle with two bellies, with its origin on the anterior portion of the septum interorbitale and insertion on the medial aspect of the mandible; (iii) the pseudomasseter muscle consists of some fibers arising from the m. adductor mandibulae externus superficialis, covering the lateral surface of the arcus jugalis and attaches by an aponeurotic sheet on the processus orbitalis; (iv) a well-developed adductor mandibulae complex is present; (v) the bite force estimation relative to body mass is higher than that calculated for other non-psittaciform species; and (vi) character evolution analysis revealed that the absence of the arcus suborbitalis and the presence of the m. pseudomassseter are the ancestral conditions, and mapping is inconclusive about presence of one or two bellies of the m. ethmomandibularis. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  3. Jaw myology and bite force of the monk parakeet (Aves, Psittaciformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carril, Julieta; Degrange, Federico J; Tambussi, Claudia P

    2015-01-01

    Psittaciform birds exhibit novelties in jaw bone structure and musculature that are associated with strong bite forces. These features include an ossified arcus suborbitalis and the muscles ethmomandibularis and pseudomasseter. We analyse the jaw musculature of the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) to enable future studies aimed at understanding craniofacial development, morphology, function and evolution. We estimate bite force based on muscle dissections, physiological cross-sectional area and skull biomechanical modelling. We also compare our results with available data for other birds and traced the evolutionary origin of the three novel diagnostic traits. Our results indicate that, in Myiopsitta, (i) the arcus suborbitalis is absent and the orbit is ventrally closed by an elongate processus orbitalis and a short ligamentum suborbitale; (ii) the ethmomandibularis muscle is a conspicuous muscle with two bellies, with its origin on the anterior portion of the septum interorbitale and insertion on the medial aspect of the mandible; (iii) the pseudomasseter muscle consists of some fibers arising from the m. adductor mandibulae externus superficialis, covering the lateral surface of the arcus jugalis and attaches by an aponeurotic sheet on the processus orbitalis; (iv) a well-developed adductor mandibulae complex is present; (v) the bite force estimation relative to body mass is higher than that calculated for other non-psittaciform species; and (vi) character evolution analysis revealed that the absence of the arcus suborbitalis and the presence of the m. pseudomassseter are the ancestral conditions, and mapping is inconclusive about presence of one or two bellies of the m. ethmomandibularis. PMID:26053435

  4. Acyclovir (Zovirax) pharmacokinetics in Quaker parakeets, Myiopsitta monachus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, T M; Kollias, G V; Clark, C H; Gaskin, J; Wilson, R C; Coniglario, J

    1992-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics of intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) single-dose administration of acyclovir were determined in Quaker parakeets. After i.v. injection at a dose of 20 mg/kg of acyclovir, elimination half-life was estimated at 0.65 h, volume of distribution at steady state was 627.65 ml/kg, and clearance was 11.22 ml/kg/min. The estimated pharmacokinetic values after i.m. injection at a dose of 40 mg/kg of acyclovir were an elimination half-life of 0.71 h and a bioavailability of 90.1%. The peak plasma acyclovir concentration occurred at 15 min when the drug was administered i.m. Plasma concentrations of acyclovir were undetectable 4-6 h after i.v. administration and 6-8 h after i.m. administration. Oral (capsules) and intravenous (sodium salt) formulations of acyclovir were given by gavage at 80 mg/kg. Peak concentrations with the sodium salt formulation were lower and developed more slowly than with the capsules. In studies designed to detect excessive drug accumulation or adverse side effects, acyclovir was administered i.m. at 40 mg/kg every 8 h for 7 days. Plasma concentrations were determined 15 min after (peak) and just prior to drug administration (trough). In another study acyclovir was gavaged at a dose of 80 mg/kg every 8 h for 4 days. Acyclovir plasma concentrations were determined just prior to and 2 h after drug administration. In both experiments, the birds maintained normal appetite and weight and did not exhibit excessive drug accumulation. Acyclovir plasma concentrations ranging from 2.07 +/- 1.09 micrograms/ml to 3.93 +/- 1.13 micrograms/ml were maintained for 4 days when acyclovir was administered in the feed and water (sole source of food and water).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Growth curves and their implications in hand-fed Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petzinger C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina Petzinger,1,2 J Jill Heatley,3 John E Bauer1,2 1Comparative Animal Nutrition Research Laboratory, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 2Intercollegiate Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, 3Zoological Medicine Service, Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus were hand-fed over two chick seasons spanning of 2010 to 2011. Information from the growth curve of chicks hand-fed in 2010 was used to develop a feeding protocol for the 2011 season (Protocol-2011. This protocol addressed the problems of delayed followed by excessive growth experienced by parrots hand fed in 2010. Monk parrots that were hand-fed in 2011 following the new protocol experienced delayed growth after 20 days of age. However, some Monk parrots were fed in excess of Protocol-2011 and did not experience a major delay in growth. The energy requirement equations used to construct Protocol-2011 were low when compared to adult Monk parrot maintenance energy requirements. The data suggest that growing birds do not require approximately twice their adult maintenance energy requirements, as is the case for growing dogs. Additionally, there appear to be fluctuations in energy needs as Monk parrots grow. A major increase in energy needs occurred between days 18 and 23 posthatching, which corresponds to feather development and growth in Monk parrot chicks. Thus, multiple equations estimating energy requirements, rather than just one equation, are likely needed from hatching to fledging in order to ensure adequate energy is provided to chicks. More research on the energy requirements of growing Monk parrots, especially around the time of fledging and weaning, is needed to improve hand-fed methods and potentially the adult health of hand-fed birds. Keywords

  6. Jaw myogenesis in the monk parakeet: evidence of developmental reprogramming in the emergence of novel muscles in Psittaciformes (Aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carril, Julieta; Ronderos, Jorge R; Tambussi, Claudia P; Chiale, María C

    2016-12-01

    Psittaciformes have apomorphies in the muscles of the jaw that include both the adductors m. ethmomandibularis (EM) and m. pseudomasseter (PM), which are responsible for the generation of strong bite forces. While the EM is present in all Psittaciformes, the PM can be absent or present, and even underdeveloped or well-developed. The aim of this study is to identify developmental reprogramming processes by comparing the myogenesis of the jaw of the monk parakeet Myiopsitta monachus with the information available about other species of Psittaciformes. Seventeen specimens including embryos at different developmental stages, and nestlings of different ages were studied through the analysis of serial histological sections. At embryonic stage 24 (S24) the muscle precursor was observed in the first pharyngeal arch. At S27 the muscle precursor was found to be divided into lateral, intermediate and medial portions. At S31 the independent development of the EM as a rostro-dorsal projection of the mm. pterygoidei could be observed. At S36 the individualization of all muscles was complete. Finally, the PM was detected two days after hatching as an aponeurotic dorsal projection of the m. adductor mandibulae externus superficialis, located lateral to the arcus jugalis. Our results suggest that in M. monachus the muscles EM and PM emerge as a result of a process of heterotipy, and variations in the degree of development of the PM are associated to a heterochronic process of post-displacement, with M. monachus having an underdeveloped PM with respect to basal Psittaciformes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Sobre el nombre específico de la Cotorra (Myiopsitta monachus)

    OpenAIRE

    Bucher, Enrique H.

    1988-01-01

    On the specific name of the Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus). The specific name tnonachus is widely accepted as valid with the only exception of the omithologicalliterature from Argentina and Uruguay, where it is generally replaced by monacha. Although the generic name is feminine, the correct specific name is monachus, a masculine noun meaning "monk" in latin. Since this was the original form in Psittacus monochus it should not be changed, given that only adjectival specific names alter g...

  8. Lipid metabolic dose response to dietary alpha-linolenic acid in monk parrot (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, Christina; Heatley, J J; Bailey, Christopher A; Bauer, John E

    2014-03-01

    Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus) are susceptible to atherosclerosis, a progressive disease characterized by the formation of plaques in the arteries accompanied by underlying chronic inflammation. The family of n-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), have consistently been shown to reduce atherosclerotic risk factors in humans and other mammals. Some avian species have been observed to convert α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) to EPA and DHA (Htin et al. in Arch Geflugelk 71:258-266, 2007; Petzinger et al. in J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr, 2013). Therefore, the metabolic effects of including flaxseed oil, as a source of ALA, in the diet at three different levels (low, medium, and high) on the lipid metabolism of Monk parrots was evaluated through measuring plasma total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (FC), triacylglycerols (TAG), and phospholipid fatty acids. Feed intake, body weight, and body condition score were also assessed. Thus the dose and possible saturation response of increasing dietary ALA at constant linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LNA) concentration on lipid metabolism in Monk parrots (M. monachus) was evaluated. Calculated esterified cholesterol in addition to plasma TC, FC, and TAG were unaltered by increasing dietary ALA. The high ALA group had elevated levels of plasma phospholipid ALA, EPA, and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3, 22:5n-3). The medium and high ALA groups had suppressed plasma phospholipid 20:2n-6 and adrenic acid (22:4n-6, ADA) compared to the low ALA group. When the present data were combined with data from a previous study (Petzinger et al. in J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr, 2013) a dose response to dietary ALA was observed when LNA was constant. Plasma phospholipid ALA, EPA, DPAn-3, DHA, and total n-3 were positively correlated while 20:2n-6, di-homo-gamma-linoleic acid (20:3n-6Δ7), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), ADA, and total n-6 were inversely correlated with dietary en% ALA.

  9. Shared genetic diversity across the global invasive range of the monk parakeet suggests a common restricted geographic origin and the possibility of convergent selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelaar, Pim; Roques, Severine; Hobson, Elizabeth A; Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Avery, Michael L; Russello, Michael A; Senar, Juan C; Wright, Timothy F; Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L

    2015-05-01

    While genetic diversity is hypothesized to be an important factor explaining invasion success, there is no consensus yet on how variation in source populations or demographic processes affects invasiveness. We used mitochondrial DNA haplotypic and microsatellite genotypic data to investigate levels of genetic variation and reconstruct the history of replicate invasions on three continents in a globally invasive bird, the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus). We evaluated whether genetic diversity at invasive sites could be explained by (i) the native source populations from which they were derived and (ii) demographic bottlenecks during introduction. Genetic data indicated a localized source area for most sampled invasive populations, with limited evidence for admixing of native source populations. This pattern largely coincides with historical data on pet trade exports. However, the invasive populations are genetically more similar than predicted from the export data alone. The extent of bottleneck effects varied among invasive populations. The observed low genetic diversity, evidence of demographic contraction and restricted source area do not support the hypothesis that invasion is favoured by the mixing and recombining of genetic variation from multiple source populations. Instead, they suggest that reduced genetic variation through random processes may not inhibit successful establishment and invasion in this species. However, convergent selection across invasive sites could also explain the observed patterns of reduction and similarity in genetic variation and/or the restricted source area. In general, the alternative explanation of intraspecific variation in invasive potential among genotypes or geographic areas is neglected, but warrants more attention as it could inform comparative studies and management of biological invaders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time.

  11. LIPOSSARCOMA EM CATURRITA (Myiopsitta monachus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trindade, Anelise Bonilla; Brun, Maurício Veloso; Riviera, Fernando Bilibio; Basso, Paula Cristina; Valle, Stella Faria; Contesini, Emerson Antonio

    2010-01-01

    .... This report presents a rare case of liposarcoma in a five-year-old quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus). The patient had a 6-month progressive growing nodule at the left wing extremity and ataxia...

  12. LIPOSSARCOMA EM CATURRITA (Myiopsitta monachus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Bonilla Trindade

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Liposarcomas are malignant tumors that involve lipocytes and lipoblasts. This neoplasm is not frequently reported in avian species and generally occurs in adult or old birds and it is always seen in areas of adipose accumulation. This report presents a rare case of liposarcoma in a five-year-old quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus. The patient had a 6-month progressive growing nodule at the left wing extremity and ataxia; however, normal appetite and disposition were noticed. After the neoplasm extirpation, the pathological study pointed out a well-differentiated liposarcoma. Local disease or metastasis signals were not observed within 24 months after the surgery. The surgical procedure was effective to control the liposarcoma in this bird.

  13. Legacy HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seals Observers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set documents observers that have collected monk seal data as part of the ongoing monk seal population assessment efforts by PSD personnel and cooperating...

  14. Skeletogenesis of Myiopsitta monachus (Psittaciformes) and sequence heterochronies in Aves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carril, Julieta; Tambussi, Claudia P

    2017-01-01

    The ossification sequence of Myiopsitta monachus was determined. Myiopsitta has a similar sequence to other altricial birds, with delayed skeletons compared to precocial species. The hindlimbs ossify before the forelimbs, a condition that could be linked to altriciality. To determine the stability of the sequences of ossification across birds, we selected species of different groups of Aves and used event-pairing method and character mapping on a phylogeny. Our results show that the homogeneity in the development of birds was supported by 56.77% of the character states. Event-pair cracking phylogenetic method was applied to identify sequence heterochronies. Results reveal a high number of heterochronies and show that the long bones in limbs may behave as modules. In Myiopsitta, the ossa ectethmoidale and mesethmoidale ossify early. These bones provide the origin site of the Psittaciformes' novel adductor m. ethmomandibularis, associated with strong bite forces, and its acceleration in the sequence may correspond to the functional hypothesis. Also, the early appearance of some hyoid apparatus elements occurs, and could be related to the development of tongue in Psittaciformes and its role in handling food, and is in concordance with the functional and size hypothesis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Smoking prevalence among monks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Charoenca, Naowarut; Kengganpanich, Tharadol; Kusolwisitkul, Wilai; Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Kerdmongkol, Patcharaporn; Silapasuwan, Phimpan; Hamann, Stephen L; Arpawong, Thalida Em

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies among Buddhist monks in Thailand have reported smoking rates to be as high as 55%. Because 95% of Thais are Buddhist, monks are highly influential in establishing normative behavioral patterns. As the first population-based study on smoking among Buddhist monks in Thailand, this study aims to determine the smoking prevalence in six regions of the country, and to examine smoking knowledge, risk perceptions, behaviors, and associated demographics among full-fledged and novice monks (n = 6,213). Results demonstrated that the overall prevalence for current smoking monks is 24.4% (95% confidence interval [24.453, 24.464]), with regional differences ranging from 14.6% (North) to 40.5% (East). Findings suggest that integrating prevention and cessation programming into religious courses may be one avenue for reaching many incoming monks. Further, involving monks in tobacco control education and setting a nonsmoking standard among them is vital to the success of reducing smoking rates among the general population in Thailand.

  16. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Photo Identification Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This photo collection contains identification and other images and video of Hawaiian monk seals taken by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists as part of the...

  17. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Entanglement data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains records of all entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals in marine debris. The data set comprises records of seals entangled by derelict fishing...

  18. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Tag Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all tags applied to Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. These tags were applied by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists as part of...

  19. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Necropsy Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information on Hawaiian monk seal gross necropsy (in some cases only field notes or minimal information) and histopathology results beginning...

  20. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seals on Social Media

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As social media platforms develop, they potentially provide valuable information for wildlife researchers and managers. NOAA’s Hawaiian Monk Seal Research Program...

  1. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Crittercam video

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with dive...

  2. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of Hawaiian monk seal and green turtle sightings in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) since 1982 at Lisianski Island, and since...

  3. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Survival Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of survival factors recorded by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists as part of the ongoing monk seal population assessment...

  4. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Handling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all handling and measurement of Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. Live seals are handled and measured during a variety of events...

  5. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Fisheries Interactions data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains records of all documented hookings and/or entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals with actively fished gear, both commercial and recreational. The...

  6. Contamination and potential impacts to monk seals

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There are six main Hawaiian monk seal breeding colonies (French Frigate Shoals, Kure Atoll, Laysan Island, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Reef and Midway Atoll)...

  7. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Microsatellite Genotypes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently ~2,400 Hawaiian monk seal specimens have been analyzed genetically, providing genotypes at 18 microsatellite loci. These data are organized by individual,...

  8. Experimental diet-induced atherosclerosis in Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, H; Nevarez, J G; Wakamatsu, N; Clubb, S; Cray, C; Tully, T N

    2013-11-01

    Spontaneous atherosclerosis is common in psittaciformes, and clinical signs associated with flow-limiting stenosis are encountered in pet birds. Nevertheless, a psittacine model of atherosclerosis has not been developed for research investigations. Sixteen captive-bred Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus) were used in this study. While 4 control birds were fed a maintenance diet, 12 other birds were fed an atherogenic diet composed of 1% cholesterol controlling for a calorie-to-protein ratio for periods ranging from 2 to 8 months. The birds were euthanized at the end of their respective food trial period. Histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, and cholesterol measurement were performed on the ascending aorta and brachiocephalic and pulmonary arteries. Plasma lipoproteins, cholesterol, and triglycerides were also measured on a monthly basis. Significant atherosclerotic lesions were induced within 2 months and advanced atherosclerotic lesions within 4 to 6 months. The advanced lesions were histologically similar to naturally occurring lesions identified in the same parrot species with a lipid core and a fibrous cap. Ultrastructurally, there were extracellular lipid, foam cell, and endothelial changes. Arterial cholesterol content increased linearly over time. Plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) significantly increased over time by an average of 5- and 15-fold, respectively, with a shift from high-density lipoprotein to LDL as the main plasma lipoprotein. Quaker parrots also exhibited high plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity that increased, although not significantly, over time. This experiment demonstrates that in Quaker parrots fed 1% cholesterol, advanced atherosclerosis can be induced relatively quickly, and lesions resemble those found in other avian models and humans.

  9. The monk (1796: a hispanist's reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Lee Six

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2012n62p25   This article argues that the honour plays of seventeenth-centurySpain have been overlooked as precursors to the Gothic. ReadingLewis’s The Monk through this prism reveals that Spanishconcept of honour plays sheds light upon the characterization ofAmbrosio. Furthermore, the honour code gives rise to numerousareas of common ground with the Gothic, including the centralityof sexual secrets, imprisoned women, and a predilection forgore. Lewis’s opportunities for access to this Spanish corpus areconsidered and finally, it is posited that the post-eighteenthcenturyfigure of the Gothic villain who is troubled and complexmay be traceable, via The Monk, to the Spanish Golden Age.

  10. Air sac adenocarcinoma of the sternum in a Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus)

    OpenAIRE

    Loukopoulos, P; Okuni, JB; Micco, T; Garcia, JP; Uzal, FA; Diab, SS

    2014-01-01

    © Copyright 2014 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Respiratory neoplasia is rarely reported in avian species. A 17-yr-old Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus) was admitted with a 2-wk history of anorexia, depression, and respiratory distress. Clinical examination revealed a large, firm mass in the left pectoral muscle. Radiology showed a mass silhouetting the heart and the liver. Supportive treatment was provided, but the bird died during the seventh weekly visit to drain thoracic ...

  11. Presencia de Psitticimex uritui (Hemiptera: Cimicidae en nidos de caserote Pseudoseisura lophotes (Passeriformes: Furnariidae en la provincia de Entre Ríos Presence of Psitticimex uritui (Hemiptera: Cimicidae in nests of brown cacholote Pseudoseisura lophotes (Passeriformes: Furnariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana M. Aramburú

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Psitticimex uritui (Lent & Abalos, la chinche típica de la"cotorra" Myiopsitta monachus Boddaert, fue registrada por primera vez en los nidos del "caserote" Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach en la provincia de Entre Ríos. La interacción entre las poblaciones de estas aves dada por el comportamiento de adopción de nidos, presente en las "cotorras" puede explicar la presencia de la misma especie de cimícido en los nidos de ambos. La baja población de chinches en nidos de caserote indica que las cotorras son los huéspedes originarios.Psitticimex uritui (Lent & Abalos, a typical bug parasite of "monk parakeets" Myiopsitta monachus Boddaert is recorded for the first time in nests of "brown cacholote" Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach at Entre Ríos Province. Interaction among these bird populations, associated with nest adoption behavior by "monk parakeets", may explain the presence of the same cimicid species in both their nests. The low population of bugs in"brown cacholote" nests indicates that the "monk parakeets" are the original hosts.

  12. Interaction between Monk Seals, Monachus monachus (Hermann, 1779), and artisanal fisheries in the Foca Pilot Monk Seal conservation area, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guclusoy, H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines some aspects of the interaction between critically endangered Monk Seals Monachus monachus and artisanal fisheries in the Foc¿a Pilot Monk Seal Conservation Area, Turkey, between 1994 and 2002. One to four permanent researchers collected the data on this interaction during

  13. [Fatal poisoning caused by aconite monk's hood (Aconitum napellus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, A; Köster, B; Weber, H P

    1991-06-01

    Severe intoxications after ingestion of monk's hood are rare in childhood. We report a case of fatal intoxication in a 20 months old child. There is no specific therapy available. A review of the literature is added.

  14. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Cell Phone Tag Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with dive...

  15. LEGACY - EOP CRITTERCAM Deployments on French Frigate Shoals monk seals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRITTERCAMs, were deployed on a 42 monk seals at French Frigate Shoals Hawaii. Sixty nine hours of video comprised of 3192 recording segments collected at...

  16. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Master Identification Records (seal)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of all individually identified Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. These seals were identified by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists...

  17. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Master Identification Records (annual)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of all individually identified Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. These seals were identified by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists...

  18. Legacy HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Scat-spew data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates the dietary consumption of Hawaiian monk seals using traditional dietary analysis of fecal and regurgitate samples. Samples are collected...

  19. Decreased mortality among contemplative monks in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouw, H W; Westendorp, R G; Kunst, A E; Mackenbach, J P; Vandenbroucke, J P

    1995-04-15

    Although it is generally believed that a simple lifestyle may promote health, a recent study among Trappist and Benedictine monks in the Netherlands reported an increase in general morbidity (Am J Epidemiol 1993;138:569-73). As this increased morbidity might be the consequence of an increased life expectancy, we studied the level of mortality among these contemplative monks. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and death rates were calculated from 1,523 monks whose data were abstracted from the monastery rolls of the period 1900-1994. For this period the SMR was 0.88 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.95). A lower SMR was present in almost all of the age categories and in all except one of the monasteries. There were two distinct subperiods. In the pre-World War II era, the SMR was 1.25 (95% CI 1.04-1.49), but it lowered to 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.85) after World War II. From 1950 on, mortality in the monasteries remained lower than in the general population, even after correction for the generally higher educational level of the monks. The death rates showed a continuing decline from 1900 to 1950. After 1950, the mortality among monks declined further at a time when the secular trend of decreasing mortality leveled off in the general male population. The higher mortality before World War II was largely unexplained. From the 1950s onward, the mortality among monks was lower, presumably because of the epidemic of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease in the general population. Taken together, the present and earlier data suggest that, among contemplative monks, a simple lifestyle is associated with an extension of life in which they suffer from nonfatal morbidity.

  20. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Island/Sector Locations for Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set documents locations and location codes used in monk seal data collection as part of the ongoing monk seal population assessment efforts. Information...

  1. Monks' Health: Holistic Health Care Model by Community Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decha Buates

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Monks’ health tended to be a continuous increased problem. They were groups who had limitations to access health services due to their monastic disciplines and their most importance for Buddhist institution. Without urgent solution, their normal way of life would have been affected. Approach: This research aimed to study current conditions and to develop monks’ holistic health care models by community participation in central region of Thailand. The study was a qualitative research conducted in 9 temples; 3 temples in urban area, 3 in semi-urban area and 3 in rural area. Samples were 224 persons; consisted of monks, public health officers from Department of Religious Affairs, local administrative organizations and people; selected by purposive sampling method. Observation form, survey form, interview form, focus group discussion and workshop were used as research tools while data was analyzed by descriptive research. Results: The result founded that in former time culture of monks’ health care was leaned on community, social, culture and tradition. People spoke in style of central Thai language and were in agricultural sector as well as had their belief in merit, sin and elder respect. Relation in communities was in form of generosity and living as similar as relatives. When some monk got sick, they would visit, take care and give foods and medicines. Most of medicines were household remedy and Thai herbal medicine that bought from drug stores in local market or grocery stores in village and monks were sent to hospital in case of severe illness. Temple was a part of community, so they had close relation. Nowadays people increasingly worked in manufactories that caused conflicts and alienations among them. Monks leaned on local markets for receiving foods offering and most of foods were cooked from flour, sugar, coconut milk and fat. These caused three-fourth of monks having chronic disease as diabetes

  2. Air sac adenocarcinoma of the sternum in a Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Okuni, Julius Boniface; Micco, Teresa; Garcia, Jorge P; Uzal, Francisco A; Diab, Santiago S

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory neoplasia is rarely reported in avian species. A 17-yr-old Quaker parrot (Myiopsitta monachus) was admitted with a 2-wk history of anorexia, depression, and respiratory distress. Clinical examination revealed a large, firm mass in the left pectoral muscle. Radiology showed a mass silhouetting the heart and the liver. Supportive treatment was provided, but the bird died during the seventh weekly visit to drain thoracic cavity fluid. Necropsy showed a white, 3 x 3 x 2-cm, hard, gritty sternal mass. Histology showed a nonencapsulated, moderately differentiated air sac carcinoma of the sternum. Immunohistochemically the neoplasm was cytokeratin positive and vimentin and calretinin negative. This is the first report of an air sac neoplasia in a Quaker parrot and one of few respiratory tumors in psittacines.

  3. Induction of blindness by formoguanamine hydrochloride in adult male roseringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anamika Sengupta; Yoshihiko Obara; Tapan K Banerji; Saumen K Maitra

    2002-12-01

    Formoguanamine (2,4-diamino-s-triazine) was known to be an effective chemical agent in inducing blindness in poultry chicks, but not in adult birds. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the influences, if any, of this chemical on the visual performance and retinal histology in an adult sub-tropical wild bird, the roseringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Formoguanamine (FG) hydrochloride was subcutaneously injected into adult parakeets at a dosage of 25 mg (dissolved in 0×75 ml physiological saline)/100 g body weight/day, for two consecutive days while the control birds were injected only with a placebo. The effects were studied after 10, 20 and 30 days of the last treatment of FG. Within 24 h of the treatment of FG, about 90% of the total birds exhibited lack of visual responses to any light stimulus and even absence of pupillary light reactions. The remaining birds became totally blind on the day following the last injection of FG and remained so till the end of investigation. At the microscopic level, conspicuous degenerative changes were noted in the outer pigmented epithelium and the photoreceptive layer of rods and cones in the retinas of FG treated birds. A significant reduction in the thickness of the outer nuclear layer was also found in the retinas of FG treated parakeets, compared to that in the control birds. However, the inner cell layers of the retina in the control and FG administered parakeets were almost identical. It deserves special mention that the effects of FG, noted after 30 days of last treatment, were not very different from those noted just after 10 days of treatment. Collectively, the results of the present investigation demonstrate that FG can be used as a potent pharmacological agent for inducing irreversible blindness through selective damage in retinal tissue even in the adult wild bird, thereby making FG treatment an alternative euthanasic device to a cumbersome, stressful, surgical method of enucleation of the ocular

  4. Status and conservation of parrots and parakeets in the Greater Antilles, Bahama Islands, and Cayman Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1490s a minimum of 28 species of psittacines occurred in the West Indies. Today, only 43% (12) of the species survive. All macaws and most parakeet species have been lost. Although the surviving parrot fauna of the Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, and Bahama Islands has fared somewhat better than that of the Lesser Antilles, every species has undergone extensive reductions of populations and all but two have undergone extensive reductions in range, mostly as a result of habitat loss, but also from persecution as agricultural pests, conflicts with exotic species, harvesting for pets, and natural disasters. The Cayman Brac Parrot Amazona leucocephala hesterna with its tiny population (less than 150 individuals in the wild) and range, and the Puerto Rican Parrot A. vittata, with about 22-23 birds in the wild and 56 individuals in captivity, must be considered on the verge of extinction and in need of (in the latter's case, continuing) aggressive programmes of research and management. Other populations declining in numbers and range include the Yellow-billed Amazona collaria, and Black-billed A. agilis Parrots of Jamaica, Hispaniolan Parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan Parrot Amazona ventralis, Cuban Parrot A. leucocephala leucocephala and, most seriously, Cuban Parakeet Aratinga euops. The population of the Grand Cayman Parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), although numbering only about 1,000 birds, appears stable and the current conservation programme gives hope for the survival of the race. An active conservation and public education programme has begun for the Bahama Parrot A. l. bahamensis, which still occurs in good numbers on Great Inagua Island, but is threatened on Abaco Island. Recommendations for conservation of parrots and parakeets in the region include (1) instituting long-term programmes of research to determine distribution, status, and ecology of each species; (2) developing conservation programmes through education and management

  5. EVANGELICAL REMINISCENCES IN ANTON CHEKHOV'S SHORT STORY "THE BLACK MONK"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilina N. P.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of evangelical reminiscences in the artistic structure of this Chekhov's story allows us to reveal the philosophic concept, the system of values that causes death of all the main characters in the story, and whose immediate exponent is the black monk.

  6. Cytochemical localization of sorbitol dehydrogenase in kidney and liver from Myiopsitta m. monachus (Boddaert, 1783), during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Speroni, N B; de Fabro, S P

    1992-01-01

    A histochemical study to determine the localization of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) in kidney and liver from embryionic, young and adult Myiopsitta m. monachus was performed. The enzyme activity increased with age in both organs. In the kidney, the enzyme appeared at the proximal convoluted tubules, and increased in the basal cytoplasm of the tubular cells. In the liver the localization was diffuse in the lobule but more intense in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, especially in the perinuclear areas. These studies indicate that the cytochemical enzyme localization differs in this species, which is more evolutioned than Gallus gallus, and would be related to ontogenetic and phylogenetic differentiation.

  7. Registro altitudinal más alto en México para la cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus)

    OpenAIRE

    Celene Salgado-Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Informamos de los primeros registros de la cotorra argentina ( Myiopsitta monachus ) en varias localidades de los municipios de Toluca y Metepec, dentro del Valle de Toluca en el Estado de México, México, a una altura de 2,617 a 2,764 msnm. Registramos nidos activos en izotes ( Yucca spp.) y una colonia de 40 individuos alimentándose en árboles frutales. Debido a que é sta es una especie exótica e invasora recomendamos iniciar programas de monitoreo poblacional para determinar las causas...

  8. Developmental origins of species differences in telencephalon and tectum size: morphometric comparisons between a parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus) and a quail (Colinus virgianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striedter, Georg F; Charvet, Christine J

    2008-04-10

    Parrots, including parakeets, evolved significantly larger brains than other birds, relative to their body size, and they possess a proportionately larger telencephalon. For example, the telencephalon occupies approximately 68% of the brain in parakeets but only 52% in bobwhite quail. The present study was designed to determine when and how this difference in brain region proportions arises during development. To that end, we present volumetric data on the major brain regions in parakeets and bobwhite quail at several stages of embryogenesis, at hatching and, for the parakeets, 1 week after hatching. We also report on the proportional sizes of each region's proliferative and postproliferative zones. One major finding is that parakeets develop a proportionately larger telencephalon relatively late in development and that this late increase correlates with a delay in telencephalic neurogenesis. The most prominent aspect of this delayed telencephalic development is a tremendous expansion of the proliferative subventricular zone in the telencephalon of late embryonic and posthatching parakeets. The second major finding is that the tectum is much smaller in parakeets than in quail at all developmental stages examined, suggesting that the tectum's reduced size is due to an evolutionary change in how much tissue was allocated to become tectum at the time of brain regionalization. Collectively these findings indicate that evolutionary changes in brain region proportions are caused not by a single type of change but by several distinct developmental mechanisms, including changes in brain regionalization and neurogenesis timing.

  9. Greek Monk Theodore as the first Primate of Canterbury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ks. Warsonofiusz (Doroszkiewicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The theological climate of the young Church of Anglo-Saxon Christians was determined by Irish and Welsh monks maintaining the tradition of the Egyptian desert. The Angles and Saxons had a particular vision of the natural world, of the eternal world, a particular comprehension of sin and repentance. Rome in its missionary work used them to attach the British Christians the see of St Peter. Britain had no original link with the culture and tradition of the classical Church. It has been particularly established and enforced in VII and VIII, when England received a great dose of classical learning and theology due to the activity of archbishop of Canterbury Theodore and monk Hadrian. The formerly Greek monk Theodore – well learned in the Holy Scripture as well as Greek and Latin classics – was named the archbishop of Canterbury by pope Vitalian under the condition that he should notintroduce any typically Greek customs. Theodore named Hadrian the abbot of the Canterbury monastery of St Peter. There and in York young English could pursue classical studies of the Holy Scriptures, poetry, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, etc. It resulted in significant literary development in Britain, of which venerable Bede is an example.Theodore introduced in Canterbury proto-byzantine canonical law, during two famous synods established doctrinal and ecclesiastical foundations of English Christianity based on ancient orthodox tradition of Eastern part of the Mediterranean region. At the Synod of Hatfield,with the other bishops, Theodore confirmed the Nicean Creed, fiveformer ecumenical councils and the generally accepted Church Fathers. They worked also on practical church unity, that is established: common date of Easter with other parts of Christian world, non-intervention ofbishops in other dioceses, canonical laws regulating the attitude of bishops towards monastic communities and the decrees against monophysismonks coming from Persia.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of a Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Strain Isolated from a Clinically Healthy Exotic Parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus) in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajid, Abdul; Basharat, Asma; Khan, Taseer Ahmed; Wasim, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The complete genome sequence of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) strain isolated from an exotic parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus) is described here. The virulent strain parakeet/Pak/R-Pindi/SFR-16/2016 was isolated from a bird reared as a pet in the province of Punjab in the northern region of Pakistan in 2016. Phylogenetic analysis classified the isolate as a member of NDV class II, subgenotype VIIi, in genotype VII. PMID:28183762

  11. Epoxy putty external skeletal fixation in a tibiotarsal fracture of a wild choroy parakeet (Enicognathus leptorhynchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Arias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tibiotarsal fractures are common in birds because in most birds this is the longest, most exposed bone in the leg. Transverse fractures are most common and rotational and shear forces must be stabilized in order to achieve good bone regeneration. A 230g male Slender-billed Parakeet or Choroy parakeet (Enicognathus leptorhynchus, with more than five years of age, was received with non-weight bearing lameness with 24 hours duration. X-rays were taken, and these revealed a closed, complete, non-comminuted transverse fracture of the distal diaphysis of the left tibiotarsal bone. Fixation was planned with 10-minute fast-setting epoxy putty. In order to assess the temperature of polymerization of the epoxy dough and the possibility of heat-bone necrosis, the temperature was recorded every 30 seconds for 12 minutes with three different amounts of the epoxy material in an ex vivo test. The temperature of the pieces reached a peak of 50-60ºC, where the highest peak corresponds to the highest amount of material. When approximately 6g of putty were used, the peak temperature reached only 51ºC. This peak changed to 58ºC when 4 times more epoxy was mixed and measured. If the temperature of the pins inserted in the bone exceeds 70ºC, bone necrosis could occur. In light of these results, the fracture was treated with 6 g of epoxy putty that was allowed to polymerize over a 1A 2/2 external skeletal fixation, with 1-mm pins bent at 90º and joined together with cerclage wire. At 6 weeks after surgery the bird had formed a good primary bone callus, and the external fixators were therefore removed. With this approach a satisfactory recovery of the patient was achieved with normal use of the affected limb.

  12. Possible role of songbirds and parakeets in transmission of influenza A(H7N9) virus to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeremy C; Sonnberg, Stephanie; Koçer, Zeynep A; Shanmuganatham, Karthik; Seiler, Patrick; Shu, Yuelong; Zhu, Huachen; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Malik; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G

    2014-03-01

    Avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) recently emerged in China, causing severe human disease. Several subtype H7N9 isolates contain influenza genes previously identified in viruses from finch-like birds. Because wild and domestic songbirds interact with humans and poultry, we investigated the susceptibility and transmissibility of subtype H7N9 in these species. Finches, sparrows, and parakeets supported replication of a human subtype H7N9 isolate, shed high titers through the oropharyngeal route, and showed few disease signs. Virus was shed into water troughs, and several contact animals seroconverted, although they shed little virus. Our study demonstrates that a human isolate can replicate in and be shed by such songbirds and parakeets into their environment. This finding has implications for these birds' potential as intermediate hosts with the ability to facilitate transmission and dissemination of A(H7N9) virus.

  13. The Epistle of Cornelius, a Monk of the Snetogorsky Monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina I. Okhotnikova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of the dating and authorship of the Epistle of Cornelius, a monk of the Snetogorsky monastery, to his spiritual son, the priest Ivan, who decided to marry for a second time “for childbearing.” Nikolai I. Serebriansky dated the Epistle to the 1590s (this dating also was shared by subsequent researchers, based on the assertion that during the life of Ivan the Terrible, Cornelius would hardly have dared to write that tsars who violate the laws of the Church regarding the termination and conclusion of a second marriage would be punished by the birth of an heir who “will trample everything and will be an initiator of every evil deed.” The identification of the sources describing both the heir’s evil deeds and other parts of the text allows us to refine the dating of the Epistle. Cornelius finds arguments for the condemnation of his spiritual son’s decision to remarry not only in Scripture but also in contemporary hagiographic and publicistic works that date back to a period of time from the beginning of the 16th century to the 1540s: the Life of Euphrosynus of Pskov (the Story about Halleluiah, no later than 1510; the Epistle of Maximus the Greek to Fedor Karpov about Leviathan, dated between 1518 and 1525; the Epistle of Mark, patriarch of Jerusalem (from the Excerpt about the Second Marriage of Grand Prince Vasily III, from the 1540s. Such a concentration of works from a specific period of time suggests that the Epistle of Cornelius itself was written at about the same time. Most likely, the Cornelius who is identified as the author of the Epistle is the Cornelius listed as the former abbot of the Snetogorsky monastery in the 1562 record inscribed in the Gospel manuscript from the collection of the Russian State Library, f. 205, No. 29. Monk Cornelius could have written the Epistle no earlier than in 1525 and no later than in 1562, when he was no longer either a monk or the abbot of the Snetogorsky

  14. Facebook as a monastic place? The new use of internet by Catholic monks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Jonveaux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Catholic monasteries are theoretically out of the world, monks and nuns more and more use the internet, both for religious and non-religious reasons. While society at large often takes it for granted that monks are out of modernity, monastic communities have been adopted media from relatively early on, and we cannot say that they have come late to its use. The internet can offer monasteries a lot of advantages because it allows monks to be in the world without going out of the cloister. Nevertheless, the introduction of this new media in monasteries also raises a lot of questions about the potential contradictions it poses with other aspects of monastic life. The paper seeks to research the use of the medium by monks and nuns even in their daily lives, and attempts especially to investigate the potential changes it brings to monastic life.

  15. HMSRP Observation of Hawaiian monk seal behavioral interactions - Oahu and Laysan Island, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Infectious disease has the potential to pose serious risk to Hawaiian Monk Seal populations. HMSRP is currently researching and evaluating methods to minimize...

  16. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Shark Predation Mitigation Shark Sightings and Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on direct sightings of large sharks around monk seal pupping sites and shark incidents on preweaned and newly weaned pups at French Frigate Shoals are entered...

  17. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Contaminants (Blubber, serum, and whole blood persistent organic pollutants) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information on persistent organic pollutant analysis of Hawaiian monk seal whole blood and blubber samples from the northwestern Hawaiian...

  18. Sense of Coherence (SOC) in Christian Orthodox Monks and Nuns in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merakou, Kyriakoula; Taki, Stavroula; Barbouni, Anastasia; Antoniadou, Eleni; Theodoridis, Dimitrios; Karageorgos, Georgios; Kourea-Kremastinou, Jeny

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to investigate the stress management skills of Christian Orthodox monks and nuns, as measured by Antonovsky's scale sense of coherence (SOC). A case-control study was designed to test the hypotheses whether monks and nuns have higher SOC than secular people. The study population consisted of 193 individuals, 96 monks and nuns (study group) and 97 secular men and women (control group). SOC score was higher in monks and nuns as compared to the secular population (p = 0.002), men as compared to women (p = 0.012) and persons of older age (p = 0.004) as compared to younger individuals.

  19. Are Mediterranean Monk Seals, Monachus monachus, Being Left to Save Themselves from Extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarbartolo di Sciara, G; Kotomatas, S

    Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus), amongst the most endangered marine mammals, are showing localised signs of recovery warranting their recent down-listing, from Critically Endangered to Endangered, on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. This, however, cannot be taken as a reason for complacency, as the species' condition is still very critical, having been extirpated from most of its historical range. Monk seals within the Mediterranean, a 'unit to conserve' separate from Atlantic conspecifics, were once widely distributed throughout the Mediterranean Sea, with their range also extending into the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Today breeding nuclei persist only in the northeastern portion of the region, in Greek, Turkish and Cypriot waters. The main reasons for their decline include deliberate killing and human encroachment of their critical habitat. Past conservation efforts have mostly failed due to the inability of implementing institutional commitments, lack of coordination and continuity of efforts and insufficient consideration of the socioeconomic implications of conserving monk seals. Yet the small reversal of the species' decline that has been observed in Greece may have resulted from conservation efforts by civil society, combined with ongoing societal change within the local communities coexisting with the seals. The inaccessibility of large portions of monk seal habitat in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea may also have contributed, by offering to the monk seals a refuge from persecution and encroachment. Despite continued threats to monk seals, conservation activities at the local scale that utilise lessons learned from previous failures and successes could secure the survival of the largest Mediterranean colony of monk seals, while also providing a model to support the species' recovery in other portions of its former range. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution and 16S rDNA sequences of Argas monachus (Acari: Argasidae), a soft tick parasite of Myiopsitta monachus (Aves: Psittacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Turienzo, Paola; Di Iorio, Osvaldo; Nava, Santiago; Venzal, José M; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Mangold, Atilio J

    2011-11-01

    Specimens of Argas monachus Keirans et al. were collected from Myiopsitta monachus nests in 42 localities in Argentina and Paraguay from 2006 to 2010. A list of localities where this tick has been found is presented. 16S rDNA sequences of specimens of A. monachus from different localities were compared to confirm whether they belong to the same specific taxon. Argas monachus is present in the phytogeographic provinces of Chaco, Espinal, and Monte, but not in the Pampa (all from de Chaco Domain) where the host is well distributed. No differences were found among 16S rDNA sequences of geographically distant specimens.

  1. Crecimiento y desarrollo del complejo cráneo-mandibular y postcráneo en Myiopsitta monachus (Aves, Psittaciformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Carril, Julieta

    2015-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral busca reconocer procesos evolutivos de reprogramación al estudiar el desarrollo embrionario, determinar la secuencia de osificación y la diferenciación muscular en Psittaciformes en un contexto filogenético apropiado y explorar de qué manera dichos patrones pueden correlacionarse con estrategias adaptativas. Se toma como modelo a la cotorra Myiopsitta monachus y se focaliza en las novedades morfológicas del complejo cráneo-mandibular y en la altricialidad caracterí...

  2. Crecimiento y desarrollo del complejo cráneo-mandibular y postcráneo en Myiopsitta monachus (Aves, Psittaciformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Carril, Julieta

    2015-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral busca reconocer procesos evolutivos de reprogramación al estudiar el desarrollo embrionario, determinar la secuencia de osificación y la diferenciación muscular en Psittaciformes en un contexto filogenético apropiado y explorar de qué manera dichos patrones pueden correlacionarse con estrategias adaptativas. Se toma como modelo a la cotorra Myiopsitta monachus y se focaliza en las novedades morfológicas del complejo cráneo-mandibular y en la altricialidad caracterí...

  3. EFFECTS OF TRAMADOL ON THE MINIMUM ANESTHETIC CONCENTRATION OF ISOFLURANE IN WHITE-EYED PARAKEETS (PSITTACARA LEUCOPHTHALMUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, André; da Rocha, Rozana Wendler; Midon, Monica; de Almeida, Ricardo Miyasaka; Filho, Darcio Zangirolami; Werther, Karin

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) of isoflurane, and to investigate if tramadol changes the isoflurane MAC in white-eyed parakeets (Psittacara leucophthalmus). Ten adult birds weighing 157 ± 9 g were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen under mechanical ventilation. Isoflurane concentration for the first bird was adjusted to 2.2%, and after 15 min an electrical stimulus was applied in the thigh area to observe the response (movement or nonmovement). Isoflurane concentration for the subsequent bird was increased by 10% if the previous bird moved, or decreased by 10% if the previous bird did not move. This procedure was performed serially until at least four sequential crossover events were detected. A crossover event was defined as a sequence of two birds with different responses (positive or negative) to the electrical stimulus. Isoflurane MAC was calculated as the mean isoflurane concentration value at the crossover events. After 1 wk, the same birds were reanesthetized with isoflurane and MAC was determined at 15 and 30 min after intramuscular administration of 10 mg/kg of tramadol using the same method. A paired t-test (P tramadol administration were indistinguishable from each other (pooled value was 2.50 ± 0.18%); they were also indistinguishable from isoflurane MAC without tramadol. The isoflurane MAC value in white-eyed parakeets is higher than reported for other bird species. Tramadol (10 mg/kg, i.m.) does not change isoflurane MAC in these birds.

  4. Chromosomal Mapping of Repetitive DNAs in Myiopsitta monachus and Amazona aestiva (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae) with Emphasis on the Sex Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Furo, Ivanete; Kretschmer, Rafael; Dos Santos, Michelly S; de Lima Carvalho, Carlos A; Gunski, Ricardo J; O'Brien, Patrícia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Cioffi, Marcelo B; de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C

    2017-01-01

    Here, for the first time, we describe the karyotype of Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae, Arini). We found 2n = 48, corresponding to the lowest diploid number observed in Neotropical Psittaciformes so far, with an uncommonly large W chromosome homomorphic to the Z. In order to better understand the evolution of the sex chromosomes in this species, we applied several molecular cytogenetic approaches, including C-banding, FISH mapping of repetitive DNAs (several microsatellite repeats), and whole-chromosome painting on metaphases of M. monachus. For comparison, another species belonging to the same tribe but with a smaller W chromosome (A. aestiva) was also analyzed. The results show that the constitutive heterochromatin has a very diverse distribution pattern in these species revealing heterochromatic blocks in the centromeric region of all chromosomes and in most of the length of the W chromosome in A. aestiva, while in M. monachus they were found in interstitial and telomeric regions. Concerning the microsatellites, only the sequence (CG)n produced signals on the W chromosome of A. aestiva, in the distal region of both arms. However, in M. monachus, (CAA)n, (CAG)n, and (CG)n probes were accumulated on the W chromosome, and, in addition, the sequence (CAG)n also hybridized to heterochromatic regions in macrochromosomes, as well as in microchromosomes. Based on these results, we suggest that the increase in length of the W chromosome in M. monachus is due to the amplification of repetitive elements, which highlights their significant role in the evolutionary process of sex chromosome differentiation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Biogeography and taxonomy of extinct and endangered monk seals illuminated by ancient DNA and skull morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk-Martin Scheel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Extinctions and declines of large marine vertebrates have major ecological impacts and are of critical concern in marine environments. The Caribbean monk seal, Monachus tropicalis, last definitively reported in 1952, was one of the few marine mammal species to become extinct in historical times. Despite its importance for understanding the evolutionary biogeography of southern phocids, the relationships of M.tropicalis to the two living species of critically endangered monk seals have not been resolved. In this study we present the first molecular data for M. tropicalis, derived from museum skins. Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b sequences indicates that M. tropicalis was more closely related to the Hawaiian rather than the Mediterranean monk seal. Divergence time estimation implicates the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus in the speciation of Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals. Molecular, morphological and temporal divergence between the Mediterranean and “New World monk seals” (Hawaiian and Caribbean is profound, equivalent to or greater than between sister genera of phocids. As a result, we classify the Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals together in a newly erected genus, Neomonachus. The two genera of extant monk seals (Monachus and Neomonachus represent old evolutionary lineages each represented by a single critically endangered species, both warranting continuing and concerted conservation attention and investment if they are to avoid the fate of their Caribbean relative.

  6. [Differences in risk factors for disease and health problems between monks and the general population in The Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meel, D; de Vrij, J H; Kunst, A E; Mackenbach, J P

    1992-08-08

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the austerely living Trappist and Benedictine monks have a lower prevalence of a number of risk factors and health problems than the general Dutch population. A written questionnaire was submitted to monks of 7 monasteries. The response was 67 per cent (134 monks). The data were compared with data from the national Health Interview Survey of 1989, which used an almost identical questionnaire. Adjustment was made for differences in age and education. Monks consume less alcohol and tobacco and have a more austere diet. Their average Quetelet index is lower. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is lower. On the other hand, monks more often report a number of other chronic diseases, physical complaints, and problems with activities of daily life. They more often have contact with general practitioners and with consultants. The lower prevalence of a number of risk factors among monks reflects their austere way of life. It is not certain whether the lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases can be attributed to this way of life. The fact that, in general, health problems are more prevalent among monks suggests that changes in lifestyle do not necessarily lead to compression of morbidity.

  7. Oral hygiene and periodontal status among Terapanthi Svetambar Jain monks in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jain

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to determine the oral hygiene levels and periodontal status among Jain monks attending a Chaturmass in Udaipur, India. To date, no study has been conducted on Jain monks. The study comprises of 180 subjects and the overall response rate was 76% among them. Oral hygiene status was assessed by the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S of Greene, Vermillion14 (1964, and periodontal status was assessed by the Community Periodontal Index. Additional information was collected regarding food habits, education level and oral hygiene habits. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Chi Square Test and Step-wise multiple linear regression analysis were carried out using SPSS Software (11.0. The results showed that the oral hygiene status of Jain monks was poor and only 5.6% of the subjects had good oral hygiene. Overall periodontal disease prevalence was 100% with bleeding and shallow pocket contributing a major part (72.8% among all the age groups (p < 0.001. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that oral hygiene habits, caloric intake and education level explained a variance of 11.7% for the Oral hygiene index collectively. The findings confirmed that Jain monks have poor oral hygiene and an increased prevalence of periodontal disease compared to that of the similarly aged general population because, as a part of their religion, many Jain individuals avoid brushing their teeth especially during fasting, keeping in mind not to harm the microorganisms present in the mouth.

  8. Validation and application of noninvasive glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone measures in free-ranging Hawaiian monk seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobush, K S; Booth, R K; Wasser, S K

    2014-01-01

    We validate fecal glucocorticoid (GC) and thyroid (T3) hormone metabolite measures in the Critically Endangered Hawaiian monk seal for the first time, and examine variation in the concentrations of these hormones in individuals across the species' range. We test hypotheses that monk seals from declining subpopulations have relatively high GCs and low T3 on average suggesting impacts of food limitation, and that this hormone pattern is more apparent in immature animals compared to adults, as food limitation is specifically indicated as a principal cause of poor body condition and survival of juvenile monk seals. We opportunistically sampled scat from 84 individually identifiable monk seals during the 2010 breeding season from two geographic regions, the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). The MHI subpopulation of monk seals is growing, whereas subpopulations at many sites in the NWHI are in decline. Best fit general linear models predicting variation in GCs and T3 (examined separately) were similar (after accounting for significantly elevated hormone concentrations associated with molt and possibly lactation); both included sample date, region, and monk seal age as predictors. GC concentrations were significantly lower in MHI versus NWHI monk seals and decreased as the breeding season progressed. T3 concentrations were significantly lower in immature monk seals compared to adults. GC and T3 concentrations were positively correlated at 4 NWHI sites; prey may be adequate for physiological growth or maintenance at these sites but relatively stressful to acquire. GCs were highest at French Frigate Shoals, (a NWHI site) while T3 was relatively low here, indicating a possible signal of food limitation. GCs were lowest in the MHI. Disturbance associated with living near a high human population in the MHI appears to impact monk seal physiology less than other stressors encountered in the remote and highly protected NWHI where human

  9. Reproductive success depends on the quality of helpers in the endangered, cooperative El Oro parakeet (Pyrrhura orcesi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Nadine; Segelbacher, Gernot; Schaefer, H M

    2013-04-01

    In cooperative species, helping behaviour and reproductive success can be correlated, but understanding this correlation is often impaired by the difficulty to correctly infer causation. While helpers can incur costs by participating in brood care, it is yet unclear if their help depends on their individual quality. We address these questions in the previously unknown cooperative breeding system of the endangered El Oro parakeet (Pyrrhura orcesi). Specifically, we ask (i) whether breeders benefit directly from helpers by an enhanced reproductive success and if so, (ii) whether the amount of this potential benefit is regulated by the quality of contributing group members. Groups consist of a dominant breeding pair accompanied by helpers, but cooperation is not obligate. Microsatellite heterozygosity was used to assess individual quality; its suitability as indicator of quality was reflected in the positive relationship between offspring heterozygosity and recruitment into the population. The reproductive success of breeding pairs depended on helper (genetic) quality and the number of helpers. This relationship occurred on two different levels: clutch size and fledging success, indicating (i) that females profit from high-quality helpers and probably adjust clutch size accordingly and (ii) that the helpers increase fledging success. Congruently, we found that offspring body condition is positively affected by helper quality, which is most probably explained by the increased feeding rates when helpers are present. We suggest a causal link between cooperation and reproductive success in this frugivorous, endangered parakeet. Further, helper (genetic) quality can be a relevant factor for determining reproductive fitness in cooperative species, particularly in small and bottlenecked populations.

  10. Ring the bell for Matins: circadian adaptation to split sleep by cloistered monks and nuns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Brion, Agnès; Pottier, Michel; Golmard, Jean-Louis

    2011-12-01

    Cloistered monks and nuns adhere to a 10-century-old strict schedule with a common zeitgeber of a night split by a 2- to 3-h-long Office (Matins). The authors evaluated how the circadian core body temperature rhythm and sleep adapt in cloistered monks and nuns in two monasteries. Five monks and five nuns following the split-sleep night schedule for 5 to 46 yrs without interruption and 10 controls underwent interviews, sleep scales, and physical examination and produced a week-long sleep diary and actigraphy, plus 48-h recordings of core body temperature. The circadian rhythm of temperature was described by partial Fourier time-series analysis (with 12- and 24-h harmonics). The temperature peak and trough values and clock times did not differ between groups. However, the temperature rhythm was biphasic in monks and nuns, with an early decrease at 19:39 ± 4:30 h (median ± 95% interval), plateau or rise of temperature at 22:35 ± 00:23 h (while asleep) lasting 296 ± 39 min, followed by a second decrease after the Matins Office, and a classical morning rise. Although they required alarm clocks to wake-up for Matins at midnight, the body temperature rise anticipated the nocturnal awakening by 85 ± 15 min. Compared to the controls, the monks and nuns had an earlier sleep onset (20:05 ± 00:59 h vs. 00:00 ± 00:54 h, median ± 95% confidence interval, p= .0001) and offset (06:27 ± 0:22 h, vs. 07:37 ± 0:33 h, p= .0001), as well as a shorter sleep time (6.5 ± 0.6 vs. 7.6 ± 0.7 h, p= .05). They reported difficulties with sleep latency, sleep duration, and daytime function, and more frequent hypnagogic hallucinations. In contrast to their daytime silence, they experienced conversations (and occasionally prayers) in dreams. The biphasic temperature profile in monks and nuns suggests the human clock adapts to and even anticipates nocturnal awakenings. It resembles the biphasic sleep and rhythm of healthy volunteers transferred to a short (10-h) photoperiod and provides

  11. Associations between forest fragmentation patterns and geneticstructure in Pfrimer’s Parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri), an endangered endemic to central Brazil’s dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Leonard F.; Bianchi, Carlos; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    When habitat becomes fragmented, populations of species may become increasingly isolated. In the absence of habitat corridors, genetic structure may develop and populations risk reductions in genetic diversity from increased genetic drift and inbreeding. Deforestation of the Cerrado biome of Brazil, particularly of the dry forests within the Parana˜ River Basin, has incrementally occurred since the 1970s and increased forest fragmentation within the region. We performed landscape genetic analyses of Pfrimer’s parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri), a globally endangered endemic to the region, to determine if forest fragmentation patterns were associated with genetic structuring in this species. We used previously generated satellite imagery that identified the locations of Parana˜ River Basin forest fragments in 1977, 1993/94, and 2008. Behavioral data quantifying the affinity of Pfrimer’s parakeet for forest habitat was used to parameterize empirically derived landscape conductance surfaces. Though genetic structure was observed among Pfrimer’s parakeet populations, no association between genetic and geographic distance was detected. Likewise, least cost path lengths, circuit theorybased resistance distances, and a new measure of least cost path length complexity could not be conclusively associated with genetic structure patterns. Instead, a new quantity that encapsulated connection redundancy from the 1977 forest fragmentation data provided the clearest associations with pairwise genetic differentiation patterns (Jost’s D: r = 0.72, P = 0.006; FST: r = 0.741, P = 0.001). Our analyses suggest a 35-year or more lag between deforestation and its effect on genetic structure. Because 66 % of the Parana˜ River Basin has been deforested since 1977, we expect that genetic structure will increase substantially among Pfrimer’s Parakeet populations in the future, especially if fragmentation continues at its current pace.

  12. The Current Status and Future Plans for the Monte Carlo Codes MONK and MCBEND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N.; Shuttleworth, T.; Grimstone, M.; Hutton, L.; Armishaw, M.; Bird, A.; France, N.; Connolly, S.

    MONK and MCBEND are software tools used for criticality/reactor physics and shielding/dosimetry/general radiation transport applications respectively. The codes are developed by a collaboration comprising AEA Technology and BNFL, and AEA Technology's ANSWERS Software Service supplies them to customers throughout the world on a commercial basis. In keeping with this commercial nature it is vital that the codes' development programmes evolve to meet the diverse expectations of the current and potential customer base. This involves striving to maintain an acceptable balance in the development of the various components that comprise a modern software package. This paper summarises the current status of MONK and MCBEND by indicating how the task of trying to achieve this difficult balance has been addressed in the recent past and is being addressed for the future.

  13. Integrating multiple technologies to understand the foraging behaviour of Hawaiian monk seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littnan, Charles; Halpin, Patrick; Read, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate and describe the foraging behaviour of monk seals in the main Hawaiian Islands. Specifically, our goal was to identify a metric to classify foraging behaviour from telemetry instruments. We deployed accelerometers, seal-mounted cameras and GPS tags on six monk seals during 2012–2014 on the islands of Molokai, Kauai and Oahu. We used pitch, calculated from the accelerometer, to identify search events and thus classify foraging dives. A search event and consequent ‘foraging dive’ occurred when the pitch was greater than or equal to 70° at a depth less than or equal to −3 m. By integrating data from the accelerometers with video and GPS, we were able to ground-truth this classification method and identify environmental variables associated with each foraging dive. We used Bayesian logistic regression to identify the variables that influenced search events. Dive depth, body motion (mean overall dynamic body acceleration during the dive) and proximity to the sea floor were the best predictors of search events for these seals. Search events typically occurred on long, deep dives, with more time spent at the bottom (more than 50% bottom time). We can now identify where monk seals are foraging in the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) and what covariates influence foraging behaviour in this region. This increased understanding will inform management strategies and supplement outreach and recovery efforts. PMID:28405358

  14. Self-reported morbidity and disability among Trappist and Benedictine monks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, J P; Kunst, A E; de Vrij, J H; van Meel, D

    1993-10-15

    Studies of religious groups that impose prudent lifestyles on their members show low mortality rates in these groups, but it is unclear whether their morbidity rates are also low. The authors studied the prevalence of self-reported morbidity and disability among Trappist and Benedictine monks in the Netherlands. A health interview survey was administered in seven monasteries; the response rate was 67% (n = 134). Rates of morbidity and disability among monks were compared with those among all Dutch males by calculation of standardized morbidity ratios, adjusting for age and (in the case of morbidity) education. Self-reported morbidity among monks was similar to that in the general population (e.g., for one or more chronic conditions: standardized morbidity ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.89-1.26), but rates of disability related to activities of daily living were much higher (e.g., for any trouble sitting down and getting up from a chair: standardized morbidity ratio = 2.21, 95% confidence interval 1.44-3.32). The authors hypothesize that a prudent lifestyle may prolong life, but at the expense of a higher prevalence of disability.

  15. Ordaining for Learning Culture: Educational Conservation and Development of Buddhist Monk Universities for Isan People with Limited Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanit Sumhiram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Buddhist monk universities in Isan (northeast Thailand have problems of lacking Buddhist monk students. The number of people ordained for learning decreases because Isan people do not like ordaining for learning. In order to adjust the condition of problem to catch up with current conditions, this research study was conducted. The purpose of this research was to examine the background, current conditions, problems and process of conserving and developing ordaining for learning at Buddist monk universities for people with limited opportunity in Isan. Approach: The research area covered Khon Kaen, Nakhon Ratchasima and Roi Et provinces. Each of these provinces had campuses of the 2 Buddhist monk universities located in the same province. These universities had continuously been proving education at the undergraduate and graduate studies level up to present. The research procedure used the qualitative research methodology. Data were collected from documents, related literature and field studies using survey, observation, interviews and focus group discussion from a group of totally 208 informants. The findings were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: There were 2 universities: (1 Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University provided education at 3 locations: Khon Kaen Campus, first offered in 1986; Nakhon Ratchasima Campus, first established in 1987 and Roi Et Classroom, first established in 1999 according to the project for classroom extension by Khon Kaen Campus. (2 Mahamakut Buddhist University provided education at 3 locations: Isan Campus, located in Khon Kaen province, first established in 1990; Roi Et Campus, first established in 1994 and Koraj Education Center, located in Nakhon Ratchasima province, first established in 2006. For current conditions and problems of ordaining for learning at Buddhist monk universities for people with limited opportunity in Isan, Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University at

  16. Trace element concentrations in the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formigaro, Costanza; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Dendrinos, Panagiotis; Marsili, Letizia; Silvi, Marina; Zaccaroni, Annalisa

    2017-01-15

    The Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) is one of the most endangered marine mammals in the world. The biggest sub-population of the species survives in Greece, where understanding the effects of pollution on the survival of the species has been identified as a national research and conservation priority. From 1990 to 2013 we collected tissue samples from 59 deceased monk seals in order to: (i) Define the concentration of trace elements (As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Se, Cr, Ni) in three different matrices (i.e., blubber, liver and kidney), (ii) Determine whether differences in trace element concentrations are age- or gender-related, (iii) Evaluate the potential effects of these pollutants. The study recorded differences in trace element concentrations among matrices, but in general, trace element exposure in Mediterranean monk seals in Greece was low and within the non-acutely toxic levels for Pinnipeds. Only arsenic concentrations were at the upper limit of the normal range observed in other marine mammals (0.69±0.55mg/kg w.w. in blubber, 0.79±0.62mg/kg w.w. in liver and 0.79±0.59mg/kg w.w. in kidney). We recorded also exceptionally high Hg concentrations in a single adult female (24.88mg/kg w.w.). Age- and gender-related differences were also recorded and were due to various biological, ecological and chemical factors. Based on the results of the study, potentially adverse effects on the immune and endocrine system of the Mediterranean monk seal from some pollutants (e.g., As, Cd, Se, Ni, Cr) cannot be ruled out, which may expose the Mediterranean seal population in Greece to epizootics and stochastic phenomena of mass mortality. It is therefore of utmost importance that pollutant monitoring becomes an integral component of the standard monitoring protocol of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal in the eastern Mediterranean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Buddhism at Crossroads: A Case Study of Six Tibetan Buddhist Monks Navigating the Intersection of Buddhist Theology and Western Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonam, Tenzin

    Recent effort to teach Western science in the Tibetan Buddhist monasteries has drawn interest both within and outside the quarters of these monasteries. This novel and historic move of bringing Western science in a traditional monastic community began around year 2000 at the behest of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism. Despite the novelty of this effort, the literature in science education about learners from non-Western communities suggests various "cognitive conflicts" experienced by these non-Western learners due to fundamental difference in the worldview of the two knowledge traditions. Hence, in this research focuses on how six Tibetan Buddhist monks were situating/reconciling the scientific concepts like the theory of evolution into their traditional Buddhist worldview. The monks who participated in this study were engaged in a further study science at a university in the U.S. for two years. Using case study approach, the participants were interviewed individually and in groups over the two-year period. The findings revealed that although the monks scored highly on their acceptance of evolution on the Measurement of Acceptance of Theory of Evolution (MATE) survey, however in the follow-up individual and focus group interviews, certain conflicts as well as agreement between the theory of evolution and their Buddhist beliefs were revealed. The monks experienced conflicts over concepts within evolution such as common ancestry, human evolution, and origin of life, and in reconciling the Buddhist and scientific notion of life. The conflicts were analyzed using the theory of collateral learning and was found that the monks engaged in different kinds of collateral learning, which is the degree of interaction and resolution of conflicting schemas. The different collateral learning of the monks was correlated to the concepts within evolution and has no correlation to the monks' years in secular school, science learning or their

  18. 清代蒙古僧侣贵族述论%Mongolian Monks of Noble of Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力

    2012-01-01

    清代蒙古社会僧侣贵族的产生,主要有蒙古王公贵族出家为僧、西藏高僧活佛转世以及中央政府册封等,这三种途径既相互交织,又各具特色。僧侣贵族的形成,不仅改变了蒙古的社会结构,而且在一定程度上对蒙古社会的发展产生了重要影响。%Based on the various literature material, this article discusses the Mongolian social monks noble formed way and its ihtluence in Qing Dynasty. produced way of monks noble, basically have Mongolia nobility Mongolian took vows to become a monk, reincarnation of Tibetan monks and the central government conferring, the three kind of way is mutually intertwined, and each has its own characteristics. The formation of the monks noble, not only change the Mongolian social structure, and to a certain extent to the development of Mongolian society has produced important influence.

  19. Thalassornectes (Alcidectes) aukletae, new subgenus and species (Acari: Hypoderatidae) from the crested and parakeet auklets (Aves: Charadriiformes; Alcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, D B; Hoberg, E P

    1991-03-01

    In the genus Thalassornectes, a new subgenus, Alcidectes, and a new species, T. (Alcidectes) aukletae, are described from deutonymphs in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of the crested auklet, Aethia cristatella (Pallas), and the parakeet auklet, Cyclorrhynchus psittacula (Pallas), from the eastern Pacific USSR. The new subgenus and species differ from one or both of the single species in each of the other two subgenera, Thalassornectes and Rallidectes, by (1) the normal size, position, and parallel arrangement of the genital papillae; (2) the larger size of seta sce; (3) the greater length and stronger development of setae sci, d1, l1, h, and sh; (4) the equal size of tarsi III and IV or their size subequal, with tarsus IV slightly longer than tarsus III; (5) both epimera I and sternum well developed and nearly equal in length; and (6) the free sclerotized posteriad extension from epimerite II on the ventral cuticular surface. This is the first hypoderatid reported from the host order Charadriiformes. The distribution of T. (Alcidectes) aukletae among auklets may be attributed to either cospeciation or may have an ecological basis; data are insufficient at present to sustain either hypothesis.

  20. Variación en la fórmula de detectives de Monk.

    OpenAIRE

    Audy Yuliser, Castañeda Castañeda

    2012-01-01

    A lo largo de la historia televisiva estadounidense han surgido diversas series con detectives más o menos célebres. Más recientemente ha surgido un nuevo detective a la usanza de los clásicos. Se trata del señor Monk, cuyas características exploramos en esta investigación, inscrita en el ámbito de la literatura comparada. Dichas características serán contrastadas con los lineamientos de la fórmula clásica de detectives, así como con las innovaciones introducidas por Dashiell Hammett en su ob...

  1. Range-wide genetic connectivity of the Hawaiian monk seal and implications for translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jennifer K; Baker, Jason D; Toonen, Robert J; Harting, Albert L; Bowen, Brian W

    2011-02-01

    The Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) is one of the most critically endangered marine mammals. Less than 1200 individuals remain, and the species is declining at a rate of approximately 4% per year as a result of juvenile starvation, shark predation, and entanglement in marine debris. Some of these problems may be alleviated by translocation; however, if island breeding aggregates are effectively isolated subpopulations, moving individuals may disrupt local adaptations. In these circumstances, managers must balance the pragmatic need of increasing survival with theoretical concerns about genetic viability. To assess range-wide population structure of the Hawaiian monk seal, we examined an unprecedented, near-complete genetic inventory of the species (n =1897 seals, sampled over 14 years) at 18 microsatellite loci. Genetic variation was not spatially partitioned ((w) =-0.03, p = 1.0), and a Bayesian clustering method provided evidence of one panmictic population (K =1). Pairwise F(ST) comparisons (among 7 island aggregates over 14 annual cohorts) did not reveal temporally stable, spatial reproductive isolation. Our results coupled with long-term tag-resight data confirm seal movement and gene flow throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. Thus, human-mediated translocation of seals among locations is not likely to result in genetic incompatibilities.

  2. Portrayal of Mental Illness on the TV Series Monk: Presumed Influence and Consequences of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffner, Cynthia A; Cohen, Elizabeth L

    2015-01-01

    This study of responses to the TV series Monk, about a detective with obsessive-compulsive disorder, examines perceptions and behaviors related to mental illness. A total of 172 respondents completed an online survey. A parasocial bond with Monk was associated with lower stereotypes of mental illness and less social distance. Predictors and outcomes of perceived influence of the series on self and others were also examined. Perceived (positive) influence of the series on others' attitudes was predicted by respondents' favorable evaluation of the series's depiction of mental illness, as well as greater perceived exposure to and favorable evaluations among family and friends. Perceived influence on others also was associated with greater willingness to disclose mental health treatment, but only among people without personal or family experience with mental illness. In contrast, perceived influence of the series on self was predicted only by respondents' own evaluations of the series, and was related to willingness to seek mental health treatment-but only among those who had personally dealt with mental illness.

  3. The Monk's Tale: Nero's Nets and Caesar's Father -- An Inquiry into the Transformations of Classical Roman History in Medieval Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Martha S.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the lack of consistent accuracy about historical figures in Chaucer's "Monk's Tale." The story of Nero fishing in the Tiber with golden nets is corroborated by many other ancient and medieval authors; however, the reference to Julius Caesar as being of lowly birth is peculiar only to Chaucer and a few medieval English authors.…

  4. COINFECTION OF CALIFORNIA SEA LION ADENOVIRUS 1 AND A NOVEL POLYOMAVIRUS IN A HAWAIIAN MONK SEAL (NEOMONACHUS SCHAUINSLANDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Hinojosa, Galaxia; Doescher, Bethany; Kinsel, Michael; Lednicky, John; Loeb, Julia; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-06-01

    The Hawaiian monk seal (Neomonachus schauinslandi) is an endangered species. Here, we present a clinical case of a 26-yr-old male Hawaiian monk seal (HMS) kept in an aquarium with a history of intermittent anorexia and evidence of renal disease. Histologic examination revealed eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions in the liver. Conventional nested PCR protocols were used to test for viruses, and it tested positive for adenovirus and polyomavirus, and negative for herpesvirus. The adenovirus partial polymerase gene is 100% homologous to that of California sea lion adenovirus 1 (CSLAdV-1). CSLAdV-1 causes viral hepatitis in CSL, and has recently been reported in different species of otariids in an aquarium in Japan ( Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus pusillus ) and a sequence from Spain has been submitted in NCBI as Otaria flavescens adenovirus-1. The polyomavirus in this animal is a novel virus, and is the first polyomavirus discovered in Hawaiian monk seals. This new virus is designated Hawaiian monk seal polyomavirus (HMSPyV-1), and is 83% homologous to California sea lion Polyomavirus-1 (CSLPyV-1). This is the first report of viral coinfection in a HMS and clinical significance in this case remains unclear but may be associated with advanced age.

  5. The Dual Role a Buddhist Monk Played in the American South: The Balance between Heritage and Citizenship in the Refugee Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rhodes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Buddhist Monks in Vietnam struggle with cultural preservation differently from a monk in the U.S. where the forces of acculturation for new arrivals, often refugees, are extraordinarily overwhelming. The author provides a case study examining how Buddhist leaders engage in cultural preservation and community building in the American South. Fusing ideas of Engaged Buddhism and community building, the author will demonstrate how a Buddhist monk is able to navigate the broader American culture and assist Vietnamese immigrants and refugees to acculturate, while maintaining their own cultural heritage, beliefs and religious traditions; ultimately building a viable and sustainable Buddhist community that contributes greatly to its new host community.

  6. HODSONG: A MONASTERY RITUAL FOR A LOCAL WISDOM CEREMONY FOR THE MONK RANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerapong Meethaisong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ranking order of monk in Isan, Thailand was influenced mostly from Buddhist believe and practices starting from Lanchang period and this religious believe become the common practices and the tool for local community in strengthening harmony and unity. One of the important religious ceremony calls Hodsong ceremony. The research area covered Maha Sarakham, Roi Et and Kalasin provinces which there are many Monk’s hierarchy ceremony. The research procedure used the qualitative research methodology. Data were collected from related literature and field studies using interviews and focus group discussion from a group of totally 66 informants. The findings were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. This research finds; Hodsong ceremony of Isan people was evidentially found since Dvaravati period, Sukhothai (Lanna, Lan Chang, Ayuthaya, Thonburi and Rattanakosin period. It was approved from different archeological sites such as Prathat Yakhu, Um Yakhu and the other kind of evident as has been recognized as a position or ranking such as Ratchakhru and Lakkham for instance. In addition, there were some equipment that was involved within this ceremony such as the water tube or Honghod were found at Wat Wichunrat and Wat Chiangthong, including different temple in Isan. The Laab or Supannabat (a golden plate used for in scripted manuscript was rarely found,and most of remains were reproduced. Hodsong ceremony is a religious tradition of Isan people that combined the ritual and believe together. Currently, Local Isan people still practice this ceremony in some communities with the 8 steps of preparation of instruments, Hodsong ornaments the itinerary order of the ceremony the ceremonial location the establishing ritual Baisri setting Sootkhwanbaisri or morale setting consoling and tied arms tradition. In addition, this ceremony involved with believers of direction and occasion from traditional beliefs. Despite, there were some problems such as

  7. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....

  8. Antiproliferative Activity of Triterpene Glycoside Nutrient from Monk Fruit in Colorectal Cancer and Throat Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer and throat cancer are the world’s most prevalent neoplastic diseases, and a serious threat to human health. Plant triterpene glycosides have demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated potential anticancer effects of mogroside IVe, a triterpenoid glycoside from monk fruit, using in vitro and in vivo models of colorectal and laryngeal cancer. The effects of mogroside IVe on the proliferation of colorectal cancer HT29 cells and throat cancer Hep-2 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, and the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and MMP-9 were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that mogroside IVe inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of HT29 and Hep-2 cells in culture and in xenografted mice, which was accompanied by the upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, and downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9 and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2. This study revealed the suppressive activity of mogroside IVe towards colorectal and throat cancers and identified the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that mogroside IVe may be potentially used as a biologically-active phytochemical supplement for treating colorectal and throat cancers.

  9. Antiproliferative Activity of Triterpene Glycoside Nutrient from Monk Fruit in Colorectal Cancer and Throat Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Dai, Longhai; Liu, Yueping; Rong, Long; Dou, Dequan; Sun, Yuanxia; Ma, Lanqing

    2016-06-13

    Colorectal cancer and throat cancer are the world's most prevalent neoplastic diseases, and a serious threat to human health. Plant triterpene glycosides have demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated potential anticancer effects of mogroside IVe, a triterpenoid glycoside from monk fruit, using in vitro and in vivo models of colorectal and laryngeal cancer. The effects of mogroside IVe on the proliferation of colorectal cancer HT29 cells and throat cancer Hep-2 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and MMP-9 were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that mogroside IVe inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of HT29 and Hep-2 cells in culture and in xenografted mice, which was accompanied by the upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, and downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. This study revealed the suppressive activity of mogroside IVe towards colorectal and throat cancers and identified the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that mogroside IVe may be potentially used as a biologically-active phytochemical supplement for treating colorectal and throat cancers.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF MONK EQUIPPED PONDS ON THE QUALITY OF BASIN HEAD STREAMS, THE EXAMPLE OF WATER TEMPERATURE IN LIMOUSIN AND BERRY (FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent TOUCHART

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the centre-west regions of France, the deep water outlet system known as a “monk” is used in 13% of bodies of water. The authorities are strongly encouraging this to increase, arguing that this system would reduce pond induced warming of the hydrographical network. We have measured the water temperature in four monk equipped ponds for 13 years to such an extent that this paper draws on an analysis of 142,200 original measurements. Compared to a surface outflow, a monk is a system which shifts the warming of the emissary water course to the end of summer and the autumn which reduces average annual warming by about 1°C. This reduces the heating of diurnal maxima but increases warming of the minima. A monk equipped pond warms the river with deep water which has acquired its heat by mechanical convection generated by the wind, as opposed to a weir equipped pond which provides surface water warmed by insolation. In winter the monk equipped pond does not damage the thermal living conditions for Fario trout embryos and larvae under the gravel. In summer, the monk prevents night time cooling of the emissary and increases the temperature of the minima excessively for sensitive species.

  11. Parents' and children's acceptance of skim chocolate milks sweetened by monk fruit and stevia leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Chocolate milk increases milk consumption of children, but high sugar content raises health concerns. Interest in sugar reduction and parents' preference for natural sweeteners necessitates further research on natural nonnutritive sweeteners. However, it is important to maintain consumer acceptability, especially for children, while reducing sugar in chocolate milk. The objectives of this study were to identify the sweetness intensity perception of stevia leaf (STV) and monk fruit (MK) extracts in skim chocolate milk (SCM), to evaluate STV and MK as the sole or partial sweetener source for SCM for young adults (19 to 35 y) and children (5 to 13 y), and to determine if information on natural nonnutritive sweeteners impacted parents' acceptability of SCM. Power function and 2-alternative forced choice studies were used to determine the iso-sweetness of nonnutritive sweeteners to a sucrose control in SCM (51.4 g/L, SUC control). Young adults (n = 131) evaluated 9 different SCM (SUC control, STV, MK, STV:sucrose blends, or MK:sucrose blends) in a completely randomized 2-d test. Children (n = 167) evaluated SUC control SCM and SCM with 39.7 g/L sucrose and 46 mg/L MK (MK25) or 30 mg/L STV (STV25). Parents evaluated SUC control, MK25, and STV25 in a balanced crossover design with a 40-d wait time between primed or unprimed ballots. Chocolate milks solely sweetened by nonnutritive sweeteners were less acceptable compared with SUC control by young adults. MK25 and STV25 were acceptable by young adults and children. The presentation of chocolate milk label information had different effects on parental acceptance. Traditional parents preferred sucrose sweetened SCM, and label conscious parents preferred SCM with natural nonnutritive sweeteners. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Uncover the Mysterious Veil of Tibetan Monks Debate%揭开藏僧辩经的神秘面纱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玛代青

    2013-01-01

      Simply introduces the process and procedures of the Tibetan Buddhist monks debate, The debate ceremony as well as the body movements and emotions. With the extensive use of the methods and ideas of Anthropology, describes the rules and order and emotional adjustment methods, habits of the people and the function of the debate.In Tibetan Buddhist monks debate, we can see their unbelievable active thinking. this kind of teaching and the unique study methodin is rare outside Tibetan areas. Almost all Tibetan areas identified by the school are opened logic course which as the basic subject of learning other courses has a very important role.%  在藏区的辩经学院中,辩经是学习佛法的一种最为重要的途径。它在僧人的学习过程中是不可或缺的。简单地介绍了藏传佛教僧人辩经的过程和程序,辩经的仪式以及辩论中的身体动作和情绪等。大量利用了人类学的方法和思路,对辩经中遵循的规则和秩序以及人物情绪调整的方法和习性、辩论功能进行了描述。

  13. Social Feedback and the Emergence of Rank in Animal Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Elizabeth A; DeDeo, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Dominance hierarchies are group-level properties that emerge from the aggression of individuals. Although individuals can gain critical benefits from their position in a hierarchy, we do not understand how real-world hierarchies form. Nor do we understand what signals and decision-rules individuals use to construct and maintain hierarchies in the absence of simple cues such as size or spatial location. A study of conflict in two groups of captive monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) found that a transition to large-scale order in aggression occurred in newly-formed groups after one week, with individuals thereafter preferring to direct aggression more frequently against those nearby in rank. We consider two cognitive mechanisms underlying the emergence of this order: inference based on overall levels of aggression, or on subsets of the aggression network. Both mechanisms were predictive of individual decisions to aggress, but observed patterns were better explained by rank inference through subsets of the aggression network. Based on these results, we present a new theory, of a feedback loop between knowledge of rank and consequent behavior. This loop explains the transition to strategic aggression and the formation and persistence of dominance hierarchies in groups capable of both social memory and inference.

  14. Spermatozoa characteristics in six psittacine species using light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, G; Schmidt, V; Sobiraj, A; Krautwald-Junghanns, M-E

    2009-12-01

    Even though breeding of companion birds has increased continuously for years, the fecundity assessment of birds has hardly been acknowledged. Knowledge of the structure of spermatozoa is crucial for evaluation of the basic reproductive biology of any species as well as for phylogenetic research and cladistic analyses of internal relationships. Spermatozoa of six different psittacine species (Nymphicus hollandicus, Myiopsitta monachus, Agapornis roseicollis, Melopsittacus undulatus, Tanygnathus lucionensis, Guarouba guarouba) were examined using light microscopy. Head length (nucleus including acrosome), head width, midpiece length and tail length were measured and documented. Significant differences were obvious among almost all of the species for almost all four parameters. However, in all the six species a significant moderate correlation between spermatozoa midpiece lengths and tail lengths (r=0.535, pmonk parakeet, blue-naped parrrot and golden conure are previously unreleased and documented for the first time.

  15. Social Feedback and the Emergence of Rank in Animal Society.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Hobson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dominance hierarchies are group-level properties that emerge from the aggression of individuals. Although individuals can gain critical benefits from their position in a hierarchy, we do not understand how real-world hierarchies form. Nor do we understand what signals and decision-rules individuals use to construct and maintain hierarchies in the absence of simple cues such as size or spatial location. A study of conflict in two groups of captive monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus found that a transition to large-scale order in aggression occurred in newly-formed groups after one week, with individuals thereafter preferring to direct aggression more frequently against those nearby in rank. We consider two cognitive mechanisms underlying the emergence of this order: inference based on overall levels of aggression, or on subsets of the aggression network. Both mechanisms were predictive of individual decisions to aggress, but observed patterns were better explained by rank inference through subsets of the aggression network. Based on these results, we present a new theory, of a feedback loop between knowledge of rank and consequent behavior. This loop explains the transition to strategic aggression and the formation and persistence of dominance hierarchies in groups capable of both social memory and inference.

  16. Vocal-tract filtering by lingual articulation in a parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Gabriël J L; Nelson, Brian S; Suthers, Roderick A

    2004-09-07

    Human speech and bird vocalization are complex communicative behaviors with notable similarities in development and underlying mechanisms. However, there is an important difference between humans and birds in the way vocal complexity is generally produced. Human speech originates from independent modulatory actions of a sound source, e.g., the vibrating vocal folds, and an acoustic filter, formed by the resonances of the vocal tract (formants). Modulation in bird vocalization, in contrast, is thought to originate predominantly from the sound source, whereas the role of the resonance filter is only subsidiary in emphasizing the complex time-frequency patterns of the source (e.g., but see ). However, it has been suggested that, analogous to human speech production, tongue movements observed in parrot vocalizations modulate formant characteristics independently from the vocal source. As yet, direct evidence of such a causal relationship is lacking. In five Monk parakeets, Myiopsitta monachus, we replaced the vocal source, the syrinx, with a small speaker that generated a broad-band sound, and we measured the effects of tongue placement on the sound emitted from the beak. The results show that tongue movements cause significant frequency changes in two formants and cause amplitude changes in all four formants present between 0.5 and 10 kHz. We suggest that lingual articulation may thus in part explain the well-known ability of parrots to mimic human speech, and, even more intriguingly, may also underlie a speech-like formant system in natural parrot vocalizations.

  17. Evolución del inventario arbóreo del Zoo de Barcelona y su función en la atracción de avifauna. Naturalización de Ardea cinerea,Myiopsitta monachus,Pica pica y Sylvia atricapilla

    OpenAIRE

    MARÍN FABREGAT, DAVID; Beltran Peinado, Iván; Caballero Buenaventura, Albert

    2015-01-01

    El estudio pretende realizar una actualización del inventario arbóreo del Zoo de Barcelona. Así mismo se plantea conocer la relación que tienen las aves de estudio con los árboles presentes en el Zoo, siendo las aves de estudio: la Urraca (Pica pica), la Garza real (Ardea cinerea), Cotorra de pecho gris (Myiopsitta monachus) y la Curruca capirotada (Sylvia atricapilla). El objetivo final es encontrar especies clave árboreas para promover que las especies de avifauna que se han escogido, y no ...

  18. 苍雪大和尚《南来堂集》辑佚∗%Poems by Monk Cangxue Not Collected in Nan Lai Tang Ji

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启元

    2014-01-01

    Cangxue Duche ( 1588-1656 ) composed some of the best poems among monks in the late Ming Dynasty. His poems, however, had long been circulating in hand-written copies until Nan Lai Tang Ji –Collected Poems by Master Cangxue, the best of his collected works edited by Wang Peisun, came in-to being in the era of the Republic of China ( 1912-1949 ) . By reading collected works of the contempora-ry monks of Cangxue, the present author has identified some other poems and essays not included in the a-bove mentioned collection, especially forwards Cangxue wrote for the collected works of other authors. These poems can show that Cangxue, well versed in quite a number of topics and styles, made great contri-butions to the amalgamation between the monks and the laymen.%苍雪读彻之诗为晚明诗僧中之翘楚,但其诗长期以抄本形式流传。民国王培孙先生辑校《苍雪大师南来堂诗集》为苍雪诗歌流传最佳版本。今翻检明清僧传与诗文集,另有零星苍雪之作存世,尤以其为当日僧人诗歌总集与僧传所作序文,可见这位高僧对儒门诸科的谙熟以及本人为僧俗融合所作出的努力。

  19. MONK Project and the Reference for Text Mining Applied to the Humanities in China%MONK项目及其对我国人文领域文本挖掘的借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许鑫; 郭金龙; 蔚海燕

    2012-01-01

    MONK is a crossdisciplinary text mining project in the humanities undertaken by several universities and research institutes from America and Canada. This paper mainly discusses the text mining process of MONK as well as relevant tools, techniques and algorithm. Two case studies based on MONK are introduced to give details about the application of text mining to the humanities. Finally the authors summarize some unique applications of text mining applied to the humanities and discuss what we can learn from the MONK projeet.%针对美国和加拿大等高校共同承担的大型跨学科人文文本挖掘项目MONK,详细介绍其文本挖掘流程及相应的工具、技术和算法,并具体探讨利用MONK提供的工具进行文学文本挖掘研究的应用实例。最后总结人文领域文本挖掘方法的几类应用,提出该项目对我国人文领域应用文本挖掘的启示。

  20. Monje y soldado. La imagen masculina durante el Franquismo. Monk and soldier. The masculine image during the Franco regime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Aja, Teresa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenTras la Guerra Civil, en España se establece un nuevo régimen, que tiene como eje central la figura de Franco. Dentro de la imagen que el franquismo quiso dar, jugó un importante papel, al igual que en todos los regímenes totalitarios, la imagen id alizada del hombre. Se hará una defensa de mito del hombre perfecto, que incluye lo corporal, aunque siempre estará más próximo a la imagen del caballero perfecto, del "monje-soldado", hecho de austeridad, de espíritu de sacrificio, pero también de impasibilidad ante la sangre vertida, que al modelo corporal desarrollado en el fascismo italiano y en el nazismo alemán. El deporte se deja en manos de un nuevo organismo que iba a ser una delegación o agencia de la Secretaría General del Movimiento Nacional, el único partido político permitido y una incómoda alianza de falangistas, monárquicos y carlistas. Su misión era usar el ámbito deportivo internacional para una exhibición de la virilidad y la furia españolas, lo mismo que habían hecho los regímenes alemán e italiano en la década de 1930-40. Se descartó, por tanto, desde el principio, toda posibilidad de que el deporte pudiera tener cierto grado de independencia respecto al nuevo poder político. En consecuencia hablar del culto al cuerpo, de deporte, durante el periodo franquista, resulta hablar de la adaptación de distintos modelos a distintas etapas y a las necesidades de un personaje muy concreto.AbstractAfter the Civil War, in Spain a new regime turns up. Franc was the central figure of that new situation. The Francoism wanted to give an idealizada image of the man, like in all the totalitarian regimes. A defense of myth of the perfect man will become, which included his physical appearence, although it would always be nearer the image of the perfect gentelman, of the "soldier-monk ", a compound of austerity, spirit of sacrifice, an impassiveness when faced with bloodshed, that to the developed corporal model in

  1. On the Works by and Thoughts of Master Monk Yan- shou%永明延寿禅师的著述及思想略论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄诚

    2012-01-01

    Yan- shou was a great influential master monk with Buddhist thoughts. In his life, he insisted on "Chan Jing Jian Xiu" ( "Chan is integrated with Sukhavati" ), " Chan Jie Bing Zhong" ( " Chan is integrated with Rules" ). He wrote many theoretical works on Buddhism and Chan. These works not only express his Buddhist thought and theory, but also exert an important influence in academic field on the history of Chinese Buddhism.%永明延寿是有着重要影响的佛教思想人物。他一生"禅净兼修"、"禅戒并重",且著述颇丰。其著述集中表达了他的佛教思想及其理论主张,在中国佛教思想史上具有重要的学术思想影响。

  2. 中华大藏经版《续高僧传》在文字学研究中的价值%The Value of Chinese Tripitaka Edition Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks in the Study of Philology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明龙

    2012-01-01

    Continued Biographies of Eminent Monks has big values in study of the evolution of the shape of Chinese characters and its culture and textual history and other aspects.%《续高僧传》在汉字的形体演变,汉字文化及文字学史等方面具有较大的研究价值。

  3. Three-fold Narration in Novels about Strange Monks in Records of Taiping Era (太平广记)%《太平广记》异僧小说的“三重”叙事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾礼军

    2014-01-01

    With religious , biographical and aesthetic features , novels about strange monks in Records of Taip-ing Era (太平广记) represent the narrative achievement of monk biography in the Jin and Tang dynasties .In the magical narration , the philosophic thought and nature of Buddhism are accommodated .In the biographical narra-tion, the mystical concept and religious truth are attached .In the aesthetic narration , the monk images and reli-gious magic are depicted .%《太平广记》异僧小说整体上代表了晋唐时期僧传文学的叙事成就,有着宗教性、史传性和审美性三位一体的叙事特征。其神异叙事善于融通佛教哲思和启悟佛性体认;史传叙事注重烘托神异观念和突出宗教真实;审美叙事重视刻画僧人形象和描绘宗教神奇。

  4. On activity space of monks in the Song Dynasty from the angel of Yi Jian Zhi%从《夷坚志》看宋代僧人活动空间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠

    2012-01-01

    Yi Jian Zhi written by Hong Mai in the Southern Song Dynasty described the social behaviors from the late Northern Song Dynasty to the early Southern Song Dynasty, among which there were a lot about monks. In the book, the activity space of monks was wide, their social networking was active, and their social activities were various. People of that age held different opinions on it. This paper studies the relevant records about this book in order to help people have a better understanding of the society of the Northern and Southern Song Dynasties, especially the whole image of the monk group of that period.%南宋洪迈所作《夷坚志》记述了北宋末年至南宋初年的社会百态,其中关于僧人的记述尤为丰富,书中描述的僧人活动空间非常广泛,社交比较活跃,从事活动丰富多样,对此时人亦有不同议论。通过对该书相关记述的梳理,以更好地了解两宋时期的社会状态尤其是该时期僧人群体的形象。

  5. 人间佛教与学僧文学创作的入世转向%Humanistic Buddhism and the Attention to the Mundane of Learning Monk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾国宝

    2014-01-01

    Showing the attention to the mundane,the literary creation of Learning Monk has been inseparable from the profound impact of"Humanistic Buddhism".As an important part of Buddhist thought in modern China,Humanistic Buddhism advocated by Taixu has been marked the establish-ment of modern Buddhism,and further has promoted Buddhist socialization and secularization.Before and after May Fourth Movement,the special group named learning monk have sprung up in the Bud-dhist community,which are the supporters of Taixu Thought.They have consciously pursued the at-tention to the real life among the literary works.Facing the country invaded,they have expressed their patriotic feelings.Above all they have bravely faced Buddhist internal conflict and described the tragedy of young monk,so these novelettes have contained the strong sentimental mood that has been the true performance of these writers'own predicament.The disharmony including the diaphragm and the collision between Religious and Secular has been also displayed.They have used realistic technique in order to pay the attention to the real life,which has represented their pioneer awareness and mun-dane feelings.%学僧的文学创作及其所呈现的入世转向,离不开“人间佛教”的深刻影响。太虚大师倡导的“人间佛教”是中国近代以来佛教思潮的重要组成部分,标志着现代佛教革新方向的确立,进一步推动了佛教的“社会化”与“世俗化”。五四前后,僧界涌现出特殊的学僧群体,他们基本上是太虚思想的支持者和拥护者。深受“人间佛教”思想影响的他们,在文学创作上自觉追求对现实生活的深切关注,面对国家的被侵略,不忘爱国情怀的抒发。更为突出的是,他们敢于直面佛门内部的新旧冲突,尝试运用小说的形式描述年轻主人公的悲惨遭遇,感伤的情绪尤其浓郁,它是学僧作家自身困境的真实表现。僧俗之间的隔膜、冲

  6. 余嘉锡《四库提要辨证·神僧传》考证辨析%Yu Jiaxiˊs Textual Criticism and Discrimination on God Monk Biography of Four Abstract Dialectics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元文广; 靳利翠

    2016-01-01

    余嘉锡所著《四库提要辨证》是对《四库全书总目》研究的重要成果.此书对《四库总目》中的 490余篇提要进行了辨证,提出不少宝贵意见,但也存在一些可以进一步讨论的问题.仅就《四库提要辨证·神僧传》条的考证思路、论据等进行讨论,认为余嘉锡先生从目录学角度讨论《神僧传》的撰者问题,其论述过程不够严谨,所提供论据存在问题,不能直接指向结论,因此,所得结论很难令人信服.从《神僧传》版本源流角度入手,用直接论据使《神僧传》撰者问题更加明确、所得结论《神僧传》为明成祖所撰集更具说服力.%Four Abstract Dialecticswritten by Yu Jiaxi is one important result of the research on 〞Four Abstract Dialectics〞. In this book,Yu made dialectical research on490 articles in General Catalogue of Si Ku QuanShu,presenting some valuable suggestions. However,there are some problems which need further discus-sion . The dialectical thought train and grounds of argument for God Monk Biography of Four Abstract Dialectics are one example that needs further discussion. Since he studied the author from the angle of its catalogue,Yuˊs argument process of Biography of God Monk was not precise,and grounds of argument he offered could not reach the conclusion,so his conclusion was unconvincing. If the study starts with the version source of Biogra-phy of God Monk,makes the author of God Monk Biography more clear with direct grounds,and thus reach a more persuasive conclusion that Biography of God Monk was written by Emperor Cheng Zu in Ming Dynasty.

  7. Nutritional status and phytate:zinc and phytate x calcium:zinc dietary molar ratios of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks: 10 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, B F; Smith, S A; Howard, M P; Ellis, R; Smith, J C

    1988-12-01

    A nutrition assessment of 16 members of a community of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks was conducted in 1977. Plasma zinc was found to be low-normal, which was attributed primarily to high intakes of phytate-containing foods. Individual and group counseling were instituted over a 10-year period in an attempt to emphasize the importance of wise food selection within the constraints of lacto-ovo vegetarianism. In 1987, a more comprehensive nutrition assessment of 21 members of the same community was performed. Food composites were analyzed, and 3-day instead of 24-hour dietary records were kept. Intakes of phytate-containing foods had decreased from 4,569 to 972 mg/day; intake of dietary zinc had increased from 7.4 to 9.7 mg/day; and the phytate:zinc molar ratio had decreased from 67 to 14 for the years 1977 and 1987, respectively. An analyzed phytate:zinc molar ratio of 9.8 and an analyzed phytate x calcium:zinc molar ratio of 0.3 were representative of the 1987 community. Both were within normal ranges. Plasma zinc had risen to upper-normal levels. The 1987 nutrition assessment showed that it is possible to be adequately nourished with a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet provided one has proper knowledge of the phytate-containing foods and the methods for compensating with foods of greater mineral density (primarily zinc).

  8. A Comparative Study of Confucianism,Taoism,Buddhism Monks Systems%儒道佛的僧侣体系比较与现代启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟

    2015-01-01

    中华民族五千年文明传承创新,多种文化圆融共生,儒道佛乃是其主体。然各教信众层次不一,儒有圣贤,道有真人道长,僧有沙弥比丘,他们各守其道,依其道行及所授戒律而分层。各教修行法门亦有千秋,儒教克己灭欲,道教内丹外丹,佛教八道六度,渐行修法。三教共生互通,入教简单,管理规范,主张内外兼修,劝善嫉恶,对个人德行修养、社会和谐具有借鉴意义。%China has a long history of 5 ,000 years which culture is characterized by Confucianism ,Tao‐ism and Buddhism .However ,they are different in many ways :Confucianism features doctrines abided by saints ,Taoism refers to the theories coined and Buddhism is the religion believed by monks and nuns .Con‐fucians stress self -discipline and restrain .Taoists seek for longevity while Buddhists tend to meditation and self -revelation .They have a lot in common because of suggesting individuals both physically and spiritually ,w hich is beneficial to individual’s self -development and significant for a harmonious society .

  9. The Horrible Characteristics and the Biblical Archetypal Analysis of THE MONK%论《修道士》的恐怖美学及其圣经渊源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凌玮

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the Gothic novel study , The Monk also received a lot of attention from the researchers .Many of them have a detailed in - depth study already . This paper is based on the analysis of the typical images that appeared in the death of Ambrose , trying to explore its unique aesthetic of terror and cultural origins with The Bible ,having the value of The Monk upgraded in both horizontal and vertical dimensions .%随着哥特小说研究的兴起,《修道士》也越来越受到研究界的重视。立足文本,在通过对安布罗斯之死中出现的典型意象分析的基础上,探讨其独具特色的恐怖美学和其与圣经的文化渊源,在横向与纵向两个维度上完成对《修道士》的价值提升。

  10. Sea voyages of Buddhist monks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Facets_Indian_Civilization_1997_551.pdf.txt stream_source_info Facets_Indian_Civilization_1997_551.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  11. Assessment of the Empirical Management Method of Coppice Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Forests Practiced by the Monks and its Effect on the Availability of Forest Soil Resources in Mount Athos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios PAPAIOANNOU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, chestnut forests (Castanea sativa Mill. occupy more than 30,000 ha of forest land. The species is one of the most significant of the Balkans. It is mainly cultivated for its high quality wood. Concerning cultivation and harvesting, the monks in Mount Athos peninsula in northern Greece practice a special empirical management method for local coppice chestnut forests. Data collected from 9 sampling surfaces, comprising of coppice chestnut stands of three different ages (10, 20 and 40 years old, were analyzed to study the effect of this particular empirical management method on specific soil parameters. Results indicated that, there is a general trend for increased organic matter and nutrient concentrations in the soil of 10 and 40 years old chestnut stands in comparison to those of 20 years of age. Cultivation treatments cause intense alterations on soil properties, leading to severe degradation of nutrient resources.

  12. Adherent Monks ’ Idea of Pure Land of LingNan in the Early Qing Dynasty and Humanistic Buddhism%清初岭南遗民僧的“净土”理念与人间佛教

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮红薇

    2015-01-01

    明末清初的岭南,士大夫纷纷逃禅,形成了以天然-澹归一系为核心的遗民僧群体。他们笃行大乘菩萨道慈悲悯人、普救众生的精神,充满着对人间净土世界的期冀。遗民僧的人间净土与菩萨行的结合契合近现代人间佛教运动的思想潮流,将二者联系论述,有助于揭示岭南佛教的历史发展轨迹,促进当代人间佛教的融合。%The scholar-bureaucras of the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty in the region of Lingnan altered their views of value and escaped to Dhyana, which formed a group of adherent monks was with the lineage of Tianran to Dangui at a core. They practiced the spirit devotedly of Mahayana practitioners’ path with mercy, compassion and saving all the living beings, which was full of desire for pure land in humankind world. This method that combined humankind pureland with the bodhisattva’s way of adherent monks went along with the ideological trend of Humanistic Buddhism. Hence, this discussion by contacting the two parts is to revealing the development track of the history of LingnanBuddhism, and advancing their fusion with Humanistic Buddhism.

  13. 异域想象与文人观念:论晚明清初通俗小说中胡僧形象的色情化%Exotic Imagination and Literati's Ideas:The Eroticization of Foreign Monks in Late-Ming and Early-Qing Vernacular Fiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛英杰

    2016-01-01

    Foreign monks in vernacular fiction in late Ming and early Qing Dynasties are often con‐structed as lascivious characters who are associated with having black faces ,keeping aphrodisiacs and teaching men sexual techniques .Characterized by a lack of elaboration of monks'identities ,descriptions a‐bout eroticized foreign monks are quite similar in terms of physical appearances and plots .Furthermore , many terms for sexual practice in Tantric Buddhism and Taoism are applied to the art of the bedchamber in these descriptions .Therefore ,this paper argues that the eroticization of foreign monks is not terribly rele‐vant to the transmission of Tibetan Tantric Buddhism in China .To a great extent ,in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties the literati represent foreign monks as a threat to their moral identity ,w hich betrays a suppression of their sexual desire in Confucian culture .%作为一个色情符号,晚明清初通俗小说中被色情化的胡僧与黑面、春药、房中术有着固定的联想关系。胡僧的身份定位非常模糊,其体貌描写和情节模式高度类型化。胡僧色情描写所涉及的密教及道教内容经常被混淆为房中秘戏。小说对胡僧色情形象的符号化建构,与藏传密教的内传并无直接的联系,在很大程度上可以被视作文人异域想象的结果。胡僧色情形象所折射出来的是文人对外来宗教人士的警惕和被儒家文化所压抑的欲望。

  14. 北宋法远禅师与浮山佛教文化的兴盛%Buddhist Monk Fayuan in Northern Song Dynasty and Flourishing of Buddhism Culture in Fushan Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋豪飞

    2016-01-01

    安徽枞阳浮山佛教历史悠久,始于晋梁,北宋时达到鼎盛。法远禅师对浮山佛教道场的声名传扬厥功甚伟。法远禅师实乃禅宗临济宗法系,而非见诸方志所载为曹洞宗传人。法远与欧阳修“因棋说法”使得欧阳修对佛教由排斥转而护持,也促使浮山佛教文化走向鼎盛,名满天下。法远禅师晚年于浮山会圣岩著《九带》传世,叙佛祖奥义,以阐扬佛法。%Buddhism in Zongyang Fushan Mountain in Anhui has a long history, which began from Jin and Liang Dynasties and reached its peak in Northern Song Dynasty. Fayuan, from Rinzai Zen instead of Caodong Sect, makes great contribution to the development of Buddhism in Fushan Mountain. Fayuan preached Buddhism by playing chess with Ouyang Xiu,which helps Fushan Buddhist culture promoted its peak. Fayuan Monk wrote Jiudai in his old age, elaborating Buddhism.

  15. 明初高丽僧人满空与泰山佛教的复兴%The Great Gaoli Monk Mankong and the Revival of Mountain Tai Buddhism During Early Ming Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋铁生

    2011-01-01

    自唐中叶以来,佛教在中国由盛而衰,类似隋唐频繁的中外佛教交往已鲜见于史。几百年之后,在中华文化根深蒂固的泰山,一位来自高丽的僧人满空,通过重建竹林寺,复兴普照寺,在泰山兴佛取得了成功。这是泰山佛教历史的盛事,也是中韩两国在文化交往史上的佳话。%Since the middle of Tang Dynasty, Buddhism began to decline in China, and such international Buddhism communication as that of Sui and Tang Dynasties was witnessing its rarity. Several hundred years later, at the foot of Mountain Tai which is ingrained with Chinese culture, a great monk Mankong from Gaoli, recovered Puzhao Temple, a decayed Chinese temple. It is a grand event in the history of Mountain Tai Buddhism, and also a significant occasion in the history of cultural communication between China and Korea. The paper probes into the abrupt but non - accidental event with Mountain Tai historical inscriptions, local chronicles and the evolution of Chinese Buddhism.

  16. 北宋庆历名僧援儒入佛新内涵及其思想史意义%Monks in Qingli Period of Northern Song Dynasty Absorb Confucianism to Buddhism:New Content and Thinking History Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪国林

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Song dynasty , Confucianism had been steady advancing , while the trend of opposing Confucianism became even more violent and reached a peak in around the Qingli period .To contain the trend, monks represented by Shi Zhiyuan and Qi Song advocated to absorb Confucianism into Buddhism by propo -sing ideas that Confucianism and Buddhism was complement and consistent .This activity occupies an important po-sition and has great influence in Chinese thinking history .It extends the field for Buddhism to develop and advances Buddhism in China .Besides , it has far-reaching influence in academic trend , national psychology and the gener-ation of the idealist philosophy which is characterized with the unity of three religions .%宋初以来,伴随儒学复兴的稳步推进,反佛思潮愈演愈烈,庆历前后达到高峰。为遏制反佛思潮,释智圆、契嵩等方外人士不同程度地援儒入佛,阐其“儒佛互补”“言异理贯”“儒释一贯”等观点。这些观点在我国思想史上地位重要,不仅为佛教发展赢得空间,加快其中国化进程,且对当时的学术思潮、以“和谐”“融合”为特征的民族深层心理的形成,及以三教合一为特征的理学之产生,都影响甚巨。

  17. Leisure Aesthetics of Monk Dandang in the Late Ming and Early Qing Dynasties%明末清初诗僧担当和尚的休闲美学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章辉; 杨增艳

    2015-01-01

    明末清初云南诗僧担当的诗文所表现出来的思想意识与当代休闲美学理论颇有契合之处。他具有与世俗不同的休闲观念,并对休闲的本体价值有着自觉的认识。他的休闲工夫着重心志调节的顺情与复性两个方面,并在境域取舍方面引导人们走向栖隐之境、游览山水之境、融入人伦之境。他的休闲载体是酒、茶、书、画等高雅之物。他的休闲境界既遁世又谐世,既安贫乐道甘于寂寞,又圆融通达与人同乐,并具有某种程度的超越。他的休闲审美范畴可以概括为闲旷和闲逸。担当的这些休闲观念与实践对构建当代休闲时代与和谐社会具有一定的积极意义。%In early Qing dynasty, the ideas comes from Yunnan Monk Dandang’ s works have similar-ities with modern theory of leisure aesthetics.He has leisure concepts which are different from secular world and has a conscious understanding of the ontological value of leisure.His leisure approaches focus on adaptation and renaturation of minds and let people to live in seclusion to enjoy landscapes, but he also . tends to enjoy the human environment as well.His takes wine, tea, calligraphy and painting as his elegant leisure carriers.He lives out of the world but he is also in harmony with the world.He is contented in pov-erty loneliness, but he still has fun with others, and shows his transcendence beyond the world as well.His leisure aesthetic category can be summarized as free open and otherworldly.His leisure ideas and leisure practice has positive significance to the construction of modern leisure time and harmonious society.

  18. Legacy HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Ultrasound Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ultrasounds measuring the condition of juvenile seals at Laysan Island during 2009-2010, collected when seals were handled as part of the De-Worming Project

  19. Legacy HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Behavioral data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains focal animal observations and other behavioral data recorded during special studies conducted by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists as...

  20. MY COUSIN,AN EMINENT MONK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tenzin

    2015-01-01

    Chapter One The day is the fifth day of the seventh month in the Tibetan calendar.It is an auspicious day due to the Buddha having once preached on this date.After lunch,my younger cousin called from our hometown and told me that my older cousin’s relic stupa had been completed and

  1. “经论传缁侣,文章遍墨卿”——论灵一诗僧在唐代诗禅文学史上的禅地位及创作%Discussion on the Creation and Meditative Position of Ling Yi,the Poetic Monk,in the Literature History about Poetic Meditation in Tang Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱学东

    2001-01-01

    The thesis deals with the poetry creation of Ling Yi,a poetic monk in the middle of Tang Dynasty,and the relationship between him and his friends,including meditative mates.Thus,the author attempts to discover his unique position of reviving parties and dearing source and course in history,and his artistic style of solitary charm and exquisite taste.%诗僧灵一是一名天才的诗僧,其方外诗友广泛,他十分重视诗歌创作,在中晚唐诗禅文学史上具有振派澄源的历史地位和孤韵幽逸的诗歌风格。

  2. Comparison of two analyzers to determine selected venous blood analytes of Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmund, Christy L; Heatley, J Jill; Russell, Karen E

    2014-06-01

    Point of care devices can assess electrolyte, blood gas, biochemical, and hematologic values in a critical care setting. Although these devices are commonly used in humans and companion mammals, few studies have assessed their use in avian species. This study compares electrolyte, hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), acid-base, and venous blood gas parameters between the i-STAT and IRMA TruPoint blood gas analysis systems for 35 Quaker parrots. Agreement between the two analyzers and the effect of gender, time lag between sample analysis, and cartridge expiration were evaluated. Male birds had increased Hgb and Hct compared with females, independent of analyzer method. In expired i-STAT cartridges, only glucose significantly increased. Packed cell volume determined by centrifugation was higher than Hct, as calculated by either analyzer. The analyzers had good agreement for total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, pH, and Hgb, fair agreement for potassium (K), ionized calcium (iCa), venous partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and base excess, and poor agreement for sodium (Na), venous partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), and oxygen saturation (SO2). Values for Na, iCa, PO2, and SO2 were significantly higher on the IRMA than the i-STAT, while K was significantly lower on the IRMA when compared with the i-STAT. The time lag between sample analyses on the i-STAT and IRMA did not be correlate to any analyte changes. Despite these differences, both the i-STAT and the IRMA appear to be acceptable clinical tools in avian critical care, although reference ranges for each analyzer should be created.

  3. Invasive vertebrate species in Chile and their control and monitoring by governmental agencies Especies de vertebrados invasores en Chile y su control y monitoreo por agencias gubernamentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. AGUSTÍN IRIARTE

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the current status of vertebrate invasive species throughout Chile, updating information on terrestrial exotics and reporting for the first time the situation of exotic freshwater fishes. In addition, we document the legislation and programs that the Chilean government has implemented to limit the entry of exotics to the country or minimize their impact on native wild flora and fauna and on natural ecosystems. We document what is known about the introduction of 26 exotic fish species to continental waters of the country, discussing the distribution and putative effects of those 11 species that may be considered invasive. From a previous list of 24 terrestrial vertebrate invaders, we withdraw the Argentine tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and mouflon (Ovis ammon because there are no data on their subsistence in the wild. On the other hand, we add three new species: red-eared freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta, monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus, and red-crested cardinal (Paroaria coronata, thus keeping the total number of terrestrial invaders unchanged at 24 species. The chief agency in charge of existing laws and regulations regarding the import of exotic freshwater species is the National Fisheries Service (SERNAPESCA, in Spanish, a dependency of the Ministry of Economy. The main agency in charge of enforcing existing laws and regulations regarding the import of exotic terrestrial species to Chile is the Agriculture and Livestock Service (SAG, in Spanish, a dependency of the Ministry of Agriculture. Currently, SAG is not only controlling major border passes, seaports and airports, but also is funding studies to monitor and control already existing invaders. In addition, the Chilean Forest Service (CONAF, in Spanish is also concerned about invasive species, but only if they enter national parks and reserves within the National System of Protected Wildlife Areas (SNASPE, in Spanish

  4. Religious Life of Tibetan Monks and Lay People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAMGYI&DORQOINBENBA

    2003-01-01

    Since the year of 1979, the Central Government has invested more than 400 million Yuan on the maintenance and construction of monasteries and religious sites in Tibet.At present, there have been 1780 monasteries and religious sites in Tibet, including 130 nunneries. So many religious sites are owned by the 2 million religious

  5. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Shark Predation Mitigation Fishing Excursions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishing excursion information, including summary tables of: Fishing/culling efforts, including date, islets, latitude/longitude, fishing method, soak times, culled...

  6. Asceticism and the Pursuit of Death by Warriors and Monks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Jeremiah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong connection between martial arts and religious practices in Japan. Martial art practitioners, in an effort to utilize inner energy (ki and to eliminate fear, often turn to ascetic discipline. Mountain ascetics called yamabushi are known for their extreme, life-threatening training methods. Some of them, after ten years of mental and physical preparation, buried themselves alive, aspiring to become living Buddhas. This is the relatively unknown practice of self-mummification: a tradition that originated with Kukai, the founder of Shingon Buddhism. Approximately twenty individuals in Japan have successfully mummified themselves by means of ascetic discipline and special diets. The frame of mind developed while preparing for their deaths is the same mind-set that warriors strive to attain. Single-minded determination, the complete absence of fear, and the nonexistence of self are demonstrated in the actions of these individuals. These are the same qualities that are found in any master of the martial arts.

  7. Nutritional status of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, B F; Peterson, M

    1978-03-01

    The nutritional status of members of a lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist community was studied. Body weights and heights were normal. An analysis of four weeks' menus showed that, for the most part, sufficient nutrients were provided. A 24-hr. dietary recall revealed that a number of the subjects had low intakes of some nutrients, particularly the B-vitamins and calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. Improvement in the nutritional intakes and resulting nutritional status of the men must rely on an availability of accurate educational materials and each individual's determination to gain the knowledge needed to make a wiser selection of food.

  8. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Blood Values (Establishing hematology and serum chemistry reference ranges for wild Hawaiian Monk Seals)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hematology and serum chemistry evaluations are essential to a patients comprehensive health exam by providing measures of organ function, blood cell volume and...

  9. Major Transitions in Political Order

    CERN Document Server

    DeDeo, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We present three major transitions that occur on the way to the elaborate and diverse societies of the modern era. Our account links the worlds of social animals such as pigtail macaques and monk parakeets to examples from human history, including 18th Century London and the contemporary online phenomenon of Wikipedia. From the first awareness and use of group-level social facts to the emergence of norms and their self-assembly into normative bundles, each transition represents a new relationship between the individual and the group. At the center of this relationship is the use of coarse-grained information gained via lossy compression. The role of top-down causation in the origin of society parallels that conjectured to occur in the origin and evolution of life itself.

  10. Feather-picking psittacines: histopathology and species trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, M M; Clubb, S L; Mitchell, M A; Brown, L

    2008-05-01

    Histologic findings are described for 408 feather-picking or self-mutilating psittacines with the use of biopsies from clinically affected and unaffected skin. Inflammatory skin disease was diagnosed in 210 birds, and traumatic skin disease was diagnosed in 198 birds. Criteria used for the diagnosis of inflammatory skin disease included the presence of perivascular inflammation in the superficial or deep dermis of clinically affected and unaffected sites. The primary histologic criteria for the diagnosis of traumatic skin disease were superficial dermal scarring with or without inflammation in the affected sites and an absence of inflammation in the unaffected sites. The inflammatory cells associated with the lesions were typically lymphocytes and occasionally plasma cells, histiocytes, and granulocytes. A preponderance of inflammatory skin disease was seen in macaws (Ara spp.) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.). A preponderance of traumatic skin disease was seen in cockatoos (Cacatua spp.) and African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The prevalence of each was approximately equal in several other species, including conures (Aratinga and Pyrrhura spp.), eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus), quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), parakeets (Cyanorhamphus and Psittacula spp.), and caiques (Pionites spp.). No geographic or gender-based trends were identified. These findings could be helpful for identifying and treating birds with feather-picking disorders.

  11. From a reading devoted monk to an idealist prompter: the Serbian Quixotes across the centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Stojanović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the characters of several Serbian novels published from the Enlightenment to the present day, whose main characters show obvious resemblances with Cervantes’ Don Quixote: Dositej Obradović´s Život i priključenija (1783, Jovan Sterija Popović´s Roman bez romana (1838, various novels of Jakov Ignjatović (Večiti mladoženja, 1878; Vasa Rešpekt, 1875; Milan Narandžić, 1860-1862, and Sančova verzija by Ratomir Damjanović (1999. We analyze their personalities, pointing out the similarities with their model and then exploring the differences or particularities emanating from either the author’s style, the period of its creation and/or the poetics of the Serbian literature. Our goal is to investigate the manner and the level in which the Cervantine legacy has been creatively transformed and what constant characteristics of the personality of Don Quixote have resisted the passage of time.

  12. Remembering Johann Gregor Mendel: a human, a Catholic priest, an Augustinian monk, and abbot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Father Clemens

    2015-11-01

    Johann Mendel (Gregor was the name given to him only later by his Augustinian order, Fig. 1) was born on July 20, 1822 to an ethnic German family, Anton and Rosina Mendel (Fig. 2), in Heinzendorf in the Austrian Empire at the Moravian-Silesian border (now Hynčice, Czech Republic).

  13. [1848: Gregor Mendel, the monk who wanted to be a citizen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivet, Christiane

    2006-04-01

    This article proposes a previously unpublished French translation of a petition, in German, addressed by six Augustinian friars to the Constitutional Parliament of Vienna in the revolutionary year 1848. The petition states that members of religious orders are deprived of civil rights and demands that they be given citizenship ; it also contains a bitter attack on the monastic institution. We suggest that Mendel was the author of this text, which he signed and actually hand-wrote.

  14. BULLETPROOF MONK Chow Yun-Fat%防弹武僧周润发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡训峰

    2003-01-01

    @@ Hailed in the Los Angeles Times as "The Coolest Actor in the World", the endearingly(可爱地) plebeian yet strikingly handsome Chow Yun-Fat was a fixture of Hong Kong film and TV from his debut in the early 1970s. He is best known by American and British cultists as a hard-boiled (无情的) action hero specializing in portrayals of honorablehit-men, gangsters, thieves and trigger-happy cops.

  15. The Monk and the Mariposa: Franciscan acculturation in Mexico 1520-1550

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Penelope

    2016-01-01

    Acculturation by the Franciscan Friars in Mexico from 1520-1550\\ud \\ud This thesis sets out to examine the process of acculturation as experienced by the Franciscan friars during the first years of their mission in Mexico at the beginning of the sixteenth century. It will suggest that the acculturation was a two-way affair; that the Franciscans were as much changed by their contact with the indigenous people as were the natives by their contact with the friars.\\ud \\ud It begins with a study o...

  16. Paradoxes of Conversion: Everyday Lives of Tibetan Buddhist Child Monks in Ladakh

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Tanushree

    2013-01-01

    Converting to modernity does not only imply changing what one does and how, rather it involves changes in one's relationship with existence as a whole. Every culture is founded upon metaphysical presuppositions which determine the way its people relate to each other including children and childhood, and the environment that they are part of. Consequently, I view cultures as an ecosystem. Restructuring and inserting new elements (schooling, tourism, consumer economy and so on) which are founde...

  17. 外来的和尚好念经?%DO THE NONNATIVE MONKS GIVE BETTER SERMONS?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝田玉

    2006-01-01

    从饮料到童装的行业跨度到底有多大?这样的品牌延伸是否能取得成功?自从娃哈哈、太子奶相继投资童装业以来,业界对他们的关注就没有停歇过,而他们的童装制造之路,似乎也确非一马平川。

  18. Avian influenza A viruses in birds of the order Psittaciformes: reports on virus isolations, transmission experiments and vaccinations and initial studies on innocuity and efficacy of oseltamivir in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, E F; Blanco Peña, K M; Yilmaz, A; Redmann, T; Hofheinz, S

    2007-07-01

    Birds of the order Psittaciformes are - besides chickens, turkeys and other birds - also susceptible to infection with avian influenza A viruses (AIV) and succumb following severe disease within one week. Published data prove that various parakeets, amazons, cockatoos, African grey parrots and budgerigars (genera Barnardius, Psittacula, Cacatua, Eolophus, Amazona, Myiopsitta, Psittacus and Melopsittacus) were found dead following natural infections. Natural infections of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of the haemagglutinin subtypes H5 and H7 cause severe disease and high rates of mortality. Experimental transmission studies with AlVs of the subtypes H5 and H7 confirm these data. Viruses of the subtypes H3N8, H4N6, H4N8, H11N6 and H11N8 may cause also clinical signs and occasionally losses in naturally infected psittacine birds. Clinical signs and losses were also noted following experimental infection of budgerigars with a H4N6 virus. In the EU and in other countries, vaccination of exposed exotic and rare birds and poultry is a possible and an acceptable measure to provide protection. Currently, the EU Commission accepts inactivated adjuvanted vaccines whereas in some other countries recently developed vector vaccines are applied. However, birds remain susceptible during the time interval between application of any vaccine and the development of immunity. This critical period can be bridged with antiviral drugs. Our in ovo studies demonstrate that the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir is non-toxic for chicken embryos at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg body weight. These dosages prevented entirely the replication of a HPAIV of the subtype H7N1 when this drug is given shortly prior to, simultaneously or soon after inoculation of chicken embryos with this AIV. Thus, we speculate that exposed valuable birds such as psittacines at risk can be successfully treated.

  19. Queer eye for the ascetic guy? Homoeroticism, children, and the making of Monks in late antique Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Caroline T

    2009-01-01

    A famous instruction about children in monasteries reads: "Do not bring young boys here. Four churches in Scetis are deserted because of boys." Taken from the Sayings of the Desert Fathers, this apophthegm exposes the presence of homoeroticism and anxieties about the homoerotic, especially erotic encounters with children, in early Christian ascetic communities. This essay examines the construction of male sexuality in early Egyptian monasticism, focusing on the Sayings and the rules of the monastic leader Shenoute of Atripe It argues that the masculine ascetic ideal builds upon certain classical ideals of masculinity, especially the control of the passions, but purports to eschew classical models of eroticism in which the adolescent male represents the ideal sexual partner. However, these sources are designed to be recited or retold as edifying texts; despite their overt disavowal of sexual contact between men and boys, their retelling and rereading keeps homoeroticism and the representation of boys as sexually desirable objects alive in the ascetic imagination.

  20. Student Monks--Teaching Recursion in an IS or CS Programming Course Using the Towers of Hanoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benander, Alan C.; Benander, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Educators have been using the Towers of Hanoi problem for many years as an example of a problem that has a very elegant recursive solution. However, the elegance and conciseness of this solution can make it difficult for students to understand the amount of computer time required in the execution of this solution. And, like many recursive computer…

  1. The Gothic Features in The Monk%试论《修道士》的"哥特式"特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟昉

    2002-01-01

    《修道士》被视为西方哥特式小说的经典之一,其巨大成功之处,正在于它的"哥特式"特征.长期以来,由于哥特式小说的边缘性和非主流性等特点,国内学界关注不够,特别是缺少对具体文本的研究及其价值、意义的探讨.本文试从三个基本维度入手,分析《修道士》的"哥特式"特征,以有助于读者更好地了解这部作品及其价值与意义.

  2. Nobles and monks: the Osorios from Villafranca and the monasteries in El Bierzo (14th-15th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoria Cavero Domínguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the Middle Ages, in the northwest of the present day province of León, there occurred a special alliance between the nobility, represented by the Osorios, from the Count House of Lemos, and the traditional monasticism and mendicant friars. The powerful nobility would reach the peak of their economic growth and find a place for the eternal rest of their members in the numerous Bierzo monastic centres, whether male or female, urban or rural, like Santa María de Carracedo and San Francisco de Villafranca, among others.

  3. 徽州圣僧庵壁画初探%Exploration on the Murals of Huizhou Holy Monks ’ Temple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖

    2014-01-01

    明朝中后期,壁画艺术由盛而衰,但徽州圣僧庵壁画保存了唐宋传统,融入了世俗化及文人画因素,出现了适应徽商审美需求、传达徽州人文价值、寄托民间精神信仰的壁画作品,呈现出独特的艺术风格。%During the late Ming Dynasty, mural art declined. Huizhou Taoist and Buddhist murals in more recent research gaps. Huizhou holy man saved the Tang and Song Om mural tradition, stepping a secular and literati painting factors appeared to adapt to the aesthetic needs of merchants, school emblem conveys humanistic values, spiritual sustenance folk beliefs mural, showing a unique artistic style. In this paper are discussed from this subject matter, style characteristics, artistic features and other aspects.

  4. Kontserdijuttude parimad palad : Sekelduste kiuste Musta Q kontserdile. Funky Monks ja kolm kilomeetrit ootust. Rannapi manifest vahenditusele / Maria Murumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murumaa, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Üliõpilaslehe jutukonkursil kuulutati parimaks Maria Murumaa lugu Musta Q esinemisest üheksakümnendatel, kõrgelt hinnati ka Siim Andresoni ja Mihkel Trumani võistlustöid. Avaldatud võistlusjutud

  5. Kontserdijuttude parimad palad : Sekelduste kiuste Musta Q kontserdile. Funky Monks ja kolm kilomeetrit ootust. Rannapi manifest vahenditusele / Maria Murumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murumaa, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Üliõpilaslehe jutukonkursil kuulutati parimaks Maria Murumaa lugu Musta Q esinemisest üheksakümnendatel, kõrgelt hinnati ka Siim Andresoni ja Mihkel Trumani võistlustöid. Avaldatud võistlusjutud

  6. Monje y soldado. La imagen masculina durante el Franquismo. Monk and soldier. The masculine image during the Franco regime.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    ResumenTras la Guerra Civil, en España se establece un nuevo régimen, que tiene como eje central la figura de Franco. Dentro de la imagen que el franquismo quiso dar, jugó un importante papel, al igual que en todos los regímenes totalitarios, la imagen id alizada del hombre. Se hará una defensa de mito del hombre perfecto, que incluye lo corporal, aunque siempre estará más próximo a la imagen del caballero perfecto, del "monje-soldado", hecho de austeridad, de espíritu de sacrificio, pero tam...

  7. Perineuronal satellite neuroglia in the telencephalon of New Caledonian crows and other Passeriformes: evidence of satellite glial cells in the central nervous system of healthy birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Felipe S; Hunt, Gavin R; Gray, Russell D; Wild, J Martin; Kubke, M Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    Glia have been implicated in a variety of functions in the central nervous system, including the control of the neuronal extracellular space, synaptic plasticity and transmission, development and adult neurogenesis. Perineuronal glia forming groups around neurons are associated with both normal and pathological nervous tissue. Recent studies have linked reduction in the number of perineuronal oligodendrocytes in the prefrontal cortex with human schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Therefore, perineuronal glia may play a decisive role in homeostasis and normal activity of the human nervous system. Here we report on the discovery of novel cell clusters in the telencephala of five healthy Passeriforme, one Psittaciform and one Charadriiforme bird species, which we refer to as Perineuronal Glial Clusters (PGCs). The aim of this study is to describe the structure and distribution of the PGCs in a number of avian species. PGCs were identified with the use of standard histological procedures. Heterochromatin masses visible inside the nuclei of these satellite glia suggest that they may correspond to oligodendrocytes. PGCs were found in the brains of nine New Caledonian crows, two Japanese jungle crows, two Australian magpies, two Indian mynah, three zebra finches (all Passeriformes), one Southern lapwing (Charadriiformes) and one monk parakeet (Psittaciformes). Microscopic survey of the brain tissue suggests that the largest PGCs are located in the hyperpallium densocellulare and mesopallium. No clusters were found in brain sections from one Gruiform (purple swamphen), one Strigiform (barn owl), one Trochiliform (green-backed firecrown), one Falconiform (chimango caracara), one Columbiform (pigeon) and one Galliform (chick). Our observations suggest that PGCs in Aves are brain region- and taxon-specific and that the presence of perineuronal glia in healthy human brains and the similar PGCs in avian gray matter is the result of convergent evolution. The discovery

  8. TOPOGRAPHY AND VISCERAL MORPHOLOGY OF THE Melopsittacus undulatus, SHAW 1805 TOPOGRAFIA E MORFOLOGIA DAS VÍSCERAS DO PERIQUITO-AUSTRALIANO (Melopsittacus undulatus, SHAW 1805)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana S. Matsumoto; Ana Flávia de Carvalho; Franciolli,André Luis R.; Favaron, Phelipe O; Maria Angélica Miglino; Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the topography and morphology of Australian parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus) viscera. Ten Australian parakeet were used (5 males and 5 females). The animals were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, through perfusion in the musculature and visceral cavity. Macroscopically, the Australian parakeet viscera did not show expressive differences when compared to other domestic birds’ species. Microscopically, the main difference was the presence of ...

  9. 78 FR 17711 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ...) Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii) Pygmy... Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi) Golden parakeet (Guarouba guarouba) Bali starling...

  10. 77 FR 38652 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ...) Cottontop tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) Golden parakeet (Guarouba guarouba) Hooded crane (Grus...

  11. A monk which celebrates, prays, teaches, corrects. The poetry of St. Peter Damian Un monaco che celebra, prega, insegna, corregge. La poetica di san Pier Damiani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Facchini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To speak of St. Peter Damian's poetry is not easy, there are many literary genres, different contexts, among which the liturgy stands out, but there are also lyrics related to monastic life, and to the controversial ills' corrections of the Church of his time, such as simony and nicolaism. The complete edition published in 2007, that is the result of a long process of critical and theological research, wants to be a new way of approaching the poetry of the saint, trying to underline the sources, the occasion for the composition and finally to provide an additional seat contribution to approach ever more fully to his great personality.

    Parlare della poetica di san Pier Damiani non è facile, tanti i generi letterari, diversi i contesti fra i quali primeggia quello liturgico, ma anche poesie in versi legate alla vita monastica, alla correzione polemica dei mali della Chiesa del suo tempo, come la simonia e il nicolaismo. L'edizione integrale apparsa nel 2007, frutto di un lungo percorso di ricerca critica e teologica, vuole essere un modo nuovo di accostare la produzione poetica del santo cercando di evidenziare le fonti, l'occasione per la composizione e in ultima sede fornire un ulteriore contributo per accostarne sempre più pienamente la grande personalità.

  12. 明代佛门教行杰望——律宗%The Outstanding Buddhist Monks in Doctrine and Austerities of Ritsu School during the Ming Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任宜敏

    2007-01-01

    明代前期,由于专制统治的空前强化,特别是由于大张旗鼓地归并全国寺院,三分天下僧人,严控度牒发放,限制僧伽数量,颁行《周知板册》、《寺院名册》、《申明佛教榜册》、《榜示僧教条例》等一系列严酷程度为历代闻所未闻之掌控佛教事务的规章制度,使得律宗本身的法系传承,几至无闻.嘉靖一朝,佞道黜佛的明世宗朱厚熄在毁寺焚像、裁汰禁革僧人、强制尼众还俗、停止开度僧童的同时,又先后三次下诏禁开南北戒坛,残酷镇压设坛传戒之主从僧众.如来付法之家业,遭此重创,无异雪上加霜,慧命如九鼎一丝.直至朱氏之家天下内忧外患、大厦将倾之时,方因古心如馨、三昧寂光师徒前后出兴,励力弘扬,才呈再度振兴之势.

  13. Habitus do make the monk: Olinda seminary at a pre-council crossroads in the 1950s – a draft of a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvando Sá Leitão Rios

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims of the present article is a self-analysis, with a complement of research sources, of an experience which was lived in the 1950s in the old Olinda Seminary. Such sociological self-analysis (as a memory study is at a merely instrumental level, as long as the main objective of the article is to place the institution “seminary” in the historical-cultural context of the 1950s as a transitional period, both economical and cultural, not only in Brazil, in terms of industrialization and urbanism, but also in the post-war era in a broader sense. The article evidences three cultural traces in the tridentine seminary which express an opposition/differentiation in relation to the external world: the cultivation of silence, the cultivation of Latin and the cultivation of the existential isolation through celibacy. Such traces are analyzed especially in relation to the concept of the Bordieu habitus, as shapers of the social person.

  14. Buddhism and Monks in Poetry Literature of Anecdotes in Song Dynasty%宋代轶事类诗话中的佛与僧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培锋

    2016-01-01

    宋代开始盛行的诗话是禅宗语录这一文体移植到文学领域的体现。宋代分别以《六一诗话》和《沧浪诗话》代表了两种诗话类型———可称之为“轶事类诗话”和“说理类诗话”———恰好反映体现了佛教对文艺的两种不同层面的影响。如果说前者表现的是禅门语录“随意举扬,任运不拘”的风格,那么后者则表现了“提唱纲宗,眼空今古”的另一种风格,表现了佛教富于思辨的特点。宋诗话中,哪怕只是一则小小的轶事,背后皆有很多可以深入探究的佛理存在,此种佛理又与诗意密切相关,充分体现了佛禅精神对诗话这种文体的影响。%The poetry literature, which was popular in Song Dynasty, is the reflection of transplantation from Chan recorded say-ings to the literature domain. Two major types of poetry literature, poetry literature of anecdotes and poetry of reasoning, repre-sented by “Liuyi’s Notes on Poetry” and“Notes on Poetry by Canglang” respectively, adequately show the different influences upon the literature from Buddhism. The former displays a free and spontaneous style of Chan recorded sayings, while the latter a different style of obsession with the tradition and discipline, characterized by its critical thinking. In the poetry literature in Song Dyansty, any piece of anecdote is supposed to embody a deep Buddhist truth. Moreover, the Buddhist truth is often close-ly related to the poem, which indicates an obvious influence on the poetry literature from the spirit of Zen Buddhism.

  15. Being the Buddhist Monk, Duty-bound to Toll the Bell%既然当了和尚,那就撞好自己的钟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏力

    2007-01-01

    @@ 作为第一届"钱端升法学研究成果奖"的获奖者之一,我感谢各位评委;感谢多年来一直以各种方式——包括批评一支持我的学界朋友和同志,首先是但不仅仅是法学界的;还要感谢广大的读者.

  16. Perineuronal satellite neuroglia in the telencephalon of New Caledonian crows and other Passeriformes: evidence of satellite glial cells in the central nervous system of healthy birds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe S. Medina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Glia have been implicated in a variety of functions in the central nervous system, including the control of the neuronal extracellular space, synaptic plasticity and transmission, development and adult neurogenesis. Perineuronal glia forming groups around neurons are associated with both normal and pathological nervous tissue. Recent studies have linked reduction in the number of perineuronal oligodendrocytes in the prefrontal cortex with human schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Therefore, perineuronal glia may play a decisive role in homeostasis and normal activity of the human nervous system.Here we report on the discovery of novel cell clusters in the telencephala of five healthy Passeriforme, one Psittaciform and one Charadriiforme bird species, which we refer to as Perineuronal Glial Clusters (PGCs. The aim of this study is to describe the structure and distribution of the PGCs in a number of avian species.PGCs were identified with the use of standard histological procedures. Heterochromatin masses visible inside the nuclei of these satellite glia suggest that they may correspond to oligodendrocytes. PGCs were found in the brains of nine New Caledonian crows, two Japanese jungle crows, two Australian magpies, two Indian mynah, three zebra finches (all Passeriformes, one Southern lapwing (Charadriiformes and one monk parakeet (Psittaciformes. Microscopic survey of the brain tissue suggests that the largest PGCs are located in the hyperpallium densocellulare and mesopallium. No clusters were found in brain sections from one Gruiform (purple swamphen, one Strigiform (barn owl, one Trochiliform (green-backed firecrown, one Falconiform (chimango caracara, one Columbiform (pigeon and one Galliform (chick.Our observations suggest that PGCs in Aves are brain region- and taxon-specific and that the presence of perineuronal glia in healthy human brains and the similar PGCs in avian gray matter is the result of convergent evolution. The

  17. Pretty Bird by Bob Sinclair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Recently I was reminded of a story which my mother swears is trus (though she doesn t call me Bobby muchanymore):Back in 1958,when I was just past four years old,my parents gave me a young parakeet.My mother determinedthat our parakeet would learn to talk,and to this end sat at the microphone of a borrowed tape recorder for a full 1/2hour,saying over and over again:“Pretty bird!Pretty bird!Pretty bird!Pretty bird!...”and so on.The resultingtaped message was played for our parakeet at least once pe...

  18. Sounds of silence%沉默的声音

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Four monks decided to meditate1 silently without speaking for two weeks. By nightfall on the first day,the candle began to flicker and then went out.The first monk said,"Oh, no!The candle is out."The second monk said,"Aren't we not supposed to talk?"The third monk said, "Why must you two break the silence?"The fourth monk laughed and said, "Ha! I'm the only one who didn't speak."

  19. 监理市场"僧多粥少"的思考%Ponder Over "the Gruel is Meagre and the Monks are Many" in the Project Management Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁受权

    2001-01-01

    @@ 十二年来,我国建设监理事业从无到有,不断发展,至今已作为一项建设管理制度得到了社会各界的广泛承认.监理行业已经成为一个颇有影响的朝阳行业.凡是实行监理的工程,其工程质量、建设水平、投资效益均有较为明显的提高.但是在蓬勃发展的同时,监理市场也出现了不和谐的现象:垄断保护、挂靠转包、拖欠压价、私招乱雇、相互抵毁等等.市场秩序混乱,有效竞争严重不足.出现这些负面现象的原因众说纷云,常常见诸于报端的是:"僧多粥少".果真如此吗?笔者并不以为然.那么究竟问题出在哪儿呢?首先是未从"僧"字上进行分析.现笔者就事论事地谈几点粗见,就教于广大同仁.

  20. "Trees Ordination"——a Deforestation Prevention by Thai Monks%从“树木出家”看泰国僧侣对森林资源的保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毓贤

    2013-01-01

    对于泰国目前所面临的森林危机,虽然有很多方法可能会有助于解决该问题,如:教育、科学、技术、经济、政治、政府与非政府组织,甚至是工商业机构,但这些办法是不能从根本上解决问题的,因为问题是出于社会道德崩溃而产生的.人们以贪欲作为动机,来滥用、砍伐森林,没有经过周密的、合理的思考,不考虑到后果而对它们随意取用.因此泰国佛教力求复兴一些传统意义上的宗教、文化思想,实施了“树木出家”仪式,以期拯救森林危机及人的心态危机.

  1. The Moral Principles in Gothic Novels:An Ethical Study of The Monk%哥特小说中的伦理道德因素--以《修道士》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲若茜

    2006-01-01

    哥特小说由于执着于对丑陋与罪恶的书写,长久以来被认为是放逐或背离了伦理标准,助长了人类道德的沦丧.本文以英国著名哥特小说《修道士》为例,从文学伦理学的批评视角,分析了小说中宗教伦理道德与世俗伦理道德的冲突、人性的善与恶的冲突,指出《修道士》是在人道主义伦理观照下对封建宗教伦理的批判和对人性的高扬;哥特小说特有的"审恶"与"审丑"的文学实践所蕴含的道德教育功能在于把人物放到了极端的环境中,更为夸张、深入地表现了人性与道德的种种矛盾,从而使读者在惊奇与震撼之中,心灵得到净化,道德情感得到升华.

  2. On the Four Books Mentioned in the Prologues to Gao Shen Zhuan (Biographies of Famous Monks)%《高僧传》序录所论四本书考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘飖

    2007-01-01

    《高僧传》序录卷十四云:"沙门法济,偏叙高逸一迹.沙门法安,但列志节一行.沙门僧宝,止命游方一科.沙门法进,乃通撰传论."该文对四人及其书进行了考论.

  3. One of Japanese Garden Craftsmen in Ancient Times:Sesshu Toyo Who is Art Monk and Garden Craftsman%日本造园家之二——画僧造园家雪舟等杨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庭风

    2007-01-01

    在日本的历代园林史上,我们可以看到很多的画师画匠们参与了园林创作。如平安京的神泉苑是画师巨势金冈督造的。巨势金冈的孙子巨势弘高也是一个画师,同时也是一个优秀的园林家。相阿弥的大德寺大仙院立式书画枯山水、狩野元信的妙心寺退藏院水墨画式枯山水等都是与当时的画家直接参与造园有关。在所有的画师造园家中,最著名的当属室町后期的画家雪舟等杨(1420—1506年)享年86岁。

  4. 托玛斯·墨顿:一位亲近东方佛教的天主教修士%Thomas Merton:a Trappist monk and semi-Buddhist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒晓伟

    2003-01-01

    有这样一种说法,我非常赞成:托玛斯.墨顿(Thomas Merton)的一生是成功的一生,也是极其完美和快乐的一生,虽然他的死非常的意外。他只活了短短的53年。但他的一生极富时代性,20世纪的宗教面临着一个非常特殊的境遇,它要回应比以往都大得多的挑战,要适应比往更为光

  5. 论鉴真东渡后唐代佛教对日本佛教的影响%On the influnce of the Buddhism in Tang Dynasty upon that in Japan after monk Jianzhen's orient sailing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李寅生

    2002-01-01

    唐代高僧鉴真是中日佛教文化交流史上具有重要影响的人物之一,他历尽艰辛,东渡弘法,使日本的佛教发生了新的变化,被称之为日本新佛教.本文所论述的即是鉴真东渡后唐代佛教对日本佛教的影响,从中亦可看出七、八世纪时中日文化交流的盛况.

  6. 日本诗僧绝海中津的多元文化身份研究%A Study on the Multicultural Identities of the Monk-Poet Zekkai Tyusin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任萍

    2014-01-01

    Gozan literature affected every aspect of medieval Japanese society ,and had important social and cultural functions .Zekkai Tyusin ,a leading representative of Gozan literature ,made outstanding contribu-tions in Japanese religion,literature,politics,diplomacy and other fields.He had a multi-cultural identity.%五山文学的影响辐射到日本中世社会的各个方面,具有重要的社会文化功能。五山文学的代表人物绝海中津在中世社会的宗教、文学、政治、外交等各个领域都作出了卓越贡献,具有多元文化身份。

  7. Crowding in the city: losing and winning competitors of an invasive bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dailos Hernández-Brito

    Full Text Available Invasive species can take advantage of resources unexploited by natives (opportunism hypothesis or they can exploit the same resources but more aggressively or efficiently (competition hypothesis, thus impacting native species. However, invasive species tend to exploit anthropogenic habitats that are inefficiently used by natives such as urban environments. Focusing on the ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri, one of the most invasive birds worldwide, we combined observations of interspecific aggressions, species-specific cavity-nest preferences and the spatial distribution of the native cavity-nesting vertebrate community to determine the invasion process as well as its potential impacts on native species in a Mediterranean city. Our results support the competition hypothesis, suggesting that ring-necked parakeets are outcompeting native species sharing nest-site preferences. Parakeets initiated and won most interspecific aggressions, which were directed towards competitors but also towards predators. This behaviour could explain the spatial arrangement of natives, with most bird species breeding close to parakeets possibly to take advantage of their effective antipredatory behaviour. However, temporal and spatial patterns of segregation suggest that a threatened bat species is negatively affected by parakeets. This demonstrates that common species gain benefits and threatened ones (in this study, a bat and possibly a falcon lose nest sites due to invaders. Therefore, the conservation status of the native species that pay the costs of competition with invaders should be considered. This scenario of winners and losers may, however, shift towards more losers if the ring-necked parakeet population continues to grow, thus requiring close monitoring and control/eradication programs to avoid further impacts.

  8. Crowding in the city: losing and winning competitors of an invasive bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Brito, Dailos; Carrete, Martina; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G; Ibáñez, Carlos; Tella, José L

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species can take advantage of resources unexploited by natives (opportunism hypothesis) or they can exploit the same resources but more aggressively or efficiently (competition hypothesis), thus impacting native species. However, invasive species tend to exploit anthropogenic habitats that are inefficiently used by natives such as urban environments. Focusing on the ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri), one of the most invasive birds worldwide, we combined observations of interspecific aggressions, species-specific cavity-nest preferences and the spatial distribution of the native cavity-nesting vertebrate community to determine the invasion process as well as its potential impacts on native species in a Mediterranean city. Our results support the competition hypothesis, suggesting that ring-necked parakeets are outcompeting native species sharing nest-site preferences. Parakeets initiated and won most interspecific aggressions, which were directed towards competitors but also towards predators. This behaviour could explain the spatial arrangement of natives, with most bird species breeding close to parakeets possibly to take advantage of their effective antipredatory behaviour. However, temporal and spatial patterns of segregation suggest that a threatened bat species is negatively affected by parakeets. This demonstrates that common species gain benefits and threatened ones (in this study, a bat and possibly a falcon) lose nest sites due to invaders. Therefore, the conservation status of the native species that pay the costs of competition with invaders should be considered. This scenario of winners and losers may, however, shift towards more losers if the ring-necked parakeet population continues to grow, thus requiring close monitoring and control/eradication programs to avoid further impacts.

  9. A Mandala's Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Tom

    2002-01-01

    A Tibetan Buddhist monk, Lama Tenzin, spent a week at the Manhattan private school where the author of this article was the middle school director. Lama Tenzin did not come to introduce students to Buddhism or to explain the plight of the Tibetan people. Instead, he came to create a piece of art that is a specialty of his and his brother monks': a…

  10. 75 FR 60721 - Notice of Intent to Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on Implementing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Endangered Species Act (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA; 16 U.S.C... Hawaiian monk seals as ``endangered'' under the ESA and ``depleted'' under the MMPA. As required under... monk seal Recovery Plan. In the NWHI, young seals are starving, pups are being killed by sharks,...

  11. Environmental Inventory Report. East St. Louis and Vicinity, Cahokia Canal Drainage Area, Madison and St. Clair Counties, Illinois. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    coal in the present drainage area was found in 1807 by Trappist monks, who were then living at the Cahokia Mounds. They mined enough for their own...and Clark begin journey from Wood River 1807 Coal discovered in area by Trappist Monks 1809 Territory of Illinois established 1811 National Road begun

  12. Ancient Buddhist Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Susan

    Traditional Buddhist education centered solely around the monasteries, since the Buddhist world did not offer educational opportunities apart from its monasteries. All education, religious as well as secular, was controlled by the monks, and involved the initiation ceremony into the Buddhist Order, the education of the monk, the viharus or…

  13. A Mandala's Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Tom

    2002-01-01

    A Tibetan Buddhist monk, Lama Tenzin, spent a week at the Manhattan private school where the author of this article was the middle school director. Lama Tenzin did not come to introduce students to Buddhism or to explain the plight of the Tibetan people. Instead, he came to create a piece of art that is a specialty of his and his brother monks': a…

  14. 76 FR 62016 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Red-Crowned Parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... (Prosopeia splendens), great green macaw (Ara ambiguus), grey-cheeked parakeet (Brotogeris pyrrhoptera... haematuropygia), red-crowned parrot (Amazona viridigenalis), scarlet macaw (Ara macao), white cockatoo (Cacatua... distinguished by bright yellow-green cheek areas, bright red on the crown (top of head) and lores (area...

  15. On the Time of Monk Tales of the World: An Error in Lu Xun's A Brief History of Chinese Novels%《僧世说》成书年代考——鲁迅《中国小说史略》辨误一则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宪亮

    2014-01-01

    鲁迅《中国小说史略》第七篇《与其前后》中认为颜从乔撰写的《僧世说》是清代作品,这一观点也得到了学术界的普遍认可.通过清人王士祯文集以及清修《安徽·怀宁县志》等材料关于颜从乔的记载,可以判断《僧世说》并非清代作品而是明朝末年的作品.

  16. “色中饿鬼是僧家”——“三言”和《十日谈》僧侣行淫故事描写探析%Gaki of Lust——An Analysis of Stories of Lustful Monks and Clergymen in Sanyan and Decameron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付江涛

    2012-01-01

    僧人行淫犯戒历来是被社会所唾弃的.在“三言”以及《十日谈》小说中充斥着大量僧侣淫荡不羁的故事情节描写.拟通过对小说中此类故事的文本细读,分析出此类故事选材的原因并对作者创作的进步性和局限性做尝试性的探究.

  17. Matthew Lewis' The Monk: A Classic in the History of the Western Gothic Novel%西方哥特式小说的经典之作——论马修·刘易斯的《修道士》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟昉

    2002-01-01

    《修道士》是18世纪末英国著名哥特式小说家马修·刘易斯的代表作,也是西方哥特式小说的经典之作,然而,迄今尚未有中文译本,更无专文论及该小说。本文旨在通过对这部小说的介绍,使国内广大读者能了解它,并推动学界对其作进一步的深入研究。

  18. "夺胎"与"转生"的信仰——关于惠洪首创作诗"夺胎法"思想渊源旁证的考察%Altering the Fetus and Reincarnation: Review of Circumstantial Evidence in Thought Origin to Prove that Monk Huihong Initiated the Poetic Method of "Altering the Fetus"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周裕锴

    2010-01-01

    通过考察佛教术语"夺胎"的具体含义与相关的"转生"观念,以及该观念在北宋佛教界的流行,并结合惠洪关于四位高僧和士大夫夺胎转生的神话书写进行辨析发现,从思想渊源上看,诗文"夺胎法"确由惠洪首创.

  19. Music: New Hope for the Dead

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Francis

    2005-01-01

    In a commentary, the author lists his top jazz albums released in 2005. Topping the list are two records made both before 1960, "Thelonious Monk Quartet with John Coltrane at Carnegie Hall" (Blue Note...

  20. HMSRP Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Metadata collected during UAS flights for Hawaiian monk seal research purposes. This dataset includes date, time, location, duration, platform type, and other...

  1. Theravada Buddhism and Women Priests in Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asavaroengchai, Suwanna

    1994-01-01

    .... Pra Methi Dhammaporn, "Bhikkhunis have long disappeared from Theravada Buddhism, so a bhikkhuni's acquired status will be questioned, especially if one insists that bhikkhuni be equal to monks," said...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Burn-McKeown syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hearing loss-cardiac defects-craniofacial dysmorphism syndrome oculo-oto-facial dysplasia oculootofacial dysplasia OOFD Related Information How ... Starr JR, Monks S, Parisi MA. A novel oculo-oto-facial dysplasia in a Native Alaskan community with ...

  3. 2015 Hawaii SE Island UAS Orthomosaic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This imagery was captured September 20, 2015 for the Hawaiian Monk Seal Research Program. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are being tested to assess their...

  4. Radical inclusivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-06-07

    Jun 7, 2011 ... The article touched on aspects such as 'women monks', ... mutual interest in New Testament studies, the Gospel of Matthew in .... streaming into Mokattam from Upper Egypt [southern Egypt] since the ..... spiritual journeys, pp.

  5. Siidii / Kreete Reval

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reval, Kreete

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Johnny Cash "American IV: The Man Comes Around", Monumentum "Ad Nauseam", Oakenfold "Bunkka", Sibul, Riho "Estonian Dream Big Band", Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoor "Baltic Voices 1", Villu Veski & Tiit Kalluste "Põhjala saarte hääled", Meredith Monk "Mercy"

  6. Charles Dickens and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosnett, J E

    1994-01-01

    Through some characters in his novels, Charles Dickens recorded observations on the nature of epileptic seizures, their causes and provocation, and their consequences. Three of his main characters, Monks, Guster, and Bradley Headstone, had seizures which Dickens realistically described.

  7. Hawaii ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered Hawaiian monk seals, endangered humpback whales, and other whales and dolphins in coastal...

  8. Art Goes Beyond Borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Qiang

    2013-01-01

    <正>Cultural exchange between China and Japan dates back to the glorious Tang Dynasty(618-907).The legendary experience of Chinese monk Jian Zhen’s eastward voyage across the sea to Japan with his disciples is a

  9. Hawaii ESI: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered Hawaiian monk seal pupping and haul-out sites. Vector points in this data set represent...

  10. Area Handbook Series: Burma: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Burmans as inferior to Buddhist monks, despite their skills in astrology and other mystic arts. Memories of British troops using Indian soldiers to...Outside the sangha are various other religious practitioners, such as hermits, wizards, alchemists, astrologers , shamans, mediums, and folk experts of all...34carpet" of their hair. Respect often involves an emotional feeling akin to love . Monks so revered may be honored with gifts, which they are too

  11. [Introduction of Indian medicine into China in the Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern dynasties as interpreted by beriberi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J

    1995-01-01

    Since the sea route between China and all countries in the Western Region was unimpeded, many Buddhist monks came to China. Some of them settled in Lingnan Region. With them, Indian medicine was imported which greatly expanded the coverage of TCM. Some of the Northerners moved southward into Lingnan Region and contracted beriberi which were cured by Indian monks. The author explores the importation of Indian medcine through analysis of beriberi as an example.

  12. Large-scale impacts of multiple co-occurring invaders on monkey puzzle forest regeneration, native seed predators and their ecological interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Tella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most ecosystems of the world are being increasingly invaded by a variety of alien species. However, little is known about the combined ecological impacts of multiple co-occurring invaders. We assessed the impact of a community of exotic mammals (five domestic and four wild on forests of monkey puzzle (Araucaria araucana, a globally endangered tree restricted to ca 400 km2 on the slopes of the Andes in Chile and Argentina. Seeds of monkey puzzles provide food during winter to a small community of native mice and Austral parakeets (Enicognathus ferrugineus. We recorded the number of uneaten seeds and the number of young seedlings at the end of winter under 516 female monkey puzzle trees located across the species’ distribution, and identified the signals of native and exotic species that visited the under-canopy of each tree. Moreover, we studied the diet and foraging behavior of Austral parakeets to explore the potential indirect effects of exotic mammals through the disruption of a key ecosystem service (seed dispersal supposedly provided by parakeets. All but one tree were visited by at least one seed predator species. Austral parakeets and mice predated seeds from 85% and at least 45% of the trees, respectively, and both the number of remaining seeds and seedlings were significantly larger when only parakeets or mice predated seeds than when exotic mammals also visited the trees. At least 90% of trees were visited by one or more exotic species, and the number of seeds and seedlings dropped drastically when at least two and four exotic species visited the tree, respectively. Austral parakeets mostly foraged on monkey puzzle trees during the winter period and dispersed their seeds in most feeding instances once seeds fell to the ground. The proliferation of exotic mammals may reduce the populations of native seed-predators in the long-term as well as the regeneration of monkey puzzle forests, directly through a reduction of seed availability

  13. Avihepadnavirus diversity in parrots is comparable to that found amongst all other avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Tomasz; Harkins, Gordon W; Chrząstek, Klaudia; Julian, Laurel; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-04-10

    Avihepadnaviruses have previously been isolated from various species of duck, goose, stork, heron and crane. Recently the first parrot avihepadnavirus was isolated from a Ring-necked Parakeet in Poland. In this study, 41 psittacine liver samples archived in Poland over the last nine years were tested for presence of Parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV). We cloned and sequenced PHBV isolates from 18 birds including a Crimson Rosella, an African grey parrot and sixteen Ring-necked Parakeets. PHBV isolates display a degree of diversity (>78% genome wide pairwise identity) that is comparable to that found amongst all other avihepadnaviruses (>79% genome wide pairwise identity). The PHBV viruses can be subdivided into seven genetically distinct groups (tentatively named A-G) of which the two isolated of PHBV-G are the most divergent sharing ∼79% genome wide pairwise identity with all their PHBVs. All PHBV isolates display classical avihepadnavirus genome architecture.

  14. Isolation of avian serotype 3 paramyxoviruses from imported caged birds in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihmanter, E; Weisman, Y; Lublin, A; Mahani, S; Panshin, A; Lipkind, M

    1998-01-01

    Ten avian serotype 3 paramyxoviruses were isolated for the first time in Israel from passerine and psittacine imported caged birds. The birds were submitted for investigation of an illness characterized by nonspecific signs of weakness, anorexia, vomiting, and sneezing. In addition, only the parakeets developed specific neurologic signs. In bacteriologic and pathologic investigation, cachexia and diarrhea were observed in both groups of birds. In psittacines, considerable alterations were observed in lungs, liver, and spleen. Some nonviral pathogens were occasionally isolated. The isolates appeared to belong to serotype 3b avian paramyxovirus (APMV), the prototype strain of which is APMV-3b/parakeet/Netherlands/449/75. The isolation of APMV-3 viruses from imported caged birds may represent a way of introduction of these viruses into the country.

  15. Detecção e avaliação do perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana de enterobactérias isoladas de periquitos cara-suja (Pyrrhura griseipectus em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to detect enterobacteria in captive Grey-breasted parakeet from a commercial breeding located in the state of Ceara. 25 individual cloacal swabs were collected and this material was subjected to microbiological processing to obtain the bacterial isolation, identification, and evaluation of the sensitivity profile to antimicrobials. The bacterial isolation in ten samples was determined, belonging to the genera Enterobacter, Hafnia, Serratia, Escherichia, Pantoea and Klebsiella, in which these last three corresponded to the bacteria most isolated, with respective percentages of 28.6%, 21.4%, and 21.4%. As for the sensitivity profile, antibiotics to which the bacteria showed more resistance were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (57%, tetracycline (21%, and azithromycin (43%. Thus, it was shown that the parakeets were carriers of Enterobacteriaceae with resistance characteristics.

  16. Auklet (Charadriiformes: Alcidae, Aethia spp.) chick meals from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, have a very low incidence of plastic marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Jones, Ian L; Williams, Jeffrey C; Byrd, G Vernon

    2010-08-01

    The ingestion of plastic marine debris is a chronic problem for some of the world's seabird species, contributing to reduced chick survival, population declines, and deposition of contaminants via absorption in birds' gastrointestinal tract. We analysed the frequency of ingested plastic in chick meals delivered by adults in four species of auklet - Crested (Aethia cristatella), Least (A. pusilla), Parakeet (A. psittacula), and Whiskered (A. pygmaea) - from three breeding colonies in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA over a 14-year period from 1993 to 2006. Among 2541 chick meals, we found plastic in only one - from a Whiskered Auklet on Buldir Island in 1993. While adult Parakeet Auklets have a high frequency of plastic ingestion (over 90%), no chick meals contained plastic. Unlike other seabirds, the planktivorous auklets do not appear to offload plastic to their chicks, and we conclude that auklet chicks are probably at a low risk of contamination from plastic debris.

  17. Increasing incidence of megabacteriosis in canaries (Serinus canarius domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, D; Leroy, C; Sturbois, M; Delleur, V; Poulipoulis, A; Vindevogel, H

    2006-11-01

    A total of 312 post-mortem examinations of 178 canaries (Serinus canarius domesticus), 40 parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus, Nymphicus hollandicus) and 94 parrots (Amazona aestiva, Psitaccus erithacus) were conducted at the Birds and Rabbits Service of the University of Liège, Belgium. After a detailed gross examination, tissue samples were collected for virological and/or bacteriological and/or parasitological examination to complete the diagnosis. In all cases, a microscopic examination of the proventricular mucus layer was undertaken for the detection of the anamorphic ascomycetous yeast Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, which causes the non-zoonotic but important disease in cage birds known as megabacteriosis. At the time of death, megabacteriosis was diagnosed respectively in 28% of canaries and 22.5% of budgerigars (P value for Fisher's exact test=0.5576), but was not diagnosed in parrots (P value for Fisher's exact test proventricular dilatation (86.1%). All the birds diagnosed as typical megabacteriosis cases were free of Salmonella spp. infections and of any parasitic infections. Four megabacteriosis cases (three canaries, one parakeet) were not included in statistical analysis as salmonellosis, pseudotuberculosis, coccidiosis and chlamydophilosis were diagnosed concomitantly in these birds. With the exception of megabacteriosis, the most frequent causes of death were protozoan (coccidiosis, lankesterellosis) infections (18.4%) and salmonellosis (17.1%) in canaries, and psittacosis (31.5%) and viral hepatitis (26.3%) in parakeets. In parrots, the most common causes of death were psittacosis (28.6%) and aspergillosis (28.5%).

  18. Triatoma delpontei Romaña & Abalos, 1947 (Hemiptera, Triatominae) en el estado brasileño de "Rio Grande do Sul" Triatoma delpontei Romaña & Abalos, 1947 (Hemiptera, Triatominae) in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Salvatella Agrelo; Yester Basmadjian; Raquel Rosa; Andres Puime

    1993-01-01

    Triatoma delpontei Romaña y Abalos, 1947 es una especie de triatomineo silvestre, de marcada ornitofilia, que se asocia preferentemente al psitácido Myiopsitta monachus (Boddaert, 1783) colonizando sus nidos. Especie que se identifica con zonas de forestas subtropicales secas o xerofíticas propias de las provincias biogeográficas continentales chaqueñas, es notificada para Brasil en la microregión de la campaña de Río Grande do Sul (barra de Quaraí, Municipio de Uruguaiana).Triatoma delpontei...

  19. Triatoma delpontei Romaña & Abalos, 1947 (Hemiptera, Triatominae) en el estado brasileño de "Rio Grande do Sul"

    OpenAIRE

    Agrelo,Roberto Salvatella; Basmadjian,Yester; Rosa,Raquel; Puime,Andres

    1993-01-01

    Triatoma delpontei Romaña y Abalos, 1947 es una especie de triatomineo silvestre, de marcada ornitofilia, que se asocia preferentemente al psitácido Myiopsitta monachus (Boddaert, 1783) colonizando sus nidos. Especie que se identifica con zonas de forestas subtropicales secas o xerofíticas propias de las provincias biogeográficas continentales chaqueñas, es notificada para Brasil en la microregión de la campaña de Río Grande do Sul (barra de Quaraí, Municipio de Uruguaiana).

  20. [Triatoma delpontei Romaña & Abalos, 1947 (Hemiptera, Tratominae) in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatella Agrelo, R; Basmadjian, Y; Rosa, R; Puime, A

    1993-01-01

    Triatoma delpontei (Romaña & Abalos, 1947) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) is an ornithophilic sylvatic with a particular association to the psittacid Myiopsitta monachus (Boaddert, 1783). It is found in the continental biogeographical province of the Chaco, where it inhabits the nests or M. monachus, in subtropical xerophytic forests. The authors report the first finding of T. delpontei in Brasil, in the "campanha" region of the State or Rio Grande do Sul (Barra do Quarai, Uruguaiana), on the right bank of the River Cuareim, not far from de Uruguayan border.

  1. Presencia de Psitticimex uritui (Hemiptera: Cimicidae en nidos de caserote Pseudoseisura lophotes (Passeriformes: Furnariidae en la provincia de Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana M. ARAMBURÚ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Psitticimex uritui (Lent & Abalos, la chinche típica de la “cotorra” Myiopsitta monachus Boddaert, fue registrada por primera vez en los nidos del “caserote” Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach en la provincia de Entre Ríos. La interacción entre las poblaciones de estas aves dada por el comportamiento de adopción de nidos, presente en las “cotorras” puede explicar la presencia de la misma especie de cimícido en los nidos de ambos. La baja población de chinches en nidos de caserote indica que las cotorras son los huéspedes originarios.

  2. The Celtic connection with southern Africa: Tracing a genealogy of missionary spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. (Dons Kritzinger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is quite generally accepted that the missionary monks from the Celtic tradition in Ireland and Scotland played a significant role in the Christianisation of Europe during the Dark Ages.This is a story that should not be forgotten. It is also well known that this was preceded by the thorough evangelisation of Ireland and Scotland (and northeast England itself by these Celtic monks. What is, however, not getting enough attention is the (much later outreach to southern Africa coming from those same quarters. In this article an effort is made to give credit to this, and to trace the specific spirituality that made all this possible.

  3. Notes from the church of the Virgin at the island of Mali grad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetkovski Sašo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this text the unknown parts of the wall paintings from the Church of the Virgin at the island of Mali Grad (The Great Prespa Lake are analyzed: the figure of a monk praying to St. Paraskeve, on the southern wall of the nave, as well as the painting on the southern faüade with the depictions of St. George on horseback, the Virgin as Empress enthroned, and the bust of two saints, St. Paraskeve and St. Nicholas. The monk is identified with the hegoumenos Jona, mentioned in the donor’s inscription dating from 1369.

  4. Dhyana-thumb-pus hing Manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Guo-quan; CUI Xue-jun

    2003-01-01

    @@ The dhyana-thumb-pushing manipulation is the chief one inthe Dhyana Thumb Tuina School; it's also a characteristic manipulation and plays an important role in the TCM Tuina teaching and clinical treatment. The name came from Jingdechuanzhonglu() and was used in the Chan sect of Buddhism. According to the book, in Song Dynansty, Judi Buddhist Monk asked Tianlong Buddhist Monk for the dhyana. Tianlong erected a finger but said nothing, Judi deeply comprehended the dhyana. Later on, if someone asked him for the Buddhism doctrine, he did the same act. Before Judi died, he said: "I accepted a thumb Dhyana from Tianlong and benefited from it all my life."

  5. A Study of Race through Publishing Commercialization in Erasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈初旦

    2016-01-01

    Everett in his novel Erasure portrays the main character Monk as a black writer who is severely against the racial category in literary works, as he himself has no interest in black literature. However, his insistence in writing about Greek tragedy and French postmodernism brings him no academic success. Under the financial pressure, he spends two weeks and writes a parody to mock a popular black novel. Surprisingly, his novel wins lavish praises from literary critics and movie producers. By demonstrating Monk's dilemma in idealistic self-achievement and depressing publishing reality, Everett satirizes how literary works get lost in racial category in the age of publishing commercialization.

  6. Liturgie monastique et société médiévale

    OpenAIRE

    Rauwel, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Entre 1971 et 1991, Barbara Rosenwein a publié trois études aux titres particulièrement significatifs : « Feudal war and monastic peace : Cluniac liturgy as ritual agression » (1971), « Social meaning in the monastic and mendicant spiritualities » (avec Lester Little, 1974), « Monks and their enemies : a comparative approach » (avec Sharon Farmer et Thomas Head, 1991). À chaque fois, un terme de caractère nettement religieux (liturgy / spirituality / monks) est associé à un indicateur de stru...

  7. Failure of Impropriation of Monastery Possession from Romanian Principalities until 1834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Ţuţuianu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The events of 1821 în the Romanian principalities, resulted in the return earthly rulers after Phanariots century. Immediately, Sublime Porte decided remove monks Greek from monasteries Romanians dedicated to the Holy Places of the East, because of their betrayal during the Greek revolution for national independence. A few years later, under pressure from Russia, who protects the Holy Places, against Romanian interests, Turkey was forced to allow the return of Greek monks in the Romanian Principalities, with higher claims. Secularization has failed and the conflict between the Holy Places and Romanian Principalities become very stressed until the true secularization during the reign of Cuza in 1863.

  8. Failure of Impropriation of Monastery Possession from Romanian Principalities until 1834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Tutuianu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The events of 1821 in the Romanian principalities resulted in the return earthly rulers after Phanariots century. Immediately, Sublime Porte decided remove monks Greek from monasteries Romanians dedicated to the Holy Places of the East, because of their betrayal during the Greek revolution for national independence. A few years later, under pressure from Russia, who protects the Holy Places, against Romanian interests, Turkey was forced to allow the return of Greek monks in the Romanian Principalities, with higher claims. Secularization has failed and the conflict between the Holy Places and Romanian Principalities become very stressed until the true secularization during the reign of Cuza in 1863.

  9. A Textual Study of The Post and Rank of "Khutukhtu" in Tibetan Buddhism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiciyeltu; ZhaiShende

    2003-01-01

    Among Mongolian and Tibetan high-ranking Buddhist monks, the Khutukhtu is second only to that of the Dalai and the Panchen. There have, however, been various interpretations of the word khutukhtu, its linguistic origin, and connotations. In this essay, therefore, I expound on the preliminary textual research I have made into questions regarding the origin of the word "khutukhtu," its course of evolution,and specific meaning when "Khutukhtu" became thepost and rank title for certain Mongolian and Tibetan high-ranking Buddhist monks.

  10. Manimekalai: The ancient Buddhist Tamil epic, its relevance to psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Tejus Murthy, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    This article refers to materials of psychiatric interest found in the Manimekalai written by the 2nd Century CE Buddhist poet Sathanar. From the early description of a wandering psychotic in the streets of Pukar, the ancient maritime capital of the Cholas it is opined that this description fits that of present-day schizophrenia. A drunkard making fun of a Jain monk and a cross-dressed individual are also found in the same streets. Manimekalai's request to the Chola king to convert the prison to a place of piety with Buddhist monks is mentioned. Lord Buddha's teachings on the compassionate way of life are presented. PMID:27385862

  11. Triatoma delpontei Romaña & Abalos, 1947 (Hemiptera, Triatominae en el estado brasileño de "Rio Grande do Sul" Triatoma delpontei Romaña & Abalos, 1947 (Hemiptera, Triatominae in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Salvatella Agrelo

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma delpontei Romaña y Abalos, 1947 es una especie de triatomineo silvestre, de marcada ornitofilia, que se asocia preferentemente al psitácido Myiopsitta monachus (Boddaert, 1783 colonizando sus nidos. Especie que se identifica con zonas de forestas subtropicales secas o xerofíticas propias de las provincias biogeográficas continentales chaqueñas, es notificada para Brasil en la microregión de la campaña de Río Grande do Sul (barra de Quaraí, Municipio de Uruguaiana.Triatoma delpontei (Romaña & Abalos, 1947 (Hemiptera, Triatominae is an ornithophilic sylvatic with a particular association to the psittacid Myiopsitta monachus (Boaddert, 1783. It is found in the continental biogeographical province of the Chaco, where it inhabits the nests or M.monachus, in subtropical xerophytic forests. The authors report the first finding of T. delpontei in Brasil, in the "campanha" region of the State or Rio Grande do Sul (Barra do Quarai, Uru-guaiana, on the right bank of the River Cuareim, not far from de Uruguayan border.

  12. TOPOGRAPHY AND VISCERAL MORPHOLOGY OF THE Melopsittacus undulatus, SHAW 1805 TOPOGRAFIA E MORFOLOGIA DAS VÍSCERAS DO PERIQUITO-AUSTRALIANO (Melopsittacus undulatus, SHAW 1805

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana S. Matsumoto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this research was to study the topography and morphology of Australian parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus viscera. Ten Australian parakeet were used (5 males and 5 females. The animals were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution, through perfusion in the musculature and visceral cavity. Macroscopically, the Australian parakeet viscera did not show expressive differences when compared to other domestic birds’ species. Microscopically, the main difference was the presence of mechanoreceptors (Corpuscles of Pacini in the tongue, found for the first time in this psittaciform  species.

    KEY WORDS: Melopsittacus undulatus, morphology, topography, viscera.

    Em virtude da escassez de dados referentes à morfologia e topografia das aves em geral, o presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever a topografia e morfologia das vísceras do periquito-australiano (Melopsittacus undulatus, para assim proporcionar um conhecimento mais amplo sobre características específicas dessa espécie. Para a descrição da morfologia e topografia das vísceras foram utilizados dez periquitos, sendo cinco machos e cinco fêmeas. Os animais foram fixados com solução de formaldeído 10%, através de perfusão na musculatura e cavidade visceral. Macroscopicamente, as vísceras do periquito não apresentaram muitas diferenças comparadas a outras espécies de aves domésticas. Microscopicamente, a principal diferença estava na presença de mecanorreceptores (corpúsculos de Pacini na língua, encontrados pela primeira vez nesta espécie de psitaciforme. 

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Melopsittacus undulatus, morfologia, topografia, vísceras.

  13. The Struggle for Human Rights in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The non-violent participation of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhist monks in resistance efforts to advocate for the welfare of Myanmar's people has played an important role in educating the world about human rights violations in the country. Faced with international condemnation, Myanmar's junta released Aung San Suu Kyi from…

  14. Dalai Lama Taken to Task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In an interview with Germany’s Der Spiegel magazine on March 26,2007, the 14th Dalai Lama explained his view on the Tibet issue,disguising himself as an exile persecuted by the Chinese Government and a monk with no political ambitions.His words,it seems,

  15. B-Cell Activation and Tolerance Mediated by B-Cell Receptor, Toll-Like Receptor and Survival Signal Crosstalk in SLE Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    results disseminated to communities of interest? The work under this award has contributed to several research papers or reviews/commentaries in peer... antibacterial T cell responses. Nat. Immunol. 13: 659–666. 77. Parroche, P., F. N. Lauw, N. Goutagny, E. Latz, B. G. Monks, A. Visintin, K. A. Halmen, M

  16. Summer Grand Summons Ceremony in Tashilhungpo Monastery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XILHU

    2003-01-01

    Every year, Tashilhungpo Monastery celebrates the Summer Grand Summons Ceremony (called Ximoqenbo in Tibetan) in the eighth month of the Tibetan calendar. All the monks and lay people of the Xigaze area get together to watch Chammo, which is a kind of sorcerer's dance. It is also a Tantric ritual

  17. The 11th Panchen Erdeni Presides Over Abhiseka Rituals In Yonghegong Lamasery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Lamps lit up the hall,where religioushorns were blown as the 11thPanchen Erdeni reached theYonghegong Lamasery in Beijing.He was to preside over the Abhiseka ritu-als and give a blessing touch to the fore-heads of monks and worshippers.

  18. Back to the Scriptorium: Database Marketplace 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 database marketplace is bounded by two extremes: massive digitization projects to increase access, and retrenchment owing to budget worries. Picture medieval monks hunched over their desks in the scriptorium as they labor to copy manuscripts. A 21st-century version of this activity is being repeated daily in the world's libraries and…

  19. Marriage as Matrix, Metaphor or Mysticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2015-01-01

    Taking Julia Kristeva's 'Tales of Love' with its more or less slight treatment of Bernard's and Luther's peceptions of love as its point of departure, this article shows that both the monk Bernard and the married theologian Luther use conjugal love as a matrix for an abundant, heterogenous love b...

  20. [The Library of the Franciscan pharmacy in Jerusalem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    The inventory of the pharmacy of Franciscan monks in Jerusalem contained the description of the eighty books they kept in their Library. Most of them could be identified. A great number were of Italian origin, 45 were redacted in Latin, and 32 in an Italian language. 27 dealt with pharmacy, 18 with medicine and 17 were encyclopaedias or hygiene books.

  1. Home Education, School, Travellers and Educational Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The difficulties Traveller pupils experience in school are well documented. Yet those in home educating go unreported. Monk suggests this is because some groups are overlooked; that gypsies and Travellers are often not perceived as home educators. This article highlights how the move to home education is seldom a free choice for Traveller…

  2. Perceptual Issues of Augmented and Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    different colors (Monk, 1984). Approximately 8% of the male population and less than 1% of the female population suffer from color blindness to some degree... Color blindness is the inability to distinguish certain colors, notably reds and greens. This fact is also important to remember when designing

  3. The Struggle for Human Rights in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The non-violent participation of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhist monks in resistance efforts to advocate for the welfare of Myanmar's people has played an important role in educating the world about human rights violations in the country. Faced with international condemnation, Myanmar's junta released Aung San Suu Kyi from…

  4. YINSHUN'S RECOVERY OF SHIZHU PIPOSHA LUN A MADHYAMAKA-BASED PURE LAND PRACTICE IN TWENTIETH-CENTURY TAIWAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travagnin, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Yinshun (1906-2005) is regarded as one of the eminent monks of twentieth-century Chinese Buddhism. In the mission of reinventing Chinese Buddhism Yinshun engaged particularly in the revival and restatement of Madhyamaka. His interpretation of Ngrjuna's texts, the reassessment of the links between pr

  5. What is Behind Yinshun’s Re-statement of the Nature of the Mūlamadhyamakakā : Debates on the Creation of a New Mahāyāna in Twentieth-century China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travagnin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Yinshun (1906–2005) is regarded as one of the most eminent monks in twentieth-century Chinese Buddhism. Previous research has argued that Yinshun especially undertook the mission of writing new commentaries on Madhyamaka texts. His efforts provoked a revival of interest towards the Madhyamaka school

  6. Eugenius III, The Cistercian Pope (1145 - 1153)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to the papal throne in 1145 as a relative unknown at a time of crisis, and spent much of his pontificate away from Rome. As the first Cistercian monk to become pope, his relationship with his former abbot Bernard of Clairvaux has often been seen as the hallmark of his pontificate, and Bernard’s preaching...

  7. A Discourse on Human Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    47(4), 221–227. Monk, T. H., Buysse, D. J., & Rose, L. R. (1999). Wrist actigraphic measures of sleep in space. Sleep , 22(7), 948–954. Naval Center...482 1. Actigraphic Measures of Sleep .......................................................483 2. Mood States...405  Figure VI-9.  Histogram of participants’ reported hours of sleep per night (PSQI question 4) in actigraphy subsample

  8. News in Brief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    President Xi Met with the 11th Panchen Lama President Xi Jinping met the11th Panchen Choskyi Gyalpo on June 10th in Beijing.The president expected the 11th Panchen Choskyi Gyalpo to grow into a Tibetan Buddhist leader with great religious achievement,deeply loved by the monks and secular followers.

  9. The Dance of the Brush

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ Although I am not a graphic artist, I'm interested in design, especially design pertaining to the written word; that is, fonts and type. In the Western world, several currently popular fonts date back to the advent of the print-ing press in the 15th century. Some esoteric fonts used by today's artists emulate monks who copied medieval manuscripts by hand.

  10. 75 FR 4042 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Public Perceptions and Attitudes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... of commercial water sports tours, and hotel managers operating in areas of high monk seal activity... hours and cost) of the ] proposed collection of information; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility... forms of information technology. Comments submitted in response to this notice will be summarized and/or...

  11. AcEST: BP913529 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available polyprotein OS=Human spumaretrovirus... 31 1.7 sp|P03359|POL_WMSV Pol polyprotein (Fragment) OS=Woolly monk...STPYHPQSGSKVERKNSDIKRLLTKLLVGRPTKW 993 >sp|P03359|POL_WMSV Pol polyprotein (Fragment) OS=Woolly monkey sarco

  12. 77 FR 47043 - Draft 2012 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Jim Carretta, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, 8604 La Jolla Shores Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037-1508....) requires NMFS and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to prepare stock assessments for each stock of... included: Hawaiian monk seal, Southern Resident killer whale, Hawaii Insular false killer whale,...

  13. 76 FR 52940 - Draft 2011 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Jim Carretta, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, 8604 La Jolla Shores Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037-1508....) requires NMFS and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to prepare stock assessments for each stock of... (Hawaiian monk seal, Southern Resident killer whale, Hawaii Insular false killer whale, and Hawaii...

  14. Images of Akutô

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenbøll, Morten

    2005-01-01

    One of the primary objects of this paper has been to show how a so-called akutô was created, not on a local level by merchants or itinerant monks committing robbery and murder or by warriors or powerful peasants opposing a distant proprietor by violent means, but by the proprietor itself as part ...

  15. The study of yellow robe manufacturing knowledge for fair-trade community business in Bangkok and the perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phramaha Rattana Hongintra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was aimed 1 to study the background and the wisdom of three garments worn by Buddhist monks in Bangkok and the perimeter; 2 to study the present situation and problems with the production of three garments worn by Buddhist monks in Bangkok and the perimeter; 3 to investigate local business guidelines for the production of three garments worn by Buddhist monks. Data were collected by documentary research and field study. Collected data were validated using triangulation techniques and analyzed by descriptive analysis. The results show that the three garments worn by Buddhist monks were only produced in the past out of necessity. These days, the yellow robe has been developed to include patterns and fabrics that enhance daintiness and functionality. The researchers found that local businesses creating yellow robes suffer from a lack of knowledge inheritance, business capital and proper marketing support. Solving these problems requires cooperation between business owners and religious school, providing opportunity for knowledge exchange and marketing networks. The development of yellow robe production as a fair trade community business requires improved design knowledge and familiarity with religious rules concerning clothes. Moreover, the manufacturers need to improve product packaging to be more suitable and modern. In conclusion, the existence of traditional knowledge concerning clerical robe production depends on the cooperation of community members and the development of production capacity, for example packaging design, product quality and uniqueness.

  16. Sharing the Gift of Jazz: An Interview with Willie L. Hill Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Willie L. Hill Jr., founder and director of the Society for Jazz Education. Currently a professor of music education at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst and the director of the UMass Fine Arts Center, Hill has served as director of education for the Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz. He is a past…

  17. 76 FR 32025 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Rulemaking To Revise Critical Habitat for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ..., walrus, and harbor seals, which often haul out in groups of larger numbers, the Hawaiian monk seal is...-6 weeks after mating she will haul out to molt (NMFS, 2007a). The weaned pups are left to teach... MHI across a large expanse of available foraging habitat allows for less intra-specific...

  18. NEWS IN BRIEF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The 2nd Ceremony for Conferring Senior Tibetan Buddhist Degree On October 10th of 2006, the 2nd "mtho ramspa" degree conferring ceremony of the Tibetan monastic system was held at the Tibetan-language Senior Buddhist College in the Yellow Temple (Lhakhang Serpo). 11 monks are conferred with a "mtho ramspa" degree.

  19. Christmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MichaelProsser

    2004-01-01

    In about 540 AD, a monk named Dionysius the Short tried to establish a calendar starting from the year of Jesus Christ's birth as 1 AD (Anno Domino--in the year of the Lord). However, he miscalucated by about four to seven years too late based on the Roman calendar and the fixation of the stars during the earlier period,

  20. JPRS Report, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-30

    CPC Committee secretary is bility has not only depressed enterprise zeal and initia- usually greater than that of the township or town head. tive...Unlike Buddhism or Taoism, for which a believer must achieved varying degrees of development in China’s become either a monk or vegetarian , it has few

  1. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 63, Number 6, December 1925

    Science.gov (United States)

    1925-12-01

    follows the so-called monk, Grishka Rasputin ("the former horse-thief, drunkard, and profligate"), through many of his schemes which show why "In Siberia...where Grishka was hated, today already, during the Bolshevist regime, people whisper: ’ Rasputin was a dog, but a strong, super- natural man.’" Many

  2. The Ancient Origins of Sign Handshapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, George

    2002-01-01

    While much of the evidence is circumstantial, there is a clear evolutionary line from our primeval forbears in Africa, through imperial China and Rome, Celtic Druid lore, and medieval monks, to the one-hand "abecedario" first used in the education of Deaf children in Spain, the two-hand glove alphabet used by Alexander Graham Bell with deaf…

  3. Uudised : Estonia maja renoveerimisest. EMNi juhatuse tegevusest. Meredith Monki kontsert Tallinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    7. märtsil kiitis rahvusooperi Estonia nõukogu heaks Estonia teatri- ja kontserdimaja renoveerimistööde tehnilise projekti. EMNi juhatuse koosolekul 27. veebr. arutati E. Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumi perspektiive, muusikahariduse probleeme ja EMNi töösuundi. 20. märtsil esineb Tallinnas Sakala keskuses M. Monk

  4. Cetacean strandings along the coast of Izmir Bay, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guclusoy, H.; Veryeri, N.; Cirik, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper provides information on the stranding of cetaceans in Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea, between 1992 and 2004. The data were collected opportunistically during sightings and stranding data collection for Monk Seals. A total of 12 cetaceans, namely Bottle-nosed Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus (n=6

  5. The Monastic Schools of Burma and Siam during the Colonial Period, 1852-1912.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alan L.

    Prior to the colonial period, the rudiments of education consisting of religion, basic literacy, and arithmetic had been provided to male children in Burma and Siam through Buddhist monks that lived in local monasteries. Education commenced when the child reached five or six years of age and usually ended at puberty. Formal learning continued for…

  6. Eat Without Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Young people across China are becoming vegetarians for a variety of reasons,from weight loss to worries about the quality of meat Avegetarian diet,once associated with monks or priests,has become fashionable in China,spawning the launch of a raft of restaurants cater- ing to a new no-meat clientele.

  7. Sharing the Gift of Jazz: An Interview with Willie L. Hill Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Willie L. Hill Jr., founder and director of the Society for Jazz Education. Currently a professor of music education at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst and the director of the UMass Fine Arts Center, Hill has served as director of education for the Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz. He is a past…

  8. Survey of the Archaeological Resources Along the Existing and Proposed Levees on Kaskaskia Island in Randolph County, Illinois, and Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    levees were covered. At that time the amount of walkable land was hindered by crops, water, silt deposits, weeds and sloughs. Consequently the survey...the present city of Collinsville, Illinois, is the Cahokia site, the largest single site in North America. It includes Monk’s Mound (the largest

  9. Public Research University Performance and Presidential Succession Events: 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Tracey M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. public research university performance narrative is dominated by "access, affordability, and accountability" rhetoric (National Science Foundation, 2012), while public policy advocacy is weakened (Basken, 2012), and presidents become increasingly transitory (Monks, 2012). The purpose of this study was to explore if presidential…

  10. Communication to Enhance Silence: The Trappist Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksa, James A.; Stech, Ernest L.

    1978-01-01

    Investigates perceptions of the amount of interpersonal communication and attitudes towards communication frequency after the Trappist monk's rule of enforced silence and solitude was lifted in 1969. Concludes that increased interpersonal communication resulted in increased self-awareness and therefore more meaningful and effective silence. (MH)

  11. Social Structure and Resistance to Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillery, George A., Jr.

    The purpose of the research is to extract as many common factors as possible which are associated with resistance to change. Two peoples are selected for study, the Navajo Indians and the Trappist monks, both of which are rural and have an extensive history spanning at least several centuries, but which differ radically otherwise. The 2 major…

  12. Kokkuvõte Prahas toimunud ETUCi kongressist / Kadi Pärnits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärnits, Kadi, 1965-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: EAKL Teataja : Narodnaja Gazeta juuni lk. 3. Euroopa Ametiühingute Konföderatsiooni 10. kongressi juhtlauseks oli, et EL tuleb panna tööle inimeste heaks. Vt. samas: John Monks valiti ETUCi peasekretäriks

  13. Gene : CBRC-RMAC-21-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ED: 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C isoform 2 [Macaca mulatta] 0.0 100% gnl|UG|Mmu#S24503975 5-HT2A receptor [rhesus monk...eys, mRNA Partial, 1438 nt] /cds=p(11,1426) /gb=S78209 /

  14. Sustained/Continuous Operations Subgroup of the Department of Defense Human Factors Engineering Technical Group: Program Summary and Substracts from the Semiannual Meeting (9th) Held in Pensacola, Florida on 11-12 July 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    to respond--the muscular tiredness one feels after sustained vigorous exercise. Mental fatigue is the subjective feeling of weariness that...the subjective feeling of and Waterhouse 1985, Monk et al. 1985), weariness which accompanies repeated For most people, night-work is a problem

  15. Goal Orientation Framing and Its Influence on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    people will repeatedly choose pleasure over nutritional or biological needs if given the option; they enjoy the pleasurable sensation (Eisenberger, 1972...waves are most often associated with dreaming sleep or deep meditation. Religious monks who have learned to control pain or circulatory function do

  16. Multiplication of a Schubert polynomial by a Stanley symmetric polynomial

    OpenAIRE

    Assaf, Sami

    2017-01-01

    We prove, combinatorially, that the product of a Schubert polynomial by a Stanley symmetric polynomial is a truncated Schubert polynomial. Using Monk's rule, we derive a nonnegative combinatorial formula for the Schubert polynomial expansion of a truncated Schubert polynomial. Combining these results, we give a nonnegative combinatorial rule for the product of a Schubert and a Schur polynomial in the Schubert basis.

  17. Education and Being: A Reflection of Thomas Merton's Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, Thomas Del

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the significance of Thomas Merton's life and work for education. Describes Merton as a Trappist monk who originally sought spiritual self-containment through monastic life only to reemerge to participate in the world through his writings. Suggests that Merton's contribution to education is the idea of orienting education along spiritual…

  18. Patrimoines missionnaire et colonial. Des images médiévales à l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On savait que le concept missionnaire s'y voulait l'héritier de l'offensive ... tributary to the civilizing offensive undertaken by the monks in medieval Europe, but little has ... Keywords: abbeys, slavery, architecture, Catholicism, civilization, school ...

  19. Program and Abstracts of the Society for Research on Biological Rhythms (2nd) Held in Jacksonville, Florida on 9-13 May 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-15

    Strumwasser, RHYTHMS. Gail Orpen and Meir Steiner . Neurobiol- Michael Roberts, Arnold Eskin ogy Laboratory, St. Joseph’s Hospital Research Institute, and...David R. Soil (Organizer) J. Buysse, Timothy H. Monk. Human Chronobiology Paul Russell, Rudolf Raff Program, WPIC, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh...UNDER MINIMAL Chairperson: WJ. Rietveld MASKING CONDITIONS. Heinz Martens, Hartman Endlich, Gunther Hildebrandt, Rudolf Mood. Institut fur

  20. Building the blocks of executive functioning: differentiating early developing processes contributing to executive functioning skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D.J.; Ward, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    The neural processes that underlie executive function begin to develop in infancy. However, it is unclear how the behavior manifested by these processes are related or if they can be differentiated early in development. This study seeks to examine early emerging executive functioning skills in monke

  1. Wandering saints : Chan eccentrics in the art and culture of Song and Yuan China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Paramita

    2009-01-01

    In Chinese history, few personalities compare to the Chan eccentrics. These legendary, exceptional monks, including the friends Hanshan and Shide, their teacher Fenggan, and Budai, supposedly dwelled in the mountains and cities of southeast China between the seventh and tenth centuries. Dressed in r

  2. From prominence to obscurity : a study of the Darumashū : Japan's first Zen school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugem, Vincent Michaël Nicolaas

    2012-01-01

    From Prominence to Obscurity focuses on the Darumashū (Bodhidharma school), a little known but important agent in the formative history of Zen in Japan. In the late twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the Darumashū – established by the monk Dainichi Nōnin (fl. 1189) – was considered representative of

  3. Prazosin Augmentation of Outpatient Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders in Active Duty Soldiers with and without PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    State Psychiatric Institute, 1996 17. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF 3rd, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument...Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62:860–868 31. Marshall RD, Beebe KL, Oldham M, Zaninelli R: Efficacy and safety of paroxetine treatment for chronic PTSD: a fixed

  4. A Placebo-Controlled Augmentation Trial of Prazosin for Combat Trauma PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    New York, Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1996 17. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF 3rd, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ...results of a placebo-controlled, flexible-dosage trial. J Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62:860–868 31. Marshall RD, Beebe KL, Oldham M, Zaninelli R: Efficacy and

  5. AIRMEN AS BOLD RISK TAKERS REDEFINING RISK TO ACHIEVE OPERATIONAL AGILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Lieutenant Colonel, USAF A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements Advisor: Frank D. Samuelson ...advisor, Col Samuelson , I would like to thank the following people for their assistance with this paper: COL Joshua Walker, Col Jeremiah Monk, Lt Col

  6. Gregor Mendel, OSA (1822-1884), founder of scientific genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, P M

    2003-11-01

    Gregor Mendel, an Augustinian monk and part-time school teacher, undertook a series of brilliant hybridisation experiments with garden peas between 1857 and 1864 in the monastery gardens and, using statistical methods for the first time in biology, established the laws of heredity, thereby establishing the discipline of genetics.

  7. The Last Trade Caravan in Tibet(Ⅷ):MISFORTUNE BEFALLS KELSANG WANGDU'S FAMILY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GYAYANG; XIRAB

    2007-01-01

    Horse Racing and Wangchen's Death During the transition from summer to autumn,herdsmen usually take part in and enjoy horse racing. This is a huge annual gathering.Usually it includes three major stages:first,inviting monks to pray and conduct an invocation ceremony,second the horse racing itself together with various kinds

  8. China’s Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Jinith de Silva

    2009-01-01

    <正>Democratic reform was carried out in Tibet fifty years ago this month. The purpose of this article is to examine what progress Tibet has made during the last fifty years. We Sri Lankans remember Tibet as the birth place of poet monk S. Mahinda. It is also

  9. [A case of psittacosis showing a localized peripheral air-space consolidation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayama, Masato; Inui, Naoki; Yasui, Hideki; Yamazaki, Sawa; Muramatsu, Eriko; Uto, Tomohiro; Morita, Satoru; Asada, Kazuhiro; Tsutiya, Tomoyoshi; Nakano, Yutaka; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo

    2006-09-01

    A 29-year-old man was admitted with fever and anorexia. Radiographic examinations of the chest showed a localized peripheral non-segmental air-space consolidation in the right lower lobe. He had a history of exposure to parakeets, and psittacosis was diagnosed based on the elevated serum complement fixation titer against Chlamydia psittaci. The common radiographic finding of psittacosis is ground-glass attenuation radiating from the hilar areas. We report a rare case of psittacosis presenting a localized consolidation, clearly limited to the subpleural region of the lung.

  10. Species differences in early patterning of the avian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Luke; Kuo, Eric; Martin, Arnaud; Monuki, Edwin S; Striedter, Georg

    2011-03-01

    The telencephalon is proportionately larger in parrots than in galliformes (chicken-like birds), whereas the midbrain tectum is proportionately smaller. We here test the hypothesis that the adult species difference in midbrain proportion is due to an evolutionary change in early brain patterning. In particular, we compare the size of the early embryonic midbrain between parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus) and bobwhite quail (Colinus virgianus) by examining the expression domains of transcription factors Pax6 and Gbx2, which are expressed in the forebrain and hindbrain, respectively. Because these expression domains form rostral and caudal borders with the presumptive midbrain when this region is specified (Hamburger-Hamilton stages 9-11), they allow us to measure and compare the sizes of a molecularly defined presumptive midbrain in the two species. Based on published data from older embryos, we predicted that the molecularly defined midbrain territory is significantly larger in quail than parakeets. Indeed, our data show that normalized midbrain length is 33% greater in quail and that the midbrain to forebrain ratio is 28% greater. This is strong evidence of a significant species difference in early brain patterning.

  11. Avian paramyxovirus serotype 3 infection in Neopsephotus, Cyanoramphus, and Neophema species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Arne; Grund, Christian; Müller, Inge; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2009-09-01

    An outbreak of avian paramyxovirus serotype 3 (APMV-3) infection occurred in a private bird collection consisting mainly of Neophema species. Two Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii) and one red-crowned parakeet (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) were examined after developing torticollis and circling. The 3 birds were euthanatized and submitted for necropsy. Brain and liver samples from the 3 birds were homogenized and inoculated into the allantoic cavity of 10-day-old embryonated specific-pathogen-free chicken eggs. An APMV-3 isolate replicated but did not induce embryonic mortality after up to 5 consecutive passages. Allantoic fluid from the second passage was used in hemagglutination testing performed on chicken erythrocytes, which resulted in a titer of 64 hemagglutinating units. Avian paramyxovirus serotype 3 was identified in the allantoic fluid, and a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction verified the isolate as APMV-3/parakeet. An eventual mortality rate of 70% occurred in the Neophema species, but a group of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and parrotlets (Forpus species) kept in the same facility showed no clinical signs during the outbreak.

  12. Wildlife importation into the United States, 1900-1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Data from Bureau of Biological Survey and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service reports show an overall increase in the number of birds and mammals imported from 1900 to 1972. The trend was interrupted by World War I, the economic depression of the 1930's, and World War II. Data are lacking for the years after World War II until 1968. Until 1942, domesticated canaries and a few species of game birds made up most of the avian imports; the shell parakeet or budgerigar was the most commonly imported parrot. Although the total number ofbirds imported 1968-72 was-not greatly different from the pre-depression years, the proportion of canaries, game species, and parakeets declined greatly and the variety and number of cage birds including other parrot species greatly increased. Until 1930 most mammals imported were for laboratory use or fur farming. After 1930 the number of imported mammals increased with the growing importance of primates, especially rhesus macaques, in research. Since 1968 the number of mammals irnported annually has been at least 5 times greater than the previous peak of 1938, and primates have made up 87% of mammalian imports. Information on reptiles and amphibians imported into the United States is available only for 1970 and 1971. Turtles were the most commonly imported reptiles, frogs and toads the most commonly imported amphibians.

  13. Can the same species of Platynosomum (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) infect both mammalian and avian hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, H A; Mati, V L T; Melo, A L

    2016-05-01

    The importance of platynosomiasis has increased in feline veterinary practice, but aspects related to the specificity of Platynosomum spp. in definitive hosts requires further study. Although morphological traits suggest that the same species, P. illiciens, may infect both birds and mammals, the synonymies previously proposed have not been widely accepted, likely because host specificity is assumed. In addition, the name P. fastosum has frequently been used for parasites recovered from mammals. In the present study, metacercariae (n= 100/animal) of P. illiciens recovered from lizards (Hemidactylus mabouia) in Brazil were fed to Australian parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus) and mice. Two parasites were recovered from the liver of one M. undulatus specimen during a necropsy that was performed 105 days after infection, and all mice were found to be infected with 37 ± 12 (18-48) parasites. The morphology of the P. illiciens obtained from the parakeet was similar to that of parasites obtained from mice and those described previously from naturally infected birds and mammals. Non-specificity of P. illiciens in hosts is discussed briefly, based on the parasitological and morphological results obtained during the avian experimental platynosomiasis and the epidemiology and geographical distribution of this parasite.

  14. Neophytos the Kaphsokalyvites (1713–1784? and the "Movement of Kollyvadon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bargeliotes, Leonidas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Leonidas Bargeliotes (Olympic Centre of Philosophy and Culture, Athens argues, that in his efforts to defend the Ekklesiastical customs and regulations against whose monks who wanted to raise money by selling their articles of commerce and perform their vigilances and memorial services on Sundays and important holydays Neophytos Kaphsokalyvites become a protagonist of the movement of "Kollyvadon". For the evaluation of his protagonist role he examines a the existing philosophico-theological conditions and conflicts of the 18th century, b the religious rhetoric, convictions and obstinate defense by the monk Neophytos, and, c his continuous movements, and wanderings from place to place and the transference, consequently, of the conflicts to the wide area of the Balkan countries.

  15. Power of Religion in Rural Areas and Its Public Service (I)--An Analysis of Cases in Five Villages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHALHO

    2005-01-01

    In the study of socio-economic development in Tibet, one tends to stress the role of non-economic elements, especially the role of humans and social background.Of these, the role of religious culture is regarded as the most important. However, there are basically two approaches to the issue: First of all, although religion exerts a varied role on economic growth, legal construction, public welfare and ethics, one tends to each only a general judgment. Secondly, study of the role played by religion focused on the religious doctrines held by monks, and monks themselves. Although many point out the fact that religious power over people varies, it roots in the rural areas and among the folk at large is still neglected.Hence, there is the need to study individual cases.

  16. Annual report of the Marine Mammal Commission, calendar year 1992. Report to the Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-31

    This is the 20th Annual Report of the Marine Mammal Commission and its Committee of Scientific Advisors on Marine Mammals. The Commission was established under Title II of the Marine Mammal Protection Act to provide an independent source of guidance on Federal activities and policies, both domestic and international, affecting marine mammal protection and conservation. Each year, the Marine Mammal Commission and its Committee of Scientific Advisors devote particular attention to marine mammal species or populations that are or may be in jeopardy. Chapter III describes efforts to conserve: sea otters in California and Alaska; Steller sea lions; Hawaiian monk seals; harbor seals; northern fur seals; Pacific walruses; northern right whales; humpback whales; gray whales; bowhead whales; harbor porpoises; vaquitas or Gulf of California harbor porpoises; bottlenose dolphins; killer whales; and polar bears. Activities related to West Indian manatees, Hawaiian monk seals, vaquitas, and gray whales are summarized.

  17. Neurological problems of jazz legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Phillip L

    2009-08-01

    A variety of neurological problems have affected the lives of giants in the jazz genre. Cole Porter courageously remained prolific after severe leg injuries secondary to an equestrian accident, until he succumbed to osteomyelitis, amputations, depression, and phantom limb pain. George Gershwin resisted explanations for uncinate seizures and personality change and herniated from a right temporal lobe brain tumor, which was a benign cystic glioma. Thelonious Monk had erratic moods, reflected in his pianism, and was ultimately mute and withdrawn, succumbing to cerebrovascular events. Charlie Parker dealt with mood lability and drug dependence, the latter emanating from analgesics following an accident, and ultimately lived as hard as he played his famous bebop saxophone lines and arpeggios. Charles Mingus hummed his last compositions into a tape recorder as he died with motor neuron disease. Bud Powell had severe posttraumatic headaches after being struck by a police stick defending Thelonious Monk during a Harlem club raid.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL STATUS AND ETHNICITY ON DIET IN MEDIAEVAL TALLINN AS SEEN THROUGH STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Lightfoot, Emma; Russow, Erki;

    2016-01-01

    Food encodes social and cultural values and has an important role to play in defining identities. In mixed populations, diet can be used to distinguish between ‘us’ and ‘them’. This study investigates the extent to which the inhabitants of mediaeval Tallinn, an important trading centre, used food...... to maintain distinct identities. Human skeletal material was selected from four mediaeval cemeteries in Tallinn, chosen to represent different groups within Tallinn’s society, likely including foreign merchants, foreign monks, urban Estonians and low-status Estonians, and from a nearby rural site, Kaberla....... These individuals were also identified as migrants and were likely either monks or foreign merchants. The results suggest that in some cases the people of Tallinn did use food as a means of maintaining social statuses and potentially ethnicities. Only one individual (LTL06) was identified as having had...

  19. Distribution of mammals in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Prigioni

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some 63 species have been recorded in Albania from 1950 to 1994, with the exclusion of Cetacea. Another 15 species, including 5 found on the eastern border between Albania and Greece, are considered probably present. Hence 78 species could occur in Albania. According to IUCN red list of threatened animals, 8 species are defined as vulnerable, 15 as lower risk and one (the Mediterranean monk seal as critically endangered. In Albania, the legal protection of mammals includes all bat species, carnivores (except the stone marten, the red fox and the wolf, the chamois, the roe deer and the Mediterranean monk seal. General information on the distributional pattern and the population size is reported for some species, mainly carnivores.

  20. Translation and Transtextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapodi Zsuzsa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Umberto Eco’s novel The Name of the Rose as a postmodern literary work is extensively based on transtextuality. There are series of quotations from the Bible, Petrus Abelardus, St. Bernard, Petrarch, Conan Doyle, Agatha Christie, Jorge L. Borges, Nietzsche, and other classic authors interwoven into the novel’s narrative. The text is a result of multiple translations, a truly intercultural adventure: Adso, a 14th-century German monk from the Melk monastery provides a Northern Italian travel experience in Latin language, this memoir is translated by the publishing narrator into the Italian language of the 20th century. The characters of the story come from different areas of Europe, as there are monks from England, Spain, Norway, Germany, and other countries. This paper sheds light on the problems that occurred during the novel’s translation.

  1. José Olallo Valdés: a Cuban male nurse to be remembered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onassys Barreiro Alberdi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available José Olallo was a monk of the Order San Juan de Dios, who assumed infirmary practice as his profession, with a considerable humanist approach. He was a missionary who devoted his life to relief other people´s pain, no matter their religion, race, or social status, with no material profits for himself. This monk never studied nursery, but got his knowledge from the daily practice at the hospital of San Juan de Dios in Puerto Príncipe. He is an example for all those persons who choose this profession, for his perseverance, devotion and love. On November, 29th the Catholic Church beatified him in Camagüey city. He belonged to the order San Juan de Dios, founded by a Portuguese religious man in 1539.

  2. The fresco painting of the narthex of Zrze and the liturgy of Holy Week

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Branislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frescoes in the narthex of the Church of the Transfiguration at the Zrze Monastery near Prilep (1368/1369 depict several unusual themes, as well as a very rare iconography. The holy monks painted in the lower zone of frescoes can be interpreted as the three categories of monasticism: anchorites, representatives of coenobitic monasticism and monks who became the bishops and teachers of the Church. The remaining frescoes - an abbreviated cycle of Christ’s Passion with the Anapeson, the Holy Trinity in guise of the Hospitality of Abraham, with a heifer lamenting over a slaughtered calf, and the Communion of Apostles, with Judas heading communion with the wine - were painted under the influence of the liturgy served during Holy Week.

  3. The Influence of Combustion-derived pollutants on limestone deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, J.B.; Montgomery, Melanie; Thompson, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    -ionized water at pH 5.5, for clean-rain base-line data, the relative effects of the Cl-, SO42- and NO3- components (5.2, 8.6 and 3.0 mg 1(-1) respectively) of an artificial acid-rain solution were studied. Using spray run-off solution rates of 0.2 mi cm(-2), day(-1) and pH values of 5.5 and 3.8, the work...... and Monks Park limestones, respectively. At pH 3.8 the individual anion recession rates were increased to 11.1 +/- 0.5 and 13.9 +/- 0.5 mu m yr(-1) respectively, similar to the rates of 12.5 +/- 1.6 and 13.8 +/- 2.2 mu m yr(-1) for the mixed anion artificial acid rain solution on Portland and Monks Park...

  4. Cultural Resources Assessment of Selected Sites to be Affected by Flood Protection Activities, Kaskaskia Island Levee Raise Project, Randolph County, Illinois. Phase I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    inhabitants are more than half French, they raise large stocks of horned cattle, horses, swine, poultry , &c. There is a post office, a land office for the...quartzite pebble 128 flakes, some of Kaolin and Mansker cherts, many modified 1 monks mound red sherd 1 cord marked grit grog tempered sherd 5 shell...cord marked grit tempered sherd 4 flakes, 1 Kaolin chert Present Reconnaissance General Surface Prehistoric 2 Korando cord marked body sherds 2 probable

  5. Jokhang Monastery Episode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Opinions are divided over claims made by some monks to visiting world media The Chinese Government finally opened the door to foreign jour- nalists wanting to enter Tibet on March 26,following days of un- rest.The three-day trip was organized by the Information Office of the State Council for selected media organizations,includ- ing Hong Kong’s South China Morning Post,Britain’s Financial Times and the Associated Press from the United States.

  6. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Anthony,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar and...

  7. Ancient maritime trade of the eastern Indian littoral

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    to foreign traders as ban- yaga, which include the Kalingas, Singhalese, Dravid- ians, etc. and merchant guild as banigrama 37 . Apart from Indian pottery, glass and semiprecious stone beads have also been discovered from Sembiran and Ban Don Ta Phet... in India and abroad. Monks, traders and sculptors played a significant role in maritime trade and carried Indian scripts and languages to South- east Asia. On their arrival at an Indian coast, the Roman and Greek mariners took advantage of prevailing...

  8. Physical Design of Critical Experiment Facility for Verifying Characteristics and Effects of Coupling Between Reactor and Spallation Target of ADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN; Sheng-gui; ZHOU; Qi; LI; Yan

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of studying and verifying characteristics and effects of coupling between reactor and spallation target of ADS,based on the critical experimental facility design criteria and the availableexperiment condition,physical design of a critical experiment facility with lead coolant is completed,using critical calculation code MONK-9A.The contents of physical designs mainly include nuclear fuel,array of fuel rods,neutron source

  9. Teresa y Luis, Luis y Teresa. Dos santos en tiempos recios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Callado Estela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la relación entre dos grandes santos españoles de la Contrarreforma Católica, Teresa de Jesús y el dominico fray Luis Bertrán. The present article analyses the relation between two big Spanish saints of the Catholic Counterreformation, Teresa de Jesus and the Dominican monk Luis Bertrán.

  10. Каузальные конструкции со словом абие в текстах житий(Causal Constructions with the Word абие in the Hagiographic Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Lönngren

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to characterize and classify the causal constructions in which the word abie occurs in a collection of Hagiographic Texts from the fifteenth century (the author of the collection is the Russian monk Nil Sorsky, and to investigate the realization of one of the meanings of abie in a certain type of causal construction. The concluding part presents a semantic description of the word abie, which is frequently used in these constructions.

  11. Tea - a Chineseway of life and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Tea, along with porcelain and silk, has long been one of China’s most significant exports.ln the 6th century, a Buddhist monk introduced tea to Japan and a Portuguese missionary to Europe in the 16th century. In this way, tea became an international beverage. From ancient times to today, tea has been a necessity of the ordinary life of anyone Chinese.

  12. Blame It on the Bucky!: The Positioning of Buckfast Tonic Wine between Acceptability and Transgression

    OpenAIRE

    Leishman, David

    2014-01-01

    Commercialised as a product made by the Benedictine monks of Buckfast Abbey, Buckfast Tonic Wine adds an image of piety to the medicinal argument suggested by the legally authorized mention “tonic wine” and by its former mode of distribution in chemist’s shops. However, despite this highly respectable dual connotation of health and spirituality, Buckfast has become the drink of choice for disaffected youths in Central Scotland, and Buckfast consumption has become associated with anti-social s...

  13. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Anthony,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar and...

  14. 仏教思想普及のための言語学的試み

    OpenAIRE

    角岡, 賢一

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the history of the translation of the Buddhism sutras, originally Chinese version, into modern colloquial Japanese. Partly because all the sutras have not been translated into Japanese, sutras are recited with Chinese sound in funeral and memorial ceremonies. As Japanese laymen and laywomen are not familiar with such Chinese sound, sutras are meaningless to them unless they learn beforehand. Some monks, however, began reciting sutras in Japanese translation in these two ...

  15. On the plausible association between environmental conditions and human eye damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feretis, Elias; Theodorakopoulos, Panagiotis; Varotsos, Costas; Efstathiou, Maria; Tzanis, Christos; Xirou, Tzina; Alexandridou, Nancy; Aggelou, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The increase in solar ultraviolet radiation can have various direct and indirect effects on human health, like the incidence of ocular damage. Data of eye damage in residents of three suburban regions in Greece and in two groups of monks/nuns and fishermen are examined here. The statistics performed on these data provides new information about the plausible association between increased levels of solar ultraviolet radiation, air-pollution at ground level, and the development of ocular defects.

  16. Intestinal parasites in howler monkeys Alouatta palliata (Primates: Cebidae) of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Chinchilla Carmona, Misael; Guerrero Bermúdez, Olga; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A.; Sánchez Porras, Ronald; Rodríguez Ortiz, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Fecal samples of 102 howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) from several sites of Costa Rica were studied for intestinal parasites. The zones studied were: Central Valley (San Ramón, Alajuela), Central Pacific (Chomes and Manuel Antonio National Park, Puntarenas), North Pacific (Palo Verde Park and Playa Potrero, Guanacaste), Chira Island in the Nicoya Gulf and Caribean area (Cahuita, Limón). Animals were anesthetized with dards containing Telazol in order to collect the fecal material; some monk...

  17. Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Prostaglandins and Gastric Secretion in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    gastric electrical control activity when gastric serosal electrodes are used in conjunction with skin electrodes (16,17). Each tracing was examined blindly...damage to gastric mucosal cells, to the myenteric plexus, or the smooth muscle similar to the one observed during the late postirradiation period (5). In...F: ---------- EFFECT OF IONIZING RADIATION ON PROSTAGLANDINS AND GASTRIC SECRETION IN RHESUS MONKS Andre Dubois Etienne Danquechin Dorval Linda Steel

  18. The Tao of Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2007-01-01

    China’s most ancient gift to the world, silk, arrived long before gunpowder, paper and printmaking. This coveted fabric predated Christ and Buddha. Silk startled the world: Lenient ancient Romans banned it as sexy and immoral. Durable, useful and elegant, it is one of the oldest fibers known to man. Production remained a Chinese secret until 550 when two Nestorian monks, risking their lives,

  19. Gunpowder and Arab Firearms in Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Zaky, A.

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available THERE is no certainty as to the actual date of the invention of gunpowder. The evidence that the Chinese possessed it in ancient times is not conclusive. Among the claimants of discovering gunpowder are Chinese, Indians, Greeks, Arabs, English and Germans. Who first thought of propelling a ball through a metal tube by exploding gunpowder is unknown; anyhow; it certainly was not Monk Berthold Schwartz.

    Consultar resumen en inglés.

  20. L'esfera copernicana de l'abat Joan de Safont (1789-1847)

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Pla, Carles

    2009-01-01

    Joan de Safont, benedictine monk and last abbot of Barcelona’s monastery of Sant Pau del Camp, founded a class of speculative and practical physics in the school of Sant Pau del Camp. He organized a mechanical and physical cabinet with abundant apparatus constructed by craftsmen from Barcelona. His inerest in astronomy led him to construct sun clocks and invent a copernican sphere at the beginning of the decade of 1830. It was a very ingenious device, articulated and equippe...

  1. Color Sculptures by Zhang Runzhi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    Zhang Runzhi is a clay sculptor who did not study art in college. Her sculptures, however, are popular and appreciated by people. She has created such characters from famous Chinese classical works as Lin Daiyu from Dream of Red Mansions; Lu Zhishen from Outlaws of the Marsh; Monk Tang Seng and his three disciples from Journey to the West; the White Snake, Xuxian and the Green Snake from Legend of the White Snake; as well as the Buddhas andfeitian

  2. Steganography and Steganalysis in Digital Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Michigan examined over 2 million images from popular websites like Ebay auction images and USENET archives searching for Steganography traces. They have...been posting images on Ebay with hidden messages inside to send to different terrorist groups. Recent attempts to detect the presence of such...images on Ebay have not uncovered anything. You might have seen in old Chinese movies that monks used to safeguard secrets by hiding those secrets on

  3. Gothic elements in contemporary detective story : Matthew Gregory Lewis and Minette Walters compared

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Marinko

    2009-01-01

    One of the most shocking Gothic novels was written by Matthew Gregory Lewis in 1796. His Gothic novel The Monk contains all the typical Gothic elements such as a ruined castle, aggressive villain, women in distress, the atmosphere of terror and horror and a lot more. This article analyses and compares to what extent the Gothic elements of the late 18th century survived in the contemporary detective story The Ice House (1993) written by Minette Walters and how these elements have changed.

  4. Stabilized Interior Penalty Methods for the Time-Harmonic Maxwell Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-31

    Stabilized interior penalty methods for the time-harmonic Maxwell equations I. Perugia D. Schötzau P. Monk Dipartimento di Matematica ...that converges to a vector function that is not a solution of Maxwell’s equations [4]. While it is possible to modify the variational form to correct...given vector function in @ 3 . The assumption that has a perfectly conducting boundary gives the following boundary condition on : A * 2

  5. DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY IN PRESERVATION OF BUDDIST MONASTERY TREASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shaftel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Treasure Caretaker Training (Digital Monastery Project, teaches Buddhist monks, nuns and community cultural caretakers to protect and preserve their own monastery sacred art treasures. Participants learn to create digital inventories by use of their own mobile phones. Included in this documentation is the video interview of elders who hold the oral history of many of the treasures. Risk assessment and disaster mitigation are taught.

  6. THE LIVES OF JAMYANG RIMPOCHE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑茜; 贾天粒; 张超音

    2005-01-01

    Tibetan Buddhism's theory concerning Rimpoche reincarnation, according to the study of the “wheel of birth and death,” states that all life revolves unceasingly like the wheel of a cart. Life is continuous. Although there is death, it is not a final extinction. Though an eminent monk may leave this world, he can transform into another kind of form, to continue his great compassionate vow to liberate beings.

  7. Modeling Motivational and Action Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-14

    and falls throughout the day, following circadian rhythms, and a schedule should try to match task difficulty with cognitive ability [7]. • Humans...drew Y. Ng. grouptime: preference based group scheduling. CHI, 2006. [7] J Carrier and T H Monk. Circadian rhythms of performance: new trends...intelligent calendar can make recommendation based on people’s individual productivity cycles . There are general rules of thumb such as “don’t schedule

  8. Writing History of Buddhist Thought in the Twentieth Century: Yinshun (1906-2005 in the Context of Chinese Buddhist Historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Bingenheimer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Venerable Yinshun 印 順 (1906–2005 was the eminent scholar-monk in twentieth-century Chinese Buddhism. This paper is about his historiographical practice and tries to outline his position in Chinese Buddhist historiography especially in reference to the Song dynasty historian Zhipan 志磐 (thirteenth century. It tries to answer the question in what ways Yinshun can be said to have modernized Buddhist historiography for Chinese Buddhism.

  9. The RAND Online Measure Repository for Evaluating Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury Programs. The RAND Toolkit, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Lieng, Lee Floyd, Christopher Fields, Reema Singh, Brian Stucky, and Cord Thomas. We are especially grateful to Brett Litz and Grant Marshall for...Deborah R, Schuller MD, Marshall MB. “The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale: Has the Gold Standard Become a Lead Weight?” American Journal of...Personality Inventory-2): Manual for Administration and Scoring. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, Berman SR

  10. La filosofia pratica e l’ascesi nelle Quaestiones ad Thalassium di Massimo il Confessore

    OpenAIRE

    Spacagna, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    2014 - 2015 The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how within the Quaestiones ad Thalassium the monk Massimo the Confessor’s reasoning is structured in two different perspectives: practical philosophy and mystical ascension. The idea behind this type of research is determined by two needs: the first one, obvious and tangible, is based on the scarceness of thorough studies on this worthy philosopher and theologian, whom for a long time was only considered for his suggestive critical in...

  11. The role of the regular clergy in the planning of the landscape. The case of San Julián de Samos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía López Salas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to understand what was the level of implication that the monks of San Julián de Samos had in the way of planning, changing and developing the large territory of their jurisdictional reserve. To achieve that goal, we resort to some historical, unpublished sources to reveal the rules, the interests and the instruments which, with a clear planning sense, were used to define the former structure of the inhabited landscape where we live nowadays.

  12. La biblioteca del convento de San Antonio de Padua de Lora del Río: libros de autor franciscano (1646)

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael M. Pérez García

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses an important seventeenth-century conventual library in Spain. Specifically, the study is focused on the books written by franciscan monks that were in the monastery in 1646. The bibliographical work sheds some light on a scarcely known issue in the Early Modem Spain: the conventual libraries.

    Este artículo estudia una importante biblioteca conventual del siglo XVII. En concreto, se analizan los libros de autor franciscano conservados en 1646 en el conven...

  13. Ecology of Hawaiian marine mammals emphasizing the impact of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) on endangered species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.F.; Hartwig, E.O.

    1982-06-01

    Twenty-two marine mammal species including 2 baleen whales, 20 toothed whales, and one pinniped occur in Hawaiian waters. Among these are two endangered species, the migratory humpback whale (Megaptera novaengliae) around the main islands, and the non-migratory Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) in the extreme northwestern island chain. The endangered species are among those most commonly sighted, while spinner dolphins (Stenella spp.), bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops sp.), and false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) are sighted less frequently. Most Hawaiian cetacean species are Odontoceti, or toothed whales, and feed on fish and squid. The Mysteceti or baleen whales feed on plankton, however the endangered humpback whale, which migrates to Hawaii to breed and calve, presumably does not feed there. The endangered monk seal feeds on cephalopods and fish. The impact of OTEC on endangered and non-endangered marine mammals results from several direct and indirect effects and is discussed in the text. Careful siting of OTEC plants away from humpback breeding areas and monk seal breeding and feeding areas will avoid adverse effects on these populations.

  14. Paranormal experience in a medico-swimming rescue: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramidis, Stathis

    2013-06-01

    This study looks at the case of a 20-year-old fisherman, who was speared in the head, the spear entering at his jaw and protruding from the top of his scull, while he was swimming unaccompanied; he was rescued, admitted to the intensive care unit for an operation, remained in a coma for a few days and then had a full recovery. About 10 days before the rescue, he had visited a monk who, intuited and functioning as channel of the divine spirit, had told him that he 'should not be afraid of anything', rubbing the top of his scull and his jaw exactly at the points through which the 40-inch spear passed. After the incident, the monk prescience again the exact day on which he would recover from the coma. It is concluded that the survival of the fisherman can be attributed to a paranormal event. The monk's prescience permit the assumption that a divine spirit was pervasive throughout the universe and present in this life-threatening situation, endeavouring to assist the lifeguard, the neurosurgeons and the young fisherman.

  15. Avian paramyxoviruses serotype 3 isolated from captive birds in Israel: clinical signs, pathology, and antigenic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihmanter, E; Weisman, Y; Lublin, A; Mechani, S; Gruenberg, R; Horowith, H; Lipkind, M

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen HA agents were isolated in Israel from captive flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber), Egyptian geese (Alopochen aegyptiacus) belonging to order Anseriformes, and ibis (Guara rubra) belonging to order Ciconiiformes. The isolation was done from postmortem materials in three cases of severe respiratory disease with high mortality. The isolates were examined serologically and identified as belonging to the serotype 3 of avian paramyxoviruses (APMV-3). The isolates were more close antigenically to the APMV-3b variety (prototype strain--APMV-3/Parakeet/Netherlands/449/75) than to the APMV-3a variety (prototype strain--APMV-3/Turkey/Wisconsin/68). This is the first isolation of APMV-3 from birds belonging to the orders Anseriformes and Ciconiiformes.

  16. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Four Species of Parrots in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Dong-Hui Zhou, Wei-Peng Tian, Ying-Tian Xu and Xing-Quan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antibodies against avian Hepatitis E Virus (avian HEV were detected in 6.43% of examined serum samples (n=311 from budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus, lovebirds (Agapornis sp., cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria by indirect ELISA. Seroprevalence of avian HEV infection in different parrot species varied from 0 to 7.92%. Statistical analysis of the origins of parrots demonstrated that parrots from Weifang city had a higher avian HEV seropositivity (7.84% compared with parrots from Beijing city (5.06%. The seroprevalence in parrots of different age groups varied from 4 to 7.62%. The avian HEV seroprevalence in parrots examined in spring and summer was 7.19 and 5.81%, respectively. This is the first report of avian HEV seroprevalence in four species of parrots in China, which will provide base-line data for the control of HEV infection in parrots in China.

  17. Occurrence of keratinophilic fungi on Indian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, A K; Kushwaha, R K

    1991-01-01

    Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from feathers of most common Indian birds, viz. domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic pigeon (Columba livia), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), house crow (Corvus splendens), duck (Anas sp.), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Out of 87 birds, 58 yielded 4 keratinophilic fungal genera representing 13 fungal species and one sterile mycelium. The isolated fungi were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. Chrysosporium species were isolated on most of the birds. Chrysosporium lucknowense and Chrysosporium tropicum were the most common fungal species associated with these Indian birds. Maximum occurrence of fungi (47%) was recorded on domestic chickens and the least number of keratinophilic fungi was isolated from the domestic pigeon and duck. The average number of fungi per bird was found to be the 0.44.

  18. Detección de levaduras en cloaca de dos especies psitácidas nativas en un centro de rehabilitación en Chile Detection of yeasts in cloacae of two species of native psittacine birds in a Chilean rehabilitation center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G González-Hein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar la presencia de Candida y Cryptococcus en una población de 131 psitácidas nativas mantenidas en cautiverio en un centro de rehabilitación de fauna silvestre localizado en Santiago, se colectaron 28 hisopados cloacales: 24 de choroy (Enicognathus leptorhynchus, especie endémica de Chile, y 4 de cachaña (Enicognathus ferrugineus. Veinticuatro levaduras se detectaron en 20 de los 28 Enicognathus sp. (71,4%. Candida famata fue la más frecuentemente aislada (8/28 muestras, seguida por Candida tropicalis (7/28, Cryptococcus laurentii (2/28, C. albidus (3/28, Rhodotorula sp. (2/28, Candida glabrata (1/28 y Cryptococcus neoformans (1/28. El presente estudio contribuye al conocimiento de la microbiota levaduriforme en aves psitácidas chilenas del género Enicognathus sp.The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Candida and Cryptococcus in Chilean psittacine birds. Twenty eight cloacae swab samples were collected from 131 captive psittacine birds kept in a rehabilitation wildlife center in Chile. The sampled birds were 24 Slender-billed parakeets (Enicognathus leptorhynchus and 4 Austral parakeets (Enicognathus ferrugineus. Yeasts were recovered from 20 (71.4% of these 28 native psittacine birds. The most frequent yeasts isolated included Candida famata (8/28 samples, followed by Candida tropicalis (7/28, Cryptococcus albidus (3/28, Cryptococcus laurentii (2/28, Rhodotorula sp. (2/28, Candida glabrata (1/28 and Cryptococcus neoformans (1/28. The present study is the first report of yeasts in the E. ferrugineus and the endemic conure E. leptorhynchus.

  19. The Tax Evasion and Governance in Early Tang Dynasty%论唐前期逃税问题及其治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢厚杰

    2015-01-01

    In Early Tang Dynasty ,the farmers ,the rich and the monk evaded tax ,which severely ero‐ded the revenue .To solve this problem ,the Tang government strengthened the household registration , urged families to escape tax levy against the rich and powerful elite ,and controlled the monk rights ,then carried out several operations on tax evasion .On the w hole ,the government action has achieved some suc‐cess in the short term ,but tax evasion was still serious .Farmers had little land which caused low tax ca‐pacity ,taxation management system dilemma ,monk duty -free privileges were the main reason which caused the campaign to failure .%唐前期,均田农民、权贵豪富以及寺观僧道大肆逃税,严重侵蚀政府财政收入。唐政府通过强化户籍控制、催征逃户税额,打击权贵豪富“相冒合户”、“别籍异财”、“官商勾结”,严控度僧权、设立僧道籍、沙汰伪滥僧尼等方法治理逃税。政府治理逃税行动短期内取得了一定成效,但并未持久,逃税问题依旧严重。农民土地难获保障导致的纳税能力低,摊征等治逃政策的疏漏,王朝财税管理的制度困境,寺观僧道免税特权的保留是治理逃税成效甚微之因。

  20. Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David H

    2007-01-01

    In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes in rural schools are relatively small, and teachers tend to report satisfaction with their work environments and relatively few problems with discipline. But teacher turnover is often high, and hiring can be difficult. Monk observes that rural schools have a below-average share of highly trained teachers. Compensation in rural schools tends to be low, perhaps because of a lower fiscal capacity in rural areas, thus complicating efforts to attract and retain teachers. Several student characteristics, including relatively large shares of students with special needs and with limited English skills and lower shares of students attending college, can also make it difficult to recruit and retain high-quality teachers. Other challenges include meeting the needs of highly mobile children of low-income migrant farm workers. With respect to public policy, Monk asserts a need to focus on a subcategory of what might be called hard-to-staff rural schools rather than to develop a blanket set of policies for all rural schools. In particular, he recommends a focus on such indicators as low teacher qualifications, teaching in fields far removed from the area of training, difficulty in hiring, high turnover, a lack of diversity among teachers in the school, and the presence of migrant farm workers' children. Successful efforts to stimulate economic growth in these areas would be highly beneficial. He also calls attention to the potential for modern telecommunication and computing technologies to offset some of the drawbacks associated with teaching

  1. 浅析《西游记》中的人物性格%A Brief Analysis of the Characters in "Journey to the West"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡朔冰

    2013-01-01

    "Journey to the West", as one of the four famous Chi-nese classical works, is the pinnacle of ancient romantic novels. The novel, originating from the story about Xuanzang's pilgrimage for Buddhist scriptures in the Tang Dynasty, mainly narrates the anneals and legendary deeds of Tang Monk and his three disci-ples, Monkey King, Pigsy and Sandy on their pilgrimage to the West for Buddhist scriptures. As a brilliant mythological novel,"Journey to the West" has mentioned over 400 characters alto-gether, and molded many household classic images, suchas brave Monkey King, cowardly Tang Monk, kind and merciful Guanyin bodhisattva, and so on. Tang Monk and his three disciples are mainly discussed in this paper.%《西游记》是我国古典四大名著之一,也是古代浪漫主义小说的巅峰之作,脱胎于唐朝玄奘取经的故事,主要讲述了唐僧、孙悟空、猪八戒和沙僧师徒四人在西天拜佛求经途中遇到的各种磨练和传奇事迹。作为一部优秀的神话小说,《西游记》前后提及了400多个人物,塑造了许多家喻户晓的经典形象,如勇敢的孙悟空、懦弱的唐僧、善良慈悲的观音等。本文主要对唐僧师徒四人进行了分析。

  2. Influence of age on pulsatile luteinizing hormone release and responsiveness of the gonadotrophs to sex hormone feedback in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslypere, J P; Kaufman, J M; Vermeulen, T; Vogelaers, D; Vandalem, J L; Vermeulen, A

    1987-01-01

    The influence of aging on serum LH and testosterone (T) pulse frequency and gonadotroph sensitivity to androgen and estrogen feedback was studied in young (less than 55 yr old) and elderly (greater than 65 yr) Trappist monks. LH pulse frequency (sampling interval, 20 min) was significantly lower [0.25 +/- 0.03 (+/- SEM) vs. 0.38 +/- 0.02 pulses/h; P less than 0.01] in elderly (n = 21) than in young monks (n = 27); the pulse amplitudes were similar. Similarly, T pulse frequency was lower in the elderly than in the young monks (0.13 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.23 +/- 0.02 pulses/h; P less than 0.01). In elderly men, the hypothalamo-pituitary complex was more sensitive to 5 alpha-androstan-17 beta-ol-3-one feedback, as determined by the decrease in serum LH and T levels. Moreover, during 5 alpha-androstan-17 beta-ol-3-one (125 mg/day, percutaneously, for 10 days) administration, the LH response to LHRH (100 micrograms, iv) was significantly higher in the elderly men compared to the pretreatment response. During estradiol (1.5 mg/day, percutaneously for 10 days) administration, the LH response to LHRH was decreased in the elderly men, but unchanged in the young men, suggesting greater responsiveness to estradiol in the elderly men. We conclude that in aged men, decreased testicular androgen secretion is not exclusively the consequence of a primary testicular alteration, but that important changes occur in hypothalamo-pituitary function, specifically decreased LH pulse frequency and increased LH responsiveness to sex hormone feedback.

  3. Effective time management: surgery, research, service, travel, fitness, and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, C Rees; Anderson, Michael R; Steele, Scott R

    2013-12-01

    Over 1,500 years ago, the St. Benedictine Monks used planning and strict schedules to increase their productivity. Since then, surgeons have developed several different strategies to manage our time effectively. Finding a balance among career, family, and hobbies is essential for maintaining satisfaction and optimizing productivity. Several recurring themes throughout the medical literature offer potential solutions to help maximize the little time surgeons possess. In this article, we will explore some of the methods and strategies available to help surgeons minimize waste and make the most of the most precious commodity we have-our time.

  4. Богословието на Божиите енергии в Православната мисъл на 20 век

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    in physics and Orthodox theology by concentrating on the history, content and major issues related to two debates, the first one, between two monks - Barlaam the Calabrian and St Gregory Palamas - in 14th century Byzantium, and, the second, between two great physicists - Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein...... - in the 20th century. The qualitative comparative analysis approach was found to be particularly fruitful. It builds on insights from Eastern Christian (Byzantine) theology, philosophy of science and philosophy of religion to suggest an analysis of the way of using language in theology and quantum mechanics...

  5. The first journey of St. Sava of Serbia to Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Miodrag

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a detailed commentary about both surviving descriptions of the first pilgrimage of St. Sava, the first of which was written by Sava's pupil, hieromonk Domentijan (probably in 1242/1243, and the second, by the monk of Hilandar, Teodosije (around 1300. Special attention was paid to the chronology of the pilgrimage, and the research also included Sava's return journey from the Holy Land, i.e. his visits to the emperor John III Batatzes, the monasteries of the Holy Mountain and Thessalonica...

  6. Su “Ut queant laxis”. Il paradigma pedagogico e l’enigma dell’inno saffico per san Giovanni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Mele

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Guido of Arezzo’s letter to the monk Michele, universally known as Epistola ad Michaelem (and makes use of the Sapphic hymn Ut queant laxis, dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, for didactic purposes left a deep mark on the history of music, paving the way for an entirely new approach in Western music pedagogy, which combines orality and literacy. The essay contains a short ‘pedagogic tale’ and provides various didactic materials, which are integrated within the historical and musicological discussion (also via references to web pages, in order to provide a direct connection to the texts, music and codices.

  7. Agostino Gemelli and the scientific study of courage in the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, Carlo; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo

    2016-03-11

    Agostino Gemelli (1878-1959) is known as the founder of the Catholic University in Italy. Franciscan monk and doctor he had a central role in promoting studies on human behavior, thanks to his solid scientific training as a student of Camillo Golgi at the University of Pavia. His research activities during the years of the First World War involved studying the motivation, courage and psychological adaptation of the soldiers, engaged in trench warfare, laying the foundations of modern studies of behavior and trauma.

  8. Five Major Religions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    CHINA is a nation of many religions, the main five ones being Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Roman Catholicism and Christianity (Protestantism). There are also some special religions of some minority nationalities or regional beliefs. Buddhism was introduced into China from India around the First Century, and gradually developed into several sects including the Han-language-family Buddhism, the Tibetan-language-family Buddhism (or Lamaism) and Pali-language-family Buddhism. For all of these sects, recent data reveals there are more than 9,500 Buddhist temples and 170,000 monks

  9. Grief over Death of Mr.Ikuo Hirayama

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>It was raining in Nanjing on December 2,2009.On the morning of this cold winter day,I was shocked to learn that Mr.Ikuo Hirayama had passed away in Tokyo at the age of 79.He was an outstanding cultural envoy as well as a world-renowned artist.For more than half a century, following the footsteps of Xuan Zang (the 7th Century Chinese Buddhist monk,scholar and traveler who journeyed to India in search of knowledge) and overcoming many hard-

  10. Buddhism, Business, and Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brox, Trine; Williams-Oerberg, Elizabeth Lane

    2017-01-01

    This chapter takes the relationship that Buddhists have historically had with economic practices as a starting point for discussing contemporary entanglements of Buddhism and economy. Based on a literary review of previous studies on Buddhism and business and building upon our own research, we......-monk exchange relations, Buddhist economic ethics, monastic businesses, spiritual consumerism, globalized Buddhism, secularized Buddhist technologies in the corporate world, and Buddhist branding, all of which testify to the diverse modalities of Buddhism and economic relations, illuminating also the economic...

  11. Diabo versus salvação na visão de Túndalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria de Souza Zierer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Visio Tnugdali is an exemplum, a moral narrative with the task of convincing an audience for the purpose of conversion. Produced in the in twelfth century by an unknown Cistercian monk, it was translated to Portuguese in the fifteenth century (Visão de Túndalo. Through the image of the devil and of the torments in hell, the Christians would repent their sins and search for salvation, adopting the behavior indicated by the Catholic Church to conduct them to Paradise.

  12. Small Proposals Book

    OpenAIRE

    Monk, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Questo progetto rappresenta prima di tutto una riflessione sulla realizzabilità dei progetti d’arte e sul rapporto dell’artista con la committenza nel sistema dell’arte contemporanea, arrivando con l’ironia e la poetica che contraddistinguerà i successivi progetti dell’artista a mettere in discussione dinamiche e significati più generali. In questo lavoro, realizzato quando Jonathan Monk era ancora studente presso la Glasgow School of Arts, l’artista illustra infatti una serie di proposte...

  13. 论方外传记中的类传%On Class Biography of Recluse Biography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞樟华; 娄欣星

    2012-01-01

    方外传记中的类传,是专门记载性质相同、行为相近的僧侣、道士或世俗教徒事迹的一种传记形式,它产生于魏晋时期,以后代代相承,颇有发展。其中《高僧传》是中国佛教史上第一部系统的僧人类传,《大唐西域求法高僧传》则记载了中国僧人和朝鲜、越南僧人以及中亚细亚僧人总计56人西行求法的事迹,是一部具有国际意义的僧人类传。明清以来,民间佛教与居士佛教开始发展起来,因此,描写世俗教徒的类传也得到发展,清代彭际清所编的《居士传》,可谓居士类传的集成之作。僧人类传在形式上受到史传中的类传的影响,但是在记载内容、思想观念和叙事风格上都有明显的差异。%Class biography of recluse biography is a kind of biography typically recording the deeds of monks, priests, or secular followers which are in the same nature and with similar behavior; it originates in Wei and Jin dynasties, and it is developing from generation to generation. Eminent Monk Biography is the first systematic monk biography in the history of Chinese Buddhism. Tales of the Hierarchs Searching Buddhist Scripture in Western Regions of Tang Dynasty has recorded the westbound joumey of 56 monks, who are from China, North Korea, Vietnam, and Central Asia, which is of international importance. Ever since Ming and Qing dynasties, folk Buddhism and kulapati Buddhism have come in vogue, therefore, class biography describing the secular followers gets developing. Kulapati Biography by Peng Jiqing in Qing dynasty is a masterwork. Although the form of monks' class biography is affected by the class biography of historical biography, there are significant differences in their contents, ideas, and narrative styles.

  14. Gothic elements in contemporary detective story : Matthew Gregory Lewis and Minette Walters compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Marinko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most shocking Gothic novels was written by Matthew Gregory Lewis in 1796. His Gothic novel The Monk contains all the typical Gothic elements such as a ruined castle, aggressive villain, women in distress, the atmosphere of terror and horror and a lot more. This article analyses and compares to what extent the Gothic elements of the late 18th century survived in the contemporary detective story The Ice House (1993 written by Minette Walters and how these elements have changed.

  15. Literal Translation and Free Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭佼

    2011-01-01

    @@ Dispute over the method of literal translation and that of free translation had a long history in China, in East Jin Dynasty Daoan(道安314-385),a well-known monk, was the representative of those who firmly advocated literal translation.Since he feared that free translation might not be true to the original, he advocated strict literal translation so as to preserve the true features.Works under his direction were typical of word-for-word translation, in which no alteration was made except accidental changes in word order.

  16. A Visit to Tholding Monastery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GELEG

    2004-01-01

    Cities and towns in Tibet are basically centered on monasteries. Lhasa, Xigaze and Qamdo, for example,came into being after monasteries were established on the spot.Lhasa was built based on Jokhang Monastery and the Potala Palace; Xigaze developed from the well known Tashilhungpo Monastery and Qamdo in relation to Qambaling Monastery. A large number of monks living in monasteries needed daily sustenance, so that lay people to serve them began to gather and gradually settle down. Merchants came, too, thereby forming cities. Zada was among them,coming into being with the establishment

  17. Two Fragments in Christian Palestinian Aramaic of the Book of Genesis from the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Monferrer-Sala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our aim in the present article is to analyze two fragments that contain the texts of Gn 19,1-5 and Gn 19,7-10. These are two translations rendered into Christian-Palestinian Aramaic dialect from a Greek text belonging to the Septuagint version. However, as we try to show the translators of these versions used additional texts along with their Greek Vorlage to revise the translation intended for the rural population among which the monks who used this version developed their pastoral work.

  18. Rasputin's Profile and How Charisma Works in InducingOthers into Guided Actions of all Sorts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sinan Caya

    2014-01-01

    Monk Rasputin infiltrated the palace in the last years of Tsarist Russia and gained favour. He abused his mystical hypnoticcapabilities for his personal might and passions. As the man began to appear as a topic of various legends, his attributes got exaggeratedin the minds of people. A thorough scrutiny of Rasputin as a symbol will help a better understanding of the role of charisma ininfluencing others in inappropriate ways like inducing to criminal acts behind the scene. By explanation of such powers, one can olsoshed light on the incredible influence of many newly-emerging cult leaders in highly developed western societies.

  19. Lacan's first disciple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roazen, P

    1996-12-01

    A distinguished historian of ideas long associated with detailed narratives and analyses of the lives and ideas of the founding figures of psychoanalysis interviews Marc-François Lacan, younger brother of Jacques Lacan and a Benedictine monk. Much is revealed in this essay, originally published in French, of the thinking of both men, most startlingly perhaps of the extent to which there are religious elements in the background and even the thought of Jacques Lacan, that commanding personality in French psychoanalytic circles.

  20. Flood Overflows Jinshan Temple (Chinese Painting)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The Chinese painting Flood Ouerflows Jinshan Temple draws its subject from a beautiful and well-known legend,The white Snake.In the tale Jinshan was an islet in the Yangtze River of yesteryear.Inorder to aave her husband kept in a temple at the top of the isle.Bai Niangzi.incarnation of the whitesnake.bravely fought Monk Fahat.She borrowed the Yangtze River’s water to overcome Jinshan Templeand force Fahai to release her husband.

  1. [Drugs of a Baroque monastery pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drábek, Pavel

    2013-08-01

    This paper deal with a manuscript from the years 1714-1720, originating most probably from the hospital of the Brothers of Mercy in Nové Mesto nad Metují. it contains the records of the hospital pharmacy about the drugs prepared for both patients and monks who operated this hospital. The included drugs were mainly intended for elderly males. The manuscript lists about fifteen hundred drugs and more than three hundred active ingredients, of which about two thirds were of plant origin. The paper presents the compositions of more important drugs and partly deals also with their preparation.

  2. Pra Na Wa Ka: The Development of Training Course for Continuing Buddhism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phra M.P. Romphothanthong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Buddhism is a religion that requires meditation, practice, intellectual precepts of the threefold-training such as morality, concentration and wisdom. The purpose of practicing Buddhism is the goal of deliverance through attaining knowledge and wisdom. The Pra Na Wa Ka are newly ordained monks and needed to study both of the scriptures and the practice for appreciating understanding in morality, concentration and wisdom. A training model and guidelines are needed to improve the quality and efficiency of Pra Na Wa Ka because currently most of the monks who are the teachers lacked knowledge and are not ready to act as the Pra Na Wa Ka teacher, because lack of the teaching media, lack of the proper knowledge of the teacher vocational, the lesson plan arrangement, the psychology of teaching, lack of technique variety of teaching methods. Most of the temple had no education administration of the Pra Na Wa Ka who ordained in short-term, within 3 days 7 days 15 days or to one month, lack of the short period course to study about Buddhism, the Pra Na Wa Ka cannot accurately recite the Pali words, the Pra Na Wa Ka who were ordained were not motivated and faithful in learning and low morality. Approach: This research intended to study the history of the education administration of the Pra Na Wa Ka (Newly ordained monk and to study about the problems and need of the Pra Na Wa Ka in knowledge about Buddhism and to develop the curriculum and the training package of the Pra Na Wa Ka in Buddhism. Results: The Pra Na Wa Ka traing course is a curriculum to study Buddhism through 3 training courses; (1 Basic Course: 3 days for initiation 7 days, (2 Intermediate course 7 days for initiation 15 days and (3 Long period course 15 days for initiation more than 30 days. The training courses were accompanied by a training kit to understand the main precepts of morality, concentration and wisdom. The curriculum was successful in providing Pra Na Wa Ka

  3. Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    or "spiritual" aspects. This book investigates the contemporary living reality of the largest Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhist group, Myōshinji. Drawing on textual studies and ethnographic fieldwork, Jørn Borup analyses how its practitioners use and understand their religion, how they practice their religiosity...... and how different kinds of Zen Buddhists (monks, nuns, priest, lay people) interact and define themselves within the religious organization. Living Zen portrays a living Zen Buddhism being both uniquely interesting and interestingly typical for common Buddhist and Japanese religiosity...

  4. NEWS IN BRIEF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    570 Million Yuan to Preserve TAWs Relics China has launched a 570 million yuan ($81.43 million) project to preserve 22 his- torical and cultural relics in the TAR.Of the funds,118 million yuan will go to the preser- vation of the 237,000-square-meter Tashilhunpo Monastery.It consists of a main chamber and six minor ones,56 sutra hall, and more than 6,000 rooms for monks.It was built in 1447 and was the traditional residence of Panchen Lamas.

  5. «Fratres, omni die videtis cum vadit istud regnum in perdicionem»: Abbo of Saint-Germain and the Crisis of 888

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles West

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Historians often consider the year 888 to have marked the effective end of the Carolingian empire established by Charlemagne. This paper explores the issue from the perspective of a contemporary author, the monk Abbo of Saint-Germain des Prés. Abbo is today best known for his poem about the Viking sieges of Paris, but he later also compiled a fascinating and rather overlooked set of sermons. Taken together, these texts offer an insight into contemporary responses to the “crisis” that followed the deposition and death of Emperor Charles the Fat.

  6. "Fratres, omni die videtis cum vadit istud regnum in perdicionem": Abbo of Saint-Germain and the Crisis of 888

    OpenAIRE

    Charles West

    2016-01-01

    Historians often consider the year 888 to have marked the effective end of the Carolingian empire established by Charlemagne. This paper explores the issue from the perspective of a contemporary author, the monk Abbo of Saint-Germain des Prés. Abbo is today best known for his poem about the Viking sieges of Paris, but he later also compiled a fascinating and rather overlooked set of sermons. Taken together, these texts offer an insight into contemporary responses to the “crisis” that followed...

  7. Stoves Unique to Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PUNCOG; ZHAXI

    2002-01-01

    An earthen kitchen stove caught my attention on a recent visit to the Tibet Museum, as such a stove, commonly used by the Tibetans only a dozen years ago, can hardly be found today in the region.Varieties of StovesTibetans used a variety of stoves in the past. For instance, they used rectangular stoves with several pots, and oval stoves to press edible oil. Monastery monks adopted types that were sometimes as large as a small room. Ordinary Tibetans had the following four kinds of stoves for cooking:

  8. 独树一帜的藏传佛教觉域派尼僧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    德吉卓玛

    2005-01-01

    The Joyul tradition, which was founded in the 11th century; was one of the most important sects of Tibetan Buddhism. This tradition may trace its origins back to Pha Dampa Sangye, a well-known monk who was a native of South India, and was founded by Macik Labdron(ma-cig lab-sgron), a famous Tibetan Yogini (a female practitioner of the Yogachara schooD. It was the only sect founded by a female in the history of Tibetan Buddhism, and this is also rarely seen in the world history of world religions.

  9. TIBETAN THANGKA PAINTER Painter Tseten Namgyal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In October of 2006,"Treasures of the Chinese Nation,an Exhibition of Tibetan Culture"was held exclusively at the Capital Museum in Beijing.Over 200 exquisite Tibetan cultural relics and 100-odd Tibetan folklore images unveiled in the exhibition hall attracted endless lines of visitors.While monks were busy making Mandala,a painter was sketching Thangka in the hall.In conjunction with the traditional art show in the exhibition (?) the visitors were profoundly inspired by such unique demonstrations of Tibe...

  10. 世界动画明星扫描(六)欧洲篇(2)%The Animation Stars of the World——European Animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓琛

    2007-01-01

    @@ 20 和尚 英文名:the Monk 法文名:Le Moine 国别:法国 出生年份:1994年 与其他动画明星不同,和尚并不是来自大制作的动画长片,而是一部时长仅有6分钟的动画短(中文译名为,英文译名为)中的一个角色.

  11. Foreword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanny MOULIN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Orlando looking at Jaque's reverberated image: “Which I take to be either a fool or a cipher.” ( As You Like It III.ii 279Melancholia posits the intersection of the biological and the symbolic, ambivalently motivating and undermining the imaginary (viz. for example, Kristeva's “On the melancholic imaginary”. That reverberates across history in assessments of loss, mourning and absence. “Acedia,” the radical melancholy of the Egyptian monks of early Christianity, the “noontime demon” of slot...

  12. Are anti-ganglioside antibodies associated with proventricular dilatation disease in birds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeann Leal de Araujo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of Parrot bornaviruses (PaBV in psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD has not been sufficient to explain the pathogenesis of this fatal disease, since not all infected birds develop clinical signs. Although the most accepted theory indicates that PaBV directly triggers an inflammatory response in this disease, another hypothesis suggests the disease is triggered by autoantibodies targeting neuronal gangliosides, and PDD might therefore resemble Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS in its pathogenesis. Experimental inoculation of pure gangliosides and brain-derived ganglioside extracts were used in two different immunization studies. The first study was performed on 17 healthy chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus: 11 chickens were inoculated with a brain ganglioside extract in Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA and six chickens inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline. A second study was performed five healthy quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus that were divided into three groups: Two quaker parrots received purified gangliosides in FCA, two received a crude brain extract in FCA, and one control quaker parrot received FCA alone. One chicken developed difficult in walking. Histologically, only a mild perivascular and perineural lymphocytic infiltrate in the proventriculus. Two quaker parrots (one from each treatment group had mild lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis and myelitis. However, none of the quaker parrots developed myenteric ganglioneuritis, suggesting that autoantibodies against gangliosides in birds are not associated with a condition resembling PDD.

  13. Are anti-ganglioside antibodies associated with proventricular dilatation disease in birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal de Araujo, Jeann; Tizard, Ian; Guo, Jianhua; Heatley, J Jill; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline; Rech, Raquel R

    2017-01-01

    The identification of Parrot bornaviruses (PaBV) in psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) has not been sufficient to explain the pathogenesis of this fatal disease, since not all infected birds develop clinical signs. Although the most accepted theory indicates that PaBV directly triggers an inflammatory response in this disease, another hypothesis suggests the disease is triggered by autoantibodies targeting neuronal gangliosides, and PDD might therefore resemble Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) in its pathogenesis. Experimental inoculation of pure gangliosides and brain-derived ganglioside extracts were used in two different immunization studies. The first study was performed on 17 healthy chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus): 11 chickens were inoculated with a brain ganglioside extract in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and six chickens inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline. A second study was performed five healthy quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus) that were divided into three groups: Two quaker parrots received purified gangliosides in FCA, two received a crude brain extract in FCA, and one control quaker parrot received FCA alone. One chicken developed difficult in walking. Histologically, only a mild perivascular and perineural lymphocytic infiltrate in the proventriculus. Two quaker parrots (one from each treatment group) had mild lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis and myelitis. However, none of the quaker parrots developed myenteric ganglioneuritis, suggesting that autoantibodies against gangliosides in birds are not associated with a condition resembling PDD.

  14. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina. Pseudoseisura lophotes Reichenbach, 1853 and Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) (Aves: Furnariidae), hosts of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, Turienzo

    2014-02-24

    The insect fauna of the nests of Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach, 1853) (Aves: Furnariidae) from Argentina was investigated. A total of 110 species (68 identified to species, 22 identified to genus, 20 identified to family) in 40 families of 10 orders of insects was found in these nests. Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was found again in nests of P. lophotes, corroborating after 73 years the first observations made by Mazza in 1936. The occurrence of the insects in nests of P. lophotes is compared with the previously known insect fauna in nests of A. annumbi, Furnarius rufus (Furnariidae), and Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae). The insect fauna in additional nests of Anumbius annumbi from the same and/or different localities is given, and used in comparisons. The first occurrence of Cuterebridae (Diptera) in birds' nests, their pupae as the overwintering stage, and the second simultaneous infestation by two species of Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the same nestlings are presented. Other simultaneous infestations of different hematophagous arthropods (Hemiptera: Cimidae; Reduviidae: Triatominae, and Acari: Argasidae) are remarked and discussed.

  15. Association of plasma lipid levels with atherosclerosis prevalence in psittaciformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Vet, Dr Med; Cray, Carolyn; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of atherosclerosis is high in the captive psittacine population and increases with age and female sex. The genera Psittacus, Amazona, and Nymphicus are predisposed to atherosclerosis, whereas the genera Cacatua and Ara are less susceptible. Plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein abnormalities have been suggested as risk factors in the development of atherosclerosis as observed in mammals. To investigate whether the psittacine genera susceptibility to atherosclerosis and the known risk factors of age and sex could be associated with differences in the lipid profile, a retrospective analysis was conducted on blood lipid values from 5625 birds. Prevalence values were obtained from a previously published, large, case-control study and were compared with identified trends in plasma lipid profiles. Genus-specific differences were identified in plasma total cholesterol values that corresponded to observed trends in the prevalence of clinically important atherosclerotic lesions, which were also highly correlated. The effect of age was significant but was mild and may not account for the dramatic increase in atherosclerosis prevalence observed with age. In addition, Quaker parrots ( Myiopsitta monachus ), which were used as experimental models for psittacine atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia, were found to have the highest values in all lipid profile parameters. The results of this study suggest that the differences observed in prevalence among species of the psittacine genera may partly be explained by differences in plasma total cholesterol levels. Results also support the use of Quaker parrots as models for studying atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia.

  16. Nest-site competition between invasive and native cavity nesting birds and its implication for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charter, Motti; Izhaki, Ido; Ben Mocha, Yitzchak; Kark, Salit

    2016-10-01

    Nesting cavities are often a limited resource that multiple species use. There is an ongoing discussion on whether invasive cavity nesting birds restrict the availability of this key limited resource. While the answer to this question has important conservation implications, little experimental work has been done to examine it. Here, we aimed to experimentally test whether alien cavity nesting birds affect the occupancy of cavities and the resulting breeding success of native cavity breeders in a large urban park located in Tel Aviv, Israel. Over three breeding seasons, we manipulated the entry size of nest boxes and compared the occupancy and breeding success of birds in nest boxes of two treatments. These included nest boxes with large-entrance and small-entrance holes. The large-entrance holes allowed access for both the native and invasive birds (the two main aliens in the park are the common mynas and rose-ringed parakeets). The smaller-entrance boxes, on the other hand, allowed only the smaller sized native cavity breeders (great tits and house sparrows) to enter the boxes but prevented the alien species from entering. We found that the large-entrance nest boxes were occupied by five different bird species, comprising three natives (great tit, house sparrow, Scops owl) and two invasive species (common myna, rose-ringed parakeet) while the small-entrance boxes were only occupied by the two native species. The alien common mynas and rose-ringed parakeets occupied 77.5% of the large-entrance nest boxes whereas native species, mainly great tits, occupied less than 9% of the large-entrance boxes and 36.5% of the small-entrance boxes. When examining the occupancy of those cavities that were not occupied by the aliens, natives occupied both the small and large-entrance nest boxes equally. Three quarters (78%) of the great tits breeding in the large-entrance boxes were usurped by common mynas during the breeding season and as a result breeding success was

  17. 北宋佛教的世俗化及其表现%The Buddhist Secularization and Its Expression in Northern Song Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高慎涛

    2014-01-01

    自唐以来,佛教世俗化明显,至宋则日益突出。北宋佛教的世俗化在僧人身上有着明显反映,主要表现在四端:强调礼乐,以伦常落实于丛林;强调以释归儒,对世俗权力的依附加强;佛门戒律松弛,僧人物质欲望扩展;诗僧追名逐利,入世情深。%Since Tang Dynasty,the Buddhist secularization has become increasingly obvious.In Song Dynasty,it was especially striking.Such secularization had its apparent reflection on monks in Northern Song Dynasty,which is shown in four aspects:emphasis on rites with seniority practiced among common people,stress on returning of Buddhism to Confucianism with the increasing attachment to secular power,lenient Buddhist disciplines with expansion of monks’material craving,and monk poets’pursuit of name and profit with great wish to enter the secular world.

  18. 宋濂佛门交游研究%Research on Song Lian′s Social Activities in Buddhist Circle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾素慧

    2016-01-01

    Song lian′s Life could be divided into three periods,i.e.the pre-official,the in-official and the post official,which brought him three circles of friends.He learnt from Huang Jin and made friends with Buddhist monk Qian Yan,for example,before he took office in Nanjing;after he was appointed an official,the friends he made were related to Da Tian Jie Temple;in his retirement,his making friends were based on geographical relationship and reputation and the three circles are interwoven and interconnected.Song′s social inter-actions with the Buddhist monks shapes him as a scholar of Confucius-Buddhist,of which Confucianism was his main research.%宋濂生活阶段分入仕前、仕宦南京和致仕后三个时期。师从黄蟳、结交千岩禅师作为入仕前佛门交友圈,仕宦南京以大天界寺形成交游圈,致仕后则以地缘及名望形成交游圈。这三个佛门交游圈呈现网状互相交织状态。宋濂与僧人的交游互动,形成了他以儒者立命、旁涉佛教的儒释关系。

  19. A Buddhist Way of Drug Rehabilitation in Thailand - Approaching Drug Addiction With Loving Kindness: An Interview With Phra Maha Narong Chaiyatha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Pichler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Narong Chaiyatha has worked at the Quality Development of Life Center for 12 years and is engaged in diverse social projects as a Buddhist monk. The Quality Development of Life Center is an alternative program of dealing with drug addiction in Thailand and was established in 1993. On the premises of a Buddhist temple, the participants live together with monks, practice meditation, join chanting and dhamma talks, and help cultivate the temple. The program is part of the implementation of restorative justice in the criminal justice system. Depending on the severity of the drug addiction andthe social background of the person, the Department of Probation of the Ministry of Justice sends clients to the center to take part in the Buddhist rehabilitation program for two months. This interviewis based on the experiences of Narong Chaiyatha at the Quality Development of Life Center in Thep Mongkol temple, Amnat Charoen, Thailand, and gives an overview of some of the central elementsof the program, positive impacts for the community as well as challenges in its implementation. The interview was conducted at the same location on 28 January 2013.

  20. THE MARINE MAMMAL FAUNA OF POTENTIAL OTEC SITES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO AND HAWAII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.F.

    1979-05-01

    Twenty-seven marine mammal species have been recorded for the Gulf of Mexico, including 7 Mysticetes or baleen whales, 17 Odontocetes or toothed whales, 1 Sirenian (manatee), and 1 or 2 Pinnipeds or seals. The most common species in the Gulf is Tursiops truncatus, the bottlenosed dolphin, an inshore species. Offshore, Stenella plagiodon, the spotted dolphin, is fairly common. Most other species are recorded from very few sightings or strandings. None of the endangered species is common in potential OTEC sites in the Gulf of Mexico. Twenty-two marine mammals may occur in Hawaii; 2 Mystecetes, 19 Odonotocetes, and the endemic monk seal. The monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi), an endangered species, lives in the extreme northwestern island chain away from potential OTEC sites. Among the most common cetaceans in Hawaii is the endangered humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Stenella longirostris, the spinner dolphin; and Tursiops sp., the bottlenosed dolphin are also fairly common. The baleen whales feed on zooplankton during the summer in polar waters, and are migratory, while the toothed whales feed mainly on fish and squid, and are found in temperate or tropical regions year-round. The manatee is vegetarian and the pinnipeds are fish- or squid-eaters. Environmental effects of OTEC which may affect mammals are: toxic effects of biocide release or ammonia spill, biostimulating effects of seawater redistribution, oil spills, or effects of the physical presence of OTEC plants.

  1. Marine mammal fauna of potential OTEC sites in the Gulf of Mexico and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.F.

    1979-05-01

    Twenty-seven marine mammal species have been recorded for the Gulf of Mexico, including 7 Mysticetes or baleen whales, 17 Odontocetes or toothed whales, 1 Sirenian (manatee), and 1 or 2 Pinnipeds or seals. The most common species in the Gulf is the bottlenosed dolphin, an inshore species. Offshore, the spotted dolphin, is fairly common. Most other species are recorded from very few sightings or strandings. None of the endangered species is common in potential OTEC sites in the Gulf of Mexico. Twenty-two marine mammals may occur in Hawaii; 2 Mystecetes, 19 Odonotocetes, and the endemic monk seal. The monk seal, an endangered species, lives in the extreme northwestern island chain away from potential OTEC sites. Among the most common cetaceans in Hawaii is the endangered humpback whale. The spinner dolphin and the bottlenosed dolphin are also fairly common. The baleen whales feed on zooplankton during the summer in polar waters, and are migratory, while the toothed whales feed mainly on fish and squid, and are found in temperate or tropical regions year-round. The manatee is vegetarian and the pinnipeds are fish- or squid-eaters. Environmental effects of OTEC which may affect mammals are: toxic effects of biocide release or ammonia spill, biostimulating effects of seawater redistribution, oil spills, or effects of the physical presence of OTEC plants.

  2. Russia's imperial blood: was Rasputin not the healer of legend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, John M L

    2004-09-01

    The only son of Russia's last Tsar, a great-grandson of Queen Victoria, continues to be used as the favorite example of the X-linked inheritance of hemophilia, in spite of the fact that this popular historical diathesis has never been confirmed by any form of modern medical laboratory testing. Certain to be controversial, a new study of the symptoms that were witnessed by those who were closest to the teenaged Russian heir now raises the possibility that his blood disorder might well have been something other than hemophilia. The key to discovering Tsarevich Alexei's true diagnosis is found in those now legendary allegations that the infamous "Mad Monk", Grigory Rasputin, had possessed a power of healing that was somehow responsible for the young boy's mysterious history of spontaneous recoveries. If we are to accept the popular diagnosis of history and call it a clotting factor deficiency, then the boy's now famous sudden recoveries will remain a complete mystery. The so-called "Mad Monk" Rasputin, as a direct result of the revolutionary propaganda of the time, is then overblown into a larger-than-life legend. If, however, we are to change the diagnosis and call it a platelet disorder, then the air is let out of the legend, and Rasputin is revealed to have been nothing more than a very ordinary middle-aged Siberian hippie who did not possess any healing powers at all.

  3. The Sutra Origin of Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva Belief of Jiuhua Mountain%九华地藏信仰起源之佛典“钩锁骨鸣”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张总

    2012-01-01

    九华山金地藏信仰中,费冠卿所说"经云:菩萨钩锁、百骸呜矣"其实有着深厚的经典依据,但长期以来未深入探考。实际上佛典中对从凡夫到至诸象狮及十住菩萨与佛的骨骸结构与力量大小有一套说法,亦说骨骸声鸣能反映其五趣六道所在。这些经典说法对灵验故事僧俗传记都产生了影响,在金地藏信仰中也起到重要作用。%In Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva belief of Jiuhua Mountain,there are many sutras about"the clasp-like articulation of a Bodhisattva,sound ringing every-joint of skeleton"said by FeiGuanqin,which has not been discussed deeply longtime.There are actually statements about a power from a Buddha to a Bodhisattva to an elephant to a lion and a mortal,linking with the different forms of articulation-bone,and the sound ring from a group articulation which can reflect five destinies six realms.Those affect the afflatus stories and the monk biography,and become the belief base of incarnation Monk Kin kaikuo.

  4. The frailties of ‘basileia’ according to John Chrysostom: some remarks on the treatise ‘A comparison between a king and a monk’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvan Ventura da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Living in a society under the threat of Persians and Barbarians, John Chrysostom, differently from his predecessors, like Eusebius of Cesarea, did not devise the Graeco-Roman basileia as an institution that bore any special religious meaning. As for him, the Roman Empire was just a gathering of humans governing other humans due to an election; a government that did not arise from a natural basis and did not exhibit any mystical, supernatural capacity, for such government was not geared to linger on. In his works, John Chrysostom seldom mentions the Imperium Chistianum and the emperors of his time, subjects which did not attract his attention. Truth to tell, according to the author, the basileus did not represent a Christian model that should be followed by his contemporaries. Such honor should be bestowed on the monks instead. In light of these remarks, we intend to discuss, in this article, some characteristics of the monarchy in the Late Antiquity, a time span when we witness the flourishing of the monasticism as well. In order to do that, we deal with one of John’s first works: the treatise A comparison between a king and a monk, written in Antioch, John’s homeland, in the first years of the decade of 370 A. D.

  5. Conciencia hispana y tradición monástica en la Vita Fructuosi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez de la Peña, Alejandro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of Vita Fructuosi, probably a monk follower of Saint Fructuosus of Braga in the area of Gallaecia, shows in this biography an evident sense of rooting in the monastic Tradition, specially in the Egyptianeastern one, and also he declares a strong Roman-Catholic and Hispanic conscience. As the highest expression of it, he presents Saint Fructuosus with the same merits of the Egyptian monks and, joined to Saint Isidorus of Seville, as a light for Spain, for the Western and for the whole Catholic Church: they both are two causes of glory for a Visigothic Spain which fells herself as Roman and Catholic.El autor de la Vita Fructuosi, al parecer un monje discípulo de San Fructuoso de Braga en el área de Gallaecia, muestra en esta biografía un claro sentido de arraigo en la Tradición monástica, especialmente egipcio-oriental, y manifiesta una fuerte conciencia romano-católica e hispana. Como máxima expresión de todo ello, presenta a San Fructuoso a la altura de los méritos de los monjes egipcios y, junto con San Isidoro de Sevilla, como una lumbrera de Hispania, del Occidente y de toda la Iglesia Católica: ambos son dos motivos de gloria de la Hispania visigótica que se siente romana y católica.

  6. Constructing a Governing Rationale: Developing Lao Hmong Refugees at Wat Tham Krabok

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    David Chambers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that Thai discourses of modernization and development have been taken up by the leaders and other prominent monks at Wat Tham Krabok Buddhist Temple (WTK in central Thailand’s Saraburi Province and directed at governing a settlement of mostly Lao Hmong refugees that made their home on temple controlled land from the 1990s to 2000s. Though decoding the motivations on the part of WTK’s leaders and other senior monks for allowing thousands of Hmong to settle on WTK controlled land is a complex process, viewing the story through the lens of development teaches new things about their overarching motivations for such an intervention. Furthermore, it allows several aspects of their governing rationale—including attention to legibility, territoriality, infrastructural development—to stand out and reveals that WTK’s leaders enacted specific projects that appear to be directed at governing, reforming, and possibly modernizing the Hmong population at WTK. The styles of this intervention varied between the temples second and third abbots, Chamroon and Charoen, in their respective use of discursive versus material means of intervention. Considering these goals in concert with the history of material construction at the temple highlights how the material and discursive aspects of life at WTK are recursively connected to reinforce regimes of Hmong development toward an ideal of modernity that pays homage to symbols of Thai modernity and legitimizes WTK as a worthy Buddhist institution.

  7. Desenvolvimento de Heliconia psittacorum e Gladiolus hortulanus irrigados com águas residuárias tratadas Growth of Heliconia psittacorum and Gladiolus hortulanus irrigated with treated domestic wastewater

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    Lousane L. Cerqueira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo primordial com este trabalho é avaliar o impacto do uso de águas residuárias domésticas tratadas (ART no desenvolvimento de espécies ornamentais, razão por que se instalou o ensaio no município de Simões Filho, BA, em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, cultivadas com Heliconia psittacorum e Gladiolus hortulanus e irrigadas por gotejamento com ART e com água de riacho; avaliaram-se o comprimento das hastes, número de botões florais (helicônia e gladíolo, altura das plantas, número de perfilhos, diâmetro da touceira e nutrientes (somente helicônia. Dentre os fatores que afetam o desenvolvimento das plantas, avaliaram-se a porosidade e a salinidade (condutividade elétrica - CE do solo, de 0 a 0,3 m. Não se observaram diferenças significativas no desenvolvimento das plantas; ressalta-se que micro e macroporosidade, CE e sodicidade, também não indicaram diferenças entre os tratamentos depois de 180 dias de irrigação, mas se observou início de salinização do solo após 1 ano de experimento, o que significa possíveis alterações dos parâmetros avaliados a médio e longo prazos.This research aims to evaluate the impact of irrigation with treated domestic wastewater (TDW on the growth of ornamental plant species. The experiment was installed in the town of Simões Filhos (BA, in a randomized block design with sub-divided plots, cultivated with Heliconia psittacorum and Gladiolus hortulanus using surface drip irrigation with TDW and river water. The evaluated parameters were: stem length, button number (parakeet flower and gladiola, and plant height, number of tillers, plant diameter and nutriment content (only parakeet flower. Among the factors which affect the growth of the plant, soil porosity and soil salinity (electrical conductivity - EC were measured for 0 to 0.3 m soil depth. No significant difference was observed for the plant morphology. Changes in soil micro and

  8. Crop Depredation by Birds in Deccan Plateau, India

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    Manoj Ashokrao Kale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extent of crop depredation in agricultural fields of groundnut, pearl millet, peas, sorghum and sunflower was assessed in Pune, Akola and Amravati, the three productive districts of Maharashtra, India. The study included interviews with the farmers, identification of the bird species responsible for the crop depredation and actual field assessment of damage. The problem of crop depredation is severe for the crops mostly during harvesting season. Most farmers were not satisfied with the conventional bird repelling techniques. A maximum depredation was observed by Sorghum crops by house sparrows Passer domesticus, baya weavers Ploceus philippinus, and rose-ringed parakeets Psittacula krameri, accounting to 52% of the total damage. Blue rock pigeons Columba livia damaged 42% of the peas crop (chick peas and pigeon peas, while house sparrows and baya weaver damaged the groundnut crop by 26% in the sampling plots. House sparrow Passer domesticus and baya weaver Ploceus philippinus damaged the groundnut crop in the sampling plots just after the sowing period. The sustainable solution for reducing crop depredation is a need for the farmers and also such techniques will help avoid direct or indirect effects of use of lethal bird control techniques on bird species.

  9. Diagnosis of Avian bornavirus infection in psittaciformes by serum antibody detection and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay using feather calami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Arne H; Kerski, Anelle; de Kloet, Siwo R

    2011-05-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) is the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a highly devastating and contagious disease of psittacines (parrots and parakeets), which has resulted in the death of many captive birds. Accurate diagnosis of bornavirus infection is therefore important for the identification and isolation of infected birds. The current study showed that nonvascular contour (chest) feather calami provide a ready and minimally invasive source of RNA for the detection of ABV by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Storage of the feathers at room temperature for at least a month did not affect the results. Serological analysis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that identification of anti-bornaviral nucleoprotein P40 antibodies can identify many birds with a past or present infection. The presence of anti-avian bornaviral P24 phosphoprotein and P16 matrix protein antibodies was quite variable, rendering these antibodies less useful for diagnosis of ABV infection. The significance of the present findings is that the use of nonvascular feathers as a source of RNA allows sample collection under conditions where storage of other samples would be difficult. Serum detection by ELISA of anti-P40 antibodies allows the identification of infected birds when RT-PCR fails. © 2011 The Author(s)

  10. Zoonoses in pet birds: review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseret, Geraldine; Losson, Bertrand; Mainil, Jacques G; Thiry, Etienne; Saegerman, Claude

    2013-05-20

    Pet birds are a not-so-well known veterinarian's clientship fraction. Bought individually or in couples, as families often do (which is a lucrative business for pet shops or local breeders) or traded (sometimes illegally) for their very high genetic or exotic value, these birds, commonly canaries, parakeets or parrots, are regularly sold at high prices. These animals, however, are potential carriers and/or transmitters of zoonotic diseases. Some of them could have an important impact on human health, like chlamydophilosis, salmonellosis or even highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1. This review paper, although non exhaustive, aims at enlightening, by the description of several cases of bird-human transmission, the risks encountered by bird owners, including children. Public health consequences will be discussed and emphasis will be made on some vector-borne diseases, known to be emergent or which are underestimated, like those transmitted by the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. Finally, biosecurity and hygiene, as well as prevention guidelines will be developed and perspectives proposed.

  11. Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and passerine birds in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1992-12-01

    A total of 534 psittacine and passerine birds consisting of 241 imported and 293 local birds were examined histologically. As a result, the following parasites were found: Giardia (86 cases), Knemido-coptes (26 cases), coccidia (10 cases), Ascaridia (6 cases), Cryptosporidium (5 cases), Sarcocystis (5 cases), tapeworm (4 cases), microfilaria (2 cases), Hexamita (1 case), and Spiroptera (1 case). High incidences of giardiasis and knemido-coptic infestation were detected in the local birds, but rarely in the imported birds. Giardial trophozoites were observed mainly in the duodenum of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Knemidocoptic mites burrowed into the epidermis producing proliferative dermatitis in 25 budgerigars and 1 African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). This ectoparasite often infested the skin around the cloaca. Coccidiosis was seen only in the small intestines of the finch (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), African Grey Parrot, Rainbow lory (Trichoglossus haematodus), Indian Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) and peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Two parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva and Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and two budgerigars had intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Conjunctivitis associated with cryptosporidial infection was seen in a lovebird. Sarcocystis cysts containing crescent-shaped bradyzoites were found not only in the thigh and breast but also in the heart and cloacal muscles. Other organisms such as Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and Spiroptera were clinically less significant. However, infections such as Giardia and Cryptosporidim might have zoonotic implications.

  12. Prevalence and Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Infection in Pet Parrots in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp., sometimes leading to severe diarrhea in humans and animals. In the present study, 311 parrots, belonging to four species, namely, Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), Lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria), and Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), from Beijing and Weifang cities, were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. infection. Blood samples of each bird were examined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fecal samples were examined by Sheather's sugar flotation technique. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection were 3.22% (10/311) and 0.64% (2/311) by ELISA and Sheather's sugar flotation technique, respectively. Seroprevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in different breeds varied from 0 to 15.39%. Sequencing analysis showed that both positive samples from fecal samples belonged to Cryptosporidium avian genotype V. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium avian genotype V in Budgerigars. The results of the present study provided foundation-data for prevention and control of cryptosporidiosis in pet birds in China.

  13. Seroprevalence and genotype of Chlamydia in pet parrots in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N-Z; Zhang, X-X; Zhou, D-H; Huang, S-Y; Tian, W-P; Yang, Y-C; Zhao, Q; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are one of the most popular pet birds in China, and can harbour Chlamydia which has significance for human and animal health. We investigated, by indirect haemagglutination assay, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in four species of parrots, namely budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) that were collected from Weifang and Beijing cities, North China and explored the association between potential risk factors and chlamydial seropositivity. We further determined the genotype of Chlamydia in 21 fresh faecal samples based on the ompA sequence by reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 311 parrots examined, 35·37% (95% confidence interval 30·06-40·68) were seropositive, and species, gender, age, season and geographical location were identified as risk factors. Two PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype A. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype A in the droppings of two pet parrots in China suggests potential environmental contamination with Chlamydiaceae and may raise a public health concern.

  14. Avian polymavirus in wild birds: genome analysis of isolates from Falconiformes and Psittaciformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne, R; Müller, H

    1998-01-01

    Avian polyomavirus (APV) infections have been reported to cause fatal disease in a wide range of psittacine species. Here we demonstrate APV infections in buzzards (Buteo buteo) and in a falcon (Falco tinnunculus) found dead in Germany, and in lovebirds (Agapornis pullaria) with fatal disease, wild-caught in Moçambique. APV infection in buzzards was determined by PCR amplification of parts of the viral genome followed by Southern blot hybridisation. The genomes of the isolates obtained from the falcon and one of the lovebirds proved to be very closely related to those of Budgerigar Fledgling Disease Virus (BFDV)-1, BFDV-2 and BFDV-3, isolated from budgerigar, chicken, and parakeet, respectively. A consensus sequence was delineated from the known nucleotide sequences of APV isolates. The significance of some nucleotide changes is discussed. Infectivity of all of these isolates was neutralized by antibodies directed against BFDV-1. Data presented in this investigation show that the polyomavirus isolates obtained from different avian species so far all belong to one genotype and one serotype within the proposed subgenus Avipolyomavirus of the family Papovaviridae. The designation Budgerigar Fledgling Disease Virus (BFDV) is, therefore, misleading as this virus type infects different species of birds. The name Avian Polymavirus and the abreviation APV should be adopted to all of the isolates investigated in detail at present. The possible role of birds of passage in the epidemiology in APV infections is discussed.

  15. Occurrence of Ornithonyssus sylviarum in pet birds from the district of Setúbal, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waap, Helga; Paulino, Diana; Cardoso, Rita

    2017-07-01

    Ornithonyssus sylviarum is a blood-feeding ectoparasite of birds and the most serious pest in poultry farms in North America. Although the mites are typically adapted to temperate climates, information on this mite in Europe is sparse, and Dermanyssus gallinae is considered to be the only mite impacting the poultry industry. The present study reports the occurrence of O. sylviarum in pet birds in Portugal. Mites were collected directly from birds and with traps placed in cages and nests at 20 different sampling places belonging to 6 municipalities in the district of Setúbal. In a total of 217 birds, O. sylviarum was identified in 47 out of 147 (32.0%) canaries (Serinus canaria), 14 out of 21 (14.3%) estrildid finches, 1 out of 24 (4.2%) budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and 1 out of 15 (6.7%) lovebirds (Agapornis spp.). Mites of the genus Dermanyssus were identified in 8 canaries (5.4%), 8 estrildid finches (38.1%) and 1 lovebird (6.7%). No mites were found in 6 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), 2 African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), 1 Bourke's parrot (Neophema bourkii) and 1 rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Considering the zoonotic potential and the risk of dissemination to poultry, the present findings underline the need for further monitoring of O. sylviarum in the wild and domestic avifauna in Portugal.

  16. The molecular basis for UV vision in birds: spectral characteristics, cDNA sequence and retinal localization of the UV-sensitive visual pigment of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, S E; Vissers, P M; Das, D; Degrip, W J; Bowmaker, J K; Hunt, D M

    1998-02-15

    Microspectrophotometric (msp) studies have shown that the colour-vision system of many bird species is based on four pigments with absorption peaks in the red, green, blue and UV regions of the spectrum. The existence of a fourth pigment (UV) is the major difference between the trichromacy of humans and the tetrachromacy of such birds, and recent studies have shown that it may play a determining role in such diverse aspects of behaviour as mate selection and detection of food. Avian visual pigments are composed of an opsin protein covalently bound via a Schiff-base linkage to the chromophore 11-cis-retinal. Here we report the cDNA sequence of a UV opsin isolated from an avian species, Melopsittacus undulatus (budgerigar or small parakeet). This sequence has been expressed using the recombinant baculovirus system; the pigment generated from the expressed protein on addition of 11-cis-retinal yielded an absorption spectrum typical of a UV photopigment, with lambdamax 365+/-3 nm. This is the first UV opsin from an avian species to be sequenced and expressed in a heterologous system. In situ hybridization of this sequence to budgerigar retinas selectively labelled a sub-set of UV cones, representing approx. 9% of the total cone population, that are distributed in a semi-regular pattern across the entire retina.

  17. Zoonoses in pet birds: review and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Pet birds are a not-so-well known veterinarian’s clientship fraction. Bought individually or in couples, as families often do (which is a lucrative business for pet shops or local breeders) or traded (sometimes illegally) for their very high genetic or exotic value, these birds, commonly canaries, parakeets or parrots, are regularly sold at high prices. These animals, however, are potential carriers and/or transmitters of zoonotic diseases. Some of them could have an important impact on human health, like chlamydophilosis, salmonellosis or even highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1. This review paper, although non exhaustive, aims at enlightening, by the description of several cases of bird-human transmission, the risks encountered by bird owners, including children. Public health consequences will be discussed and emphasis will be made on some vector-borne diseases, known to be emergent or which are underestimated, like those transmitted by the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. Finally, biosecurity and hygiene, as well as prevention guidelines will be developed and perspectives proposed. PMID:23687940

  18. Preliminary study on avian fauna of the Krishna River basin Sangli District, Western Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbar, Suresh M; Ghadage, Abhijit B

    2014-11-01

    The present study on avifaunal diversity carried out for three years at the Krishna River Basin, Sangli District revealed a total of 126 species of birds belonging to 30 families, of which 91 species were resident, 16 migratory, 12 resident and local migratory and 7 species were resident and migratory. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was dominant in the study area. Commonly recorded resident bird species were, Red vented bulbul, Jungle crow, House sparrow, Common myna, Brahminy myna, Rock pigeon, Spotted dove, Rose ringed parakeet, Indian robin, White-browed fantail-flycatcher and Small sunbird. Most of the families had one or two species, whereas Muscicapidae family alone had 16 species. Forty one species of waterfowls were recorded in this small landscape. Out of 126 bird species, 38 were insectivorous, 28 piscivorous, 25 omnivorous, 19 carnivorous, 9 granivorous, 5 frugivorous and 2 species were nectar sucker and insectivorous. These results suggest that richness of avifauna in the Krishna River Basin, Western Maharashtra might be due to large aquatic ground, varied vegetations and favourable environmental conditions.

  19. Prevalence and Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Infection in Pet Parrots in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp., sometimes leading to severe diarrhea in humans and animals. In the present study, 311 parrots, belonging to four species, namely, Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus, Lovebirds (Agapornis sp., Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria, and Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, from Beijing and Weifang cities, were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. infection. Blood samples of each bird were examined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and fecal samples were examined by Sheather’s sugar flotation technique. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection were 3.22% (10/311 and 0.64% (2/311 by ELISA and Sheather’s sugar flotation technique, respectively. Seroprevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in different breeds varied from 0 to 15.39%. Sequencing analysis showed that both positive samples from fecal samples belonged to Cryptosporidium avian genotype V. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium avian genotype V in Budgerigars. The results of the present study provided foundation-data for prevention and control of cryptosporidiosis in pet birds in China.

  20. Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in dead captive psittacines in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

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    AM Gomes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg infection of wild native Brazilian psittacines (Psittaciformes which died of any cause during sorting, rehabilitation, or conservation, was investigated by PCR. Two previously described PCR methodologies using Mg specific primers were employed for the analyses of 140 swab samples (cloaca, trachea, or palatine cleft. Average positive Mg detection in cloacal swabs was 51.9%, with 80.0% (n=5 of Blue-and-yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, 60.0% (n=3 Dusky Parrots (Pionus fuscus, 52.5% (n=59 Amazon Parrots (Amazona aestiva, 50.0% (n=2 Orange-winged Parrots (Amazona amazonica, 50.0% (n=2 Jandaya Parakeetsor Jandaya Conures (Aratinga jandaya, 0% (n=2 Golden Conures or Golden Parakeets (Guarouba guarouba, and 0% (n=2 Hyacinth Macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus. Palatine cleft swab sampling was more sensitive to detect Mg, with 85.4% (n=17 detection rate, as compared to 67.4% (n=46 obtained with tracheal samples, and 53.5% (n=77 with cloacal swabs. The surprisingly high Mg incidence in psittacines kept in conservation or triage environments is possibly due to the proximity or cohabitation with several bird species during confinement and housing psittacines of different origins together. The implementation of biosecurity measures and species-specific facilities is recommended.

  1. Phylogenetic origins of early alterations in brain region proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Sandoval, Alexis L; Striedter, Georg F

    2010-01-01

    Adult galliform birds (e.g. chickens) exhibit a relatively small telencephalon and a proportionately large optic tectum compared with parrots and songbirds. We previously examined the embryonic origins of these adult species differences and found that the optic tectum is larger in quail than in parakeets and songbirds at early stages of development, prior to tectal neurogenesis onset. The aim of this study was to determine whether a proportionately large presumptive tectum is a primitive condition within birds or a derived feature of quail and other galliform birds. To this end, we examined embryonic brains of several avian species (emus, parrots, songbirds, waterfowl, galliform birds), reptiles (3 lizard species, alligators, turtles) and a monotreme (platypuses). Brain region volumes were estimated from serial Nissl-stained sections. We found that the embryos of galliform birds and lizards exhibit a proportionally larger presumptive tectum than all the other examined species. The presumptive tectum of the platypus is unusually small. The most parsimonious interpretation of these data is that the expanded embryonic tectum of lizards and galliform birds is a derived feature in both of these taxonomic groups.

  2. Molecular characterization of Giardia psittaci by multilocus sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Makino, Ikuko; Kojima, Atsushi

    2012-12-01

    Multilocus sequence analyses targeting small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA), elongation factor 1 alpha (ef1α), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and beta giardin (β-giardin) were performed on Giardia psittaci isolates from three Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulates) and four Barred parakeets (Bolborhynchus lineola) kept in individual households or imported from overseas. Nucleotide differences and phylogenetic analyses at four loci indicate the distinction of G. psittaci from the other known Giardia species: Giardia muris, Giardia microti, Giardia ardeae, and Giardia duodenalis assemblages. Furthermore, G. psittaci was related more closely to G. duodenalis than to the other known Giardia species, except for G. microti. Conflicting signals regarded as "double peaks" were found at the same nucleotide positions of the ef1α in all isolates. However, the sequences of the other three loci, including gdh and β-giardin, which are known to be highly variable, from all isolates were also mutually identical at every locus. They showed no double peaks. These results suggest that double peaks found in the ef1α sequences are caused not by mixed infection with genetically different G. psittaci isolates but by allelic sequence heterogeneity (ASH), which is observed in diplomonad lineages including G. duodenalis. No sequence difference was found in any G. psittaci isolates at the gdh and β-giardin, suggesting that G. psittaci is indeed not more diverse genetically than other Giardia species. This report is the first to provide evidence related to the genetic characteristics of G. psittaci obtained using multilocus sequence analysis.

  3. The sacral topography of the Monastery of Treskavac

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    Smolčić-Makuljević Svetlana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The stretches of Mt Treskavac with Zlatovrh, a dominant peak in Pelagonija and its distinctive rocky landscape have offered a suitable setting for exercising austere monastic practices ever since medieval times. The sacred area formed around the Monastery of the Dormition of the Virgin in medieval times was founded on the antique sacred place of Kolobaise and the temples of Artemis of Ephesus and Apollo Euthanatos. To medieval renovation of the monastery besides the Byzantine and Bulgarian rulers, also contributed the Serbian rulers of the Nemanjić house, kings Milutin, Stefan of Dečani and Dušan. Testimonies to a stay at Treskavac were left by the Serbian nobles enochiar Dabiživ and tepčija Gradislav. The cult of the Virgin of Treskavac confirmed in the written sources beginning with king Dušan's charters to the monastery (1334-1343, left its trace both in the wall-painting of the monastery church and in the activity of manuscript copying cultivated in this monastic center. Over the centuries, many pilgrims, from the royalty local lords and members of well-to-do families to priests and monks Orthodox Christians but also non-Christians, came to show their respect to the Virgin of Treskavac. A small cave church has been recently registered in the immediate vicinity of the monastery. An evidence of the eremitic way of life, it confirms the information contained in king Dušan's charters. Namely, they compare the way of life of the monks of Treskavac with the ascetic practice of Mount Athos and Mount Sinai. The area of Mt Treskavac also shows several rock paintings with a cultic function. This authentic manner of marking out a sacred area may be explained by the prophylactic role of the Virgin, or a Christian saint, in a barely passable, perilous landscape. Springs and drinking fountains constitute another important element of the monastery's topography. Through the monks' continuous and devout effort put into shaping the landscape, the fresh

  4. http://englishkyoto-seas.org/2014/02/vol-1-no-3-takahiro-kojima/

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    Takahiro Kojima

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper will explore the religious practices of Theravada Buddhists in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province. The data presented were gathered by the author during a year of fieldwork in a village outside the city of Ruili. Dehong Prefecture is located on the China-Myanmar border. One of the main groups in this area is the Dai (Tăi, who follow Theravada Buddhism. Buddhism was brought into Dehong mainly from Myanmar. Local religious practices have much in common with Buddhist practices in Southeast Asia, sharing the same Pali canon. However, this area differs from other Theravada Buddhist societies in that it has a relatively low number of monks and novices. Although all the villages in Dehong have a monastery, just as in the rest of Southeast Asia, most of the monas- teries are uninhabited. One reason for this is the oppression of religion during the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. But more important, the custom of ordaining is significantly less widespread in Dehong than in other Theravada Buddhist societies. Therefore, without resident monks, Buddhist rituals in Dehong are performed by virtue of the direct relationship between the lay community and their Buddhist texts, Buddha images, and pagodas. In particular, holu (experts in reciting Buddhist texts and xiŋ lai (elderly people who go to the monastery during the rainy season retreat to keep eight precepts on special holy days play important roles as mediators in this relationship.1 It is laypeople, not monks, who play the central role in the practice of Buddhism in Dehong. In this situation, knowledge of Buddhism is transmitted mainly from laypeople to laypeople. Furthermore, a diver- sity of practices has been produced and reproduced by local Buddhists. These features of Buddhist practices in Dehong are in striking contrast to practices in other Theravada Buddhist societies, and suggest that there is a need to re-examine the models to understand

  5. Buddhist Bibliographer SHI SENGYOU and His Book Compilation of Notes on the Translation of the Tripitaka%论佛教目录学家释僧祐及其《出三藏记集》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继文

    2012-01-01

    Shi Sengyou was an eminent monk with wealth knowledge of vinaya of Southern dynasties in China. He was an export in Sarvastivada - vinaya. He was very famous for his research and preaching vinaya, which helped him get the worship from the government and the public. His contributions to Chinese Buddhism are various, such as preaching vinaya, Restoration of temples, helping people become monks, building Buddha, collecting Tripitaka and so forth. Most important is his masterpiece Compilation of Notes on the Translation of the Tripitaka, which made him well known in Chinese history of Buddhism and academic History. This masterpiece is well preserved and the oldest Buddhist scriptures catalogue in exist- ence, which covers large amount of Buddhist sutras, prologues of sutra, and biographies of eminent monks. It still is the most valuable reference book for academicians and Buddhists. This book make great inovation of its content, bibliographic system, and method of categories. In its bibliographical porspoctive, this book serves as a connecting link between the preceding and the following in Chinese bibliographic research.%僧祐是我国南朝时期的律学高僧,他精通萨婆多部的《十诵律》,以研究、讲习律学著名于齐梁,受到当时朝野的崇敬。僧祐对中国佛教的贡献是多方面的,如研讲戒律、修缮寺院、度僧人、塑佛像、建立经藏等。然而,真正奠定僧祐在中国佛教史、学术史上地位的则是其编撰的《出三藏记集》。该录是我国现存最早的保存完整的佛教目录,录中著录了大量珍贵的佛经、经序、高僧传记,时至今日仍然是僧俗各界研究、学习佛学的重要工具书。从目录学的角度而言,该录在著录内容、著录体例、分类方法上都有很明显的发展和创新,是我国目录学宝库中一部承前启后的力作。

  6. Saint Basil of Poiana Mărului. Biographic milestones

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    Ion Marian CROITORU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While, in the 19th century, many servants of the monastic settlements left Wallachia and Moldova, because of the measures taken there, the situation was nevertheless different in the 18th century, when monks from different areas inhabited by Orthodox Christians came to the Romanian Countries, where they encountered an uninterrupted reality of hesychastic renewal started by Saint Gregory of Sinai (1255-1346, due to the fact that the Romanians had known another cultural continuity, different from what had happened, until that century, in the Greek Byzantine or in the Slav world. This reality explains why the revitalization of the hesychastic and spiritual life in the areas north of the Danube is related, in the 18th century, to the Saints Basil of Poiana Mărului (1692-1767 and Paisius Velichkovsky or Wieliczkowski of Neamţ (1722-1794, both of them arrived from the Slav world in the Romanian extra-Carpathian territories. Saint Basil founded many hermitages and trained many disciples in the practice of the prayer of the mind or of the heart, becoming known as a great teacher of this prayer, in the modern times. Just as the Holy Fathers of Mount Sinai (Gregory, Philotheos, Hesychios, but also from other parts of the Byzantine world (Saint Symeon the New Theologian, Saint Gregory Palamas etc., once again, he draws the attention not just of the monks but also of the lay people on the prayer of the heart, so that in the 19th century it was not the teaching of Saint Paisius on the practice of the prayer of the heart that prevailed, but the teaching of Saint Basil, followed especially in the Romanian and in the Russian tradition. Regarding the monastic life, the activity of Starets Basil can be characterized by the ecumenicity of the Orthodox faith, due to the fact that, on the one hand, he brought together monks from the Romanian and the Slav area, and, on the other hand, he contributed to the enrichment of the Romanian monasticism through the

  7. Integrating conservation and development at the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece: perception and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Zoi-Sylvia; Dikou, Angela

    2008-11-01

    Available information on the socioeconomic implications of marine protected areas (MPAs) for the socioculturally diverse Mediterranean region is scant. The National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece was established in 1992 as a foundation for the conservation of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus. The evolution of the degree of acceptance of and satisfaction from the NMPANS by involved stakeholder groups (fishermen, tourism operators, hoteliers and owners of rooms to let, governmental bodies, nongovernmental bodies, students, domestic and foreign tourists) were investigated 13 years after its establishment using written questionnaires delivered during personal interviews. The initial positive attitude of local professionals for the NMPANS has eroded due to the unsatisfactory fulfillment of expectations for socioeconomic development. Fishermen expressed dissatisfaction with, mistrust toward, and a reluctancy to communicate with the NMPANS's management body. They believe that the fishery areas have decreased in actual geographic area because of the prohibitive measures; fish stocks are declining; compensation for damage to fishery equipment by the Mediterranean monk seal and for the prohibitive measures should be provided; and stricter enforcement of regulations should take place. On the other hand, tourism operators, who organize trips for tourists to the NMPANS, unanimously reported direct economic benefits. Furthermore, there was a disparity in the perception of socioeconomic benefits derived from the NMPANS between governmental bodies and local stakeholders. The governmental bodies and the nongovernmental organization MOm-Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal postulated that there had been considerable socioeconomic benefits for the local community of Alonissos due to the establishment of the NMPANS, whereas the local nongovernmental organization Ecological and Cultural Movement of

  8. Integrating Conservation and Development at the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece: Perception and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Zoi-Sylvia; Dikou, Angela

    2008-11-01

    Available information on the socioeconomic implications of marine protected areas (MPAs) for the socioculturally diverse Mediterranean region is scant. The National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece was established in 1992 as a foundation for the conservation of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus. The evolution of the degree of acceptance of and satisfaction from the NMPANS by involved stakeholder groups (fishermen, tourism operators, hoteliers and owners of rooms to let, governmental bodies, nongovernmental bodies, students, domestic and foreign tourists) were investigated 13 years after its establishment using written questionnaires delivered during personal interviews. The initial positive attitude of local professionals for the NMPANS has eroded due to the unsatisfactory fulfillment of expectations for socioeconomic development. Fishermen expressed dissatisfaction with, mistrust toward, and a reluctancy to communicate with the NMPANS’s management body. They believe that the fishery areas have decreased in actual geographic area because of the prohibitive measures; fish stocks are declining; compensation for damage to fishery equipment by the Mediterranean monk seal and for the prohibitive measures should be provided; and stricter enforcement of regulations should take place. On the other hand, tourism operators, who organize trips for tourists to the NMPANS, unanimously reported direct economic benefits. Furthermore, there was a disparity in the perception of socioeconomic benefits derived from the NMPANS between governmental bodies and local stakeholders. The governmental bodies and the nongovernmental organization MOm-Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk Seal postulated that there had been considerable socioeconomic benefits for the local community of Alonissos due to the establishment of the NMPANS, whereas the local nongovernmental organization Ecological and Cultural Movement of

  9. Mes chers collègues, les moines, ou le partage de l’ignorance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Caillet

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mes chers collègues, les moines, ou le partage de l’ignorance. Aucun statut ne m’a autant étonnée que celui de collègue qui me fut conféré par les moines du Grand monastère de l’Est, à Nara. Après avoir testé mes connaissances en matière de rituel, ces moines fort savants manifestèrent en effet, avec ostentation, leur ignorance. Pointant pour moi des détails liturgiques qu’ils tenaient pour incompréhensibles, ils prirent un plaisir évident à bavarder histoire et théologie, comme si je pouvais apporter quoi que ce soit. Cette mise en scène du caractère incompréhensible du rituel soulignait le caractère ineffable de cérémonies jadis accomplies au ciel par des entités supérieures. Je fournissais prétexte à décrire la vanité de l’érudition face à l’accomplissement des mystères et aussi l’importance de cette érudition pour renouer avec un sens originel irrémédiablement inconnaissable.My dear colleagues the monks, or the sharing of ignorance. No status has ever surprised me as much as that of “colleague” conferred on me by the monks of the Great Eastern Monastery of Nara. After testing my knowledge of ritual, these very learned monks made great show of their ignorance. Drawing my attention to liturgical details that they held to be incomprehensible, they took obvious pleasure in chatting about history and theology, as if I were capable of making the slightest contribution. This staging of the impenetrable nature of the ritual highlighted the ineffable character of the ceremonies performed in heaven long ago by superior beings. I provided a convenient pretext for describing the vanity of erudition in the face of the accomplishment of the mysteries, and also the importance of this erudition for renewing an original, irreparably unknowable meaning.

  10. Alchemy, Prophecy, and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Iberia: Anselmo Castelo Branco's Critique of Benito Feijoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, José Vieira

    2016-11-01

    The Benedictine monk Benito Jerónimo Feijoo (1676-1764) is now considered one of the major figures of the Spanish and Iberian Enlightenment. However his work, both in Spain and in Portugal, was far from being universally acclaimed. His critical approach to the subject of alchemy in his essay "Piedra Filosofal," published in the third volume of his magisterial Teatro Crítico Universal (1726-1739), sparked an unexpected response from the Portuguese alchemist Anselmo Castelo Branco, who sought to refute Feijoo's claims in his own work, the Ennoea. This paper presents an outline of this exchange and its position within Iberian Enlightenment circles. It further argues that Castelo Branco's defence of alchemy was informed by his political and prophetic views, in particular his adherence to the Portuguese messianic doctrine of Sebastianism.

  11. Ritual. Medieval Liturgy and the Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the combined uses of several media in medieval church rituals. Assessing the application of a (modern) notion of ritual to medieval liturgical ceremonies, it points out how these 'rituals' worked through a sensory combination of words, music, architectural setting, and move......This chapter discusses the combined uses of several media in medieval church rituals. Assessing the application of a (modern) notion of ritual to medieval liturgical ceremonies, it points out how these 'rituals' worked through a sensory combination of words, music, architectural setting...... with the actual washing of the feet of either monks or poor people. The combination of words and melodies with elaborate melismas, and the further sensorial staging and setting of the ceremony produced a 'polyphony' of media, which can be analysed by way of early medieval notions of sacrament. The chapter also...

  12. [A report of St. Bonaventura in the mirror of the history of neurology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Ferdinand Peter; Karenberg, Axel

    2004-01-01

    Ancient and medieval literature contain few case reports of specific syndromes. But there is no lack of such accounts in theological literature, with its long tradition of gathering and documenting individual case studies involving miracle cures--a practice which stretches from the ancient sanctuaries of Asclepius to today's places of pilgrimage. Among the many miracles attributed to St. Francis, complied around 1260 by his biographer, St. Bonaventura, is the case of a young monk afflicted by a sudden hemiplegia accompanied by aphasia and mental confusion. According to legend, he was miraculously and completely healed by the appearance of St. Francis. The report can be interpreted from a number of different approaches: medical, theological, literary or even autobiographical. Neurologists may treat this "case history" as an early description of a "prolonged ischaemic neurological deficit" (PRIND).

  13. St. Anthony of Kiev and the Earliest History of Russian Monasticism (Novitiates in Old Rus’

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    Boris A. Uspenskij

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Russian Primary Chronicle, when St. Anthony settled in his cave near Kiev, people joined him and he tonsured them as monks. We know, however, that in certain cases he did not tonsure the newcomers but sent them to be tonsured by a priest (hieromonk. Obviously St. Anthony was not a priest. Why, then, in some cases did he do it himself and yet in other cases, he did not? If he was not a priest, how could he tonsure people? The author of the present article attempts to answer these and similar questions with reference to historical, philological, and liturgical data. The article is devoted to the evolution of the monastic tradition in Rus’ of the 11th century.

  14. Post-religional perspective and secular Buddhism: Stephen Batchelor and the post-metaphysical religion

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    Leandro Durazzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present one of the contemporary trends on Buddhism, specially from the last decades in West, for its encounter with the globalized and dynamic context of present societies. This Buddhist trend, the progressive secularization of its traditions and practices, not to mention its increasing acceptance of historical-textual refutation, finds in Stephen Batchelor - a former monk in two different Buddhist traditions, Tibetan and Korean Zen - a catalyzer and a well-known advocate of secular perspective to the contemporary Buddhism. Here we will present the potential dialogue between the Secular Buddhism - besides the secularizing perspectives over orthodox cultural traditions - and the post-religional subject, as proposed by Marià Corbí and the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians. For the purposes of this paper we will focus on the modernizing and secular hermeneutics on Dharma practice, as defended by Stephen Batchelor and others.

  15. Mawqif Nahdat al-'Ulamā' min Ḥarakat al- Tabshīr al-Masīhī bi Indūnīsīyā

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    Nursamad Nursamad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Islam as a religion is to be critical of religion two predecessors, both to Jews and Christians. However, according to NU, the Islamic view of Christianity is more positive than the views about Jews. That's because the Jewish religion is seen in relationship with God has strayed too far. A positive attitude of Islam towards Christianity, according to NU, can be seen in the statement of the Koran that praises that among Christians there are monks and priests who are not arrogant. But NU deplore the ways and practices of Christianization in Indonesia are judged contrary to the positive attitude of Islam towards ChristianityCopyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v4i3.774

  16. Tibetan Nomad Childhood

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    Karma Dondrub

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Tibetan Nomad Childhood by Kar+ma don 'grub. Kar+ma's life begins on the boundless Tibetan grassland in 1983 in Yushu (Yul shul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sgnon (Qinghai Province. Living in a black yak hair tent, Kar+ma begins tending his family's yak calves as soon as he can walk, in a grassland so barren that he is startled upon first seeing a tree at the age of eight. Charlatan livestock-stealing monks, anthrax, death, birth, happiness, and encounters with modern education create a powerful, unparalleled account of Tibetan nomad childhood in the late twentieth century - a way of life that will soon be forever gone.

  17. Italian psychology under protection: Agostino Gemelli between Catholicism and fascism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Renato; Giannone, Anna; Giuliani, Alessia

    2013-05-01

    Between the 1930s and 1940s, Agostino Gemelli (1878-1959) was the main Italian psychologist; he accepted and promoted an empirical conception of psychology influenced by neo-Thomism. The views of Gemelli were a landmark for many psychologists and psychological models in Catholic universities. Gemelli, moreover, throughout his scientific activity, continued ongoing work of expertise in matters concerning science, morality, and psychology. He was a Franciscan monk but also an officer of the Italian air force, a psychologist, and a rector. During the period of fascist rule in Italy, Gemelli sought compromise solutions to foster the survival of psychological institutions. Around his story, contrasting interpretations have emerged. The aim of this article is to look at Agostino Gemelli as an important historical subject to understand the ways in which scientific enterprises and institutions are likely to be influenced by political regimes and by the dogmatic and intolerant milieu. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. «Ist Ihnen bekannt, daß sechs Wasserstoffbomben genügen, um die ganze Bundesrepublik in einen Atomsumpf zu verwandeln?». Günther Weisenborns Stücke gegen die nukleare Aufrüstung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Fiandra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The atomic play Atom vor Christus (1952 by the Viennese playwright Kurt Becsi (1920-1988 is one of the very numerous works on the subject of the nuclear threat that appeared in German-speaking countries in the 1950s and ’60s. This article investigates the complex Christian religious discourse that embeds the dramatization of atomic issues and apocalyp­tic ideas of the End in Becsi’s play. Special focus is given to such aspects as the struggle between generations and, in particular, the conflict between the unscrupulous scientist (and his hubris and the figure of the repentant bomber pilot that becomes a monk (Science versus love, logic versus Christian grace.

  19. El confesor regio Fray Luis Aliaga y la controversia Inmaculista

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    Callado Estela, Emilio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyses the participation of the aragonese dominican monk Luis Aliaga (Zaragoza, 1565-† Zaragoza, 1626, last confessor of Philip III and Inquiring general of the Hispanic Monarchy from 1619, in one of the most white hot theological controversies along the 17th century: the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin MaryEl presente artículo analiza la participación del dominico aragonés fray Luis Aliaga (Zaragoza, 1565-† Zaragoza, 1626 , último confesor de Felipe III e Inquisidor general de la Monarquía Hispánica desde 1619, en una de las controversias teológicas más candentes a lo largo del siglo XVII: la Inmaculada Concepción de la Virgen María.

  20. A proposito dell'inchiesta della S. Congregazione dell'Indice dei libri proibiti di fine '500 / The survey of the “Congregazione dell’Indice dei libri proibiti” (Congregatio pro Indice Librorum Prohibitorum at the end of the 16th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Marisa Borraccini

    2013-01-01

    This paper - divided into three sections - expands upon the work undertaken in "Ricerca sull'inchiesta della Congregazione dell'Indice", which has examined the Codici Vaticani Latini, a collection which conserves around 9.500 lists of volumes owned by Italian monks and clerics at the end of the sixteenth century. Roberto Rusconi offers an introductory overview of the libraries of religious orders at the end of the sixteenth century. Giovanna Granata analyses the findings of the Inchiesta in terms of actual library holdings and in terms of the circulation of different editions. Rosa Marisa Borraccini examines the case study of the "Confessionario" of Girolamo da Palermo to demonstrate the importance certain texts, although now forgotten and largely ignored, had at the time of their production and circulation.

  1. Freud's Mexican readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Rubén

    2011-01-01

    This essay presents an overview of artists and writers who read Freud's work in Mexico between 1920 and 1968. The focus is on cultural readings of Freud: non-clinical interpretations of psychoanalysis that applied Freud's theory to literary, artistic, philosophical, or religious questions. The essay focuses on Salvador Novo, one of the poets associated with the Contemporáneos group, and his reading of the "Three Essays in the Theory of Sexuality;" Raúl Carrancá y Trujillo, a judge and criminologist who used psychoanalysis in his work, including the trial of Trotky's assassin; Octavio Paz, a poet and intellectual who wrote an essay on Mexican history, "The Labyrinth of Solitude," as a response to "Moses and Monotheism;" and Gregorio Lemercier, a Benedictine monk who placed his monastery in group analysis. These unorthodox readings of Freud opened the door for some of the most daring intellectual experiments in the 20th century.

  2. The Reception and Dissemination of De imitatione Christi in Golden Age Spain

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    Elvezio Canonica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show insight into the Golden Age Spain a devotional work composed by the middle of the fifteenth century, the Imitatio Christi, which has been attributed to the Dutch Augustinian monk Thomas a Kempis. Being the most widespread work after the Bible in the Christian tradition, struck by the paucity of studies on diffusion and influence in Golden Age Spain. The present contribution, demonstrating that this work was widely disseminated Spain, by the large number of editions and translations, intended to open the field for future research in the literary field. We insist particularly in the case of Diego de Estella, whose work is postulated that the influence of the Imitatio Christi is so obvious that the model becomes transparent.

  3. 人性中阴暗面的原始冲动——浅读《黑猫中》的哥特式因素%Primitive Impulse in the Dark Side of Man——A Gothic Study of The Black Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭锐

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a special form of romanticism,gothic novel is a story of terror and Suspense,usually set in a gloomy old castle or monastery.(Baldick 92) Many of the great literary works can be catalogued into this group,such as The Monk,A rose for Emily,The Turn of The Screw,etc.Gothic novel is also referred to work of "Dark Romance",in which "Dark" was mainly shown in its theme and plot:The novel pens heavily on violence and terror, revealing the evils in society,polities,church and morality,to explore the darkness of humanity.(Zhang 36) A great many writers have shown their talent in the subject.

  4. Scientific analysis of Buddhism and a comparative study of Buddhism and science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Tianxiang

    2006-01-01

    As Buddhism spread into China,the Mahayana(Dacheng)and Hinayana(Xiaocheng)schools,as well as the kong 空(empty)or you 有(being)schools,each developed separately,with all sorts of competing theories emerging.While Chinese Buddhism saw a revival in modern times,Western science also gained ground all over the country,and many scholars,technologists and monks sought to interpret the meaning of kong according the achievements and method of the natural sciences.They used science to interpret the content and methods of Buddhist teachings,ontology,and outlook on life.Of the scholars who did so,Wang Jitong(王季同)and You Zhibiao(尢智表)are the most excellent.

  5. Analyzing Tibetan Monastic Conceptions of the Universe Through Individual Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonam, Tenzin; Impey, Chris David

    2017-01-01

    Every culture and tradition has its own representation of the universe that continues to evolve due to the influence of new technologies, discoveries, and cultural exchanges. With the recent introduction of Western science into the Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in India, this study explores monastic conceptions of the universe prior to formal instruction in astronomy. The drawings of 59 Buddhist monks and nuns were analyzed using Tversky’s three criteria for drawing analysis—segmentation, order, and hierarchical structure of knowledge. We found that 22 out of 59 monastics drew a geocentric model of the universe with the Solar System as the dominant physical system, reflecting little influence of modern astronomical knowledge. Only six monastics drew the traditional Buddhist model of the world, generally known as the Mount Meru Cosmology. The implication of the monastics' representation of the universe for their assimilation into modern science is discussed.

  6. A Philosophy of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Horne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The survival of the homo sapiens sapiens species depends upon learning and passing on to future generations quality knowledge. Yet, we find to an increasing extent a corruption of the process, resulting in ignorance, environmental destruction, and breakdown of community. A fundamental shift in priorities is required to avert disaster. Articulating a solution depends upon a language, which, in turn, depends upon clarifying concepts. This paper identifies the dialectical (something existing because of what it is not interrelationship of episteme (theory and techné (practice within the framework of ethos, pathos, and logos. This structure and process as learning provides coherence in developing knowledge and can then be what in a generic sense is religion (to cohere, or bind. In a monk-like devotion to learning to generate quality knowledge humanity can appreciate its own meaning and make this world a better place in which to live. In this way religion becomes philosophy, and philosophy religion.

  7. A Philosophy of Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Horne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The survival of the homo sapiens sapiens species depends upon learning and passing on to future generations quality knowledge. Yet, we find to an increasing extent a corruption of the process, resulting in ignorance, environmental destruction, and breakdown of community. A fundamental shift in priorities is required to avert disaster. Articulating a solution depends upon a language, which, in turn, depends upon clarifying concepts. This paper identifies the dialectical (something existing because of what it is not interrelationship of episteme (theory and techné (practice within the framework of ethos, pathos, and logos. This structure and process as learning provides coherence in developing knowledge and can then be what in a generic sense is religion (to cohere, or bind. In a monk-like devotion to learning to generate quality knowledge humanity can appreciate its own meaning and make this world a better place in which to live. In this way religion becomes philosophy, and philosophy religion.

  8. [The "Hortulus" of Valafridus Strabus from the IX-th century: one of the oldest documents of the medieval knowledge of herb-growing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepiela, A

    2000-01-01

    Valafridus Strabus, the author of the Latin poem entitled Hortulus (The Little Garden), lived in the Caroline epoch. He was a German monk and a poet and, for some time, he was connected with the famous Benedictine abbey at St. Gallen, which had a garden with curative herbs. He dedicated his best work, The Little Garden, to Grimaldus, the abbot of St. Gallen who was his master and teacher. This work, written in 444 hexameters, consists of 26 chapters which contain descriptions of 23 herbs such as sage, rue, lovage, mint and others. Apart from herbs, there are also descriptions of some vegetables grown in the monastery gardens, such as pumpkin, melon and celery. "The Little Garden" is one of the oldest and most highly valued documents of the medieval knowledge of herb-growing and their curative properties. It also gives us an idea of the arrangement of the medieval monastery garden in which herbs were grown.

  9. Hippocratic Medicine in China: Comparison with a 9th Century Chinese Manual on Bone Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Louis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese history annals recorded cultural interchange between China and the Roman Empire during the Han dynasty. The first medical missionaries were Nestorian Christians from the Middle East who arrived in China in ad 635. They introduced Western medical practice into China. This paper compares the first comprehensive Chinese treatise on bone and joint injuries by a hermit monk named Lin and the Hippocratic Corpus. Based on external knowledge from the author's background as well as textural comparison the text of Hippocrates, a remarkable similarity is noted. Although these similarities could have arisen by chance, it is reasonable to hypothesize that traditional bone setting in China originated from the Hippocratic tradition and was later integrated with indigenous herbal medicine.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF PONDS ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN SMALL RIVERS OF BERRY (FRANCE

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    Abdelhamid AZAROUAL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ponds on dissolved oxygen in small rivers of Berry (France. Water temperature and oxygen saturation are two major indicators of water quality in surface hydrology. Geographical and cartographic studies about ponds of Central France did no exist until now. During two years, we measured dissolved oxygen using a hand oximeter upstream and downstream of three ponds in the headwaters of the Loire basin. Our results show that oxygen saturation depends on equipments located before and behind the dam, and upstream and downstream: spillways, outlets with a monk, diversion channel, artificial reoxygenation weirs and so on. In some cases (low water quality upstream, existence of weir, relative and absolute saturation of dissolved oxygen increases downstream of ponds.

  11. Shaolin Physical Conditioning: What’s Old is New Again

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    Julio Anta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a resurgence of functional fitness training that was practiced in the ancient Shaolin Temple as part of their regular physical conditioning regimen. This type of training—done with equipment (iron rings, bamboo, vases, etc. or without equipment—can bring a combat-ready fitness level equal to the Shaolin monks. This article introduces iron ring and hard qigong exercises that are based on fundamental principles also found in modern training methods, such as weightlifting, and my own experience and studies in the Shaolin martial tradition. These exercises may be incorporated in any martial art practice and hopefully provide insights into the time-honored Shaolin tradition.

  12. A collection of books from Bielany in the Jagiellonian Library. Security, maintenance and availability of resources. A notice on the progress of work, June 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Partyka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 2009 the Jagiellonian Library became the depositary of a large, valuable and interesting collection of printed books from the library of the Camaldolese Monastery in Bielany (Krakow. The work on processing the collection began almost immediately after all the prints had been taken over by the Jagiellonian Library. Two groups of employees have been involved in the work, both from the Resource Processing Department and the Antique Books Department, in line with the natural division into modern and old prints. The Camaldolese collection from Bielany has been enclosed in the monastery and unavailable to most readers; now the very books which for many years have been the source of knowledge, assistance and cognitive tools to a narrow circle of monks may be accessed by all interested persons. In the next year, after basic processing of the collection, the books will create an extremely interesting research opportunity.

  13. Santi Asoke Buddhism and the Occupation of Bangkok International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Leena Heikkilä-Horn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thailand experienced dramatic political turmoil from February 2006 to November 2008 culminating in the occupation of the Bangkok International Airport. The demonstrations against then Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra and his political allies were organised by the People’s Alliance for Democracy (PAD. One of the PAD leaders, Major-General Chamlong Srimuang, is an active member of the Buddhist Santi Asoke group. The group is controversial as it is not under the state Buddhist authorities and has implicitly criticised the Thai state Buddhist monks for moral corruption. Known as the ‘Dharma Army’, hundreds of Santi Asoke monks, nuns and lay people participated in PAD demonstrations. This paper analyses what the Santi Asoke Buddhist group represents, what the ‘Dharma Army’ is, how its reality differs from media images, what the ideological reasons for Asoke to initially support Thaksin were, and why the group finally turned against him. The paper argues that the group cannot be viewed as a monolithic community. Instead, it should be considered as an amalgamation of monks and nuns, urban and rural temple residents, lay followers of Asoke monks, practitioners of organic agriculture in Asoke village communities, students and former students of Asoke schools, and supporters of Major-General Chamlong Srimuang. Representatives of all these networks participated in the demonstrations albeit with different intensity. ----- Zwischen Februar 2006 und November 2008 stand Thailand unter dem Zeichen tiefgehender politischer Unruhen, die in der Besetzung des internationalen Flughafens ihren Höhepunkt fanden. Organisiert wurden diese Demonstrationen, die sich gegen den damaligen Premierminister Thaksin Shinawatra und seine politischen Verbündeten richteten, von der Volksallianz für Demokratie (PAD. Einer ihrer Anführer, Generalmajor Chamlong Srimuang, ist aktives Mitglied der buddhistischen Santi Asoke Gruppe. Da sich Santi Asoke nicht der

  14. 犊牛流行性疫病病因诊断鉴定及治疗%Calf Cow Epidemic Epidemic Disease Cause of Disease Diagnosis Appraisal and Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茹仙古丽·木明; 冬不拉提; 肖开提

    2011-01-01

    从送检的犊牛病料中分离到2株细菌,经动物试验,生化鉴定,血清型鉴定,确定为肺炎链球菌和沙门氏杆菌混合感染。并通过药敏试验选择对这些细菌抑制效果明显的药物开展了治疗。%From delivers calf Niu Bing who examines to foresee accurately separates to 2 bacteria,after the animal experiment,the biochemistry appraisal,the blood serum appraisal,determines for pneumonia chain coccus and the monk bacillus mixed infection.And suppressed the effect obvious medicine through the medicine sensitive experiment choice to these bacteria to carry out the treatment.

  15. Fusang: The Enlightenment Story of the Chinese Discovery of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statman, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    In 1761 the French scholar and Sinologue Joseph de Guignes announced that "Chinese vessels made the voyage to America many centuries before Christopher Columbus." From the Chinese books in the Bibliotheque du Roi and new missionary reports from Beijing, he concluded that the mythical land of Fusang described by a medieval Buddhist monk could be nowhere other than the west coast of North America, only recently charted by European navigators. Philippe Buache, premier géographe du roi, agreed. At the height of the French Enlightenment, the indigenous geographical tradition of China could be used to further the progress of universal science, providing evidence about issues from the mapping of the Pacific Rim to the organization of the continents. Furthermore, the story of Fusang explained the origins of American peoples, showing that the inhabitants of the New World had arrived there from the Old and contributing to a diffusionist account of the development of civilization in space and time.

  16. Making medieval art modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth den Hartog

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Janet T. Marquardt’s book ‘Zodiaque. Making medieval art modern’ discusses the historical context, history and impact of the Zodiaque publications issued by the monks from the abbey of Ste-Marie de la Pierre-qui-Vire in Burgundy between 1951 and 2001 and links the striking photogravures, the core business of these books, to the modern movement. Although Marquardt’s view that the Zodiaque series made a great impact on the study of Romanesque sculpture is somewhat overrated, her claim that the photogravures should be seen as avant-garde works of art and the books as a “museum without walls” is entirely convincing.

  17. Fisher's contributions to genetics and heredity, with special emphasis on the Gregor Mendel controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piegorsch, W W

    1990-12-01

    R. A. Fisher is widely respected for his contributions to both statistics and genetics. For instance, his 1930 text on The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection remains a watershed contribution in that area. Fisher's subsequent research led him to study the work of (Johann) Gregor Mendel, the 19th century monk who first developed the basic principles of heredity with experiments on garden peas. In examining Mendel's original 1865 article, Fisher noted that the conformity between Mendel's reported and proposed (theoretical) ratios of segregating individuals was unusually good, "too good" perhaps. The resulting controversy as to whether Mendel "cooked" his data for presentation has continued to the current day. This review highlights Fisher's most salient points as regards Mendel's "too good" fit, within the context of Fisher's extensive contributions to the development of genetical and evolutionary theory.

  18. Vietnamese Buddhist pagoda in France: “institution-place of memory”. Legitimate power to communicate the memory of exiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme GIDOIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese Buddhism took hold and developed in France partly because it was able to obtain a monopoly on funeral rites and mourning rites. Many exiled families see the interest of this and delegate their ancestor worship to the monks. By combining the spiritual, socio-cultural, eschatological and political domains, and despite whatever generation gaps may exist, the pagoda allows families to reconstruct a social and family ethic in a context of social acculturation. It provides a fitting answer to the question inherent to the migratory context: how to find new symbolic resources outside of Vietnam? And it can thus implement a communication strategy that officialises, in the land of exile, the inextricable link between the pagoda and the assumption of responsibility for the memory of exiled ancestors.

  19. Speeding up DFT: A faster method for integrating band energy in SCF cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, Matthew M.; Jorgensen, Jeremy J.; Rosenbrock, Conrad W.; Thomas, Derek C.; Hess, Bret C.; Forcade, Rodney W.; Curtarolo, Stefano; Hart, Gus L. W.

    2015-03-01

    Typically in SCF cycles, a ``rectangle rule'' is used on uniformly spaced points (Monk Pack meshes)1 to integrate the band energy. The use of rectangles is motivated by their fast convergence when used on the fully occupied bands of semiconductors. Unfortunately integration with rectangles is extremely inefficient for metals. This motivates the use of gauss quadrature (or other higher order methods) for integrating the band energy. As we show, however, even in the case of semiconductors where the rectangle convergence is extremely efficient, higher order methods are still more efficient. The savings in semiconductors alone are sufficient to motivate the implementation of a higher order method in current DFT codes. Even though higher order quadrature methods were discussed immediately following the original Monkhorst and Pack1 paper, we revisit the issue in light of modern DFT calculations. MMB acknowledges support by NSF (DMR-0908753). JJJ, CWR, DCT, RWF, SC, GLWH was supported by ONR (MURI N00014-13-1-0635).

  20. 数字化导引系统结合临床模拟教学法在口腔修复学实验教学中的应用%Application of Digital-inducing-system Teaching with Dental Simulator in Prosthodoentics Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛莹; 刘健; 刘为国

    2015-01-01

    为进一步提高口腔修复学实验教学质量,采用先进的数字化教学手段和临床模拟相结合的教学方法对口腔修复实验教学进行改革,分析其优势和尚存在的不足,为口腔修复学实验教学新的培养方案和培养目标的制定提供一定的经验基础。%In order to improve the oral experiment teaching quality repair, this paper reforms prosthodontics experimental teaching by advanced digital teaching methods and clinical simulation combination to analyze the disadvantages advantages monks existed in prosthodontics experimental teaching to provide some empirical basis for the training programs and their goals.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL STATUS AND ETHNICITY ON DIET IN MEDIAEVAL TALLINN AS SEEN THROUGH STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lightfoot, Emma; Naum, Magdalena; Kadakas, Villu

    2016-01-01

    millet) or seafood. C 4 plants were consumed by the urban residents buried at the Church of the Holy Spirit and one or two individuals from Sulevimägi. It is thought that millet was an imported food consumed by the middle class. Marine foods were consumed by the individuals at St Catherine’s Church....... These individuals were also identified as migrants and were likely either monks or foreign merchants. The results suggest that in some cases the people of Tallinn did use food as a means of maintaining social statuses and potentially ethnicities. Only one individual (LTL06) was identified as having had......Food encodes social and cultural values and has an important role to play in defining identities. In mixed populations, diet can be used to distinguish between ‘us’ and ‘them’. This study investigates the extent to which the inhabitants of mediaeval Tallinn, an important trading centre, used food...

  2. Xodoin Festival and Tibetan Opera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    LATE summer and early autumnare golded seasons on the Ti-betan Plateau.Xodoin Festival.a major holiday featuring Tibetan op-era performances,is celebrated annual-ly by the Tibetan nationality.Duringthe festival people go on outings,orwatch theatrical performances.Xodoinmeans butter picnic in the Tibetanlanguage.Originally it was not a Tibe-tan opera festival,but a part of Tibe-tan lamaism.Tibetan-Buddhist tem-ples had a rule that during a certainperiod in summer monks must stayindoors and study.Only after thatperiod were they allowed to go out fora rest.At that time Buddhist followers.especially farmers and herders in sub-urban areas,took well-prepared butter

  3. Ecological characteristics of coral patch reefs at Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R.E.; Parrish, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Ecological aspects of coral patch reefs were studied from 1981 to 1985 in Welles Harbor, Midway Atoll. Water temperatures varied from 17??C in February to 28??C in August. Sizes of reefs studied were described by mean area (59 m2), mean volume (52 m3), vertical relief (different sizes of patch reefs. Daily surveillance for presence of large transient taxa suggested that visits by sharks, large jacks, monk seals, sea turtles, and dolphins were infrequent. Density estimates were made for all conspicuous invertebrate megafauna during initial and final assessments. Six common taxa provided 90% of these counts; nearly half were sea urchins. Percent cover also was recorded for coral and algal species on the patch reefs. Cover by live coral was low (about 7%) and dominated by a few species. Mean algal cover ranged from 32 to 77%. Such information on ecological characteristics of reefs may aid in understanding complex ecological processes and provides an earlier reference for current ecosystem studies.

  4. Charles Dickens (1812-1870) and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, A J

    2012-08-01

    To coincide with the bicentenary of the birth of Charles Dickens (1812-1870), accounts of epilepsy found in his novels and journalism have been collated and analyzed. From these, it may be inferred that Dickens was clearly aware of the difference between epilepsy and syncope and recognized different types of epilepsy and that seizures could be fatal. Speculations that Dickens himself suffered from epilepsy are not corroborated. Dickens's novelistic construction of epilepsy as a marker of criminality, as in the characters of Monks in Oliver Twist and Bradley Headstone in Our Mutual Friend, and perhaps of mental abnormality, was in keeping with conventional contemporary views of epilepsy, but his journalistic descriptions of individuals with epilepsy confined in the workhouse system indicate an awareness of the inadequacy of their care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Succession and biodiversity indices in eutrophication process of static landscaping water body in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG Ke-ming; LIU Shu-yu; MA Fang; Chein-chi Chang; REN Nan-qi

    2008-01-01

    Many biodiversity indices were used to indicate the biological contamination degree in studies of lake water or seawater.Some were studied on biodiversity comparison for different areas at the same time,or initial structure succession of some aerial lake water systems.The phytoplankton changed with the development of various dominant species.In this study,the dominant species at these stages were Chlorophyta in the beginning stage,Cyanophyta in the second stage,and Xanthophyta in the last stage.Seven of nine biodiversity indices (Margalef's,IE,Shannon-Wiener,Simpson's,McNaughton's,Species and Odds Measure of Diversity)showed their failure to represent the eutrophication trend,and the other two indices(Menhinick's and Monk)exhibited good efficiency to indicate the eutrophication trend for the static landscaping water body.

  6. Ethics Camp: The Appropriate Management Model for Northeastern Region Youth, Ecclesiastical Region 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongsathit Wisupee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Youth’s ethics tended to be a continuous increased problem and they were in their age without judgment. Youths were very important for national development in future, if their problems were not urgently solved it would overall effect to way of live in their families, communities, socials and Thailand. Approach: This research aimed to study backgrounds, current conditions, problems on management and the appropriate management model of Ethics Camp for the Northeastern Region Youth, Ecclesiastical Region 9. The study was a qualitative research conducted in 4 provinces 1 place of the Northeastern Region Youth, Ecclesiastical Region 9 and Thailand. Observation form, survey form, interview form, focus group discussion and study shop were used as research tools. Triangulation was used to test all data and data was analyzed by descriptive research. Results: The result founded that the background in overall of 4 places were began by making study trips of directors or lecturing monks at famous camp and they, later, brought those models back to establish ethics camps in their own provinces. For current conditions and problems, it was found that; in aspect of personnel-there was lacking of competent personnel, in aspect of budget-there was lacking of budget for expenses, in aspect of material-some place had old and damaged equipments, in aspect of management-there was not enough budget for long-term training and also lacking of lecturing monks, in aspect of marketing-there was lacking of public relation and distinct documents of courses and in aspect of technological innovation-lecturing monks had no knowledge to produce modern technological media. For appropriate management model, it was found that; in aspect of personnel-camp directors should have wide and long vision, intelligence, perseverance, honesty and human relation while lecturing monks must be professional; in aspect of budget-charges for any expenses should be depended on

  7. «Auferstehen müssen die Toten». Atomare Apokalypse in Kurt Becsis «Atom vor Christus»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Fiandra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The atomic play Atom vor Christus (1952 by the Viennese playwright Kurt Becsi (1920-1988 is one of the very numerous works on the subject of the nuclear threat that appeared in German-speaking countries in the 1950s and ’60s. This article investigates the complex Christian religious discourse that embeds the dramatization of atomic issues and apocalyp­tic ideas of the End in Becsi’s play. Special focus is given to such aspects as the struggle between generations and, in particular, the conflict between the unscrupulous scientist (and his hubris and the figure of the repentant bomber pilot that becomes a monk (Science versus love, logic versus Christian grace.

  8. The Historical Evolution of American Policy Toward Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Tibet is well known around the world today. The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) is one of China’s five ethnic minorities’ autonomous regions. However, to some in the West, Tibet’s political position seems open to dispute.It is obviously that no one can reach a proper understanding of this issue without consulting history. In ancient times, Tibet was a vague geographical concept to Western world, but it did witness competition between the great powers in modern times. Originally the so-called "Great Game" brought Russian and British monk-spies and, eventually, the British Indian army, into Lhasa. Then, during World War II, the US established the famous air transport

  9. Performative Rituals for Conception and Childbirth in England, 900–1500

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter Murray; Olsan, Lea T

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study proposes that performative rituals—that is, verbal and physical acts that reiterate prior uses—enabled medieval women and men to negotiate the dangers and difficulties of conception and childbirth. It analyzes the rituals implicated in charms, prayers, amulets, and prayer rolls and traces the circulation of such rituals within medieval English society. Manuscript records from the Anglo-Saxon period to the late Middle Ages offer evidence of the interaction of oral and written means of communicating these rituals. Certain rituals were long-lived, though variants were introduced over time that reflected changing religious attitudes and the involvement of various interested parties, including local healers, doctors, and medical practitioners, as well as monks, friars, and users of vernacular remedy books. Although many of those who recommended or provided assistance through performative rituals were males, the practices often devolved upon women themselves, and their female companions or attendants. PMID:26521667

  10. [Experts in 'dying well': causa mortis, rituals, and hierarchies at a monastery in colonial Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Jorge Victor de Araujo

    2013-06-01

    Benedictine monks, who settled in Portuguese America in the late sixteenth century, made it their tenet to always have death in mind. The article describes diverse aspects of the Benedictine approach towards death as displayed at an eighteenth-century monastery in Rio de Janeiro. Relying on documentation stored at the monastery and highlighting performance-like activities, the article analyzes hierarchical arrangements, the ways death was represented, and the forms of sociability manifested at the time of burials. Focusing on the relations that were established, including the reciprocities that were invented and re-invented throughout the rituals, it is demonstrated that these events provided a basis for the distinction earned by clerics in a society ruled in part by the logics of the Ancién Regime.

  11. Application of MCBEND to PBMR shielding analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, G A; Wall, S J

    2005-01-01

    Shielding analysis of an early design of Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) has been carried out by using the Monte Carlo code MCBEND. The issues of concern were damage to the core barrel and the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), activation of the core barrel, RPV, top plate and bottom plate, and also burn-up of boron in the control layer underneath the core. The analysis below the core was complicated due to the presence of the de-fuelling chute, which meant that multiplication had to be taken into account. The analysis of boron burn-up was particularly challenging and was tackled using a combination of MCBEND and the criticality code MONK in the depletion mode. The application of MCBEND to the shielding analysis of the PBMR is described, with particular attention being paid to the regions below the core.

  12. Mangghuer Folktales and Historical Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigori Potanin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grigori Potanin (Xénia de Heering, translator. 2015. Mangghuer Folktales and Historical Narratives IN Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 178-188, 301-332. Eleven folktales and historical narratives are presented that were collected by Grigori Potanin during his visit to the Sanchuan Region in 1884-1885. The folktales all appear to have been collected from males, mostly monks. One folktale deals with Wencheng Gongzhu, the Chinese bride of the Tibetan emperor, Srong btsan sgam po. One deals with the building of the Potala Palace in Lha sa, another with the founder of Dge lugs Buddhism, Tsong kha pa, and two more with the founding of Dmar gtsang Monastery, in A mdo. Two narratives relate events from the Chinese epic, Journey to the West, and four narrate events related to Li Jinwang, a Tang Dynasty general, and his adopted son, Li Cunxiao.

  13. On "officinalis" the names of plants as one enduring history of therapeutic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2010-12-01

    The officina was the building, usually an out-building, in medieval monasteries where medical monks prepared medicaments and pharmaceutical preparations to heal the sick. Dried extracts, infusions, decoctions, tinctures and distillates were prepared therein. Often the officina was attached to the medicinal or herbal gardens, also enclosed within the monastery precinct. When Linnaeus invented the binomial system of nomenclature, he gave the specific name "officinalis", to dozens of herbs and plants whose medical use had been established in preceding millennia. In the 1735 (1st Edition) of his Systema Naturae, he acknowledged the historical traditions of healing by naming scores of plants with the species designator, "officinalis", as a generic qualifier. Literally "from the officina", the species name "officinalis" thus embodied the history of many centuries of medicinal use and health lore.

  14. Cultivation of Vitis vinifera L. in the light of former publications and today in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pudelska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the countries of the Mediterranean Basin viticulture has been dealt with for centuries. It was known to the ancient civilizations of the Middle East and grapevines were widely planted in Greece and Rome. The vineyard was part of the utility garden, usually occupying large areas and at the same time being a connection with the landscape. Creeper vine was also used in decorative gardens as an ornamental plant for various types of buildings and garden structures. The Polish tradition of planting vineyards dates back to the Middle Ages and is mainly associated with the activities of monks, although it was not as common as in the countries of southern Europe. However, in Polish gardening literature and in the literature that describes the development of the art of gardening, you can find lots of tips on how to grow grapevines, their varieties and the descriptions of the vineyards.

  15. Why 400 Years to Discover Countless Planets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Paul H.

    2011-04-01

    In 1584, Dominican monk Giordano Bruno envisioned the stars as "countless suns with countless earths, all rotating around their suns." Searching for intellectual freedom, he fled his native Italy to Protestant Switzerland and Germany, but in 1600 the Roman Inquisition condemned him for heresy. He was burned at the stake. Fast-forwarding to 1995, the Swiss astronomers Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz announced the discovery of a planet orbiting a star similar to our sun (51 Pegasi). In 2010, 500 planets had been found orbiting 421 stars. On Feb 2, 2011, NASA announced 1200 planet candidates. It took 400 years for telescope technology to advance and for Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Bradley, and Foucault to make major contributions, culminating in today's astrophysics with digital imaging and processing. Contrasting with Bruno, in 2010 Dominican Francisco Ayala, who had been president of the Sigma Xi and AAAS, won the 1.6M Templeton Prize for affirming life's spiritual dimension.

  16. Az ortodox kolostor mint önfenntartó ökológiai rendszer. Élet Besszarábia szerzetesi közösségeiben - The Ortodox Monastery as a Self-sustaining Ecological System-Life in the Monastic Communities of Bessarabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LENGYEL, László

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I have visited monasteries in Moldovaten times between 2004 and 2013. In this paper, I would like to present my experiences that I have gained there. I am going to start my account witha briefintroduction of the history of Eastern Monasticism and the general way of life in the monasteries. Nowadays, monks in Moldova live according to medieval laws and rules, but not in thespiritual, but in the practical sense of these regulations. They produce their own food, raw materials and ritual accessories. They are involved in several merchant activities,such as icon painting, candle pouring and wine production. How is a communityorganized, maintained and provided with the goods it requires? How do people become members of these communities? What are the most important factsto know about Ortodox monasteries? These are the questionsI tried toanswer in my presentation.

  17. STUDY ON THE PHILOSOPHY AND ARCHITECTURE OF ZEN BUDDHISM IN JAPAN : On syncretism religion and monastery arrangement plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antariksa Antariksa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Zen Buddhism was introduced to China in the sixth century. After going through a long process in China, finally Zen came to Japan in the thirteenth century brought by Japanese monks. A unique spiritual genius one of the greatest epoch-making events in the history of mankind, which in the course of time has come to enrich the human mind over many centuries. During the process of spreading of Zen Buddhism there were influences experienced by two Chinese great religions, Tao and Confucian. This study will discuss the philosophy and architectural aspects of the Zen monastery arrangement plan. Zen Buddhism is syncretism from Taoism and Confucianism.The layout plan of the Zen monastery temple principally was placed on a single axis and facing south. The typical layout plan was borrowed from the architecture of the Chinese monastery.

  18. La biblioteca del convento de San Antonio de Padua de Lora del Río: libros de autor franciscano (1646

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez García, Rafael M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses an important seventeenth-century conventual library in Spain. Specifically, the study is focused on the books written by franciscan monks that were in the monastery in 1646. The bibliographical work sheds some light on a scarcely known issue in the Early Modem Spain: the conventual libraries.

    Este artículo estudia una importante biblioteca conventual del siglo XVII. En concreto, se analizan los libros de autor franciscano conservados en 1646 en el convento franciscano de Lora del Río (Sevilla. Estos libros constituían un bloque individualizado dentro del conjunto de la biblioteca conventual. El trabajo bibliográfico de identificación se acompaña de un amplio análisis que arroja nueva luz sobre una parcela del conocimiento tan poco conocida como la de las bibliotecas conventuales de la Edad Moderna.

  19. The Fourth Way in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Iitti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the general history of the Fourth Way in Finland. The Fourth Way, or simply ‘the Work’, began as a Greco-Armenian man named Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff (1866?–1949 gathered groups of pupils in St Petersburg and Moscow in 1912. To these groups, Gurdjieff started to teach what he had learned and synthesized between ca 1896 and 1912 during his travels on spiritual search of Egypt, Crete, Sumeria, Assyria, the Holy Land, Mecca, Ethiopia, Sudan, India, Afghanistan, the northern valleys of Siberia, and Tibet. Neither Gurdjieff nor any of his disciples called themselves a church, a sect, or anything alike, but referred to themselves simply as ‘the Work’, or as ‘the Fourth Way’. The name ‘the Fourth Way’ originates in a Gurdjieffian view that there are essentially three traditional ways of spiritual work: those of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi. These ways do not literally refer to the activities of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi, but to similar types of spiritual work emphasizing exercise of emotion, body, or mind. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. It is a unique combination of cosmology, psychology, theory of evolution, and overall theory and practise aiming to help individ­uals in their efforts towards what is called ‘self-remembering’.

  20. La predicación dominicana del Rosario. El Rosario de la aurora de Zafra en el siglo XVIII (Dominican preaching of the rosary: The dawn rosary of Zafra in 18 th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Romero Mensaque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El Rosario, signo de identidad misional de la Orden de Predicadores, desborda los cauces conventuales ya desde el siglo XVI al universalizarse el rezo y devoción. Los dominicos predican el Rosario en sendas misiones y fundan numerosas hermandades adscritas a la Orden en parroquias e iglesias diocesanas, pero ya en el siglo XVII el rezo avemariano rebasa incluso los espacios sagrados para ser predicado en las calles. El proceso culmina en el siglo XVIII con un protagonismo del pueblo en la predicación del rosario, asumiendo en gran parte la responsabilidad de la misión que comenzaran los dominicos. En el extremo de la Provincia Bética, Zafra se convierte en escenario de esta Misión Popular con el Rosario de la Aurora y su hermandad, una corporación claramente misional y asistencial, que no duda en dar mayoría de edad a la mujer en su gobierno.Abstract: The rosary is an important sign of missionary identity for the Dominican Order, whose use has not been limited to the convent since the 16th century when preach and devotion became universal. Dominic monks preach the rosary in all their missions and found several brotherhoods affiliated with the Order in parishes and diocesans churches, but in the 17th century the Hail Mary can be found outside sacred places, it is preached even in the streets. This process end up in the 18th century when common people take a bigger responsibility and continue with the mission started by Dominic monks. Zafra, situated at the limit of the Baetica Province, becomes the stage of this Popular Mission thanks to the dawn rosary and its brotherhood, which clearly was a corporation dedicated to the mission and the assistant of people in need. This brotherhood does not hesitate before giving majority of age to the women in their government, even though they faced a strong social exclusion.

  1. Research on Buddhist Biographical Literature and Its Related Issues%佛教传记文学研究史及相关问题刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜

    2015-01-01

    Buddhist biographical literature is one of the most important ways of Buddhist expansion and development, consisting of two major parts: Buddha’s biography, and biographies of Buddha's disciples, monks, and household Buddhists. Buddha’s biography can be interpreted in both broad and narrow senses. Buddhist biographical literature can be classified into four categories: Buddha’s biography, bi-ographies of Indian Buddhist saints, biographies of Chinese Buddhist monks and nuns, and biographies of other Buddhist related persons (such as household Buddhists). The author of this article maintains that further discussions are needed for the characteristics and research scope of Buddhist biographical litera-ture, and its relationship with Chinese classical Literature.%佛教传记文学是佛教在汉地阐扬、发展的重要形式,主要包括佛陀传和佛弟子传、僧传、居士护法传两大组成部分,其中佛传有广、狭两种涵义。佛教传记文学具体可分为佛陀传记、印土圣贤传记(佛弟子传)、中国僧尼传记及其他类型传记(如居士传)四种类型。笔者提出,对佛教传记文学的属性、佛教传记文学的研究范畴和佛教传记文学与中国古典文学的关系仍需要进一步深入探讨。

  2. The Establishment of the National Language in Twentieth-Century Cambodia: Debates on Orthography and Coinage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasagawa Hideo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the process in which an ethnic Khmer language became the national one in Cambodia, through a discussion of activities and debates concerned with orthography and coinage of the modern vocabulary. The committee for editing a Khmer dictionary established in 1915 consisted of both members who insisted on an etymological style of orthography and those who favored a phonemic style. A Buddhist monk Chuon Nath took the initiative from 1926 on and published the first Khmer-language dictionary in 1938. After the perfection of orthography based on an etymological style in the dictionary, the “Cultural Committee” began to create new vocabularies in 1947. Here again Chuon Nath assumed leadership with his best friend Huot Tat. The Cultural Committee rejected Sanskrit-originated words created in Siam and preferred the Pali language as elements of the modern vocabulary. Keng Vannsak objected strongly to these activities and claimed that the Khmer language had to exclude as many Sanskrit/Pali-originated words as possible in order to expand primary education. In 1967 the National Assembly recognized Khmer as the teaching language in schools, and a new educational magazine Khemarayeanakam [Khmerization] was launched. In the process of editing this magazine, the followers of Keng Vannsak presented another way of coinage that they alleged was much easier, and advocated a new orthography. Even after the civil war, their new orthography continued to be used in education and media. In 2009, however, orthography recurred to the dictionary. Through a study of the vicissitudes of language policies, we can understand the formation and development of Cambodian cultural nationalism. By the early 1960s, Buddhist monks were attempting to differentiate Cambodian modern vocabulary from Thai. Thereafter advocates of Khmerization, who no longer learned the Thai language, aimed at the “purification” and “simplification” of the Khmer language.

  3. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA-booster subcritical assembly part 1: analytical models and main neutronics parameters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-09-11

    This study was carried out to model and analyze the YALINA-Booster facility, of the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus, with the long term objective of advancing the utilization of accelerator driven systems for the incineration of nuclear waste. The YALINA-Booster facility is a subcritical assembly, driven by an external neutron source, which has been constructed to study the neutron physics and to develop and refine methodologies to control the operation of accelerator driven systems. The external neutron source consists of Californium-252 spontaneous fission neutrons, 2.45 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Deuterium reactions, or 14.1 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Tritium reactions. In the latter two cases a deuteron beam is used to generate the neutrons. This study is a part of the collaborative activity between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus. In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a coordinated research project benchmarking and comparing the results of different numerical codes with the experimental data available from the YALINA-Booster facility and ANL has a leading role coordinating the IAEA activity. The YALINA-Booster facility has been modeled according to the benchmark specifications defined for the IAEA activity without any geometrical homogenization using the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCNP/MCNPX/MCB. The MONK model perfectly matches the MCNP one. The computational analyses have been extended through the MCB code, which is an extension of the MCNP code with burnup capability because of its additional feature for analyzing source driven multiplying assemblies. The main neutronics parameters of the YALINA-Booster facility were calculated using these computer codes with different nuclear data libraries based on ENDF/B-VI-0, -6, JEF-2.2, and JEF-3.1.

  4. THE VITA OF LAZAR OF MUROM AS A HISTORICAL SOURCE OF FYODOR GLINKA'S POEM KARELIA

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    Alexandr Mikhailovich Pashkov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article proves that one of the sources of Fyodor Glinka’s poem Karelia was the legend describing The Vita of Lazar of Murom — a Greek monk who founded the Murom Monastery of St. Assumption on the southeastern shore of Onega Lake in the middle of the 14th century. This fact has not been mentioned yet in any of the literature studies devoted to Glinka’s works. It is believed that The Vita of Lazar of Murom was created during the period between the late 14th and early 15th century. At the end of the 18th century this manuscript’s copy belonged to a high rank Petrozavodsk offi cial I. A. Pykhtin. In 1805, he consigned his copy of The Vita of Lazar of Murom to a well-known Petrozavodsk historian T. V. Balandin, who made another copy of it. Soon T.V. Balandin transferred his copy to a famous Orthodox church historian Evgenii (Bolkhovotinov, who in turn published this copy in 1813 in the 5th volume of his work The History of Russian Hierarchy. In 1826–1830, poet Fyodor Glinka was sent to exile in Petrozavodsk for having participated in the Decembrist movement. He met T. V. Balandin, read the text of The Vita of Lazar of Murom and included a story about a monk who had moved from Greece to Russia into his poem Karelia, published in 1830. Besides, the name of Saint Lazar is mentioned in the main text of the poem and twice in its footnotes. Glinka had a great intuitive feel for a language and noticed correlation between style and authenticity of the legend about Lazar’s life. So, The Vita of Lazar of Murom became one of the sources which inspired Fyodor Glinka to create his poem Karelia and to certain extent determined its content.

  5. Teatino: el perfil de un vocablo desgastado entre la apología y el sarcasmo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llompart, Gabriel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the term «Theatine,» which originally referred to Cajetan’s Order of Monks in 16th-century Italy, co-founded by Cardinal Pietro Caraffa, bishop of Theati, to advance the Counter Reformation. Confusion concerning the term and the pejorative meaning it soon acquired evince to us the overuse of it, the diverse intentionality with which it was employed and the harm done thereby to the monks themselves, who eventually had to adopt a different name for their image to clear up. So it went among the elite, to judge from their epistolary correspondence and the literature; among commoners, from wise sayings and proverbs.

    Se analiza el vocablo «teatino» con que se empezó a conocer la Orden de Clérigos Regulares de San Cayetano, fundada en Italia en tiempos de la Contrarreforma por el cardenal Pedro Carafa, obispo de Teati. La confusión de denominación y el sentido peyorativo que generó este término a poco de su creación nos habla del desgaste de la palabra, la diversa intencionalidad con que se utilizó y el perjuicio sufrido por los propios clérigos, obligados a cambiar de nombre para limpiar su imagen. Así se refleja entre la élite a través de la documentación epistolar y la literatura y, popularmente, en dichos y refranes.

  6. Buddist Origin of Zhulin Temple Legends and Their Influence on Popular Fiction and Operas in Ming and Qing Dynasties%竹林寺传说及其对明清小说、戏曲之影响探赜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项裕荣

    2011-01-01

    Buddist "Zhulin temple legends" are imitated and revised by both Taoism and Buddhism in classical fiction history after Tang and Song Dynasties. In addition, the popular fiction and operas in Ming and Qing dynasties are greatly influenced by Zhulin temple legends. The exploration of the origin of Zhulin temple legends reveals that their plot elements deeply originated from the Buddhist culture. The holy monks in the Zhulin temples are either Bodhisattva or Arhats, who assume human forms and spread the Buddha's law in the mortal world. The tem- ples are mainly located on remote mountains or in the middle of the sea, assuming a mysterious looming presence. The Zhulin temple legends aim to spread the Buddha's law and compensate for people's disappointment with worldly monks.%佛教“竹林寺传说”不仅在文言小说史上为唐宋之后的道儒两家所仿袭和改编,它对宋元乃至明清的通俗小说、戏曲影响也不小。考其本源,竹林寺的情节要素中均含有甚深的佛教文化渊源:寺庙中的圣僧或为菩萨或为罗汉,他们驻形于世,维护佛法;寺庙多在遥山大海之中,且时隐时显,神幻异常。竹林寺传说旨在宣扬佛法及弥补民众对世俗僧众的失望。

  7. Al servicio del claustro. Análisis de los espacios de trabajo en los monasterios hispánicos (siglos XI-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Álvarez-Busto, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is the analysis of cloistered communities from the point of view of the workspaces and infrastructure in the monastic site, and how conditioned the lives of monks and lay workers who formed the monastic family. Also intends to integrate in this research contributions of archeology in recent decades, serving of review for the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle and Modern Ages. The result is a view of the monastery as a complex in which around the cloistered space, the scope of the monks, a working and productive space extends mainly attended by the laity who were in the service of the cloister.Este artículo tiene como objetivo fundamental el análisis de las comunidades claustrales desde el punto de vista de los espacios de trabajo y las infraestructuras existentes en el edificio monástico, y de cómo condicionaron la vida de los monjes y de los trabajadores seglares que integraban la familia monástica. Pretende además incorporar a esta línea de investigación las aportaciones de la arqueología de las últimas décadas, sirviendo de revisión del estado de la cuestión para la Península Ibérica durante la época medieval y moderna. El resultado es una visión del monasterio como un complejo en el que alrededor de la clausura, el ámbito de los monjes, se extiende un espacio laboral y productivo atendido en buena medida por los laicos que se encontraban al servicio del claustro.

  8. Women in Song Dynasty and Buddhism%论宋代妇女与佛教

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金建锋

    2012-01-01

    On the background of the common customs of Buddish in Song Dynasty,the women believed in Buddish in different class. They had many ways to carry out, such as doing Buddhist nuns, participateing in the feast days of Buddish, building temples, making the figures of Buddha,bringing up the monks and nuns, burn- ing joss sticks and praying to Buddha, writing the sutras, burying temples and cremating, researching the sutras and being well up in the theory; These had some reasons, suah as ailment and death of oneself and folks, the in- fluencement of family, the induction of the monks and nuns, underestimating the fate, women guarding the moral integrity, pursuing the son and riches and honour. The women believing in Buddish had the important influencement of oneself, the around people and the society,%在佛教世俗化的背景下,宋代各阶层有很多信仰佛教的妇女。她们信仰佛教的实践方式多种多样,有出家为尼,虔诚参与各类佛教节日活动,营建佛寺、捐钱造像、饭养僧尼,烧香念佛、刻写经书,死后葬于佛寺、火葬,研佛书、通佛理等。这些佛教实践的原因有自己或至亲疾病和死亡、受家庭影响、弘法僧尼的引导、看破红尘、妇女守节、求子和求富贵等。她们信仰佛教给自身、周边人和社会带来了许多重要影响。

  9. José Olallo Valdés: a Cuban male nurse to be remembered José Olallo Valdés: Un enfermero cubano de todos los tiempos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onassys Barreiro Alberdi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available José Olallo was a monk of the Order San Juan de Dios, who assumed infirmary practice as his profession, with a considerable humanist approach. He was a missionary who devoted his life to relief other people´s pain, no matter their religion, race, or social status, with no material profits for himself. This monk never studied nursery, but got his knowledge from the daily practice at the hospital of San Juan de Dios in Puerto Príncipe. He is an example for all those persons who choose this profession, for his perseverance, devotion and love. On November, 29th the Catholic Church beatified him in Camagüey city. He belonged to the order San Juan de Dios, founded by a Portuguese religious man in 1539.El padre Olallo fue un fraile de la Orden Hospitalaria San Juan de Dios que asumió la enfermería como profesión dentro de esta orden con un gran sentido del humanismo, misionero que dedicó su vida, sus días y su tiempo a sanar el dolor ajeno sin importar credo, raza, estatus social y sin percibir ninguna remuneración. Este fraile nunca estudió enfermería, todo lo que supo lo aprendió en su práctica diaria en el hospital de San Juan de Dios en Puerto Príncipe y de forma autodidacta. Es un ejemplo a seguir, para todas aquellas personas que eligen esta profesión, con su permanencia, su entrega y su amor al prójimo. El pasado 29 de noviembre la iglesia católica beatificó en la ciudad de Camaguey a este hijo ilustre de la orden de San Juan de Dios, orden religiosa hospitalaria fundada por un religioso portugués de este mismo nombre en 1539.

  10. Buddhist Music Zen Meditation & Edutainment- Investigating Report on Tiantai Temple of Hong’an, Hubei, China%佛乐禅思寓教于乐--来自中国湖北红安天台寺的调研报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和云峰

    2016-01-01

    Buddhist abbot Shi Wu Yue of Tiantai temple is a disciple of Buddhist monk Hong Yi’s disciple, so he vow to inherit the legacy of the Master; Buddhist music is the musical trib-utes and praise to the Buddha by Chinese Buddhist temples and believers; Compared with the pure solemn traditional Buddhist music, the Hubei Hong’an Tiantai temple“new Buddhist mu-sic”not only contain a merciful feelings, but also quite moving, immediately making the person love and joyful, and getting an idea of goodwill; the temple keep up with the times, formed Buddhism ensemble, carrying forward the Buddhist ideas to civilize the monk-students. To en-gage the outstanding teachers, to create a music college, inheriting Master Hong Yi’s great as-pirations to influence upon the believers.%天台寺方丈释悟乐为弘一法师再传弟子,故发愿承袭师祖衣钵;佛乐是中国佛教寺庙及信众对佛陀的音声供养与赞颂;较之庄严清净的传统佛乐,湖北红安天台寺的“新佛乐”,既蕴涵慈悲之情,又使人动容之至,从而顿起欢喜之心,亦动善意之念;寺院与时俱进,组建佛教乐团,继人间佛教之理念教化学僧。聘请名师,创建音乐学院,承弘一法师之宏愿感化信众。

  11. The Evaluation and Contemporary Application of Xuanzang's"Five Transliterations"Theory%玄奘的"五不翻"理论评析及其当代应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓迪

    2015-01-01

    As a major translation theory of Monk Xuanzang,"five transliterations"theory introduces transliterations in five occa-sions, which plays an important role in Buddhist scripture translation in Tang dynasty. Transliteration is an important part of trans-lation at present, and there are still a lot to learn from"five transliterations"theory. This paper introduces the contribution of Monk Xuanzang in Buddhist scripture translation, the content of"five transliterations"theory, the evaluation of this theory in Bud-dhist scripture translation and its application in contemporary translation, aiming at having a better understanding of"five translit-erations"theory and its combination with contemporary translation, so as to improve the quality of translation and enrich transla-tion theories.%"五不翻"理论是玄奘主要翻译理论之一,主要阐述了适合采用音译的五种情况,在唐代佛经翻译中起到了重要作用.现在,音译依旧是翻译的一个重要部分,"五不翻"理论依旧有其借鉴意义.该文概述了玄奘在贡献佛经翻译上的,介绍了"五不翻"理论的主要内容,评价了这一理论的实践意义并阐述了"五不翻"理论的当代应用,旨在更明确理解"五不翻"这一理论,并将其与翻译实践结合,从而提高翻译质量,丰富翻译理论.

  12. The modern legal status of the Mount Athos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papastatis Haralambos K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The peninsula of Athos in Chalkidiki became a center of organized monachal life in monasteries in the year 963, when with the initiative of the Byzantine emperor Nichephorus Phocas the Monastery of Great Laura was founded. Since that time Mount Athos (=MA became the "Holy Mountain" and has attracted the moral and material support of the Byzantine emperors, various Orthodox countries and the flock till today. During this long period of more then one thousand years, MA was armed with a privileged legal status, the existence of which continues till now. The legal status of MA is based on three foundations: I. The law of the Hellenic Republic, II. The Public International Law, and III. The European Law. I. Fundamental significance for the status of MA have the provisions of article 105 of the Greek Constitution. Then is the Charter of MA, which is drawn up and voted by the Athonite monachal authorities and afterwards ratified by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Greek Parliament. The Charter is a law of superior formal force in comparison to the other laws. According to the Constitution and the Charter, MA has an ancient privileged status and is a self-governed part of the Greek State, whose sovereignty remains intact. Spiritually MA is under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, direct in the sense that the Ecumenical Patriarch is also the local bishop of MA The territory of the peninsula is exempt from expropriation and is divided among the twenty Athonite monasteries exclusively. The administrative power lies in self-administration of the first and the second degree. The first is exercised by the ruling twenty monasteries. This number may not be changed, nor may their position in the preeminence, nor towards their dependencies (skates, cells, hermitages. Nowadays all the monasteries are coenobitic, i.e. the monks share a common life and have no private property. The monasteries are administered by the abbot

  13. Characterization of HA gene of caged pet birds H3N8 influenza A virus%宠物鸟H3N8亚型流感病毒HA基因的特征性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云; 刘明; 倪健强; 华荣虹; 于康震; 曲连东; Richar Webby; Robert G Webster

    2004-01-01

    来自香港和世界各地的10株宠物鸟H3N8流感病毒的HA基因进行了全基因序列测定,用DNASTAR和Tree-View软件进行序列编辑,序列翻译,进化树绘制和分子演化分析.结果表明来自不同国家和地区的H3N8流感病毒的HA基因都非常相似,都形成一个独立的分支,属于欧亚亚系,同源率为95.9%~100%;香港2001年宠物鸟的毒株之间的同源率最高,分别为99.2%~100%.HA基因与A/Equine/Jilin/89(H3N8)的同源性为最高,在92.9%~93.6%之间.氨基酸分析表明只有A/Parakeet/Netherland/33/01的HA基因在97~99受体结合位点处有一个额外潜在的糖基化位点NKT;因此可见宠物鸟H3N8流感病毒的HA基因高度保守,HA基因均来自共同的祖先.

  14. Comparative study of bird community structure and function in two different forest types of Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaara Kidwai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Point count method was used to estimate the population structure of avian fauna in two different forest types in Bijrani, Serpdulli and Dhikala ranges of Corbett national Park, Uttarakhand, India. A total of 38 plots were randomly laid by four teams of two each in a period of ten days covering both mixed and Sal forests equally. DISTANCE 6.0 was used to determine density of birds and various bird guilds. Richness and diversity was estimated through SPECDIVERS. A total of 47 species were recorded from mixed and 27 species from Sal forest. Highest and lowest densities (±SE in Sal forest were of Plum headed parakeet (11.63±2.30/km2 and blue whistling thrush (0.06±0.01/ km2 respectively. Whereas, in mixed forest, the highest density was of chestnut headed bee eater (13.84±3.25/ km2 and lowest density was of Hoopoe (0.09±0.01/ km2. In mixed forest, density, diversity and richness of insectivorous birds was found to be highest (42.91±6.27/ km2, 0.89±0.08 and 3.57±0.53 respectively, while, in Sal forests, omnivorous birds had highest density (76.73±4.22/ km2 and insectivorous birds had highest diversity (±SE and richness (±SE (0.88±0.14 and 3.15±0.49 respectively. Carnivorous birds showed least density in both Sal (0.19±0.08/ km2 and mixed forests (0.32±0.12/ km2.

  15. Compendium of Measures to Control Chlamydia psittaci Infection Among Humans (Psittacosis) and Pet Birds (Avian Chlamydiosis), 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Gary; Maxted, Angela M; Midla, Joanne W; Murphy, Julia M; Wohrle, Ron; Edling, Thomas M; Fish, Pilar H; Flammer, Keven; Hyde, Denise; Kutty, Preeta K; Kobayashi, Miwako; Helm, Bettina; Oiulfstad, Brit; Ritchie, Branson W; Stobierski, Mary Grace; Ehnert, Karen; Tully, Thomas N

    2017-09-01

    Psittacosis, also known as parrot fever and ornithosis, is a bacterial infection that can cause severe pneumonia and other serious health problems in humans. It is caused by Chlamydia psittaci. Reclassification of the order Chlamydiales in 1999 into 2 genera (Chlamydia and Chlamydophila) was not wholly accepted or adopted. This resulted in a reversion to the single, original genus Chlamydia, which now encompasses all 9 species including Chlamydia psittaci. During 2003-2014, 112 human cases of psittacosis were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the Nationally Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. While many types of birds can be infected by C psittaci, in general, the literature suggests that human cases can most often occur after exposure to infected parrot-type birds kept as pets, especially cockatiels, parakeets, and conures. In birds, C psittaci infection is referred to as avian chlamydiosis. Infected birds shed the bacteria through feces and nasal discharges, and humans become infected from exposure to these materials. This compendium provides information about psittacosis and avian chlamydiosis to public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, the pet bird industry, and others concerned with controlling these diseases and protecting public health. The recommendations in this compendium provide standardized procedures to control C psittaci infections. This document will be reviewed and revised as necessary, and the most current version replaces all previous versions. This document was last revised in 2010. Major changes in this version include a recommendation for a shorter treatment time for birds with avian chlamydiosis, additional information about diagnostic testing, including genotyping, clearer language associated with personal protective equipment recommended for those caring for confirmed or exposed birds, and incorporating a grading scale with recommendations generally based on the United States Preventive

  16. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. from free-living wild birds from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Funada, Mikaela Renata; Richtzenhain, Leonardo; Guimarães, Marta Brito; Souza, Sheila de Oliveira; Allegretti, Luciana; Sinhorini, Juliana Anaya; Duarte, Vanessa Vertematti; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2011-01-10

    In wild and domestic birds, cryptosporidiosis is often associated with infections by Cryptosporidium galli, Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium meleagridis. In addition to these species, a number of avian Cryptosporidium species yet to be fully characterized are commonly found among exotic and wild avian isolates. The present study aimed to detect and identify samples of Cryptosporidium spp. from free-living wild birds, in order to contribute to the knowledge of the variability of this parasite in the free-living population of Brazil. Stool samples were collected from 242 birds, with the following proportions of individuals: 50 Emberizidae (20.7%), 112 Psittacidae (46.3%), 44 Cardinalidae (18.2%), 12 Turdidae (5.0%), eight Ramphastidae (3.3%), seven Icteridae (2.9%), three Estrilididae (1.2%), two Contigidae (0.8%), two Thraupidae (0.8%) and two Fringilidae (0.8%). Among the 242 fecal samples from wild birds, 16 (6.6%) were positive for the presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium. Molecular characterization of the 16 samples of Cryptosporidium, were performed with phylogenetic reconstructions employing 292 positions of 18S rDNA. None of the samples of birds was characterized as C. meleagridis. C. galli was identified in one rufous-bellied thrush (Turdus rufiventris), five green-winged saltators (Saltator similis), one slate-coloured seedeater (Sporophila schistacea), one goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) and three saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola). One goldfinch isolate, one buffy-fronted seedeater (Sporophila frontalis), one red-cowled cardinal (Paroaria dominicana) and one other saffron finch (S. flaveola) were identified as C. baileyi. Avian genotype II was found in an isolate from a white-eyed parakeet (Aratinga leucophthalma). Clinical symptoms of cryptosporidiosis in birds have already been described and the number of wild birds which were shedding parasites was high. Therefore, further epidemiological research and disease surveillance of birds in the

  17. Methods and Foundations for Managing Religious Affairs According to the Law---Taking Legal Management of Sichuan Tibetan Areas as a Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yunwu; Cairang Wangxiu

    2016-01-01

    Under the situation that traditional beliefs have remained basically unchanged while the social economy has developed and population mobility has increased, with the trend of an in-creasing diversity in beliefs, and an increasing number of religious followers and temples, the management of religious affairs has become more difficult. In ethnic areas, the speed of moderniza-tion has accelerated, ethnic interactions are fre-quent, and the beneficial conflict or cultural con-flict among various ethnic groups has become nor-mal; the impact of modernity, ways of life, the value and ideals of the temples’ traditional culture and educational model brings new social pressure for the monks who are adapting to modernization, and making a leap in development while safeguard-ing traditional rituals, culture, religious education and development. The number of criminal cases involving monks has increased, which brings a strong negative influence to the religious followers in Tibetan areas. All these factors are directly in-fluencing the stability and harmonious development of the Tibetan areas. As the second-largest Tibetan area, the geo-graphical location of Sichuan’s Tibetan areas is u-nique. In ancient times, the policy of “keeping the Tibetan areas stable means keeping Kham sta-ble at first” had been an important measure for the central government to manage all of the Tibetan ar-eas. From the Qing dynasty to the present times, it still has a practical use, and even has special val-ue in the process of safeguarding the “long-term stability of Sichuan”, especially when the people have but a hazy understanding of the relationship between the freedom of faith and managing reli-gious affairs according to the law in Tibetan areas, and one needs to have a legal response to it. Hence, “keeping Kham stable” needs to depend on the law, and legal means should be taken to safeguard the harmony and stability of the Tibetan areas in Sichuan. Management of the religious

  18. Development of Cultural Management and Inheritance by Community Participation

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    Pichayapol Nguanthaisong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Museums were places where all collections, which indicated values of arts and cultural heritages that were useful for learning, were kept. Establishment of museums was successful by having development, systematic management, cultural inheritance, knowledge transferring, participation and support. Approach: This study aimed to study backgrounds of museum development in temples in the area of the lower northeastern, to study current conditions and problems about museum management in temples and cultural management with community participation in the lower northeastern and to study development and management of museum in temples and cultural inheritance by community participation in the lower northeastern. This research was a qualitative research and conducted by literature review and field data collecting with interviewing, observations, focus group discussions and workshops with 170 persons from group of key informants, casual informants and related agencies. Data were analyzed with cultural diffusion theory and presented results in form of descriptive analysis. Results: The study revealed that backgrounds of museum development in temple were initiated by monks, who collected things in old building without systematic exhibition, labeling of donators or source indicating. Most of collections were things in that community such as traditional utensil donated to temple when they were unused and the rest was from other communities. After having many of collections, monks asked community for fund raising to construct museum building in the area of that temple. Moreover, things from discovering of local archeological sites were also kept in museum and there were many visitors. After that an agency of Fine Arts Department came to study and research by using budgets for the second exploring such local archeological sites and then kept in buildings of temple museum. Currently, it was found that; (1 there was a simple management on

  19. The history about the miraculous icons of the Hilandar Monastery

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    Miljković Bojan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The History was written in Moscow in 1558/1559, as a compilation of the accounts of Hilandar monks who visited the Russian court, seeking charity and aid for the monastery, and describes the miracles that took place through the icons of Hilandar. The majority of miracles occurred during processions in the monastery and its vicinity, but there were some that happened before certain icons arrived in the Serbian monastery on Mount Athos. The latter deserve special attention, since they provide great help in shedding light on the place of origin, appearance and on the time when those icons arrived in the monastery, as is the case with the once deeply revered processional icon of the Theotokos Avramiotissa with the Prophet Elijah on the reverse side and, especially, the Theotokos Tricheirousa. The History confirms information from other sources, about this icon having been made in Skopje, and proves that the icon arrived in the monastery on the eve of the fall of Skopje to the Turks in 1392. It also describes its appearance - the Theotokos Hodegetria with the third arm painted below the one with which the Mother of God held the infant. As the earliest testimony about the existence of the cult of the Theotokos Tricheirousa in Hilandar, the text written in Moscow clearly singles out the initial story from the multitude of subsequent legends that have been told about it. The icon no longer exists and was replaced in the third quarter of the 18th century with the icon that is nowadays honoured as the Tricheirousa. Two more processional icons from the Hilandar katholikon can reliably be recognised in the text of the History the Theotokos Popska and Saint George, whereas for the others, some of which certainly no longer exist, this text does not provide sufficient data to identify them. Besides icons, the History also describes the most precious relics connected with the passion of Christ and other valuable works of art which are kept in the monastery in

  20. Reflection of Confucianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism on gender relations and gender specific occupation in Thai society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, M; Weber, K E

    1994-01-01

    It is posited that present-day Thai society is the product of different settlement patterns among Chinese Confucian followers and those ascribing to matrilocal practices. Chinese settled in urban areas and maintained Confucian dogma that barred women from high ranking positions and dictated a women's role of subservience to men. Matrilocal systems proliferated in rural areas. The village kinship system was egalitarian, until a class-state society was instituted and patriarchal systems dominated. At that time, women's status was reduced. Massive Chinese immigration occurred during the mid-19th century until World War II. Some Indians also migrated during this time period. The dominant use of the Thai language forced the Chinese to assimilate into Thai culture. Thai Buddhist practices were open and similar enough to Confucian ideology that religious assimilation also occurred. A small group of Chinese immigrants retained their ties to Chinese customs. The pattern of foreigners' involvement in the Thai economy was promoted by official policy. In the last several decades Thai policy shifted to an increasingly Thai-influenced economy. Other influences on gender patterns and Thai culture were the Hinduism of Indians who settled in Central Siam, the Mon aristocracy, and Brahmin cults. After the Khmers took over control of this region, the Indian caste system and the Hindu belief in Manu were integrated into Khmer culture. Women were considered the weaker and inferior sex and dependent upon men. The kings of Siam followed Brahmin rituals after the 15th century. Buddhism and the "sangha" became the central Thai religious institution. Even today Buddhist monks are given 3 months time off with pay for time spent as a monk, while maternity leave for women is limited to 45 days. The status of women is traced during the Sukothai period (1250-1350), the Ayudhaya period (1350-1767), and the Ratanakosin period (since 1782). Present occupational patterns reflect women's dominance in

  1. Filtering reaction dynamics using nearside-farside theory and local angular momentum theory: application to the angular scattering of the H + D2(v(i) = 0, j(i) = 0) --> HD(v(f) = 3, j(f) = 0) + D reaction in the energy and time domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, P D D; Connor, J N L; Bouakline, F

    2009-04-23

    We investigate methods for filtering reaction mechanisms in the angular scattering of the state-to-state reaction, H + D(2)(v(i) = 0, j(i) = 0, m(i) = 0) --> HD(v(f) = 3, j(f) = 0, m(f) = 0) + D, where v(i), j(i), and m(i) and v(f), j(f), and m(f) are initial and final vibrational, rotational, and helicity quantum numbers, respectively. The input to our filtrations is a new set of accurate quantum scattering matrix elements for total energies in the range 1.52-2.50 eV (in steps of 0.01 eV) and for total angular momentum quantum numbers in the range, 0-40, in steps of unity. We filter reaction mechanisms in both the energy domain and the time domain. The time-domain calculations employ the plane wave packet formulation of time-dependent scattering. The theoretical tools used are nearside-farside (NF) analysis of partial wave series for scattering amplitudes, together with NF local angular momentum (LAM) theory. An energy-domain LAM analysis reveals the existence of an important dynamical feature in the N scattering, a "trench" which bisects the (energy, angle) plane. We use the location of this trench to approximately filter two reaction mechanisms. Transformation to the time domain demonstrates that the two reaction mechanisms correspond to direct and delayed (by about 25 fs) scattering. Further analysis, including filtration in the time domain, shows that the pronounced LAM trench arises from the interference of the energy-domain analogues of the time-direct and time-delayed scattering. Our theory and results provide the first successful demonstration of reaction mechanism filtering carried out directly in the (energy, angle) domain. The calculations and results in this paper extend and complement earlier research reported by Monks, Connor, and Althorpe (Monks, P. D. D.; Connor, J. N. L.; Althorpe, S. C. J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 741; J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 10302).

  2. Wall paintings from the late 15th century in the Monastery church of St. Paraskeve - Brajčino

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    Popovska-Korobar Viktorija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monastery of St. Paraskevy is located above the village Brajčino, on the east shore of Lake Prespa in the Republic of Macedonia. In accordance with the incomplete donor’s inscription this one aisle church with a pitched roof was built and decorated at the same time. Reparations came around 1800, when rebuilding was done on the longitudinal walls and the narthex (without fresco decoration. The fresco paintings from the 15th century are preserved on the west facade, and on the east and west wall of the naos. The decorative program in the interior was common for the small type monastery churches without narthex. From the old edifice, on the corner of the outside southwest wall visible are remains of figures, a monk and a man in laymen’s attire facing eastward. The iconographic program of the west facade is interesting for the scenes which encompass the patrons niche: a reduced Last Judgment (Royal Deesis, Hell and Paradise, where the monk Pahomios above the gate is depicted in prayer and the equestrian figures of St. George and St. Mena. A parallel for the rare iconography of St. Mena with the tamed beasts is found in an unpublished icon, which most probably was painted in the last quarter of the 15th century, and is kept presently on the iconostasis of the church of Panagia tou Apostolaki in Kastoria. In accordance with all the considered characteristics by means of comparative analysis, we assume that the anonymous master could be an individual who belonged to the painting workshops which are credited for painting the church of St. Nicholas of the nun Eupraxia in Kastoria. We suppose the painter worked in Brajčino soon after the year 1486 and before 1493, when the decoration of the church in Kremikovci was completed, in which he most likely took part as a member of another large workshop. Regarding the question about the origins of the style of the 'master from the 1480’s', the paper articulates an opinion that they should be traced

  3. History of Franciscan Friars of St. Anthony and Blessed Jakub Strzemię Province in Poland

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    Zdzisław Gogola

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt to show the history of the Franciscan Friars in Poland originated in the 13th century. The development o f the order in Slavonic territories, initiated by a provincial of Germany Jan of Pian del Carpini, was going through different organizational stages and experienced its ups and downs. Franciscan Friars arrived in Poland in 1234. From the start they witnessed and participated in consolidating Christianity in Poland; they were promoters of art and social development. Dialectic between continuity and up-dating their presence in the Polish socio-cultural and ecclesiastical context required constant verification of the way of experiencing their own identity as well as the criteria, owing to which they became a strong impulse in the evangelisation of the young Polish church and in the establishing new church structures in borderland areas. Since that time the borders have been changed many times and so has the organization of the order and the borders of the province. The growing importance o f Franciscan Friars resulted in taking up new pastoral and missionary initiatives. Franciscan Friars established Calvaries in Poland and Lithuania, introduced the tradition of Christmas crčches and penitential services. Last but not least, they evoked the cult of the Immaculate Virgin Mary. Since World Wbi* ÎĎ St. Anthony End the Blessed Jskub Strzemię Province hsts been developing steadily. A growing number of Franciscan Friars testifies to this development. In 1996 the Province had 423 professed monks, including 238 priests, 36 brothers, 28 clerics who have taken solemn vows. In St. Anthony and the Blessed Jakub Strzemię Province Franciscan monasteries are located in 24 places and 17 are abroad. The average age is slightly over 45 years. The Province of the Immaculate Virgin Mary, which is based in Warsaw, has also noted a steady growth and so has a new province that developed from it - St. Maximilian Maria Kolbe Province with the seat in Gda

  4. 佛教在老挝的传播和发展%The Spread and Development of Buddhism in Laos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任珂瑶; 钮菊生

    2014-01-01

    佛教在老挝历史上有着非常重要的地位。从14世纪法昂统一老挝建立澜沧王国开始,佛教就被定为老挝国教。1893年法国殖民者入侵老挝,他们利用佛教来控制老挝人民的思想,遭到了许多爱国僧侣的顽强抵抗。由于战略地位的重要性,二战结束后,刚刚获得独立的老挝又被美国殖民者占领,他们采用更加严密的手段来控制老挝佛教。1975年,老挝人民民主共和国诞生,新政府仍然重视佛教,积极支持佛教界的活动,团结广大僧侣阶层,把佛教作为宣传解释老挝人民革命党的政策方针、维护社会稳定的有效工具。%Buddhism had an extremely important role in the history of Laos. Buddhism has been made as Laos’ national religion ever since FA Ngum uniifed Laos and established the kingdom of Lancang in the 14th Century. In 1893, the French colonists invaded Laos, using Buddhism to control the Laotian people, but met the stubborn resistance of patriotic monks. Af ter World War II, Laos gained independence. However, owing to its important strategic place, Laos was occupied by American colonists, who used stricter means to control Buddhism in Laos. In 1975, The Lao People’s Democratic Republic was born, and the new government still paid great attention to Buddhism, actively supporting activities of the Buddhist community, unifying the monk class, and using Buddhism as an effective way to explain policies and guidelines of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party, as well as an effective way to main social stability.

  5. The Cultivationof Lofty Spiritual Belief ——Tibetans' view of fife%培养崇高的精神信仰——高原藏族民众的生存观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南文渊

    2011-01-01

    Tibetan traditional culture advocates that man should have lofty belief. By pursuing spiritual life and self - sacrifice, they have built up the following values and view of life : go after one' s belief, practice religion ; practice diligently and devotedly ; be loyal to one' s duty, tolerate and practice retreat; adapt oneself to nature and comply with nature ; give alms to others and support monks; put an end to greed and hold back desire.%藏族传统文化倡导民众树立崇高的信仰,通过对精神生活的追求和献身,形成了追求信仰,修持精进;辛勤劳作,身心专一;忠于职守,忍耐静修;适应自然,顺从自然;施舍财富,奉养僧人;杜绝贪欲,克制欲望的价值观和人生观。

  6. Iglesia de San Luis, en Missouri (Estados Unidos

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    Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum, Arquitectos

    1965-12-01

    Full Text Available This church has a circular planform, 39.62 m in diam. It has room for 700 worshippers, 100 monks in the choir, and there are 12 chapels along the periphery. Entrance is provided by four doors, symmetrically situated with respect to each other. The architectural composition is based on a number of conic parabolic forms, organized along three concentric rings. These forms are reinforced concrete thin shells, which show externally the various zones and also the functions of the building.Esta Iglesia, de planta circular y de 39,62 metros de diámetro, consta de: una nave para 700 feligreses, un coro para 100 monjes y 12 capillas laterales. El acceso se realiza a través de cuatro entradas situadas diametralmente opuestas. En cuanto a su composición arquitectónica presenta una serie de formas cónicoparabólicas —dispuestas en tres anillos concéntricos y superpuestos —construidas a base de láminas delgadas, de hormigón armado, que acusan en el exterior las distintas zonas y funciones, que se desarrollan en el interior.

  7. Validation of a Novel Instrument to Measure Elements of Franciscan-Inspired Spirituality in a General Population and in Religious Persons

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    Arndt Büssing

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today there are several approaches for bringing mindfulness, which conceptually refers to the Buddhist Vipassana tradition, into organizations. Programs referring to value-based attitudes and behaviors derived from specific Christian contexts are rarely evaluated. A prerequisite are reliable instruments for measuring the respective outcomes. We therefore performed a cross-sectional study among 418 participants to validate an instrument measuring specific aspects of Franciscan-inspired spirituality (FraSpir, particularly the core dimensions and transformative outcomes. Exploratory factor analysis of this FraSpir questionnaire with 26 items pointed to four main factors (i.e., “Live from Faith/Search for God”; “Peaceful attitude/Respectful Treatment”; “Commitment to Disadvantaged and Creation”; “Attitude of Poverty”. Their internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.79 to 0.97. With respect to convergent validity, there were sound correlations with engagement in religious practices, gratitude and awe, and prosocial-humanistic practices. The 26-item instrument was found to be a reliable and valid instrument for use in training and education programs. Interestingly, nuns and monks scored significantly higher on the Faith and Poverty subscales than others, but similarly on the two subscales addressing considerate action in the world. These attitudes and behaviors are not exclusively valued by those of religious faith, but by all.

  8. Análise da Competitividade da Cadeia Produtiva do Leite em Pó Integral

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    João Batista de Freitas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed at analyzing competitiveness of three whole milk powder production chains in Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil with three different technological levels (low, medium and high of raw material production using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM methodology, developed by Monke and Pearson (1989. The results showed that all of the production chains studied generated earnings in the form of both private profits (i.e. the remuneration of the agents is higher than the opportunity costs and investment depreciation and social profits (i.e. there are economic effectiveness and comparative advantages. The production chain with the medium technological production level, in which the use of production inputs was intensive, suffered more penalizing effects of taxation policies than the chains showing lower indices of modern input adoption, according to the values of Private Cost Ratios (PCRs, which were the following: 0.72, 0.46, and 0.26, for medium, low and high technological raw material production levels, respectively.

  9. Traditional perceptions and treatment of mental disorders in western Ethiopia before the 1974 revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, L; Merdasa, F

    1991-11-01

    This article describes the traditional concepts and treatment of mental disorders in the Oromo areas in western Ethiopia before the revolution in 1974. There are three traditional cultural influences operating: traditional Oromo thinking, the Coptic church and the Islamic culture. One important element in traditional Oromo thinking is that each person is believed to possess an ayana, which is a special divine agent that can descend upon people, but also means a person's character and personality. In the traditional Oromo society, the Kallu is the religious leader who, through an ecstatic ritual technique, can investigate the causes of the disorder and advise what to do. Mental disorders are generally explained as resulting from disturbances in the relationship between people and divinity. The second important cultural element in western Ethiopia is the orthodox Coptic church, which usually looks upon mental disorders as possession by evil spirits, which are thus treated by specially gifted priests and monks by praying and giving holy water or eventually exhortation. According to Islamic teaching in the area, mental disorders are caused by evil spirits sent by God to punish the unfaithful people. Some Muslim sheiks treat mental cases with prayers, but herbal remedies are also used. There is a great intermingling of these different cultural and religious elements and people attend different healers and religious leaders more depending on the reputation of the person than on cultural and religious affiliation.

  10. Monk’s tonsure-like gaps in the tussock grass Spartina argentinensis (Gramineae

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    J. P. Lewis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Monk's tonsure-like gaps develop inside gramineans and other plants. The tonsures of Spartina argentinensis originate as a result of tussock development and disturbance. As the tonsure develops the ring of tillers around it breakes down and new tussocks develop from the fragments, regenerating the grassland matrix vegetatively. The microenvironment inside the tonsure is different from the surroundings and microhabitat-specific taxa grow there.Los "claros tipo tonsura de monje" se desarrollan tanto en el interior de matas de gramíneas, como de especies no pertenecientes a dicha familia. Describimos las matas de Spartina argentinensis y sus tonsuras que surgen por el propio desarrollo de la mata y disturbios. A medida que la tonsura se desarrolla, el anillo de culmos que la rodea se rompe y nuevas matas se desarrollan a partir de los fragmentos, regenerando vegetativamente la matriz del pastizal. Los microambientes dentro y fuera de la tonsura son distintos, al igual que las especies que se establecen en ellos.

  11. Abundance, diversity, and patterns of distribution of primates on the Tapiche River in Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C L; Leonard, S; Carter, S

    2001-06-01

    This work presents data on the relative diversity, abundance, and distribution patterns of primates in a 20 km2 area of the Tapiche River in the Peruvian Amazon. Population data were collected while the study area was both inundated and dry (March to September 1997) using conventional line-transect census techniques. Survey results reflected the presence of 11 primate species, but population parameters on only eight of the species will be presented, including saddleback tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis), Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis), brown capuchins (Cebus apella), white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons), monk sakis (Pithecia monachus), red titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), red uakaris (Cacajao calvus), and red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha), night monkeys (Aotus nancymaae), and pygmy marmosets (Callithrix pygmaea) were also seen in the area. The data for the smaller-bodied primates is similar to that reported almost 18 years earlier, but the data for the larger-bodied primates reflect a loss in the number of animals present in the area. Pressure from hunters and the timber industry may account for declining numbers of large-bodied primates, while it appears that natural features peculiar to the conservation area contribute to the patchy pattern of distribution.

  12. 'Why, why did you have me treated?': the psychotic experience in a literary narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, A A; Koopman, J J E; Weinman, J A; Gosselink, M J

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the authors suggest an approach that may be helpful in teaching medical humanities to medical students. In the context of an honours class on medicine and literature, students (1) read a novel on an illness, (2) interviewed a patient with the medical condition described in the novel and (3) wrote an essay on the biomedical, narrative and literary aspects of these sources of information. The authors compared the story of Chekhov's literary protagonist Kovrin in The Black Monk with the personal story of patient H., who was diagnosed with schizophrenia. The narratives of the two patients were compared, based on Chekhov's literary narrative and the narrative of the patient. Both patients appeared to somehow regret losing their symptoms, following various psychiatric treatments. Both narratives show the ambivalence between the gain and loss that adequate psychiatric treatment may bring. Studying novels and other literary sources may help in understanding the story of the patient better, with associated improvements in various aspects of medical outcome. Reading literary fiction may help to increase an understanding of patients' emotions, experiences, cognitions and perspectives. It may also reduce the emotional distance between the self and the patient. The educational approach that was explored in the authors' honours class may be helpful to others when developing methods for teaching medical humanities to (medical) students.

  13. Os intelectuais e o budismo japonês no Brasil / Intellectuals and Japanese Buddhism in Brazil

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    Eduardo Basto de Albuquerque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEste ensaio trata da história da descoberta do Budismo japonês por intelectuais brasileiros, como um conjunto de práticas e sabedorias espirituais, realizada através de leituras e encontros com monges budistas japoneses e/ou imigrantes japoneses. Devido a isso, estes intelectuais defendem uma experiência religiosa baseada numa noção universalista de representações do Budismo japonês, que lhes proporcionam reflexão filosófica não-dualista e experiência psicológica única. Tais intelectuais, através de experiências espirituais inovadoras, romperam a tensão criada pela disputa entre secularização via ciência e a hegemonia católica, predominantes no panorama intelectual.AbstractThis study concentrates on the discovery of Japanese Buddhism by Brazilian intellectuals as a group of spiritual practices and as a body of spiritual wisdom. The study has been realized through readings and meetings with Japanese Buddhist monks and/or Japanese immigrants. These intellectuals defend a religious experience based on a universal notion of representations of Japanese Buddhism, which provides them with a non-dualistic philosophical perspective and a unique psychological experience. Through innovative spiritual experiences these intellectuals have broken the tension created within the dispute between secularized science and the Catholic hegemony, both predominant in the intellectual panorama.

  14. Non fu tutta colpa di padre Giacinto: spiegazioni troppo semplici e realtà (come sempre complesse nel cammino di Oxalis pes-caprae L. dal Sudafrica al Mediterraneo

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    Maria Adele Signorini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxalis pes-caprae L. (= Oxalis cernua Thunb. is a geophyte native to South Africa (Cape region that was introduced in Europe in the second half of the eighteenth century as a cultivated plant. It is currently widely naturalized in many regions with mild climates all over the world and in several countries it has become a very noxious weed, due to its impressive capability of spreading through bulbils. According to a theory reported also in Pignatti’s Flora of Italy, all populations currently growing in Europe and the Mediterranean basin originated from a single plant introduced in the island of Malta by an English lady, who gave the plant collected in South Africa as a present to padre Giacinto, a monk and a botanist who founded the Botanical Garden in La Valletta. Starting from Malta, Oxalis pes-caprae would have subsequently spread along Mediterranean coasts and later in the whole continent. According to this theory, all European and Mediterranean populations would be merely parts of the same clone, made up of individuals genetically identical to the one originally arrived in Malta. An investigation based on original data mainly taken from herbarium specimens and bibliographic sources, definitely contradicts this theory, in favor of a more articulated explanation: the species invasion in the area is most likely the result of several different arrivals – both intentional and unintentional – occurred in different times and different places.

  15. As parroquias do Porriño, Cans e Atios na documentación do mosteiro cisterciense de Santa María de Melón. Séculos XII e XIII

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    Gradín Fernández, Isis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After the introduction and criteria of transcription, 31 papers are published from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries belonging to the Cistercian monastery of Santa Maria de Melon, specifically those that permit the reconstruction of old possessions, focusing on the current council of O Porriño -which was the monastery of San Miguel de Cans, absorbed by the cistercian monks of Melon. A paleographic and historical approximation of this documentation is done, which is complemented with the corresponding index of names and place names.

    [gl] Trala introducción e criterios de transcripción, edítanse 31 documentos dos séculos XII e XIII pertencentes ó mosteiro cisterciense de Santa María de Melón, concretamente aqueles que permiten reconstruír as antigas posesións –centradas sobre o actual concello de O Porriño- do que foi o mosteiro de San Miguel de Cans, absorvido polos monxes cistercienses de Melón. Faise unha aproximación paleográfica e histórica da documentación, que se complementa cos correspondentes índices onomásticos e toponímicos.

  16. Esoteeriline pärimus Kirna mõisas ja maagial põhinevad mõistmisviisid

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    Kristel Kivari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the ideas that are delivered at Kirna manor, which operates as an esoteric healing centre. The teachings of healer Helle Anniko include various mystical visions that are reasoned as a result of original location due to the energies of the earth and cosmos. Her teachings follow the overall pattern of esoteric ideas as described by Antoine Faivre. She is accompanied by visionary agents, such as medieval monks and extraterrestrials, who help and support her in the work of healing and teaching. The second part of the article introduces the narratives of her patients who associate their recovery with the spiritual transformation and mystical experiences, which they have undergone under Helle’s supervision. In these reflections, which touch the borders of both rational and mystical thinking, the magical consciousness could be recognised, which, according to Susan Greenwood and Graham Harvey, forms the conversion and transformation into a new spiritual understanding of the self and the environment. The process of healing involves sitting and meditating on special benches, which are located at the channels of cosmic and terrestrial energies. Bodily impulses and gained experiences form an access to the interpretation lore, which is framed by the dynamical viewpoints of medical doctors and Helle. The article is based on the fieldwork material and interviews conducted by the author.

  17. Shaping of the Yunnan-Burma Frontier by Secret Societies since the End of the 17th Century Comment les sociétés secrètes ont façonné la frontière birmano-yunnanaise

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    Ma Jianxiong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available After the 1680s, Big Vehicle Religion gradually developed on the Yunnan-Burma frontier. It was banned by the Qing government and became a sect of Chinese secret societies. The founders of this religion combined various Buddhist and Taoist elements together and claimed this to be the route to their salvation. They also trained many students to be monks. After the Sino-Burma wars these monks established a Five Buddha Districts system among the Lahu and some Wa villages in western Mekong River, until the system was destroyed by the Qing government in the 1880s. The monks became leaders of the Luohei/Lahu through millenarianism and many Han immigrants also became involved in the movements to become the Lahu or the Wa. The monks performed critical roles as social activists in Lahu cultural reconstruction. As a shaping power, their human agency was deeply integrated into secret societies and they formulated regional political centers as well as a network mechanism for the floating indigenous populations. Secret societies clearly shaped a historical framework for local politics and economic flux in the Yunnan-Burma frontier and became a cross-border mechanism for contemporary life after the border between Yunnan, Burma and Thailand was decided. However, it used to be a networking dynamic linked with silver and copper minefields, Sino-Burma wars, and anti-Qing millenarianism. Local people could also use this frontier space for their negotiations with different states before the coming of European colonialism.Après les années 1680, le bouddhisme du grand véhicule se développa sur la frontière birmano-yunnanaise. Le gouvernement des Qing l’interdit mais il devint une secte diffusée par des sociétés secrètes. Les fondateurs de cette religion combinèrent des éléments bouddhistes et taoïstes et prétendirent que c’était la voie du salut. Ils formèrent également des élèves pour en faire des moines. Après les guerres sino-birmanes, ces

  18. Fray Juan Rizi en Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salort Pons, Salvador

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Since Tormo, Gusi and Lafuente wrote fray Juan Rizi's monograph in 1930, and Ángulo & Pérez Sánchez revised years later this study in their book Pintura madrileña del segundo tercio del siglo XVII, very little has been published about the life and work of the Benedictine painter. Furthermore, the Italian journey of Rizi, that involved the last 20 years of his life, has always been an enigma, resolved only in certain aspects, thanks to few news supplied by his biographers and the manuscripts the monk wrote during his staying in the Montecassino abbey. Our recent discovery of 8 new canvases painted by Rizi to decorate the Saints Cosme and Damian's chapel in the main church of Trevi nel Lazio (Frosinone, Italy, as well as the location of several new drawings in the Montecassino and Vatican libraries, will allow us to study his activity as painter in Italy and also to profile, with more accuracy, the history of the last years of his life.No disponible

  19. Public willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmo, Kristy; Lew, Daniel K

    2012-10-01

    Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40 value estimates exist, it is often difficult to compare values from different studies due to variations in study design, implementation, and modeling specifications. We conducted a stated-preference choice experiment to estimate the value of recovering or downlisting 8 threatened and endangered marine species in the United States: loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis), North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica), upper Willamette River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi), and smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata). In May 2009, we surveyed a random sample of U.S. households. We collected data from 8476 households and estimated willingness to pay for recovering and downlisting the 8 species from these data. Respondents were willing to pay for recovering and downlisting threatened and endangered marine taxa. Willingness-to-pay values ranged from $40/household for recovering Puget Sound Chinook salmon to $73/household for recovering the North Pacific right whale. Statistical comparisons among willingness-to-pay values suggest that some taxa are more economically valuable than others, which suggests that the U.S. public's willingness to pay for recovery may vary by species.

  20. A virada cristã: algumas considerações sobre a influência da doutrina d’O Caminho no pensamento de Santo Agostinho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Assumpção de Abreu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps this work is about the obvious. To find elements of Augustinian thought in the gospel is not original. However, when trying to get away from the classic definition of the tradition of philosophical thought that locates Augustine between Plato and Descartes, we operate through an analysis that tries to rescue the importance of a shift – in the early days of Christianity – which is a cornerstone in what we call as the Western world: if we understand that there is a significant rupture between the Old and New Testaments we would take a task that is perhaps to draw a parallel to the west important tradition: starting with the Doctrine of The Path, passing Paul until the master of the West Augustine and, perhaps, ending in Luther – the Augustinian monk who needs no introduction. For now, however, it is worth mentioning that there is no intent to commit an absurd mistake, or to deny the undeniable: the declared influence of Neoplatonism – mainly via Plotinus – in Augustine can be proven once we get in touch with his work. However, as we contemplate some points present in the Gospel to try to understand the meaning of interiority in Augustine, we start from the assumption that the detachment operated by Christianity was essential for such a feat.