Sample records for monitors residual contaminants

  1. Shellfish and residual chemical contaminants: hazards, monitoring, and health risk assessment along French coasts. (United States)

    Guéguen, Marielle; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Arnich, Nathalie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Claisse, Didier; Guérin, Thierry; Vernoux, Jean-Paul


    In this review, we address the identification of residual chemical hazards in shellfish collected from the marine environment or in marketed shellfish. Data, assembled on the concentration of contaminants detected, were compared with the appropriate regulatory and food safety standards. Moreover, data on human exposure and body burden levels were evaluated in the context of potential health risks.Shellfish farming is a common industry along European coasts. The primary types of shellfish consumed in France are oysters, mussels, king scallops, winkles,whelks, cockles, clams, and other scallops. Shellfish filter large volumes of water to extract their food and are excellent bioaccumulators. Metals and other pollutants that exist in the marine environment partition into particular organs, according to their individual chemical characteristics. In shellfish, accumulation often occurs in the digestive gland, which plays a role in assimilation, excretion, and detoxification of contaminants. The concentrations of chemical contaminants in bivalve mollusks are known to fluctuate with the seasons.European regulations limit the amount and type of contaminants that can appear in foodstuffs. Current European standards regulate the levels of micro-biological agents, phycotoxins, and some chemical contaminants in food. Since 2006, these regulations have been compiled into the "Hygiene Package." Bivalve mollusks must comply with maximum levels of certain contaminants as follows:lead (1.5 mg kg-1), cadmium (1 mg kg-1), mercury (0.5 mg kg-1), dioxins (4 pg g-1 and dioxins + DL-PCBs 8 pg g-1), and benzo[a]pyrene (10 μp.g kg-1).In this review, we identify the levels of major contaminants that exist in shellfish(collected from the marine environment and/or in marketed shellfish). The follow-ing contaminants are among those that are profiled: Cd, Pb, Hg, As, Ni, Cr, V,Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Se, Mg, Mo, radionuclides, benzo[a]pyrene, PCBs, dioxins and furans, PAHs, TBT, HCB, dieldrin, DDT

  2. Residual contaminants in milk

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    Nevijo Zdolec


    Full Text Available Various chemical agents are used during the whole production chain of milk and dairy products. Production of feedingstuffs is accompanied with pesticide usage, which may remain in environment, thus are transported through feeding into animals, animal products and finally in human organism. Preparation procedure and storage conditions of feed also influence on milk safety in the sense of mycotoxins entering into the food chain. Chemical agents are, on daily basis, used on dairy farms either as detergents or disinfections. The residuals of cleaning agents might remain in milk if the cleaning agents and its dosage are not performed adequately. Besides already mentioned agents, a great influence in milk production can bee seen through veterinary drugs usage, particularly antibacterial drugs (mastitis. Proper application of drugs and by following legal recommendation, a by-reactions can be avoided such as allergic reaction in humans, development of resisting bacteria or even undesirable influence on starter cultures in dairy products manufacture. The maximum residue limits, monitoring plan as well as sampling procedures are set up within the harmonization of Croatian and European legislation, in order to provide official control of residues in foodstuffs of animal origin.

  3. Contamination monitoring

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    Alamares, A.L. [Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)


    By virture of Republic Act 2067, as amended the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), now renamed Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) is the government agency charged with the regulations and control of radioactive materials in the Philippines. The protection against the hazards of non-ionizing radiation is being monitored by the Radiological Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health pursuant to the provision of Presidental Decree 480. The RHS issues licenses for possession, handling, and use of x-ray machines and equipment, both industrial and medical, and provide radiation protection training to x-ray technologists and technicians. As part of its regulatory function, the PNRI is charged with the responsibility of assuring that the radiation workers and the public are protected from the hazards associated with the possession, handling, production, manufacturing, and the use of radioactive materials and atomic energy facilities in the Philippines. The protection of radiation workers from the hazards of ionizing radiation has always been a primary concern of PNRI and by limiting the exposure of radiation workers, the risk to population is kept to within acceptable level. In this paper, the following items are described: radiation protection program, radiation protection services, radiation control, and problems encountered/recommendation. (G.K.)

  4. Contaminant transport at a waste residue deposit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Traberg, Rikke


    Contaminant transport in an aquifer at an incinerator waste residue deposit in Denmark is simulated. A two-dimensional, geochemical transport code is developed for this purpose and tested by comparison to results from another code, The code is applied to a column experiment and to the field site...... along with the flow and nonreactive transport parameters obtained by the inverse modeling procedure described in the first paper [Sonnenborg et al., this issue] of this two-paper series. The simulation results of the site model are compared with several measured component breakthroughs at monitoring...

  5. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Program Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA uses the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCM) program to collect data for contaminants suspected to be present in drinking water, but that do not have...

  6. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara


    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from ...

  7. OSS-1/contamination monitor (United States)

    Kruger, R.; Triolo, J.; Mcintosh, R.


    A 20-cm high, 18-cm wide, and 30-cm long (8x7x12 inch) box weighing about 7 kg (15 lbs) and consuming about 7 watts of power was carried on the OSS-1 pallet to monitor the mass build-up or accretion of condensible, volatile materials on surfaces in the shuttle bay during all phases of ascent, on-orbit, and descent. Passively thermally controlled, the box holds two witness samples and four actively temperature controlled quartz crystal microbalances (TQCM) whose temperature can vary from -60 C to +80 C. Graphs show the accretion indicated by the TQCM during the launch and early orbital phase. Conditions during tail to the Sun, nose to the Sun, and bay to the Sun attitudes of the shuttle during STS-3 are reflected in temperatures indicated by the OSS-1 thermistor. These temperatures influence outgassing rates of various materials as well as measurements made by the contamination monitor package. The parameters that bear on TQCM measurements data are shown in graphs and discussed.

  8. OSS-1/contamination monitor (United States)

    Kruger, R.; Triolo, J.; McIntosh, R.


    A 20-cm high, 18-cm wide, and 30-cm long (8x7x12 inch) box weighing about 7 kg (15 lbs) and consuming about 7 watts of power was carried on the OSS-1 pallet to monitor the mass build-up or accretion of condensible, volatile materials on surfaces in the shuttle bay during all phases of ascent, on-orbit, and descent. Passively thermally controlled, the box holds two witness samples and four actively temperature controlled quartz crystal microbalances (TQCM) whose temperature can vary from -60 C to +80 C. Graphs show the accretion indicated by the TQCM during the launch and early orbital phase. Conditions during tail to the Sun, nose to the Sun, and bay to the Sun attitudes of the shuttle during STS-3 are reflected in temperatures indicated by the OSS-1 thermistor. These temperatures influence outgassing rates of various materials as well as measurements made by the contamination monitor package. The parameters that bear on TQCM measurements data are shown in graphs and discussed.

  9. Contamination monitoring activities in Kanupp

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    Naqvi, S.S. [Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Pakistan)


    The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (Kanupp) is a 137 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor, designed and erected by the Canadian General Electric Company as a turn key project. The plant is in operation since it was commissioned in the year 1972. It is located at the Arabian Sea Coast about 15 miles to the west of Karachi. During its more than two decades of operation, the plant has generated about 8 billion units of electricity with an average life time availability factor of 60%. In Kanupp, radioactive contamination may exit due to the release of fission product, activation products etc., which may somehow escape from its confinement and may contaminate surface or other media such as air, water etc. In this paper, following items are described: main aspects of contamination, status of contamination monitoring, need of contamination monitoring, radiation protection activity, instruments, contamination, current status of contamination survey materials and their disposal, and environmental monitoring. (G.K.)

  10. Food toxicology. Residues and contaminants: Risks and consumer protection; Lebensmitteltoxikologie. Rueckstaende und Kontaminanten: Risiken und Verbraucherschutz

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    Nau, H. [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover, ZA Lebensmitteltoxikologie (Germany); Steinberg, P. [Potsdam Univ., Inst. fuer Ernaehrungswissenschaft (Germany); Kietzmann, M. (eds.) [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover, Inst. fuer Pharmakologie, Toxikologie/Pharmazie (Germany)


    In a detailed introduction, the basic methods of risk assessment for potentially toxic food constituents are presented as well as the analytical methods applied for measuring even very small concentrations of contaminants. The main classes of substances relevant in foods ar represented, i.e. animal drugs, fungicides and herbicides, natural toxins, contaminants, prions from BSE-infested animals and residues of 'new' proteins and 'new' DNA from genetically modified foods. New legislation in Germany and Europe is presented including the National Residue Monitoring Plant which is to enable annual monitoring of residue concentrations in foods derived from animals. (orig.)

  11. Country report on contamination monitoring

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    Oyuntulkhuur, Navaangalsan [National Centre for Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology (Mongolia). Central Radiological Laboratory


    Mongolia is a non-nuclear country and has currently neither nuclear power plants nor research reactors. This country joined the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA) for the Asia Pacific region for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology in 1993. Various measures has been taken for strengthening of radiation protection, cooperated with several international organizations mainly with IAEA. In Mongolia radioactive substances and sources are used for the following purposes: for research work; medical radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology in hospitals; industrial enterprises for technological processes; and for non-destructive testing in industry. Radiation safety inspection is conducted by the CRL. The inspections consist of verification of compliance with radiation safety requirements and with any additional requirements specified in the authorization of accounting records and a physical check on the presence of radiation sources; check on the work carried out by the radiation safety services to monitor radioactive contamination of the environment; and measurements and sampling. CRL should take much attention for improvement and development of the activities in the field of surface contamination monitoring concerning a wide use of radionuclides in different field of economy. (G.K.)

  12. Status on contamination monitoring in China

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    Gou Quanlu [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)


    The air contaminated by radioactive materials in nuclear enterprises and radioactive workplaces and forming radioactive aerosol and the leakage of radioactive materials in operation cause internal exposure damage in workers. It is necessary and important to monitor air and surface contaminations for the health of public and workers, and for protecting environment. At present, many institutes engage in the studies on surface contamination monitoring in China, and the government has formulated the control limits of surface contamination in the Regulations of Radiation Protection. The monitors for surface contamination monitoring are almost home-made. The methods being used often are smear test and placing surface sample test. Scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors and G-M counters have been used for detecting alpha surface contamination. Plastic scintillator meters and thin wall/window G-M counters are used for beta surface contamination. Special detectors have been designed for monitoring low energy nuclides. The status of airborne contamination monitoring in China is reported. As the studies for future, the development of the surface contamination monitor for low energy beta nuclides, especially H-3, the monitoring methods for the special shapes of surfaces, the technology of decontamination and the calibration method and device for on-line radioactive aerosol continuous monitors are taken up. (K.I.)

  13. Monitoring of surface and airborne contamination

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    Pradeep Kumar, K.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)


    Indian nuclear energy programme aims at total safety in all activities involved in the entire fuel cycle for the occupational workers, members of the public and the environment as a whole. Routine radiation monitoring with clearly laid out procedures are followed for ensuring the safety of workers and public. Radiation monitoring carried out for the nuclear installations comprises of process monitoring, monitoring of effluent releases and also of the radiation protection monitoring of the individuals, work place and environment. Regulations like banning of smoking and consumption of food and drink etc. reduces the risk of direct ingestion even if inadvertent spread of contamination takes place. Though limit of transportable surface contamination is prescribed, the health physicists always follow a ``clean on swipe`` philosophy which compensates any error in the measurement of surface contamination. In this paper, the following items are contained: Necessity of contamination monitoring, accuracy required in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, methodology for contamination monitoring, air monitoring, guidelines for unrestricted release of scrap materials, and problems in contamination monitoring. (G.K.)

  14. Monitoring residue in animals and primary products of animal origin

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    Janković Saša


    Full Text Available The objective of control and systematic monitoring of residue is to secure, by the examination of a corresponding number of samples, the efficient monitoring of the residue level in tissues and organs of animals, as well as in primary products of animal origin. This creates possibilities for the timely taking of measures toward the securing of food hygiene of animal origin and the protection of public health. Residue can be a consequence of the inadequate use of medicines in veterinary medicine and pesticides in agriculture and veterinary medicine, as well as the polluting of the environment with toxic elements, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and others. Residue is being monitored in Serbia since 1972, and in 2004, national monitoring was brought to the level of EU countries through significant investments by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management. This is also evident in the EU directives which permit exports of all kinds of meat and primary products of animal origin, covered by the Residue Monitoring Program. The program of systematic examinations of residue has been coordinated with the requirements of the European Union, both according to the type of examined substance, as well as according to the number of samples and the applied analytical techniques. In addition to the development of methods and the including of new harmful substances into the monitoring programme, it is also necessary to coordinate the national regulations that define the maximum permitted quantities of certain medicines and contaminants with the EU regulations, in order to protect the health of consumers as efficiently as possible, and for the country to take equal part in international trade.

  15. Monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetarian diet. (United States)

    Kumari, Beena; Kathpal, T S


    Samples (28) of complete vegetarian diet consumed from morning till night i.e. tea, milk, breakfast, lunch, snacks, dinner, sweet dish etc. were collected from homes, hostels and hotels periodically from Hisar and analysed for detecting the residues of organochlorine, synthetic pyrethriod, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. The estimation was carried out by using multi-residue analytical technique employing gas chromatograph (GC)-electron capture detector and GC-nitrogen phosphorous detector systems equipped with capillary columns. The whole diet sample was macerated in a mixer grinder and a representative sample in duplicate was analyzed for residues keeping the average daily diet of an adult to be 1,300 g. On comparing the data, it was found that actual daily intake (microgram/person/day) of lindane in two and endosulfan in four samples exceeded the acceptable daily intake. Residues of other pesticides in all the diet samples were lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of the respective pesticides. The study concluded that although all the diet samples were found contaminated with one or the other pesticide, the actual daily intake of only a few pesticides was higher than their respective ADI. More extensive study covering other localities of Haryana has been suggested to know the overall scenario of contamination of vegetarian diet.

  16. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

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    Xia Yihua [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)


    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  17. The status on contamination monitoring in Thailand

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    Sinakhom, Fookiat [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)


    Thailand has embarked upon the development of nuclear energy for peaceful utilizations since 1961 when the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted. The Atomic Energy Commission (Thai AEC) was established under section 5 of this Act having power and duty of carrying out matters concerning atomic energy for peace. The applications of nuclear energy in Thailand, at present are exclusively in medicine, education, research and industry. In this paper, the following items are described on contamination monitoring: controllable monitoring, uncontrollable monitoring, standardization of monitoring instruments, and decontamination and waste management. (G.K.)

  18. Impact of residual contamination on inclusive and direct photon flow

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, F; Peitzmann, T; Sas, M


    Direct photon flow is measured by subtracting the contribution of decay photon flow from the measured inclusive photon flow via the double ratio $R_{\\rm \\gamma}$, which defines the excess of direct over decay photons. The inclusive photon sample is affected by a modest contamination from different background sources, which is often ignored in measurements. However, due to the sensitivity of the direct photon measurement even a residual contamination may significantly bias the extracted direct photon flow. In particular, for measurements using photon conversions, which are very powerful at low transverse momentum, these effects can be substantial. Assuming three different types of correlated background contributions we demonstrate using the Therminator2 event generator that the impact of the contamination on the magnitude of direct photon flow can be on the level of $50\\%$, even if the purity of the inclusive photon sample is about $97\\%$. Future measurements should attempt to account for the contamination by ...

  19. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

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    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)


    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  20. Environmental Contaminants Monitoring Plan for Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This environmental contaminants monitoring program is designed to assess concentrations, distribution, and biological availability of environmental contaminants on...

  1. An OSEE Based Portable Surface Contamination Monitor (United States)

    Perey, Daniel F.


    Many industrial and aerospace processes involving the joining of materials, require sufficient surface cleanliness to insure proper bonding. Processes as diverse as painting, welding, or the soldering of electronic circuits will be compromised if prior inspection and removal of surface contaminants is inadequate. As process requirements become more stringent and the number of different materials and identified contaminants increases, various instruments and techniques have been developed for improved inspection. One such technique based on the principle of Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE) has been explored for a number of years as a tool for surface contamination monitoring. Some of the benefits of OSEE are: it's non-contacting; requires little operator training; and has very high contamination sensitivity. This paper describes the development of a portable OSEE based surface contamination monitor. The instrument is suitable for both hand-held and robotic inspections with either manual or automated control of instrument operation. In addition, instrument output data is visually displayed to the operator and may be output to an external computer for archiving or analysis.

  2. Insecticide residues cross-contamination of oilseeds during storage

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    Dauguet Sylvie


    Full Text Available Pesticide residues are found in oilseeds and crude oils: they are mainly organophosphate insecticides (pirimiphos-methyl, dichlorvos, malathion used in empty storage facilities and for application to stored cereal grains. Even if pests are found in stored oilseeds, French regulation does not permit use of these insecticides on stored oilseeds, as they have affinity for these lipophilic subtances. These residues arise from cross-contamination during mechanical contact with storage bins and grain handling equipment, and not from illegal use. This uptake of insecticide residues from their storage environment by oilseeds can lead to levels that exceed regulatory limits. An investigation of 11 grain storage companies allowed us to follow the course of 27 sunflower seeds batches, from reception at the storage facilities to outloading. Samples from each of these batches, made at outloading, were analysed content for insecticide residues. Traceability of sunflower seeds established by storers allowed us to identify the origine of observed cross-contamination cases. Substances discovered were dichlorvos, pirimiphos-methyl and malathion (and chlorpyriphos-methyl in a single case. Pirimiphos-methyl was most commonly detected, but most cases of non-accordance with regulatory levels were observed with dichlorvos and malathion. Main cross-contamination hazard resulted from treatment of cereals at outloading, just before sunflower seeds were outloaded, especially when these cereals treatments were frequent on that elevator. Other situations led to cross-contaminations, but generally of lower levels: outloading of sunflower seeds after outloading of cereal that was treated at the reception, several weeks or months before; sunflower seeds stored in bin that contained previously treated cereal; empty bins and handling equipment treated before receipt of sunflower seeds.

  3. Challenging Residual Contamination of Instruments for Robotic Surgery in Japan. (United States)

    Saito, Yuhei; Yasuhara, Hiroshi; Murakoshi, Satoshi; Komatsu, Takami; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Uetera, Yushi


    BACKGROUND Recently, robotic surgery has been introduced in many hospitals. The structure of robotic instruments is so complex that updating their cleaning methods is a challenge for healthcare professionals. However, there is limited information on the effectiveness of cleaning for instruments for robotic surgery. OBJECTIVE To determine the level of residual contamination of instruments for robotic surgery and to develop a method to evaluate the cleaning efficacy for complex surgical devices. METHODS Surgical instruments were collected immediately after operations and/or after in-house cleaning, and the level of residual protein was measured. Three serial measurements were performed on instruments after cleaning to determine the changes in the level of contamination and the total amount of residual protein. The study took place from September 1, 2013, through June 30, 2015, in Japan. RESULTS The amount of protein released from robotic instruments declined exponentially. The amount after in-house cleaning was 650, 550, and 530 µg/instrument in the 3 serial measurements. The overall level of residual protein in each measurement was much higher for robotic instruments than for ordinary instruments (Probotic surgery. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:143-146.

  4. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern (United States)

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  5. Full scale amendment of a contaminated wood impregnation site with iron water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Kjeldsen, Peter; Jakobsen, Rasmus


    Iron water treatment residues (Fe-WTR) are a free by-product of the treatment of drinking water with high concentration of iron oxides and potential for arsenic sorption. This paper aims at applying Fe-WTR to a contaminated site, measuring the reduction in contaminant leaching, and discussing...... amendment a 100 m2 test site and a control site (without amendment) were monitored for 14 months. Also soil analysis of Fe to evaluate the degree of soil and Fe-WTR mixing was done. Stabilization with Fe-WTR had a significant effect on leachable contaminants, reducing pore water As by 93%, Cu by 91% and Cr...... by 95% in the upper samplers. Dosage and mixing of Fe-WTR in the soil proved to be difficult in the deeper part of the field, and pore water concentrations of arsenic was generally higher. Despite water logged conditions no increase in dissolved iron or arsenic was observed in the amended soil. Our...

  6. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

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    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  7. Complex Electrical Resistivity for Monitoring DNAPL Contamination

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    Stephen R. Brown; David Lesmes; John Fourkas


    Nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have landfills and buried waste areas. Of the various contaminants present at these sites, dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) are particularly hard to locate and remove. There is an increasing need for external or non-invasive sensing techniques to locate DNAPLs in the subsurface and to track their spread and monitor their breakdown or removal by natural or engineered means. G. Olhoeft and colleagues have published several reports based on laboratory studies using the complex resistivity method which indicate that organic solvents, notably toluene, PCE, and TCE, residing in clay-bearing soils have distinctive electrical signatures. These results have suggested to many researchers the basis of an ideal new measurement technique for geophysical characterization of DNAPL pollution. Encouraged by these results we proposed to bring the field measurement of complex resistivity as a means of pollution characterization from the conceptual stage to practice. We planned to document the detectability of clay-organic solvent interactions with geophysical measurements in the laboratory, develop further understanding of the underlying physical and chemical mechanisms, and then apply these observations to develop field techniques. As with any new research endeavor we note the extreme importance of trying to reproduce the work of previous researchers to ensure that any effects observed are due to the physical phenomena occurring in the specimen and not due to the particular experimental apparatus or method used. To this end, we independently designed and built a laboratory system, including a sample holder, electrodes, electronics, and data analysis software, for the measurement of the complex electrical resistivity properties of soil contaminated with organic solvents. The capabilities and reliability of this technique were documented. Using various standards we performed measurement accuracy, repeatability, and noise immunity

  8. Monitoring and remediation of organochlorine residues in water. (United States)

    Derbalah, Aly; Ismail, Ahmed; Hamza, Amany; Shaheen, Sabry


    This study monitored the presence of organochlorines in drinking water in Kafr-El-Sheikh, Ebshan, Elhamoul, Mehalt Aboali, Fowa, Balteem, and Metobess in the Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation) for removing the most frequently detected compound (i.e., lindane) in drinking water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine residues at all water sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorines in water. Nano photo-Fenton-like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drinking water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms removed 100% of the initial concentration of lindane after 23 days of treatment. The study found that there is no remaining toxicity of lindane-contaminated water after remediation on treated rats relative to the control with respect to histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Therefore, AOPs, particularly those with nanomaterials and bioremediation, can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies for lindane in water.

  9. Evaluation of bioventing on a gasoline-ethanol contaminated undisturbed residual soil. (United States)

    Osterreicher-Cunha, Patricia; Vargas, Eurípedes do Amaral; Guimarães, Jean Rémy Davée; de Campos, Tácio Mauro Pereira; Nunes, Cassiane Maria Ferreira; Costa, Ariovaldo; Antunes, Franklin dos Santos; da Silva, Maria Isabel Pais; Mano, Denise Maria


    Remediation methods for environmental contamination problems based on physical or chemical processes frequently present low efficiency and/or high costs. On the other hand, biological treatment is being proved to be an accessible alternative for soil and water remediation. Bioventing is commonly used for petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) spills. This process provides better subsurface oxygenation, thus stimulating degradation by indigenous microorganisms. In Brazil, gasoline and ethanol are routinely mixed; some authors suggest that despite gasoline high degradability, its degradation in the aquifer is hindered by the presence of much rapidly degrading ethanol. The present study evaluates a bioventing treatment of a gasoline-ethanol contaminated undisturbed residual soil from Rio de Janeiro. Contamination and treatment effects were monitored by conventional microbiology methods, chemical analysis, and ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements. Results of culturable bacterial population counts show the effect of contamination and bioventing on the microbiota of gasoline and gasoline-ethanol containing soils; however, GPR responses to these variations are not conclusive and still need to be assessed.

  10. Monitoring of Antibiotic Residues in Aquatic Products in Urban and Rural Areas of Vietnam. (United States)

    Uchida, Kotaro; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Harada, Kazuo; Okihashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Do, Mai Hoang Ngoc; Thi Bui, Long; Duc Nguyen, Thinh; Do Nguyen, Phuc; Thi Khong, Diep; Thi Tran, Hoa; Nam Nguyen, Thang; Viet Le, Ha; Van Chau, Vien; Thi Van Dao, Khanh; Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Hue; Kajimura, Keiji; Kumeda, Yuko; Tran Pham, Khanh; Ngoc Pham, Khai; Trong Bui, Chien; Quang Vien, Mai; Hoang Le, Ninh; Van Dang, Chinh; Hirata, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa


    Antibiotic residues in aquatic products in Vietnam were investigated. A total of 511 fish and shrimp samples were collected from markets in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Thai Binh (TB), and Nha Trang (NT) from July 2013 to October 2015. The samples were extracted with 2% formic acid in acetonitrile and washed with dispersive C18 sorbent. Thirty-two antibiotics were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Of the 362 samples from HCMC, antibiotic residues were found in 53 samples. Enrofloxacin was commonly detected, at a rate of 10.8%. In contrast, samples from TB and NT were less contaminated: only 1 of 118 analyzed samples showed residues in TB and only 1 of 31 showed residues in NT. These differences were attributed to the local manufacturing/distribution systems. To understand the current status of antibiotic use and prevent adverse effects that may be caused by their overuse, continual monitoring is required.

  11. Residual water bactericide monitor development program (United States)


    A silver-ion bactericidal monitor is considered for the Space Shuttle Potable Water System. Potentiometric measurement using an ion-selective electrode is concluded to be the most feasible of available techniques. Four commercially available electrodes and a specially designed, solid-state, silver-sulfide electrode were evaluated for their response characteristics and suitability for space use. The configuration of the solid-state electrode with its Nernstian response of 10 to 10,000 ppb silver shows promise for use in space. A pressurized double-junction reference electrode with a quartz-fiber junction and a replaceable bellows electrolyte reservoir was designed verification-tested, and paired with a solid-state silver-sulfide electrode in a test fixture.

  12. Micro GC's for Contaminant Monitoring in Spacecraft Air Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to create new gas chromatographs (GCs) for contaminant monitoring in spacecraft air that do not require any reagents or special...

  13. The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Contaminants Monitoring Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Alternatives for an environmental contaminants monitoring plan have been developed for the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge). This study...

  14. Assuring Seafood Safety: Contaminants and Residues in Irish Seafood 2004-2008


    McGovern, Evin; McHugh, Brendan; O’Hea, Linda; Joyce, Eileen; Tlustos, Christina; Glynn, Denise


    This report provides an overview on the occurrence of environmental contaminants, such as metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and veterinary residues in Irish seafood. Compliance of seafood (shellfish, crustaceans, wild and farmed finfish) with relevant EC Regulatory Limits for contaminants is examined and an overview of conformance of the aquaculture sector with the requirements of the EC Residues Directive (Dir 96/23/EC) is presented for 2004 - 2008. The contribution of seafood...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqer Mohammad Herzallah


    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1(AFB1 and total Aflatoxins (AFT contaminated feed effect on aflatoxins residue level in eggs, muscles (breast, leg, organs (liver, kidney, gizzard and excreted aflatoxins in chicken litter of layer hens were monitored. Laying hens were on four levels of aflatoxins for 6 weeks and monitored weekly for the change in both AFB1 and AFT levels. Pronouncedly, the AFB1 and AFT were detected in eggs, muscles (legs, breast, organs (liver, kidney and gizzard and litter in noticeable amounts. Total Aflatoxin (AFT level was lowest in chicken breast (0.63 ppb and highest in liver (2.12 ppb and gizzard (1.22 ppb of chicken fed diet with 965.12 ppb. Whereas, AFB1 residue was 0.66 ppb in eggs, 1.59 ppb in liver tissues of hens given feed contaminated with 894.12 ppb. Residue level of AFB1 was high in liver and kidney of all treatments. The chicken breast tissues were lowest in AFB1 and AFT of values 0.72 and 0.63, respectively. Eggs production was significantly (p<0.05 affected with AFB1 contaminated feed and egg production was decreased by more than 30%.

  16. Monitored Natural Recovery at Contaminated Sediment Sites (United States)


    sediments, precipitation of solids from the water column, and accumulation of the remains of aquatic biota such as plankton , algae, and aquatic...speciation in clams and seaweed from a contaminated marine environment. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 54:586-594. 15 A P P E N D I X B : C O N T A M I N A N T - S

  17. Proximal spectral sensing to monitor phytoremediation of metal - contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathod, P.H.; Rossiter, D.; Noomen, M.; van der Meer, F.D.


    Assessment of soil contamination and its long-term monitoring are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoremediation systems. Spectral sensing-based monitoring methods promise obvious benefits compared to field-based methods: lower cost, faster data acquisition and better spatio-temporal


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanusa Andrea Casarin


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to monitor the index of general waste irons forecasting nodular and gray using the residues originated from the methodology Box & Jenkins by means of X-bar and R control charts. Search is to find a general class of model ARIMA (p, d, q but as data have autocorrelation is found to the number of residues which allowed the application of charts. The found model was the model SARIMA (0,1,1(0,1,1 . In step of checking the stability of the model was found that some comments are out of control due to temperature and chemical composition.

  19. Integrated risk and recovery monitoring of ecosystem restorations on contaminated sites. (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J; Glomb, Stephen J; Harper, David D; Hoelzle, Timothy B; McIntosh, Lisa M; Mulligan, David R


    Ecological restorations of contaminated sites balance the human and ecological risks of residual contamination with the benefits of ecological recovery and the return of lost ecological function and ecosystem services. Risk and recovery are interrelated dynamic conditions, changing as remediation and restoration activities progress through implementation into long-term management and ecosystem maturation. Monitoring restoration progress provides data critical to minimizing residual contaminant risk and uncertainty, while measuring ecological advancement toward recovery goals. Effective monitoring plans are designed concurrently with restoration plan development and implementation and are focused on assessing the effectiveness of activities performed in support of restoration goals for the site. Physical, chemical, and biotic measures characterize progress toward desired structural and functional ecosystem components of the goals. Structural metrics, linked to ecosystem functions and services, inform restoration practitioners of work plan modifications or more substantial adaptive management actions necessary to maintain desired recovery. Monitoring frequency, duration, and scale depend on specific attributes and goals of the restoration project. Often tied to restoration milestones, critical assessment of monitoring metrics ensures attainment of risk minimization and ecosystem recovery. Finally, interpretation and communication of monitoring findings inform and engage regulators, other stakeholders, the scientific community, and the public. Because restoration activities will likely cease before full ecosystem recovery, monitoring endpoints should demonstrate risk reduction and a successional trajectory toward the condition established in the restoration goals. A detailed assessment of the completed project's achievements, as well as unrealized objectives, attained through project monitoring, will determine if contaminant risk has been minimized, if injured

  20. Integrated risk and recovery monitoring of ecosystem restorations on contaminated sites (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J.; Glomb, Stephen J.; Harper, David; Hoelzle, Timothy B.; McIntosh, Lisa M.; Mulligan, David R.


    Ecological restorations of contaminated sites balance the human and ecological risks of residual contamination with the benefits of ecological recovery and the return of lost ecological function and ecosystem services. Risk and recovery are interrelated dynamic conditions, changing as remediation and restoration activities progress through implementation into long-term management and ecosystem maturation. Monitoring restoration progress provides data critical to minimizing residual contaminant risk and uncertainty, while measuring ecological advancement toward recovery goals. Effective monitoring plans are designed concurrently with restoration plan development and implementation and are focused on assessing the effectiveness of activities performed in support of restoration goals for the site. Physical, chemical, and biotic measures characterize progress toward desired structural and functional ecosystem components of the goals. Structural metrics, linked to ecosystem functions and services, inform restoration practitioners of work plan modifications or more substantial adaptive management actions necessary to maintain desired recovery. Monitoring frequency, duration, and scale depend on specific attributes and goals of the restoration project. Often tied to restoration milestones, critical assessment of monitoring metrics ensures attainment of risk minimization and ecosystem recovery. Finally, interpretation and communication of monitoring findings inform and engage regulators, other stakeholders, the scientific community, and the public. Because restoration activities will likely cease before full ecosystem recovery, monitoring endpoints should demonstrate risk reduction and a successional trajectory toward the condition established in the restoration goals. A detailed assessment of the completed project's achievements, as well as unrealized objectives, attained through project monitoring, will determine if contaminant risk has been minimized, if injured

  1. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants (United States)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.


    Control of air contaminants is a crucial factor in the safety considerations of crewed space flight. Indoor air quality needs to be closely monitored during long range missions such as a Mars mission, and also on large complex space structures such as the International Space Station. This work mainly pertains to the detection and simulation of air contaminants in the space station, though much of the work is easily extended to buildings, and issues of ventilation systems. Here we propose a method with which to track the presence of contaminants using an accurate physical model, and also develop a robust procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. A part of this research concerns the modeling of air flow inside a spacecraft, and the consequent dispersal pattern of contaminants. Our objective is to also monitor the contaminants on-line, so we develop a state estimation procedure that makes use of the measurements from a sensor system and determines an optimal estimate of the contamination in the system as a function of time and space. The real-time optimal estimates in turn are used to detect faults in the system and also offer diagnoses as to their sources. This work is concerned with the monitoring of air contaminants aboard future generation spacecraft and seeks to satisfy NASA's requirements as outlined in their Strategic Plan document (Technology Development Requirements, 1996).

  2. Hanford Site Tank 241-C-108 Residual Waste Contaminant Release Models and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.


    This report presents the results of laboratory characterization, testing, and analysis for a composite sample (designated 20578) of residual waste collected from single-shell tank C-108 during the waste retrieval process after modified sluicing. These studies were completed to characterize concentration and form of contaminant of interest in the residual waste; assess the leachability of contaminants from the solids; and develop release models for contaminants of interest. Because modified sluicing did not achieve 99% removal of the waste, it is expected that additional retrieval processing will take place. As a result, the sample analyzed here is not expected to represent final retrieval sample.

  3. An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe. (United States)

    Gómez-Ramírez, P; Shore, R F; van den Brink, N W; van Hattum, B; Bustnes, J O; Duke, G; Fritsch, C; García-Fernández, A J; Helander, B O; Jaspers, V; Krone, O; Martínez-López, E; Mateo, R; Movalli, P; Sonne, C


    Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment, PCB-induced altered reproductive impacts, and toxicity associated with lead in shot game. Authorisation of such releases and implementation of mitigation is now increasingly delivered through EU-wide directives but there is little established pan-European monitoring to quantify outcomes. We investigated the potential for EU-wide coordinated contaminant monitoring using raptors as sentinels. We did this using a questionnaire to ascertain the current scale of national activity across 44 European countries. According to this survey, there have been 52 different contaminant monitoring schemes with raptors over the last 50years. There were active schemes in 15 (predominantly western European) countries and 23 schemes have been running for >20years; most monitoring was conducted for >5years. Legacy persistent organic compounds (specifically organochlorine insecticides and PCBs), and metals/metalloids were monitored in most of the 15 countries. Fungicides, flame retardants and anticoagulant rodenticides were also relatively frequently monitored (each in at least 6 countries). Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), tawny owl (Strix aluco) and barn owl (Tyto alba) were most commonly monitored (each in 6-10 countries). Feathers and eggs were most widely analysed although many schemes also analysed body tissues. Our study reveals an existing capability across multiple European countries for contaminant monitoring using raptors. However, coordination between existing schemes and expansion of monitoring into Eastern Europe is needed. This would enable

  4. Removal of metal ions from contaminated water using agricultural residues (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell


    As the world population grows, there is a growing awareness that our environment is getting more polluted. Clean water is becoming a critical issue for many parts of the world for human, animal and agricultural use. Filtration systems to clean our air and water are a growing industry. There are many approaches to removing contaminates from our water supply ranging from...


    The ability of aqueous surfactant solutions to recover tetrachloroethylene (PCE) entrapped in Ottawa sand was evaluated in four column experiments. Residual PCE was emplaced by injecting 14C-labeled PCE into water-saturated soil columns and displacing the free product ...

  6. Monitoring of Some Pesticides Residue in Consumed tea in Tehran Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amirahmadi


    Full Text Available Tea is an agricultural product of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of various cultivars and sub-varieties of the Camellia sinensis plant, processed and vulcanized using various methods. Tea is a main beverage in Iranian food basket so should be free from toxic elements such as pesticides residue. There is no data bank on the residue of pesticides in the consumed black tea in Iran. The present study is the first attempt for monitoring of 25 pesticide residues from different chemical groups in tea samples obtained from local markets in Tehran, I.R. Iran during the period 2011. A reliable and accurate method based on spiked calibration curve and QuEChERS sample preparation was developed for determination of pesticide residues in tea by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The using of spiked calibration standards for constructing the calibration curve substantially reduced adverse matrix-related effects and negative recovery affected by GCB on pesticides. The recovery of pesticides at 3 concentration levels (n = 3 was in range of 81.4 - 99.4%. The method was proved to be repeatable with RSDr lower than 20%. The limits of quantification for all pesticides were <=20 ng/g. 53 samples from 17 imported and manufactured brand were analyzed. Detectable pesticides residues were found in 28.3% (15 samples of the samples. All of the positive samples were contaminated with unregulated pesticides (Endosulfan Sulfate or Bifenthrin which are established by ISIRI. None of the samples had contamination higher than maximum residue limit set by EU and India.

  7. Monitoring of some pesticides residue in consumed tea in Tehran market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamedani Morteza Pirali


    Full Text Available Abstract Tea is an agricultural product of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of various cultivars and sub-varieties of the Camellia sinensis plant, processed and vulcanized using various methods. Tea is a main beverage in Iranian food basket so should be free from toxic elements such as pesticides residue. There is no data bank on the residue of pesticides in the consumed black tea in Iran. The present study is the first attempt for monitoring of 25 pesticide residues from different chemical groups in tea samples obtained from local markets in Tehran, I.R. Iran during the period 2011. A reliable and accurate method based on spiked calibration curve and QuEChERS sample preparation was developed for determination of pesticide residues in tea by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The using of spiked calibration standards for constructing the calibration curve substantially reduced adverse matrix-related effects and negative recovery affected by GCB on pesticides. The recovery of pesticides at 3 concentration levels (n = 3 was in range of 81.4 - 99.4%. The method was proved to be repeatable with RSDr lower than 20%. The limits of quantification for all pesticides were ≤20 ng/g. 53 samples from 17 imported and manufactured brand were analyzed. Detectable pesticides residues were found in 28.3% (15 samples of the samples. All of the positive samples were contaminated with unregulated pesticides (Endosulfan Sulfate or Bifenthrin which are established by ISIRI. None of the samples had contamination higher than maximum residue limit set by EU and India.

  8. Remediation of deltamethrin contaminated cotton fields: residual and adsorption assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Uzaira


    Full Text Available Pakistan occupies a significant global position in the growing of high quality cotton. The extensive application of pesticides on agricultural products leads to environmental risk due to toxic residues in air, water and soil. This study examined the chemodynamic effect of Deltamethrin on cotton fields. Samples were collected from the cotton fields of D.G. Khan, Pakistan and analyzed for heavy metal speciation patterns. Batch experiments were administered in order to study the adsorption of Deltamethrin in cotton fields. The effect of different factors including pH, adsorbate dose, and adsorbent mass on adsorption were studied. It was observed that in general, adsorption increased with increases in the mass of adsorbate, although the trends were irregular. Residual fractions of deltamethrin in the soil and water of cotton fields were analyzed to assess concentrations of xenobiotics bound to soil particles. Results indicated that such residues are significantly higher in soil samples due to high Koc in comparison to water, indicating the former is an efficient degradation agent. Results from the batch experiment resulted in 95% removal with alkaline pH and an adsorbent-adsorbate ratio of 250:1. These results may be used to environment friendly resource management policies.

  9. Elevated DDE and toxaphene residues in fishes and birds reflect local contamination in the lower Rio Grande valley Texas USA (United States)

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Kennedy, H.R.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Ribick, M.A.


    A potential organochlorine pesticide problem was identified near Mission, Texas, by the National Park Monitoring Program. Fish samples from this site have consistently contained elevated levels of DDE since 1968. Surveys were made in 1976, 1978, and 1979 to determine the extent of organochlorine pesticide contamination in fishes and birds of the area. Freshwater fishes of Arroyo Colorado, a major waterway traversing the lower Rio Grande Valley, were highly contaminated with DDE and toxaphene residues compared to samples from other areas in the Valley; both DDE and toxaphene ranged up to 31.5 ppm wet wt in whole-fish composite samples. Median DDE residues in fish-eating bird carcasses from this area ranged up to 34 ppm wet wt, and 81 ppm in individual specimens. The levels of contaminants detected in fishes and birds were within, or above, the range producing adverse effects in certain species. The major sources of contamination to the Arroyo Colorado system likely stem from past and present use of persistent pesticides on surrounding croplands, and possibly from an abandoned pesticide plant at Mission, Texas.

  10. Elevated DDE and toxaphene residues in fishes and birds reflect local contamination in the lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas (United States)

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Kennedy, H.D.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Ribick, M.A.


    A potential organochlorine pesticide problem was identified near Mission, Texas, by the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. Fish samples from this site have consistently contained elevated levels of DDE since 1968. Surveys were made in 1976, 1978, and 1979 to determine the extent of organochlorine pesticide contamination in fishes and birds of the area. Freshwater fishes of the Arroyo Colorado, a major waterway traversing the lower Rio Grande Valley, were highly contaminated with DDE and toxaphene residues compared to samples from other areas in the Valley; both DDE and toxaphene ranged up to 31.5 ppm wet weight in whole-fish composite samples. In addition, median DDE residues in fish-eating bird carcasses from this area ranged up to 34 ppm wet weight, and 81 ppm in individual specimens. The levels of contaminants detected in fishes and birds were within, or above, the range producing adverse effects in certain species. The major sources of contamination to the Arroyo Colorado system likely stem from past and present use of persistent pesticides on surrounding croplands, and possibly from an abandoned pesticide plant at Mission, Texas.

  11. Belted kingfishers as ecological monitors of contamination: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landrum, C.L. [North Texas Univ., Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology; Ashwood, T.L.; Cox, D.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Aquatic systems serve as transport pathways and reservoirs for most of the contaminants known to be present on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Organisms that live in aquatic systems accumulate some of these contaminants from their food and directly from the water or sediment. A wide array of terrestrial organisms feeds on aquatic organisms and may accumulate contaminants from aquatic prey. The belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) is a piscivorous and territorial avian species that may be a suitable monitor of contaminant accumulation at specific sites on the ORR. A kingfisher collected on White Oak Lake in 1991 had a {sup 137}Cs concentration of 568 pCi/g in muscle tissue, which exceeds levels found in any other waterfowl collected from the lake. An investigation into the efficacy of using the kingfisher as an ecological indicator of aquatic contaminants on the ORR was initiated in late August 1992. The primary objective of this study was to acquire information concerning the ecology of the kingfisher to determine how the species could be used within the framework of the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A second important objective of the study was to examine the possible somatic and reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hg, and various radioactive contaminants on piscivorous birds by reviewing pollution ecology studies conducted on those species.

  12. Plant residues--a low cost, effective bioremediation treatment for petrogenic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. (United States)

    Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Adetutu, Eric M; Anderson, Peter A; Ball, Andrew S


    Petrogenic hydrocarbons represent the most commonly reported environmental contaminant in industrialised countries. In terms of remediating petrogenic contaminated hydrocarbons, finding sustainable non-invasive technologies represents an important goal. In this study, the effect of 4 types of plant residues on the bioremediation of aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated in a 90 day greenhouse experiment. The results showed that contaminated soil amended with different plant residues led to statistically significant increases in the utilisation rate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) relative to control values. The maximum TPH reduction (up to 83% or 6800 mg kg(-1)) occurred in soil mixed with pea straw, compared to a TPH reduction of 57% (4633 mg kg(-1)) in control soil. A positive correlation (0.75) between TPH reduction rate and the population of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms was observed; a weaker correlation (0.68) was seen between TPH degradation and bacterial population, confirming that adding plant materials significantly enhanced both hydrocarbonoclastic and general microbial soil activities. Microbial community analysis using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amending the contaminated soil with plant residues (e.g., pea straw) caused changes in the soil microbial structure, as observed using the Shannon diversity index; the diversity index increased in amended treatments, suggesting that microorganisms present on the dead biomass may become important members of the microbial community. In terms of specific hydrocarbonoclastic activity, the number of alkB gene copies in the soil microbial community increased about 300-fold when plant residues were added to contaminated soil. This study has shown that plant residues stimulate TPH degradation in contaminated soil through stimulation and perhaps addition to the pool of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms, resulting in a changed microbial structure and increased alkB gene

  13. Monitoring of Coliforms and chlorine residual in water distribution network of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. (United States)

    Farooq, Shaukat; Hashmi, Imran; Qazi, Ishtiaq A; Qaiser, Sara; Rasheed, Sajida


    The present study was undertaken to examine the drinking water quality of Rawal Treatment Plant, Rawalpindi and its distribution network by collecting samples from eight different locations. The aim was to determine potential relationship between the presence of microorganisms and chlorine residual in the distribution network. Quantification of chlorine residual, turbidity, standard plate count (SPC), fecal and total coliforms by Most Probable Number (MPN) was performed. Three different forms of chlorine were measured at each sampling station such as free chlorine, residual chlorine, chloramines and total chlorine residual. A critical evaluation of data presented indicated that pH generally ranged from 7.02-7.30; turbidity varied from 0.34-2.79 NTU; conductivity fluctuated from 359-374 microS/cm; and TDS values were found to be ranging between 180-187 mg/l. Station # 7 was found to be most contaminated. The value of total chlorine was found to be 0.86 to1.7 mg/l at Station # 3 and 6, respectively. Highest standard plate count was 62 CFU/ml at Station # 7. Total coliforms were less than 1.1 MPN/100 ml at almost most of the stations except at Station # 3 where it was found to be greater than 23.0 MPN /100 ml. Overall aim of this study is to create awareness about contamination of drinking water in the water distribution networks and to make recommendations to provincial agencies such as EPA, CDA and WASA that regular monitoring should be carried out to ensure that the chlorine residual is available at consumer end.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Four ionization profile monitors (IPMs) in RHIC measure vertical and horizontal beam profiles in the two rings by measuring the distribution of electrons produced by beam ionization of residual gas. During the last three years both the collection accuracy and signal/noise ratio have been improved. An electron source is mounted across the beam pipe from the collector to monitor microchannel plate (MCP) aging and the signal electrons are gated to reduce MCP aging and to allow charge replenishment between single-turn measurements. Software changes permit simultaneous measurements of any number of individual bunches in the ring. This has been used to measure emittance growth rates on six bunches of varying intensities in a single store. Also the software supports FFT analysis of turn-by-turn profiles of a single bunch at injection to detect dipole and quadrupole oscillations.

  15. Neuromuscular monitoring and postoperative residual curarisation: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Naguib, M; Kopman, A F; Ensor, J E


    We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effect of intraoperative monitoring of neuromuscular function on the incidence of postoperative residual curarisation (PORC). PORC has been considered present when a patient has a train-of-four (TOF) ratio of < 0.7 or < 0.9. We analysed data from 24 trials (3375 patients) that were published between 1979 and 2005. We excluded data on mivacurium from this meta-analysis because only three studies had examined the incidence of PORC associated with its use. Long- and intermediate-acting neuromuscular blocking drugs had been given to 662 and 2713 patients, respectively. Neuromuscular function was monitored in 823 patients (24.4%). A simple peripheral nerve stimulator was used in 543 patients, and an objective monitor was used in 280. The incidence of PORC was found to be significantly lower after the use of intermediate neuromuscular blocking drugs. We could not demonstrate that the use of an intraoperative neuromuscular function monitor decreased the incidence of PORC.

  16. Design and Development of Hand and Foot Contamination Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akter


    Full Text Available A hand and foot contamination monitor is a health physics instrument to provide detection and measurement of beta-gamma contamination on the palm of each hand and on the bottom surface of both feet/shoes. There are four channels of detection for two hands and two feet. Four G-M detectors have been used in a single unit to cover the whole area of hand and feet. A regulated high voltage DC power supply (900 V has been designed using the PIC12F675 microcontroller to operate the pancake Geiger-Müller detectors. The reading is displayed on a linearly scaled 0-100 Bq/cm2 analog panel meter. The monitor detects beta–gamma radiation emitted by radioactive materials, and if the detected value exceeds a preset level, the monitor sounds an alarm and displays a reading in the respective panel meter. Indicator lamps are used to show the status of contamination. The performance of the system has been tested by using pulse generator and by flat surface radioactive calibration sources. Electronic linearity, detection efficiency, response to the contamination, calibration factor and percentage of error has been measured. Test results were satisfactory and the present system can be used instead of similar imported instruments.

  17. Geotechnical behavior of a tropical residual soil contaminated with gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Echeverri-Ramírez


    Full Text Available La infraestructura para transporte de hidrocarburos ha crecido de manera importante debido a la necesidad de abastecer la mayo r cantidad de poblaciones; sin embargo por pro blemas en las redes de sumin istro, se presentan derrames accidentales que contaminan los su elos bajo los cuales se apoyan estas estructuras. Los suelos contaminados , en este caso particular con gasolina, son la motivación del p resente artículo, el cual pretende analizar los cambios que ocurren en un suelo d e origen residual tropical al ser contaminado con éste; mediant e pruebas de laboratorio específicos para caracterizar este tipo de suelos (Clasificación Miniatura Compactado Tropical, Succión, Pinhole Test, Índice de Colapso, Difracción de rayos “X”, Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido, determinación de pH y de ensayos tradicionales (hume dad natural, gravedad específica, granulometría, límites de Atterbe rg, corte directo, etc, tanto con muestras en estado natural c omo contaminadas que permitan percibir las posibles variaciones en las características mecánicas del material.

  18. Blast furnace residues for arsenic removal from mining-contaminated groundwater. (United States)

    Carrillo-Pedroza, Fco Raúl; Soria-Aguilar, Ma de Jesús; Martínez-Luevanos, Antonia; Narvaez-García, Víctor


    In this work, blast furnace (BF) residues were well characterized and then evaluated as an adsorbent material for arsenic removal from a mining-contaminated groundwater. The adsorption process was analysed using the theories of Freundlich and Langmuir. BF residues were found to be an effective sorbent for As (V) ions. The modelling of adsorption isotherms by empirical models shows that arsenate adsorption is fitted by the Langmuir model, suggesting a monolayer adsorption of arsenic onto adsorbents. Arsenate adsorption onto BF residue is explained by the charge density surface affinity and by the formation of Fe (II) and Fe (III) corrosion products onto BF residue particles. The results indicate that BF residues represent an attractive low-cost absorbent option for the removal of arsenic in wastewater treatment.

  19. Phytoavailability and mechanism of bound PAH residues in filed contaminated soils. (United States)

    Gao, Yanzheng; Hu, Xiaojie; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yize; Sun, Bingqing


    Understanding the phytoavailability of bound residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils is essential to assessing their environmental fate and risks. This study investigated the release and plant uptake of bound PAH residues (reference to parent compounds) in field contaminated soils after the removal of extractable PAH fractions. Plant pot experiments were performed in a greenhouse using ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) to examine the phytoavailablility of bound PAH residues, and microcosm incubation experiments with and without the addition of artificial root exudates (AREs) or oxalic acid were conducted to examine the effect of root exudates on the release of bound PAH residues. PAH accumulation in the ryegrass after a 50-day growth period indicated that bound PAH residues were significantly phytoavailable. The extractable fractions, including the desorbing and non-desorbing fractions, dominated the total PAH concentrations in vegetated soils after 50 days, indicating the transfer of bound PAH residues to the extractable fractions. This transfer was facilitated by root exudates. The addition of AREs and oxalic acid to test soils enhanced the release of bound PAH residues into their extractable fractions, resulting in enhanced phytoavailability of bound PAH residues in soils. This study provided important information regarding environmental fate and risks of bound PAH residues in soils.

  20. Insights into Contaminant Leaching Through An Intensive Field Monitoring Program (United States)

    Keim, D.; Ireson, A. M.; Ali, M.; Steele, C.; Penrod, D.


    Risks to groundwater quality from mobile contaminants in the unsaturated zone associated with active or legacy mines present significant challenges for land managers and policy makers worldwide. Unsaturated zone flow processes are a dominant control on contaminant loading. However, the presence of unsaturated zone heterogeneity results in spatially and temporally variable flow pathways, due to capillary breaks and hydraulic barriers forming in various locations. This can result in the development of focused flow paths from where rapid contaminant transport to the water table may occur. In this study we designed an intensive monitoring program to attempt to characterise time-varying flow paths through a highly heterogeneous unsaturated zone through a dense network of combined soil moisture, electric conductivity and temperature probes. Estimations of surface fluxes and soil drainage along with observed water table response at a waste management site in Chalk River, Canada are presented providing insights into flow and transport processes.

  1. Residual Viral and Bacterial Contamination of Surfaces after Cleaning and Disinfection (United States)

    Tuladhar, Era; Hazeleger, Wilma C.; Koopmans, Marion; Zwietering, Marcel H.; Beumer, Rijkelt R.


    Environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. We determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses, rotavirus, poliovirus, parechovirus, adenovirus, influenza virus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica from artificially contaminated stainless steel surfaces. After a single wipe with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm free chlorine solution, the numbers of infective viruses and bacteria were reduced by 1 log10 for poliovirus and close to 4 log10 for influenza virus. There was no significant difference in residual contamination levels after wiping with water, liquid soap, or 250-ppm chlorine solution. When a single wipe with liquid soap was followed by a second wipe using 250- or 1,000-ppm chlorine, an extra 1- to 3-log10 reduction was achieved, and except for rotavirus and norovirus genogroup I, no significant additional effect of 1,000 ppm compared to 250 ppm was found. A reduced correlation between reduction in PCR units (PCRU) and reduction in infectious particles suggests that at least part of the reduction achieved in the second step is due to inactivation instead of removal alone. We used data on infectious doses and transfer efficiencies to estimate a target level to which the residual contamination should be reduced and found that a single wipe with liquid soap followed by a wipe with 250-ppm free chlorine solution was sufficient to reduce the residual contamination to below the target level for most of the pathogens tested. PMID:22941071

  2. Luminescence monitoring of oil or tar contamination for industrial hygiene (United States)

    Gammage, Richard B.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan


    Synfuel plants produce potentially carcinogenic oils and tars. Exposure of workers to these tars and oils is difficult to avoid completely and occurs via direct contact with dirty surfaces or condensation of escaped fumes onto or within the body. Surface skin measurements are made directly with a near-ultraviolet luminoscope employing a fiber optics lightguide and a stethoscopic cap pressed against the skin. This instrument is especially suitable for measuring ng to μg/cm 2 amounts of residual contamination remaining on the surface of the skin after washing. To minimize the potential for carcinogenicity, the excitating ultraviolet light intensity is only 1/100 th that of sunlight.

  3. Bioavailability of residual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons following enhanced natural attenuation of creosote-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhasz, Albert L., E-mail: [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Smith, Euan [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia); Waller, Natasha [CSIRO Land and Water, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Stewart, Richard [Remediate, Kent Town, SA 5067 (Australia); Weber, John [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, SA 5095 (Australia)


    The impact of residual PAHs (2250 +- 71 mug total PAHs g{sup -1}) following enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) of creosote-contaminated soil (7767 +- 1286 mug total PAHs g{sup -1}) was assessed using a variety of ecological assays. Microtox{sup TM} results for aqueous soil extracts indicated that there was no significant difference in EC{sub 50} values for uncontaminated, pre- and post-remediated soil. However, in studies conducted with Eisenia fetida, PAH bioaccumulation was reduced by up to 6.5-fold as a result of ENA. Similarly, Beta vulgaris L. biomass yields were increased 2.1-fold following ENA of creosote-contaminated soil. While earthworm and plant assays indicated that PAH bioavailability was reduced following ENA, the residual PAH fraction still exerted toxicological impacts on both receptors. Results from this study highlight that residual PAHs following ENA (presumably non-bioavailable to bioremediation) may still be bioavailable to important receptor organisms such as earthworms and plants. - Residual PAHs in creosote-contaminated soil following enhanced natural attenuation impacted negatively on ecological receptors.

  4. Influence of Oil Contamination on Geotechnical Properties of Basaltic Residual Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfahmi A. Rahman


    Cu values for uncontaminated soils of both grades were 126 and 106 kPa and then dropped to very close values of 35 and 32 kPa at oil content of 16%. Conclusion: The results showed that the addition of oil has adverse effects to the geotechnical properties of the studied residual soil. Contaminated residual soils might be used for geotechnical purposes and these results will benefit to engineers or decision makers in recycling or re-using of contaminated soils.

  5. Monitoring program for mycotoxin contamination in Uruguayan food and feeds. (United States)

    Piñeiro, M; Dawson, R; Costarrica, M L


    A pilot study for monitoring mycotoxin contamination in food and feeds was implemented by the Technological Laboratory of Uruguay (LATU) with the technical assistance of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The scope of the study was to determine the potential hazard posed by priority food-contaminant and feed-contaminant combinations. The choice of foods and contaminants to be monitored was based on the importance of the food in the total diet, the economic importance of the product and the potential health risk posed by the specific combination. The principal commodities selected were wheat, barley and rice. Also included were com, soy, dairy products, feeds, dried fruits and legumes, oil seeds, cocoa beans and organ meats. Mycotoxins analyzed (TLC/densitometry) were aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol (DON) and ergot alkaloids. The survey results (1993-95) showed differences in both incidence and levels of mycotoxin content for the principal commodities. Of all food/feed categories analyzed, feed had the highest values for all mycotoxins. Samples containing DON in levels above 1000 ng/g were found in all groups. Ochratoxin A was not detected in any of the samples. Rice and soy beans were the categories with lowest aflatoxin incidence. Uruguayan regulatory limits for all toxins analyzed were exceeded for wheat, barley and rice in less than 3, 9 and 7% of samples, respectively. The data on actual mycotoxin levels in different foods will help identify sources of contaminations and areas where control measures should be improved, enable better risk assessment by proper estimation of mycotoxin intake, assist in the establishment of tolerances and adequate guidelines, aid in the implementation of a national program and provide economic benefits by improving grain quality.

  6. Chronic dietary risk characterization for pesticide residues: a ranking and scoring method integrating agricultural uses and food contamination data. (United States)

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Reninger, Jean-Cédric; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles


    A method has been developed to identify pesticide residues and foodstuffs for inclusion in national monitoring programs with different priority levels. It combines two chronic dietary intake indicators: ATMDI based on maximum residue levels and agricultural uses, and EDI on food contamination data. The mean and 95th percentile of exposure were calculated for 490 substances using individual and national consumption data. The results show that mean ATMDI exceeds the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for 10% of the pesticides, and the mean upper-bound EDI is above the ADI for 1.8% of substances. A seven-level risk scale is presented for substances already analyzed in food in France and substances not currently sought. Of 336 substances analyzed, 70 pesticides of concern (levels 2-5) should be particularly monitored, 22 of which are priority pesticides (levels 4 and 5). Of 154 substances not sought, 36 pesticides of concern (levels 2-4) should be included in monitoring programs, including 8 priority pesticides (level 4). In order to refine exposure assessment, analytical improvements and developments are needed to lower the analytical limits for priority pesticide/commodity combinations. Developed nationally, this method could be applied at different geographic scales.

  7. Stabilization of Rocky Flats combustible residues contaminated with plutonium metal and organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, S.M.; Cisneros, M.R.; Jacobson, L.L.; Schroeder, N.C.; Ames, R.L.


    This report describes tests on a proposed flowsheet designed to stabilize combustible residues that were generated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) during the machining of plutonium metal. Combustible residues are essentially laboratory trash contaminated with halogenated organic solvents and plutonium metal. The proposed flowsheet, designed by RFETS, follows a glovebox procedure that includes (1) the sorting and shredding of materials, (2) a low temperature thermal desorption of solvents from the combustible materials, (3) an oxidation of plutonium metal with steam, and (4) packaging of the stabilized residues. The role of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in this study was to determine parameters for the low temperature thermal desorption and steam oxidation steps. Thermal desorption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was examined using a heated air stream on a Rocky Flats combustible residue surrogate contaminated with CCl{sub 4}. Three types of plutonium metal were oxidized with steam in a LANL glovebox to determine the effectiveness of this procedure for residue stabilization. The results from these LANL experiments are used to recommend parameters for the proposed RFETS stabilization flowsheet.

  8. Mechanized recovery of olive pruning residues: ash contamination and harvesting losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Assirelli


    Full Text Available Agricultural residues represent an important source of biomass for energy. Among the available biomass suitable for energy and available in Italy, pruning represents about the 20% of the total. About 1.184 million of hectares are planted with olive trees; the pruning residues coming from these plantations represent a wide source of biomass at National level. The authors tested six commercial pruning harvesters to determine harvesting losses and product contamination when recovering pruning residues. All harvesters used a mechanical pick-up to collect the residues and a shredder to reduce them into chips. Three different pick-up settings were tested and namely: 1 cm above ground level, manufacturer’s specification and 3 cm above ground level. Ash content in the shredded material was taken as a measure of contamination: the uncontaminated branch material collected directly from the trees had a value of 3.5%, whereas in shredded residues varied between 4.5% and over 5.5%, for the shortest and the longest distance between the pick-up and the soil surface, respectively. Harvesting losses were slightly, but significantly, related to pick-up setting, and mainly depended on machine type. Both machines have shown a good quality of the work performed and the results obtained indicates that the work phases could be simplified in order to reduce both the time of use and the harvesting costs.

  9. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. Continuation of residue reviews. Vol. 115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, G.W. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Coll. of Agriculture) (ed.)


    This volume is part of a triumvirate of specialized publications in the field of tracing toxic chemicals in foodstuffs and in both abiotic and biotic environment (Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Bulletin of ..., Archives of ...) reviewing many important aspects of analytical chemistry, bioaccumulation, biochemistry, human and animal medicine, legislation, pharmacology, physiology, regulation and toxicology. The present volume contents the following residue reviews: 1. Ethylenethiourea (ETU) in relation to use of Ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicides; 2. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of environmental contaminants to bird eggs; 3. Lead exposure in early life: Health consequences; 4. Effects of oral and parenteral selenium supplements on residues in meat, milk and eggs. Separate abstracts were prepared for two papers in this book. (VHE).

  10. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.


    CH2M HILL is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the DOE's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at PNNL were asked to develop release models for contaminants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. This report provides the information developed by PNNL.

  11. Contaminant monitoring of hydraulic systems. The need for reliable data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M.J. [Pall Europe Ltd., Portsmouth (United Kingdom)] Rinkinen, J. [Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)


    The need for both reliable operation of hydraulic and lubrication systems and long component lives has focused users to the benefits of controlling the contamination in the hydraulic fluid. Maximum operating (target) levels are being implemented as part of a condition based maintenance regime. If these are exceeded, maintenance effort is directed to correcting the rise in consummation level, and so make optimum use of resources as maintenance effort is only affected when it is necessary to do so. Fundamental to ibis aspect of condition based monitoring is the provision of accurate and reliable data in the shortest possible time. This way, corrective actions can be implemented immediately so minimising the damage to components. On-line monitoring devices are a way of achieving this and are seeing increased use, but some are affected by the condition of the fluid. Hence, there is a potential for giving incorrect data which will waste time and effort by initiating unnecessary corrective actions. A more disturbing aspect is the effect on the user of continual errors. The most likely effect would be a loss of confidence in the technique or even complete rejection of it and hence the potential benefits will be lost. This presentation explains how contaminant monitoring techniques are applied to ensure that the potential benefits of operating with clean fluids is realised. It examines the sources of error and shows how the user can interrogate the data and satisfy himself of its authenticity. (orig.) 14 refs.

  12. Radioactive contamination in monitors received for calibration; Contaminacao em monitores de radiacao recebidos para calibracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Paulo S.; Santos, Gilvan C. dos; Brunelo, Maria Antonieta G.; Paula, Tiago C. de; Pires, Marina A.; Borges, Jose C. [MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., Jardinopolis, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ensaios e Pesquisas em Metrologia (METROBRAS)


    The Calibration Laboratory - LABCAL, from the Research Center for Metrology and Testing - METROBRAS, MRA Comercio de Instrumentos Eletronicos Ltda., began activities in October 2008 and, in August 2009, decided to establish a procedure for monitoring tests, external and internal, of all packages received from customers, containing instruments for calibration. The aim was to investigate possible contamination radioactive on these instruments. On July 2011, this procedure was extended to packagings of personal thermoluminescent dosemeters - TLD, received by the newly created Laboratory Laboratorio de Dosimetria Pessoal - LDP . In the monitoring procedure were used monitors with external probe, type pancake, MRA brand, models GP - 500 and MIR 7028. During the 37 months in which this investigation was conducted, were detected 42 cases of radioactive contamination, with the following characteristics: 1) just one case was personal dosimeter, TLD type; 2) just one case was not from a packing from nuclear medicine service - was from a mining company; 3) contamination occurred on packs and instruments, located and/or widespread; 4) contamination values ranged from slightly above the level of background radiation to about a thousand fold. Although METROBRAS has facilities for decontamination, in most cases, especially those of higher contamination, the procedure followed was to store the contaminated material in a room used for storage of radioactive sources. Periodically, each package and/or instrument was monitored, being released when the radiation level matched the background radiation. Every contamination detected, the client and/or owner of the instrument was informed. The Brazilian National Energy Commission - CNEN, was informed, during your public consultation for reviewing the standard for nuclear medicine services, held in mid-2012, having received from METROBRAS the statistical data available at the time. The high frequency of contamination detected and the high

  13. Monitoring ecological recovery in a stream impacted by contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, G.R.; Cada, G.F.; Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G. [and others


    Past in-ground disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. A biological monitoring program initiated in 1984 has evaluated the effectiveness of the extensive remedial actions undertaken to address contamination sources. Elements of the monitoring program included toxicity testing with fish and invertebrates, bioaccumulation monitoring, and instream monitoring of streambed invertebrate and fish communities. In the mid 1980`s, toxicity tests on stream water indicated that the headwaters of the stream were acutely toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates as a result of infiltration of a metal-enriched groundwater from ponds used to dispose of acid wastes. Over a twelve year period, measurable toxicity in the headwaters decreased, first becoming non-toxic to larval fish but still toxic to invertebrates, then becoming intermittently toxic to invertebrates. By 1997, episodic toxicity was infrequent at the site that was acutely toxic at the start of the study. Recovery in the fish community followed the pattern of the toxicity tests. Initially, resident fish populations were absent from reaches where toxicity was measured, but as toxicity to fish larvae disappeared, the sites in upper Bear Creek were colonized by fish. The Tennessee dace, an uncommon species receiving special protection by the State of Tennessee, became a numerically important part of the fish population throughout the upper half of the creek, making Bear Creek one of the most significant habitats for this species in the region. Although by 1990 fish populations were comparable to those of similar size reference streams, episodic toxicity in the headwaters coincided with a recruitment failure in 1996. Bioaccumulation monitoring indicated the presence of PCBs and mercury in predatory fish in Bear Creek, and whole forage fish contained elevated levels of cadmium, lead, lithium, nickel, mercury, and uranium.

  14. Contaminant Release Data Package for Residual Waste in Single-Shell Hanford Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.


    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order requires that a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation report be submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology. The RCRA Facility Investigation report will provide a detailed description of the state of knowledge needed for tank farm performance assessments. This data package provides detailed technical information about contaminant release from closed single-shell tanks necessary to support the RCRA Facility Investigation report. It was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., which is tasked by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with tank closure. This data package is a compilation of contaminant release rate data for residual waste in the four Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs) that have been tested (C-103, C-106, C-202, and C-203). The report describes the geochemical properties of the primary contaminants of interest from the perspective of long-term risk to groundwater (uranium, technetium-99, iodine-129, chromium, transuranics, and nitrate), the occurrence of these contaminants in the residual waste, release mechanisms from the solid waste to water infiltrating the tanks in the future, and the laboratory tests conducted to measure release rates.

  15. Contaminant Leach Testing of Hanford Tank 241-C-104 Residual Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M.V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buck, Edgar C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Leach testing of Tank C-104 residual waste was completed using batch and column experiments. Tank C-104 residual waste contains exceptionally high concentrations of uranium (i.e., as high as 115 mg/g or 11.5 wt.%). This study was conducted to provide data to develop contaminant release models for Tank C-104 residual waste and Tank C-104 residual waste that has been treated with lime to transform uranium in the waste to a highly insoluble calcium uranate (CaUO4) or similar phase. Three column leaching cases were investigated. In the first case, C-104 residual waste was leached with deionized water. In the second case, crushed grout was added to the column so that deionized water contacted the grout prior to contacting the waste. In the third case, lime was mixed in with the grout. Results of the column experiments demonstrate that addition of lime dramatically reduces the leachability of uranium from Tank C-104 residual waste. Initial indications suggest that CaUO4 or a similar highly insoluble calcium rich uranium phase forms as a result of the lime addition. Additional work is needed to definitively identify the uranium phases that occur in the as received waste and the waste after the lime treatment.

  16. Monitoring of raptors and their contamination levels in Norway. (United States)

    Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Kålås, John Atle; Nygård, Torgeir; Herzke, Dorte; Folkestad, Alv Ottar


    This article summarizes results from raptor monitoring and contamination studies in Norway of the golden eagle, gyrfalcon, white-tailed sea eagle, osprey, peregrine, and merlin. Golden eagle and gyrfalcon populations have been monitored since 1990 as part of the "Monitoring Programme for Terrestrial Ecosystems" (TOV). No long-term trend in the population size or productivity of golden eagle has been shown in any of the 5 study areas. The reproductive output of gyrfalcon is monitored in 3 areas. It is positively correlated with the populations of its main prey species, the rock ptarmigan and the willow ptarmigan. The white-tailed sea eagle population has been monitored since 1974 by the Norwegian Ornithological Society, and the population is increasing. The levels of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls are low in the eggs of both the golden eagle and the gyrfalcon, but elevated levels and effects on reproduction have been indicated for a coastal subpopulation of golden eagle. The pollutant levels in white-tailed sea eagle are lower than in the Baltic population of sea eagles, and shell thinning was never severe overall, but individual eggs have contained pollutant concentrations above critical levels. The levels of pollutants in the bird-eating falcons, peregrine, and merlin were higher than in other species. New emerging pollutants, like brominated diphenylethers and perfluorinated organic compounds, could be detected in all species. By incorporating available published and unpublished data, we were able to produce time trends for pollutants and shell thickness over 4 decades.

  17. Latin American and Caribbean intercomparison of surface contamination monitoring equipment. (United States)

    Cabral, T S; Ramos, M M O; Laranjeira, A S; Santos, D S; Suarez, R C


    In October 2009, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored an intercomparison exercise of surface contamination monitoring equipment, which was held at the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes, from the Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria, IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro. This intercomparison was performed to evaluate the calibration accessibility in Latin America and the Caribbean. Thirteen countries within the region and IAEA have sent instruments to be compared, but only five countries and IAEA were considered apt to participate. Analysis of instruments, results and discussions are presented and recommendations are drawn.

  18. Oil residue contamination of continental shelf sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. (United States)

    Harding, V; Camp, J; Morgan, L J; Gryko, J


    We have investigated the distribution of a heavy oil residue in the coastal sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. The amount of the contamination was determined by high-temperature pyrolysis coupled with the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) of air-dried sediments. The pyrolysis products contain straight-chain saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, such as dodecane and 1-dodecene, resulting in a very characteristic pattern of double peaks in the GCMS. Hydrocarbons containing 8 to 23 carbon atoms were detected in the pyrolysis products. Using thermal pyrolysis we have found that the sediment samples collected along Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi shores contain no detectable traces of oil residue, but most of the samples collected along Alabama and Florida shores contain ~200ppm of heavy oil residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolution of a residue laboratory network and the management tools for monitoring its performance. (United States)

    Lins, E S; Conceição, E S; Mauricio, A De Q


    Since 2005 the National Residue & Contaminants Control Plan (NRCCP) in Brazil has been considerably enhanced, increasing the number of samples, substances and species monitored, and also the analytical detection capability. The Brazilian laboratory network was forced to improve its quality standards in order to comply with the NRCP's own evolution. Many aspects such as the limits of quantification (LOQs), the quality management systems within the laboratories and appropriate method validation are in continuous improvement, generating new scenarios and demands. Thus, efficient management mechanisms for monitoring network performance and its adherence to the established goals and guidelines are required. Performance indicators associated to computerised information systems arise as a powerful tool to monitor the laboratories' activity, making use of different parameters to describe this activity on a day-to-day basis. One of these parameters is related to turnaround times, and this factor is highly affected by the way each laboratory organises its management system, as well as the regulatory requirements. In this paper a global view is presented of the turnaround times related to the type of analysis, laboratory, number of samples per year, type of matrix, country region and period of the year, all these data being collected from a computerised system called SISRES. This information gives a solid background to management measures aiming at the improvement of the service offered by the laboratory network.

  20. The Effect of Residual Endotoxin Contamination on the Neuroinflammatory Response to Sterilized Intracortical Microelectrodes. (United States)

    Ravikumar, Madhumitha; Hageman, Daniel J; Tomaszewski, William H; Chandra, Gabriella M; Skousen, John L; Capadona, Jeffrey R


    A major limitation to the use of microelectrode technologies in both research and clinical applications is our inability to consistently record high quality neural signals. There is increasing evidence that recording instability is linked, in part, to neuroinflammation. A number of factors including extravasated blood products and macrophage released soluble factors are believed to mediate neuroinflammation and the resulting recording instability. However, the roles of other inflammatory stimuli, such as residual endotoxin contamination, are poorly understood. Therefore, to determine the effect of endotoxin contamination we examined the brain tissue response of C57/BL6 mice to non-functional microelectrodes with a range of endotoxin levels. Endotoxin contamination on the sterilized microelectrodes was measured using a limulus amebocyte lysate test following FDA guidelines. Microelectrodes sterilized by autoclave, dry heat, or ethylene oxide gas, resulted in variable levels of residual endotoxins of 0.55 EU/mL, 0.22 EU/mL, and 0.11 EU/mL, respectively. Histological evaluation at two weeks showed a direct correlation between microglia/macrophage activation and endotoxin levels. Interestingly, astrogliosis, neuronal loss, and blood brain barrier dysfunction demonstrated a threshold-dependent response to bacterial endotoxins. However, at sixteen weeks, no histological differences were detected, regardless of initial endotoxin levels. Therefore, our results demonstrate that endotoxin contamination, within the range examined, contributes to initial but not chronic microelectrode associated neuroinflammation. Our results suggest that minimizing residual endotoxins may impact early recording quality. To this end, endotoxins should be considered as a potent stimulant to the neuroinflammatory response to implanted intracortical microelectrodes.

  1. Tritium contamination and monitoring at Frascati Neutron Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucci, F.; Sandri, S.; Ianni, A. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Ambiente; Vasselli, R. [ANPA, Roma (Italy); Pillon, M.; Bettinali, L. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Energia


    The Frascati Neutron Generator (FGN) is a specialised 300 keV, 3 mA direct electrostatic deuteron accelerator which produces about 5-10{sup 1}1 14 MeV neutrons per second by D-T reactions on a tritium-titanium fixed target. This paper concerns the tritium contamination control and monitoring aspects after some months of testing and a preliminary period of operation of the plant. The tritium monitoring system is composed of both on-line and off-line devices to control the tritium concentration in the atmosphere measured from different parts of the plant: vacuum exhaust clean up (VECU) system, stack, etc. The on-line devices are three flux monitors, that sample continuosly the air from up to eight different points in the plant. The passive sampling system is designed to select the chemical form of tritium and to collect respectively HTO and HT in two different cartridges filled with an appropriate drying material. The response of the on-line tritium monitor system are exposed and discussed: some measurements performed with atmosphere dehumidifying apparatus of this system are described and the relevant results are analysed.

  2. Allowable residual-contamination levels for decommissioning facilities in the 100 areas of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.


    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for five generic categories of facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide ARCL data useful to UNC engineers in conducting safety and cost comparisons for decommissioning alternatives. The ARCL results are based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. These modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. The information on ARCL values for restricted and controlled use provided by this report is intended to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. ARCL results are presented both for surface contamination remaining in facilities (in dpm/100 cm/sup 2/), and for unconfined surface and confined subsurface soil conditions (in pCi/g). Two confined soil conditions are considered: contamination at depths between 1 and 4 m, and contamination at depths greater than or equal to 5 m. A set of worksheets are presented in an appendix for modifying the ARCL values to accommodate changes in the radionuclide mixture or concentrations, to consider the impacts of radioactive decay, and to predict instrument responses. Finally, a comparison is made between the unrestricted release ARCL values for the 100 Area facilities and existing decommissioning and land disposal regulations. For surface contamination, the comparison shows good agreement. For soil contamination, the comparison shows good agreement if reasonable modification factors are applied to account for the differences in modeling soil contamination and licensed low-level waste.

  3. Contribution of microorganisms to non-extractable residue formation from biodegradable organic contaminants in soil (United States)

    Nowak, K. M.; Girardi, C.; Miltner, A.; Schäffer, A.; Kästner, M.


    Biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil is actually understood as their transformation into various primary metabolites, microbial biomass, mineralisation products and non-extractable residues (NER). NER are generally considered to be composed of parent compounds or primary metabolites with hazardous potential. Up to date, however, their chemical composition remains still unclear. Studies on NER formation are limited to quantitative analyses in soils or to simple humic acids-contaminant systems. However, in the case of biodegradable organic compounds, NER may also contain microbial biomass components, e.g. fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). After cell death, these biomolecules are incorporated into soil organic matter (SOM) and stabilised, ultimately forming biogenic residues which are not any more extractable. We investigated the incorporation of the 13C-label into FA and AA and their fate during biodegradation experiments in soil with isotope-labelled 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (13C6-2,4-D) and ibuprofen (13C6-ibu) as model organic contaminants. Our study proved for the first time that nearly all NER formed from 13C6-2,4-D and 13C6-ibu in soil derived from harmless microbial biomass components stabilised in SOM. 13C-FA and 13C-AA contents in the living microbial biomass fraction decreased over time and these components were continuously incorporated into the non-living SOM pool in biotic experiments with 13C6-2,4-D and 13C6-ibu. The 13C-AA in the non-living SOM were surprisingly stable from day 32 (13C6-2,4-D) and 58 (13C6-ibu) until the end of incubation. We also studied the transformation of 13C6-2,4-D and 13C6-ibu into NER in the abiotic soil experiments. In these experiments, the total NER contents were much lower than in the corresponding biotic experiments. The absence of labelled biomolecules in the NER fraction in abiotic soils demonstrated that they consist of the potentially hazardous parent compounds and / or their metabolites. Biogenic

  4. Bioprospection and selection of bacteria isolated from environments contaminated with petrochemical residues for application in bioremediation. (United States)

    Cerqueira, Vanessa S; Hollenbach, Emanuel B; Maboni, Franciele; Camargo, Flávio A O; Peralba, Maria do Carmo R; Bento, Fátima M


    The use of microorganisms with hydrocarbon degrading capability and biosurfactant producers have emerged as an alternative for sustainable treatment of environmental passives. In this study 45 bacteria were isolated from samples contaminated with petrochemical residues, from which 21 were obtained from Landfarming soil contaminated with oily sludge, 11 were obtained from petrochemical industry effluents and 13 were originated directly from oily sludge. The metabolization capability of different carbon sources, growth capacity and tolerance, biosurfactant production and enzymes detection were determined. A preliminary selection carried out through the analysis of capability for degrading hydrocarbons showed that 22% of the isolates were able to degrade all carbon sources employed. On the other hand, in 36% of the isolates, the degradation of the oily sludge started within 18-48 h. Those isolates were considered as the most efficient ones. Twenty isolates, identified based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, were pre-selected. These isolates showed ability for growing in a medium containing 1% of oily sludge as the sole carbon source, tolerance in a medium containing up to 30% of oily sludge, ability for biosurfactant production, and expression of enzymes involved in degradation of aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Five bacteria, identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila BB5, Bacillus megaterium BB6, Bacillus cibi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus BS20 were shown to be promising for use as inoculum in bioremediation processes (bioaugmentation) of areas contaminated with petrochemical residues since they can use oily sludge as the sole carbon source and produce biosurfactants.

  5. Solubility analysis and disposal options of combustion residues from plants grown on contaminated mining area. (United States)

    Kovacs, Helga; Szemmelveisz, Katalin; Palotas, Arpad Bence


    Biomass, as a renewable energy source, is an excellent alternative for the partial replacement of fossil fuels in thermal and electric energy production. A new fuel type as biomass for energy utilisation includes ligneous plants with considerable heavy metal content. The combustion process must be controlled during the firing of significant quantities of contaminated biomass grown on brownfield lands. By implementing these measures, air pollution and further soil contamination caused by the disposal of the solid burning residue, the ash, can be prevented. For the test samples from ligneous plants grown on heavy metal-contaminated fields, an ore mine (already closed for 25 years) was chosen. With our focus on the determination of the heavy metal content, we have examined the composition of the soil, the biomass and the combustion by-products (ash, fly ash). Our results confirm that ash resulting from the combustion must be treated as toxic waste and its deposition must take place on hazardous waste disposal sites. Biomass of these characteristics can be burnt in special combustion facility that was equipped with means for the disposal of solid burning residues as well as air pollutants.

  6. Enhanced Retention of Chemotactic Bacteria in a Pore Network with Residual NAPL Contamination (United States)

    Ford, R.; Wang, X.


    Nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants are difficult to eliminate from natural aquifers due, in part, to the heterogeneous structure of the soil matrix. Residual NAPL ganglia remain trapped in regions where the hydraulic conductivity is relatively low. Bioremediation processes depend on adequate mixing of microbial populations and the groundwater contaminants that they degrade. The ability of bacteria to sense a chemical gradient and swim preferentially toward locations of higher concentration, known as chemotaxis, can enhance the mixing of bacteria with contaminant sources that may not be readily accessible by advection and dispersion alone. The impact of chemotaxis on bacterial abundance within a low conductivity NAPL-contaminated region of a well-characterized porous matrix was investigated. A microfluidic device was designed to mimic heterogeneous features of a contaminated groundwater system. NAPL ganglia (toluene) were trapped within a fine pore network, and bacteria were injected into the system through a highly conductive adjacent channel. Chemotactic bacteria (P. putida F1) migrated preferentially towards and accumulated in the vicinity of NAPL contaminant sources. The accumulation of chemotactic bacteria was 15% greater in comparison to a nonchemotactic mutant (P. putida F1 CheA). Bacteria in the microfluidic device were subjected to different flow velocities from 0.25 to 5 m/d encompassing the range of typical groundwater flow rates. Chemotactic bacteria exhibited greater accumulation near the intersection between the macrochannel and the porous network at a flow velocity of 0.5 m/d than both the nonchemotactic mutant control and the chemotactic bacteria at a higher flow velocity of 5 m/d. Breakthrough curves observed at the outlet provided indirect evidence that chemotactic bacteria were retained within the contaminated low permeable region for a longer time than the nonchemotactic bacteria at a flow velocity of 0.25 m/d. This retention was

  7. Impact of residual contamination on the biofunctional properties of purified alginates used for cell encapsulation. (United States)

    Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Polizu, Stefania; Ménard, Martin; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine


    Alginate is frequently used for cell encapsulation, but its biocompatibility is neither optimal nor reproducible. Purifying the alginate is critical for achieving a suitable biocompatibility. However, published purification methods vary in efficiency and may induce changes in polymer biofunctionality. Applying X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we showed that commercial alginates, purified by in-house and industrial methods, contained elemental impurities that contributed 0.41-1.73% of their atomic composition. Residual contaminants were identified to be proteins (nitrogen/COOH), endotoxins (phosphorus), and fucoidans (sulphur). Studies using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that trace contamination did not alter the alginate molecular structure. Alginate hydrophilicity increased by 19-40% after purification, in correlation with a reduction in protein and polyphenol content. Solution viscosity of the alginate increased by 28-108% after purification, in correlation with a reduction in protein content. These results demonstrate that commercial alginates contain potentially immunogenic contaminants that are not completely eliminated by current purification methods. Moreover, these contaminants alter the functional properties of the alginate in a manner that may compromise biocompatibility: Hydrophilicity may affect protein adsorption and solution viscosity influences the morphology of alginate-based microcapsules. These findings highlight the need to improve and better control alginate purity to ensure a reproducible biofunctionality and optimal biocompatibility of alginate and microcapsules.

  8. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Impact of Cement Reactions on Release of Contaminants from Residual Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.


    The CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were asked to develop release models for contaminants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. Initial work to produce release models was conducted on residual tank sludge using pure water as the leaching agent. The results were reported in an earlier report. The decision has now been made to close the tanks after waste retrieval with a cementitious grout to minimize infiltration and maintain the physical integrity of the tanks. This report describes testing of the residual waste with a leaching solution that simulates the composition of water passing through the grout and contacting the residual waste at the bottom of the tank.

  9. Monitoring arsenic contamination in agricultural soils with reflectance spectroscopy of rice plants. (United States)

    Shi, Tiezhu; Liu, Huizeng; Wang, Junjie; Chen, Yiyun; Fei, Teng; Wu, Guofeng


    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and to investigate the mechanism for rapidly monitoring arsenic (As) contamination in agricultural soils with the reflectance spectra of rice plants. Several data pretreatment methods were applied to improve the prediction accuracy. The prediction of soil As contents was achieved by partial least-squares regression (PLSR) using laboratory and field spectra of rice plants, as well as linear regression employing normalized difference spectral index (NDSI) calculated from fild spectra. For laboratory spectra, the optimal PLSR model for predicting soil As contents was achieved using Savitzky-Golay smoothing (SG), first derivative and mean center (MC) (root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP)=14.7 mg kg(-1); r=0.64; residual predictive deviation (RPD)=1.31). For field spectra, the optimal PLSR model was also achieved using SG, first derivative and MC (RMSEP=13.7 mg kg(-1); r=0.71; RPD=1.43). In addition, the NDSI with 812 and 782 nm obtained a prediction accuracy with r=0.68, RMSEP=13.7 mg kg(-1), and RPD=1.36. These results indicated that it was feasible to monitor the As contamination in agricultural soils using the reflectance spectra of rice plants. The prediction mechanism might be the relationship between the As contents in soils and the chlorophyll-a/-b contents and cell structure in leaves or canopies of rice plants.

  10. A methodology for estimating the residual contamination contribution to the source term in a spent-fuel transport cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, T.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jordan, H. (EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant); Pasupathi, V. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)); Mings, W.J. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Reardon, P.C. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))


    This report describes the ranges of the residual contamination that may build up in spent-fuel transport casks. These contamination ranges are calculated based on data taken from published reports and from previously unpublished data supplied by cask transporters. The data involve dose rate measurements, interior smear surveys, and analyses of water flushed out of cask cavities during decontamination operations. A methodology has been developed to estimate the effect of residual contamination on spent-fuel cask containment requirements. Factors in estimating the maximum permissible leak rates include the form of the residual contamination; possible release modes; internal gas-borne depletion; and the temperature, pressure, and vibration characteristics of the cask during transport under normal and accident conditions. 12 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 2 (UCMR 2), (2008-2010) Occurrence Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule supporting the second cycle (UCMR 2) of monitoring, conducted under EPA oversight, was published in the Federal Register...

  12. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.


    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station.

  13. Carbon speciation in ash, residual waste and contaminated soil by thermal and chemical analyses. (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Robinson, Ryan; Brännvall, Evelina; Nordmark, Désirée; Bjurström, Henrik; Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders; Ecke, Holger


    Carbon in waste can occur as inorganic (IC), organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) each having distinct chemical properties and possible environmental effects. In this study, carbon speciation was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), chemical degradation tests and the standard total organic carbon (TOC) measurement procedures in three types of waste materials (bottom ash, residual waste and contaminated soil). Over 50% of the total carbon (TC) in all studied materials (72% in ash and residual waste, and 59% in soil) was biologically non-reactive or EC as determined by thermogravimetric analyses. The speciation of TOC by chemical degradation also showed a presence of a non-degradable C fraction in all materials (60% of TOC in ash, 30% in residual waste and 13% in soil), though in smaller amounts than those determined by TGA. In principle, chemical degradation method can give an indication of the presence of potentially inert C in various waste materials, while TGA is a more precise technique for C speciation, given that waste-specific method adjustments are made. The standard TOC measurement yields exaggerated estimates of organic carbon and may therefore overestimate the potential environmental impacts (e.g. landfill gas generation) of waste materials in a landfill environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of remediation techniques in soils affected by residual contamination with heavy metals and arsenic. (United States)

    García-Carmona, M; Romero-Freire, A; Sierra Aragón, M; Martínez Garzón, F J; Martín Peinado, F J


    Residual soil pollution from the Aznalcóllar mine spill is still a problem in some parts of the affected area, today converted in the Guadiamar Green Corridor. Dispersed spots of polluted soils, identified by the absence of vegetation, are characterized by soil acid pH and high concentrations of As, Pb, Cu and Zn. Ex situ remediation techniques were performed with unrecovered soil samples. Landfarming, Composting and Biopiles techniques were tested in order to immobilize pollutants, to improve soil properties and to promote vegetation recovery. The effectiveness of these techniques was assessed by toxicity bioassays: Lactuca sativa L. root elongation test, Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence reduction test, soil induced respiration test, and Eisenia andrei survival and metal bioaccumulation tests. Landfarming and Composting were not effective techniques, mainly due to the poor improvement of soil properties which maintained high soluble concentrations of Zn and Cu after treatments. Biopile technique, using adjacent recovered soils in the area, was the most effective action in the reduction of soil toxicity; the improvement of soil properties and the reduction in pollutants solubility were key to improve the response of the tested organisms. Therefore, the mixture of recovered soils with polluted soils in the areas affected by residual contamination is considered a more suitable technique to reduce the residual pollution and to promote the complete soil recovery in the Guadiamar Green Corridor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Full scale amendment of a contaminated wood impregnation site with iron water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Kjeldsen, Peter; Jakobsen, Rasmus


    the design of delivery and mixing strategy for soil stabilization at field scale and present a cost-effective method of soil mixing by common contractor machinery. Soil contaminated by As, Cr, and Cu at an abandoned wood impregnation site was amended with 0.22% (dw) Fe-WTR. To evaluate the full scale...... amendment a 100 m2 test site and a control site (without amendment) were monitored for 14 months. Also soil analysis of Fe to evaluate the degree of soil and Fe-WTR mixing was done. Stabilization with Fe-WTR had a significant effect on leachable contaminants, reducing pore water As by 93%, Cu by 91% and Cr...

  16. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders


    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  17. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders


    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  18. Beryllium contamination and exposure monitoring in an inhalation laboratory setting. (United States)

    Muller, Caroline; Audusseau, Séverine; Salehi, Fariba; Truchon, Ginette; Chevalier, Gaston; Mazer, Bruce; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph


    Beryllium (Be) is used in several forms: pure metal, beryllium oxide, and as an alloy with copper, aluminum, or nickel. Beryllium oxide, beryllium metal, and beryllium alloys are the main forms present in the workplace, with inhalation being the primary route of exposure. Cases of workers with sensitization or chronic beryllium disease challenge the scientific community for a better understanding of Be toxicity. Therefore, a toxicological inhalation study using a murine model was performed in our laboratory in order to identify the toxic effects related to different particle sizes and chemical forms of Be. This article attempts to provide information regarding the relative effectiveness of the environmental monitoring and exposure protection program that was enacted to protect staff (students and researchers) in this controlled animal beryllium inhalation exposure experiment. This includes specific attention to particle migration control through intensive housekeeping and systematic airborne and surface monitoring. Results show that the protective measures applied during this research have been effective. The highest airborne Be concentration in the laboratory was less than one-tenth of the Quebec OEL (occupational exposure limit) of 0.15 microg/m(3). Considering the protection factor of 10(3) of the powered air-purifying respirator used in this research, the average exposure level would be 0.03 x 10(- 4) microg/m(3), which is extremely low. Moreover, with the exception of one value, all average Be concentrations on surfaces were below the Quebec Standard guideline level of 3 microg/100 cm(2) for Be contamination. Finally, all beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests for the staff were not higher than controls.

  19. Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Shonka Research Associates, Inc.`s (SRA) Surface Contamination Monitor and Survey Information management System (SCM/SIMS) is designed to perform alpha and beta radiation surveys of floors and surfaces and document the measured data. The SRA-SCM/SIMS technology can be applied to routine operational surveys, characterization surveys, and free release and site closure surveys. Any large nuclear site can make use of this technology. This report describes a demonstration of the SRA-SCM/SIMS technology. This demonstration is part of the chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology (ST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East`s (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor Facility. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies.

  20. Comparison of contaminant and residue levels in organic and conventional milk and meat products from northern Italy. (United States)

    Ghidini, S; Zanardi, E; Battaglia, A; Varisco, G; Ferretti, E; Campanini, G; Chizzolini, R


    Due to the growing interest in organic products, a comparison between the chemical safety of organic and conventional products was undertaken. Milk and meat were the products chosen for study. The parameters evaluated to assess chemical safety were organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, cadmium and mycotoxin contamination. Pesticides and PCBs residues in both organic and conventional milk and meat were lower than legal limits. Lead and cadmium residues were very low and did not differ between organic and conventional products. However, aflatoxin M1 contamination in some but not all samples of organic milk was significantly higher than those of conventional milk, although factors other than organic production might be implicated.

  1. Radioactive contamination monitoring for the Korean public following Fukushima nuclear accident. (United States)

    Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Pak, Min-Jeong; Park, Seyong; Kim, Mi-Ryeong; Lee, Seung-Sook


    On March 11, 2011, as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake, severe damage to the Fukushima nuclear power plant caused the release of radioactive materials. We conducted radioactive contamination monitoring for Korean residents in Japan and Korean travelers to East Japan after the accident. More than 800 members of the Korean public were surveyed for personal monitoring. Measured levels of external and internal contamination were within the screening levels for each monitoring method.

  2. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  3. Removal of prioritary pesticides contamining r'mel ground water by using organic waste residues. (United States)

    El Bakouri, H; Morillo, J; Usero, J; Ouassini, A


    This study evaluated pesticide contamination of R'mel ground water located in northwest Morocco. The study area is densely populated and thriving, with intensive agriculture. Various techniques, including stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy detection (GC-MS), were used for the quantitative determination of 13 pesticides including alachlor, aldrin, atrazine, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos, dieldrin, alpha-endosulfan, endrin, hexachlorobenzene, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH (lindane), simazine and trifluralin. The survey results showed that contamination by pesticide residues is widespread in the area. With the exception of atrazine, the average concentrations were all below the regulatory limits established by the European Union. The potential of ten natural organic substances to eliminate pesticides included in the European Water Framework Directive was evaluated. The absorbents with the highest removal efficiency were date and olives stones and, to a Lesser degree, Raphanus raphanistrum and Cistus ladaniferus. The adsorption tests gave very satisfying results and pointed to the possible application of these supports as ecoLogical remediation techniques to prevent pesticide pollution of aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Structural health monitoring of wind towers: residual fatigue life estimation (United States)

    Benedetti, M.; Fontanari, V.; Battisti, L.


    In a recent paper (Benedetti et al 2011 Smart Mater. Struct. 20 055009), the authors investigated the possibility of detecting cracks in critical sites of onshore wind towers using a radial arrangement of strain sensors around the tower periphery in the vicinity of the base welded joint. Specifically, the strain difference between adjacent strain sensors is used as a damage indicator. The number of sensors to be installed is determined by the minimum crack size to be detected, which in turn depends on the expected extreme wind conditions and programmed inspection/repair schedule. In this companion paper, we address these issues by investigating possible strategies for residual fatigue life assessment and management of onshore wind towers once the crack has been detected. For this purpose, fracture mechanics tests are carried out using welded samples to quantify the resistance to fatigue crack growth as well as the elastic-plastic fracture toughness of the welded joint at the tower base. These material strength characteristics are used to estimate (i) the critical crack size for structural integrity on the basis of fracture toughness tests, elastoplastic finite element analyses and loading spectra under extreme wind conditions, (ii) the residual life before structural collapse, applying a frequency-domain method to typical in-service wind actions and wind directionality.

  5. Demolition and removal of radioactively contaminated concrete soil: Aerosol control and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Grace, A.C. III


    From 1963 to 1985, two concrete-lined ponds were used to reduce the volume of radioactive liquids from the Institute`s research programs. Following withdrawal of the {open_quotes}hot ponds{close_quotes} from active use, the residual sludges and plastic liners of the ponds were removed and shipped to a radioactive waste disposal site. From 1987 to 1994, the concrete structures remained undisturbed pending environmental restoration on the site. Restoration began in 1994 and was completed in 1995. Restoration involved mechanical breakup and removal of the concrete structures and removal of areas of contaminated soils from the site. This report describes the design and results of the aerosol control and monitoring program that was conducted to ensure protection of workers and the environment during the restoration process. The aerosol control and monitoring strategy developed for remediation of the ITRI hot ponds was successful both in preventing dispersion of radioactive dusts and in demonstrating that exposures of workers and offsite releases were within statutory limits.

  6. Monitoring of Free Water and Particulate Contamination of F-24 Fuel (United States)


    UNCLASSIFIED TABLE OF CONTENTS MONITORING OF FREE WATER AND PARTICULATE CONTAMINATION OF F-24 FUEL INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 480...Destroy this report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED MONITORING OF FREE WATER AND...2. REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) August 2014 - June 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monitoring of Free Water and

  7. Detection of Pb, Ba, and Sb in Blowfly Larvae of Porcine Tissue Contaminated with Gunshot Residue by ICP OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa C. Motta


    Full Text Available Lead (Pb, barium (Ba, and antimony (Sb concentrations were monitored in flies larvae (immature Chrysomya albiceps contaminated with gunshot residue (GSR from .40 caliber Taurus pistols during the period of 2 to 12 days after the death of a female pig in decomposition, during the winter, under the influence of rain and high relative humidity. The samples were also analyzed by the colorimetric test using sodium rhodizonate (Feigl-Suter reaction. It was possible to detect and quantify the three metals of interest by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES, where the concentrations of all three elements kept practically constant during the putrefaction stage. Minimum ([Pb] = 382.26 μg L−1; [Ba] = 140.50 μg L−1; [Sb] = 39.18 μg L−1 and maximum ([Pb] = 522.66 μg L−1; [Ba] = 190.30 μg L−1; [Sb] = 56.14 μg L−1 concentrations were found during the third and fifth days after death, respectively. ICP OES presented higher sensitivity in metals determination when compared to the conventional colorimetric test, which showed negative result for the GSR extracts obtained from the immature Chrysomya albiceps.

  8. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY2013 and FY2014 (revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg D. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Campbell, Scott A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is conducting a field assessment of the potential for contaminated soil to be transported from the Smoky Contamination Area (CA) as a result of storm runoff, which supports National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) efforts to complete regulatory closure of the Soils Corrective Action Unit (CAU) contamination areas. The work is intended to confirm the likely mechanism of transport and determine the meteorological conditions that might cause movement of contaminated soils, as well as determine the particle size fraction that is most closely associated with transported radionuclide-contaminated soils. These data will facilitate the appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring program.

  9. Enhanced degradation of bioremediation residues in petroleum-contaminated soil using a two-liquid-phase bioslurry reactor. (United States)

    Lu, Mang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Sun, Shanshan; Wang, Qinfang; Zhong, Weizhang


    A study was performed to determine the potential of two-liquid-phase (TLP) bioslurry reactors using silicon oil as solvent for degradation of residual contaminants in petroleum-contaminated soil. The residues were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. This allowed for the identification of a mixture of residual biomarkers, metabolic byproducts, oxygenated and hetero-polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the contaminated soil. The removal amount of total extractable organics (TEO) was 15900mgkg(-1) soil in the TLP reactor within 12weeks. However, TEO remained intact in the bioslurry reactor without the addition of silicon oil for the duration of the experiment, due to high toxicity of metabolites to the microorganisms. The availability of TEO was calculated using a mild extraction with Triton X-100, and the amount of TEO extracted was in accord with the amount of biodegraded TEO. Significantly reduced toxicity in soil was observed at week 12 through TLP remediation. Dehydrogenase activity in the bioslurry reactor was strongly suppressed. Fluorescein diacetate was significantly hydrolyzed by the composition of bioremediation residues in the contaminated soil. Microbial adhesion to the solvent was revealed by the determination of microbial activity in the water-immiscible-liquid.

  10. Residual viral and bacterial contamination of surfaces after cleaning and disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Koopmans, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Beumer, R.R.; Duizer, E.


    Environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. We determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses, r

  11. Residual viral and bacterial contamination of surfaces after cleaning and disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Koopmans, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Beumer, R.R.; Duizer, E.


    Environmental surfaces contaminated with pathogens can be sources of indirect transmission, and cleaning and disinfection are common interventions focused on reducing contamination levels. We determined the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures for reducing contamination by noroviruses,

  12. Monitoring of minimal residual disease in leukemia, advantages and pitfalls. (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Gaipa, Giuseppe; Rossi, Vincenzo; Biondi, Andrea


    The term 'minimal residual disease' (MRD) defines the level of disease detectable in patients in clinical remission during therapy, below the detection limit of conventional methods. Very sensitive methods can be used, able to identify one leukemic cell out of 10,000 normal lymphocytes. In vivo measurements of leukemia cytoreduction reflect the combined effect of clinical and biological variables, thus providing direct information on the effectiveness of treatment in each patient. Thus, these methods can potentially be used for tailoring treatment and personalize the cure. Although MRD studies are becoming an integral part of the modern management of patients with leukemia, several parameters are critical for the application and interpretation of MRD studies, including therapeutic context, timing of sampling, target genes and sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, inter-laboratory standardization (particularly relevant in multicenter studies), selection of patients, retrospective or prospective nature of the study. Methodologies and pitfalls as well as results of clinical uses of MRD will be reviewed in this article by selecting significant examples of its clinical impact in the management of patients with leukemia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK


    Full Text Available Agricultural Institute of Slovenia was performing national monitoring for pesticide residues in agricultural products according to the Decree on Monitoring of Pesticides in Foodstuffs and in Agricultural Products (Offi cial Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia No. 13/99. Constant measurements are necessary due to intensive agricultural production and use of chemical substances for plant protection. Due to the nutrition characteristic for the Slovenians pesticide residues are monitored each year in the samples of potato, lettuce and apples; the choice of other agricultural products and active substances analysed are adapted to the guidelines indicated in the EU recommendations. In the years 2003 and 2004 we analysed the presence of pesticide residues in 361 samples of agricultural products: caulifl ower, head cabbage, grapes, apples, strawberries, potatoes, peppers, tomatoes, wheat and lettuce from eight different growing areas of Slovenia. All agricultural products were analysed in 2003 for the presence of 51 active substances and in 2004 for the presence of 57 active substances. The maximum residue level (MRL was exceeded by 6.6 % samples inspected. Potato contributed a major share to this, since in 5.0 % of samples exceeded values of dithiocarbamate residues were determined, however, they were the only active substance found in potato. In 39.1 % of analysed samples residues lower than MRL were determined, in 54.3 % of samples residues were not found or they were below the level of detection method. The greatest number of pesticide residues which did not exceed MRLs was found in fruit, f. ex.: eight in apples and six in strawberries. Residues of dithiocarbamates were the most frequently found active substance in agricultural products.

  14. Residual indoor contamination from world trade center rubble fires as indicated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon profiles. (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Funk, William E; Rappaport, Stephen M


    The catastrophic destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on Sept. 11, 2001 (9/11) created an immense dust cloud followed by fires that emitted smoke and soot into the air of New York City (NYC) well into December. Outdoor pollutant levels in lower Manhattan returned to urban background levels after about 200 days as the fires were put out and the debris cleanup was completed. However, particulate matter (PM) from the original collapse and fires also penetrated into commercial and residential buildings. This has created public concern because WTC dust is thought to cause adverse pulmonary symptoms including "WTC cough" and reduced lung capacity. Additionally, some recent studies have suggested a possible link between exposure to WTC contamination and other adverse health effects. Distinguishing between normal urban pollutant infiltration and residual WTC dust remaining in interior spaces is difficult; efforts are underway to develop such discriminator methods. Some progress has been made in identifying WTC dust by the content of fibers believed to be associated with the initial building collapse. There are also contaminants created by the fires that burned for 100 days in the debris piles of the building rubble. Using WTC ambient air samples, we have developed indicators for fire related PM based on the relative amounts of specific particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the mass fraction of PAHs per mass of PM. These two parameters are combined, and we show a graphical method for discriminating between fire sources and urban particulate sources as applied to samples of settled dusts. We found that our PAHs based discriminator method can distinguish fire source contributions to WTC related particulate matter and dusts. Other major building fires or large open burn events could have similar PAHs characteristics. We found that random samples collected approximately 3.5 years after the WTC event from occupied indoor spaces (primarily residential

  15. Monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables of agricultural area in Venezuela. (United States)

    Quintero, América; Caselles, María J; Ettiene, Gretty; de Colmenares, Nélida G; Ramírez, Tibisay; Medina, Deisy


    The purpose of this study was to determine the residues of seven pesticides organophosphorus (methamidophos, diazinon, chlorpyriphos, parathion-methyl, dimethoate, malathion and tetrachlorvinphos), in some vegetables like: potato, lettuce, tomato, onion, red pepper and green onion cultivated in José María Vargas County in Táchira State, Venezuela. The research permitted to detect that 48.0% of the samples were contaminated with some of the pesticides studied. Methamidophos was founded in the vegetables in the rank of 6.3%-65.5%. The results show that 16.7% of the samples tested have residues higher than the maximum limits permitted.

  16. Contamination of food with residues of antibiotics in the sulphonamide class, risk can be avoided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lidia Chitescu,


    Full Text Available Sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfaquinoxaline and sulfadiazine are the most common usedsulfonamides in veterinary practice. The recommended withdrawal periods if not observed before slaughteringof the medicated animals, the products may obtain from such animals may be contaminated with residue. Theinterest in having reliable methods able to detect low amounts of sulfonamides in food is very actual. In thisstudy, a multiresidue analysis was performed to simultaneously determine those four sulfonamides in chickenmuscle tissue by the Waters LC.Criteria of validation: specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and linearity,according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, show that the method can detect differentkinds of sulfonamides within one run, without mass spectrometry analyses, or Fluor metric derivatization ofanalyts.The method is accurate, simple, economical in both time and cost, capable of detecting sulfonamidesresidues below the maximum residue limits (MRL and easy to perform to routine samples, in normal conditionof laboratory.The sulfonamides were extracted with acetonitrile and acetone and dichloromethane. N-hexane wasadded for defeating the sample. Separation was carried out on a Zorbax SB- C18 analytical column, using asmobile phase a mixture of 75:25 = di-natrium-hydrogenphosphat solution 6 g/1000 ml (pH = 8.5 : methanol.The detection wavelength was set at: 254 nm Calibration graphs were linear with very good correlationcoefficients in the concentration range from 0.320 to 1.5μg /mL. The limits of quantification (LOQ for thesulfonamides were in the range of 6.6–0.34 μg /kg. The recovery for spiked chicken muscle with 50–150 μg/kg ranged more than 70%. The relative standard deviation (Reds of the sulfonamides for six measurementsat 50 go/kg, 100 μg /kg and 150 μg /kg was less then 15%.The applicability of the method to the analysis of chicken muscle tissue was

  17. Certified reference materials for organic contaminants for use in monitoring of the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; McGovern, E.


    Over the last three decades organic contaminants have been of increasing importance in environmental monitoring. Dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides have determined the environmental research agenda. This has led to an increasing demand for certified reference

  18. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 3 (UCMR 3), (2013-2015) Occurrence Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The third Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 3), conducted under EPA oversight, was published in the Federal Register on May 2, 2012. UCMR 3 requires...

  19. 75 FR 8063 - Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RIN 2040-AF10 Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring... this notice is to announce a public stakeholder meeting to present information to...


    Contaminated sediments pose a risk to human health and the environment . The management of this risk is currently limited practically to three technologies: dredging, capping, and natural recovery. Monitored natural recovery relies on the natural burial and removal mechanisms to...

  1. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Inorganic Contaminants In Ground Water - Technical Issues (United States)

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

  2. Contamination monitoring in radiation protection activities in Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thin, K.T.; Htoon, S. [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Physics


    The radioactive contamination in rainwater, seawater, air, milk powder and other eatables were measured with low level counter assembly. The measured activities are found to be very low and well within the maximum permissible level. (author)

  3. Trace Contaminant Monitor for Air in Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A need exists for analyzers that can measure trace contaminants in air on board spacecraft. Toxic gas buildup can endanger the crew particularly during long...

  4. Results from the monitoring of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables on the Danish market 1998-99

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Hinge; Poulsen, Mette Erecius


    The objective of the Danish pesticide monitoring programme for fruit and vegetables was to check for compliance with the maximum residue levels in foods and to monitor the residue levels to assess the pesticide exposure of the Danish population. Sampling plans were designed based on previous find....... Residues were found in 54% of the samples of fruit but only in 13% of the vegetables. Residues above the MRL were found in 4% of all samples of fruit and in 1% of vegetables....

  5. Utilization of air pollution control residues for the stabilization/solidification of trace element contaminated soil. (United States)

    Travar, I; Kihl, A; Kumpiene, J


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of trace element-contaminated soil using air pollution control residues (APCRs) prior to disposal in landfill sites. Two soil samples (with low and moderate concentrations of organic matter) were stabilized using three APCRs that originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste, bio-fuels and a mixture of coal and crushed olive kernels. Two APCR/soil mixtures were tested: 30% APCR/70% soil and 50% APCR/50% soil. A batch leaching test was used to study immobilization of As and co-occurring metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Solidification was evaluated by measuring the unconfined compression strength (UCS). Leaching of As was reduced by 39-93% in APCR/soil mixtures and decreased with increased amounts of added APCR. Immobilization of As positively correlated with the amount of Ca in the APCR and negatively with the amount of soil organic matter. According to geochemical modelling, the precipitation of calcium arsenate (Ca3(AsO4)2/4H2O) and incorporation of As in ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O) in soil/APCR mixtures might explain the reduced leaching of As. A negative effect of the treatment was an increased leaching of Cu, Cr and dissolved organic carbon. Solidification of APCR/soil was considerably weakened by soil organic matter.

  6. Recent Advances and Uses of Monolithic Columns for the Analysis of Residues and Contaminants in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Díaz-Bao


    Full Text Available Monolithic columns are gaining interest as excellent substitutes to conventional particle-packed columns. These columns show higher permeability and lower flow resistance than conventional liquid chromatography columns, providing high-throughput performance, resolution and separation in short run times. Monoliths possess also great potential for the clean-up and preparation of complex mixtures. In situ polymerization inside appropriate supports allows the development of several microextraction formats, such as in-tube solid-phase and pipette tip-based extractions. These techniques using porous monoliths offer several advantages, including miniaturization and on-line coupling with analytical instruments. Additionally, monoliths are ideal support media for imprinting template-specific sites, resulting in the so-called molecularly-imprinted monoliths, with ultra-high selectivity. In this review, time-saving LC columns and preparative applications applied to the analysis of residues and contaminants in food in 2010–2014 are described, focusing on recent improvements in design and with emphasis in automated on-line systems and innovative materials and formats.

  7. [Compositions and residual properties of petroleum hydrocarbon in contaminated soil of the oilfields]. (United States)

    Hu, Di; Li, Chuan; Dong, Qian-Qian; Li, Li-Ming; Li, Guang-He


    The aims of this study were to determine the compositions and residual properties of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil, as well as to identify the source and weathering degree of the pollution. A total of 5 producing wells in Gudao and Hekou oil producing region of Shengli oilfields were analyzed. More than 50 individual target compounds including straight-and branched-chain alkanes( n-alkanes, pristine and phytane) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil samples and crude oil were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The percentages of chain alkanes and PAHs in total solvent extractable matters(TSEM) of soil samples were both much lower than those in the crude oil samples. The compositions of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil samples differed from those in crude oil, which indicated the n-alkanes with carbon numbers oil contaminated soils, the relationship between the index and petroleum hydrocarbon compounds was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the n-alkanes with carbon numbers > 33 and the PAHs with rings between 3 and 5 were much harder to degrade. PCA of 4 indexes for source identification revealed more than 50% of the soil samples were polluted by crude oil, which needs more attention during remediation.

  8. PCDDF and pesticides monitoring in a dioxin contaminated area in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalhaes, G.; Azevedo, J.A.; Azevedo, G.; Machado, M.; Brooks, P. [Analytical Solutions, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    During the 40's and 50's there had been a hexachlorocyclohexane(HCH) industry in Duque de Caxias, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Duque de Caxias is a very important borough within the state's political and administrative structure. It is located in a strategic point connecting Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. It also holds one of Brazil's greatest petroleum refineries. For 20 years, this factory (which is located next to an orphanage called Cidade dos Meninos, an area belonging to the Ministry of Social Assistance) produced thousands of tons of HCH and also other pesticides, such as DDT, DDD and DDE. In the beginning of the 60's, the industry had its activities stopped1. In 1989, significant amounts of HCH had been found by local inspectors in Duque de Caxias, where it had been being sold for use in agriculture. Once the product's usage had already been prohibited in Brazil, after a investigation authorities found that it would come from the inactive industry. Both environmental and public health institutions decided to use a mixture of lime and soil, in order to destroy the residues and organic compounds found in the old plant. Such procedure would cause a greater problem, for the lime used wouldn't meet the right proportions of the large area and its contaminated soil. In addition, it also affected the water supply and the local population. The consequences have been disastrous. Data referring to breastfeeding and blood revealed alarming pesticide rates that endangered the local people health conditions both in short and long term. After 14 years, monitoring is still necessary in that region so it is possible to control contamination and its damage related to secondary reactions, climatic effects and soil structure. For this reason, a monitoring program has been developed in order to investigate the rates of certain pesticides and PCDD/F in locations near the contamination field.

  9. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott A.


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Area 8 Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively.

  10. The Development of a Sub-Surface Monitoring System for Organic Contamination in Soils and Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Huntley


    Full Text Available A major problem when dealing with environmental contamination is the early detection and subsequent surveillance of the contamination. This paper describes the potential of sub-surface sensor technology for the early detection of organic contaminants in contaminated soils, sediments, and landfill sites. Rugged, low-power hydrocarbon sensors have been developed, along with a data-logging system, for the early detection of phase hydrocarbons in soil. Through laboratory-based evaluation, the ability of this system to monitor organic contamination in water-based systems is being evaluated. When used in conjunction with specific immunoassays, this can provide a sensitive and low-cost solution for long-term monitoring and analysis, applicable to a wide range of field applications.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A beam profile monitor for high energy beams, which has no intercepting parts in the beam pipe, is described. It makes use of the ionization of the residual gas, which is still present in the vacuum chamber of the beam guiding system. The detection of the ionization products is performed with microc

  12. Addendum to the East Tennessee Technology Park Site-Wide Residual Contamination Remedial Investigation Work Plan Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The East Tennessee Technology Park Site-Wide Residual Contamination Remedial Investigation Work Plan (DOE 2004) describes the planned fieldwork to support the remedial investigation (RI) for residual contamination at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) not addressed in previous Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) decisions. This Addendum describes activities that will be conducted to gather additional information in Zone 1 of the ETTP for groundwater, surface water, and sediments. This Addendum has been developed from agreements reached in meetings held on June 23, 2010, August 25, 2010, October 13, 2010, November 13, 2010, December 1, 2010, and January 13, 2011, with representatives of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). Based on historical to recent groundwater data for ETTP and the previously completed Sitewide Remedial Investigation for the ETTP (DOE 2007a), the following six areas of concern have been identified that exhibit groundwater contamination downgradient of these areas above state of Tennessee and EPA drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs): (1) K-720 Fly Ash Pile, (2) K-770 Scrap Yard, (3) Duct Island, (4) K-1085 Firehouse Burn/J.A. Jones Maintenance Area, (5) Contractor's Spoil Area (CSA), and (6) Former K-1070-A Burial Ground. The paper presents a brief summary of the history of the areas, the general conceptual models for the observed groundwater contamination, and the data gaps identified.

  13. Contamination of liquid milk and butter with pesticide residues in the Ludhiana district of Punjab state, India. (United States)

    Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder; Kang, B K


    An analysis of 92 samples of liquid milk from Ludhiana, India, during 1999-2001 revealed the presence of DDT in 6 (7.4%) samples and of these 2 samples were found to exceed the maximum residue limit (MRL) of DDT fixed at 0.05 mg kg(-1) (on a whole milk basis). HCH residues were detected in 49 (53.3%) samples and constituted only gamma-HCH (lindane). The MRL of lindane is fixed at 0.01 mg kg(-1) (whole milk basis), and all 49 liquid milk samples exceeded this value. These results are indicative of contamination of bovine milk with pesticide residues as a result of the ban on the use of DDT and HCH in agriculture and public health programs. Similarly, analysis of 40 samples of butter showed the presence of DDT and HCH in 28 and 8 samples, respectively. However, none of the samples exceeded the MRL value of either DDT or any isomer of HCH. DDT residues comprised mainly p,p-DDE and p,p-TDE, whereas HCH residues were present as lindane in 6 samples, and 2 samples revealed the presence of beta-HCH. The estimated daily intake of lindane through the consumption of contaminated liquid milk exceeded its acceptable daily intake value for children. Interestingly, none of the liquid milk or butter samples revealed the presence of any commonly used organophosphorus or synthetic pyrethroid insecticides at their detection limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1).

  14. Occupational safety during the remediation of a contaminated site: monitoring of PCDD/PCDF levels in blood of employees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottler, H. [Eurofins Oekometric, Bayreuth (Germany); Uffinger, H. [Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft (TBG), Arbeitsmedizinischer Dienst, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)


    In connection with road construction activities a dioxin contaminated site was discovered during the 1990's in a German city, containing residues of early industrial activities. PCDD/PCDF levels up to 41 ng I-TEQ/g dry matter could be detected in the material with a 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF dominated pattern. This pattern is very similar to samples related to the production and use of chlorine in the early 20{sup th} century. Furthermore, sandy material showing a deviating and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF dominated pattern with an at least a factor of 10 lower concentrations was found. A remediation program was initiated including removal of contaminated soil and installing a drainage layer below the final asphalt layer sealing the site. Occupational safety for employees involved in any on-site activities was of primary importance following regulations for work in contaminated areas and for preventive occupational medicine. Hygiene was strictly obeyed. On-site monitoring via chromatographic dust analysis was performed by surveying engineers. Employees working in contaminated areas wore Air-Filters A2P3 with motor support. The mandatory personal safety equipment included dust-proof protective suits for single use, chemical-proof gloves and boots. In this context, it was the task of the Employer's Liability Insurance Association (Tiefbau- Berufsgenossenschaft, TBG) to strictly control compliance of occupational safety measures. The occupational medical service of this association was commissioned monitoring the health situation of the employees involved. Among other parameters, the corresponding control program included monitoring of PCDD/PCDF blood levels to identify possible alterations.

  15. Three years monitoring survey of pesticide residues in Sardinia wines following integrated pest management strategies. (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Dedola, Fabrizio


    This paper reports the results of a pesticide monitoring survey on wine grapes from the 2008-2010 vintage from vineyards grown according to integrated pest management strategies. A multi-residue gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method in electron ionization and chemical ionization mode has been used for the determination of 30 pesticides in wine samples. The analytical method showed good recoveries and allowed a good separation of the selected pesticides. Repeatability and intermediate precision showed good results with CV < 20 %. The instrumental method limits of determination (LOD) and of quantification (LOQ) were below the maximum residue levels set in wine. The analysis of the wines showed that pesticide residues were below the instrumental LOQ, and most of them were undetectable (residues.

  16. An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Ramirez, P.; Shore, R.F.; Brink, van den N.W.; Hattum, van B.; Bustnes, J.O.; Duke, G.; Fritsch, C.; Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Helander, B.O.; Jaspers, V.; Krone, O.; Martinez-Lopez, E.; Mateo, R.; Movalli, P.; Sonne, C.


    Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment, PCB-induce

  17. Evaluating leaf and canopy reflectance of stressed rice plants to monitor arsenic contamination (United States)

    Arsenic contamination is a serious problem in rice cultivated soils of many developing countries. Hence, it is critical to monitor and control arsenic uptake in rice plants to avoid adverse effects on human health. This study evaluated the feasibility of using reflectance spectroscopy to monitor ars...

  18. Proximal spectral sensing to monitor phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathod, Paresh H.; Rossiter, David G.; Noomen, Marleen F.; Meer, van der Freek D.


    Assessment of soil contamination and its long-term monitoring are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoremediation systems. Spectral sensing-based monitoring methods promise obvious benefits compared to field-based methods: lower cost, faster data acquisition and better spatio-temporal mo

  19. Case study sensitivity analysis of transmission spectra for water contaminant monitoring (United States)

    Lambrakos, S. G.; Yapijakis, C.; Aiken, D.; Shabaev, A.; Ramsey, S.; Peak, J.


    Monitoring of contaminants associated with specific water resources using transmission spectra, with respect to types and relative concentrations, requires tracking statistical profiles of water contaminants in terms of spatial-temporal distributions of electromagnetic absorption spectra ranging from the ultraviolet to infrared. For this purpose, correlation between spectral signatures and types of contaminants within specific water resources must be made, as well as correlation of spectral signatures with results of processes for removal of contaminants, such as ozonation. Correlation between absorption spectra and changes in chemical and physical characteristics of contaminants, within a volume of sampled solution, requires sufficient sensitivity. The present study examines the sensitivity of transmission spectra with respect to general characteristics of water contaminants for spectral analysis of water samples.

  20. Present status of contamination monitoring at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang Van Nguyen [Dalat Nuclear Research Inst. (Viet Nam)


    The Dalat nuclear research reactor was renovated and upgraded from the previous TRIGA reactor. In Vietnam, it is a unique nuclear device having suitable neutron flux for the radioisotope production and neutron activation analysis. Soon after the reactor reached its initial criticality in November 1983, a programme has been formed to develop the application of nuclear techniques in various fields. In addition, the use of radioisotopes for diagnostic, therapeutic and other research purposes has been in progress. In order to support these activities, the radiation protection, especially the radiation contamination monitoring has been properly paid attention to. In DNRI, the Radiation Protection Department is responsible for controlling and supervising radiation and working safety for all activities. In this paper, the following items are described on radiation contamination monitoring: controlled area, surface contamination monitoring, and airborne concentration monitoring. (G.K.)

  1. Monitoring and removal of residual phthalate esters and pharmaceuticals in the drinking water of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Yen, Chia-Heng; Wang, Chih-Lung


    This study monitored the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 8 phthalate esters (PAEs) and 13 pharmaceuticals present in the drinking water of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. The simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration (EC/EF) process was used to remove the contaminants. To this end, a monitoring program was conducted and a novel laboratory-prepared tubular carbon nanofiber/carbon/alumina composite membrane (TCCACM) was incorporated into the EC/EF treatment module (collectively designated as "TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module") to remove the abovementioned compounds from water samples. The monitoring results showed that the concentrations of PAEs were lower in water samples from drinking fountains as compared with tap water samples. No significant differences were found between the concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the two types of water samples. Under optimal operating conditions, the TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module yielded the lowest residual concentrations, ranging from not detected (ND) to 52ng/L for PAEs and pharmaceuticals of concern in the tap water samples. Moreover, the performance of the TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module is comparable with a series of treatment units employed for the drinking fountain water treatment system. The relevant removal mechanisms involved in the TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module were also discussed in this work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High-Performance Contaminant Monitor for Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vision for Space Exploration demands increasing reliance on real-time trace gas monitors onboard spacecraft. Present grab samples and badges will be inadequate...

  3. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring of butyltin contamination in coastal waters of Asian developing countries. (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Monirith, In; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Subramanian, Annamalai; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Nguyen Duc; Tanabe, Shinsuke


    Butyltin compounds (BTs) including mono-, di-, and tributyltin and total tin (sigmaSn), were determined in green mussels (Perna viridis) from various Asian developing countries, such as Cambodia, China (Hong Kong and southern China), Malaysia, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, to elucidate the contamination status, distribution, and possible sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and humans. Butyltin compounds were detected in green mussels collected from all the sampling location investigated, suggesting widespread contamination of BTs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. Among butyltin derivatives, tributyltin (TBT) was the predominant compound, indicating its ongoing usage and recent exposures in Asian coastal waters. Higher concentrations of BTs were found in mussels collected at locations with intensive maritime activities, implying that the usage of TBT as a biocide in antifouling paints was a major source of BTs. In addition, relatively high concentrations of BTs were observed in mussels from aquaculture areas in Hong Kong and Malaysia, as it has been reported in Thailand. With the recent improvement in economic status in Asia, it is probable that an increase in TBT usage will occur in aquaculture. Although contamination levels were generally low in mussel samples from most of the Asian developing countries, some of those from polluted areas in Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand revealed levels comparable to those in developed nations. Furthermore, the concentrations of TBT in some mussels from polluted areas exceeded the threshold for toxic effects on organisms and estimated tolerable average residue levels as seafoods for human consumption. A significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of sigmaBTs and sigmaSn in mussels, and sigmaBTs were made up mostly 100% of sigmaSn in mussels taken from locations having intensive maritime/human activities. This suggests that

  4. An evaluation of remote sensing technologies for the detection of residual contamination at ready-for-anticipated use sites (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.


    Operational problems with site access and information, XRF instrument operation, and imagery collections hampered the effective data collection and analysis process. Of the 24 sites imaged and analyzed, 17 appeared to be relatively clean with no discernible metal contamination, hydrocarbons, or asbestos in the soil. None of the samples for the sites in Louisiana had any result exceeding the appropriate industrial or residential standard for arsenic or lead. One site in South Carolina (North Street Dump) had two samples that exceeded the residential standard for lead. One site in Texas (Cadiz Street), and four sites in Florida (210 North 12th Street, Encore Retail Site, Clearwater Auto, and 22nd Street Mixed Use) were found to have some level of residual metal contamination above the applicable residential or commercial Risk-Based Concentration (RBC) standard. Three of the Florida sites showing metal contamination also showed a pattern of vegetation stress based on standard vegetation analysis techniques.

  5. Flow of microemulsion through soil columns contaminated with asphaltic residue; Fluxo de microemulsoes atraves do solo contaminado com residuos asfalticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcia C.K.; Oliveira, Jose F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Oliveira, Roberto C.G.; Gonzalez, Gazpar [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas


    Nowadays, soil contamination with nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as petroleum hydrocarbons is a major environmental problem. Significant efforts have been devoted to the development of processes to remediate sites contaminated with NAPLs. Unfortunately, most of the developed processes proved to be inefficient to remove the organic heavy fraction present in the NAPLs. Nevertheless, in our preliminary bench scale tests it was observed that, due to their high solubilization capacity and stability, microemulsions are able to remove organic heavy fractions like asphaltenes and resins, typically present in crude oils. The present work was dimensioned to evaluate, under up-flow condition, the performance of different microemulsions specially designed to remove asphaltenes fractions from soils using a column test set-up. The contaminant residual concentration was quantified by UV spectroscopy and the microemulsion efficiency determined using mass balance. The results showed that the microemulsions tested have a high capacity for removing asphaltenes fractions from contaminated soils. It was also observed that the predominant removal mechanism, solubilization or mobilization, depends essentially on the microemulsion's chemical formulation. Finally it was verified that microemulsion's formulations based on natural solvents compounds are also efficient for removing asphaltic residues. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the diffuse contamination of soils caused by residues coming from the large scale production of phosphate fertilisers (United States)

    Martinez, M. J.; Perez-Sirvent, C.; Martinez-Lopez, S.; Bolivar, J. P.; Mosqueda, F.; Vaca, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.


    The obtaining of phosphate fertilizers results in large amounts of residues that are frequently accumulated in deposits or pools occupying a wide area. These residues are acidic, and contain variable amounts of trace elements and radionuclides. The potentially polluting agents can be leached by rainwater, and so transferred to the surface waters and then to the groundwater after soil infiltration. Since the distribution and thickness of the residue deposits are variable, the contaminants cannot be easily traced back to a single, well defined source, and so a diffuse contamination (nonpoint source pollution) of the surrounding soils and waters occurs. This communication reports the results obtained in the study of soils close to the phosphogypsum deposits placed near Rio Tinto (Huelva, Spain). The zone is affected not only by the mentioned residues but also by the tides due to the vicinity of the sea. The samples studied had a low organic content and a low acidity with average values of 30 mS/cm for the EC. The mineralogical study allowed illite, goethite, quartz, gypsum and kaolinite to be identified as the main mineralogical components. Although the arsenic level was relatively high (about 600 mg/Kg) the data proved that this element is not mobilized into water. Analytical data for 238U , 234U, 235U, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Po, 40K , 137Cs were also obtained.

  7. Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area: Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)--Programmatic, Technical, and Regulatory Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, Wayne J.


    Natural attenuation processes are commonly used for remediation of contaminated sites. A variety of natural processes occur without human intervention at all sites to varying rates and degrees of effectiveness to attenuate (decrease) the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume, or concentration of organic and inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface water systems. The objective of this review is to identify potential technical investments to be incorporated in the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area Strategic Plan for monitored natural attenuation. When implemented, the technical investments will help evaluate and implement monitored natural attenuation as a remediation option at DOE sites. The outcome of this review is a set of conclusions and general recommendations regarding research needs, programmatic guidance, and stakeholder issues pertaining to monitored natural attenuation for the DOE complex.

  8. Monitoring contaminant strategies: tools, techniques, methodologies and model approaches (United States)

    A century-long history of experiments on solute transport in soils has resulted in a wide range of experimental setups and procedures, as well as methods for interpreting observations which has led to considerable ambiguity regarding monitoring approaches. This presentation will focus on results an...

  9. An Approach Using Gas Monitoring to Find the Residual TCE Location in the Unsaturated Zone of Woosan Industrial Complex (WIC), Korea (United States)

    Koh, Y.; Lee, S.; Yang, J.; Lee, K.


    An area accommodating various industrial facilities has fairly high probability of groundwater contamination with multiple chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), and chloroform (CF). Source tracing of chlorinated solvents in the unsaturated zone is an essential procedure for the management and remediation of contaminated area. From the previous study on seasonal variations in hydrological stresses and spatial variations in geologic conditions on a TCE plume, the existence of residual DNAPLs at or above the water table has proved. Since TCE is one of the frequently detected VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) in groundwater, residual TCE can be detected by gas monitoring. Therefore, monitoring of temporal and spatial variations in the gas phase TCE contaminant at an industrial complex in Wonju, Korea, were used to find the residual TCE locations. As pilot tests, TCE gas samples collected in the unsaturated zone at 4 different wells were analyzed using SPME (Solid Phase MicroExtraction) fiber and Gas Chromatography (GC). The results indicated that detecting TCE in gas phase was successful from these wells and TCE analysis on gas samples, collected from the unsaturated zone, will be useful for source area characterization. However, some values were too high to doubt the accuracy of the current method, which needs a preliminary lab test with known concentrations. The modified experiment setups using packer at different depths are in process to find residual TCE locations in the unsaturated zone. Meanwhile, several PVD (polyethylene-membrane Passive Vapor Diffusion) samplers were placed under water table to detect VOCs by equilibrium between air in the vial and VOCs in pore water.

  10. Application of advanced cytometric and molecular technologies to minimal residual disease monitoring (United States)

    Leary, James F.; He, Feng; Reece, Lisa M.


    Minimal residual disease monitoring presents a number of theoretical and practical challenges. Recently it has been possible to meet some of these challenges by combining a number of new advanced biotechnologies. To monitor the number of residual tumor cells requires complex cocktails of molecular probes that collectively provide sensitivities of detection on the order of one residual tumor cell per million total cells. Ultra-high-speed, multi parameter flow cytometry is capable of analyzing cells at rates in excess of 100,000 cells/sec. Residual tumor selection marker cocktails can be optimized by use of receiver operating characteristic analysis. New data minimizing techniques when combined with multi variate statistical or neural network classifications of tumor cells can more accurately predict residual tumor cell frequencies. The combination of these techniques can, under at least some circumstances, detect frequencies of tumor cells as low as one cell in a million with an accuracy of over 98 percent correct classification. Detection of mutations in tumor suppressor genes requires insolation of these rare tumor cells and single-cell DNA sequencing. Rare residual tumor cells can be isolated at single cell level by high-resolution single-cell cell sorting. Molecular characterization of tumor suppressor gene mutations can be accomplished using a combination of single- cell polymerase chain reaction amplification of specific gene sequences followed by TA cloning techniques and DNA sequencing. Mutations as small as a single base pair in a tumor suppressor gene of a single sorted tumor cell have been detected using these methods. Using new amplification procedures and DNA micro arrays it should be possible to extend the capabilities shown in this paper to screening of multiple DNA mutations in tumor suppressor and other genes on small numbers of sorted metastatic tumor cells.

  11. On Line Current Monitoring and Application of a Residual Method for Eccentricity Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This work concerns the monitoring and diagnosis of faults in induction motors. We develop an approach based on residual analysis of stator currents to detect and diagnose faults eccentricity static, dynamic and mixed in three phase induction motor. To simulate the behavior of motor failure, a model is proposed based on the approach of magnetically coupled coils. The simulation results show the importance of the approach applied for the detection and diagnosis of fault in three phase induction motor.

  12. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring contamination of persistent organochlorine compounds in coastal waters of Asian countries. (United States)

    Monirith, In; Ueno, Daisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Karuppiah, Subramanian; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Ngyen Duc; Tana, Touch Seang; Tkalin, Alexander V; Tanabe, Shinsuke


    Contamination of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were examined in mussels collected from coastal waters of Asian countries such as Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Far East Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam in 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2001 to elucidate the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and human. OCs were detected in all mussels collected from all the sampling sites investigated. Considerable residue levels of p,p(')-DDT and alpha-HCH were found in mussels and the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs found in mussels from Asian developing countries were higher than those in developed nations suggesting present usage of DDTs and HCHs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. On the other hand, lower concentrations of PCBs detected in mussels from Asian developing countries than those in developed countries indicate that PCBs contamination in mussels is strongly related to industrial and activities. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on monitoring OCs pollution in the Asia-Pacific region.

  13. Second IRMF comparison of surface contamination monitor calibrations 2001-2002

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, C J


    The Ionising Radiations Metrology Forum (IRMF) organised a second comparison of surface contamination monitor calibrations in which twenty establishments in the UK participated. The exercise involved the circulation of three surface contamination monitors for calibration using large area reference sources available in the participants' laboratories. The instruments used were a Mini Instruments EP15, a Berthold LB122 and an Electra ratemeter with DP6AD probe. The instrument responses were calculated by the individual participants and submitted to the for analysis along with details of the reference sources used. Details of the estimated uncertainties were also reported. The results are compared and demonstrate generally satisfactory agreement between the participating establishments.

  14. Enhanced bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by immobilized bacteria with plant residue and biochar as carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baoliang; Yuan, Miaoxin; Qian, Linbo [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Environmental Science; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou (China)


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are largely accumulated in soils in China. The immobilized-microorganism technique (IMT) is a potential approach for abating soil contamination with PAHs. However, few studies about the application of IMT to contaminated soil remediation were reported. Due to recalcitrance to decomposition, biochar application to soil may enhance soil carbon sequestration, but few studies on the application of biochars to remediation of contaminated soil were reported. In this study, we illustrated enhanced bioremediation of soil having a long history of PAH contamination by IMT using plant residues and biochars as carriers. Two PAH-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas putida and an unidentified indigenous bacterium, were selected for IMT. The extractability and biodegradation of 15 PAHs in solution and an actual PAH-contaminated soil amended with immobilized-bacteria materials were investigated under different incubation periods. The effects of carriers and the molecular weight of PAHs on bioremediation efficiency were determined to illustrate their different bio-dissipation mechanisms of PAHs in soil. The IMT can considerably enhance the removal of PAHs. Carriers impose different effects on PAH bio-dissipation by amended soil with immobilized-bacteria, which can directly degrade the carrier-associated PAHs. The removal of PAHs from soil depended on PAH molecular weight and carrier types. Enhanced bio-dissipation by IMT was much stronger for 4- and 5-ring PAHs than for 3- and 6-ring ones in soil. Only P400 biochar-immobilized bacteria enhanced bio-dissipation of all PAHs in contaminated soil after a 90-day incubation. Biochar can promote bioremediation of contaminated soil as microbial carriers of IMT. It is vital to select an appropriate biochar as an immobilized carrier to stimulate biodegradation. It is feasible to use adsorption carriers with high sorptive capabilities to concentrate PAHs as well as microorganisms and thereby enhance

  15. A methodology for auto-monitoring of internal contamination by 131I in nuclear medicine workers. (United States)

    Vidal, M V S; Dantas, A L A; Dantas, B M


    The manipulation of 131I in Nuclear Medicine involves significant risks of internal contamination of the staff. In the event of an accidental contamination, or when the Radiological Protection Program includes routine individual monitoring of internal contamination, it is necessary to implement internal dose estimation through in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques. Due to the huge extension of the Brazilian country, this type of monitoring becomes unfeasible if all measurements have to be performed at the institutes of the CNEN. Thus, if the Nuclear Medicine Centres (NMC) become able to conduct the monitoring of their employees, this skill would be of great significance. The methodology proposed in this work consists in a simple and inexpensive protocol for auto-monitoring the internal contamination by 131I, using the resources available at the NMC. In order to verify the influence of the phantom in the calibration factor for the measurement of 131I in thyroid, it was performed a comparison among a variety of phantoms commercially available, including the Neck-Thyroid Phantom developed in IRD. A protocol for performing in vivo and in vitro measurements by the NMC was established. The applicability of the individual monitoring techniques was also evaluated by comparing the detection limits with the derived limits associated with the annual dose limits for workers.

  16. Soil and water contamination with carbofuran residues in agricultural farmlands in Kenya following the application of the technical formulation Furadan. (United States)

    Otieno, Peter O; Lalah, Joseph O; Virani, Munir; Jondiko, Isaac O; Schramm, Karl-Werner


    This study was undertaken to determine the concentrations of carbofuran residues in water, soil and plant samples from selected sites in the farmlands in Kenya and to demonstrate the impact of Furadan use on the local environment. Soil, water and plant samples obtained from agricultural farmlands where the technical formulation Furadan has been used extensively showed high environmental contamination with concentrations of carbofuran and its two toxic metabolites 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran, separately, ranging from 0.010-1.009 mg/kg of dry surface soil, 0.005-0.495 mg/L in water samples from two rivers flowing through the farms and bdl-2.301 mg/L in water samples from ponds and dams located close to the farms. Maize plant samples contained these residues in concentrations ranging from 0.04-1.328 mg/kg of dry plant tissue. The significantly high concentration levels of carbofuran and its metabolites, 3-ketocarbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran, found in various matrices demonstrate that Furadan was used extensively in the two areas and that there was environmental distribution and exposure of residues in water which posed risks when used for domestic purposes or as drinking water for animals in two wildlife conservancies where the dams and ponds are located. Surface soil contamination was also high and posed risks through run-off into the dams and rivers as well as through secondary exposure to small birds and mammals.

  17. Use of biological activities to monitor the removal of fuel contaminants - perspective for monitoring hydrocarbon contamination: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP


    Full Text Available Moderately sensitive Kandeler et al. (1994) Batteries? of bioindicators Microbial bioluminescence, earthwormand seed germination Creosote, heavy, medium and light crude oils. Moderately sensitive. Earthworm4seed germination4 bioluminescence 25?17; 400 mggC01.... However, microbial bioluminescence, microbial biomass/counts and soil respiration have been evaluated as potential tools for monitoring of hydrocarbons (Delistraty, 1984; Kandeler et al., 1994; Steinberg et al., 1995; Van Beelen and Doelman, 1997; Phillips...

  18. Great Lakes Contaminant Impacts Study: Residue analysis report on selected PCB Isomers in common tern eggs (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The status of environmental contamination and its possible effects on living resources in the St. Lawrence River and Niagara River ecosystems has been the subject of...

  19. Characterization and monitoring of contaminated sites by multi-geophysical approach (IP, ERT and GPR). (United States)

    Giampaolo, Valeria; Capozzoli, Luigi; Votta, Mario; Rizzo, Enzo


    The contamination of soils and groundwater by hydrocarbons, due to blow out, leakage from tank or pipe and oil spill, is a heavy environmental problem because infiltrated oil can persist in the ground for a long time leading to important changes on soils and physical and biogeochemical properties, which impact on ecosystems and shallow aquifers. The existing methods used for the characterization of hydrocarbon contaminated sites are invasive, time consuming and expensive. Therefore, in the last years, there was a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods for environmental monitoring (Börner et al., 1993; Vanhala, 1997; Atekwana et al., 2000; Chambers et al., 2004; Song et al., 2005; French et al., 2009). The goal of this work is to characterize underground contaminant distributions and monitoring a remediation activity using a multi-geophysical approach (cross-hole IP and ERT, GPR). The experiments consist in geophysical measurements both in surface and boreholes, to monitor a simulated hydrocarbon leachate into a ~1 m3 box. The tank is filled with quartz-rich sand (k = 1.16 x 10-12 m2) and it is equipped with six boreholes and 72 stainless steel ring electrodes, at 5 cm spacing, for cross-hole electrical resistivity and time-domain IP measurements. 25 additional stainless steel electrodes were installed at the surface of the tank. Two measurement phases were realized: first, we monitored electrical resistivity, IP, and dielectric conductivity of the uncontaminated soil; the second experimental phase consists in the geophysical monitoring of a crude oil controlled spill. Results showed significant changes in the responses of geoelectrical measurements in presence of a crude oil contamination. Instead IP results give a phase angle distribution related to the presence of hydrocarbon in the system but not so clear in the location of plume. Therefore, to clearly delineate the areas interested by contamination, we estimate the imaginary component of electrical

  20. Biological monitoring of heavy metal contaminations using owls. (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min


    Iron, manganese, copper, lead and cadmium were measured in the livers, muscles, kidneys and bones of Eurasian Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo), Brown Hawk Owls (Nixos scutulata) and Collared Scops Owls (Otus lempiji) from Korea. Iron concentrations by tissue within species did not differ, but there were significant differences among tissues across all species. Manganese and copper concentrations in muscles, kidneys and bones, but not livers, differed among species and also differed among tissues in the three owl species. We suggest that manganese and copper concentrations from this study were far below the level associated with their toxicity. Lead concentrations significantly differed among all species for livers and bones, and among tissues for each species. Cadmium concentrations were significantly different among species for all tissues and among tissues in Eurasian Eagle Owls and Collared Scops Owls. For most samples, lead concentrations in livers and bones, and cadmium in livers and kidneys, were within the background levels for wild birds. For some Eurasian Eagle Owls and Collared Scops Owls, lead concentrations were at an acute exposure level, whilst lead concentrations were at a chronic exposure level in Brown Hawk Owls. Cadmium concentrations were at a chronic exposure level in all three owl species. Acute and chronic poisoning was significantly correlated between indicator tissues. We suggest that lead and cadmium contamination in Eurasian Eagle Owls may reflect a Korean source, Brown Hawk Owls may reflect Korean and wintering sites, and Collared Scops Owls may reflect breeding and/or wintering sites. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  1. Toward In Situ Monitoring of Water Contamination by Nitroenergetic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna R. Taft


    Full Text Available We have previously described the application of novel porous organosilicate materials to the preconcentration of nitroenergetic targets from aqueous solution prior to HPLC analysis. The performance of the sorbents and the advantages of these types of materials over commercially available solid phase extraction sorbents have been demonstrated. Here, the development of systems for application of those sorbents to in situ monitoring is described. Considerations such as column pressure, particulate filtration, and component durability are discussed. The diameter of selected column housings, the sorbent bed depth, and the frits utilized significantly impact the utility of the sorbent columns in the prototype system. The impact of and necessity for improvements in the morphological characteristics of the sorbents as they relate to reduction in column pressure are detailed. The results of experiments utilizing a prototype system are presented. Data demonstrating feasibility for use of the sorbents in preconcentration prior to ion mobility spectrometry is also presented.

  2. Residual endotoxin contaminations in recombinant proteins are sufficient to activate human CD1c+ dendritic cells. (United States)

    Schwarz, Harald; Schmittner, Maria; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta


    Many commercially available recombinant proteins are produced in Escherichia coli, and most suppliers guarantee contamination levels of less than 1 endotoxin unit (EU). When we analysed commercially available proteins for their endotoxin content, we found contamination levels in the same range as generally stated in the data sheets, but also some that were higher. To analyse whether these low levels of contamination have an effect on immune cells, we stimulated the monocytic cell line THP-1, primary human monocytes, in vitro differentiated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and primary human CD1c+ dendritic cells (DCs) with very low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; ranging from 0.002-2 ng/ml). We show that CD1c+ DCs especially can be activated by minimal amounts of LPS, equivalent to the levels of endotoxin contamination we detected in some commercially available proteins. Notably, the enhanced endotoxin sensitivity of CD1c+ DCs was closely correlated with high CD14 expression levels observed in CD1c+ DCs that had been maintained in cell culture medium for 24 hours. When working with cells that are particularly sensitive to LPS, even low endotoxin contamination may generate erroneous data. We therefore recommend that recombinant proteins be thoroughly screened for endotoxin contamination using the limulus amebocyte lysate test, fluorescence-based assays, or a luciferase based NF-κB reporter assay involving highly LPS-sensitive cells overexpressing TLR4, MD-2 and CD14.

  3. Detection of microbial contaminations in drinking water using ATP measurements – evaluating potential for online monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen


    There is an increasing call for fast and reliable methods for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. The potential for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements as a real-time analysis for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water...... quality was investigated through simulation of two contamination scenarios, i.e. drinking water contaminated with waste water and surface water at various concentrations. With ATP measurements it was possible to detect waste water diluted 1000-10,000 times in drinking water depending on sensitivity...... of reagent kit. Surface water diluted 100-1000 times was detected in drinking water with ATP measurements. ATP has the potential as an early warning tool, especially in the period when the contamination concentration is high. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights...

  4. Detection of microbial contaminations in drinking water using ATP measurements – evaluating potential for online monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen


    There is an increasing call for fast and reliable methods for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. The potential for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements as a real-time analysis for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water...... quality was investigated through simulation of two contamination scenarios, i.e. drinking water contaminated with waste water and surface water at various concentrations. With ATP measurements it was possible to detect waste water diluted 1000-10,000 times in drinking water depending on sensitivity...... of reagent kit. Surface water diluted 100-1000 times was detected in drinking water with ATP measurements. ATP has the potential as an early warning tool, especially in the period when the contamination concentration is high. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights...

  5. 77 FR 43523 - Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 RIN 2040-AF10 Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems Correction In rule document 2012-9978 appearing on pages 26072... table entitled ``EXHIBIT 1--APPLICABILITY OF UCMR 3 TO WATER UTILITIES BY SYSTEM TYPE AND SIZE'' should...

  6. 77 FR 39182 - Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 RIN 2040-AF10 Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems Correction In rule document 2012-9978 appearing on pages 26072... table entitled ``EXHIBIT 1--APPLICABILITY OF UCMR 3 TO WATER UTILITIES BY SYSTEM TYPE AND SIZE'' should...

  7. 77 FR 26071 - Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR 3) for Public Water Systems (United States)


    ... fulfills EPA's obligation under SDWA by identifying 29 unregulated contaminants for monitoring during the... or the State. Changes to the rule language clarify that when identifying a representative well, the... Anion using EPA Method 300.1 (IC/Conductivity) \\6\\ or alternate SM \\7\\ or ASTM Methods: \\8\\ chlorate....

  8. Remediation and its effect represented on long term monitoring data at a chlorinated ethenes contaminated site, Wonju, Korea (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Sun; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Kang-Kun


    A research for the contamination of chlorinated ethenes such as trichloroethylene (TCE) at an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea, was carried out based on 17 rounds of groundwater quality data collection from 2009 to 2015. Remediation technologies such as soil vapor extraction, soil flushing, biostimulation, and pump-and-treat have been applied to eliminate the contaminant sources of trichloroethylene (TCE) and to prevent the migration of TCE plume from remediation target zones to groundwater discharge area like a stream. The remediation efficiency according to the remedial actions was evaluated by tracing a time-series of plume evaluation and temporal mass discharge at three transects (Source, Transect-1, Transect-2) which was assigned along the groundwater flow path. Also, based on long term monitoring data, dissolved TCE concentration and mass of residual TCE in the initial stage of disposal were estimated to evaluate the efficiency of in situ remediation. The results of temporal and spatial monitoring before remedial actions showed that a TCE plume originating from main and local source zones continues to be discharged to a stream. However, from the end of intensive remedial actions from 2012 to 2013, the aqueous concentrations of TCE plume present at and around the main source areas decreased significantly. Especially, during the intensive remediation period, the early average mass discharge (26.58 g/day) at source transect was decreased to average 4.99 g/day. Estimated initial dissolved concentration and residual mass of TCE in the initial stage of disposal decreased rapidly after an intensive remedial action in 2013 and it is expected to be continuously decreased from the end of remedial actions to 2020. This study demonstrates that long term monitoring data are useful in assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions at chlorinated ethenes contaminated site. Acknowledgements This project is supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment under "The GAIA

  9. Monitoring Residual Solvent Additives and Their Effects in Solution Processed Solar Cells (United States)

    Fogel, Derek M.; Basham, James I.; Engmann, Sebastian; Pookpanratana, Sujitra J.; Bittle, Emily G.; Jurchescu, Oana D.; Gundlach, David J.


    High boiling point solvent additives are a widely adopted approach for increasing bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell efficiency. However, experiments show residual solvent can persist for hours after film deposition, and certain common additives are unstable or reactive. We report here on the effects of residual 1,8-diiodooctane on the electrical performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT): phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC[71]BM) BHJ photovoltaic cells. We optimized our fabrication process for efficiency at an active layer thickness of 220 nm, and all devices were processed in parallel to minimize unintentional variations between test structures. The one variable in this study is the active layer post spin drying time. Immediately following the cathode deposition, we measured the current-voltage characteristics at one sun equivalent illumination intensity, and performed impedance spectroscopy to quantify charge density, lifetime, and recombination process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry, FTIR, and XPS are also used to monitor residual solvent and correlated with electrical performance. We find that residual additive degrades performance by increasing the series resistance and lowering efficiency, fill factor, and free carrier lifetime.

  10. Enhanced Retention of Chemotactic Bacteria in a Pore Network with Residual NAPL Contamination. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopu; Lanning, Larry M; Ford, Roseanne M


    Nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) contaminants are difficult to eliminate from natural aquifers due, in part, to the heterogeneous structure of the soil. Chemotaxis enhances the mixing of bacteria with contaminant sources in low-permeability regions, which may not be readily accessible by advection and dispersion alone. A microfluidic device was designed to mimic heterogeneous features of a contaminated groundwater aquifer. NAPL droplets (toluene) were trapped within a fine pore network, and bacteria were injected through a highly conductive adjacent macrochannel. Chemotactic bacteria (Pseudomonas putida F1) exhibited greater accumulation near the pore network at 0.5 m/day than both the nonchemotactic control and the chemotactic bacteria at a higher groundwater velocity of 5 m/day. Chemotactic bacteria accumulated in the vicinity of NAPL droplets, and the accumulation was 15% greater than a nonchemotactic mutant. Indirect evidence showed that chemotactic bacteria were retained within the contaminated low-permeability region longer than nonchemotactic bacteria at 0.25 m/day. This retention was diminished at 5 m/day. Numerical solutions of the bacterial-transport equations were consistent with the experimental results. Because toluene is degraded by P. putida F1, the accumulation of chemotactic bacteria around NAPL sources is expected to increase contaminant consumption and improve the efficiency of bioremediation.

  11. Contamination monitoring and control on ASML MS-VII 157-nm exposure tool (United States)

    Okoroanyanwu, Uzodinma; Gronheid, Roel; Coenen, Jan; Hermans, Jan; Ronse, Kurt G.


    This paper presents results of monitoring and control of contaminants in an ASML MS-VII 157nm full-field exposure tool at IMEC, as verified lithographically in terms of field uniformity, lens transmission, CD uniformity, and scattered light. The daily contamination monitoring system utilizes in-line photo-ionization detector, oxygen and moisture analyzers, as well as chemiluminescent detector, and gas chromatograph that is coupled to a mass spectrometer. On a monthly basis, contamination monitoring was performed with thermal desorption-gas chromatographi/mass spectrometric techniques. The following four locations within the optical path of the MS-VII are monitored: source optic assembly, condenser lens optic, 1X relay station, and projection optics box. Contamination control is realized in the system with an on-board purge control unit, which is equipped with gas purifiers that remove contaminants such as H2O, O2, CO, CO2, hydrocarbons, H2, and sulfur compounds. All the observed contaminants have been trending within expected values and no contamination-related tool performance degradation has been observed. The excursions observed in the contaminant concentrations are coincident with tool downtime/maintenance events. Siloxane levels appear to be consistently below 50 ppt in all the monitored locations within the optical path of the tool, except on one occasion when it reached 90 ppt in the projection optics. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentration within the MS-VII enclosure show a stable background level of around 10-25 ppb during weekends and levels of 45-60 ppb (during working days). VOCs concentration variations inside the MS-VII enclosure during the working days correlate well with activities inside the clean room. Air recirculation and low intake of fresh air inside the MS-VII tend to slow down the speed with which the VOCs levels decreases to stable background level, whenever there was a major upward excursion in their concentration. Average light

  12. Detailed monitoring of two biogas plants and mechanical solid-liquid separation of fermentation residues. (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Mayr, Herwig; Hopfner-Sixt, Katharina; Amon, Thomas


    The Austrian "green electricity act" (Okostromgesetz) has led to an increase in biogas power plant size and consequently to an increased use of biomass. A biogas power plant with a generating capacity of 500 kW(el) consumes up to 38,000 kg of biomass per day. 260 ha of cropland is required to produce this mass. The high water content of biomass necessitates a high transport volume for energy crops and fermentation residues. The transport and application of fermentation residues to farmland is the last step in this logistic chain. The use of fermentation residues as fertilizer closes the nutrient cycle and is a central element in the efficient use of biomass for power production. Treatment of fermentation residues by separation into liquid and solid phases may be a solution to the transport problem. This paper presents detailed results from the monitoring of two biogas plants and from the analysis of the separation of fermentation residues. Furthermore, two different separator technologies for the separation of fermentation residues of biogas plants were analyzed. The examined biogas plants correspond to the current technological state of the art and have designs developed specifically for the utilization of energy crops. The hydraulic retention time ranged between 45.0 and 83.7 days. The specific methane yields were 0.40-0.43 m(3)N CH(4) per kg VS. The volume loads ranged between 3.69 and 4.00 kg VS/m(3). The degree of degradation was between 77.3% and 82.14%. The screw extractor separator was better suited for biogas slurry separation than the rotary screen separator. The screw extractor separator exhibited a high throughput and good separation efficiency. The efficiency of slurry separation depended on the dry matter content of the fermentation residue. The higher the dry matter content, the higher the proportion of solid phase after separation. In this project, we found that the fermentation residues could be divided into 79.2% fluid phase with a dry matter

  13. A Portable Surface Contamination Monitor Based on the Principle of Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE) (United States)

    Perey, D. F.


    Many industrial and aerospace processes involving the joining of materials, require sufficient surface cleanliness to insure proper bonding. Processes as diverse as painting, welding, or the soldering of electronic circuits will be compromised if prior inspection and removal of surface contaminants is inadequate. As process requirements become more stringent and the number of different materials and identified contaminants increases, various instruments and techniques have been developed for improved inspection. One such technique, based on the principle of Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE), has been explored for a number of years as a tool for surface contamination monitoring. Some of the benefits of OSEE are: it is non-contacting; requires little operator training; and has very high contamination sensitivity. This paper describes the development of a portable OSEE based surface contamination monitor. The instrument is suitable for both hand-held and robotic inspections with either manual or automated control of instrument operation. In addition, instrument output data is visually displayed to the operator and may be sent to an external computer for archiving or analysis.

  14. Insect Residue Contamination on Wing Leading Edge Surfaces: A Materials Investigation for Mitigation (United States)

    Lorenzi, Tyler M.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Penner, Ronald K.; Smith, Joseph G.; Siochi, Emilie J.


    Flight tests have shown that residue from insect strikes on aircraft wing leading edge surfaces may induce localized transition of laminar to turbulent flow. The highest density of insect populations have been observed between ground level and 153 m during light winds (2.6 -- 5.1 m/s), high humidity, and temperatures from 21 -- 29 C. At a critical residue height, dependent on the airfoil and Reynolds number, boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent results in increased drag and fuel consumption. Although this represents a minimal increase in fuel burn for conventional transport aircraft, future aircraft designs will rely on maintaining laminar flow across a larger portion of wing surfaces to reduce fuel burn during cruise. Thus, insect residue adhesion mitigation is most critical during takeoff and initial climb to maintain laminar flow in fuel-efficient aircraft configurations. Several exterior treatments investigated to mitigate insect residue buildup (e.g., paper, scrapers, surfactants, flexible surfaces) have shown potential; however, implementation has proven to be impractical. Current research is focused on evaluation of wing leading edge surface coatings that may reduce insect residue adhesion. Initial work under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Program focused on evaluation of several commercially available products (commercial off-the-shelf, COTS), polymers, and substituted alkoxy silanes that were applied to aluminum (Al) substrates. Surface energies of these coatings were determined from contact angle data and were correlated to residual insect excrescence on coated aluminum substrates using a custom-built "bug gun." Quantification of insect excrescence surface coverage was evaluated by a series of digital photographic image processing techniques.

  15. Monitoring source water for microbial contamination: evaluation of water quality measures. (United States)

    Plummer, Jeanine D; Long, Sharon C


    Watershed management programs often rely on monitoring for a large number of water quality parameters to define contaminant issues. While coliforms have traditionally been used to identify microbial contamination, these indicators cannot discriminate among potential contaminant sources. Microbial source tracking (MST) can provide the missing link that implicates the sources of contamination. The objective of this study was to use a weight-of-evidence approach (land use analysis using GIS, sanitary surveys, traditional water quality monitoring, and MST targets) to identify sources of pollution within a watershed that contains a raw drinking water source. For the study watersheds, statistical analyses demonstrated that one measure each of particulate matter (turbidity, particle counts), organic matter (total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, UV(254) absorbance), and indicator organisms (fecal coliforms, enterococci) were adequate for characterizing water quality. While these traditional parameters were useful for assessing overall water quality, they were not intended to differentiate between microbial sources at different locations. In contrast, the MST targets utilized (Rhodococcus coprophilus, sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, and male-specific coliphages) pinpointed specific sources of microbial pollution. However, these targets could not be used for routine monitoring due to a high percentage of non-detects.

  16. First Results from Contamination Monitoring with the WFC3 UVIS G280 Grism (United States)

    Rothberg, B.; Pirzkal, N.; Baggett, S.


    The presence of contaminants within the optical light path of the instrument or telescope can alter photometric zeropoints and the observed flux levels of imaging and spectra, particularly at UV wavelengths. Regular monitoring of a spectro-photometric standard star using photometric filters has been used in the past to monitor the presence of contaminants and (when necessary) re-calibrate zeropoints. However, the use of the WFC3 UVIS Grism mode (G280 filter) may provide a more robust early alert detection system for the presence of contaminants, in particular, those that are photo-polymerized from the bright Earth. These contaminants may collect on surfaces in the optical light path of the telescope. The G280 grism is sensitive to light at wavelengths below the cutoff of the bluest UV filter (F218W). In this ISR, we present: 1) the first results from G280 monitoring for the period of 2010-November through 2011-August; 2) the discovery of an anomaly in the WCS header information of sub-array exposures; and 3) an outline for reducing standard G280 grism observations and the specialized case of observations obtained in sub-array mode.

  17. Residual oil monitoring in pressurised air with SnO2-based gas sensors


    Papamichail, Nikos


    The doctoral thesis at hand describes the investigations undertaken in order to develop a newly invented procedure for the monitoring of residual oil in pressurised air. The problem of this application lies on the one hand in the state of aggregation of the oil, most of it is liquid and forms aerosols, and on the other hand in the general challenge to measure a small concentration in a changing matrix by means of unspecific sensors. The oil origins from the compressors, which typically us...

  18. Contamination profile of aflatoxin M1 residues in milk supply chain of Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Jawaid


    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is a potent carcinogen, teratogen and mutagen found in the milk when lactating animals consume feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. In the present study, the contamination of AFM1 was evaluated in the milk supply chain of the province of Sindh, Pakistan. For the broader profiling of targeted toxin, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used for the determination of AFM1 in both branded and non-branded milk samples. The results showed that 96.43% of samples (81 out of 84 were contaminated with AFM1 in the range of 0.01–0.76 μg/L. The average contamination level was 0.38 μg/L. The determined values of AFM1 in the collected milk samples were above the standard limit of the European Commission while 70% of the samples exceeded levels established by United States regulations. According to these results, the estimated daily intake of AFM1 for adults was determined as 3.1 ng/kg of body weight per day.

  19. Cl app: android-based application program for monitoring the residue chlorine in water (United States)

    Intaravanne, Yuttana; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Chaitavon, Kosom; Vuttivong, Sirajit


    A farmer usually uses a cheap chemical material called chlorine to destroy the cell structure of unwanted organisms and remove some plant effluents in a baby shrimp farm. A color changing of the reaction between chlorine and chemical indicator is used to monitor the residue chlorine in water before releasing a baby shrimp into a pond. To get rid of the error in color reading, our previous works showed how a smartphone can be functioned as a color reader for estimating the chlorine concentration in water. In this paper, we show the improvement of interior configuration of our prototype and the distribution to several baby shrimp farms. In the future, we plan to make it available worldwide through the online market as well as to develop more application programs for monitoring other chemical substances.

  20. Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 and 241-C-204: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.


    This report describes the development of release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. Key results from this work are (1) future releases from the tanks of the primary contaminants of concern (99Tc and 238U) can be represented by relatively simple solubility relationships between infiltrating water and solid phases containing the contaminants; and (2) high percentages of technetium-99 in the sludges (20 wt% in C-203 and 75 wt% in C-204) are not readily water leachable, and, in fact, are very recalcitrant. This is similar to results found in related studies of sludges from Tank AY-102. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 and 241 C 204: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.


    This report was revised in May 2007 to correct 90Sr values in Chapter 3. The changes were made on page 3.9, paragraph two and Table 3.10; page 3.16, last paragraph on the page; and Tables 3.21 and 3.31. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in October 2004. This report describes the development of release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. Key results from this work are (1) future releases from the tanks of the primary contaminants of concern (99Tc and 238U) can be represented by relatively simple solubility relationships between infiltrating water and solid phases containing the contaminants; and (2) high percentages of technetium-99 in the sludges (20 wt% in C-203 and 75 wt% in C-204) are not readily water leachable, and, in fact, are very recalcitrant. This is similar to results found in related studies of sludges from Tank AY-102. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Improved retrieval of SO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument: residual analysis and data noise correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Han


    Full Text Available In this study, based on Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI observation data and considering the shortage of current Band Residual Difference algorithm (BRD algorithm in data noise correction since late 2008, we make a detailed analysis of OMI SO2 main noise sources and determine the best residual adjustment area by analyzing the different residual correction effects. After such modification, the OMI SO2 PBL results noise which use BRD retrieval algorithm is largely reduced, the precision of the SO2 results is improved, and the optimization of the BRD algorithm for data noise is realized. We select China as our study area and compare the results between the optimized results and the OMI SO2 PBL products. Results show that they are consistent with each other in January 2008; however, our modified algorithm results have higher precision and more reliable SO2 spatial distribution in January 2009. Finally, other current retrieval error sources are discussed, and further research is needed on these areas.

  3. Monitoring of butter and ghee (clarified butter fat) for pesticidal contamination from cotton belt of Haryana, India. (United States)

    Kumari, Beena; Singh, Jagdeep; Singh, Shashi; Kathpal, T S


    Butter (45) and ghee (55) samples were collected from rural and urban areas of cotton growing belt of Haryana and analysed for detecting the residues of organochlorine, synthetic pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides. The estimation was carried out by using multi residue analytical technique employing GC-ECD and GC-NPD systems equipped with capillary columns. Butter samples were comparatively more contaminated (97%) than ghee (94%), showing more contamination with organochlorine insecticides from urban samples. About 11% samples of butter showed endosulfan residues above MRL value and 2% samples had residues of synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphates each above their respective MRL values. In ghee, residues of HCH & DDT both and of endosulfan exceeded the MRL values in 5 and 20% samples, respectively. Among organophosphates, only chlorpyriphos was detected with 9% samples showing its residue above MRL value. Irrespective of contamination levels, residues above the MRL values were more in ghee. More extensive study covering other agricultural regions/zones of Haryana has been suggested to know the overall scenario of contamination of milk products.

  4. Minimal residual disease monitoring and immune profiling in multiple myeloma in elderly patients. (United States)

    Paiva, Bruno; Cedena, Maria-Teresa; Puig, Noemi; Arana, Paula; Vidriales, Maria-Belen; Cordon, Lourdes; Flores-Montero, Juan; Gutierrez, Norma C; Martín-Ramos, María-Luisa; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Ocio, Enrique M; Hernandez, Miguel T; Teruel, Ana-Isabel; Rosiñol, Laura; Echeveste, María-Asunción; Martinez, Rafael; Gironella, Mercedes; Oriol, Albert; Cabrera, Carmen; Martin, Jesus; Bargay, Joan; Encinas, Cristina; Gonzalez, Yolanda; Van Dongen, Jacques J M; Orfao, Alberto; Bladé, Joan; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Lahuerta, Juan José; San Miguel, Jesús F


    The value of minimal residual disease (MRD) in multiple myeloma (MM) has been more frequently investigated in transplant-eligible patients than in elderly patients. Because an optimal balance between treatment efficacy and toxicity is of utmost importance in patients with elderly MM, sensitive MRD monitoring might be particularly valuable in this patient population. Here, we used second-generation 8-color multiparameter-flow cytometry (MFC) to monitor MRD in 162 transplant-ineligible MM patients enrolled in the PETHEMA/GEM2010MAS65 study. The transition from first- to second-generation MFC resulted in increased sensitivity and allowed us to identify 3 patient groups according to MRD levels: MRD negative (75 years (HR, 4.8; P < .001), as well as those with high-risk cytogenetics (HR, 12.6; P = .01). Using second-generation MFC, immune profiling concomitant to MRD monitoring also contributed to identify patients with poor, intermediate, and favorable outcomes (25%, 61%, and 100% OS at 3 years, respectively; P = .01), the later patients being characterized by an increased compartment of mature B cells. Our results show that similarly to transplant candidates, MRD monitoring is one of the most relevant prognostic factors in elderly MM patients, irrespectively of age or cytogenetic risk. This trial was registered at as #NCT01237249.

  5. Phytostabilization of semiarid soils residually contaminated with trace elements using by-products: Sustainability and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-de-Mora, Alfredo, E-mail: [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Madejon, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Madejon, Engracia [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)


    We investigated the efficiency of various by-products (sugarbeet lime, biosolid compost and leonardite), based on single or repeated applications to field plots, on the establishment of a vegetation cover compatible with a stabilization strategy on a multi-element (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contaminated soil 4-6 years after initial amendment applications. Results indicate that the need for re-treatment is amendment- and element-dependent; in some cases, a single application may reduce trace element concentrations in above-ground biomass and enhance the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Amendment performance as evaluated by % cover, biomass and number of colonizing taxa differs; however, changes in plant community composition are not necessarily amendment-specific. Although the translocation of trace elements to the plant biotic compartment is greater in re-vegetated areas, overall loss of trace elements due to soil erosion and plant uptake is usually smaller compared to that in bare soil. - Highlights: > By-products enhance vegetation dynamics in contaminated semiarid soils. > Depending on the situation single or repeated incorporations may be required. > The structure of the plant community established is not amendment-dependent. > Phytostabilization reduces overall loss of trace elements in semiarid soils. - Phytostabilization using by-products as amendments is a suitable approach for long-term immobilization of various trace elements in semiarid contaminated soils.

  6. Risk assessment and risk management at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA): a perspective on the monitoring of foods for chemical residues. (United States)

    Bietlot, Henri P; Kolakowski, Beata


    The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) uses 'Ranked Risk Assessment' (RRA) to prioritize chemical hazards for inclusion in monitoring programmes or method development projects based on their relative risk. The relative risk is calculated for a chemical by scoring toxicity and exposure in the 'risk model scoring system' of the Risk Priority Compound List (RPCL). The relative ranking and the risk management options are maintained and updated in the RPCL. The ranking may be refined by the data generated by the sampling and testing programs. The two principal sampling and testing programmes are the National Chemical Residue Monitoring Program (NCRMP) and the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP). The NCRMP sampling plans focus on the analysis of federally registered products (dairy, eggs, honey, meat and poultry, fresh and processed fruit and vegetable commodities, and maple syrup) for residues of veterinary drugs, pesticides, environmental contaminants, mycotoxins, and metals. The NCRMP is complemented by the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP) targeted surveys. These surveys focus on emerging chemical hazards associated with specific foods or geographical regions for which applicable maximum residue limits (MRLs) are not set. The data from the NCRMP and FSAP also influence the risk management (follow-up) options. Follow-up actions vary according to the magnitude of the health risk, all with the objective of preventing any repeat occurrence to minimize consumer exposure to a product representing a potential risk to human health. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Analyses of integrated aircraft cabin contaminant monitoring network based on Kalman consensus filter. (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Yanxiao; Sun, Hui; Chen, Zengqiang


    The modern civil aircrafts use air ventilation pressurized cabins subject to the limited space. In order to monitor multiple contaminants and overcome the hypersensitivity of the single sensor, the paper constructs an output correction integrated sensor configuration using sensors with different measurement theories after comparing to other two different configurations. This proposed configuration works as a node in the contaminant distributed wireless sensor monitoring network. The corresponding measurement error models of integrated sensors are also proposed by using the Kalman consensus filter to estimate states and conduct data fusion in order to regulate the single sensor measurement results. The paper develops the sufficient proof of the Kalman consensus filter stability when considering the system and the observation noises and compares the mean estimation and the mean consensus errors between Kalman consensus filter and local Kalman filter. The numerical example analyses show the effectiveness of the algorithm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A High-Temperature, High-Throughput Method for Monitoring Residual Formaldehyde in Vaccine Formulations. (United States)

    Stallings, Kendra D; Kitchener, Rebecca L; Hentz, Nathaniel G


    Formaldehyde has long been used in the chemical inactivation of viral material during vaccine production. Viral inactivation is required so that the vaccine does not infect the patient. Formaldehyde is diluted during the vaccine manufacturing process, but residual quantities of formaldehyde are still present in some current vaccines. Although formaldehyde is considered safe for use in vaccines by the Food and Drug Administration, excessive exposure to this chemical may lead to cancer or other health-related issues. An assay was developed that is capable of detecting levels of residual formaldehyde in influenza vaccine samples. The assay employs incubation of dosage formulation suspensions with hydralazine hydrochloride under mildly acidic conditions and elevated temperatures, where formaldehyde is derivatized to yield fluorescent s-triazolo-[3,4-a]-phthalazine. The assay has been traditionally run by high-performance liquid chromatography, where runtimes of 15 minutes per sample can be expected. Our laboratory has developed a plate-based version that drastically improved the throughput to a runtime of 96 samples per minute. The assay was characterized and validated with respect to reaction temperature, evaporation, stability, and selectivity to monitor residual formaldehyde in various influenza vaccine samples, including in-process samples. Heat transfer and evaporation will be especially considered in this work. Since the assay is plate based, it is automation friendly. The new assay format has attained detection limits of 0.01 µg/mL residual formaldehyde, which is easily able to detect and quantify formaldehyde at levels used in many current vaccine formulations (<5 µg/0.5-mL dose).

  9. Portable RF-Sensor System for the Monitoring of Air Pollution and Water Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonhee Kang


    Full Text Available Monitoring air pollution including the contents of VOC, O3, NO2, and dusts has attracted a lot of interest in addition to the monitoring of water contamination because it affects directly to the quality of living conditions. Most of the current air pollution monitoring stations use the expensive and bulky instruments and are only installed in the very limited area. To bring the information of the air and water quality to the public in real time, it is important to construct portable monitoring systems and distribute them close to our everyday living places. In this work, we have constructed a low-cost portable RF sensor system by using 400 MHz transceiver to achieve this goal. Accuracy of the measurement was comparable to the ones used in the expensive and bulky commercial air pollution forecast systems.

  10. Comparison of surface contamination monitors for in vivo measurement of 131I in the thyroid (United States)

    Oliveira, S. M.; Dantas, A. L. A.; Dantas, B. M.


    The routine handling of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine represents a significant risk of internal exposure to the staff. The IAEA recommends the implementation of monitoring plans for all workers subject to a risk of exposures above 1 mSv per year. However, in Brazil, such recommendation is practically unfeasible due to the lack of a sufficient number of qualified internal dosimetry services over the country. This work presents an alternative based on a simple and inexpensive methodology aimed to perform in vivo monitoring of 131I in the thyroid using portable surface contamination probes. Results show that all models evaluated in this work present enough sensitivity for the evaluation of accidental intakes.

  11. Comparison of surface contamination monitors for in vivo measurement of {sup 131}I in thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, S.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The routine handling of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine represents a significant risk of internal exposure to the staff. The IAEA recommends the implementation of monitoring plans for all workers subject to a risk of exposures above 1 mSv per year. However, in Brazil, such recommendation is practically unfeasible due to the lack of a sufficient number of qualified internal dosimetry services over the country. This work presents an alternative based on a simple and inexpensive methodology aimed to perform in-vivo monitoring of {sup 131}I in thyroid using portable surface contamination probes. All models evaluated showed suitable sensitivity for such application. (author)

  12. Residual effects of metal contamination on the soil quality: a field survey in central Portugal (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke; Gerardo, Romeu


    Agriculture is an important source of income and employment. But depletion and degradation of land challenge to producing safe food and other agricultural products to sustain livelihoods and meet the needs of urban populations. When developing or expanding an agricultural area, it becomes essential to access the soil quality. Even if the present source of contamination is not observed, it is a worth subject to evaluate whether or not any negative effects of the post contamination still last. For this purpose, a field survey (2 ha) was carried: a zinc and lead mining site that was abandoned about 50 years ago was researched at Sanguinheiro (40°18'N and 8°21'W) in Central Portugal. The area is characterized by very steep slopes that are confining with a small stream. The obtained results show that (i) the Pb content in the site (165 mg/kg) is higher than that in the background (67.7 mg/kg); (ii) the Zn content of local vegetation (Eucalyptus globulus) in the post-mining site is 2.1 times that in the control site, and (iii) dead bare ground is observed in some parts of the site. There is a possibility that great amounts of Zn and Pb accumulate in tissues of local vegetation. Although mining activity ended 50 years ago, the contents of Pb and Zn in the sampled soil were comparatively high in the site with about a 75% slope. It is concluded that not only the present contamination but also the post-environmental stress should be assessed to properly develop an agricultural area in terms of securing agricultural products.

  13. Influences of ammonia contamination on leaching from air-pollution-control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Zhenzhen; Chen, Dezhen; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard


    -pollution-control (APC) residues. Batch tests were conducted to investigate the impacts of ammonia levels on leaching of a range of metals (sodium, potassium, calcium, aluminium, chromium, iron, lead, cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc), as well as chloride and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Specific conductivity...... with high ammonia levels of 1400 mg l(-1) or higher at pH > 9; however at these high ammonia concentrations, the role of DOC in cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc leaching was negligible. Based on the experimental data, chloride, sodium and potassium were leached at high concentrations regardless of p...

  14. Monitoring of organic contaminants in sediments using low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Rupert, Yuri


    The effective monitoring of soils and groundwater contaminated with organic compounds is an important goal of many environmental restoration efforts. Recent geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity, complex conductivity, and ground penetrating radar have been successfully applied to characterize organic contaminants in the subsurface and to monitor remediation process both in laboratory and in field. Low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a geophysical tool sensitive to the molecular-scale physical and chemical environment of hydrogen-bearing fluids in geological materials and shows promise as a novel method for monitoring contaminant remediation. This laboratory research focuses on measurements on synthetic samples to determine the sensitivity of NMR to the presence of organic contaminants and improve understanding of relationships between NMR observables, hydrological properties of the sediments, and amount and state of contaminants in porous media. Toluene, a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) has been selected as a representative organic contaminant. Three types of porous media (pure silica sands, montmorillonite clay, and various sand-clay mixtures with different sand/clay ratios) were prepared as synthetic sediments. NMR relaxation time (T2) and diffusion-relaxation (D - T2) correlation measurements were performed in each sediment saturated with water and toluene mixed fluid at assorted concentrations (0% toluene and 100% water, 1% toluene and 99% water, 5% toluene and 95% water, 25% toluene and 75% water, and 100% toluene and 0% water) to 1) understand the effect of different porous media on the NMR responses in each fluid mixture, 2) investigate the role of clay content on T2 relaxation of each fluid, 3) quantify the amount hydrocarbons in the presence of water in each sediment, and 4) resolve hydrocarbons from water in D - T2 map. Relationships between the compositions of porous media, hydrocarbon concentration, and hydraulic

  15. Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil with Oils Residuals through Bioaugmentation and Natural Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitê Carla Deon


    Full Text Available The potential for soil contamination by oil spills is growing, due to heavy industrialization and economic development of countries. Due to this fact, the bioremediation has become an alternative to remediate areas through the use of biological agents. Two microorganisms, isolated from a lipid-rich effluent, were used in the bioaugmentation of soils contaminated with diesel oil, lubricating oil and soybean oil. Natural attenuation tests were conducted as controls. The removal of diesel fuel at the time of 21 d were of 18.5%, 7.30% and 11.38%, respectively, for the bioaugmentation with isolated I1 and I2 and natural attenuation. The removal of lubricating oil were 41.6%, 14.16% and 6.91% respectively for the bioaugmentation with the isolated I1 and I2 and natural attenuation, while for soybean oil removals were of 87 8%, 73.9% and 49.4%. Considering the processes of bioaugmentatiom and natural attenuation, the bioaugmentation with the isolated I1 showed better results, possibly due to the production of compounds capable of reducing the surface tension during the preparation of bioaugmentation.

  16. Estimating the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the effect of residual foreground contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantaye, Y.; Leach, S.M.; Baccigalupi, C. [SISSA, Astrophysics Sector, via Bonomea 265, Trieste 34136 (Italy); Stivoli, F. [INRIA, Laboratoire de Recherche en Informatique, Université Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 490, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Grain, J. [CNRS, Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Université Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiments 120-121, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Tristram, M. [CNRS, Laboratoire de l' Accélérateur Linéaire, Université Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 200, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Stompor, R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [CNRS, Laboratoire Astroparticule and Cosmologie, 10 rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)


    We consider future balloon-borne and ground-based suborbital experiments designed to search for inflationary gravitational waves, and investigate the impact of residual foregrounds that remain in the estimated cosmic microwave background maps. This is achieved by propagating foreground modelling uncertainties from the component separation, under the assumption of a spatially uniform foreground frequency scaling, through to the power spectrum estimates, and up to measurement of the tensor to scalar ratio in the parameter estimation step. We characterize the error covariance due to subtracted foregrounds, and find it to be subdominant compared to instrumental noise and sample variance in our simulated data analysis. We model the unsubtracted residual foreground contribution using a two-parameter power law and show that marginalization over these foreground parameters is effective in accounting for a bias due to excess foreground power at low l. We conclude that, at least in the suborbital experimental setups we have simulated, foreground errors may be modeled and propagated up to parameter estimation with only a slight degradation of the target sensitivity of these experiments derived neglecting the presence of the foregrounds.

  17. Natural attenuation of residual heavy metal contamination in soils affected by the Aznalcóllar mine spill, SW Spain. (United States)

    Vázquez, Saúl; Hevia, América; Moreno, Eduardo; Esteban, Elvira; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Carpena, Ramón O


    Non-amended soils affected by pyritic sludge residues were monitored for 7 years to assess the long-term natural attenuation ability of these soils. The decrease in both the total concentration of elements (particularly As) and (NH(4))(2)SO(4)-extractable fractions of Mn, and Zn, below the maximum permissible levels indicate a successful natural ability to attenuate soil pollution. Soil acidification by pyrite oxidation and rainfall-enhanced leaching were the largest contributors to the reduction of metals of high (Mn, Cu, Zn and Cd) and low (Fe, Al, and As) availability. Periodic use of correlation and spatial distribution analysis was useful in monitoring elemental dispersion and soil property/element relationships. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance Assessment and Monitoring of a Permeable Reactive Barrier for the Remediation of a Contaminated Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Zolla


    Full Text Available The present study illustrates the long-term monitoring plan carried out in order to investigate the performance of a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB at a chlorinated solvents’ site. The cleanup intervention has been undertaken at an industrial landfill located near the city of Turin (Italy and represents the first full-scale application of this technology in Italy. The monitoring plan started in November 2005 with the aim to verify the attainment of the cleanup goals and to evaluate the efficiency status of the PRB. Controls focuses not only on contaminant monitoring but also on the hydraulic and chemical conditions created by the barrier, in order to evaluate potential long term effects of secondary biogeochemical processes (e.g. mineral precipitation, microbially-mediated redox transformation, gas accumulation on PRB performance. The monitoring plan provides controls on groundwater chemistry (target contaminants and geochemical indicators and core sampling for mineralogical analysis of zero-valent iron by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The first, partial results of the monitoring activity are illustrated. Monitoring data clearly indicate that the plume is being adequately captured and treated in order to accomplish the clean-up goals with a good safety margin. However, it results that mineral precipitation and gas phase accumulation could determine, over time, a decreasing in hydraulic conductivity and porosity of the barrier, thus modifying the flow field through the reactive cell. Besides the monitoring controls, further investigations will be performed to assess the occurring microbial process and to evaluate their impact on PRB performance.

  19. Arsenic stabilization by zero-valent iron, bauxite residue, and zeolite at a contaminated site planting Panax notoginseng. (United States)

    Yan, X L; Lin, L Y; Liao, X Y; Zhang, W B; Wen, Y


    Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen, a rare traditional Chinese medicinal herb, is a widely used phytomedicine used all over the world. In recent years, the arsenic contamination of the herb and its relative products becomes a serious problem due to elevated soil As concentration. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different types and dosages of amendments on As stabilization in soil and its uptake by P. notoginseng. Results showed that comparing to control treatment, the As concentrations of P. notoginseng declined by 49-63%, 43-61% and 52-66% in 0.25% zero-valent iron (Fe(0)), 0.5% bauxite residue, and 1% zeolite treatment, respectively; whereas the biomasses were elevated by 62-116%, 45-152% and 114-265%, respectively. The As(III) proportions of P. notoginseng increased by 8%, 9%, and 8%, and the transfer factors of As from root to shoot increased by 37%, 42% and 84% in the optimal treatments of Fe(0), bauxite residue, and zeolite. For soil As, all the three amendments could transform the non-specifically adsorbed As fraction to hydrous oxides Fe/Al fractions (by Fe(0) and red mud) or specifically adsorbed As fraction (by zeolite), therefore reduced the bioavailability of soil As. With a comprehensive consideration of stabilization efficiency, plant growth, environmental influence, and cost, Fe(0) appeared to be the best amendment, and zeolite could also be a good choice. In conclusion, this study was of significance in developing As contamination control in P. notoginseng planting areas, and even other areas for medicinal herb growing.

  20. Evaluation of internal contamination levels after a radiological dispersal device incident using portal monitors. (United States)

    Palmer, R C; Hertel, N E; Ansari, A; Manger, R P; Freibert, E J


    Following a radioactive dispersal device (RDD) incident, it may be necessary to evaluate the internal contamination levels of a large number of potentially affected individuals to determine if immediate medical follow-up is necessary. Since the current laboratory capacity to screen for internal contamination is limited, rapid field screening methods can be useful in prioritising individuals. This study evaluated the suitability of a radiation portal monitor for such screening. A model of the portal monitor was created for use with models of six anthropomorphic phantoms in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP) X-5 Monte Carlo Team (MCNP-A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code Version 5. LA-CP-03-0245. Vol. 2. Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2004.). The count rates of the portal monitor were simulated for inhalation and ingestion of likely radionuclides from an RDD for each of the phantoms. The time-dependant organ concentrations of the radionuclides were determined using Dose and Risk Calculation Software Eckerman, Leggett, Cristy, Nelson, Ryman, Sjoreen and Ward (Dose and Risk Calculation Software Ver. 8.4. ORNL/TM-2001/190. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2006.). Portal monitor count rates corresponding to a committed effective dose E(50) of 10 mSv are reported.

  1. Monitoring for contaminants of emerging concern in drinking water using POCIS passive samplers. (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris; Hoque, M Ehsanul; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Helm, Paul; Kleywegt, Sonya


    Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) have been detected in drinking water world-wide. The source of most of these compounds is generally attributed to contamination from municipal wastewater. Traditional water sampling methods (grab or composite) often require the concentration of large amounts of water in order to detect trace levels of these contaminants. The Polar Organic Compounds Integrative Sampler (POCIS) is a passive sampling technology that has been developed to concentrate trace levels of CEC to provide time-weighted average concentrations for individual compounds in water. However, few studies to date have evaluated whether POCIS is suitable for monitoring contaminants in drinking water. In this study, the POCIS was evaluated as a monitoring tool for CEC in drinking water over a period of 2 and 4 weeks with comparisons to typical grab samples. Seven "indicator compounds" which included carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, estrone and sucralose, were monitored in five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in Ontario. All indicator compounds were detected in raw water samples from the POCIS in comparison to six from grab samples. Similarly, four compounds were detected in grab samples of treated drinking water, whereas six were detected in the POCIS. Sucralose was the only compound that was detected consistently at all five plants. The POCIS technique provided integrative exposures of CECs in drinking water at lower detection limits, while episodic events were captured via traditional sampling methods. There was evidence that the accumulation of target compounds by POCIS is a dynamic process, with adsorption and desorption on the sorbent occurring in response to ambient levels of the target compounds in water. CECs in treated drinking water were present at low ng L(-1) concentrations, which are not considered to be a threat to human health.

  2. Cleaning Genesis Solar Wind Collectors with Ultrapure Water: Residual Contaminant Particle Analysis (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Wentworth, S. J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Calaway, M. J.


    Additional experience has been gained in removing contaminant particles from the surface of Genesis solar wind collectors fragments by using megasonically activated ultrapure water (UPW)[1]. The curatorial facility has cleaned six of the eight array collector material types to date: silicon (Si), sapphire (SAP), silicon-on-sapphire (SOS), diamond-like carbon-on-silicon (DOS), gold-on-sapphire (AuOS), and germanium (Ge). Here we make estimates of cleaning effectiveness using image analysis of particle size distributions and an SEM/EDS reconnaissance of particle chemistry on the surface of UPW-cleaned silicon fragments (Fig. 1). Other particle removal techniques are reported by [2] and initial assessment of molecular film removal is reported by [3].

  3. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and aromatic contaminants adsorption behavior of magnetic biochar derived from pyrolysis oil distillation residue. (United States)

    Li, Hao; Mahyoub, Samah Awadh Ali; Liao, Wenjie; Xia, Shuqian; Zhao, Hechuan; Guo, Mengya; Ma, Peisheng


    The magnetic biochars were easily fabricated by thermal pyrolysis of Fe(NO3)3 and distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil at 400, 600 and 800°C. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics of magnetic biochars as well as adsorption capacity for aromatic contaminants (i.e., anisole, phenol and guaiacol) were investigated carefully. The degree of carbonization of magnetic biochars become higher as pyrolysis temperature increasing. The magnetic biochar reached the largest surface area and pore volume at the pyrolysis temperature of 600°C due to pores blocking in biochar during pyrolysis at 800°C. Based on batch adsorption experiments, the used adsorbent could be magnetically separated and the adsorption capacity of anisole on magnetic biochars was stronger than that of phenol and guaiacol. The properties of magnetic biochar, including surface area, pore volume, aromaticity, grapheme-like-structure and iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) particles, showed pronounced effects on the adsorption performance of aromatic contaminants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Occupational airborne contamination in South Brazil: 2. Oxidative stress detected in the blood of workers of incineration of hospital residues. (United States)

    Possamai, F P; Avila, S; Budni, P; Backes, P; Parisotto, E B; Rizelio, V M; Torres, M A; Colepicolo, P; Wilhelm Filho, D


    One of the most useful methods for elimination of solid residues of health services (SRHS) is incineration. However, it also provokes the emission of several hazardous air pollutants such as heavy metals, furans and dioxins, which produce reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. The present study, which is parallel to an accompanied paper (Avila Jr. et al., this issue), investigated several enzymatic and non-enzymatic biomarkers of oxidative stress in the blood (contents of vitamin E, lipoperoxidation = TBARS, reduced glutathione = GSH, oxidized glutathione = GSSG, and activities of glutathione S-transferase = GST, glutathione reductase = GR, glutathione peroxidase = GPx, catalase = CAT and superoxide dismutase = SOD), in three different groups (n = 20 each) exposed to airborne contamination associated with incineration of SRHS: workers directly (ca. 100 m from the incinerator) and indirectly exposed (residents living ca. 5 km the incineration site), and controls (non-exposed subjects). TBARS and GSSG levels were increased whilst GSH, TG and alpha-tocopherol contents were decreased in workers and residents compared to controls. Increased GST and CAT activities and decreased GPx activities were detected in exposed subjects compared to controls, while GR did not show any difference among the groups. In conclusion, subjects directly or indirectly exposed to SRHS are facing an oxidative insult and health risk regarding fly ashes contamination from SRHS incineration.

  5. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Schaef, Herbert T.


    This report was revised in May 2007 to correct values in Section, second paragraph, last sentence; 90Sr values in Tables 3.22 and 3.32; and 99Tc values Table 4.3 and in Chapter 5. In addition, the tables in Appendix F were updated to reflect corrections to the 90Sr values. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in May 2005. CH2M HILL is producing risk/performance assessments to support the closure of single-shell tanks at the DOE's Hanford Site. As part of this effort, staff at PNNL were asked to develop release models for contam¬inants of concern that are present in residual sludge remaining in tank 241-C-106 (C-106) after final retrieval of waste from the tank. This report provides the information developed by PNNL.

  6. Long-term ERT monitoring of biogeochemical changes of an aged hydrocarbon contamination (United States)

    Caterina, David; Flores Orozco, Adrian; Nguyen, Frédéric


    Adequate management of contaminated sites requires information with improved spatio-temporal resolution, in particular to assess bio-geochemical processes, such as the transformation and degradation of contaminants, precipitation of minerals or changes in groundwater geochemistry occurring during and after remediation procedures. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), a geophysical method sensitive to pore-fluid and pore-geometry properties, permits to gain quasi-continuous information about subsurface properties in real-time and has been consequently widely used for the characterization of hydrocarbon-impacted sediments. However, its application for the long-term monitoring of processes accompanying natural or engineered bioremediation is still difficult due to the poor understanding of the role that biogeochemical processes play in the electrical signatures. For in-situ studies, the task is further complicated by the variable signal-to-noise ratio and the variations of environmental parameters leading to resolution changes in the electrical images. In this work, we present ERT imaging results for data collected over a period of two years on a site affected by a diesel fuel contamination and undergoing bioremediation. We report low electrical resistivity anomalies in areas associated to the highest contaminant concentrations likely due transformations of the contaminant due to microbial activity and accompanying release of metabolic products. We also report large seasonal variations of the bulk electrical resistivity in the contaminated areas in correlation with temperature and groundwater level fluctuations. However, the amplitude of bulk electrical resistivity variations largely exceeds the amplitude expected given existing petrophysical models. Our results suggest that the variations in electrical properties are mainly controlled by microbial activity which in turn depends on soil temperature and hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, ERT can be suggested as

  7. Assessing environmental contamination around obsolete pesticide stockpiles in West Africa: using the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) as a sentinel species. (United States)

    Ciliberti, Alexandre; Berny, Philippe; Vey, Danielle; de Buffrénil, Vivian


    Environmental contamination caused by obsolete pesticide stocks was assessed using the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) as a sentinel species. Organochlorines and organophosphates were quantified by gas chromatography in abdominal fat and the liver, respectively. Results were compared to those obtained from three other sites, characterized by different histories of contamination. None of the previously stocked pesticides were recovered. Low to moderate levels of 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE) were quantified in monitors from all sites. Malathion and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (4,4'-DDD) also were detected sporadically. Interindividual variability was substantial. Correlations between pesticide loads and individual characteristics were considered. The nondetection of previously stocked pesticides in the monitors' tissues, their contamination by other pesticides, and the value of V. niloticus as a monitoring tool for environmental contamination are discussed. The results indicate a situation of low concern and draw attention to the importance of local conditions in determining environmental dangers associated with potential pollution sources.

  8. Measurement methodology of vegetable samples from an area affected by residual contamination due to uranium mining sterile; Metodologia de medida de muestras vegetales procedentes de un terreno afectado por contaminacion residual debida a esteriles de mineria de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, N.; Suarez, J. A.; Yague, L.; Ortiz Gandia, M. I.; Marijuan, M. J.; Garcia, E.; Ortiz, T.; Alvarez, A.


    This paper presents the methodology established for radiological characterization of plant material generated during the first stage of the realization of a movement of land in an area of land affected by residual contamination due to the burial of sterile of uranium mining. (Author)

  9. Development of LC/MS/MS Methods for Implementation in US EPA’s Drinking Water Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulations (United States)

    Well-characterized and standardized methods are the foundation upon which monitoring of regulated and unregulated contaminants in drinking water are based. To obtain reliable, high quality data for trace analysis of contaminants, these methods must be rugged, selective and sensit...


    Considering the many organizations which have published methods for monitoring contaminated sediments and the large number of documents on this subject, it can be a formidable task for a superfund project manager to find methods appropriate for his or her contaminated sediment si...

  11. Geochemical landscape strategy in monitoring the areas contaminated by the Chernobyl radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobova, E.M.; Linnik, V.G. (Department of Geoinformation Investigations, Russian Scientific-Practical and Expert-Analytical Centre (RNEC), Moscow (Russian Federation))


    The Chernobyl accident led to radionuclide contamination of vast areas that now need to be monitored; the development of a regional land use strategy is now needed. Landscape geochemistry enables us to structure, classify and map the environmental factors responsible for the redistribution of radionuclides (i.e. soil-forming rocks and soil properties, vegetation cover, types of ground water migration, and vertical and lateral geochemical barriers). Combined with land use information, regional geochemical landscape maps serve as the basis to map in toposequence conditions of mass migration and accumulation in natural and cultivated landscapes. Such mapping makes it easier to choose representative monitoring sites. This type of mapping is also helpful to interrelate and extrapolate the data already obtained on radionuclides' environmental migration for different groups of geochemical landscapes with similar types of contamination, migration and accumulation patterns. A geochemical landscape approach is demonstrated using the example of part of the Bryansk region (Russia), which is considerably contaminated with [sup 134]Cs and [sup 137]Cs.

  12. Long Term Remote Monitoring of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, C.; Gudavalli, R.; Lagos, L.; Tansel, B.; Varona, J.; Allen, M.


    The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile self powered remote monitoring system enhanced for field deployment at Savannah River Site (SRS). The system used a localized power source with solar recharging and has wireless data collection, analysis, transmission, and data management capabilities. The prototype was equipped with a Hydrolab's DataSonde 4a multi-sensor array package managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, with an adequate pumping capacity of water samples for sampling and analysis of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater wells at SRS. This paper focuses on a study and technology development efforts conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) to automate the sampling of contaminated wells with a multi-sensor array package developed using COTS (Commercial Off The shelf) parts. Bladder pumps will pump water from different wells to the sensors array, water quality TCE indicator parameters are measured (i.e. pH, redox, ORP, DO, NO3 -, Cl-). In order to increase user access and data management, the system was designed to be accessible over the Internet. Remote users can take sample readings and collect data remotely over a web. Results obtained at Florida International University in-house testing and at a field deployment at the Savannah River Site indicate that this long term monitoring technique can be a feasible solution for the sampling of TCE indicator parameters at remote contaminated sites.

  13. Development of two mobile laboratories for a routine and accident monitoring of internal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franck, D., E-mail: [IRSN-French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Internal Dosimetry Department, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Berniere, J.; Viltard, D.; Parre, F.; Challeton-de Vathaire, C.; Agarande, M. [IRSN-French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Internal Dosimetry Department, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)


    To provide medical surveillance of workers exposed to risk of internal contamination, IRSN (French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety) has developed two mobile laboratories for on-site monitoring. The laboratories are unique in Europe. They meet the new radiation protection requirements for nuclear medicine departments and radiological emergency response. Details of the design, calibration procedures and performance characteristics of these systems in measurements of various types of organs (thyroid, lung and whole body) are described. The sensitivity of the measurements is very close to that achieved in a heavily shielded stationary laboratory. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe a new mobile truck developed for in situ monitoring of internal contamination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the technical principle of this truck. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They can carry out in vivo measurements in different types of geometries: thyroid, lung and whole body. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assess the performances for the measurement of typical radionuclides and contaminations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thanks to the use of specific shielding it has been shown sensitivities quite close to a heavy shielding system.

  14. A tiered, integrated biological and chemical monitoring framework for contaminants of emerging concern in aquatic ecosystems. (United States)

    Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Mehinto, Alvine C; Denslow, Nancy D; Schlenk, Daniel; Snyder, Shane A; Weisberg, Stephen B


    The chemical-specific risk-based paradigm that informs monitoring and assessment of environmental contaminants does not apply well to the many thousands of new chemicals that are being introduced into ambient receiving waters. We propose a tiered framework that incorporates bioanalytical screening tools and diagnostic nontargeted chemical analysis to more effectively monitor for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). The framework is based on a comprehensive battery of in vitro bioassays to first screen for a broad spectrum of CECs and nontargeted analytical methods to identify bioactive contaminants missed by the currently favored targeted analyses. Water quality managers in California have embraced this strategy with plans to further develop and test this framework in regional and statewide pilot studies on waterbodies that receive discharge from municipal wastewater treatment plants and stormwater runoff. In addition to directly informing decisions, the data obtained using this framework can be used to construct and validate models that better predict CEC occurrence and toxicity. The adaptive interplay among screening results, diagnostic assessment and predictive modeling will allow managers to make decisions based on the most current and relevant information, instead of extrapolating from parameters with questionable linkage to CEC impacts. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:540-547. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Using Optically Stimulated Electron Emission as an Inspection Method to Monitor Surface Contamination (United States)

    Lingbloom, Mike S.


    During redesign of the Space Shuttle reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM), NASA amended the contract with ATK Launch Systems (then Morton Thiokol Inc.) with Change Order 966 to implement a contamination control and cleanliness verification method. The change order required: (1) A quantitative inspection method (2) A written record of actual contamination levels versus a known reject level (3) A method that is more sensitive than existing methods of visual and black light inspection. Black light inspection is only useful for inspection of contaminants that fluoresce near the 365 nm spectral line and is not useful for inspection of most silicones that will not produce strong fluorescence. Black light inspection conducted by a qualified inspector under controlled light is capable of detecting Conoco HD-2 grease in gross amounts and is very subjective due to operator sensitivity. Optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE), developed at the Materials and Process Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), was selected to satisfy Change Order 966. OSEE offers several important advantages over existing laboratory methods with similar sensitivity, e.g., spectroscopy and nonvolatile residue sampling, which provide turn around time, real time capability, and full coverage inspection capability. Laboratory methods require sample gathering and in-lab analysis, which sometimes takes several days to get results. This is not practical in a production environment. In addition, these methods do not offer full coverage inspection of the large components

  16. Bioindicators of contaminant exposure and effect in aquatic and terrestrial monitoring (United States)

    Melancon, Mark J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John


    Bioindicators of contaminant exposure presently used in environmental monitoring arc discussed. Some have been extensively field-validated and arc already in routine application. Included are (1) inhibition of brain or blood cholinesterase by anticholinesterase pesticides, (2) induction of hepatic microsomal cytochromes P450 by chemicals such as PAHs and PCBs, (3) reproductive problems such as terata and eggshell thinning, and (4) aberrations of hemoglobin synthesis, including the effects of lead and of certain chlorinated hydrocarbons. Many studies on DNA damage and of histopathological effects, particularly in the form of tumors, have already been completed. There are presently numerous other opportunities for field validation. Bile metabolites of contaminants in fish reveal exposure to contaminants that might otherwise be difficult to detect or quantify. Bile analysis is beginning to be extended to species other than fishes. Assessment of oxidative damage and immune competence appear to be valuable biomarkers. needing only additional field validation for wider use. The use of metallothioneins as biomarkers depends on the development of convenient, inexpensive methodology that provides information not available from measurements of metal ions. The use of stress proteins as biomarkers depends on development of convenient, inexpensive methodology and field validation. Gene arrays and proteomics hold promise as bioindicators for contaminant exposure or effect, particularly because of the large amount of data that could be generated, but they still need extensive development and testing.

  17. Glyphosate contaminated soil remediation by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma and its residual toxicity evaluation. (United States)

    Wang, Tiecheng; Ren, Jingyu; Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin


    Glyphosate was one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Remediation of glyphosate-contaminated soil was conducted using atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. The feasibility of glyphosate degradation in soil was explored, and the soil leachate toxicity after remediation was assessed via a seed germination test. The experimental results showed that approximately 93.9% of glyphosate was degraded within 45min of DBD plasma treatment with an energy yield of 0.47gkWh(-1), and the degradation process fitted the first-order kinetic model. Increasing the discharge voltage and decreasing the organic matter content of the soil were both found to facilitate glyphosate degradation. There existed appropriate soil moisture to realize high glyphosate degradation efficiency. Glyphosate mineralization was confirmed by changes of total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), PO4(3-) and NO3(-). The degradation intermediates including glycine, aminomethylphosphonic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, PO4(3-) and NO3(-), CO2 and CO were observed. A possible pathway for glyphosate degradation in the soil using this system was proposed. Based on the soil leachate toxicity test using wheat seed germination, the soil did not exhibit any hazardous effects following high-efficiency glyphosate degradation.

  18. [Contamination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Residue in Fresh Vegetables and Related Health Risk Assessment in Changchun, China]. (United States)

    Yu, Rui; Liu, Jing-shuang; Wang, Qi-cun; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Yang


    This study aims to investigate the concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in fresh vegetables. A total of Z14 samples from seven types of vegetables were collected from the suburb in Changchun City. The OPs were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD). Target hazard quotients (THQ) were applied to estimate the potential health risk to inhabitants. Results showed that OPs concentrations exceeded the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in more than 23. 4% samples, and were not detected in only 7. 9% samples. Detection rates of OPs was as follow in the decreased order: diazinon (82. 2%) > phorate (45. 8%) > dimethoate (29. 4%) > parathion-methyl (27. 6%) > omethoate (23. 8%) > dichlorvos (22. 9%) > fenitrothion (21%) > fenthion (18. 7%) > parathion (18. 2%) > methamidophos (17. 3%) > malathion (12. 1%). The percentages above MRL for leaves were higher than for non-leafy vegetables. The order of percentages of OPs above MRL was as follows: green onion (82. 5%) > radish (37. 5%) > red pepper (17. 2%) > Chinese vegetable (14. 3%) > cucumber (3. 2%) > eggplant (2. 9%) > tomato (0%). 49. 5% vegetables samples showed more than one OP. The average target hazard quotients (ave THQ) were all less than one and the average Hazard Index (ave HI) was 0. 462, so that inhabitants who expose average OP levels may not experience adverse health effects.

  19. Long-term autonomous resistivity monitoring of oil-contaminated sediments from the Deepwater Horizon spill (United States)

    Heenan, J. W.; Slater, L. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ross, C.; Nolan, J. T.; Atekwana, E. A.; Werkema, D. D.; Fathepure, B.


    outside of the contaminated location exhibit relatively uniform resistivity or show clear evidence of seasonal effect. Temperature-corrected resistivity changes show no direct correlation with pore fluid specific conductance changes, suggesting that specific conductance changes (e.g. due to tides) have little influence on imaged resistivity structure. Microbial data suggest that resistivity changes within the contaminated location resulted from biodegradation, showing the presence of native populations capable of degrading aromatic hydrocarbons at salinities ranging from 6 to 15 % NaCl within the contaminated location. Aqueous geochemical measurements performed on samples from the site further indicate that at depth intervals coincident with the resistivity anomaly, marked increases in the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were observed suggesting biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon although other DIC generating processes such as organic matter degradation coupled to sulfate and iron reduction were also prominent. This experiment demonstrates the potential viability of long-term autonomous electrical monitoring as a means of decreasing the frequency of more costly and invasive chemical analysis of natural attenuation.

  20. Monitoring of bacterial contamination of dental unit water lines using adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence. (United States)

    Watanabe, A; Tamaki, N; Yokota, K; Matsuyama, M; Kokeguchi, S


    Bacterial contamination of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) was evaluated using ATP bioluminescence analysis and a conventional culture method. Water samples (N=44) from DUWLs were investigated for heterotrophic bacteria by culture on R2A agar, which gave counts ranging from 1.4×10(3) to 2.7×10(5) cfu/mL. The ATP bioluminescence results for DUWL samples ranged from 6 to 1189 relative light units and could be obtained within 1min; these correlated well with the culture results (r=0.727-0.855). We conclude that the results of the ATP bioluminescence assay accurately reflect the results of conventional culture-based testing. This method is potentially useful for rapid and simple monitoring of DUWL bacterial contamination.

  1. Improving hydraulic excavator performance through in line hydraulic oil contamination monitoring (United States)

    Ng, Felix; Harding, Jennifer A.; Glass, Jacqueline


    It is common for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of high value products to provide maintenance or service packages to customers to ensure their products are maintained at peak efficiency throughout their life. To quickly and efficiently plan for maintenance requirements, OEMs require accurate information about the use and wear of their products. In recent decades, the aerospace industry in particular has become expert in using real time data for the purpose of product monitoring and maintenance scheduling. Significant quantities of real time usage data from product monitoring are commonly generated and transmitted back to the OEMs, where diagnostic and prognostic analysis will be carried out. More recently, other industries such as construction and automotive, are also starting to develop capabilities in these areas and condition based maintenance (CBM) is increasing in popularity as a means of satisfying customers' demands. CBM requires constant monitoring of real time product data by the OEMs, however the biggest challenge for these industries, in particular construction, is the lack of accurate and real time understanding of how their products are being used possibly because of the complex supply chains which exist in construction projects. This research focuses on current dynamic data acquisition techniques for mobile hydraulic systems, in this case the use of a mobile inline particle contamination sensor; the aim was to assess suitability to achieve both diagnostic and prognostic requirements of Condition Based Maintenance. It concludes that hydraulic oil contamination analysis, namely detection of metallic particulates, offers a reliable way to measure real time wear of hydraulic components.

  2. Mobile means for the monitoring of atmospheric contamination in a reactor building; Moyens mobiles de surveillance de la contamination atmospherique en BR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, S.; Lestang, M. [EDF/DPN/GPRE/IRP, 93 - Saint Denis (France)


    After having evoked the context and challenges of contamination monitoring when exploiting nuclear reactors, the authors discuss the representativeness of the atmospheric contamination measurement as it depends on the different physicochemical forms of radionuclides present in the circuits. They indicate the different gaseous or aerosol radioactive elements which are monitored within EDF installations. They discuss the incorporation of monitoring means at the installation design level, briefly present the use of beacons inside and outside the reactor building. They describe how monitoring is organized on the basis of alert threshold adjustments: an investigation threshold and an evacuation threshold. They discuss the beacon (or sensor) selection and indicate recommendations for their implementation for optimization purposes. They indicate where these beacons are installed and evoke the experimentation of networked mobile beacons with data remote transmission

  3. Probabilistic risk assessment of dietary exposure to single and multiple pesticide residues or contaminants: Summary of the work performed within the SAFE FOODS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaveren, van J.D.; Boon, P.E.


    This introduction to the journal's supplement on probabilistic risk assessment of single and multiple exposure to pesticide residues or contaminants summarizes the objectives and results of the work performed in work package 3 of the EU-funded project SAFE FOODS. Within this work package, we develop

  4. Evaluation of a recent product to remove lipids and other matrix co-extractives in the analysis of pesticide residues and environmental contaminants in foods (United States)

    This study demonstrates the application of a novel lipid removal product to the residue analysis of 65 pesticides and 52 environmental contaminants in kale, pork, salmon, and avocado by fast, low pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS). Sample preparation involves QuEChE...

  5. Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination (United States)

    Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.


    Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total

  6. Monitoring contamination due to materials outgassing by QCM-based sensors (United States)

    Dirri, Fabrizio


    F. Dirri, E. Palomba, A. Longobardo, D. Biondi, A. Boccaccini, E. Zampetti, B. Saggin, D. Scaccabarozzi, A. Tortora, A. Nanni, J. Alves, A. Tighe Outgassing from spacecraft materials often occurs and degassing contaminants can degrade critical spacecraft surfaces, such as optical systems, solar panels, thermal radiators and thermal management systems. The main contaminants are the water adsorbed by cold surface, organics from spacecraft structure, electronics, insulation and thrusters firings [1]. Thus, it is fundamental to monitor these low-outgassing rates especially in a long duration mission: Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) based sensors (i.e. single and double crystal configurations) are a suitable instruments to monitor step by step these degradation processes which occur in space conditions. The Contamination Assessment Microbalance (CAM) is a device aimed at monitoring in-orbit contamination of sensitive surfaces and payloads on ESA's future satellites. The device, developed by a consortium of Italian research Institutes, is based on QCM technology, previously considered by NASA and ESA experiments performed on Space Shuttle and satellite missions [2,3,4]. CAM is a low mass (200 grams for the sensor head), low volume (smaller than 5x5x5 cm3 for the sensor head) and low power consumption (less than 1.5 W) sensor. The device is composed by: 1) the Sensor Head, containing a sensing crystal (which measures the deposited contaminant mass), a reference crystal (used as frequency reference), their related Proximity Electronics (PE) and a Temperature Control System (TCS); 2) the Main Electronics Unit (MEU), which acquires the signal in output from Sensor Head unit; 3) the Harness connecting Sensor Head and MEU; 4) the User Interface (UI) to read and display the data. The device shows several improvements, i.e. possibility to measure directly the crystal temperature (with an accuracy better than 0.1°C), large measurable mass range (from 5•10-9 to 7•10-4 g/cm2

  7. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W. [S M Stoller Corporation, 2439 Robertson Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)


    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  8. Ex situ bioremediation of a soil contaminated by mazut (heavy residual fuel oil)--a field experiment. (United States)

    Beškoski, Vladimir P; Gojgić-Cvijović, Gordana; Milić, Jelena; Ilić, Mila; Miletić, Srdjan; Solević, Tatjana; Vrvić, Miroslav M


    Mazut (heavy residual fuel oil)-polluted soil was exposed to bioremediation in an ex situ field-scale (600 m(3)) study. Re-inoculation was performed periodically with biomasses of microbial consortia isolated from the mazut-contaminated soil. Biostimulation was conducted by adding nutritional elements (N, P and K). The biopile (depth 0.4m) was comprised of mechanically mixed polluted soil with softwood sawdust and crude river sand. Aeration was improved by systematic mixing. The biopile was protected from direct external influences by a polyethylene cover. Part (10 m(3)) of the material prepared for bioremediation was set aside uninoculated, and maintained as an untreated control pile (CP). Biostimulation and re-inoculation with zymogenous microorganisms increased the number of hydrocarbon degraders after 50 d by more than 20 times in the treated soil. During the 5 months, the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of the contaminated soil was reduced to 6% of the initial value, from 5.2 to 0.3 g kg(-1) dry matter, while TPH reduced to only 90% of the initial value in the CP. After 150 d there were 96%, 97% and 83% reductions for the aliphatic, aromatic, and nitrogen-sulphur-oxygen and asphaltene fractions, respectively. The isoprenoids, pristane and phytane, were more than 55% biodegraded, which indicated that they are not suitable biomarkers for following bioremediation. According to the available data, this is the first field-scale study of the bioremediation of mazut and mazut sediment-polluted soil, and the efficiency achieved was far above that described in the literature to date for heavy fuel oil.

  9. Detection and Monitoring of E-Waste Contamination through Remote Sensing and Image Analysis (United States)

    Garb, Yaakov; Friedlander, Lonia


    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of today's fastest growing waste streams, and also one of the more problematic, as this end-of-life product contains precious metals mixed with and embedded in a variety of low value and potentially harmful plastic and other materials. This combination creates a powerful incentive for informal value chains that transport, extract from, and dispose of e-waste materials in far-ranging and unregulated ways, and especially in settings where regulation and livelihood alternatives are sparse, most notably in areas of India, China, and Africa. E-waste processing is known to release a variety of contaminants, such as heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, including flame retardants, dioxins and furans. In several sites, where the livelihoods of entire communities are dependent on e-waste processing, the resulting contaminants have been demonstrated to enter the hydrological system and food chain and have serious health and ecological effects. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the usefulness of multi-spectral remote sensing imagery to detect and monitor the release and possibly the dispersal of heavy metal contaminants released in e-waste processing. While similar techniques have been used for prospecting or for studying heavy metal contamination from mining and large industrial facilities, we suggest that these techniques are of particular value in detecting contamination from the more dispersed, shifting, and ad-hoc kinds of release typical of e-waste processing. Given the increased resolution and decreased price of multi-spectral imagery, such techniques may offer a remarkably cost-effective and rapidly responsive means of assessing and monitoring this kind of contamination. We will describe the geochemical and multi-spectral image-processing principles underlying our approach, and show how we have applied these to an area in which we have a detailed, multi-temporal, spatially referenced, and ground

  10. Importance of heterocylic aromatic compounds in monitored natural attenuation for coal tar contaminated aquifers: A review (United States)

    Blum, Philipp; Sagner, Anne; Tiehm, Andreas; Martus, Peter; Wendel, Thomas; Grathwohl, Peter


    NSO heterocycles (HET) are typical constituents of coal tars. However, HET are not yet routinely monitored, although HET are relatively toxic coal tar constituents. The main objectives of the study is therefore to review previous studies and to analyse HET at coal tar polluted sites in order to assess the relevance of HET as part of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) or any other long-term monitoring programme. Hence, natural attenuation of typical HET (indole, quinoline, carbazole, acridine, methylquinolines, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, benzofuran, dibenzofuran, methylbenzofurans, dimethylbenzofurans and xanthene) were studied at three different field sites in Germany. Compound-specific plume lengths were determined for all main contaminant groups (BTEX, PAH and HET). The results show that the observed plume lengths are site-specific and are above 250 m, but less than 1000 m. The latter, i.e. the upper limit, however mainly depends on the level of investigation, the considered compound, the lowest measured concentration and/or the achieved compound-specific detection limit and therefore cannot be unequivocally defined. All downstream contaminant plumes exhibited HET concentrations above typical PAH concentrations indicating that some HET are generally persistent towards biodegradation compared to other coal tar constituents, which results in comparatively increased field-derived half-lives of HET. Additionally, this study provides a review on physicochemical and toxicological parameters of HET. For three well investigated sites in Germany, the biodegradation of HET is quantified using the centre line method (CLM) for the evaluation of bulk attenuation rate constants. The results of the present and previous studies suggest that implementation of a comprehensive monitoring programme for heterocyclic aromatic compounds is relevant at sites, if MNA is considered in risk assessment and for remediation.

  11. The relationship between blood and muscle samples to monitor for residues of the antibiotic enrofloxacin in chickens (United States)

    Use of antibiotics in food animals has generated concern as the presence of these residues in food may contribute to increased microbial resistance in humans. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are thus now no longer allowed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in poultry and monitoring of the...

  12. Monitoring heavy metals, residual agricultural chemicals and sulfites in traditional herbal decoctions. (United States)

    Yu, In-Sil; Lee, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Sung-Dan; Kim, Yun-Hee; Park, Hae-Won; Ryu, Hoe-Jin; Lee, Jib-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Jung, Kweon; Na, Cheol; Joung, Jin-Yong; Son, Chang-Gue


    Asian traditional herbal preparations are frequently considered for the contamination with undeclared toxic or hazardous substances. The aim of this study was to determine the toxic heavy metals, pesticides and sulfur dioxide in decoctions that is a common form of final utilization in Korea. A total of 155 decoctions composed of multi-ingredient traditional herbs were randomly sampled from Seoul in Korea between 2013 and 2014. For each decoction, the concentrations of four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury), 33 pesticides and sulfur dioxide were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mercury analyzer, gas chromatography/nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC/NPD), gas chromatography/micro electron capture detector (GC/μECD), and Monier-Williams method respectively. One hundred fifty-two of One hundred fifty-five decoctions (98.1%) contained one of three heavy metals (96.1% for As, 97.4% for Cd, and 90.3% for Pb, 0.0% for Hg). Their average concentrations (77.0 ± 79.7 ug/kg for As, 20.4 ± 23.7 ug/kg for Cd, and 68.8 ± 76.5 ug/kg for Pb) were approximately 20% of the maximum allowable limits of vegetable or ginseng beverage described in the Korean Food Standard Codex while their 95th percentile concentrations were below than the guideline for them. None of 33 pesticides was detected in 155 decoction samples, and only one sample showed over limit of detection for residual sulfites. This study support that the contained status of toxic heavy metals, pesticides and sulfur dioxide in herbal decoctions are currently within safe level in Korea, and provide a reference data for the further studies focused on the safety herbal preparations.

  13. Status of contamination monitoring in radiation activities of National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhariyono, Gatot [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)


    National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) or Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional (BATAN) is a non departmental governmental agency, headed by a Director General who is directly responsible to the President. Center for Standardization and Radiation Safety Research (CSRSR) is one of the research centers within the deputy for the assessment of nuclear science and technology of the NAEA. The main task of the CSRSR is to implement research and development program, development and services in the field of radiation safety, standardization, dosimetry, radiation health as well as the application of nuclear techniques in medicine, according to the policy confirmed by the director general of BATAN. Task of radiation protection division is to set up programs and to develop radiation protection, personal monitoring system and radiation level of the working areas and their surroundings as well as dose limitation system, to carry out technical up grading of radiation protection officials skill and to help coping with radiation accident. The key factor on contamination monitoring is to reduce human error and mechanical failures. These problems can be achieved to the highest degree by developing knowledge and skill of staffs via trainings or courses on contamination and decontamination, so that they are hoped to become trained and qualified staffs. (G.K.)

  14. Monitoring Anaerobic TCE Degradation by Evanite Cultre in Column Packed with TCE-Contaminated Soil (United States)

    Ko, J.; Han, K.; Ahn, G.; Park, S.; Kim, N.; Ahn, H.; Kim, Y.


    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a long-term common groundwater pollutant because the compound with high density is slowly released into groundwater. Physical and chemical remediation processes have been used to clean-up the contaminant, but novel remediation technology is required to overcome a low efficiency of the traditional treatment process. Many researchers focused on biological process using an anaerobic TCE degrading culture, dehalococcoides spp., but it still needs to evaluate whether the process can be applied into field scale under aerobic condition. Therefore, in this work we examined two different types (i.e., Natural attenuation and bioaugmentation) of biological remediation process in anaerobic column packed with TCE-contaminated soil. A TCE degradation by indigenous microorganisms was confirmed by monitoring TCE and the metabolites (c-DCE, VC, ETH). However, TCE was transformed and stoichiometry amount of c-DCE was produced, and VC and ETH was not detected. To test bioaugmentation of Evanite culture containing dehalococcoides spp., Evanite culture was injected into the column and TCE degradation to c-DCE, VC, ETH was monitored. We are evaluating the transport of the Evanite culture in the column by measuring TCE and VC reductases. In the result, the TCE was completely degraded to ETH using hydrogen as electron donor generate by hydrogen-production fermentation from formate.

  15. Analytical Applications of Nanomaterials in Monitoring Biological and Chemical Contaminants in Food. (United States)

    Lim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Young-Rok


    The detection of food pathogens is an important aspect of food safety. A range of detection systems and new analytical materials have been developed to achieve fast, sensitive, and accurate monitoring of target pathogens. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of selected nanomaterials and their applications in food, and place focus on the monitoring of biological and chemical contaminants in food. The unique optical and electrical properties of nanomaterials, such as gold nanoparticles, nanorods, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, graphenes, nanopores, and polydiacetylene nanovesicles, are closely associated with their dimensions, which are comparable in scale to those of targeted biomolecules. Furthermore, their optical and electrical properties are highly dependent on local environments, which make them promising materials for sensor development. The specificity and selectivity of analytical nanomaterials for target contaminants can be achieved by combining them with various biological entities, such as antibodies, oligonucleotides, aptamers, membrane proteins, and biological ligands. Examples of nanomaterial-based analytical systems are presented together with their limitations and associated developmental issues.

  16. Geophysical Monitoring of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils Remediated with a Bioelectrochemical System. (United States)

    Mao, Deqiang; Lu, Lu; Revil, André; Zuo, Yi; Hinton, John; Ren, Zhiyong Jason


    Efficient noninvasive techniques are desired for monitoring the remediation process of contaminated soils. We applied the direct current resistivity technique to image conductivity changes in sandbox experiments where two sandy and clayey soils were initially contaminated with diesel hydrocarbon. The experiments were conducted over a 230 day period. The removal of hydrocarbon was enhanced by a bioelectrochemical system (BES) and the electrical potentials of the BES reactors were also monitored during the course of the experiment. We found that the variation in electrical conductivity shown in the tomograms correlate well with diesel removal from the sandy soil, but this is not the case with the clayey soil. The clayey soil is characterized by a larger specific surface area and therefore a larger surface conductivity. In sandy soil, the removal of the diesel and products from degradation leads to an increase in electrical conductivity during the first 69 days. This is expected since diesel is electrically insulating. For both soils, the activity of BES reactors is moderately imaged by the inverted conductivity tomogram of the reactor. An increase in current production by electrochemically active bacteria activity corresponds to an increase in conductivity of the reactor.

  17. Hanford Tanks 241-C-202 and 241-C-203 Residual Waste Contaminant Release Models and Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, William J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.


    As directed by Congress, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of River Protection in 1998 to manage DOE's largest, most complex environmental cleanup project – retrieval of radioactive waste from Hanford tanks for treatment and eventual disposal. Sixty percent by volume of the nation's high-level radioactive waste is stored at Hanford in aging deteriorating tanks. If not cleaned up, this waste is a threat to the Columbia River and the Pacific Northwest. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., is the Office of River Protection's prime contractor responsible for the storage, retrieval, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. As part of this effort, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop release models for key contaminants that are present in residual sludge remaining after closure of Hanford Tanks 241-C-203 (C-203) and 241-C-204 (C-204). The release models were developed from data generated by laboratory characterization and testing of samples from these two tanks. These release models are being developed to support the tank closure risk assessments performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., for DOE.

  18. Monitoring the effect of poplar trees on petroleum-hydrocarbon and chlorinated-solvent contaminated ground water (United States)

    Landmeyer, J.E.


    At contaminated groundwater sites, poplar trees can be used to affect groundwater levels, flow directions, and ultimately total groundwater and contaminant flux to areas downgradient of the trees. The magnitude of the hydrologic changes can be monitored using fundamental concepts of groundwater hydrology, in addition to plant physiology-based approaches, and can be viewed as being almost independent of the contaminant released. The affect of poplar trees on the fate of groundwater contaminants, however, is contaminant dependent. Some petroleum hydrocarbons or chlorinated solvents may be mineralized or transformed to innocuous compounds by rhizospheric bacteria associated with the tree roots, mineralized or transformed by plant tissues in the transpiration stream or leaves after uptake, or passively volatilized and rapidly dispersed or oxidized in the atmosphere. These processes also can be monitored using a combination of physiological- or geochemical-based field or laboratory approaches. When combined, such hydrologic and contaminant monitoring approaches can result in a more accurate assessment of the use of poplar trees to meet regulatory goals at contaminated groundwater sites, verify that these goals continue to be met in the future, and ultimately lead to a consensus on how the performance of plant-based remedial strategies (phytoremediation) is to be assessed.

  19. Stable isotope fractionation analysis as a tool to monitor biodegradation in contaminated acquifers (United States)

    Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Morasch, Barbara; Griebler, Christian; Richnow, Hans H.


    The assessment of biodegradation in contaminated aquifers has become an issue of increasing importance in the recent years. To some extent, this can be related to the acceptance of intrinsic bioremediation or monitored natural attenuation as a means to manage contaminated sites. Among the few existing methods to detect biodegradation in the subsurface, stable isotope fractionation analysis (SIFA) is one of the most promising approaches which is pronounced by the drastically increasing number of applications. This review covers the recent laboratory and field studies assessing biodegradation of contaminants via stable isotope analysis. Stable isotope enrichment factors have been found that vary from no fractionation for dioxygenase reactions converting aromatic hydrocarbons over moderate fractionation by monooxygenase reactions ( ɛ=-3‰) and some anaerobic studies on microbial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons ( ɛ=-1.7‰) to larger fractionations by anaerobic dehalogenation reactions of chlorinated solvents ( ɛ=between -5‰ and -30‰). The different isotope enrichment factors can be related to the respective biochemical reactions. Based on that knowledge, we discuss under what circumstances SIFA can be used for a qualitative or even a quantitative assessment of biodegradation in the environment. In a steadily increasing number of cases, it was possible to explain biodegradation processes in the field based on isotope enrichment factors obtained from laboratory experiments with pure cultures and measured isotope values from the field. The review will focus on the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents as the major contaminants of groundwater. Advances in the instrumental development for stable isotope analysis are only mentioned if it is important for the understanding of the application.

  20. Monitoring of Urban Soil Contamination under Various Technogenic Impact: Comparison of the Two Seaside Cities (United States)

    Miroshnychenko, Mykola; Krivitska, Ivetta; Hladkikh, Yevgenia


    The aim of the research was to show how the environmental policy of city can affect the quality of soils. Studies were carried out simultaneously in the two cities of Ukrainian coast of the Azov Sea, which are significantly different in terms of technogenic impact. Berdyansk is a well known resort and wellness center, but until recently around 30 petrochemical, machine-building and other enterprises were located there. The largest industrial center Mariupol, where emissions from enterprises to the atmosphere exceed 300 thousand tons per year, is located about 60 km from Berdyansk in similar natural conditions. Observations of soil contamination was performed on 60 monitoring sites not less than 2500 m2, located in industrial, administrative, cultural, residential and recreational zones of each city. The time series of observations: the first stage in 2002-2003, the second in 2007-2008, third in 2012-2014. The available forms of heavy metals in the soils were determined by atomic-absorption method after extraction of buffer solution with pH 4.8 as well as 1 N HCl. The content of mineral salts in a water extract was measured titrimetrically. The content of heavy metals in grass vegetation and phytotoxicity of soil was determined in 50% of monitoring sites. Since 2002-2003, the level of soil contamination in the industrial zones of Berdyansk gradually decreased, but heavy metals began accumulate in soils of residential, cultural and administrative areas, and especially, in recreation objects. Probably, this is related to the reduction of the industrial sector and the increase of resort and tourist business. Consequently, the content of cadmium, chromium, and nickel in soils is reduced, but the content of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn) increases. Currently the contamination of plants becomes less so the quality of local agricultural products is improved. In contrast to this, due to the intensive activity of the enterprises of iron and steel industry in Mariupol the level

  1. Study on a New Technique of On-line Monitoring of Oil Contamination Level Using Computer Vision Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Qun-zhang; ZUO Hong-fu


    In this paper,a new technique of capturing the images of debris in lubrication or hydraulic oil using micro-imaging and computer vision techniques is introduced.By way of image processing,the size and distribution of debris are obtained,and then the oil contamination level is also obtained.Because the information of oil contamination is obtained directly from the images of debris by this method,the monitoring result is more intuitive and reliable.

  2. Evaluating Leaf and Canopy Reflectance of Stressed Rice Plants to Monitor Arsenic Contamination. (United States)

    Bandaru, Varaprasad; Daughtry, Craig S; Codling, Eton E; Hansen, David J; White-Hansen, Susan; Green, Carrie E


    Arsenic contamination is a serious problem in rice cultivated soils of many developing countries. Hence, it is critical to monitor and control arsenic uptake in rice plants to avoid adverse effects on human health. This study evaluated the feasibility of using reflectance spectroscopy to monitor arsenic in rice plants. Four arsenic levels were induced in hydroponically grown rice plants with application of 0, 5, 10 and 20 µmol·L(-1) sodium arsenate. Reflectance spectra of upper fully expanded leaves were acquired over visible and infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Additionally, canopy reflectance for the four arsenic levels was simulated using SAIL (Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves) model for various soil moisture conditions and leaf area indices (LAI). Further, sensitivity of various vegetative indices (VIs) to arsenic levels was assessed. Results suggest that plants accumulate high arsenic amounts causing plant stress and changes in reflectance characteristics. All leaf spectra based VIs related strongly with arsenic with coefficient of determination (r²) greater than 0.6 while at canopy scale, background reflectance and LAI confounded with spectral signals of arsenic affecting the VIs' performance. Among studied VIs, combined index, transformed chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (TCARI)/optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) exhibited higher sensitivity to arsenic levels and better resistance to soil backgrounds and LAI followed by red edge based VIs (modified chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (MCARI) and TCARI) suggesting that these VIs could prove to be valuable aids for monitoring arsenic in rice fields.

  3. Monitored Natural Attenuation of ino9rganic Contaminants Treatability Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crapse, K


    The identification and quantification of key natural attenuation processes for inorganic contaminants at D-Area is detailed herein. Two overarching goals of this evaluation of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation strategy were (1) to better define the availability of inorganic contaminants as potential sources for transport to groundwater and uptake by environmental receptors and (2) to understand the site-specific mechanisms controlling attenuation of these inorganic contaminants through tandem geochemical and biological characterization. Data collected in this study provides input for more appropriate site groundwater transport models. Significant natural attenuation is occurring at D-Area as evidenced by relatively low aqueous concentrations of constituents of concern (COCs) (Be, Ni, U, and As) at all locations characterized and the decrease in groundwater concentrations with increasing distance from the source. The observed magnitude of decrease in groundwater concentrations of COCs with distance from the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) could not be accounted for by the modeled physical attenuation processes of dilution/dispersion. This additional attenuation, i.e., the observed difference between the groundwater concentrations of COCs and the modeled physical attenuation, is due to biogeochemical processes occurring at the D-Area. In tandem geochemical and microbiological characterization studies designed to evaluate the mechanisms contributing to natural attenuation, pH was the single parameter found to be most predictive of contaminant attenuation. The increasing pH with distance from the source is likely responsible for increased sorption of COCs to soil surfaces within the aquifer at D-Area. Importantly, because the sediments appear to have a high buffering capacity, the acid emanating from the DCPRB has been neutralized by the soil, and these conditions have led to large Kd values at the site. Two major types of soils are present at

  4. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticide residue levels in adipose tissue of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants. (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Herrero-Mercado, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Infanzon, R; Hernández-Chalate, F


    The objective of the present study was to monitor the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in 150 adipose tissue samples of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants. In analyzed samples, the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of the samples at mean 1.643 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 99.3.% of the samples at mean 0.227 mg/kg; β-HCH in 97.3% of the samples at mean 0.063 mg/kg; and op'DDT in 93.3% of the samples at mean 0.022 mg/kg. Comparing mean, median and geometric mean concentrations of organochlorine pesticides shows a decrease in values from mean to median and to geometric mean which points out a prevalence of lower concentrations among the total samples and the existence of occasional cases of extreme exposure expressed in range values. The pooled samples divided according to sex, showed only significant differences of pp'DDE median concentrations between sexes. The other organochlorine pesticides indicated no statistical differences between sexes, including the pp'DDE/pp'DDT ratio. The samples grouped according to age, showed that the third tertile was more contaminated for both sexes, indicating age as a positively associated factor with organochlorine pesticide levels in adipose tissue of Veracruz inhabitants. Comparing organochlorine pesticide levels between 2008 and 2010 years, a decreased tendency for β-HCH, pp'DDE, Σ-DDT and pp'DDE/pp'DDT ratio levels was observed.

  5. The relationship between blood and muscle samples to monitor for residues of the antibiotic enrofloxacin in chickens. (United States)

    Reyes-Herrera, I; Schneider, M J; Blore, P J; Donoghue, D J


    In 2005, the US Food and Drug Administration withdrew approval for use of enrofloxacin in poultry, thus effectively imposing zero tolerance for residues of this antibiotic in poultry. Conventional residue monitoring for most antibiotics, including enrofloxacin, involves removing poultry carcasses from the processing line and collecting muscle tissues for analysis. Because of the loss of valuable edible products and the difficulties and expense of sampling all the carcasses, only a small portion of carcasses are tested for violative residues. Unlike muscle tissue, blood is readily available from all birds at the beginning of processing and may be used to screen for illegal residues in all poultry carcasses. It is unknown, however, if enrofloxacin concentrations in blood are predictive of muscle concentrations. In an effort to evaluate this relationship, 156 broiler chickens, 5 wk of age, were dosed with either 25 or 50 µg/mL of enrofloxacin for 3 or 7 d, respectively, in the drinking water. Blood and muscle samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h (n = 6 birds/group) during the first dosing day, every 48 h during the dosing period, and every 12 h during the withdrawal period for up to 60 h after withdrawal. Enrofloxacin residues were determined in all blood and tissue samples during the dosing periods and in most of the withdrawal period for both doses. These results support the potential to use blood to screen for illegal enrofloxacin residues in edible poultry tissues in an effort to protect the human food supply.

  6. Continuous nasogastric tube feeding: monitoring by combined use of refractometry and traditional gastric residual volumes. (United States)

    Chang, W-K; McClave, S-A; Chao, Y-C


    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs) is insensitive and cannot distinguish retained enteral formula from the large volume of endogenous secretions. We designed this prospective study to determine whether refractometry and Brix value (BV) measurements could be used to monitor gastric emptying and tolerance in patients receiving continuous enteral feeding. Thirty-six patients on continuous nasogastric tube feeding were divided into two groups; patients with lower GRVs (75 ml) in Group 2. Upon entry, all gastric contents were aspirated, the volume was recorded (Asp GRV), BV measurements were made by refractometry, and then the contents were reinstilled but diluted with 30 ml additional water. Finally, a small amount was reaspirated and repeat BV measurements were made. Three hours later, the entire procedure was repeated a second time. The BV ratio, calculated (Cal) GRV, and volume of formula remaining were calculated by derived equations. Mean BV ratios were significantly higher for those patients in Group 2 compared to those in Group 1. All but one of the 22 patients (95%) in Group 1 had a volume of formula remaining in the stomach estimated on both measurements to be less than the hourly infusion rate (all these patients had BV ratios 70%). Three of the Group 2 patients (21%) whose initial measurement showed evidence for retention of formula, improved on repeat follow-up measurement assuring adequate gastric emptying. The remaining five patients from Group 2 (35%) had a volume of formula remaining that was less than the hourly infusion rate on both measurements. The pattern of Asp GRVs and serial pre- and post-dilution BVs failed to differentiate these patients in Group 2 with potential emptying problems from those with sufficient gastric emptying. Refractometry and measurement of the BV may improve the clinical utilization of GRVs, by its ability to identify the component of formula within gastric contents and track changes in that component related

  7. In-situ determination of radionuclide levels in facilities to be decommissioned using the allowable residual contamination level method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.J.; Haggard, D.L.


    This feasibility study resulted in verification of a direct and two alternate indirect techniques for making in-situ determinations of {sup 90}Sr and other radionuclide levels in a Hanford facility to be decommissioned that was evaluated using the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. The ARCL method is used to determine the extent of decontamination that will be required before a facility can be decommissioned. A sump in the 1608F Building was chosen for the feasibility study. Hanford decommissioning personnel had previously taken 79 concrete and surface scale samples from the building to be analyzed by radiochemical analysis. The results of the radiochemical analyses compare favorably with the values derived by the in-situ methods presented in this report. Results obtained using a portable spectrometer and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were both very close to the radiochemistry results. Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump floor were 550 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system and 780 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. This compares favorably with the levels determined by radiochemical analyses (i.e., 230 to 730 pCi/cm{sup 2}). Surface {sup 90}Sr levels detected on the sump wall ranged between 10 and 80 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the spectrometer system, compared with a conservative 200 pCi/cm{sup 2} using the TLD data. The radiochemical results ranged between 19 and 77 pCi/cm{sup 2} for the four samples taken from the wall at indeterminate locations. 17 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Degradability of n-alkanes during ex situ natural bioremediation of soil contaminated by heavy residual fuel oil (mazut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramadan Mohamed Muftah


    Full Text Available It is well known that during biodegradation of oil in natural geological conditions, or oil pollutants in the environment, a degradation of hydrocarbons occurs according to the well defined sequence. For example, the major changes during the degradation process of n-alkanes occur in the second, slight and third, moderate level (on the biodegradation scale from 1 to 10. According to previous research, in the fourth, heavy level, when intensive changes of phenanthrene and its methyl isomers begin, n-alkanes have already been completely removed. In this paper, the ex situ natural bioremediation (unstimulated bioremediation, without addition of biomass, nutrient substances and biosurfactant of soil contaminated with heavy residual fuel oil (mazut was conducted during the period of 6 months. Low abundance of n-alkanes in the fraction of total saturated hydrocarbons in the initial sample (identification was possible only after concentration by urea adduction technique showed that the investigated oil pollutant was at the boundary between the third and the fourth biodegradation level. During the experiment, an intense degradation of phenanthrene and its methyl-, dimethyl-and trimethyl-isomers was not followed by the removal of the remaining n-alkanes. The abundance of n-alkanes remained at the initial low level, even at end of the experiment when the pollutant reached one of the highest biodegradation levels. These results showed that the unstimulated biodegradation of some hydrocarbons, despite of their high biodegradability, do not proceed completely to the end, even at final degradation stages. In the condition of the reduced availability of some hydrocarbons, microorganisms tend to opt for less biodegradable but more accessible hydrocarbons.

  9. Slow pyrolyzed biochars from crop residues for soil metal(loid) immobilization and microbial community abundance in contaminated agricultural soils. (United States)

    Igalavithana, Avanthi Deshani; Park, Jinje; Ryu, Changkook; Lee, Young Han; Hashimoto, Yohey; Huang, Longbin; Kwon, Eilhann E; Ok, Yong Sik; Lee, Sang Soo


    This study evaluated the feasibility of using biochars produced from three types of crop residues for immobilizing Pb and As and their effects on the abundance of microbial community in contaminated lowland paddy (P-soil) and upland (U-soil) agricultural soils. Biochars were produced from umbrella tree [Maesopsis eminii] wood bark [WB], cocopeat [CP], and palm kernel shell [PKS] at 500 °C by slow pyrolysis at a heating rate of 10 °C min(-1). Soils were incubated with 5% (w w(-1)) biochars at 25 °C and 70% water holding capacity for 45 d. The biochar effects on metal immobilization were evaluated by sequential extraction of the treated soil, and the microbial community was determined by microbial fatty acid profiles and dehydrogenase activity. The addition of WB caused the largest decrease in Pb in the exchangeable fraction (P-soil: 77.7%, U-soil: 91.5%), followed by CP (P-soil: 67.1%, U-soil: 81.1%) and PKS (P-soil: 9.1%, U-soil: 20.0%) compared to that by the control. In contrast, the additions of WB and CP increased the exchangeable As in U-soil by 84.6% and 14.8%, respectively. Alkalinity and high phosphorous content of biochars might be attributed to the Pb immobilization and As mobilization, respectively. The silicon content in biochars is also an influencing factor in increasing the As mobility. However, no considerable effects of biochars on the microbial community abundance and dehydrogenase activity were found in both soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of GIS technologies to monitor secondary radioactive contamination in the Delegen mountain massif (United States)

    Alipbeki, O.; Kabzhanova, G.; Kurmanova, G.; Alipbekova, Ch.


    The territory of the Degelen mountain massif is located within territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and it is an area of ecological disaster. Currently there is a process of secondary radioactive contamination that is caused by geodynamic processes activated at the Degelen array, violation of underground hydrological cycles and as a consequence, water seepage into the tunnels. One of the methods of monitoring of geodynamic processes is the modern technology of geographic information systems (GIS), methods of satellite radar interferometry and high accuracy satellite navigation system in conjunction with radioecological methods. This paper discusses on the creation of a GIS-project for the Degelen array, facilitated by quality geospatial analysis of the situation and simulation of the phenomena, in order to maximize an objective assessment of the radiation situation in this protected area.

  11. Monitoring of radioactive contamination in Polish surface waters in 2012-2013. (United States)

    Suplińska, M; Kardaś, M; Rubel, B; Fulara, A; Adamczyk, A

    The (90)Sr and (137)Cs contamination in Polish surface waters has been monitoring since 1994. Surface water samples from six lakes and the Vistula and Oder Rivers were collected in spring and autumn 2012 and 2013. The mean (90)Sr and (137)Cs concentrations were 3.92 ± 0.40 and 4.49 ± 2.00 mBq L(-1), respectively. Correlations were identified between the radionuclide concentrations and meteorological conditions and the original fallout distribution from the Chernobyl disaster. The annual average radionuclide concentrations were not significantly different from the concentrations found between 1994 and 2011. The (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentrations have been decreasing only slowly.

  12. Corrosion Sensor for Monitoring the Service Condition of Chloride-Contaminated Cement Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Jing Ba


    Full Text Available A corrosion sensor for monitoring the corrosion state of cover mortar was developed. The sensor was tested in cement mortar, with and without the addition of chloride to simulate the adverse effects of chloride-contaminated environmental conditions on concrete structures. In brief, a linear polarization resistance method combined with an embeddable reference electrode was utilized to measure the polarization resistance (Rp using built-in sensor electrodes. Subsequently, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 50 kHz was used to obtain the cement mortar resistance (Rs. The results show that the polarization resistance is related to the chloride content and Rs; ln (Rp is linearly related to the Rs values in mortar without added chloride. The relationships observed between the Rp of the steel anodes and the resistance of the surrounding cement mortar measured by the corrosion sensor confirms that Rs can indicate the corrosion state of concrete structures.

  13. Corrosion sensor for monitoring the service condition of chloride-contaminated cement mortar. (United States)

    Lu, Shuang; Ba, Heng-Jing


    A corrosion sensor for monitoring the corrosion state of cover mortar was developed. The sensor was tested in cement mortar, with and without the addition of chloride to simulate the adverse effects of chloride-contaminated environmental conditions on concrete structures. In brief, a linear polarization resistance method combined with an embeddable reference electrode was utilized to measure the polarization resistance (Rp) using built-in sensor electrodes. Subsequently, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 50 kHz was used to obtain the cement mortar resistance (Rs). The results show that the polarization resistance is related to the chloride content and Rs; ln (Rp) is linearly related to the Rs values in mortar without added chloride. The relationships observed between the Rp of the steel anodes and the resistance of the surrounding cement mortar measured by the corrosion sensor confirms that Rs can indicate the corrosion state of concrete structures.

  14. Combining modeling and monitoring to study fecal contamination in a small rural catchment. (United States)

    Bougeard, Morgane; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Teillon, Anna; Belloir, Jérôme; Le Mennec, Cécile; Thome, Sterenn; Durand, Gael; Pommepuy, Monique


    The present study sought to identify Escherichia coli sources in a small catchment and to use the agro-hydrological model soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) to estimate their impact on river water quality. The innovative aspects of this research are to assess the hourly variations of fecal contamination and to take these variations into account in the model to provide a better evaluation of river quality. Thus, water samples were taken weekly at the river outlet (n = 4) and 24-h monitoring sessions were performed during low and high-flow periods (n = 74). E. coli variations were found to be primarily linked to rainfall and not to resuspension mechanisms. Subdaily fluctuations and deviations were ±0.33 log(10) cfu/100 mL and ±0.70 log(10) cfu/100 mL for dry (3 mm/day) weather, respectively. After river flow calibration, all known pollution sources (septic systems, manure spreading, farm discharges) were introduced into SWAT. The model reproduced the fecal contamination in the river and the use of subdaily deviations allowed us to evaluate the simulation quality and compare grab samplings with simulated daily E. coli concentration, thus confirming that the performance of the model is better when additional information on hourly concentration variations is used.

  15. Inspection and monitoring plan, contaminated groundwater seeps 317/319/ENE Area, Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    During the course of completing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) in the 317/319/East-Northeast (ENE) Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), groundwater was discovered moving to the surface through a series of groundwater seeps. The seeps are located in a ravine approximately 600 ft south of the ANL-E fence line in Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. Samples of the seep water were collected and analyzed for selected parameters. Two of the five seeps sampled were found to contain detectable levels of organic contaminants. Three chemical species were identified: chloroform (14--25 {micro}g/L), carbon tetrachloride (56--340 {micro}g/L), and tetrachloroethylene (3--6 {micro}g/L). The other seeps did not contain detectable levels of volatile organics. The nature of the contaminants in the seeps will also be monitored on a regular basis. Samples of surface water flowing through the bottom of the ravine and groundwater emanating from the seeps will be collected and analyzed for chemical and radioactive constituents. The results of the routine sampling will be compared with the concentrations used in the risk assessment. If the concentrations exceed those used in the risk assessment, the risk calculations will be revised by using the higher numbers. This revised analysis will determine if additional actions are warranted.

  16. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the monitoring of she-donkey's milk contamination or adulteration. (United States)

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Muccilli, Vera; Saletti, Rosaria; Foti, Salvatore


    Donkey's milk (DM), representing a safe and alternative food in both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy, can be categorized as precious pharma-food. Moreover, an economically relevant interest for the use of DM in cosmetology is also developing. The detection of adulterations and contaminations of DM is a matter of fundamental importance from both an economic and allergenic standpoint, and, to this aim, fast and efficient analytical approaches to assess the authenticity of this precious nutrient are desirable. Here, a rapid matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method aimed to the detection of bovine or caprine milk in raw DM is reported. The presence of the extraneous milks was revealed by monitoring the protein profiles of the most abundant whey proteins, α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and β-lactoglobulin, used as molecular markers. The possibility of obtaining a quantitative analysis of the level of cow or goat milk in DM based on the MALDI-TOF peak areas of α-LAs was also explored. The results showed that the experimental quantitative values were in good agreement with the real composition of each mixture. As pretreatment of the milk samples is not required, and owing to the speed and the high sensitivity of MALDI-MS, the protocol here reported could represent a reliable method for routine analyses aimed to assess the absence of contamination in raw fresh DM samples.

  17. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)


    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  18. Monitoring and exposure assessment of pesticide residues in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) from five provinces of southern China. (United States)

    Huan, Zhibo; Xu, Zhi; Luo, Jinhui; Xie, Defang


    Residues of 14 pesticides were determined in 150 cowpea samples collected in five southern Chinese provinces in 2013 and 2014.70% samples were detected one or more residues. 61.3% samples were illegal mainly because of detection of unauthorized pesticides. 14.0% samples contained more than three pesticides. Deterministic and probabilistic methods were used to assess the chronic and acute risk of pesticides in cowpea to eight subgroups of people. Deterministic assessment showed that the estimated short-term intakes (ESTIs) of carbofuran were 1199.4%-2621.9% of the acute reference doses (ARfD) while the rates were 985.9%-4114.7% using probabilistic assessment. Probabilistic assessment showed 4.2%-7.8% subjects may suffer from unacceptable acute risk from carbofuran contaminated cowpeas from the five provinces (especially children). But undue concern is not necessary, because all the estimations are based on conservative assumption.

  19. The Residual Gas Ionization Profile Monitor in the J-PARC 3-GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (United States)

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Shinichi

    The residual gas Ionization Profile Monitor (IPM) is developed in the J-PARC 3-GeV RCS. The IPM is a non-destructive beam profile monitor to observe a circulating transverse beam profile in the ring. It is very important to observe the beam profile turn-by-turn in the ring for identification of the beam loss and emittance growth source because beam loss is always issue in increasing the beam power in terms of keeping hands on maintenance. The IPM has been continuously upgraded since 2008. The recent progress of the IPM is reported together with the outline of IPM system.

  20. Radiation protection of radioactively contaminated large areas by phytoremediation and subsequent utilization of the contaminated plant residues (PHYTOREST); Massnahmen zur Strahlenschutzvorsorge radioaktiv belasteter Grossflaechen durch Sanierung mittels Phytoremediation und anschliessende Verwertung der belasteten Pflanzenreststoffe (PHYTOREST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirgorodsky, Daniel; Ollivier, Delphine; Merten, Dirk; Bergmann, Hans; Buechel, Georg [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften; Willscher, Sabine; Wittig, Juliane; Jablonski, Lukasz; Werner, Peter [Technische Univ. Dresden, Pirna (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten


    Much progress has been achieved over the past 20 years in remediating sites contaminated by heavy metal. However, very large contaminated areas have presented major problems to this day because of remediation costs. Phytoremediation is a new, emerging, sustainable technique of remediating areas with low heavy-metal contamination. One advantage of phytoremediation is the comparatively low cost of the process, which may make it usable also on large areas with low levels of contamination. Besides extracting and immobilizing metals, respectively, phytoremediation among other things also contributes to improving soil quality in terms of physics, chemistry, and ecology. Consequently, phytoremediation offers a great potential for the future. Research into phytoremediation of an area contaminated by heavy metals and radionuclides is carried out on a site in a former uranium mining district in Eastern Thuringia jointly by the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, and the Technical University of Dresden in a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research. The project serves to promote the introduction of soft, biocompatible methods of long-term remediation and to develop conceptual solutions to the subsequent utilization of contaminated plant residues. Optimizing area management is in the focus of phytoremediation studies. (orig.)

  1. Integrated monitoring approach to investigate the contamination, mobilization and risks of sediments (United States)

    Bölscher, Jens; Schulte, Achim; Terytze, Konstantin


    The use of surface water bodies for manufacturing purposes has been common not only in Germany since the beginning of industrialization, and this has led to a high accumulation of different chemical contaminants in the sediments of aquatic ecosystems. In particular, water bodies with very low flow conditions like the "Rummelsburger See", an anabranch of the Spree River located in the centre of Berlin, have been highly affected. Given that, it has become necessary to obtain improved knowledge concerning the current sediment dynamics, the rate of sedimentation and the current level of contamination and toxicity compared to earlier conditions. Against this background, a survey was set up, consisting of an integrated monitoring approach that focuses on hydraulics, sediment dynamics and contamination, including boundary conditions, such as weather and motor-boat activities to find information, which would help design appropriate treatment in the future. To detect the spatial distribution of pollutants in the sediment, over 200 sediment samples were collected via drill cores at 16 locations. The upper 15 cm of each drill core was systematically divided into 5 layers (each of 3 cm) for separate examination. The investigation of sediment deposition and remobilisation rates was accomplished by installing 18 sediment traps. The presence of selected heavy metals and organic pollutants in the sediments was determined for every sampling location and layer of the drill cores, as well as for all sediment traps. Changes in boundary conditions which influence the spatial and temporal distribution of deposition and resuspension were monitored by placing devices within the water body and taking different mobile measurements (3-D flow conditions, oxygen, turbidity, chlorophyll-a, temperature). The analysis of sediment and suspended matter included the determination of the total content of inorganic (Hg, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn) and organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  2. Ecotoxicity monitoring and bioindicator screening of oil-contaminated soil during bioremediation. (United States)

    Shen, Weihang; Zhu, Nengwu; Cui, Jiaying; Wang, Huajin; Dang, Zhi; Wu, Pingxiao; Luo, Yidan; Shi, Chaohong


    A series of toxicity bioassays was conducted to monitor the ecotoxicity of soils in the different phases of bioremediation. Artificially oil-contaminated soil was inoculated with a petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium containing Burkholderia cepacia GS3C, Sphingomonas GY2B and Pandoraea pnomenusa GP3B strains adapted to crude oil. Soil ecotoxicity in different phases of bioremediation was examined by monitoring total petroleum hydrocarbons, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of seed germination and plant growth), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and bacterial luminescence. Although the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was reduced by 64.4%, forty days after bioremediation, the phytotoxicity and Photobacterium phosphoreum ecotoxicity test results indicated an initial increase in ecotoxicity, suggesting the formation of intermediate metabolites characterized by high toxicity and low bioavailability during bioremediation. The ecotoxicity values are a more valid indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques compared with only using the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations. Among all of the potential indicators that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of plant height, shoot weight and root fresh weight), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and luminescence of P. phosphoreum were the most sensitive.

  3. Field validation of radon monitoring as a screening methodology for NAPL-contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, J.E.; Ortega, M.F.; Chacon, E.; Mazadiego, L.F. [Grupo de Geoquimica Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Minas, Alenza 4, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Miguel, E. de [Grupo de Geoquimica Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Minas, Alenza 4, 28003 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:


    Screening methodologies aim at improving knowledge about subsurface contamination processes before expensive intrusive operations, i.e. drilling and core-sampling, well installation and development, sampling of groundwater and free-phase product, are implemented. Blind field tests carried out at a hydrocarbon storage and distribution center in NE Spain suggest that Rn monitoring can be effectively used to locate the boundaries of subsurface accumulations of NAPLs. Sixty seven measurements of Rn in soil air were performed with a SARAD RTM 2100 current-ionization alpha-particle spectrometer following a 10 m square grid. Reductions of {sup 222}Rn concentration above a pool of LNAPL due to the preferential partition of Rn into the organic phase were spatially analyzed and resolved to yield the surface contour of the NAPL source zone. This surface trace of the source zone agreed well with the extent and situation inferred from measurements of free-phase thickness taken at eight monitoring wells at the site. Moreover, the good repeatability (as measured by replicate measurements at the same sampling point) and spatial resolution of the technique suggest that the boundaries of the plume can be delineated at the sub-decametre level.

  4. Non-destructive mobile monitoring of microbial contaminations on meat surfaces using porphyrin fluorescence intensities. (United States)

    Durek, J; Fröhling, A; Bolling, J; Thomasius, R; Durek, P; Schlüter, O K


    A non-destructive mobile system for meat quality monitoring was developed and investigated for the possible application along the whole production chain of fresh meat. Pork and lamb meat was stored at 5 °C for up to 20 days post mortem and measured with a fluorescence spectrometer. Additionally, the bacterial influence on the fluorescence signals was evaluated by different experimental procedures. Fluorescence of NADH and different porphyrins could be correlated to the growth of diverse bacteria and hence used for contamination monitoring. The increase of porphyrin fluorescence started after 9 days p.m. for pork and after 2 days p.m. for lamb meat. Based on the results, a mobile fluorescence system was built and compared with the laboratory system. The corrected function of the meat slices showed a root mean square error of 1156.97 r.u. and a mean absolute percentage error of 12.59%; for lamb the values were 470.81 r.u. and 15.55%, respectively. A mobile and non-invasive measurement system would improve the microbial security of fresh meat.

  5. In-situ, long-term monitoring system for radioactive contaminants

    CERN Document Server

    Durham, J S; McKeever, S W S


    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measurable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, sup 9 sup 0 Sr/ sup 9 sup 0 Y, and sup 9 sup 9 Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm sup 3) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 9 sup 0 Sr/ sup 9 sup 0 Y but is unsuitable for measuring sup 9 sup 9 Tc in soil. The second objective ...

  6. Understanding transport pathways in a river system - Monitoring sediments contaminated by an incident (United States)

    Dietrich, S.; Kleisinger, C.; Hillebrand, G.; Claus, E.; Schwartz, R.; Carls, I.; Winterscheid, A.; Schubert, B.


    Experiments to trace transport of sediments and suspended particulate matter on a river scale are an expensive and difficult venture, since it causes a lot of official requirements. In spring 2015, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were released during restoration works at a bridge in the upper part of the Elbe River, near the Czech-German border. In this study, the particle-bound PCB-transport is applied as a tracer for monitoring transport pathways of suspended solids (SS) along a whole river stretch over 700 km length. The incident was monitored by concentration measurements of seven indicator PCB congeners along the inland part of the Elbe River as well as in the Elbe estuary. Data from 15 monitoring stations (settling tanks) as well as from two longitudinal campaigns (grab samples) along the river in July and August 2015 are considered. The total PCB load is calculated for all stations on the basis of monthly contaminant concentrations and daily suspended sediment concentrations. Monte-Carlo simulations assess the uncertainties of the calculated load. 1D water levels and GIS analysis were used to locate temporal storage areas for the SS. It is shown that the ratio of high versus low chlorinated PCB congeners is a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load of the incident from the long-term background signal. Furthermore, the reduction of total PCB load within the upper Elbe indicates that roughly 24% of the SS were transported with the water by wash load. Approximately 600 km downstream of the incident site, the PCB-marked wash load was first identified in July 2015. PCB load transported intermittently in suspension was detected roughly 400 km downstream of the incident site by August 2015. In the Elbe Estuary, PCB-marked SS were only found upstream of the steep slope of water depth (approx. 4 to 15 m) within Hamburg harbor that acts as a major sediment sink. Here, SS from the inland Elbe are mixed with lowly contaminated marine material, which may mask the

  7. Cross-borehole ERT monitoring of a tracer injection into chlorinated-solvent contaminated fractured mudstone (United States)

    Robinson, J.; Slater, L. D.; Johnson, T. C.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Imbrigiotta, T. E.; Johnson, C. D.; Lacombe, P.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Shapiro, A. M.; Tiedeman, C. R.


    There is a need to monitor remedial injections in contaminated fractured rock to determine if targeted areas have been reached and to monitor treatment effectiveness. While detailed information can be obtained at boreholes, these locations are limited; determining connectivity in fracture networks is difficult and borehole monitoring locations may miss the injection entirely. The primary and secondary domains in fractured rock have hydraulic conductivities that differ by orders of magnitude such that tracer injections commonly have rapid breakthrough followed by extended tailings. Often, it is presumed that the tracer is transported into dead-end pore spaces or unknown inter-connected networks and/or sorbed into the primary porosity. Cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), guided by information from borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic testing, has the potential to monitor the fate of tracer injections between borehole locations. ERT has been under-exploited in fractured rock due to: (1) a lack of available 3D codes, (2) a lack of computing resources to accommodate a large number of model parameters, and (3) limitations of regularization constraints used in ERT modeling for representing fractured rock settings along with a full understanding of these constraints. Recognizing numerous advances in ERT imaging and building on our previous studies, we present results from a field-scale ERT experiment in fractured rock. We use ERT to monitor a conductive tracer injection in a fractured mudstone at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in New Jersey. A custom-built electrode array included inflatable bladders to isolate fractures within each borehole and allowed for discrete water sampling and injection. By injecting the tracer in pulses and collecting 3D ERT measurements following each pulse, we were able to (1) avoid rapid breakthrough and large dilution rates and thus maintain a high conductivity contrast, and (2) characterize ambient flow by

  8. Comparison of PoraPak Rxn RP and XAD-2 adsorbents for monitoring dissolved hydrophobic organic contaminants. (United States)

    Omara, Mark; Holsen, Thomas M; Xia, Xiaoyan; Pagano, James J; Crimmins, Bernard S; Hopke, Philip K


    Accurate determination of the levels of dissolved hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) is an important step in estimating the dynamics of their inputs and losses in aqueous systems. This study explores an alternative method for efficiently sampling dissolved HOCs while mitigating a number of sampling artifacts associated with traditional methods. The adsorption characteristics of a new polymeric resin, PoraPak Rxn RP (PPR), were assessed using sorption isotherm experiments and fixed bed adsorption studies. The adsorption capacities and breakthrough times for four model contaminants (phenol, p-nitrophenol, naphthalene, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol) were proportional to the contaminant's hydrophobicity. The ability of PPR to isolate dissolved polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in real samples was compared with that of XAD-2, a well-known macroporous polymer that suffers from high background contamination. The results indicated that the PPR resin can be effectively used for monitoring HOCs, with low ∑PCB levels in blanks, decreasing solvent use, and reducing extraction times.

  9. Composting of solid and sludge residues from agricultural and food industries. Bioindicators of monitoring and compost maturity. (United States)

    Ranalli, G; Bottura, G; Taddei, P; Garavani, M; Marchetti, R; Sorlini, C


    A study to monitor the composting process, to evaluate the effectiveness of bioindicators for the quality and maturity of cured compost obtained by a mixture of winery residues, sludges from dairies and solid residues from food processing (grape-stalks, grape-dregs, rice husks), was conducted. Composting process lasting five months was monitored by chemico-physical, spectroscopic (FTIR, DTG and DSC), microbiological and enzymatic analyses. Biological activities (ATP, DHA contents and several enzymatic activities), impedance variations (DT) of mixed cultures during growth and potential pathogens (E. coli and Salmonella sp.), were determined. The phytotoxicity tests gave a germination index higher than 90% and no significant genotoxic differences between controls and the compost samples were evidenced. Pathogens were not found on the cured compost that can therefore be satisfactorily used as amendment for agricultural crops. However, no single measurement of a composting process factor, biological, chemical or physical, gave a comprehensive view of the quality of a specific composting. We proposed a tool of bioindicators of potential activity and markers in combination for integrated evaluation of monitoring of composting process and compost quality. The responses of several enzymatic activities were positive and indicative of their favorable use capable to reveal even very small changes within microbial population and activity in test and monitoring of compost programmes.

  10. Environmental contaminants in freshwater fish and their risk to piscivorous wildlife based on a national monitoring program (United States)

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Chojnacki, K.A.; Tillitt, D.E.


    Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental concentrations were measured in piscivorous and benthivorous fish at 111 sites from large U.S. river basins. Potential contaminant sources such as urban and agricultural runoff, industrial discharges, mine drainage, and irrigation varied among the sampling sites. Our objectives were to provide summary statistics for chemical contaminants and to determine if contaminant concentrations in the fish were a risk to wildlife that forage at these sites. Concentrations of dieldrin, total DDT, total PCBs, toxaphene, TCDD-EQ, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium, and zinc exceeded toxicity thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife in samples from at least one site; most exceedences were for total PCBs, mercury, and zinc. Chemical concentrations in fish from the Mississippi River Basin exceeded the greatest number of toxicity thresholds. Screening level wildlife risk analysis models were developed for bald eagle and mink using no adverse effect levels (NOAELs), which were derived from adult dietary exposure or tissue concentration studies and based primarily on reproductive endpoints. No effect hazard concentrations (NEHC) were calculated by comparing the NOAEL to the food ingestion rate (dietary-based NOAEL) or biomagnification factor (tissue-based NOAEL) of each receptor. Piscivorous wildlife may be at risk from a contaminant if the measured concentration in fish exceeds the NEHC. Concentrations of most organochlorine residues and elemental contaminants represented no to low risk to bald eagle and mink at most sites. The risk associated with pentachloroanisole, aldrin, Dacthal, methoxychlor, mirex, and toxaphene was unknown because NOAELs for these contaminants were not available for bald eagle or mink. Risk differed among modeled species and sites. Our screening level analysis indicates that the greatest risk to piscivorous wildlife was from total DDT, total PCBs, TCDD-EQ, mercury, and selenium. Bald eagles

  11. 2017 Update on the WFC3/UVIS Stability and Contamination Monitor (United States)

    Shanahan, C. E.; Gosmeyer, C. M.; Baggett, S.


    The photometric throughput of the UVIS detector on WFC3 is monitored each cycle for its stability as a function of time, wavelength, as well as to check for any evidence of contamination on the CCD windows, which would manifest as a decrease in throughput strongest in the bluest filters. This program has been in place since the installation of WFC3 in 2009, historically making periodic observations of the spectrophotometric standard GRW+70d5824 (GRW70) in several key filters from 200 nm to 600 nm, with red filters acting as a control. This is a follow up report to the last analysis of the temporal stability of UVIS (Gosmeyer et al., 2014), since which several major changes to the program and data analysis have been implemented. Due to recent work suggesting a low-level, long-term variability for GRW70, another spectrophotometric standard star - GD153 - has been added to the program and is now analyzed in conjunction with GRW70. Data are now processed with the latest version of the CALWF3 calibration pipeline (v. 3.4), which has several new features that represent a paradigm shift in calibration methodology. Finally, the data analysis software, which was previously entirely IRAF based, was re-written in Python. We find a steady decline in the count rate for most filters but no evidence for contamination, which would manifest as a wavelength-dependent effect, impacting bluer filters more strongly. These declines range from 0.01% to 0.3% per year, and are stronger in longer wavelength filters. Similar temporal changes are found for both stars, and the long-term trends in throughput agree with previous trends derived in 2014.

  12. Veterinary pharmaceutical contamination in mixed land use watersheds: from agricultural headwater to water monitoring watershed. (United States)

    Jaffrézic, A; Jardé, E; Soulier, A; Carrera, L; Marengue, E; Cailleau, A; Le Bot, B


    Veterinary pharmaceuticals, widely used in intensive livestock production, may contaminate surface waters. Identifying their sources and pathways in watersheds is difficult because i) most veterinary pharmaceuticals are used in human medicine as well and ii) septic or sewer wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) can release pharmaceuticals into surface water, even in agricultural headwater watersheds. This study aimed to analyze the spatiotemporal variability of animal-specific, mixed-use, and human-specific pharmaceuticals, from agricultural headwaters with intensive livestock production and a WWTP to a watershed used for Water Framework Directive monitoring. Grab sampling was performed during one hydrological year upstream and downstream from a WWTP and at three dates in seven nested watersheds with areas of 1.9-84.1km(2). Twenty pharmaceuticals were analyzed. Animal-specific pharmaceuticals were detected at all sampling dates upstream and downstream from the WWTP and at concentrations higher than those of human-specific pharmaceuticals. The predominance of animal-specific and mixed-use pharmaceuticals vs. human-specific pharmaceuticals observed at these sampling points was confirmed at the other sampling points. Animal-specific pharmaceuticals were detected mainly during runoff events and periods of manure spreading. A large percentage of mixed-use pharmaceuticals could come from animal sources, but it was difficult to determine. Mixed-use and human-specific pharmaceuticals predominated in the largest watersheds when runoff decreased. In areas of intensive livestock production, mitigation actions should focus on agricultural headwater watersheds to decrease the number of pathways and the transfer volume of veterinary pharmaceuticals, which can be the main contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantification of pressure sensitive adhesive, residual ink, and other colored process contaminants using dye and color image analysis (United States)

    Roy R. Rosenberger; Carl J. Houtman


    The USPS Image Analysis (IA) protocol recommends the use of hydrophobic dyes to develop contrast between pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) particles and cellulosic fibers before using a dirt counter to detect all contaminants that have contrast with the handsheet background. Unless the sample contains no contaminants other than those of interest, two measurement steps...

  14. Monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure. Tasks, technical aspects, implementation; Ueberwachung radioaktiver Kontamination und Strahlenexposition. Aufgaben, Techniken, Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, A.


    Monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Germany started in the early Fifties with measurements of radioactive fallout, i.e. mainly airborne particles and precipitation. Since then, scientists of laboratories, universities, research institutions and authorities have become aware of the danger of increasing environmental radioactivity. The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) was commissioned by law with monitoring of radioactivity in atmosphere and precipitation on a large-scale basis as part of general preventive health protection. This brochure informs on the tasks, techniques and implementation of monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure. (orig.)

  15. Monitoring priority substances, other organic contaminants and heavy metals in a volcanic aquifer from different sources and hydrological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez, Esmeralda, E-mail: [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Cabrera, María del Carmen, E-mail: [Dpt. Física (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); IMDEA Water Institute, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Vera, Juan Ramón, E-mail: [Agrifood and Phytopathological Laboratory (Cabildo de Gran Canaria), 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain); Molina-Díaz, Antonio, E-mail: [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Robles-Molina, José, E-mail: [Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino, E-mail: [Dpt. de Patología Animal, Producción Animal, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos (GEOVOL), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35413 Arucas, Canary Islands (Spain)


    Irrigation with reclaimed water (R) is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of semi-arid areas. Results obtained during a two years monitoring network (2009–2011) in Gran Canaria are presented, including the analysis of chemical parameters, N and S isotopes, priority substances (2008/105/EC, 2013/39/EU), other organic contaminants and heavy metals in groundwater and R used to irrigate a golf course. The aims of this work are to evaluate the contamination in a volcanic aquifer, relate the presence of organic contaminants and heavy metals with the hydrogeochemistry and identify pollution sources in the area. No priority substance exceeded the EU thresholds for surface water, although seventeen were detected in R. The most frequent compounds were hexachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. These compounds were detected at low concentration, except chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, terbuthylazine, diuron, terbutryn, procymidone, atrazine and propazine exceeded the European threshold concentration for pesticides in groundwater (100 ng L{sup −1}). Therefore, the priority substances chlorpyrifos ethyl and diuron must be included in monitoring studies. The priority pesticides chlorfenvinphos and diazinon were always detected in R but rarely in groundwater. Besides, the existence of contaminants not related to the current R irrigation has been identified. Absence of environmental problems related to heavy metals can be expected. The relationship among contaminant presence, hydrogeochemistry, including the stable isotopic prints of δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 34}S and preferential recharge paths has been described. The coastal well shows high values of EC, nitrate, a variable chemistry, and 50% of organic contaminants detected above 100 ng L{sup −1}. The well located in the recharge area presents a stable hydrochemistry, the lowest value of δ{sup 15}N and the lowest contaminants occurrence. The area is an example of a complex

  16. Comparison of risk-based versus random sampling in the monitoring of antimicrobial residues in Danish finishing pigs. (United States)

    Alban, Lis; Rugbjerg, Helene; Petersen, Jesper Valentin; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum


    In Denmark, a monitoring program for residues of antimicrobials in pork is in place involving annual testing of around 20,000 samples from finishing pigs corresponding to 0.1% of the animals slaughtered. Annually, zero to two samples are found above the maximum residue limit. Both authorities and industry have expressed interest in adjusting the monitoring to a risk-based system. The objective of this study was to assess the opportunities and consequences of the monitoring considering: 1) replacing the current bioassay with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC LC-MS/MS), 2) replacing kidney with muscles as sample matrix, and 3) using indicators to identify high-risk (HR) herds and increase sampling intensity in these herds, lowering sampling in the low-risk (LR) herds, while aiming at continued detection of similar numbers of test-positives at the lowest possible costs. A state-of-the-art stochastic scenario tree modelling approach including economic evaluation of different model outcomes was used. A total of six scenarios were run for penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. Relevant information was obtained through the literature, statistical analysis of existing data as well as consultations with laboratory and slaughterhouse experts. Abattoir recordings of chronic pleuritis were used as an indicator for finishing pig herds (HR=within-herd prevalence>40%). Such risk-based monitoring would have to use muscles and not kidneys, because of logistic challenges in identifying and storing of plucks until testing. However, the bioassay cannot be used on muscle tissue due to low sensitivity for tetracyclines. Different plausible combinations of sample sizes were also modelled. The HPLC LC-MS/MS method detected the same number of cases compared to the bioassay when kidney was used as matrix. HPLC LC-MS/MS has a higher sensitivity when used on muscle but it is almost twice as costly as the bioassay. Risk-based sampling resulted in detection of

  17. [Chemical residues and contaminants in food of animal origin in Brazil: history, legislation and actions of sanitary surveillance and other regulatory systems]. (United States)

    Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Nóbrega, Armi Wanderley de; Marques, Marlice Aparecida Sípoli


    Food safety became a relevant subject due to the increasing search for a better way of life and consciousness of the consumers to stand on one's rights to acquire healthy products. The use of substances in animals destined for human consumption requires from pharmacokinetics to residue depletion studies, with the establishment of limitative values so that do not constitute a risk to health. Beyond the substances used deliberately, others coming from environment contamination or contamination of feeding stuffs consumed by these animals may reach human through the diet. The aims of this paper are to collect and discuss the main federal acts covering chemical residues and contaminants in food of animal origin in Brazil, besides those on measures to control veterinary medicinal products and additives for use in animal nutrition. The chronological presentation of the legal basis intends to facilitate the interpretation of the acts inside respective political and economics scenarios. The actions proposed from the different agents involved into the regulatory systems are discussed from the public health point of view.

  18. Groundwater Monitoring of Land Application with Manure, Biosolids, and other Organic Residuals (United States)

    Harter, T.; Lawrence, C.; Atwill, E. R.; Kendall, C.


    Regulatory programs frequently require monitoring of first encountered (shallow-most) groundwater for purposes of determining whether an actual or potential, permitted or incidental waste discharge has had or will have a degrading effect on groundwater quality. Traditionally, these programs have focused on monitoring of incidental discharges from industrial sites. Increasingly, sources with an implied groundwater recharge are subject to monitoring requirements. These recharging sources include, for example, land application of municipal, food processing, or animal waste to irrigated cropland. Groundwater monitoring of a recharging source requires a different approach to groundwater monitoring than traditional (incidental source) monitoring programs. Furthermore, the shallow groundwater aquifer targeted for compliance monitoring commonly consists of highly heterogeneous unconsolidated alluvial, fluvial, lacustrine, glacial, or subaeolian sediments of late tertiary or quaternary age. Particularly in arid and semi-arid climates, groundwater is also frequently subject to significant seasonal and interannual groundwater level fluctuations that may exceed ten feet seasonally and several tens of feet within a three- to five-year period. We present a hydrodynamically rigorous approach to designing groundwater monitoring wells for recharging sources under conditions of aquifer heterogeneity and water level fluctuations and present the application of this concept to monitoring confined animal farming operations (CAFOs) with irrigated crops located on alluvial fans with highly fluctuating, deep groundwater table.

  19. Investigations of residue of veterinary medicines and environmental contaminants during production cycle of Petrovska klobasa as part of compulsory parameters for food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Vesna


    Full Text Available A significant factor in the protection of consumer health is the systematic and constant implementation of control for the presence of residue of biologically active substances and their metabolites in raw materials and in primary products of animal origin. As regards meat, an essential aspect of security is definitely the control of possible residue of veterinary medicines and environmental contaminants. In that respect, the objective of the national project entitled „Development of technology for drying and fermentation of the sausage petrovačka kobasica (Petrovská klobása - registered geographic origin under controlled conditions“, Number TR - 20037, was to protect the product petrovačka kobasica (Petrovská klobása with the appropriate appellation. A part of the compulsory investigations also included the establishing of the presence of residue of veterinary medicines and environmental contaminants in raw materials and in the finished product, which was also the aim of this work. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-20037: Petrovská klobása - oznaka geografskog porekla u kontrolisanim uslovima

  20. Field-based detection and monitoring of uranium in contaminated groundwater using two immunosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, S.J.; Yu, H.; Williams, K.H.; Morris, S.A.; Long, P.E.; Blake, D.A.


    Field-based monitoring of environmental contaminants has long been a need for environmental scientists. Described herein are two kinetic exclusion-based immunosensors, a field portable sensor (FPS) and an inline senor, that were deployed at the Integrated Field Research Challenge Site of the U.S. Department of Energy in Rifle, CO. Both sensors utilized a monoclonal antibody that binds to a U(VI)-dicarboxyphenanthroline complex (DCP) in a kinetic exclusion immunoassay format. These sensors were able to monitor changes of uranium in groundwater samples from {approx} 1 {micro}M to below the regulated drinking water limit of 126 nM (30 ppb). The FPS is a battery-operated sensor platform that can determine the uranium level in a single sample in 5-10 min, if the instrument has been previously calibrated with standards. The average minimum detection level (MDL) in this assay was 0.33 nM (79 ppt), and the MDL in the sample (based on a 1:200?1:400 dilution) was 66?132 nM (15.7?31.4 ppb). The inline sensor, while requiring a grounded power source, has the ability to autonomously analyze multiple samples in a single experiment. The average MDL in this assay was 0.12 nM (29 ppt), and the MDL in the samples (based on 1:200 or 1:400 dilutions) was 24?48 nM (5.7?11.4 ppb). Both sensor platforms showed an acceptable level of agreement (r{sup 2} = 0.94 and 0.76, for the inline and FPS, respectively) with conventional methods for uranium quantification.

  1. Young-of-the-year fish as a prospective bioindicator for aquatic environmental contamination monitoring. (United States)

    Cerveny, Daniel; Turek, Jan; Grabic, Roman; Golovko, Oksana; Koba, Olga; Fedorova, Ganna; Grabicova, Katerina; Zlabek, Vladimir; Randak, Tomas


    Toxic metals (Hg, Cd, Pb) and fifteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in different fish samples at two locations on the Elbe River in the Czech Republic. The muscle tissue of the two adult fish species most commonly used as bioindicators in central Europe and whole body homogenates of various species of young-of-the-year (YOY) fish were used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential to replace adult fish muscle tissue with YOY fish for contamination monitoring. All of the toxic metals and five of the fifteen PFASs were found in the YOY fish samples while only mercury and PFOS were detected in the muscle tissue of adults. The concentration of total mercury (THg) in the YOY fish homogenates ranged between 0.014 and 0.062 μg g(-1). Of the spectrum of analysed pollutants, only the THg concentrations were lower in YOY fish homogenates than in adult muscle tissue. The cadmium concentration varied from 0.004 to 0.024 μg g(-1) and the lead concentration varied from 0.032 to 0.396 μg g(-1) in YOY fish homogenates, while in most of the adult samples, Cd and Pb were below the detection limit of the analytical methods employed. The PFOS concentrations in YOY fish homogenates were comparable to the concentrations frequently found in adult liver tissue. These results show that mixed shoals of YOY fish can be successfully used for aquatic bio-monitoring. Interspecific variability in the concentrations of the target pollutants in YOY fish whole body homogenates is usually lower than the intraspecific variability of the concentrations of the pollutants in adult fish muscle. YOY fish were found to be a suitable bioindicator and have several advantages compared to adult fish.

  2. Biofiltration of composting gases using different municipal solid waste-pruning residue composts: monitoring by using an electronic nose. (United States)

    López, R; Cabeza, I O; Giráldez, I; Díaz, M J


    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the composting of kitchen waste and pruning residues, and the abatement of VOCs by different compost biofilters was studied. VOCs removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained using composts of municipal solid waste (MSW) or MSW-pruning residue as biofilter material. An electronic nose identified qualitative differences among the biofilter output gases at very low concentrations of VOCs. These differences were related to compost constituents, compost particle size (2-7 or 7-20mm), and a combination of both factors. The total concentration of VOCs determined by a photoionization analyser and inferred from electronic nose data sets were correlated over an ample range of concentrations of VOCs, showing that these techniques could be specially adapted for the monitoring of these processes.

  3. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; James, Brenda B.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)


    This report examines some of the factors that can influence the success of supplementation, which is currently being tested in the Yakima Basin using upper Yakima stock of spring chinook salmon. Supplementation success in the Yakima Basin is defined relative to four topic areas: natural production, genetics, ecological interactions, and harvest (Busack et al. 1997). The success of spring chinook salmon supplementation in the Yakima Basin is dependent, in part, upon fish culture practices and favorable physical and biological conditions in the natural environment (Busack et al. 1997). Shortfalls in either of these two topics (i.e., failure in culturing many fish that have high long-term fitness or environmental conditions that constrain spring chinook salmon production) will cause supplementation success to be limited. For example, inadvertent selection or propagation of spring chinook that residualize or precocially mature may hinder supplementation success. Spring chinook salmon that residualize (do not migrate during the normal migration period) may have lower survival rates than migrants and, additionally, may interact with wild fish and cause unacceptable impacts to non-target taxa. Large numbers of precocials (nonanadromous spawners) may increase competition for females and significantly skew ratios of offspring sired by nonanadromous males, which could result in more nonanadromous spring chinook in future generations. Conditions in the natural environment may also limit the success of spring chinook supplementation. For example, intra or interspecific competition may constrain spring chinook salmon production. Spring chinook salmon juveniles may compete with each other for food or space or compete with other species that have similar ecological requirements. Monitoring of spring chinook salmon residuals, precocials, prey abundance, carrying capacity, and competition will help researchers interpret why supplementation is working or not working (Busack et al

  4. Monitoring of Fasciola Species Contamination in Water Dropwort by cox1 Mitochondrial and ITS-2 rDNA Sequencing Analysis. (United States)

    Choi, In-Wook; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Quan, Juan-Hua; Ryu, Jae-Gee; Sun, Rubing; Lee, Young-Ha


    Fascioliasis, a food-borne trematode zoonosis, is a disease primarily in cattle and sheep and occasionally in humans. Water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica), an aquatic perennial herb, is a common second intermediate host of Fasciola, and the fresh stems and leaves are widely used as a seasoning in the Korean diet. However, no information regarding Fasciola species contamination in water dropwort is available. Here, we collected 500 samples of water dropwort in 3 areas in Korea during February and March 2015, and the water dropwort contamination of Fasciola species was monitored by DNA sequencing analysis of the Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica specific mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2). Among the 500 samples assessed, the presence of F. hepatica cox1 and 1TS-2 markers were detected in 2 samples, and F. hepatica contamination was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The nucleotide sequences of cox1 PCR products from the 2 F. hepatica-contaminated samples were 96.5% identical to the F. hepatica cox1 sequences in GenBank, whereas F. gigantica cox1 sequences were 46.8% similar with the sequence detected from the cox1 positive samples. However, F. gigantica cox1 and ITS-2 markers were not detected by PCR in the 500 samples of water dropwort. Collectively, in this survey of the water dropwort contamination with Fasciola species, very low prevalence of F. hepatica contamination was detected in the samples.

  5. Migration of contaminants in groundwater at a landfill: A case study. 2. Groundwater monitoring devices (United States)

    Cherry, J. A.; Gillham, R. W.; Anderson, E. G.; Johnson, P. E.


    Six types of devices for groundwater monitoring were used on an experimental basis in the investigation of the plume of contamination in the unconfined sandy aquifer at the Borden landfill. These include: standpipe piezometers, water-table standpipes, an auger-head sampler, suction-type and positive-displacement-type multilevel point-samplers, and bundle-piezometers. With the exception of the first two, each of these devices provides a means of obtaining vertical sample profiles of groundwater from a single borehole. The auger-head sampler, which is a device that is attached to the cutting head of conventional continuous-flight hollow-stem augers, yields samples from relatively undisturbed aquifer zones as the augers are advanced downward in the borehole from one depth of sampling to another. This method is a rapid means of aquiring water-quality profiles for mapping the distribution of a contaminant plume. The other three profiling devices can be used to establish permanent networks for groundwater-quality monitoring. A suction-type multilevel sampler consists of twenty or more narrow polyethylene or polypropylene tubes contained in a PVC casing that is capped at the bottom. Each tube extends to a different depth and is attached to a small screened sampling point that extends through the casing to draw water from the aquifer when suction is applied. A positive-displacement multilevel sampler is similar except that each sampling point is connected to a positive-displacement pumping device located inside the PVC casing adjacent to the screen. Use of the suction-type multilevel sampler is limited to zones where the water table is less than the suction-lift depth of 8 or 9 m. The positive-displacement sampler can be used even if the water table is at a much greater depth. A bundle-piezometer consists of 1.2-cm O.D. flexible polyethylene tubes, each with a short screened section at the bottom, fastened as a bundle around a semi-rigid center-piezometer constructed of

  6. Combining Geoelectrical Measurements and CO2 Analyses to Monitor the Enhanced Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils: A Field Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Noel


    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can be successfully remediated through enhanced biodegradation. However, in situ monitoring of the treatment by piezometers is expensive and invasive and might be insufficient as the information provided is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations. An alternative method was tested in order to improve the robustness of the monitoring. Geophysical methods, electrical resistivity (ER and induced polarization (IP, were combined with gas analyses, CO2 concentration, and its carbon isotopic ratio, to develop a less invasive methodology for monitoring enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons. The field implementation of this monitoring methodology, which lasted from February 2014 until June 2015, was carried out at a BTEX-polluted site under aerobic biotreatment. Geophysical monitoring shows a more conductive and chargeable area which corresponds to the contaminated zone. In this area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature demonstrating that the main source of CO2 on this site is the biodegradation of hydrocarbon fuels. Besides, the evolution of geochemical and geophysical data over a year seems to show the seasonal variation of bacterial activity. Combining geophysics with gas analyses is thus promising to provide a new methodology for in situ monitoring.

  7. Non-target screening analyses of organic contaminants in river systems as a base for monitoring measures (United States)

    Schwarzbauer, J.


    Organic contaminants discharged to the aquatic environment exhibit a high diversity with respect to their molecular structures and the resulting physico-chemical properties. The chemical analysis of anthropogenic contamination in river systems is still an important feature, especially with respect to (i) the identification and structure elucidation of novel contaminants, (ii) to the characterisation of their environmental behaviour and (iii) to their risk for natural systems. A huge proportion of riverine contamination is caused by low-molecular weight organic compounds, like pesticides plasticizers, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, technical additives etc. Some of them, like PCB or PAH have already been investigated thoroughly and, consequently, their behaviour in aqueous systems is very well described. Although analyses on organic substances in river water traditionally focused on selected pollutants, in particular on common priority pollutants which are monitored routinely, the occurrence of further contaminants, e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products or chelating agents has received increasing attention within the last decade. Accompanied, screening analyses revealing an enormous diversity of low-molecular weight organic contaminants in waste water effluents and river water become more and more noticed. Since many of these substances have been rarely noticed so far, it will be an important task for the future to study their occurrence and fate in natural environments. Further on, it should be a main issue of environmental studies to provide a comprehensive view on the state of pollution of river water, in particular with respect to lipophilic low molecular weight organic contaminants. However, such non-target-screening analyses has been performed only rarely in the past. Hence, we applied extended non-target screening analyses on longitudinal sections of the rivers Rhine, Rur and Lippe (Germany) on the base of GC/MS analyses. The investigations

  8. Antioxidant therapy attenuates oxidative stress in the blood of subjects exposed to occupational airborne contamination from coal mining extraction and incineration of hospital residues. (United States)

    Wilhelm Filho, D; Avila, S; Possamai, F P; Parisotto, E B; Moratelli, A M; Garlet, T R; Inácio, D B; Torres, M A; Colepicolo, P; Dal-Pizzol, F


    Coal mining and incineration of solid residues of health services (SRHS) generate several contaminants that are delivered into the environment, such as heavy metals and dioxins. These xenobiotics can lead to oxidative stress overgeneration in organisms and cause different kinds of pathologies, including cancer. In the present study the concentrations of heavy metals such as lead, copper, iron, manganese and zinc in the urine, as well as several enzymatic and non-enzymatic biomarkers of oxidative stress in the blood (contents of lipoperoxidation = TBARS, protein carbonyls = PC, protein thiols = PT, α-tocopherol = AT, reduced glutathione = GSH, and the activities of glutathione S-transferase = GST, glutathione reductase = GR, glutathione peroxidase = GPx, catalase = CAT and superoxide dismutase = SOD), in the blood of six different groups (n = 20 each) of subjects exposed to airborne contamination related to coal mining as well as incineration of solid residues of health services (SRHS) after vitamin E (800 mg/day) and vitamin C (500 mg/day) supplementation during 6 months, which were compared to the situation before the antioxidant intervention (Ávila et al., Ecotoxicology 18:1150-1157, 2009; Possamai et al., Ecotoxicology 18:1158-1164, 2009). Except for the decreased manganese contents, heavy metal concentrations were elevated in all groups exposed to both sources of airborne contamination when compared to controls. TBARS and PC concentrations, which were elevated before the antioxidant intervention decreased after the antioxidant supplementation. Similarly, the contents of PC, AT and GSH, which were decreased before the antioxidant intervention, reached values near those found in controls, GPx activity was reestablished in underground miners, and SOD, CAT and GST activities were reestablished in all groups. The results showed that the oxidative stress condition detected previously to the antioxidant supplementation in both directly and indirectly subjects

  9. Monitoring of organic contaminants in sediments from the Korean coast: Spatial distribution and temporal trends (2001-2007). (United States)

    Choi, Hee Gu; Moon, Hyo Bang; Choi, Minkyu; Yu, Jun


    Spatial and temporal trends of organic contaminants in sediments along the Korean coast were estimated through a nationwide environmental monitoring program from 2001 to 2007. The concentrations of organic contaminants in sediments along the Korean coast were relatively low or moderate compared with foreign studies. The mean detection frequencies of organic contaminants during the seven years were highest for PAHs and PCDD/Fs, followed by PCBs, DDTs, TBT and HCHs in decreasing order. Based on published sediment quality guidelines, the ecological risks of persistent organic pollutants in sediments along the Korean coast were low, despite exceedances of the ERL at 2-6 sites for DDTs, and the TEL at 9-18 sites for PCDD/Fs. Nonparametric tests to assess temporal trends revealed significant decreasing trends for PCBs and PCDD/Fs at four and three sites, respectively (pcontaminants.

  10. Development of Analytical Method and Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Korean Animal Products (United States)

    Song, Jae-Sang; Park, Su-Jeong; Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kang, Myung-Hee; Choi, Bo-Kyung


    This study was conducted to determine the residual amount of veterinary drugs such as meloxicam, flunixin, and tulathromycin in animal products (beef, pork, horsemeat, and milk). Veterinary drugs have been widely used in the rearing of livestock to prevent and treat diseases. A total of 152 samples were purchased from markets located in major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Ulsan and Jeju), including Jeju. Veterinary drugs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the Korean Food Standards Code. The resulting data, which are located within 70-120% of recovery range and less than 20% of relative standard deviations, are in compliance with the criteria of CODEX. A total of five veterinary drugs were detected in 152 samples, giving a detection rate of approximately 3.3%; and no food source violated the guideline values. Our result indicated that most of the veterinary drug residues in animal products were below the maximum residue limits specified in Korea. PMID:27433102

  11. Zero-tension lysimeters: An improved design to monitor colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M.L.; Scharf, R.L.; Shang, C.


    There is increasing evidence that mobile colloids facilitate the long-distance transport of contaminants. The mobility of fine particles and macromolecules has been linked to the movement of actinides, organic contaminants, and heavy metals through soil. Direct evidence for colloid mobility includes the presence of humic materials in deep aquifers as well as coatings of accumulated clay, organic matter, or sesquioxides on particle or aggregate surfaces in subsoil horizons of many soils. The potential for colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants from hazardous-waste sites requires adequate monitoring before, during, and after in-situ remediation treatments. Zero-tension lysimeters (ZTLs) are especially appropriate for sampling water as it moves through saturated soil, although some unsaturated flow events may be sampled as well. Because no ceramic barrier or fiberglass wick is involved to maintain tension on the water (as is the case with other lysimeters), particles suspended in the water as well as dissolved species may be sampled with ZTLs. In this report, a ZTL design is proposed that is more suitable for monitoring colloid-facilitated contaminant migration. The improved design consists of a cylinder made of polycarbonate or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) that is placed below undisturbed soil material. In many soils, a hydraulically powered tube may be used to extract an undisturbed core of soil before placement of the lysimeter. In those cases, the design has significant advantages over conventional designs with respect to simplicity and speed of installation. Therefore, it will allow colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants to be monitored at more locations at a given site.

  12. Cross-Contamination of Residual Emerging Contaminants and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Lettuce Crops and Soil Irrigated with Wastewater Treated by Sunlight/H2O2. (United States)

    Ferro, Giovanna; Polo-López, María I; Martínez-Piernas, Ana B; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Agüera, Ana; Rizzo, Luigi


    The sunlight/H2O2 process has recently been considered as a sustainable alternative option compared to other solar driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in advanced treatment of municipal wastewater (WW) to be reused for crop irrigation. Accordingly, in this study sunlight/H2O2 was used as disinfection/oxidation treatment for urban WW treatment plant effluent in a compound parabolic collector photoreactor to assess subsequent cross-contamination of lettuce and soil by contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) (determined by QuEChERS extraction and LC-QqLIT-MS/MS analysis) and antibiotic resistant (AR) bacteria after irrigation with treated WW. Three CECs (carbamazepine (CBZ), flumequine (FLU), and thiabendazole (TBZ) at 100 μg L(-1)) and two AR bacterial strains (E. coli and E. faecalis, at 10(5) CFU mL(-1)) were spiked in real WW. A detection limit (DL) of 2 CFU mL(-1) was reached after 120 min of solar exposure for AR E. coli, while AR E. faecalis was more resistant to the disinfection process (240 min to reach DL). CBZ and TBZ were poorly removed after 90 min (12% and 50%, respectively) compared to FLU (94%). Lettuce was irrigated with treated WW for 5 weeks. CBZ and TBZ were accumulated in soil up to 472 ng g(-1) and 256 ng g(-1) and up-taken by lettuce up to 109 and 18 ng g(-1), respectively, when 90 min treated WW was used for irrigation; whereas no bacteria contamination was observed when the bacterial density in treated WW was below the DL. A proper treatment time (>90 min) should be guaranteed in order to avoid the transfer of pathogens from disinfected WW to irrigated crops and soil.

  13. Assessment of the Extraction Methods for Monitoring Phthalate Emerging Contaminants in Groundwater and Tap Water (United States)

    Cotto, I.; Padilla, I. Y.; De Jesús, N. H.; Torres, P. M.


    Trace organic contaminants such as phthalates, among other chemicals of emerging concerns, have not historically been considered as pollutants but are being detected in water, posing a potential risk to public health and the environment. One of the most common phthalates of particular concern is di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer normally found in plastics and consumer products, including: cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, food packages, water bottles, and wiring cables. DEHP has been associated with preterm birth, a major cause of neonatal mortality and health complications. This study aims at monitoring the presence and concentration of DEHP and other phthalates in groundwater and tap water systems in Puerto Rico, which has one of the highest rates of preterm birth in the U.S. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests a liquid-liquid extraction method that uses methylene chloride as the preferred organic solvent for the extractions. This work presents modified EPA methods that reduce the volume of sample and solvent used, lower the time of analysis, increase productivity, and decrease hazards and waste. Distribution coefficient of DEHP between methylene chloride and water are estimated and related to sample extraction efficiency. Research results indicate that DEHP is in fact distributed between water and methylene chloride with a distribution coefficient average value of 1.24. The study concludes that the sample and solvent volumes have influence on the efficiency but have not an effect on the distribution coefficient. The tests show higher extraction efficiencies for lower DEHP concentrations and higher extraction volumes. Results from the water analysis show presence of DEHP in 55% of groundwater and 44% of tap water samples, indicating a potential exposure through water.

  14. Monitoring radio-frequency heating of contaminated soils using electrical resistance tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Daily, W.D.


    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was used to monitor a radio-frequency heating process for the insitu remediation of volatile organic compounds from subsurface water and soil at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. A dipole antenna located in a horizontal well in the unsaturated zone was used to heat a contaminated clay layer. The heat-induced changes were tomographically imaged by their effects on the formation electrical resistivity. The resistivity changes observed appear to be related to heating and vaporization of the pore water, formation of steam condensate, and infiltration of rainwater through the heated zones and adjacent areas. There is a clear asymmetry downward in the resistivity decreases associated with the heating process. The resistivity decreases observed in the vicinity of the heating well are believed to be caused by the heating and downward migration of warm water originally located within a radius of a few feet around the heating well; the magnitude of the change is between 10--20%. The decreasing resistivity implies an increasing rate of radio wave attenuation as heating progressed; therefore, the rate of energy deposition around the heating well increased while the penetration distance of the radio waves decreased. Saturation changes in the clay near the antenna during heating were estimated to be 50--55% based on the observed resistivity decreases. Resistivity changes observed at distances greater than 3 meters to one side of the antenna appear to be related to rainwater infiltration. We propose that gaps in near surface clay layers allow rainwater to migrate downward and reach the top of clay rich zone penetrated by the antenna borehole. The water may then accumulate along the top of the clay.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Chichura


    Full Text Available The goal. The analyses of radiation hygienic monitoring conducted in Tula region territories affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident regarding cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the local foodstuffs and the analyses of populational annual effective dose. The materials and methods. The survey was conducted in Tula Region since 1997 to 2015. Over that period, more than fifty thousand samples of the main foodstuffs from the post-Chernobyl contaminated area were analyzed. Simultaneously with that, the external gamma - radiation dose rate was measured in the fixed control points. The dynamics of cesium -137 and strontium-90 content in foodstuffs were assessed along with the maximum values of the mean annual effective doses to the population and the contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures into the structure of the annual effective collective dose to the population. The results. The amount of cesium-137 and strontium -90 in the local foodstuffs was identified. The external gamma- radiation dose rate values were found to be stable and not exceeding the natural fluctuations range typical for the middle latitudes of Russia’s European territory. The maximum mean annual effective dose to the population reflects the stable radiation situation and does not exceed the permissible value of 1 mSv. The contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures of the population has been continuously reducing as well as the average individual dose to the population per one medical treatment under the annual increase of the medical treatments quantities. The conclusion. There is no exceedance of the admissible levels of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 content in the local foodstuffs. The mean annual effective dose to the population has decreased which makes it possible to transfer the settlements affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident to normal life style. This is covered by the draft concept of the settlements’ transfer to normal life style.

  16. Use of dual-head gamma camera in radionuclide internal contamination monitoring on radiation workers from a nuclear medicine department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Brandan, M.E., E-mail: [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Instituto de Fisica; Trujillo-Zamudio, F.E.; Estrada-Lobato, E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    As a part of an internal dosimetry program that is performed at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology - Nuclear Medicine Department, in the present work we suggest a procedure for the routinely monitoring of internal contamination on radiation workers and nuclear medicine staff. The procedure is based on the identification and quantification of contaminating radionuclides in human body by using a dual-head whole-body gamma camera. The results have shown that the procedures described in this study can be used to implement a method to quantify minimal accumulated activity in the main human organs to evaluate internal contamination with radionuclides. The high sensitivity of the uncollimated gamma camera is advantageous for the routinely detection and identification of small activities of internal contamination. But, the null spatial resolution makes impossible the definition of contaminated region of interest. Then, the use of collimators is necessary to the quantification of incorporated radionuclides activities in the main human organs and for the internal doses assessment. (author)

  17. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Evaluation of Residual Chromium Contamination in the Subsurface Soil at 100-C-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson


    This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) provides the requirements for sample collection and laboratory analysis to evaluate the extent of hexavalent chromium contamination present in the soil below the 100-C-7 and 100-C-7:1 remedial action waste site excavations.


    The widespread release of organic chemicals in the environment frequently leads to ground-water contamination with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) because many of these organic chemicals are barely soluble in water. Understanding the mechanisms of transport and biotic transf...

  19. Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring Trace Contaminant Control Through FY 2012 (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Pruitt, M. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Monje, O.


    Trace contaminant control has been a concern of spacecraft designers and operators from early in the progression of manned spaceflight. Significant technological advancement has occurred since the first designs were implemented in the 1960s, culminating in the trace contaminant control system currently in use aboard the International Space Station as part of the atmosphere revitalization system.

  20. Monitoring coal mine induced residual land subsidence using SBAS and PSI (United States)

    Grzovic, M.; Ghulam, A.


    Underground coal mining can cause damage to both property and the environment as a result of mining-induced land subsidence. Illinois, a major coal producer in the United States, is particularly susceptible to mining-induced land subsidence because it has large reserves of underground coal. Identifying and monitoring mining-induced land subsidence is important in order to assist in subsidence planning, minimizing damage to the environment, and prevent damage to structures. Since 1983, coal mining companies are responsible for preventing or correcting damage caused by mining-induced land subsidence. During active mining, land subsidence is monitored using traditional surveying methods, but this monitoring ends after active mining has stopped. In addition, mining-induced land subsidence can continue for decades after the completion of active mining. Traditional surveying methods are time consuming and expensive; therefore, a low-cost method of monitoring land subsidence is of great interest. Satellite based synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) provides a way to remotely measure land subsidence at low-cost, and with multitemporal methods of processing satellite data it reduces problems with standard InSAR and becomes a valuable tool to monitor mining-induced land subsidence. Permanent scatterer interferometry (PSI; Ferretti, et al., 2000, 2001) is a proven method that uses temporally coherent objects, such as buildings and rock outcrops, to improve the accuracy of land displacement measurements. PSI works well in urban areas because of the abundance of buildings, but it is less useful in rural areas. Small baseline subset (SBAS; Berardino, et al., 2002) interferometry uses multiple differential interferograms with small satellite baselines to improve spatial correlation. Both of these methods were used to measure land subsidence from 1992 to 2009 in Springfield, Illinois. Springfield presents a challenge because of the large surrounding rural areas. By

  1. Retrospective monitoring of minimal residual disease using hairpin-shaped clone specific primers in B-cell lymphoma affected dogs. (United States)

    Gentilini, Fabio; Turba, Maria E; Forni, Monica


    Lymphoma is one of the most common forms of cancer in dogs as it is in humans but, unlike humans, the cure rates in canines are still very low. Despite the fact that high grade B-cell lymphomas are considered to be chemotherapy responsive, almost all treated dogs ultimately relapse and die due to the residual malignant lymphocytes, namely minimal residual disease (MRD). It would be extremely valuable for clinicians to detect, monitor and quantify MRD for risk group stratification, effective treatment intervention and outcome prediction. The PCRs targeting the Ig gene rearrangements constitute one of the most reliable tools to this end. We have recently validated a method which exploits hairpin-shaped primers for quantifying MRD. In the present study, that method is conveniently used for retrospectively monitoring MRD in the peripheral blood of 8 dogs diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma who underwent chemotherapy. All dogs attained complete remission. The median disease-free interval was 254.5 days (range 63-774) while the median survival time was 313.5 days (range 143-817 days). At admission, all dogs, except one which had already been treated with prednisone, had circulating neoplastic cells. All dogs attained complete remission (CR) which was almost always matched with a complete MRD response. The persistence of MRD despite apparent CR indicated a worse prognosis and a short duration of CR. Finally, the relapse is consistently anticipated by the reappearance of MRD in the peripheral blood. The study confirmed the suitability of an MRD monitoring assay as a clinical decision-making tool.

  2. Organochlorine residues in harp seals, Phoca groenlandica, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Hudson Strait: An evaluation of contaminant concentrations and burdens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, G.G.; Smith, T.G. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Nanaimo, BC (Canada)); Addison, R.F. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Sidney, BC (Canada))


    Organochlorine contaminant concentrations and burdens were evaluated in blubber samples from 50 harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) obtained from the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence and Hudson Strait, Canada between December 1988 and December 1989. The concentration and burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) increased significantly during the winter months for males occupying the St. Lawrence estuary. The potential for rapid accumulation of contaminants in the estuary was also observed among females: nine postpartum females (1 month after weaning) had higher organochlorine levels than prepartum females from the same location. The lowest observed contaminant concentrations and burdens were in seals from Hudson Strait in autumn. In winter specimens, males had DDT and PCB concentrations about 4 and 2 times as great, respectively, as females of similar age distribution and collection date. Congeners with IUPAC Nos. 138 and 153 accounted for more than 50% of total identifiable PCBs, which is consistent with their prevalence in other marine biota. The concentration of PCBs has declined and the percent p,p'-DDE of total DDT has increased between 1982 and the present study. Unlike the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), harp seals occupy the more polluted waters of the estuary only seasonally, and this may account for their lower residue concentrations. 59 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  3. Towards a Long-Term Strategy for Voluntary-Based Internal Radiation Contamination Monitoring: A Population-Level Analysis of Monitoring Prevalence and Factors Associated with Monitoring Participation Behavior in Fukushima, Japan. (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Murakami, Michio; Hodgson, Susan; Blangiardo, Marta; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi


    Following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, we assessed voluntary-based monitoring behavior in Minamisoma City-located 10-40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant-to inform future monitoring strategies. The monitoring in Minamisoma included occasional free of charge internal-radiation-exposure measurements. Out of around 70,000 individuals residing in the city before the incident, a total of 45,788 residents (female: 52.1%) aged ≥21 were evaluated. The monitoring prevalence in 2011-2012 was only 30.2%, and this decreased to 17.9% in 2013-2014. Regression analyses were performed to estimate factors associated with the monitoring prevalence and participation behavior. The results show that, in comparison with the age cohort of 21-30 years, the cohort of 71-80 and ≥81 years demonstrated significantly lower monitoring prevalence; female residents had higher monitoring prevalence than male residents; those who were living in evacuation zones at the time of the incident had higher monitoring prevalence than those who lived outside any of the evacuation zones; for those living outside Fukushima and neighboring Prefectures post-incident monitoring prevalence decreased significantly in 2013-2014. Our findings inform the discussion on the concepts of radiation risk perception and accessibility to monitoring and societal decision-making regarding the maintenance of the monitoring program with low monitoring prevalence. We also stress the possibility that the monitoring can work both to check that internal contamination levels are within acceptable limits, and as a risk communication tool, alleviating individuals' concern and anxiety over radiation contamination.

  4. Impact of aging on the formation of bound residues after peroxidase-mediated treatment of 2,4-DCP contaminated soils. (United States)

    Palomo, Mónica; Bhandari, Alok


    This study evaluated the impact of solute-soil contact time on the formation of "bound" residue in two surface soils exposed to solutions containing 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) or DCP polymerization products (DPP). DPP was generated by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) mediated oxidative polymerization of 14C-labeled DCP in the soil slurry. Soils were preloaded with DCP or DPP for durations ranging from 2 h to 84 days. Bound residue was described as solute that was resistant to methanol extraction. Alkali extractions were conducted to estimate the 14C-activity associated with the humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin/mineral components of the soil. Changes in the distribution of the preloaded 14C-DCP and 14C-DPP were observed as a function of the solute-soil contact time. Results suggest that an assumption of sorption equilibrium based solely on the achievement of constant aqueous- or solid-phase solute concentrations can lead to erroneous conclusions about the establishment of true thermodynamic sorption equilibrium. This work also illustrated that (i) significant "irreversible" binding of phenolic contaminants to soils can be achieved during peroxidase-mediated treatment; and (ii) the "aging" process can lead to greater bound-residue formation over time.

  5. Monitoring Antibiotic Use and Residue in Freshwater Aquaculture for Domestic Use in Vietnam. (United States)

    Pham, Dang Kim; Chu, Jacqueline; Do, Nga Thuy; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Delahaut, Philippe; De Pauw, Edwin; Douny, Caroline; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Vu, Ton Dinh; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Wertheim, Heiman F L


    Vietnam is an important producer of aquaculture products, and aquatic products are essential to the Vietnamese diet. However, Vietnam also has very little enforced regulation pertaining to antibiotic usage in domestic aquaculture, which raises concerns for antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. In this study, analysis was conducted on the presence of antibiotic residues in domestically sold fish and shrimp raised in freshwater farms in Vietnam, and an assessment of farmers' knowledge of proper antibiotics usage was performed. The results indicated that a quarter of tested aquaculture products were antibiotic screening test positive, and there is a general lack of knowledge about the purpose and proper usage of antibiotics by aquaculture producers. Farmers' decision-making processes about antimicrobial use are influenced by biased sources of information, such as drug manufacturers and sellers, and by financial incentives.

  6. Vision-Inspection System for Residue Monitoring of Ready-Mixed Concrete Trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Seok Seo


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to propose a vision-inspection system that improves the quality management for ready-mixed concrete (RMC. The proposed system can serve as an alternative to the current visual inspection method for the detection of residues in agitator drum of RMC truck. To propose the system, concept development and the system-level design should be executed. The design considerations of the system are derived from the hardware properties of RMC truck and the conditions of RMC factory, and then 6 major components of the system are selected in the stage of system level design. The prototype of system was applied to a real RMC plant and tested for verification of its utility and efficiency. It is expected that the proposed system can be employed as a practical means to increase the efficiency of quality management for RMC.

  7. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brenda B.; Pearsons, Todd N.; McMichael, Geoffrey A. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)


    Select ecological interactions and spring chinook salmon residual/precocial abundance were monitored in 1998 as part of the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project's supplementation monitoring program. Monitoring these variables is part of an effort to help evaluate the factors that contribute to, or limit supplementation success. The ecological interactions that were monitored were prey consumption, competition for food, and competition for space. The abundance of spring chinook salmon life-history forms that have the potential to be influenced by supplementation and that have important ecological and genetic roles were monitored (residuals and precocials). Residual spring chinook salmon do not migrate to the ocean during the normal emigration period and continue to rear in freshwater. Precocials are those salmon that precocially mature in freshwater. The purpose of sampling during 1998 was to collect baseline data one year prior to the release of hatchery spring chinook salmon which occurred during the spring of 1999. All sampling that the authors report on here was conducted in upper Yakima River during summer and fall 1998. The stomach fullness of juvenile spring chinook salmon during the summer and fall averaged 12%. The food competition index suggested that mountain whitefish (0.59), rainbow trout (0.55), and redside shiner (0.55) were competing for food with spring chinook salmon. The space competition index suggested that rainbow trout (0.31) and redside shiner (0.39) were competing for space with spring chinook salmon but mountain whitefish (0.05) were not. Age-0 spring chinook salmon selected a fairly narrow range of microhabitat parameters in the summer and fall relative to what was available. Mean focal depths and velocities for age 0 spring chinook salmon during the summer were 0.5 m {+-} 0.2 m and 0.26 m/s {+-} 0.19 m/s, and during the fall 0.5 m {+-} 0.2 m and 0.24 m/s {+-} 0.18 m/s. Among potential competitors, age 1+ rainbow trout exhibited the

  8. Organochlorine pesticide residues: an extensive monitoring of Italian fishery and aquaculture. (United States)

    Masci, Maurizio; Orban, Elena; Nevigato, Teresina


    A sampling campaign from 21 sites in Italy was carried out to investigate the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues in different fish species. Samples came from marine fishery and either from sea- or freshwater aquaculture. Fish feed used in some fish farms were also analyzed. Pesticides studied belong to Persistent Organic Pollutants widely used in the past such as DDT, chlordane, heptachlor, and others. To ensure good quality results and proper data validation the main existing guidelines in the field were applied. The instrumental technique was a Dual column-Dual detector Gas Chromatography (GC-ECD and Ion Trap GC-MS) which allowed that complementary data on the same sample were acquired. Results for fishery showed a wide range of concentrations depending from the area and species examined. DDT, the major OC pesticide detected, varied from 0.02 to 130.03 ng g(-1) edible portion. As regards the products of aquaculture we observed slightly lower average levels of pollutants in a more narrow range of concentration: this is probably due to fish feed used as shown by some measures performed in the present study. Organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in all samples examined but they were generally well below the existing tolerance or action levels. Also the estimated daily intakes are well below than those recommended by WHO. This is a good indication about OCPs in the areas investigated but some further considerations on fish safety must be taken into account. An example on how fishes may act as bioindicators is reported.

  9. A Novel Quantitative Sampling Technique for Detection and Monitoring of Clostridium difficile Contamination in the Clinical Environment. (United States)

    Ali, Shanom; Muzslay, Monika; Wilson, Peter


    The horizontal transmission of Clostridium difficile in the hospital environment is difficult to establish. Current methods to detect C. difficile spores on surfaces are not quantitative, lack sensitivity, and are protracted. We propose a novel rapid method to detect and quantify C. difficile contamination on surfaces. Sponge swabbing was compared to contact plate sampling to assess the in vitro recovery of C. difficile ribotype 027 contamination (∼10(0), 10(1), or 10(2) CFU of spores) from test surfaces (a bed rail, a stainless steel sheet, or a polypropylene work surface). Sponge swab contents were concentrated by vacuum filtration, and the filter membrane was plated onto selective agar. The efficacy of each technique for the recovery of C. difficile from sites in the clinical environment that are touched at a high frequency was evaluated. Contact plates recovered 19 to 32% of the total contamination on test surfaces, whereas sponge swabs recovered 76 to 94% of the total contamination, and contact plates failed to detect C. difficile contamination below a detection limit of 10 CFU/25 cm(2) (0.4 CFU/cm(2)). In use, contact plates failed to detect C. difficile contamination (0/96 contact plates; 4 case wards), while sponge swabs recovered C. difficile from 29% (87/301) of the surfaces tested in the clinical environment. Approximately 74% (36/49) of the area in the vicinity of the patient was contaminated (∼1.34 ± 6.88 CFU/cm(2) C. difficile spores). Reservoirs of C. difficile extended to beyond the areas near the patient: a dirty utility room sink (2.26 ± 5.90 CFU/cm(2)), toilet floor (1.87 ± 2.40 CFU/cm(2)), and chair arm (1.33 ± 4.69 CFU/cm(2)). C. difficile was present on floors in ∼90% of case wards. This study highlights that sampling with a contact plate may fail to detect C. difficile contamination and result in false-negative reporting. Our sponge sampling technique permitted the rapid and quantitative measurement of C. difficile contamination on

  10. Monitoring of selected essential elements and contaminants at sheep and cow farms in Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina TUNEGOVÁ


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate the actual contamination of selected area of Slovakia, in view of its environmental character referred both to the suitability or unsuitability of the use of milk from this area, to other food processing. This article deals with analysis of the content of selected compounds in soil, feed and milk, at the cow and sheep farms. Village in Eastern Slovakia, Tulčík, was the area of investigation. This area is characterized as an area with mild disturbance of environment. 11 compounds have been analyzed (calcium, selenium, cadmium, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls – congeners 138, 153, 180, and pesticides - p,p´ DDE, Endosulfan I., Beta-HCH, aflatoxin M1. Samples of soil were collected once a year (spring season, samples of feeds and milk were collected two-times a year (spring and autumn season. Analysis of samples was performed in Eurofins Bel/Novamann (Nové Zámky, Slovak Republic. Analyses were performed by routine methods, according to the valid methodologies. Levels of compounds were obtained and then results have been compared with the most acceptable limits in according to applicable legislation. At both farms, 73.08% (38 samples of analyzed compounds were below the limit of quantification (LOQ and 26.92% (14 samples of compounds were quantifiable. The most significant differences between monitored farms were recorded in soil (27 720 mg·kg-1 Ca, feed (27 620 mg·kg-1 Ca and milk (960 mg·kg-1 Ca. The high content of calcium in soil and feed did not affect the content of calcium in milk. The results showed that the content of toxic elements, polychorinated biphenyls, pesticides and aflatoxin M1 in analyzed area of Eastern Slovakia was very low and under the limit of quantification. It can be concluded, that the use of milk from this area for direct use or for dairy products is appropriate and poses no health risk to the consumers.

  11. Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring, SoilCAM project highlights (United States)

    French, H. K.; Van Der Zee, S. E.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Tsocano, G.


    The SoilCAM project (2008- 2012, EU-FP7-212663) aimed at improving methods for monitoring subsurace contaminant distribution and biodegradation. Two test sites were chosen, Oslo airport Gardermoen, Norway where de-icing agents infiltrate the soil during snowmelt and the Trecate site in Italy where an inland crude oil spill occurred in 1994. A number of geophysical investigation techniques were combined with soil and water sampling techniques. Data obtained from time-lapse measurements were further analysed by numerical modelling of flow and transport at different scales in order to characterise transport processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Laboratory experiments provided physical and biogeochemical data for model parameterisation and to select remediation methods. The geophysical techniques were used to map geological heterogeneities and to conduct time-lapse measurements of processes in the unsaturated zone. Both cross borehole and surface electrodes were used for electrical resistivity and induced polarisation surveys. Results showed clear indications of areas highly affected by de-icing chemicals along the runway at Oslo airport. The time lapse measurements along the runway at the airport showed infiltration patterns during snowmelt and were used to validate 2D unsaturated flow and transport simulations using SUTRA. The simulations illustrate the effect of layering geological structures and membranes, buried parallel to the runway, on the flow pattern. Complex interaction between bio-geo-chemical processes in a 1D vertical profile along the runway were described with the ORCHESTRA model. Smaller scale field site measurements revealed increase of iron and manganese during degradation of de-icing chemicals. At the Trecate site a combination of georadar, electrical resistivity and radio magneto telluric provided a broad outline of the geology down to 50 m. Anomalies in the Induced polarisation and electrical resistivity data from the cross borehole

  12. Evaluation of black-billed magpies as monitors of environmental contamination : Monthly report for March 1995 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Monthyl report for March on the project "Evaluation of Black-billed Magpies as Indicators of Environmental Contamination at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal." The purpose...

  13. Evaluation of black-billed magpies as monitors of environmental contamination : Work plan 1995 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary proposal and work plan for the project "Evaluation of Black-billed Magpies as Indicators of Environmental Contamination at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal"....

  14. Overcoming the problem of residual microbial contamination in dental suction units left by conventional disinfection using novel single component suction handpieces in combination with automated flood disinfection. (United States)

    Boyle, M A; O'Donnell, M J; Russell, R J; Galvin, N; Swan, J; Coleman, D C


    Decontaminating dental chair unit (DCU) suction systems in a convenient, safe and effective manner is problematic. This study aimed to identify and quantify the extent of the problems using 25 DCUs, methodically eliminate these problems and develop an efficient approach for reliable, effective, automated disinfection. DCU suction system residual contamination by environmental and human-derived bacteria was evaluated by microbiological culture following standard aspiration disinfection with a quaternary ammonium disinfectant or alternatively, a novel flooding approach to disinfection. Disinfection of multicomponent suction handpieces, assembled and disassembled, was also studied. A prototype manual and a novel automated Suction Tube Cleaning System (STCS) were developed and tested, as were novel single component suction handpieces. Standard aspiration disinfection consistently failed to decontaminate DCU suction systems effectively. Semi-confluent bacterial growth (101-500 colony forming units (CFU) per culture plate) was recovered from up to 60% of suction filter housings and from up to 19% of high and 37% of low volume suction hoses. Manual and automated flood disinfection of DCU suction systems reduced this dramatically (ranges for filter cage and high and low volume hoses of 0-22, 0-16 and 0-14CFU/plate, respectively) (Psuction handpieces could not be adequately disinfected without prior removal and disassembly. Novel single component handpieces, allowed their effective disinfection in situ using the STCS, which virtually eliminated contamination from the entire suction system. Flood disinfection of DCU suction systems and single component handpieces radically improves disinfection efficacy and considerably reduces potential cross-infection and cross-contamination risks. DCU suction systems become heavily contaminated during use. Conventional disinfection does not adequately control this. Furthermore, multicomponent suction handpieces cannot be adequately

  15. Ten-Year Monitored Natural Recovery of Lead-Contaminated Mine Tailing in Klity Creek, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand (United States)

    Phenrat, Tanapon; Otwong, Ashijya; Chantharit, Aphichart; Lowry, Gregory V.


    Background: Klity Creek has become Thailand’s first official remediation ordered by the court in 2013, 15 years after the spill of lead (Pb)-contaminated mine tailing into the creek. The Pollution Control Department (PCD) decided to restore the creek through monitored natural recovery (MNR) since 2006 but has not been successful. Interestingly, the most recent remediation plan in 2015 will still apply MNR to five out of the seven portions of the creek, despite no scientific feasibility evaluation of using MNR to restore the creek. Objective: This study qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the feasibility of using MNR to clean up the creek in order to protect the Klity children from excess Pb exposure. Methods: We analyzed the physical and chemical transformation of Pb contaminated sediment in the creek and developed a remedial action goal and cleanup level using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK). We empirically determined the natural recovery (NR) potentials and rates using 10 years of data monitoring the water and sediment samples from eight monitoring stations (KC1 to KC8). Results: Klity Creek has NR potential for water except at KC2, which is closest to the spill and the other improperly managed Pb sources. However, the creek has no NR potential for sediment except at the KC8 location (NR rate = 11.1 ± 3.0 × 10–3 month–1) farthest from the spill. Conclusion: The MNR method is not suitable to use as the sole remedial approach for Klity Creek (KC2 to KC7). Although MNR is applicable at KC8, it may require up to 377 ± 76 years to restore the sediment to the background Pb concentration. Citation: Phenrat T, Otwong A, Chantharit A, Lowry GV. 2016. Ten-year monitored natural recovery of lead-contaminated mine tailing in Klity Creek, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Environ Health Perspect 124:1511–1520; PMID:27157823

  16. Biological Monitoring of Pesticides, Heavy Metals and Other Contaminants at Rocky Mountain Arsenal : Phase 1 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses phase one of three ecological monitoring efforts to occur on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. These monitoring efforts are a part of a larger...

  17. Performance of passive samplers for monitoring estuarine water column concentrations: 2. Emerging contaminants. (United States)

    Perron, Monique M; Burgess, Robert M; Suuberg, Eric M; Cantwell, Mark G; Pennell, Kelly G


    Measuring dissolved concentrations of emerging contaminants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and triclosan, can be challenging due to their physicochemical properties resulting in low aqueous solubilities and association with particles. Passive sampling methods have been applied to assess dissolved concentrations in water and sediments primarily for legacy contaminants. Although the technology is applicable to some emerging contaminants, the use of passive samplers with emerging contaminants is limited. In the present study, the performance of 3 common passive samplers was evaluated for sampling PBDEs and triclosan. Passive sampling polymers included low-density polyethylene (PE) and polyoxymethylene (POM) sheets, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. Dissolved concentrations were calculated using measured sampler concentrations and laboratory-derived partition coefficients. Dissolved tri-, tetra-, and pentabrominated PBDE congeners were detected at several of the study sites at very low pg/L concentrations using PE and POM. Calculated dissolved water concentrations of triclosan ranged from 1.7 ng/L to 18 ng/L for POM and 8.8 ng/L to 13 ng/L for PE using performance reference compound equilibrium adjustments. Concentrations in SPME were not reported due to lack of detectable chemical in the PDMS polymer deployed. Although both PE and POM were found to effectively accumulate emerging contaminants from the water column, further research is needed to determine their utility as passive sampling devices for emerging contaminants.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟鹏; E.Takasaki


    The monitor is composed of a pair of electrodes,a single stage of microchannel plate,a phosphor screen,a CCD camera and a PC computer,To obtain a good uniform collecting field,forming electrodes system is used instead of that with a resistive divider,The readout system is performed by the phosphor screen and the CCD camera because the spatial resolution is not limited by the mechanical structure like the anode strip type and such video display system is very useful for beam studies and operation of the 40MeV linac,Besides,the design and test results are described in detail.

  19. Toolkit for Monitoring and Evaluation of Indoor Residual Spraying for Visceral Leishmaniasis Control in the Indian Subcontinent: Application and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mamun Huda


    Full Text Available Background. We field tested and validated a newly developed monitoring and evaluation (M&E toolkit for indoor residual spraying to be used by the supervisors at different levels of the national kala-azar elimination programs in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Methods. Methods included document analysis, in-depth interviews, direct observation of spraying squads, and entomological-chemical assessments (bioassay, susceptibility test, chemical analysis of insecticide residues on sprayed surfaces, vector density measurements at baseline, and three follow-up surveys. Results. We found that the documentation at district offices was fairly complete; important shortcomings included insufficient training of spraying squads and supervisors, deficient spray equipment, poor spraying performance, lack of protective clothing, limited coverage of houses resulting in low bioavailability of the insecticide on sprayed surfaces, and reduced vector susceptibility to DDT in India, which limited the impact on vector densities. Conclusion. The M&E toolkit is a useful instrument for detecting constraints in IRS operations and to trigger timely response.

  20. Toolkit for Monitoring and Evaluation of Indoor Residual Spraying for Visceral Leishmaniasis Control in the Indian Subcontinent: Application and Results (United States)

    Huda, M. Mamun; Mondal, Dinesh; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep; Sharma, S. N.; Das, Murari Lal; Roy, Lolita; Gurung, Chitra Kumar; Banjara, Megha Raj; Akhter, Shireen; Maheswary, Narayan Prosad; Kroeger, Axel; Chowdhury, Rajib


    Background. We field tested and validated a newly developed monitoring and evaluation (M&E) toolkit for indoor residual spraying to be used by the supervisors at different levels of the national kala-azar elimination programs in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Methods. Methods included document analysis, in-depth interviews, direct observation of spraying squads, and entomological-chemical assessments (bioassay, susceptibility test, chemical analysis of insecticide residues on sprayed surfaces, vector density measurements at baseline, and three follow-up surveys). Results. We found that the documentation at district offices was fairly complete; important shortcomings included insufficient training of spraying squads and supervisors, deficient spray equipment, poor spraying performance, lack of protective clothing, limited coverage of houses resulting in low bioavailability of the insecticide on sprayed surfaces, and reduced vector susceptibility to DDT in India, which limited the impact on vector densities. Conclusion. The M&E toolkit is a useful instrument for detecting constraints in IRS operations and to trigger timely response. PMID:21811510

  1. Health Monitoring For Cantilever Crane Frame UsingResidual Error Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal A. Rashed


    Full Text Available In the present research, a crane frame has been investigated by using finite element method. The damage is simulated by reducing the stiffness of assumed elements with ratios (10% and 20 % in mid- span of the vertical column in crane frame. The cracked beam with a one-edge and non-propagating crack has been used. Six cases of damage are modeled for crane frame and by introducing cracked elements at different locations with ratio of depth of crack to the height of the beam (a/h 0.1, 0.20. A FEM program coded in Matlab 6.5 was used to model the numerical simulation of the damage scenarios. The results showed a decreasing in the five natural frequencies from undamaged beam which means the indication of presence of the damage. The direct comparison gives an indication of the damage but the location of the damage, is not detected. The method based on changes in the dynamics characteristics of the beam structures are examined and evaluated for damage scenarios. The results of the analysis indicate that the residual error method performs well in detecting, locating and quantifying damage in single and multiple damage scenarios.

  2. Monitoring of radionuclides contamination of soils in Shatsk National Natural Park (Volyn Region, Ukraine) during 1994-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrabovskyy, V. E-mail:; Dzendzelyuk, O.; Katerynchuk, I.; Furgala, Y


    The results of studies of radionuclide contamination of the soils in the western part of the territory of Shatsk National Natural Park (ShNNP), Volyn region, Ukraine, performed during 1994-2001 are presented. Based on the experimental results, the three-dimensional plot of the {sup 137}Cs density contamination for the soils at the territory under investigation has been constructed. The monitoring during 1994-2001 of the {sup 137}Cs vertical distributions in the different kinds of soils from the Park and the forecasting of the distribution changes of the depth down to 50 cm for the sod loamy sandy gleyed loamy sand soil of the Park up to 2086 have been performed.

  3. Trends in monitoring residues of pharmacologically active group B substances in products of animal origin in Lithuania from 1999 to 2008. (United States)

    Šerniene, L; Stimbirys, A; Daunoras, G


    Monitoring data of group B pharmacologically active substances in the Republic of Lithuania during the period 1999-2008 are presented. Peer review is based on data taken from residue-monitoring plans of the years 1999-2008 and the National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute reports on analyses performed in various foods. The data were analysed with the SPSS statistical package. Analysis of group B pharmacologically active substances residues monitoring results from the years 1999-2008 revealed that 25,030 samples were tested to detect 421 (1.68%) non-compliant samples in three groups of substances: antibacterials, anthelmintics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Most residues (88.3%) were found in milk, and were far less in beef, pork, sheep and goat meat.

  4. The effect of selected fungicides on the chemical composition of strawberry fruits and contamination with dithiocarbamate residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysocki Karol


    Full Text Available In a four-year field experiment, fenhexamid, iprodione, pyrimethanil and thiram were applied in four different series as fungicides recommended for the control of grey mold (Botrytis cinerea in strawberries. The plant protection products had no significant effect on the chemical composition of strawberry fruits of the Kent and Senga Sengana cultivars with the exception of an increase in the vitamin C level in ‘Kent’ strawberries. They also contributed to minor variations in the content of extract, total sugars, organic acids, polyphenols and anthocyanins. Dithiocarbamate residues were detected in all samples from the first harvest of strawberries that had been treated with the thiram fungicide

  5. Remediating radium contaminated legacy sites: Advances made through machine learning in routine monitoring of “hot” particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Adam, E-mail: [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Tyler, Andrew, E-mail: [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Smith, Leslie, E-mail: [Department of Computing Science and Mathematics, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom); Dale, Paul, E-mail: [Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, Radioactive Substances, Strathallan House, Castle Business Park, Stirling FK9 4TZ (United Kingdom); Davies, Mike, E-mail: [Nuvia Limited, The Library, Eight Street, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RL (United Kingdom)


    The extensive use of radium during the 20th century for industrial, military and pharmaceutical purposes has led to a large number of contaminated legacy sites across Europe and North America. Sites that pose a high risk to the general public can present expensive and long-term remediation projects. Often the most pragmatic remediation approach is through routine monitoring operating gamma-ray detectors to identify, in real-time, the signal from the most hazardous heterogeneous contamination (hot particles); thus facilitating their removal and safe disposal. However, current detection systems do not fully utilise all spectral information resulting in low detection rates and ultimately an increased risk to the human health. The aim of this study was to establish an optimised detector-algorithm combination. To achieve this, field data was collected using two handheld detectors (sodium iodide and lanthanum bromide) and a number of Monte Carlo simulated hot particles were randomly injected into the field data. This allowed for the detection rate of conventional deterministic (gross counts) and machine learning (neural networks and support vector machines) algorithms to be assessed. The results demonstrated that a Neural Network operated on a sodium iodide detector provided the best detection capability. Compared to deterministic approaches, this optimised detection system could detect a hot particle on average 10 cm deeper into the soil column or with half of the activity at the same depth. It was also found that noise presented by internal contamination restricted lanthanum bromide for this application. - Highlights: • Land contaminated with radium is hazardous to human health. • Routine monitoring permits identification and removal of radioactive hot particles. • Current alarm algorithms do not provide reliable hot particle detection. • Spectral processing using Machine Learning significantly improves detection.

  6. A simplified approach for monitoring hydrophobic organic contaminants associated with suspended sediment: Methodology and applications (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.


    Hydrophobic organic contaminants, although frequently detected in bed sediment and in aquatic biota, are rarely detected in whole-water samples, complicating determination of their occurrence, load, and source. A better approach for the investigation of hydrophobic organic contaminants is the direct analysis of sediment in suspension, but procedures for doing so are expensive and cumbersome. We describe a simple, inexpensive methodology for the dewatering of sediment and present the results of two case studies. Isolation of a sufficient mass of sediment for analyses of organochlorine compounds and PAHs is obtained by in-line filtration of large volumes of water. The sediment is removed from the filters and analyzed directly by standard laboratory methods. In the first case study, suspended-sediment sampling was used to determine occurrence, loads, and yields of contaminants in urban runoff affecting biota in Town Lake, Austin, TX. The second case study used suspended-sediment sampling to locate a point source of PCBs in the Donna Canal in south Texas, where fish are contaminated with PCBs. The case studies demonstrate that suspended-sediment sampling can be an effective tool for determining the occurrence, load, and source of hydrophobic organic contaminants in transport.

  7. A simplified approach for monitoring hydrophobic organic contaminants associated with suspended sediment: methodology and applications. (United States)

    Mahler, B J; Van Metre, P C


    Hydrophobic organic contaminants, although frequently detected in bed sediment and in aquatic biota, are rarely detected in whole-water samples, complicating determination of their occurrence, load, and source. A better approach for the investigation of hydrophobic organic contaminants is the direct analysis of sediment in suspension, but procedures for doing so are expensive and cumbersome. We describe a simple, inexpensive methodology for the dewatering of sediment and present the results of two case studies. Isolation of a sufficient mass of sediment for analyses of organochlorine compounds and PAHs is obtained by in-line filtration of large volumes of water. The sediment is removed from the filters and analyzed directly by standard laboratory methods. In the first case study, suspended-sediment sampling was used to determine occurrence, loads, and yields of contaminants in urban runoff affecting biota in Town Lake, Austin, TX. The second case study used suspended-sediment sampling to locate a point source of PCBs in the Donna Canal in south Texas, where fish are contaminated with PCBs. The case studies demonstrate that suspended-sediment sampling can be an effective tool for determining the occurrence, load, and source of hydrophobic organic contaminants in transport.

  8. Survival, growth, and body residues of hyalella azteca (Saussure) exposed to fipronil contaminated sediments from non-vegetated and vegetated microcosms. (United States)

    Kröger, Robert; Lizotte, Richard E; Moore, Matthew T


    We assessed chronic effects of fipronil and metabolite contaminated sediments from non-vegetated and Thallia dealbata vegetated wetland microcosms on Hyalella azteca during wet and dry exposures. Mean sediment concentrations (ng g(-1)) ranged from 0.72-1.26, 0.01-0.69, 0.07-0.23, and 0.49-7.87 for fipronil, fipronil-sulfide, fipronil-sulfone, and fipronil-desulfinyl, respectively. No significant differences in animal survival or growth were observed between non-vegetated and vegetated microcosms during wet or dry exposures. Mean animal body residue concentrations (ng g(-1)) ranged from 28.4-77.6, 0-30.7, and 8.3-43.8 for fipronil, fipronil-sulfide, and fipronil-sulfone. Fipronil-desulfinyl was not detected in any animal samples.

  9. Early-stage bioassay for monitoring radioactive contamination in living livestock. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Sawano, Kaita; Kishimoto, Miori; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Kazutaka


    Soil samples from the ground surface and feces and blood from a mixed-breed male pig were collected on April 10, 2011 at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The radioactivity of each sample was measured using a Ge semiconductor detector. Despite the fact that the pig had been fed non-contaminated imported feed, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the feces, and (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the blood clots. Because it is considerably difficult to measure radioactive contamination in the edible muscle of living livestock, bioassays are an option for the screening of radioactive contamination in living livestock to ensure food safety.

  10. In-situ protein determination to monitor contamination in a centrifugal partition chromatograph. (United States)

    Bouiche, Feriel; Faure, Karine


    Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) works with biphasic liquid systems including aqueous two-phase systems. Metallic rotors are able to retain an aqueous stationary phase able to purify proteins. But the adhesion of proteins to solid surface may pose a cross-contamination risk during downstream processes. So it is of utmost importance to ensure the cleanliness of the equipment and detect possible protein contamination in a timely manner. Thereby, a direct method that allows the determination of the effective presence of proteins and the extent of contamination in the metallic CPC rotors was developed. This in-situ method is derived from the Amino Density Estimation by Colorimetric Assay (ADECA) which is based on the affinity of a dye, Coomassie Brillant Blue (CBB), with protonated N(+) groups of the proteins. In this paper, the ADECA method was developed dynamically, on a 25 mL stainless-steel rotor with various extents of protein contaminations using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a fouling model. The eluted CBB dye was quantified and found to respond linearly to BSA contamination up to 70 mg injected. Limits of detection and quantification were recorded as 0.9 mg and 3.1 mg, respectively. While the non-specific interactions between the dye and the rotor cannot currently be neglected, this method allows for in situ determination of proteins contamination and should contribute to the development of CPC as a separation tool in protein purification processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assignment of ozone-sensitive tryptophan residue in tryptophanase by a dual-monitoring high-performance liquid chromatography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, N.; Tokushige, M.


    Tryptophanase purified from Escherichia coli B/1t7-A is inactivated by mild ozonization following pseudo-first-order kinetics. Previous data from the authors suggest that one out of two tryptophan residues (Trp's) in the enzyme subunit is preferentially oxidized concomitant with the ozone inactivation and has a direct interaction with the coenzyme, pyridoxal phosphate. To determine which Trp is more susceptible to ozonization and interacts with PLP, the native and ozonized enzyme proteins were cleaved by trypsin and the two Trp-containing peptides were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC equipped with a dual-monitoring system consisting of an uv and a fluorescence monitor connected in tandem for selective detection of Trp-containing peptides. This device facilitated rapid detection and quantitation of the Trp-containing peptides which decreased upon ozonization. The results showed that Trp preferentially oxidized upon ozonization and involved in the interaction with PLP was the one in peptide T-15 rather than that in T-23, which Kagamiyama et al. originally designated.

  12. Is There a Role for Minimal Residual Disease Monitoring in Follicular Lymphoma in the Chemo-Immunotherapy Era? (United States)

    Gritti, Giuseppe; Pavoni, Chiara; Rambaldi, Alessandro


    After 25 years, evaluation of minimal residual disease (MRD) in follicular lymphoma (FL) has become a standardized technique frequently integrated into clinical trials for its consistent and independent prognostic significance. Achievement of a sustained MRD negativity is a marker of treatment sensibility that has been associated with excellent clinical outcome in terms of clinical response and progression-free survival, independently from the employed therapy. However, no survival advantages has been reported for MRD negative patients and despite the compelling results of clinical trials, MRD evaluation has currently no role in clinical practice. Ongoing clinical trials will help in clarifying the potential setting in which MRD monitoring may have a routine clinical application i.e. allowing de-escalation of standard maintenance therapy in very low risk patients. In this review the clinical implications of MRD monitoring in Rituximab-era are discussed in light of the current treatment paradigms most aimed at reducing toxicities, and the response definition that now routinely integrates PET scan. PMID:28101314

  13. Early detection of tumor relapse/regrowth by consecutive minimal residual disease monitoring in high-risk neuroblastoma patients (United States)

    Hirase, Satoshi; Saitoh, Atsuro; Hartomo, Tri Budi; Kozaki, Aiko; Yanai, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Kawasaki, Keiichiro; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Matsuo, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Mori, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Akira; Iijima, Kazumoto; Nishio, Hisahide; Nishimura, Noriyuki


    Neuroblastoma is an aggressive pediatric tumor accounting for ~15% of cancer-associated mortalities in children. Despite the current intensive therapy, >50% of high-risk patients experience tumor relapse or regrowth caused by the activation of minimal residual disease (MRD). Although several MRD detection protocols using various reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) markers have been reported to evaluate the therapeutic response and disease status of neuroblastoma patients, their clinical significance remains elusive. The present study reports two high-risk neuroblastoma patients, whose MRD was consecutively monitored using 11 RT-qPCR markers (CHRNA3, CRMP1, DBH, DCX, DDC, GABRB3, GAP43, ISL1, KIF1A, PHOX2B and TH) during their course of treatment. The two patients initially responded to the induction therapy and reached MRD-negative status. The patients' MRD subsequently became positive with no elevation of their urinary homovanillic acid, urinary vanillylmandelic acid and serum neuron-specific enolase levels at 13 or 19 weeks prior to the clinical diagnosis of tumor relapse or regrowth. The present cases highlight the possibility of consecutive MRD monitoring using 11 markers to enable an early detection of tumor relapse or regrowth in high-risk neuroblastoma patients. PMID:27446404

  14. Regional monitoring of lead and cadmium contamination in a tropical grazing land site, Thailand. (United States)

    Parkpian, Preeda; Leong, Shing Tet; Laortanakul, Preecha; Thunthaisong, Nasavan


    An investigation was carried out to monitor Pb and Cd contamination in grazing land located near a highway. Environmental media at different distances from highway (soil, grass, water, cow's forage, fertilizer, manure and milk samples) were collected from three sampling locations. Soil and grass were characterized by high metal mobility (soil with Pb: 5.25 +/- 0.71-14.59 +/- 1.17 mg kg(-1), dry mass and Cd: 0.038-0.33 +/- 0.04 mg kg(-1), dry mass and grass with Pb: 0.76 +/- 0.05-6.62 +/- 0.18 mg kg(-1), dry mass and Cd: 0.17+/- 0.01-0.73 +/- 0.09 mg kg(-1), dry mass). One-way analysis of variane (ANOVA) was applied to find out the correlation between metal (total and bioavailable) concentrations in the soil and the distance from roadside. In most cases, the finding showed that plants growing nearer to the highway are usually exposed to more heavy metal accumulations than those away from the highway. In addition, a correlation was established between plant available metal concentrations and plant metal uptake concentrations. Analysis of fertilizer and manure showed considerable amount of metals (fertilizer with Pb: 1.53 +/- 0.06 mg kg(-1) and Cd: 0.038 mg kg(-1) and manure with Pb: 2.55-3.34 mg kg(-1) and Cd: 0.14-0.31 mg kg(-1)). Long-.term simultaneous application of fertilizer and manure on the commercial farm showed higher metal accumulation in the soil and plants than those of co-operative farm. Considerable concentrations of metals (Pb: 1.60-2.94 mg kg(-1) and Cd: 0.025-0.19 mg kg(-1)) were observed in fodder. The finding clearly demonstrated that there are seasonal variation in total daily metal intake by individual cow (Pb: 109.37 mg day(-1) (dry), 273.47 mg day(-1) (rainy) and Cd: 2.02 mg day(-1) (dry), 19.62 mg day(-1) (rainy)). The provisional tolerable weekly intake of heavy metals in cows is 390 microg Pb and 28 microg Cd per kg body weight in the rainy season and 156 microg Pb and 2 microg Cd per kg body weight in the dry season. The levels of metals

  15. Contamination profile for staphylococci and its enterotoxins and monitorization of the conditions of hygiene in a 'coalho' cheese production line


    Borges, MD; Nassu, RT; PEREIRA, JL; de Andrade, APC; Kuaye, AY


    This research aimed to evaluate the contamination by staphylococci and its enterotoxins as well as to monitor the Conditions of hygiene from a coalho cheese production like, using ATP bioluminescence assay. Staphylococcus sp. population varied from < ICFU mL(-1), in pasteurized milk to 1.5 x 10(7)CFU mL(-1) in raw milk, whereas coagulase-positive staphylococci count ranged from < ICFU mL(-1), in pasteurized milk to 5.0 x 10(6)CFU mL(-1) in raw milk. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were detec...

  16. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external tank soil contamination for the Hanford tank closure program: application to the AX tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Mixed high-level waste is currently stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The plan is to retrieve the waste, process the water, and dispose of the waste in a manner that will provide less long-term health risk. The AX Tank Farm has been identified for purposes of demonstration. Not all the waste can be retrieved from the tanks and some waste has leaked from these tanks into the underlying soil. Retrieval of this waste could result in additional leakage. During FY1998, the Sandia National Laboratory was under contract to evaluate concepts for immobilizing the residual waste remaining in tanks and mitigating the migration of contaminants that exist in the soil column. Specifically, the scope of this evaluation included: development of a layered tank fill design for reducing water infiltration; development of in-tank getter technology; mitigation of soil contamination through grouting; sequestering of specific radionuclides in soil; and geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil interactions. A copy of the final report prepared by Sandia National Laboratory is attached.

  17. Integration of processes induced air flotation and photo-Fenton for treatment of residual waters contaminated with xylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Syllos S. da [Departamento Engenharia Quimica, NUPEG, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, Natal 59066-800, RN (Brazil); Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo, E-mail: [Departamento Engenharia Quimica, NUPEG, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, Natal 59066-800, RN (Brazil); Barros Neto, Eduardo L. de [Departamento Engenharia Quimica, NUPEG, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, Lagoa Nova, Natal 59066-800, RN (Brazil); Nascimento, Claudio A.O. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have studied the treatment of wastewater contaminated with hydrocarbons represented by the xylene, using these processes in an integrated mode: induced air flotation and photo-Fenton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have selected xylene as representative contaminant due to properties of toxicity, solubility in water and vapor pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The manuscript presents a series of accurate experimental data that can be useful for material and energy optimization purposes in the xylene removal aiming the treatment of oil field produced water. - Abstract: Produced water in oil fields is one of the main sources of wastewater generated in the industry. It contains several organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX), whose disposal is regulated by law. The aim of this study is to investigate a treatment of produced water integrating two processes, i.e., induced air flotation (IAF) and photo-Fenton. The experiments were conducted in a column flotation and annular lamp reactor for flotation and photodegradation steps, respectively. The first order kinetic constant of IAF for the wastewater studied was determined to be 0.1765 min{sup -1} for the surfactant EO 7. Degradation efficiencies of organic loading were assessed using factorial planning. Statistical data analysis shows that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration is a determining factor in process efficiency. Degradations above 90% were reached in all cases after 90 min of reaction, attaining 100% mineralization in the optimized concentrations of Fenton reagents. Process integration was adequate with 100% organic load removal in 20 min. The results of the integration of the IAF with the photo-Fenton allowed to meet the effluent limits established by Brazilian legislation for disposal.

  18. 污染土壤残油的臭氧氧化研究%Removal of residual oil in contaminated soil by ozonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Residual oil after bioremediation in crude oil contaminated soil could be hardly biodegraded.In this study, column experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of ozonation of residual oil. Maximum of removal efficiency(0.3mg oil/mg O3)was reached when ozone dosage was about 20 mg/g soil.Under this condition,population of petroleum degrading bacteria was reduced only by 1 order of magnitude.Among the four fractions of oil,aromatics showed highest removal,followed by saturates,and resins and asphaltenesincreased after ozonation.Ozonation was able to remove residual oil with all range of molecular weight, resulting in a slight decrease of average molecular weight of residual oil.GC-MS results indicated that ozone removal rate of different types of contaminants showed following sequence: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs)>steranes> hopanes>alkyl cyclohexanes>n-alkanes.Ozonation did not change biomarker parameters.Increase of C15~C22n-alkanes,C17~C20 alkyl cyclohexanes and C8~C22carboxylic acids and production of C11~C25aldehydes were observed after ozonation. Removal rate for biodegradation of ozonated residual oil was twice of the control,indicating that bioavailability of residual oil was improved by ozonation.%本研究探讨了臭氧氧化对石油污染土壤生物修复后难降解的残油的去除效应。臭氧投加剂量约20 mg O3/g 土时,臭氧氧化效率最高,达0.3 mg总油/mgO3,且土壤石油烃降解菌数量仅下降一个数量级。臭氧作用下残油四组分中芳香烃降解率最高,其次为饱和烃,胶质和沥青质含量升高。臭氧对残油各分子量组分均有降解作用,氧化后残油分子量略有下降。GC-MS结果表明臭氧对各类物质氧化的容易顺序为多环芳烃>甾烷>藿烷>烷基环己烷>正烷烃;臭氧未改变生物标志物参数;氧化后C8~C22脂肪酸、C15~C22正烷烃和C17~C20烷基环己烷含量增加,并出现了C11~C25脂肪醛,臭氧氧化后残

  19. Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins. (United States)

    Zhang, Liyuan; Ma, Qiugang; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Jianyun; Jia, Ru; Ji, Cheng; Zhao, Lihong


    Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 isolated from fish gut is very effective in detoxifying aflatoxins in feed and feed ingredients. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of B. subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, body antioxidant functions, and aflatoxin residues in ducks fed moldy maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. A total of 1500 18-d-old male Cherry Valley ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replicates of 50 ducks per repeat. The experiment design consisted of five dietary treatments labeled as C0 (basal diet containing 60% normal maize), M0 (basal diet containing 60% moldy maize contaminated with aflatoxins substituted for normal maize), M500, M1000, and M2000 (M0 +500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparation mainly consisted of B. subtilis ANSB060). The results showed that ducks fed 22.44 ± 2.46 μg/kg of AFB₁ (M0) exhibited a decreasing tendency in average daily gain (ADG) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in serum, and T-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the liver significantly decreased along with the appearance of AFB₁ and AFM₁ compared with those in Group C0. The supplementation of B. subtilis ANSB060 into aflatoxin-contaminated diets increased the ADG of ducks (p > 0.05), significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced aflatoxin accumulation in duck liver. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in diets showed an ameliorating effect to duck aflatoxicosis and may be a promising feed additive.

  20. Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Zhang


    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 isolated from fish gut is very effective in detoxifying aflatoxins in feed and feed ingredients. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of B. subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, body antioxidant functions, and aflatoxin residues in ducks fed moldy maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. A total of 1500 18-d-old male Cherry Valley ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replicates of 50 ducks per repeat. The experiment design consisted of five dietary treatments labeled as C0 (basal diet containing 60% normal maize, M0 (basal diet containing 60% moldy maize contaminated with aflatoxins substituted for normal maize, M500, M1000, and M2000 (M0 +500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparation mainly consisted of B. subtilis ANSB060. The results showed that ducks fed 22.44 ± 2.46 μg/kg of AFB1 (M0 exhibited a decreasing tendency in average daily gain (ADG and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD activity in serum, and T-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities in the liver significantly decreased along with the appearance of AFB1 and AFM1 compared with those in Group C0. The supplementation of B. subtilis ANSB060 into aflatoxin-contaminated diets increased the ADG of ducks (p > 0.05, significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced aflatoxin accumulation in duck liver. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in diets showed an ameliorating effect to duck aflatoxicosis and may be a promising feed additive.

  1. Monitoring of Individual Doses of Populations Residing in the Territories Contaminated after Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumak, V.V.; Likhtarev, I.A.; Pavlenko, J.V. [Acad of Medical Science of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)


    To provide instrumental validation of radioecological dosimetric models used for estimation of external doses to the Chernobyl population, about 1000 direct dose measurements were conducted in 1996-1997 in 54 settlements in contaminated territories of Ukraine. The areas covered by the measurements have {sup 137}Cs contamination density ranging from 55 to 491 kBq.m{sup -2}. Individual dose measurements were conducted using standard LiF dosemeters, type Harshaw 8814 (TLD-100), and automated TLD system Harshaw 8800. Relatively low contamination and, thus, an unfavourable 'Chernobyl/natural background' dose ratio, called for sophisticated analysis of experimental results. Linear regression of dose relative to {sup 137}Cs contamination density which was conducted in two different ways provided consistent results. Annual background dose, as derived from the results of individual dose measurements, is about 1.1 mSv per annum; the Chernobyl related component is expressed by the rate of 1.24-1.3 {mu}Sv per kBq.m{sup -2} per annum. These results are in reasonable agreement with somewhat conservative modelling parameters which are assumed to be 1.91 {mu}Sv per kBq.m{sup -2} per annum for the case of the rural population. (author)

  2. Development of a multistrain bacterial bioreporter platform for the monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants in marine environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tecon, R.; Beggah, S.; Czechowska, K.; Sentchilo, V.; Chronopoulou, P.M.; McGenity, T.J.; van der Meer, J.R.


    Petroleum hydrocarbons are common contaminants in marine and freshwater aquatic habitats, often occurring as a result of oil spillage. Rapid and reliable on-site tools for measuring the bioavailable hydrocarbon fractions, i.e., those that are most likely to cause toxic effects or are available for

  3. Development of a multistrain bacterial bioreporter platform for the monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants in marine environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tecon, R.; Beggah, S.; Czechowska, K.; Sentchilo, V.; Chronopoulou, P.M.; McGenity, T.J.; van der Meer, J.R.


    Petroleum hydrocarbons are common contaminants in marine and freshwater aquatic habitats, often occurring as a result of oil spillage. Rapid and reliable on-site tools for measuring the bioavailable hydrocarbon fractions, i.e., those that are most likely to cause toxic effects or are available for b

  4. Self-potential monitoring of a crude oil contaminated site (Trecate, Italy): first results of the modelling. (United States)

    Giampaolo, V.; Rizzo, E.; Titov, K.; Maineult, A.; Lapenna, V.


    The contamination of soils and groundwater by hydrocarbon, due to blow out, leakage from tank or pipe and oil spill, is a heavy environmental problem because infiltrated oil can persist in the ground for a long time. The existing methods used for the remediation of these contaminated sites are invasive, time consuming and expensive. Therefore, in the last years, there was a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods for environmental monitoring (Atekwana et al., 2000; Chambers et al., 2004; Song et al., 2005; French et al., 2009). A particular attention is given to the self-potential (SP) method because SP is sensitive to the contaminant chemistry and redox processes generated by bacteria during the biodegradation (Atekwana et al., 2004; Naudet and Revil, 2005; Revil et al., 2010). Here we show the results of SP investigations carried out at Trecate site (Italy). This site was affected by a crude oil contamination from a well blowout in 1994. Four SP surveys (October 2009, March 2010, October 2010, and March 2011) were conducted at the site, both in the contaminated and uncontaminated regions. Significant changes are observed between SP data collected at different times. In particular, we found mostly negative electrical potential in October surveys and positive electrical potential in March surveys. The SP distributions can be interpreted as the superposition of many components, including a horizontal water-flow in the saturated shallow aquifer toward South-East, the infiltration movement of water in the unsaturated zone and, possibly, the oxidation-reduction phenomena due to bacterial activity. As the groundwater flow usually produces SP linear trends, the data were detrended by linear regression, taking into account the measured piezometric heads in the aquifer. The detrended SP data show that the SP distribution within the contaminated zone is generally bipolar in October: the southern part of the contaminated area is characterized by negative values

  5. Unmanned aerial vehicles for the assessment and monitoring of environmental contamination: An example from coal ash spills. (United States)

    Messinger, Max; Silman, Miles


    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer new opportunities to monitor pollution and provide valuable information to support remediation. Their low-cost, ease of use, and rapid deployment capability make them ideal for environmental emergency response. Here we present a UAV-based study of the third largest coal ash spill in the United States. Coal ash from coal combustion is a toxic industrial waste material present worldwide. Typically stored in settling ponds in close proximity to waterways, coal ash poses significant risk to the environment and drinking water supplies from both chronic contamination of surface and ground water and catastrophic pond failure. We sought to provide an independent estimate of the volume of coal ash and contaminated water lost during the rupture of the primary coal ash pond at the Dan River Steam Station in Eden, NC, USA and to demonstrate the feasibility of using UAVs to rapidly respond to and measure the volume of spills from ponds or containers that are open to the air. Using structure-from-motion (SfM) imagery analysis techniques, we reconstructed the 3D structure of the pond bottom after the spill, used historical imagery to estimate the pre-spill waterline, and calculated the volume of material lost. We estimated a loss of 66,245 ± 5678 m(3) of ash and contaminated water. The technique used here allows rapid response to environmental emergencies and quantification of their impacts at low cost, and these capabilities will make UAVs a central tool in environmental planning, monitoring, and disaster response.

  6. Experimental design to monitor the influence of crop residue management on the dynamics of soil water content (United States)

    Chélin, Marie; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Parvin, Nargish; Bodson, Bernard; Degré, Aurore; Nguyen, Frédéric; Garré, Sarah


    Choices related to crop residue management affecting soil structure determine spatio-temporal dynamics of water content and eventually crop yields. In this contribution, we will discuss the experimental design we adopted to study the influence of agricultural management strategies (tillage and residue management) on the soil water dynamics under maize in a Cutanic Siltic Luvisol in Gembloux, Belgium. Three different treatments will be studied: a conventional ploughing realized either in December 2014 or just before sowing in April 2015, and a strip tillage in April 2015. A bare soil under conventional ploughing will also be monitored in order to better understand the influence of the plant over the growing season. In order to limit soil disturbance, we opted for the use of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and we use the bulk electrical conductivity as a proxy for soil moisture content. ERT will be collected every week on a surface of two square meters corresponding to three rows of seven maize plants through surface stainless steel electrodes. Five additional sticks with stainless steel electrodes will be vertically inserted into the soil up to 1.50 m to get more detailed information near to the central maize row. In each of the monitoring plots, two time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes will be installed for data validation. In order to calibrate the relationship between electrical resistivity and soil water content under highly variable field conditions (changes in soil structure, variable weather conditions, plant growth, fertilization), a trench will be dug, in which a set of four electrodes, one TDR probe and one temperature sensor will be placed at four different depths. In addition, two suction cups will be installed in each of the plots to quantify changes in ion composition and electrical conductivity of the soil solution at two different depths. Within the framework of the multidisciplinary research platform AgricultureIsLife, regular assessment

  7. Honeybees and honey as monitors for heavy metal contamination near thermal power plants in Mugla, Turkey. (United States)

    Silici, Sibel; Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa


    In the present work, 6 honeydew samples of known geographical and botanical origins and 11 honeybee samples were analyzed to detect possible contamination by the thermoelectric power plants in Mugla, Turkey. The contents of trace elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after application of microwave digestion. The samples from the thermal power plants, which were 10-22 km away from the hives, that did not cause pollution in honeydew honeys were also analyzed. The levels of copper, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc, manganese, iron, chromium, nickel, and aluminum were similar to the values found in other recent studies in literature. However, it was found that the contamination levels of the toxic elements such as Pb and Cd in honeybee samples measured relatively higher than that of honey samples. The study concludes that honeybees may be better bioindicators of heavy metal pollution than honey.

  8. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in feed from Puglia and Basilicata regions (Italy): 5 years monitoring data. (United States)

    Vita, V; Clausi, M T; Franchino, C; De Pace, R


    During a 5-year period from 2010 to 2014, n = 919 samples of feed and raw materials were analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination using accredited ELISA screening methods. Only 0.76 % of these samples were non-compliant with maximum levels set by the European Union Regulation 32/2002. Non-compliant samples were mainly from the province of Bari (n = 3 samples, mean AFB1 value 7.03 μg/kg), although the highest AFB1 levels were found in two samples from the provinces of Foggia and Brindisi, at 32.6 ± 3.6 μg/kg and 31.0 ± 4.0 μg/kg, respectively. Mean AFB1 levels in samples contaminated but compliant with the limits ranged from 1.4 to 2.2 μg/kg. Considering the great importance of climate conditions in mycotoxins production, during crops production and during the critical phases of materials storage and/or transport, to better understand the variability in contamination levels, the analytical results were reviewed in term of temperature and relative environmental humidity in the sampling areas. Correlations between aflatoxin B1 levels in feed and these climate factors might explain seasonal and annual variations in contamination levels. The data from the present study provide useful suggestions for the organization of targeted monitoring plans and the protection of consumers, as well as for improvement in the quality standards of zootechnological activities and feed industry.

  9. Monitoring of environmental contaminants in air and precipitation, annual report 2014


    Nizzetto, Pernilla Bohlin; Aas, Wenche; Warner, Nicholas Alexander


    This report presents results from 2014 for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals from the rural air- and precipitation chemistry monitoring network in Norway. These results are compared to previous years.

  10. Monitoring of Aflatoxin contamination at market food chain in East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina A. Rahmianna


    Full Text Available Peanut is a cheapest source of protein especially for developing countries communities and mostly it obtained from traditional markets. Earlier studies showed that aflatoxin incidence was relatively less at the farmer/trader levels while it is significantly higher at retail levels especially in traditional markets. Present study was conducted to understand the factors leading to the post-harvest building up of aflatoxin in peanuts sold in traditional market and in supermarket. This study was carried out at Pasuruan regency, East Java Province, Indonesia from March 2005 to June 2006. During study period peanut grains were collected from wholesalers, retailers and supermarkets at three months interval. In each sampling point, 2kg of grains was obtained and then was divided into eight parts for the analysis of parameters namely seed moisture content, physical quality, Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination. The results showed that seed water contents at wholesalers, collectors, and retailers in traditional wet markets were almost lower than 10%. They were thus ‘safe’ from aflatoxin B1 contamination as seed moisture contents were below the aflatoxin risk zone. Time of sampling did not affect the level of aflatoxin B1 contamination. Under controlled condition generated from air-tight container, the influence of seed moisture content and A. flavus infection on aflatoxin production was significant.

  11. Vadose zone studies at an industrial contaminated site: the vadose zone monitoring system and cross-hole geophysics (United States)

    Fernandez de Vera, Natalia; Beaujean, Jean; Jamin, Pierre; Nguyen, Frédéric; Dahan, Ofer; Vanclooster, Marnik; Brouyère, Serge


    In order to improve risk characterization and remediation measures for soil and groundwater contamination, there is a need to improve in situ vadose zone characterization. However, most available technologies have been developed in the context of agricultural soils. Such methodologies are not applicable at industrial sites, where soils and contamination differ in origin and composition. In addition, most technologies are applicable only in the first meters of soils, leaving deeper vadose zones with lack of information, in particular on field scale heterogeneity. In order to overcome such difficulties, a vadose zone experiment has been setup at a former industrial site in Belgium. Industrial activities carried out on site left a legacy of soil and groundwater contamination in BTEX, PAH, cyanide and heavy metals. The experiment comprises the combination of two techniques: the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VMS) and cross-hole geophysics. The VMS allows continuous measurements of water content and temperature at different depths of the vadose zone. In addition, it provides the possibility of pore water sampling at different depths. The system is formed by a flexible sleeve containing monitoring units along its depth which is installed in a slanted borehole. The flexible sleeve contains three types of monitoring units in the vadose zone: Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT), which allows water content measurements; Vadose Sampling Ports (VSP), used for collecting water samples coming from the matrix; the Fracture Samplers (FS), which are used for retrieving water samples from the fractures. Cross-hole geophysics techniques consist in the injection of an electrical current using electrodes installed in vertical boreholes. From measured potential differences, detailed spatial patterns about electrical properties of the subsurface can be inferred. Such spatial patterns are related with subsurface heterogeneities, water content and solute concentrations. Two VMS were

  12. Assessment of the chlorinated hydrocarbons residues contamination in edible mushrooms from the North-Eastern part of Poland. (United States)

    Gałgowska, Michalina; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Felkner-Poźniakowska, Barbara


    The aim of the study was to determine the content of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in edible mushrooms from the north-eastern part of Poland. Material consisted of two species of fungi: Xerocomus mushrooms (Xerocomus badius), Boletus mushrooms (Boletus edulis). The dried samples (cups and cut-up material) were extracted with Soxhlet method in order to obtain lipid substances. In the fat chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined by Ludwicki et al. (1996) method. The separation and quantitative determination of DDT, DDE, DDD and γ-HCH were conducted with the method of gas chromatography using an electron capture detector - ECD. In all tested samples the presence of γ-HCH, DDT and its metabolites (DDE, DDD) was detected. The higher content of γ-HCH was found in Xerocomus mushrooms (average 0.125 μg/kg of mushrooms); in the Boletus mushrooms -0.11 μg/kg of mushrooms. The content of ΣDDT in cups of Xerocomus mushrooms was more than 2-fold higher than in those of Boletus mushrooms (3.78:1.71 mg/kg of mushrooms). The opposite relationship was observed for cut-up material. The higher concentration of ΣDDT was found in Boletus mushrooms (2.26 mg/kg of mushrooms) while in Xerocomus mushrooms this content was 0.91 mg/kg of mushrooms. Despite the fact that chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined in all samples under study, their contents do not exceed acceptable levels indicating that the consumption of mushrooms does not pose a health risk to consumers from the organochlorine compounds.

  13. 40 CFR 141.62 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic contaminants. (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.62 Maximum..., maintenance, and monitoring must be provided by the water system to ensure adequate performance. 5 Unlikely to...

  14. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines (United States)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.


    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  15. POCIS passive samplers as a monitoring tool for pharmaceutical residues and their transformation products in marine environment. (United States)

    Martínez Bueno, M J; Herrera, S; Munaron, D; Boillot, C; Fenet, H; Chiron, S; Gómez, E


    In the last years, several scientific studies have shown that carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most frequently detected pharmaceutical in aquatic environment. However, little data is available on its detection and its transformation products (TPs) in marine water. The use of polar organic chemical integrative sampling (POCIS) passive samplers as a semi-quantitative and qualitative tool for screening of pharmaceuticals and TPs in seawater has been studied. Furthermore, the uptake rates of the target compounds were also determined under laboratory experiments to characterize the levels accumulated in devices. The results confirmed the presence of residues of anticonvulsant CBZ as well as some of its main metabolites, over a 1-year monitoring campaign carried out in French coast on the Mediterranean Sea. The work reports for the first time the presence of two TPs (10,11-dihydro-10,11-trans-dihydroxycarbamazepine (TRANS) and 10-hydroxy-10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine (10OH)) in marine water. The results contribute in assessing the environmental and human health risk of pharmaceuticals on coastal areas.

  16. High temperature transformations of waste printed circuit boards from computer monitor and CPU: Characterisation of residues and kinetic studies. (United States)

    Rajagopal, Raghu Raman; Rajarao, Ravindra; Sahajwalla, Veena


    This paper investigates the high temperature transformation, specifically the kinetic behaviour of the waste printed circuit board (WPCB) derived from computer monitor (single-sided/SSWPCB) and computer processing boards - CPU (multi-layered/MLWPCB) using Thermo-Gravimetric Analyser (TGA) and Vertical Thermo-Gravimetric Analyser (VTGA) techniques under nitrogen atmosphere. Furthermore, the resulting WPCB residues were subjected to characterisation using X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), Carbon Analyser, X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (XPS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In order to analyse the material degradation of WPCB, TGA from 40°C to 700°C at the rates of 10°C, 20°C and 30°C and VTGA at 700°C, 900°C and 1100°C were performed respectively. The data obtained was analysed on the basis of first order reaction kinetics. Through experiments it is observed that there exists a substantial difference between SSWPCB and MLWPCB in their decomposition levels, kinetic behaviour and structural properties. The calculated activation energy (EA) of SSWPCB is found to be lower than that of MLWPCB. Elemental analysis of SSWPCB determines to have high carbon content in contrast to MLWPCB and differences in materials properties have significant influence on kinetics, which is ceramic rich, proving to have differences in the physicochemical properties. These high temperature transformation studies and associated analytical investigations provide fundamental understanding of different WPCB and its major variations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring of the volcanic plume based on the post-fit phase residual of PPP analysis and SNR data (United States)

    Ohta, Yusaku; Iguchi, Masato


    A volcanic explosion is one of the largest energy-release phenomena on earth. For example, vulcanian eruptions usually eject large amounts of rock mass, tephra, and volcanic ash. Ash fall from such events can seriously affect the structural integrity of buildings, in addition to disrupting land and air traffic. Therefore, the monitoring and prediction of ash fall is very important. In this study, using data from a dense GNSS network, we investigated the spatiotemporal development of the volcanic plume ejected by the vulcanian eruption in Sakurajima, southwestern Japan on July 24, 2012. We extracted the post-fit phase residuals (PPR) of ionosphere-free linear combinations for each satellite based on the precise point positioning approach. Temporal and spatial PPR anomalies clearly detected the movement of the volcanic plume. The maximum height of the crossing points of anomalous PPR paths was determined to be approximately 4000 m. We then compared the PPR with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) anomalies. Only the path passing just above the crater showed significant change in the SNR value, suggesting that the volcanic ash and the water vapor within the volcanic plume became separated after reaching a high altitude because of ash fall during the plume's lateral movement. In the presentation, we will introduce the eruption in Shin-dake (Kuchinoerabu island, southwestern Japan) on May 29, 2015 based on the SNR data.

  18. Chronic contamination assessment integrating biomarkers' responses in transplanted mussels--a seasonal monitoring. (United States)

    Pereira, C D S; Martín-Díaz, M L; Catharino, M G M; Cesar, A; Choueri, R B; Taniguchi, S; Abessa, D M S; Bícego, M C; Vasconcellos, M B A; Bainy, A C D; Sousa, E C P M; Delvalls, T A


    This study aimed to provide the first biomonitoring integrating biomarkers and bioaccumulation data in São Paulo coast, Brazil and, for this purpose, a battery of biomarkers of defense mechanisms was analyzed and linked to contaminants' body burden in a weigh-of-evidence approach. The brown mussel Perna perna was selected to be transplanted from a farming area (Caraguatatuba) to four possibly polluted sites: Engenho D'Água, DTCS (Dutos e Terminais do Centro-Oeste de São Paulo) oil terminal (Sao Sebastiao zone), Palmas Island, and Itaipu (It; Santos Bay zone). After 3 months of exposure in each season, mussels were recollected and the cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)- and CYP3A-like activities, glutathione-S-transferase and antioxidants enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were analyzed in gills. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes, and nonessential metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, and Hg) in whole tissue were also analyzed and data were linked to biomarkers' responses by multivariate analysis (principal component analysis-factor analysis). A representation of estimated factor scores was performed to confirm the factor descriptions and to characterize the studied stations. Biomarkers exhibited most significant alterations all year long in mussels transplanted to It, located at Santos Bay zone, where bioaccumulation of organic and inorganic compounds was detected. This integrated approach using transplanted mussels showed satisfactory results, pointing out differences between sites, seasons, and critical areas, which could be related to land-based contaminants' sources. The influence of natural factors and other contaminants (e.g., pharmaceuticals) on biomarkers' responses are also discussed.

  19. A review on soil cover in Waste and contaminant containment: design, monitoring, and modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng PENG; Huilian JIANG


    Soil cover is a widely-used but relatively new method for solid waste containment. Standard while site-specific procedures for cover design, monitoring, and evluation are needed to insure reliable cover performance. This paper presents a review of soil cover types, design principles and procedures, cover monitoring, and long-term performance modeling. Cover types and cover design are introduced with the general concepts and discussed on their specific applicabilities in different circumstances. Detailed discussion is given on unsaturated flow system properties and their field measurements, including meth-ods, apparatuses/equipments and their advantages and disadvantages. Several unsaturated flow simulators are discussed and compared with regards to their simulation capacities for critical parameters closely related to soil cover performance such as runoff, infiltration and evaporation. Finally, research subjects are suggested for future work for better soil cover monitoring and modeling.

  20. Risk element sorption/desorption characteristics of dry olive residue: a technique for the potential immobilization of risk elements in contaminated soils. (United States)

    Hovorka, Miloš; Száková, Jiřina; García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Acebal, Mercedes Blanc; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Tlustoš, Pavel


    Olive oil production is one of the most relevant agroindustrial activities in the Mediterranean region and generates a huge amount of both solid and semi-solid wastes, the uncontrolled disposal of which might lead to serious environmental problems. Due to its organic matter and mineral nutrient content, the waste material can be applied to agricultural soil as a fertilizer. However, due to its high organic matter content, dry olive residue (DOR), commonly called "alperujo," has the potential to immobilize risk elements in contaminated soils. The main objective of this study was to assess the possible effect of DOR on sorption of risk elements such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the soil. A set of batch sorption experiments were carried out to assess the ability of DOR to adsorb Cd, Pb, and Zn where the effect of the preceding biotransformation of DOR by four species of fungi: Penicillium chrysogenum, Coriolopsis floccosa, Bjerkhandera adusta, and Chondrostereum purpureum was compared. The Freundlich and Langmuir sorption isotherms were calculated to assess the sorption characteristics of both transformed and non-transformed DOR. The results showed good potential sorption capacity of DOR, especially for Pb and to a lesser extent for Cd and Zn. Better sorption characteristics were reported for the biotransformed DOR samples, which are expected to show higher humification of the organic matter. However, the desorption experiments showed weakness and instability of the DOR-bound elements, especially in the case of Zn. Thus, future research should aim to verify the DOR sorption pattern in contaminated soil as well as the potential stabilization of the DOR element bounds where the increase of the pH levels of the DOR samples needs to be taken into account.

  1. Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, meat quality and aflatoxin residues in broilers fed moldy peanut meal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. (United States)

    Fan, Yu; Zhao, Lihong; Ma, Qiugang; Li, Xiaoying; Shi, Huiqin; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng


    This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 for the amelioration of aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Six replicates of ten broilers each were assigned to one of seven dietary treatments, which were labeled C0 (basal diet); M0 (basal diet containing moldy peanut meal); C500 and C1000 (C0+500 or 1000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparations, composed mainly of ANSB060); and M500, M1000 and M2000 (M0+500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparations). The concentrations of aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁ and G₂ in the moldy diets (M0, M500, M100 and M2000) fluctuated around 70.7±1.3, 11.0±1.5, 6.5±0.8 and 2.0±0.3 μg/kg, respectively. The results showed that the M0 diet caused a significant decrease in average daily weight gain and increased feed requirements, with a gain ratio increasing from d 8 to 42, deterioration in meat quality and aflatoxin residues in broilers' livers as compared with the C0 diet. The addition of ANSB060 to the aflatoxin-contaminated diets offset these negative effects, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect on growth performance and meat quality while reducing the amount of aflatoxin residues in the livers of broilers fed naturally moldy peanut meal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Selective dissolution followed by EDDS washing of an e-waste contaminated soil: Extraction efficiency, fate of residual metals, and impact on soil environment. (United States)

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Valix, Marjorie; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Xin; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong


    To enhance extraction of strongly bound metals from oxide minerals and organic matter, this study examined the sequential use of reductants, oxidants, alkaline solvents and organic acids followed by a biodegradable chelating agent (EDDS, [S,S]-ethylene-diamine-disuccinic-acid) in a two-stage soil washing. The soil was contaminated by Cu, Zn, and Pb at an e-waste recycling site in Qingyuan city, China. In addition to extraction efficiency, this study also examined the fate of residual metals (e.g., leachability, bioaccessibility, and distribution) and the soil quality parameters (i.e., cytotoxicity, enzyme activities, and available nutrients). The reductants (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride) effectively extracted metals by mineral dissolution, but elevated the leachability and bioaccessibility of metals due to the transformation from Fe/Mn oxides to labile fractions. Subsequent EDDS washing was found necessary to mitigate the residual risks. In comparison, prior washing by oxidants (persulphate, hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide) was marginally useful because of limited amount of soil organic matter. Prior washing by alkaline solvents (sodium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate) was also ineffective due to metal precipitation. In contrast, prior washing by low-molecular-weight organic acids (citrate and oxalate) improved the extraction efficiency. Compared to hydroxylamine hydrochloride, citrate and oxalate induced lower cytotoxicity (Microtox) and allowed higher enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and urease) and soil nutrients (available nitrogen and phosphorus), which would facilitate reuse of the treated soil. Therefore, while sequential washing proved to enhance extraction efficacy, the selection of chemical agents besides EDDS should also include the consideration of effects on metal leachability/bioaccessibility and soil quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif Del Lama, Silvia, E-mail: [Laboratorio Genetica de Aves, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano [Laboratorio Genetica de Aves, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson [Institute of Chemistry, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford [Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, P.O. Box 110430, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)


    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 {mu}g/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024-4.423 {mu}g/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 {mu}g/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 {mu}g/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sedentary stork nestlings were used for the first time to show local mercury contamination of Pantanal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences were found among regions but they are not explained only by distance from the gold mining. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permanently flooded areas and areas along mainstream rivers are more contaminated than dry areas. Black

  4. Laser Monitoring Of Phytoextraction Enhancement Of Lead Contaminated Soil Adopting EDTA And EDDS (United States)

    Hassan, M.; Abdelhamied, M.; Hanafy, A. H.; Fantoni, R.; Harith, M. A.


    Removal of heavy metals (HMs) such as Pb from soil, wastewater, and air is essential for environment and human health. Phytoremediation is a well established technology based on the use of certain green plants for contaminants removal from soil, wastewater as well as air. Scented geranium, Pelargonium zonal, is a flowering plant recently used in HMs removal from contaminated soil. In the present work, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and EDDS (S, S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid) were used as chemical assistants providing higher Pb availability for extraction by plant roots. Lead was artificially added to the planting media, peatmoss, at different concentrations. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to follow up Pb relative concentrations in peatmoss as well as plant shoots, at different sampling times during the experiment period. Laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF), has been also used to evaluate chlorophyll formation and photosynthetic apparatus status in geranium plants. Such measurements were performed on geranium plants grown under various Pb levels, as well as EDTA and EDDS combinations. The combined effect of EDTA and EDDS was found to enhance Pb extraction with time. Good correlation was found between LICF results and chlorophyll (a) (Chl.a) concentrations in plant tissues extracted by chemical analysis.

  5. Ecotoxicity monitoring of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil during bioremediation: a case study. (United States)

    Hubálek, Tomás; Vosáhlová, Simona; Matejů, Vít; Kovácová, Nora; Novotný, Cenek


    The ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil originating from a brownfield site was evaluated during a 17-month biodegradation pilot test. The initial concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the soil was 6380 microg/g dry weight. An amount of 200 kg soil was inoculated with 1.5 L of the bacterial preparation GEM-100 containing Pseudomonas sp. and Acinetobacter sp. strains (5.3 x 10(10) CFU.mL(-1)) adapted to diesel fuel. The concentration of TPHs in the soil decreased by 65.5% after bioremediation. Different organisms such as the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, terrestrial plants Sinapis alba, Lactuca sativa, and Hordeum vulgare, the water plant Lemna minor, the earthworm Eisenia fetida, and the crustacean Heterocypris incongruens were used for ecotoxicity evaluation. The highest toxicity was detected in the first period of bioremediation. However, certain toxic effects were detectable during the whole bioremediation process. The contact tests with plants, earthworms, and crustaceans were the most sensitive of all of the bioassays. Therefore, the contact tests performed directly on soil samples were shown to be a better tool for ecotoxicity evaluation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil than the tests performed on soil elutriates. The ecotoxicity measured by the responses of the tests did not always correlate with the decrease in TPH concentrations in the soil during bioremediation.

  6. Contaminant monitoring of biota downstream of a radioactive liquid waste treatment facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K.D.; Biggs, J.R.; Fresquez, P.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Environment, Safety, and Health Div.


    Small mammals, plants, and sediments were sampled at one upstream location (Site 1) and two downstream locations (Site 2 and Site 3) from the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfall {number_sign}051-051 in Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. The purpose of the sampling was to identify radionuclides potentially present, to quantitatively estimate and compare the amount of radionuclide uptake at specific locations (Site 2 and Site 3) within Mortandad Canyon to an upstream site (Site 1), and to identify the primary mode (inhalation/ingestion or surface contact) of contamination to small mammals. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. The pelt was separated from the carcass of each animal and both were analyzed independently. In addition, three composite samples were also collected for plants and sediments at each site. Samples were analyzed for americium ({sup 241}Am), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu), and total uranium (U). With the exception of total U, all mean radionuclide concentrations in small mammal carcasses and sediments were significantly higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or Site 3. No differences were detected in the mean radionuclide concentration of plant samples between sites. However, some radionuclide concentrations found at all three sites were higher than regional background. No differences were found between mean carcass radionuclide concentrations and mean pelt radionuclide concentrations, indicating that the two primary modes of contamination may be equally occurring.

  7. Bioaccessible Porosity: A new approach to assess residual contamination after bioremediation of hydrophobic organic compounds in sub-surface microporous environments (United States)

    Akbari, A.; Ghoshal, S.


    We define a new parameter, "bioaccessible porosity", the fraction of aggregate volume accessible to soil bacteria, towards a priori assessment of hydrocarbon bioremediation end points. Microbial uptake of poorly soluble hydrocarbons occurs through direct uptake or micellar solubilzation/emulsification associated with biosurfactant production, and requires close proximity of bacteria and hydrocarbon phase. In subsurface microporous environments, bioremediation rates are attenuated when residual hydrophobic contamination is entrapped in sterically restrictive environments which is not accessible to soil bacteria. This study presents new approaches for characterization of the microstructure of porous media and as well, the ability of indigenous hydrocarbon degraders to access to a range of pore sizes. Bacterial access to poorly soluble hydrocarbons in soil micro pores were simulated with bioreactors with membranes with different pore sizes containing the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, Dietzia maris. D. maris is Gram-positive, and nonmotile that we isolated as the major hydrocarbon degrader from a fine-grained, weathered, hydrocarbon-contaminated site soil. Under nutritional stress, planktonic D. maris cells were aggregated and accessed 5 µm but not 3 µm and smaller pores. However, when hexadecane was available at the pore mouth, D. maris colonized the pore mouth, and accessed pores as small as 0.4 µm. This suggests bacterial accessibility to different pore sizes is regulated by nutritional conditions. A combination of X-ray micro-CT scanning, gas adsorption and mercury intrusion porosimetry was used to characterize the range of pore sizes of soil aggregates. In case of the studied contaminated soil, the bioaccessible porosity were determined as 25% , 27% and 29% (assuming 4, 1, 0.4 µm respectively as accessibility criteria), and about 2.7% of aggregate volume was attributed to 0.006-0.4 µm pores. The 2% aggregate volume at an assumed saturation of 10% could

  8. 6-Iso-chlortetracycline or keto form of chlortetracycline? Need for clarification for relevant monitoring of chlortetracycline residues in food. (United States)

    Gaugain, Murielle; Gautier, Sophie; Bourcier, Sophie; Jacques, Anne-Marie; Laurentie, Michel; Abjean, Jean-Pierre; Hurtaud-Pessel, Dominique; Verdon, Eric


    Chlortetracycline (CTC) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used in veterinary medicine for pulmonary or digestive infections and having a regulatory maximum residue limit (MRL) necessitating an official analytical control method. The purpose of this study was to clarify the identification of different forms of CTC observed in standard solution, in spiked muscle samples and in naturally incurred muscle samples of pigs analysed by LC-MS/MS and to demonstrate the in vivo formation of 6-iso-chlortetracycline and 4-epi-6-iso-CTC as a metabolite of CTC and 4-epi-CTC in muscle. The six following forms were identified, all being isobaric with a protonated molecule at m/z 479 (precursor ion): the keto-enol forms of CTC and the keto-enol forms of 4-epi-chlortetracycline (4-epi-CTC), 6-iso-chlortetracycline (6-iso-CTC) and 4-epi-6-iso-chlortetracycline (4-epi-6-iso-CTC). The 6-iso-CTC and 4-epi-6-iso-CTC were observed only in incurred pig samples so were identified for the first time as metabolites of CTC and 4-epi-CTC. Identification of the different forms was obtained by comparing incurred muscle samples with standard solutions and with spiked samples. Then the differences between the features of the chromatograms obtained by LC-TQ-MS and the fragmentation study of the different forms of CTC obtained by LC-Q-TOF-MS helped us to support this identification. The extraction steps and the LC-MS/MS conditions developed to analyse muscle tissue samples are described. This clarification concerning the rigorous identification of chromatographic peaks allowed us to evaluate the relevance of our monitoring method with regard to the regulations in place in the European Union and could be of help to laboratories involved in official control of antibiotic residues in food of animal origin. Additional results are also presented highlighting the transformation of the CTC when prepared in a mixture with other antibiotics.

  9. Reduction of external dose in a wet-contaminated housing area in the Bryansk region, Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Jørn; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Barkovsky, A.N.;


    topsoil was carried out over an area of about 2000 m2, optimising the thickness of the removed layer according to an assessment of the vertical contaminant distribution. A layer of clean sand was applied to shield against radiation from residual contamination in the ground. Careful monitoring of dose...

  10. Standard Practice for Sampling Gas Blow Down Systems and Components for Particulate Contamination by Automatic Particle Monitor Method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice describes how to connect, prepare, and sample pressurized gas systems (having up to 19.1-mm (0.75-in.) diameter lines) for particulate contamination by using an automatic monitor. 1.2 The values stated in MKS units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For hazard statements, see Section 5.

  11. Superficial groundwater contamination by artificial radionuclides by the nuclear site of Saluggia (Vercelli, Italy): radiological monitoring activities. (United States)

    Porzio, Laura


    During the last 15 y, by the Saluggia (Vercelli, Italy) nuclear site, episodes of contamination of the superficial groundwater happened due to artificial radionuclides. The local network of radiological monitoring around the nuclear site, managed by Arpa Piemonte from the late 1980s, highlighted the presence of (60)Co, (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (3)H during this period. The object of this paper was to give particular evidence not to analytical aspects, but to the methodical approach used to solve the problems that arose. In fact, the intrinsic hydro-geological vulnerability of the zone, the typology and conditions of the plants (all very old) and the presence of the 'Acquedotto del Monferrato' tap water well field, one of the most important in Piemonte, at approximately 2 km downstream of the site, made the situation very difficult to approach.

  12. Using blood plasma for monitoring organochlorine contaminants in juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, from the lower Columbia River. (United States)

    Gundersen, D T; Webb, M A H; Fink, A K; Kushner, L R; Feist, G W; Fitzpatrick, M S; Foster, E P; Schreck, C B


    Organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations in blood plasma samples from 88 juvenile white sturgeon collected from the lower Columbia River were measured and compared to plasma sex steroid and OC tissue levels previously measured in corresponding fish. Significant squared correlation coefficients between summation operator DDT concentrations in sturgeon plasma and gonads and livers were 0.37 and 0.32, respectively. Significant negative correlations between plasma testosterone concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in male fish (r(2)=0.26), plasma 17beta estradiol concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in female fish (r(2)=0.38) and condition factor and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in all fish were found (r(2)=0.17). These results suggest that blood plasma may be a suitable nondestructive method for monitoring adult sturgeon population for persistent OC contaminants.

  13. Evaluation of sensitivity evaluation of a contamination monitor for use in monitoring of internal exposure of workers in nuclear medicine; Avaliacao da sensibilidade de um monitor de contaminacao para aplicacao em monitoracao da exposicao interna de trabalhadores em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Assis, Janima Cruz de; Oliveira, Salomao Marques de; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Div. de Dosimetria


    In practice of nuclear medicine, expert personnel routinely handle radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and radiotherapy. The control of intakes of radionuclides by workers can be performed through internal dosimetry techniques, as an integral part of the radiation protection program of the installation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro in Brazil is regulated by CNEN-NE Standards and 3:05 CNEN-NN 3.01. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the establishment of an internal monitoring program on workers, especially those subject to possible exposure to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv. Note that, currently, in Brazil, are not available qualified laboratories to provide internal monitoring services in all regions in the country, if it were applied by CNEN, the requirement for internal monitoring of workers. This paper presents the development of a simple and low-cost methodology for in vivo monitoring of {sup 131}I in the thyroid. The proposed methodology is the use of portable monitor of surface contamination, equipment available and routinely used in all nuclear medicine services in Brazil. The monitor is calibrated with neck-thyroid simulator developed at the Laboratory of In Vivo Monitoring of IRD/CNEN-RJ. The equipment tested is suitable for application in in vivo occupational monitoring thyroid. This conclusion is based on the fact that the detection system has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring up to seven days after the incorporation of the radionuclide and guarantees {sup 131}I detection in values that result in effective doses below 1 mSv for the exposure scenarios adopted.

  14. Characterization and calibration of a novel detection system for real time monitoring of radioactive contamination in water processed at water treatment facilities. (United States)

    Carconi, P; De Felice, P; Fazio, A; Petrucci, A; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Stevanato, L; Cester, D; Pastore, P


    Characterization and calibration measurements were carried out at the National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology of ENEA on the TAp WAter RAdioactivity (TAWARA) Real Time Monitor system recently developed for real time monitoring of radioactive contamination in water processed at water treatment facilities. Reference radiations and radionuclides were chosen in order to reflect energy ranges and radiation types of the major water radioactive contaminants possibly arising from environmental, industrial or terroristic origin. The following instrument parameters were tested: sensitivity, selectivity, background, short/long term stability, linearity with respect to activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bacterial biodiversity from anthropogenic extreme environments: a hyper-alkaline and hyper-saline industrial residue contaminated by chromium and iron. (United States)

    Brito, Elcia M S; Piñón-Castillo, Hilda A; Guyoneaud, Rémy; Caretta, César A; Gutiérrez-Corona, J Félix; Duran, Robert; Reyna-López, Georgina E; Nevárez-Moorillón, G Virginia; Fahy, Anne; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol


    Anthropogenic extreme environments are among the most interesting sites for the bioprospection of extremophiles since the selection pressures may favor the presence of microorganisms of great interest for taxonomical and astrobiological research as well as for bioremediation technologies and industrial applications. In this work, T-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene library analyses were carried out to describe the autochthonous bacterial populations from an industrial waste characterized as hyper-alkaline (pH between 9 and 14), hyper-saline (around 100 PSU) and highly contaminated with metals, mainly chromium (from 5 to 18 g kg(-1)) and iron (from 2 to 108 g kg(-1)). Due to matrix interference with DNA extraction, a protocol optimization step was required in order to carry out molecular analyses. The most abundant populations, as evaluated by both T-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene library analyses, were affiliated to Bacillus and Lysobacter genera. Lysobacter related sequences were present in the three samples: solid residue and lixiviate sediments from both dry and wet seasons. Sequences related to Thiobacillus were also found; although strains affiliated to this genus are known to have tolerance to metals, they have not previously been detected in alkaline environments. Together with Bacillus (already described as a metal reducer), such organisms could be of use in bioremediation technologies for reducing chromium, as well as for the prospection of enzymes of biotechnological interest.

  16. DDT residue contamination in sediments from Lake Sibaya in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: implications for conservation in a World Heritage Site. (United States)

    Humphries, Marc S


    Maputaland in northern KwaZulu-Natal is a biodiversity hotspot and host to a number of ecologically important systems, including Lake Sibaya, southern Africa's largest natural freshwater lake. The region is malaria endemic and this study reports the presence of DDT and its metabolites in the sediments of Lake Sibaya that have resulted from the widespread and continued use of DDT in the region. DDT residues (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE) were detected at all 11 sites sampled, with total concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 123 ng g(-1). Total DDT concentrations at Lake Sibaya represent some of the highest levels reported in South Africa, with most samples exceeding sediment quality guideline values. The findings from this study raise concerns and indicate that urgent further work is needed to investigate the potential for bioaccumulation, which could adversely affect breeding fish, bird, and crocodile populations in the region. While this study represents the first report on DDT contamination in Lake Sibaya, results have important implications for a number of other aquatic ecosystems within the Maputaland ecoregion, as well as the many local people who depend on them.

  17. Multi-residue analysis of 90 emerging contaminants in liquid and solid environmental matrices by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Petrie, Bruce; Youdan, Jane; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara


    Reported herein is new analytical methodology for the determination of 90 emerging contaminants (ECs) in liquid environmental matrices (crude wastewater, final effluent and river water). The application of a novel buffer, ammonium fluoride improved signal response for several ECs determined in negative ionisation mode. Most notably the sensitivity of steroid estrogens was improved by 4-5 times in environmental extracts. Method recoveries ranged from 40 to 152% in all matrices and method quantitation limits (MQLs) achieved were <1ngL(-1) for numerous ECs. Development of a microwave assisted extraction (MAE) protocol as an additional sample extraction step for solid matrices enabled 63 ECs to be simultaneously analysed in digested sludge. To the authors knowledge this is considerably more than any previously reported MAE method. Here, MQLs ranged from 0.1-24.1ngg(-1) dry weight. The application of MAE offers several advantages over pressurized liquid extraction including faster sample preparation, lower solvent requirements, and the ability to perform several extractions simultaneously as well as lower purchasing and running costs. To demonstrate the method's sensitivity, application to environmental samples revealed 68 and 40 ECs to be above their respective MQL in liquid environmental samples and digested sludge, respectively. To date, this is the most comprehensive multi-residue analytical method reported in the literature for the determination of ECs in both liquid and solid environmental matrices.

  18. Probabilistic risk assessment of dietary exposure to single and multiple pesticide residues or contaminants: summary of the work performed within the SAFE FOODS project. (United States)

    van Klaveren, Jacob D; Boon, Polly E


    This introduction to the journal's supplement on probabilistic risk assessment of single and multiple exposure to pesticide residues or contaminants summarizes the objectives and results of the work performed in work package 3 of the EU-funded project SAFE FOODS. Within this work package, we developed an electronic platform of food consumption and chemical concentration databases harmonised at raw agricultural commodity level. In this platform the databases are connected to probabilistic software to allow probabilistic modelling of dietary exposure in a standardised way. The usefulness of this platform is demonstrated in two papers, which describe the exposure to pesticides and glycoalkaloids in several European countries. Furthermore, an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model was developed: a new tool to integrate exposure and effect modelling, including uncertainty analyses. The use of this model was shown in a paper on the cumulative exposure to anti-androgen pesticides. Combined with a health impact prioritization system, developed within this work package to compare heath risks between chemicals, the IPRA tool can also be used to compare health risks between multiple chemicals in complex risk assessment situation such as risk-benefit and risk trade-off analyses. Both the electronic platform of databases as the IPRA model may proof to be powerful tools to tackle the challenges risk managers are or will be faced with in the future.

  19. Non-invasive monitoring of the degradation of organic contaminants: A laboratory investigation (United States)

    Fernandez, Perrine M.; Bloem, Esther; Philippe, Romain; Binley, Andrew; French, Helen K.


    Degradation of organic chemicals under various fluid saturation conditions is a process highly relevant to the protection of groundwater quality. Redox potential drives the degradation of organic compounds; its variation affects the water chemistry, gas release and also the geo-electrical signature. This study explores how non-invasive measurements sensitive to geo-electrical properties provides quantitative information about the in-situ redox conditions. Our laboratory experiment focuses on the degradation of de-icing chemicals commonly used, for example, in Norwegian airports. The experiment was conducted in a number of (1.0x0.5x0.4 m) sand boxes. Two ends of each box was contaminated with propylene glycol, an aircraft deicing fluid. Each source was placed near the water table under static hydraulic conditions. At one side of the tank, a conductor linking the contamination zone, near the water table and the unsaturated zone with a low water content, was placed to improve the degradation by facilitating the electron exchange. At the other side, degradation occurred under natural conditions. Each box was equipped with 288 electrodes, distributed on six faces to perform 3D resistivity measurements. In addition, self-potential measurements were taken from electrodes on the sand surface. Four observation wells were installed above and below the water table to provide more information on the degradation processes. Moreover, measurements of carbon dioxide on the surface were performed as higher concentrations were expected where the pollutant degraded. We would like to present and discuss a selection of the preliminary results of 3D electrical resistivity and self-potential techniques from our laboratory setup.

  20. Multiple imputation for assessment of exposures to drinking water contaminants: evaluation with the Atrazine Monitoring Program. (United States)

    Jones, Rachael M; Stayner, Leslie T; Demirtas, Hakan


    Drinking water may contain pollutants that harm human health. The frequency of pollutant monitoring may occur quarterly, annually, or less frequently, depending upon the pollutant, the pollutant concentration, and community water system. However, birth and other health outcomes are associated with narrow time-windows of exposure. Infrequent monitoring impedes linkage between water quality and health outcomes for epidemiological analyses. To evaluate the performance of multiple imputation to fill in water quality values between measurements in community water systems (CWSs). The multiple imputation method was implemented in a simulated setting using data from the Atrazine Monitoring Program (AMP, 2006-2009 in five Midwestern states). Values were deleted from the AMP data to leave one measurement per month. Four patterns reflecting drinking water monitoring regulations were used to delete months of data in each CWS: three patterns were missing at random and one pattern was missing not at random. Synthetic health outcome data were created using a linear and a Poisson exposure-response relationship with five levels of hypothesized association, respectively. The multiple imputation method was evaluated by comparing the exposure-response relationships estimated based on multiply imputed data with the hypothesized association. The four patterns deleted 65-92% months of atrazine observations in AMP data. Even with these high rates of missing information, our procedure was able to recover most of the missing information when the synthetic health outcome was included for missing at random patterns and for missing not at random patterns with low-to-moderate exposure-response relationships. Multiple imputation appears to be an effective method for filling in water quality values between measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring the Extent of Contamination from Acid Mine Drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain Using Hyperspectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuncion Riaza


    Full Text Available Monitoring mine waste from sulfide deposits by hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to predict surface water quality by quantitatively estimating acid drainage and metal contamination on a yearly basis. In addition, analysis of the mineralogy of surface crusts rich in soluble salts can provide a record of annual humidity and temperature. In fact, temporal monitoring of salt efflorescence from mine wastes at a mine site in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (Huelva, Spain has been achieved using hyperspectral airborne Hymap data. Furthermore, climate variability estimates are possible based on oxidation stages derived from well-known sequences of minerals, by tracing sulfide oxidation intensity using archive spectral libraries. Thus, airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing data can be used to provide a short-term record of climate change, and represent a useful set of tools for assessing environmental geoindicators in semi-arid areas. Spectral and geomorphological indicators can be monitored on a regular basis through image processing, supported by field and laboratory spectral data. In fact, hyperspectral image analysis is one of the methods selected by the Joint Research Centre of the European Community (Ispra, Italy to study abandoned mine sites, in order to assess the enforcement of the European Mine Waste Directive (2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council 15 March 2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries (Official Journal of the European Union, 11 April 2006. The pyrite belt in Andalucia has been selected as one of the core mission test sites for the PECOMINES II program (Cracow, November 2005, using imaging spectroscopy; and this technique is expected to be implemented as a monitoring tool by the Environmental Net of Andalucía (REDIAM, Junta de Andalucía, Spain.

  2. The use of aquatic moss (Fontinalis antipyretica as monitor of contamination in standing and running waters: limits and advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M. CENCI


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to verify whether water moss (Fontinalis antipyretica could be used as a monitor of trace element contamination in lotic and lentic waters. The investigation was split up the into three sequential experimental trials. 1 Experiments have been set up in lab in order to evaluate the amount of trace elements (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu and Hg released by moss during a period of 133 days, under controlled chemical-physical conditions. A release of 64% of Hg, 83% of Cr and 70% of Pb was found, whereas no re lease of Cd and Cu has been observed. 2 Clean moss has successively treated with running water at different pH and then treaded with Cu, Cr, Hg and Pb, in order to evaluate the dynamics of accumulation of trace elements in moss. Specifically, three basins containing 100 liters of Lake Maggiore water were equipped with three distinct pumps (15 l min-1 each ensuring the water circulation into a glass tube were arranged. Afterwards, 105 thallus, equivalent to 4.5 g of Fontinalis antipyretica, were fixed into each glass tube. The accumulation dynamics was calculated by collecting moss and water at the beginning, after 1 h, 6 h, 1 day, 4, 9, 14 and 28 days of the experiment. Results showed that the metals accumulation was significant during the first hour. 3 Samples of clean moss were placed in situ. Nine sites in Lake Orta, characterized by high contents of elements due to the anthropic activities, the Toce River and other minor rivers, have been chosen in order to estimate the ability of moss to accumulate Cu, Cr, Pb and Hg from water, and to localize the metal pollution sources. In three sites the Cu average concentration in Fontinalis antipyretica increased from 167 mg kg-1 dry moss to 2100 mg kg-1 after 14 days and to 2900 mg kg-1 after 28 days. A marked accumulation of Hg was observed in Fontinalis antipyretica located in site no 6 (from an initial concentration of 0.2 mg kg-1 dry moss to 17.7 mg kg-1 after 14 days, and 24.6 mg kg-1

  3. Works carried out to correct and monitor water contamination; Actuaciones para la correccion y el seguimiento de la contaminacion hidrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayora, C.; Guijarro, A.; Domenech, C.; Fernandez, I.; Gomez, P.; Manzano, M.; Mora, A.; Moreno, L.; Navarrete, P.; Sanchez, M.; Serrano, J.


    The works carried out to correct or control the impact of the Aznalcollar mine spill on water is described. The chapter refers both to the surface water retained in Entremuros between walls area since the very first moment, to the Guadiamar river water, and to groundwater in the aquifers affected by the spill. Most of the water retained in Entremuros after the spill was treated in situ by the IGME in an emergency plant, and afterwards was evacuated to the Guadalquivir river through the Canal de Aguas Minimas (low water canal). The water was cleaned by adding sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide to small volumes which allowed to settle afterwards. The treatment and evacuation activities lasted around one month. The impact of the spill on the river water resulted in the immediate acidification, reaching pH values around 4 between the failed dam and Aznalcazar village. Also, dissolved oxygen was eliminated, suspended solids increased up to 30 g/L and dissolved heavy metals reached concentrations close to those of the original spilled water. However, after a few days the dissolved oxygen concentrations were recovered, most of the solid particles settled down, and pH started slowly to increase. the fast collection of the mud settled down on the river margins prevented the continuous contamination of the river. However, the Agrio river sector between the failed dam and the Agrio-Guadiamar river junction is still contaminated with acid and heavy metals. It is assumed the discharge of contaminated water from the alluvial aquifer into the river bed. To the s of the Agrio-Guadiamar junction the main threat to river water quality is the disposal of urban and agro-industrial untreated waste water. Looking to the impact on groundwater, only the above mentioned sector of the Agrio river alluvial aquifer is widely contaminated. This pollution is probably due both to the 1998 spill and the previous leakage from the tailings dam, and it is presently under study. Between the Agrio

  4. The Thirty Years’ Results of Radiation Hygienic Monitoring of Tula Region territories contaminated due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Boldyreva


    Full Text Available Over 50% of Tula Region areas were contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The article provides the thirty years’ results of radiation hygienic monitoring of the Chernobyl accidental fallout - affected areas in Tula Region. The radiation situation is assessed at the initial accidental period and at the current stage. The initial levels of gamma - radiation dose intensity (up to 35 mcSv/hr are identified for the period of the “iodine” hazard along with the tabular data on the dose intensity relative stabilization by the beginning of August 1986 due to iodine-131 decay. The information is presented regarding iodine-131 tentative maximum permissible level exceedance in the dairy products of the two most contaminated regional areas - Plavskoye and Arsenievskoye. The article also provides the laboratory data on the total beta - activity in the foodstuffs in 1986-1987 and cesium-137 maximum permissible level exceedence in 1986. The radionuclide maximum permissible level exceedances in foodstuffs were registered only in 1986 due to the plants surface contamination whereas in the forest mushrooms those exceedances were repeatedly found until 2004. The black earths and grey forest soils had a benign impact upon the intensity of the radionuclide transfer into plants which resulted in the formation of internal radiation doses.At the current stage, the content of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the foodstuffs can only be quantified by a radiochemical method. The table covers all the districts within the boundaries of radiation contaminated zones. The radiochemical studies indicate the main dose - forming products. The article contains the table of internal and external radiation doses of the population in Plavsk town over 1986-1990 and displays the factors impacting population’s internal and external exposure. The Chernobyl - affected exposure dose of the population is mostly attributed to the external radiation and, for over twenty years, it

  5. Monitoring of the declining trend of Polychlorobifenyls concentration in milk of contaminated dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva


    Full Text Available Six pregnant heifers, coming from a herd with a history of high concentration of polychlorobifenyls (PCB into the milk, were fed with a very low-PCB diet starting from the 6th month of pregnancy. After parturition cows were milked for at least 190 d with a maximum of 270 d. Diet was made of: corn silage (31.7% of DMI, dehydrated alfalfa (13.3% of DMI, grass hay (3.7% of DMI and concentrate (51.3% of DMI. The average DMI was 23.12 kg/d. Milk production was recorded and samples of milk and blood were taken and analyzed for PCB (18, 28, 31, 52, 44, 101, 149, 118, 153, 138, 180 and 194 congeners content using a GC-MS technique. The average milk yield (kg/d of the 6 cows was 26.0, 22.5, 23.2, 24.5, 28.9, 29.3. The maximum PCB concentration of 100 ng/g of fat allowed by the Italian law was reached after 144-209 d of lactation. One animal after 204 days had a PCB concentration of 102 ng/g fat. If log10 of PCB concentration (ppb in milk fat is regressed against days in milking (DIM the following significant equation was obtained: log10 PCB (ng/g of milk fat= 2.796 -0.00474 DIM; r2 0.72; P<0.01 The initial level of contamination is not the main factor affecting the time required in order for PCB to return to below the legal threshold of 100 ng/g fat, while daily milk yield significantly affects PCB excretion. Body condition and energy balance could be important factors affecting PCB excretion. In the presence of high contamination, about 6 months of lactation are required in order to obtain milk with a sufficiently low PCB content. Among the seven congeners considered by Italian legislation, PCB 101, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153 constitute almost all the PCBs found in tissues and milk, with a much smaller presence of PCB 180, and the numbers of the congeners PCB 28 and PCB 52 are almost insignificant, probably because they accumulate little in the body. The congeners PCB 138 and PCB 153 are those most frequently found. For PCB 138 the liver is the principal

  6. Occurrence of venlafaxine residues and its metabolites in marine mussels at trace levels: development of analytical method and a monitoring program


    Bueno, M. J. Martinez; Boillot, C; Munaron, Dominique; Fenet, H.; Casellas, C.; Gomez, E.


    Coastal areas are subject to growing pressures and impacts due to increasing of the human activities. Lipophilic organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been monitored for decades within biomonitoring programs. However, until now, little information on the detection of called “emerging contaminants” as hydrophilic organic compounds, in the marine environment and no data on its metabolites or transformation products in mar...

  7. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry (United States)

    Petrucci, A.; Arnold, D.; Burda, O.; De Felice, P.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V.; Šolc, J.; Vodenik, B.


    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of 60Co, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra and 241Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  8. Chapter 8 Tool for monitoring hydrophilic contaminants in water: polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) (United States)

    Alvarez, David A.; Huckins, James N.; Petty, Jimmie D.; Jones-Lepp, Tammy L.; Stuer-Lauridsen, Frank; Getting, Dominic T.; Goddard, Jon P.; Gravell, Anthony


    The development of the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) provides environmental scientists and policy makers a tool for assessing the presence and potential impacts of the hydrophilic component of these organic contaminants. The POCIS provides a means for determining the time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of targeted chemicals that can be used in risk assessments to determine the biological impact of hydrophilic organic compounds (HpOCs) on the health of the impacted ecosystem. Field studies have shown that the POCIS has advantages over traditional sampling methods in sequestering and concentrating ultra-trace to trace levels of chemicals over time resulting in increased method sensitivity, ability to detect chemicals with a relatively short residence time or variable concentrations in the water, and simplicity in use. POCIS extracts can be tested using bioassays and can be used in organism dosing experiments for determining toxicological significance of the complex mixture of chemicals sampled. The POCIS has been successfully used worldwide under various field conditions ranging from stagnant ponds to shallow creeks to major river systems in both fresh and brackish water.

  9. [Use of bioindicators for assessing and monitoring pesticides contamination in streams and rivers]. (United States)

    Arias, Ana Rosa Linde; Buss, Daniel Forsin; de Alburquerque, Carla; Inácio, Alan Ferreira; Freire, Marina Moreira; Egler, Mariana; Mugnai, Riccardo; Baptista, Darcilio Fernandes


    The objective of this article is to present an analysis of the main bioindicators that are currently used to assess the environmental impact of pollution in water resources. The simple quantification of chemicals in the environment is not enough to reveal the real effects of contamination on ecosystems, making necessary the assessment of the biological effects that pollution causes at different hierarchical levels. The bioindicators used in this article on two case studies comprehend different hierarchical levels: in case study 1, three organization levels were utilized: individual, cellular and molecular, to detect the early effects of exposition to environmental pollutants in three hydrographic basins. By observing the inhibition of AChE activity in fish it was possible to assess the effects of organophosphorate and carbamate pesticides, showing the effects of agricultural activities. In case study 2, we present an assessment at the macroinvertebrate community level using the Extended Biotic Index. We discuss the advantages and limitations in the production of reliable data that could be used in the implementation of adequate actions to protect and/or recover ecosystems.

  10. Use of the land snail Helix aspersa for monitoring heavy metal soil contamination in Northeast Algeria. (United States)

    Larba, R; Soltani, N


    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of anthropogenic activities on soil quality using the land snail Helix aspersa as a bioindicator. Soil samples and snails were collected from several sites in Northeast Algeria during the summer and winter of 2010. All of the sites were chosen due to their proximity to industrial factories-a potential source of soil pollution via heavy metal contamination. The concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Mn, and Fe) in soil samples was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Activity levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), indicators of oxidative stress and neurotoxicity, respectively, were measured in snails collected from each site. GST and AChE activity were found to vary between sites and by season. The highest levels of GST activity were registered during the summer at sites closest to potential sources of pollution. AChE activity levels also peaked during the summer with the highest values recorded at the site in El Hadjar. These increased levels of bioindicative stress response correlated with increasing metal concentration in soil samples collected at each site.

  11. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrucci, A., E-mail: [ENEA – Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazione Ionizzanti, Rome (Italy); Arnold, D.; Burda, O. [PTB – Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); De Felice, P. [ENEA – Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazione Ionizzanti, Rome (Italy); Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V. [CIEMAT – Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Šolc, J. [CMI – Czech Metrology Institute, Radiova 1a, 102 00 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Vodenik, B. [IJS – Laboratory for Radioactivity Measurements, Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana Slovenia (Slovenia)


    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 241}Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  12. Passive sampling methods for the measurement of organic chemical contaminants and application to monitoring discharges from the offshore oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, Christopher


    The presence of persistent organic pollutants in the environment has been of increasing concern and is subject to control through several international conventions. The ability of these compounds to accumulate in biological systems and cause adverse effects at vanishingly low concentrations requires comprehensive and cost-effective monitoring methods. Passive sampling techniques show promise to fulfill several of these requirements, with time integrated sampling that compensates for fluctuating discharges, and (equivalent) large volume samples that provide the low detection limits necessary. Additionally, they do not suffer from some of the complicating issues associated with using biological monitoring methods. Operational discharges from the offshore oil industry represent a significant point source of such pollutants to the marine environment. Concerns surrounding these discharges in the North Sea are due to a combination of the proved toxicity of several of the chemical components present, the increasing volume of the discharges in line with the age of the fields, and the lack of knowledge of the overall long term effects. As such they warrant investigation, and sensitive techniques are required to monitor levels in situ. The main objectives of this dissertation were; i) provide sampling rate data for environmentally important compounds; ii) test the applicability of an empirical uptake model for these compounds; iii) examine the effects of membrane fouling on uptake; iv) measure contaminant concentrations in the receiving waters around oil platforms; v) assess the biological relevance of passive sampler accumulations. In order to achieve these objectives, a suite of laboratory experiments were carried out using flow through exposures of passive samplers to known concentrations of contaminants. These exposures included comparisons between uptake of contaminants in fouled and non-fouled samplers and in fish. Field deployments of passive samplers were performed

  13. Highlights from the SoilCAM project: Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring (United States)

    French, H. K.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Wehrer, M.; Godio, A.; Pedersen, L. B.; Toscano, G.


    The SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7-212663) is aimed at improving current methods for monitoring contaminant distribution and biodegradation in the subsurface. At two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway and the Trecate site in Italy, a number of geophysical techniques, lysimeter and other soil and water sampling techniques as well as numerical flow and transport modelling have been combined at different scales in order to characterise flow transport processes in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Laboratory experiments have provided data on physical and bio-geo-chemical parameters for use in models and to select remediation methods. The geophysical techniques were used to map geological heterogeneities and also conduct time-lapse measurements of processes in the unsaturated zone. Both cross borehole and surface electrodes were used for electrical resistivity and induced polarisation surveys. The geophysical surveys showed clear indications of areas highly affected by de-icing chemicals along the runway at Oslo airport. The time lapse measurements along the runway at the airport show infiltration patterns during snowmelt and are used to validate 2D unsaturated flow and transport simulations using SUTRA. The Orchestra model is used to describe the complex interaction between bio-geo-chemical processes in a 1D profile along the runway. The presence of installations such as a membrane along the runway highly affects the flow pattern and challenges the capacity of the numerical code. Smaller scale field site measurements have revealed the increase of iron and manganese during degradation of de-icing chemicals. The use of Nitrate to increase red-ox potential was tested, but results have not been analysed yet. So far it cannot be concluded that degradation process can be quantified indirectly by geophysical monitoring. At the Trecate site a combination of georadar, electrical

  14. On-line spectrophotometric method for monitoring weak residual absorption of CaMoO{sub 4} single crystals near the intrinsic luminescence peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzanov, O. A., E-mail: [OAO Fomos-Materials (Russian Federation); Kanevskii, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Kornoukhov, V. N. [OAO Fomos-Materials (Russian Federation); Nabatov, B. V.; Nabatov, V. V.; Fedorov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)


    The optical and spectral characteristics of isotopically enriched Czochralski-grown {sup 40}Ca{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} single crystals have been investigated. This material is promising for detecting double neutrinoless {beta} decay. The possibility and the technique of spectrophotometric monitoring of weak residual absorption near the intrinsic luminescence peak of this scintillation material, which is designed for developing new-generation detectors of elementary particles, are considered.

  15. On-line spectrophotometric method for monitoring weak residual absorption of CaMoO4 single crystals near the intrinsic luminescence peak (United States)

    Buzanov, O. A.; Kanevskii, V. M.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Nabatov, B. V.; Nabatov, V. V.; Fedorov, V. A.


    The optical and spectral characteristics of isotopically enriched Czochralski-grown 40Ca100MoO4 single crystals have been investigated. This material is promising for detecting double neutrinoless β decay. The possibility and the technique of spectrophotometric monitoring of weak residual absorption near the intrinsic luminescence peak of this scintillation material, which is designed for developing new-generation detectors of elementary particles, are considered.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Shaffer; Radislav Potyralio; Joseph Salvo; Timothy Sivavec; Lloyd Salsman


    This report describes the Phase I effort to develop an Automated In Well Monitoring System (AIMS) for in situ detection of chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in groundwater. AIMS is composed of 3 primary components: (a) sensor probe, (b) instrument delivery system, and (c) communication/recharging station. The sensor probe utilizes an array of thickness shear mode (TSM) sensors coated with chemically-sensitive polymer films provides a low-cost, highly sensitive microsensor platform for detection and quantification. The instrument delivery system is used to position the sensor probe in 2 inch or larger groundwater monitoring wells. A communication/recharging station provides wireless battery recharging and communication to enable a fully automated system. A calibration curve for TCE in water was built using data collected in the laboratory. The detection limit of the sensor probe was 6.7 ppb ({micro}g/L) for TCE in water. A preliminary field test was conducted at a GE remediation location and a pilot field test was performed at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). The AIMS system was demonstrated in an uncontaminated (i.e., ''clean'') 2-inch well and in a 4-inch well containing 163.5 ppb of TCE. Repeat measurements at the two wells indicated excellent day-to-day reproducibility. Significant differences in the sensor responses were noted between the two types of wells but they did not closely match the laboratory calibration data. The robustness of the system presented numerous challenges for field work and limited the scope of the SRS pilot field test. However, the unique combination of trace detection (detection limits near the MCL, minimum concentration level) and size (operations in 2-inch or larger groundwater wells) is demonstration of the promise of this technology for long-term monitoring (LTM) applications or rapid site characterization. Using the lessons learned from the

  17. Zearalenone (ZEN) metabolism and residue concentrations in physiological specimens of dairy cows exposed long-term to ZEN-contaminated diets differing in concentrate feed proportions. (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Keese, Christina; Meyer, Ulrich; Starke, Alexander; Kinoshita, Asako; Rehage, Jürgen


    A long-term feeding experiment with dairy cows was performed to investigate the effects of feeding a Fusarium toxin contaminated (FUS) and a background-contaminated control (CON) ration with a mean concentrate feed proportion of 50% during the first 11 weeks after parturition (Groups FUS-50, CON-50, Period 1), and with concentrate feed proportions of 30% or 60% during the remaining 17 weeks (Groups CON-30, CON-60, FUS-30 and FUS-60, Period 2), on zearalenone (ZEN) residue levels in blood serum, milk, urine and bile. ZEN, α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), zearalanone (ZAL), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL) and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The ZEN concentrations of the rations fed to Groups CON-50, FUS-50 (Period 1), CON-30, CON-60, FUS-30 and FUS-60 (Period 2) amounted to 53.1, 112.7, 35.0, 24.4, 73.8 and 72.5 µg/kg dry matter, respectively. The concentrations of ZEN, α-ZEL, β-ZEL, ZAN, α-ZAL and β-ZAL in serum, urine and milk were lower than 1, 1, 4, 100, 50 and 200 ng/g, respectively, while ZEN, α-ZEL and β-ZEL were detected in bile. Their levels changed with oral ZEN exposure in the course of the experiment and in a similar direction with concentrate feed proportion (Period 2 only). Thus the proportions of the individual β-ZEL, α-ZEL and ZEN concentrations of their sum varied only in narrow ranges of 68-76%, 6-13% and 12-20%, respectively. Interestingly, the bile concentrations of β-ZEL, α-ZEL and ZEN of Groups CON-60 and FUS-60 amounted to only approximately 50%, 45% and 62%, respectively, of those of Groups CON-30 and FUS-30 despite a similar or even lower ZEN exposure. The results indicate that conversion of ZEN to its detectable metabolites was not changed by different dietary concentrate feed proportions while their absolute levels were decreased. These findings might suggest concentrate feed proportion-dependent and rumen fermentation-mediated alterations in ZEN/metabolite degradation, and

  18. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steill, Jeffrey D


    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  19. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steill, Jeffrey D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Huang, Haifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoops, Alexandra A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Patterson, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Birtola, Salvatore R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Jaska, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Strecker, Kevin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bisson, Soott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  20. Country report for the regional (RCA) training workshop on contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shantha, T.H.S. [Atomic Energy Authority (Sri Lanka)


    The Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) is the organization in Sri Lanka responsible for the regulatory and development of applications in nuclear technology. AEA was established in 1969 by the AEA Act No. 19 of 1969 and at present it is under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Human Resources Development. As a developing country, Sri Lanka still needs technical assistance to support the development of application in nuclear technology. So far this country doesn`t have any type of nuclear reactors. Most of activities in Sri Lanka are in health sector using x-ray and radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In addition to that few number of radioisotopes are used in industrial and research institutes. In this paper, the following items are described: radiation protection activities, emergency preparation and planning, food testing program, and nuclear technique in monitoring industrial pollution. (G.K.)

  1. Monitoring six-phase ohmic heating of contaminated soils using electrical resistance tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Daily, W.D.


    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was used to monitor six-phase ohmic heating used for the insitu remediation of volatile organic compounds from subsurface water and soil at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The changes in electrical conductivity caused by six-phase ohmic-heating in a clay layer located in the vadose zone were monitored during a period of approximately 2 months, before, during and after heating. From an array of electrodes located in 4 boreholes, we collected electrical resistivity data between five pairs of adjacent holes pairs. This data was used to calculate tomographs which showed the electrical conductivity changes along five vertical planes. The difference tomographs show the combined effects of moisture redistribution and heating caused by six-phase heating and vapor extraction. The tomographs show that most of the clay layer increased in electrical conductivity during the first 3 weeks of the 4 week long heating phase. At this time, the electrical conductivities near the center of the heating array were twice as large as the pre-heat conductivities. Then the electrical conductivity started to decrease for portions of the clay layer closest to the vapor extraction well. We propose that the conductivity decreases are due to the removal of moisture by the heating and vacuum extraction. Parts of the clay layer near the extraction well reached electrical conductivities as low as 40% of the pre-heating values. We propose that these regions of lower than ambient electrical conductivities are indicators of regions where the vapor removal by vacuum extraction was most effective. At the end of the heating phase, our estimates suggest that the clay saturation may have dropped to as low as 10% based on the observed conductivity changes.

  2. A Feasibility Study on Monitoring Residual Sugar and Alcohol Strength in Kiwi Wine Fermentation Using a Fiber-Optic FT-NIR Spectrometry and PLS Regression. (United States)

    Wang, Bingqian; Peng, Bangzhu


    This work aims to investigate the potential of fiber-optic Fourier transform-near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectrometry associated with chemometric analysis, which will be applied to monitor time-related changes in residual sugar and alcohol strength during kiwi wine fermentation. NIR calibration models for residual sugar and alcohol strength during kiwi wine fermentation were established on the FT-NIR spectra of 98 samples scanned in a fiber-optic FT-NIR spectrometer, and partial least squares regression method. The results showed that R(2) and root mean square error of cross-validation could achieve 0.982 and 3.81 g/L for residual sugar, and 0.984 and 0.34% for alcohol strength, respectively. Furthermore, crucial process information on kiwi must and wine fermentations provided by fiber-optic FT-NIR spectrometry was found to agree with those obtained from traditional chemical methods, and therefore this fiber-optic FT-NIR spectrometry can be applied as an effective and suitable alternative for analyses and monitoring of those processes. The overall results suggested that fiber-optic FT-NIR spectrometry is a promising tool for monitoring and controlling the kiwi wine fermentation process.

  3. Innovative Methods for Integrating Knowledge for Long-Term Monitoring of Contaminated Groundwater Sites: Understanding Microorganism Communities and their Associated Hydrochemical Environment (United States)

    Mouser, P. J.; Rizzo, D. M.; Druschel, G.; O'Grady, P.; Stevens, L.


    This interdisciplinary study integrates hydrochemical and genome-based data to estimate the redox processes occurring at long-term monitoring sites. Groundwater samples have been collected from a well-characterized landfill-leachate contaminated aquifer in northeastern New York. Primers from the 16S rDNA gene were used to amplify Bacteria and Archaea in groundwater taken from monitoring wells located in clean, fringe, and contaminated locations within the aquifer. PCR-amplified rDNA were digested with restriction enzymes to evaluate terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) community profiles. The rDNA was cloned, sequenced, and partial sequences were matched against known organisms using the NCBI Blast database. Phylogenetic trees and bootstrapping were used to identify classifications of organisms and compare the communities from clean, fringe, and contaminated locations. We used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models to incorporate microbial data with hydrochemical information for improving our understanding of subsurface processes.

  4. Evaluate the use of space monitoring methods for the study of the ecological state of the territory contaminated with heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroik G.A.


    Full Text Available Possibilities of modern Earth remote sensing systems are investigated in the space environmental monitoring of areas, contaminated with heavy metals, and the best of them are identified. The most informative E-field radiation spectrum zones for remote indication of heavy metals are identified and the special spectral indexes are offered.

  5. A potential approach for monitoring drinking water quality from groundwater systems using organic matter fluorescence as an early warning for contamination events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stedmon, Colin; Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bożena; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus;


    at levels equivalent to the addition of 60 μg C/L in drinking water with a TOC concentration of 3.3 mg C/L. The results of this study suggest that these types of drinking water systems, which are vulnerable to microbial contamination due to the lack of disinfectant treatment, can be easily monitored using...

  6. Biomagnetic monitoring of heavy metals contamination in deposited atmospheric dust, a case study from Isfahan, Iran. (United States)

    Norouzi, Samira; Khademi, Hossein; Cano, Angel Faz; Acosta, Jose A


    Tree leaves are considered as one of the best biogenic dust collectors due to their ability to trap and retain particulate matter on their surfaces. In this study, the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and the concentration of selected heavy metals of plane tree (Platanus orientalis L.) leaves and deposited atmospheric dust, sampled by an indirect and a direct method, respectively, were determined to investigate the relationships between leaf magnetic parameters and the concentration of heavy metals in deposited atmospheric dust. The objective was to develop a biomagnetic method as an alternative to the common ones used for determining atmospheric heavy metal contaminations. Plane tree leaves were monthly sampled on the 19th of May to November, 2012 (T1-T7), for seven months from 21 different sites in the city of Isfahan, central Iran. Deposited atmospheric dust samples were also collected using flat glass surfaces from the same sites on the same dates, except for T1. MS (χlf, χhf) values in washed (WL) and unwashed leaves (UL) as well as Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in UL and deposited atmospheric dust samples were determined. The results showed that the MS content with a biogenic source was low with almost no significant change during the sampling period, while an increasing trend was observed in the MS content of UL samples due to the deposition of heavy metals and magnetic particles on leaf surfaces throughout the plant growth. The latter type of MS content could be reduced through washing off by rain. Most heavy metals examined, as well as the Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) in UL, showed statistically significant correlations with MS values. The correlation between heavy metals content in atmospheric dust deposited on glass surfaces and leaf MS values was significant for Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn. Moreover, the similarity observed between the spatial distribution maps of leaf MS and deposited atmospheric dust PLI provided convincing evidence regarding

  7. Persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from Hanoi and Hochiminh City, Vietnam contamination, accumulation kinetics and risk assessment for infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Someya, Masayuki; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Tuyen, Bui Cach


    Despite the ban on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in most of the developed nations, their usage continued until recently in many Asian developing countries including Vietnam, for agricultural purposes and vector-borne disease eradication programs. In this study, we collected human breast milk samples from the two big cities in Vietnam: Hanoi (n=42) and Hochiminh (n=44) and determined the concentrations of persistent OCs such as PCBs, DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and tris-4-chlorophenyl-methane (TCPMe). The contamination pattern of OCs was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > HCHs > CHLs{approx}HCB{approx}TCPMe. Compilation of available data indicated that DDT residue levels in human breast milk from Vietnam were among the highest values reported for Asian developing countries as well as developed nations. This result suggests recent usage of DDTs in both north and south Vietnam. Interestingly, in both cities, the p,p'-DDT portion was higher in multiparas than those in primiparas. Considering the fact that the interval between the first and the second child of a mother in Vietnam is usually short, this result probably indicates continuous intake of DDTs in the population. Analysis of infant exposure to DDTs via breast milk suggested that the daily intake rates for number of individuals are close to or above the threshold for adverse effects which may raise concern on children health. - It is suggested that daily intake rates of persistent organochlorines in mothers in Vietnam may result in health risk for nursing children.

  8. Application of diagnosis and monitoring area contaminated by petroleum derivatives; Aplicacao da tecnica de caminhamento eletrico em area contaminada por derivados de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Cesar Augusto [Pos-graduacao em Geociencias em Meio Ambiente, IGCE - UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:; Dourado, Joao Carlos; Braga, Antonio Celso de Oliveira [Dept. de Geologia Aplicada, IGCE - UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)], E-mails:,


    Geophysical methods are useful technic of geological investigation, thoroughly employed to diagnosis and monitoring contaminated areas, in conjunction with direct techniques of investigation such as chemical analyses. Among these, electric resistivity is more usually used in studies of contaminants in soil and groundwater, due to the high contrast of electric properties between the soil and the pollutant types frequently found, essentially constituted of composed organic and inorganic. Geophysical studies in impacted areas by petroleum products may be describe by anomalies of both low resistivity and high resistivities, confirmed as contaminant by chemical analyses. This apparent contradiction can reflect processes of degradation of the contaminants, directly associated with its residence time in the soil, through the generation of by-products that change the physical properties of the soil and groundwater, principally for the mineral dissolution by action of organic acids and by formation of minerals of oxides and hydroxides minerals. Natural attenuation defines a series of physical, chemical and biological processes that allow the degradation, dispersion and dilution of contaminants in a natural form, in other words, free from human intervention. This paper presents the application of electrical profiling technique in a contaminated industrial area for benzene, toluene, xylene, 1,2 dichloroethene and inorganic salts and it discusses the physical alterations of the contaminated soil through the obtained results, under the optics of the Natural Attenuation in course in the area of study. (author)

  9. Groundwater resource vulnerability and spatial variability of nitrate contamination: Insights from high density tubewell monitoring in a hard rock aquifer. (United States)

    Buvaneshwari, Sriramulu; Riotte, Jean; Sekhar, M; Mohan Kumar, M S; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Duprey, Jean Louis; Audry, Stephane; Giriraja, P R; Praveenkumarreddy, Yerabham; Moger, Hemanth; Durand, Patrick; Braun, Jean-Jacques; Ruiz, Laurent


    Agriculture has been increasingly relying on groundwater irrigation for the last decades, leading to severe groundwater depletion and/or nitrate contamination. Understanding the links between nitrate concentration and groundwater resource is a prerequisite for assessing the sustainability of irrigated systems. The Berambadi catchment (ORE-BVET/Kabini Critical Zone Observatory) in Southern India is a typical example of intensive irrigated agriculture and then an ideal site to study the relative influences of land use, management practices and aquifer properties on NO3 spatial distribution in groundwater. The monitoring of >200 tube wells revealed nitrate concentrations from 1 to 360mg/L. Three configurations of groundwater level and elevation gradient were identified: i) NO3 hot spots associated to deep groundwater levels (30-60m) and low groundwater elevation gradient suggest small groundwater reserve with absence of lateral flow, then degradation of groundwater quality due to recycling through pumping and return flow; ii) high groundwater elevation gradient, moderate NO3 concentrations suggest that significant lateral flow prevented NO3 enrichment; iii) low NO3 concentrations, low groundwater elevation gradient and shallow groundwater indicate a large reserve. We propose that mapping groundwater level and gradient could be used to delineate zones vulnerable to agriculture intensification in catchments where groundwater from low-yielding aquifers is the only source of irrigation. Then, wells located in low groundwater elevation gradient zones are likely to be suitable for assessing the impacts of local agricultural systems, while wells located in zones with high elevation gradient would reflect the average groundwater quality of the catchment, and hence should be used for regional mapping of groundwater quality. Irrigation with NO3 concentrated groundwater induces a "hidden" input of nitrogen to the crop which can reach 200kgN/ha/yr in hotspot areas, enhancing

  10. Evaluation of microbial population and functional genes during the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil as an effective monitoring approach. (United States)

    Shahi, Aiyoub; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan


    This study investigated the abundance and diversity of soil n-alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterial communities. It also investigated the quantity of the functional genes, the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the identified bacterial communities and the effect that such HGT can have on biostimulation process. Illumina sequencing was used to detect the microbial diversity of petroleum-polluted soil prior to the biostimulation process, and quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine changes in the bacterial community and functional genes (alkB, phnAc and nah) expressions throughout the biostimulation of petroleum-contaminated soil. The illumine results revealed that γ-proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and δ-proteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial phyla in the contaminated site, and that most of the strains were Gram-negative. The results of the gene expression results revealed that gram-negative bacteria and alkB are critical to successful bioremediation. Failure to maintain the stability of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and functional gene will reduce the extend to which alkanes and PAHs are degraded. According to the results of the study, the application of a C:N:P ratio of was 100:15:1 in the biodegradation experiment resulted in the highest rate at which petroleum hydrocarbons were biodegraded. The diversity of pollutant-degrading bacteria and the effective transfer of degrading genes among resident microorganisms are essential factors for the successful biostimulation of petroleum hydrocarbons. As such, screening these factors throughout the biostimulation process represents an effective monitoring approach by which the success of the biostimulation can be assessed.

  11. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part I: spatial and temporal patterns of contaminants, and design of screening strategies. (United States)

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R


    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the USA. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), a common list of over 90 contaminants is analyzed nationwide using EPA-authorized laboratory procedures. National and state-level summaries of SDWA data have shown that not all contaminants occur in all places at all times. This hypothesis is confirmed and extended by showing that only a few (less than seven) contaminants are of concern in any one of 19 Iowa surface water systems studied. These systems collectively serve about 350,000 people and their sizes vary between 1,200 and 120,000. The distributions of contaminants found in these systems are positively skewed, with many non-detect measurements. A screening strategy to identify such contaminants in individual systems is presented. These findings have significant implications not only for the design of alternative monitoring programs, but also in multi-billion-dollar decisions that influence the course of future drinking water infrastructure, repair, and maintenance investments.

  12. Monitoring dithiocarbamate fungicide residues in greenhouse and non-greenhouse tomatoes in Iran by HPLC-UV. (United States)

    Jafari, A; Shoeibi, S; Amini, M; Amirahmadi, M; Rastegar, H; Ghaffarian, A; Ghazi-Khansari, M


    The simultaneous analysis of dithiocarbamate fungicide residues on greenhouse and non-greenhouse tomatoes was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. A calibration curve with spiked samples was plotted to determine dithiocarbamate residues in tomato samples. Limits of detection and quantification were approximately 0.05 and 0.2 µg g(-1), respectively. The ranges of mean recoveries at five spiking levels for all dithiocarbamates of interest were between 88.2%-95.7% and 99.5%-100.8% in standards and spiked samples, respectively. In this study, 40 greenhouse and 40 non-greenhouse tomato samples were analysed. None of the samples analysed contained dithiocarbamates in excess of the maximum residue levels established by the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues, except for one greenhouse sample, with ethylenebisdithiocarbamates at 3.2 µg g(-1).

  13. Minimal residual disease monitoring by 8-color flow cytometry in mantle cell lymphoma: an EU-MCL and LYSA study (United States)

    Cheminant, Morgane; Derrieux, Coralie; Touzart, Aurore; Schmit, Stéphanie; Grenier, Adrien; Trinquand, Amélie; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Hélène; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Thieblemont, Catherine; Ribrag, Vincent; Cheze, Stéphane; Sanhes, Laurence; Jardin, Fabrice; Lefrère, François; Delarue, Richard; Hoster, Eva; Dreyling, Martin; Asnafi, Vahid; Hermine, Olivier; Macintyre, Elizabeth


    Quantification of minimal residual disease may guide therapeutic strategies in mantle cell lymphoma. While multiparameter flow cytometry is used for diagnosis, the gold standard method for minimal residual disease analysis is real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). In this European Mantle Cell Lymphoma network (EU-MCL) pilot study, we compared flow cytometry with RQ-PCR for minimal residual disease detection. Of 113 patients with at least one minimal residual disease sample, RQ-PCR was applicable in 97 (86%). A total of 284 minimal residual disease samples from 61 patients were analyzed in parallel by flow cytometry and RQ-PCR. A single, 8-color, 10-antibody flow cytometry tube allowed specific minimal residual disease assessment in all patients, with a robust sensitivity of 0.01%. Using this cut-off level, the true-positive-rate of flow cytometry with respect to RQ-PCR was 80%, whereas the true-negative-rate was 92%. As expected, RQ-PCR frequently detected positivity below this 0.01% threshold, which is insufficiently sensitive for prognostic evaluation and would ideally be replaced with robust quantification down to a 0.001% (10-5) threshold. In 10 relapsing patients, the transition from negative to positive by RQ-PCR (median 22.5 months before relapse) nearly always preceded transition by flow cytometry (4.5 months), but transition to RQ-PCR positivity above 0.01% (5 months) was simultaneous. Pre-emptive rituximab treatment of 2 patients at minimal residual disease relapse allowed re-establishment of molecular and phenotypic complete remission. Flow cytometry minimal residual disease is a complementary approach to RQ-PCR and a promising tool in individual mantle cell lymphoma therapeutic management. PMID:26703963

  14. Organohalogen diffuse contamination in Firenze and Prato groundwater bodies. investigative monitoring and definition of background values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Menichetti


    Full Text Available The experience of the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany in the determination of background values start from 2009 with various substances such as metals, non-metals and inorganic, dioxins and various matrices such as soil, groundwater, inland surface waters and coastal marine sediments. The methodologies supplied in literature have been interpreted and integrated to meet the requirements of current legislation and needs for remediation, diffuse pollution and excavated earth in specific areas. The method for diffuse pollution described here focuses on the use of statistical and geostatistical tools and what we present in this paper are some early results of interest obtained from two case studies in the Florence and in the Prato area. The study has been carried out on concentrations of tetrachlorethylene in the two groundwater bodies by identifying a number of frequency classes in the distribution. Each class has been hypothesized as corresponding to a distinct process. The occurrence both in space and time of the classes has been analysed and discussed critically concluding for a background value that has been found similar between the two zones. The investigation conducted on two monitoring stations representing hot-spots, with values in excess on background value has enabled to map spatial distribution of concentrations and to separate plumes from diffuse pollution area. The two areas show some peculiarities: Florence area shows advanced dehalogenation and a clear spatial continuity, whereas in Prato area it is limited with poor spatial continuity suggesting a spreading with vertical motions from still active primary or secondary sources. Observing how the methodological structure would require, to be fully predictive, a greater number of samples, however, the present work want to constitute a first contribution for management of areas subject to diffuse pollution.

  15. Monitoring the aftermath of Flint drinking water contamination crisis: Another case of sampling bias? (United States)

    Goovaerts, Pierre


    The delay in reporting high levels of lead in Flint drinking water, following the city's switch to the Flint River as its water supply, was partially caused by the biased selection of sampling sites away from the lead pipe network. Since Flint returned to its pre-crisis source of drinking water, the State has been monitoring water lead levels (WLL) at selected "sentinel" sites. In a first phase that lasted two months, 739 residences were sampled, most of them bi-weekly, to determine the general health of the distribution system and to track temporal changes in lead levels. During the same period, water samples were also collected through a voluntary program whereby concerned citizens received free testing kits and conducted sampling on their own. State officials relied on the former data to demonstrate the steady improvement in water quality. A recent analysis of data collected by voluntary sampling revealed, however, an opposite trend with lead levels increasing over time. This paper looks at potential sampling bias to explain such differences. Although houses with higher WLL were more likely to be sampled repeatedly, voluntary sampling turned out to reproduce fairly well the main characteristics (i.e. presence of lead service lines (LSL), construction year) of Flint housing stock. State-controlled sampling was less representative; e.g., sentinel sites with LSL were mostly built between 1935 and 1950 in lower poverty areas, which might hamper our ability to disentangle the effects of LSL and premise plumbing (lead fixtures and pipes present within old houses) on WLL. Also, there was no sentinel site with LSL in two of the most impoverished wards, including where the percentage of children with elevated blood lead levels tripled following the switch in water supply. Correcting for sampling bias narrowed the gap between sampling programs, yet overall temporal trends are still opposite.

  16. 2010年北京市通州区食品污染物监测结果分析%Analysis on monitoring results of food contaminants in Tongzhou district of Beijing in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To understand the situation of food contaminants level in Tongzhou district of Beijing and provide basic data for the determination of the national food contaminant level. Methods: In strict accordance with the sampling method provided by the monitoring program, a total of 383 samples were collected. Results: In 148 samples monitored for foodborne pathogens, 6 samples were positive, all of which were from fishes. 115 samples were monitored for heavy metals and the results showed that lead content was highest in vegetables and cadmium content was highest in dry edible mushrooms,mercury content was highest in pigs kidney samples. 60 samples were monitored for pesticide residues, the highest positive rate was found in the detection of py-rethroid pesticides. 10 pieces of pork sample were monitored for copper content, all detection results were within the national hygienic standards. 50 food samples were monitored for benzoic acid, all the detection results were within national hygienic standards, but the benzoic acid in sauce salted vegetables is close to national hygienic standards. Conclusion: The contamination of foodborne pathogens in aquatic products and the contamination of heavy metals in vegetables, dry mushroom, pig kidneys should be paid attentions. For the first time in this year, it was found that pesticide residues was serious in dry mushrooms and the risk of excessive use of benzoic acid was found in sauce salted vegetables.%目的:了解目前北京市通州区食品污染状况,为确定国家食品污染物水平提供基础数据.方法:严格按照食品污染物监测方案获得样品,共计383件.结果:食源性致病菌监侧148件样品,检出致病菌6株,均在水产品中检出.115件样品监测重金属,铅含量的检出值以蔬菜为最高;\t镉含量的检出值以干食用菌为最高;汞含量的检出值以猪肾为最高.农药残留监测60件样品,以拟除虫菊酯类农药检出率最高.10件猪肉样品监测铜

  17. International journal of food contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The International Journal of Food Contamination publishes baseline, monitoring data, indicating the qualitative and quantitative presence of microbiological and chemical contaminants in foods, animal...

  18. Quality monitoring and assessment of mercury contamination in water and sediments of the Botafogo river, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Moraes Ferreira


    Full Text Available Since the mid 80's, the riverside population of Rio Botafogo, in the Santa Cruz channel, Itamaracá has undergone critical environmental situations due to poorly planned growth and inadequate soil occupation, and as a consequence, a loss in environmental quality resulted. In 1963, an industry for production of chlorine and caustic soda produced by electrolytic cell of mercury was installed in the Botafogo river. By mid-1987, a discharge of inorganic mercury between 22 and 35 tones of mercury in this river was estimated. In addition to this industry, others of different types were installed in recent years along the sides of this river. Based on previous studies, we conducted a new assessment of contaminated sites, comparing the changes over the years concerning the quality of water and sediment of the Botafogo river, in which the locations of collection, the need to increase the network of environmental monitoring were investigated. The parameters defined for analysis of water were: pH, dissolved oxygen (OD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, ammonia and phosphorus concentration, color, turbidity and mercury content. It was monitored the concentration of mercury in the sediments. The values of pH, turbidity, DO, BOD and ammonia usually showed values within the limits established by CONAMA Resolution No 357. Color parameters have remained consistently high, probably caused by continuous withdrawal of sand before the points of collection. The content of phosphorus was high, until the beginning of 2005, and remained within standards required by legislation until the end of this research. In the studied area, it has been installed, since 1963, an industry for chlorine and caustic soda production, which uses in its manufacturing process electrolytic cell of mercury. In this experiment, the impact of mercury has been observed.

  19. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex


    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were literature and, among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  20. Monitoring contaminants of emerging concern from tertiary wastewater treatment plants using passive sampling modelled with performance reference compounds. (United States)

    Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Ehsanul Hoque, M; Metcalfe, Chris D


    The Lake Simcoe watershed in Ontario, Canada is an important recreational area and a recharge zone for groundwater resources. Lake Simcoe is a relatively shallow lotic system that has been impacted by urban development, recreation, industry and agriculture. As part of a watershed management plan, six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in this catchment basin were selected to measure the inputs of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) of wastewater origin. These WWTPs were recently upgraded to tertiary treatment for phosphorus removal. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to monitor for hydrophilic and hydrophobic CECs, respectively, in treated and untreated wastewater. The passive samplers were calibrated with performance reference compounds (PRCs) by measuring the loss of deuterated beta blocker drugs spiked into POCIS and the loss of PCB congeners spiked into SPMDs over the course of 14-day deployment periods. From the PRC data, field sampling rates of CECs were determined and applied to estimate time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations and mass loadings in mg/day/1000 members of the population serviced. In treated wastewater, TWA concentrations of an antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole, the prescription drugs, carbamazepine, naproxen and gemfibrozil, and the non-prescription drug, ibuprofen, were estimated to be in the low (77 %), possibly because of the tertiary treatment technologies. Therefore, the mass loadings for these personal care products were all <5 mg/day/1000 people. Overall, this study indicates that tertiary treatment technologies designed for phosphorus removal do not entirely remove the target CECs.

  1. Monitoring trace metal contaminants in green mussel, Perna viridis from the coastal waters of Karnataka, southwest coast of India. (United States)

    Sasikumar, Geetha; Krishnakumar, P K; Bhat, G S


    The green mussel (Perna viridis) is widely distributed in the coastal waters of Asia and is used in mussel watch programmes for monitoring environmental contaminants throughout the region. Green mussels representing different size groups and habitats were sampled from their natural beds at 28 locations in the inshore waters of Karnataka (southwest coast of India) to analyze the tissue concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Tissue concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, and Pb were significantly higher in smaller mussels than in the larger size group. Significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni were observed in mussels sampled from intertidal beds when compared to mussels from the subtidal beds. The sampling sites were categorized into industrial sites (IS), urban sites (US), and nonurban sites (NS) based on principal component analysis of metal concentrations in mussel. Spatial variations in tissue concentrations of all metals were observed except for Zn. Generally, the levels of toxic trace metals like Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr in the whole tissue of P. viridis were within safe limits throughout the coast of Karnataka. However, relatively high concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Pb were observed in the whole tissue of green mussels collected from the industrial sites (IS), which may be derived from a variety of anthropogenic activities.

  2. A potential approach for monitoring drinking water quality from groundwater systems using organic matter fluorescence as an early warning for contamination events. (United States)

    Stedmon, Colin A; Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bożena; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Le Tallec, Nicolas; Waul, Christopher K; Arvin, Erik


    The fluorescence characteristics of natural organic matter in a groundwater based drinking water supply plant were studied with the aim of applying it as a technique to identify contamination of the water supply. Excitation-emission matrices were measured and modeled using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and used to identify which wavelengths provide the optimal signal for monitoring contamination events. The fluorescence was characterized by four components: three humic-like and one amino acid-like. The results revealed that the relative amounts of two of the humic-like components were very stable within the supply plant and distribution net and changed in a predictable fashion depending on which wells were supplying the water. A third humic-like component and an amino acid-like component did not differ between wells. Laboratory contamination experiments with wastewater revealed that combined they could be used as an indicator of microbial contamination. Their fluorescence spectra did not overlap with the other components and therefore the raw broadband fluorescence at the wavelengths specific to their fluorescence could be used to detect contamination. Contamination could be detected at levels equivalent to the addition of 60 μg C/L in drinking water with a TOC concentration of 3.3 mg C/L. The results of this study suggest that these types of drinking water systems, which are vulnerable to microbial contamination due to the lack of disinfectant treatment, can be easily monitored using online organic matter fluorescence as an early warning system to prompt further intensive sampling and appropriate corrective measures.

  3. Monitoring of Erosion Preventive Structures Based on Eco-Engineering Approaches: The Case of the Mixed Check Dams of Masonry and Forest Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Tardio Cerrillo


    Full Text Available The mixed check dams were conceived in late 2007, during actions to control the onset of erosion processes in Teide National Park subsequent to a forest fire. A simplified scheme of these mixed check dams consists of a structure of horizontal and vertical wooden elements creating a core that is filled with fine branches and forest residues. Besides this, rocks are placed on both sides of the check dam. The mixed check dam technique follows an eco-engineering design approach. These check dams are temporary structures because their cores will decompose in a few years (from 5-10 years depending on the size of the forest residues used. After our last visit to Tenerife (August 2012, it could be checked that the mixed check dams are providing the predicted results. The sedimentation processes achieved are satisfactory. Based on the collected data during the monitoring stage, the performance of this technique can be already characterised successful.

  4. Three-Dimensional Vibration Isolator for Suppressing High-Frequency Responses for Sage III Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP) (United States)

    Li, Y.; Cutright, S.; Dyke, R.; Templeton, J.; Gasbarre, J.; Novak, F.


    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III - International Space Station (ISS) instrument will be used to study ozone, providing global, long-term measurements of key components of the Earth's atmosphere for the continued health of Earth and its inhabitants. SAGE III is launched into orbit in an inverted configuration on SpaceX;s Falcon 9 launch vehicle. As one of its four supporting elements, a Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP) mounted to the top panel of the Interface Adapter Module (IAM) box experiences high-frequency response due to structural coupling between the two structures during the SpaceX launch. These vibrations, which were initially observed in the IAM Engineering Development Unit (EDU) test and later verified through finite element analysis (FEA) for the SpaceX launch loads, may damage the internal electronic cards and the Thermoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalance (TQCM) sensors mounted on the CMP. Three-dimensional (3D) vibration isolators were required to be inserted between the CMP and IAM interface in order to attenuate the high frequency vibrations without resulting in any major changes to the existing system. Wire rope isolators were proposed as the isolation system between the CMP and IAM due to the low impact to design. Most 3D isolation systems are designed for compression and roll, therefore little dynamic data was available for using wire rope isolators in an inverted or tension configuration. From the isolator FEA and test results, it is shown that by using the 3D wire rope isolators, the CMP high-frequency responses have been suppressed by several orders of magnitude over a wide excitation frequency range. Consequently, the TQCM sensor responses are well below their qualification environments. It is indicated that these high-frequency responses due to the typical instrument structural coupling can be significantly suppressed by a vibration passive control using the 3D vibration isolator. Thermal and contamination

  5. Estimates of residual feed intake in Holstein dairy cattle using an automated, continuous feed intake monitoring system (United States)

    Improving feed efficiency of cattle is a primary goal in livestock production to reduce feed costs and production impacts on the environment. In dairy cattle, studies to estimate efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) are limited primarily due to a lack ...

  6. Analysis of pirlimycin residues in beef muscle, milk and honey by a biotin-streptavidin-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (United States)

    Food contamination caused by veterinary drug residues is a world-wide public health concern and requires continuous monitoring. In this paper, we describe a biotin–streptavidin-amplified ELISA (BA-ELISA) for detecting pirlimycin residues in beef, milk, and honey. The IC50 value of the BA-ELISA was...

  7. Uptake of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper by the pulmonate mollusc, Helix aspersa Muller, and its relevance to the monitoring of heavy metal contamination of the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Martin, M.H.


    The occurrence of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper in individuals of Helix aspersa from two sites of varying degrees of contamination was studied. Zinc, cadmium, and copper were shown to increase in a linear fashion with animal weight. The rate of uptake for zinc and cadmium in particular was significantly greater at the more contaminated site. Statistical analysis of the data, using correlation and regression techniques, provided information on apparent intermetallic effects. It is concluded that because metal uptake and body weight show a positive linear relationship only the use of animals of similar weight and/or size can be used for monitoring purposes. Even then, different patterns of uptake into different organs and interactions between metal uptakes are such as to seriously question the use of Helix, and other molluscs, for monitoring purposes unless specific organs from comparably sized and/or aged animals are used.

  8. Evaluation of Using Caged Clams to Monitor Contaminated Groundwater Exposure in the Near-Shore Environment of the Hanford Site 300 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Kyle B.; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.


    The Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) has been identified as an indicator species for locating and monitoring contaminated groundwater in the Columbia River. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a field study to explore the use of caged Asiatic clams to monitor contaminated groundwater upwelling in the 300 Area near-shore environment and assess seasonal differences in uranium uptake in relation to seasonal flow regimes of the Columbia River. Additional objectives included examining the potential effects of uranium accumulation on growth, survival, and tissue condition of the clams. This report documents the field conditions and procedures, laboratory procedures, and statistical analyses used in collecting samples and processing the data. Detailed results are presented and illustrated, followed by a discussion comparing uranium concentrations in Asiatic clams collected at the 300 Area and describing the relationship between river discharge, groundwater indicators, and uranium in clams. Growth and survival, histology, and other sources of environmental variation also are discussed.

  9. A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment: current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring. (United States)

    Petrie, Bruce; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara


    This review identifies understudied areas of emerging contaminant (EC) research in wastewaters and the environment, and recommends direction for future monitoring. Non-regulated trace organic ECs including pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and personal care products are focused on due to ongoing policy initiatives and the expectant broadening of environmental legislation. These ECs are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, mainly derived from the discharge of municipal wastewater effluents. Their presence is of concern due to the possible ecological impact (e.g., endocrine disruption) to biota within the environment. To better understand their fate in wastewaters and in the environment, a standardised approach to sampling is needed. This ensures representative data is attained and facilitates a better understanding of spatial and temporal trends of EC occurrence. During wastewater treatment, there is a lack of suspended particulate matter analysis due to further preparation requirements and a lack of good analytical approaches. This results in the under-reporting of several ECs entering wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) and the aquatic environment. Also, sludge can act as a concentrating medium for some chemicals during wastewater treatment. The majority of treated sludge is applied directly to agricultural land without analysis for ECs. As a result there is a paucity of information on the fate of ECs in soils and consequently, there has been no driver to investigate the toxicity to exposed terrestrial organisms. Therefore a more holistic approach to environmental monitoring is required, such that the fate and impact of ECs in all exposed environmental compartments are studied. The traditional analytical approach of applying targeted screening with low resolution mass spectrometry (e.g., triple quadrupoles) results in numerous chemicals such as transformation products going undetected. These can exhibit similar toxicity to the parent EC, demonstrating the necessity

  10. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocious Male Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); James, Brenda B. (Cascade Aquatics, Ellensburg, WA)


    This report examines some of the factors that can influence the success of supplementation, which is currently being tested in the Yakima Basin using upper Yakima stock of spring chinook salmon. Supplementation success in the Yakima Basin is defined relative to four topic areas: natural production, genetics, ecological interactions, and harvest (Busack et al. 1997). The success of spring chinook salmon supplementation in the Yakima Basin is dependent, in part, upon fish culture practices and favorable physical and biological conditions in the natural environment (Busack et al. 1997; James et al. 1999; Pearsons et al., 2003; Pearsons et al. 2004). Shortfalls in either of these two topics (i.e., failure in culturing many fish that have high long-term fitness or environmental conditions that constrain spring chinook salmon production) will cause supplementation success to be limited. For example, inadvertent selection or propagation of spring chinook that residualize or precocially mature may hinder supplementation success. Spring chinook salmon that residualize (do not migrate during the normal migration period) may have lower survival rates than migrants and, additionally, may interact with wild fish and cause unacceptable impacts to non-target taxa. Large numbers of precocials (nonanadromous spawners) may increase competition for females and significantly skew ratios of offspring sired by nonanadromous males, which could result in more nonanadromous spring chinook in future generations. Conditions in the natural environment may also limit the success of spring chinook supplementation. For example, intra or interspecific competition may constrain spring chinook salmon production. Spring chinook salmon juveniles may compete with each other for food or space or compete with other species that have similar ecological requirements. Monitoring of spring chinook salmon residuals, precocials, prey abundance, carrying capacity, and competition will help researchers

  11. Study on Developing Safety Infrastructure for Mineral Processing Waste (NORM Waste) and Contamination Monitoring at the TINT Rare Earth Research & Development Center, Khlong 5, Pathumthani, Thailand (United States)

    Yaanant, N.; Kasemtanasak, V.; Pattanasub, A.; O-manee, A.; Khaweerat, S.; Pruantonsai, P.; Akharawutchayanon, T.; Nuanjan, P.; Punbut, S.; Srimork, P.; Prasertchiewchan, N.


    The objective of this study is to prepare all technical and administrative actions leading to the release of the disused radiological facilities from regulatory control and safe management of radioactive waste. In the first phase, the study covers: the preliminary site characterization, waste characterization, the preparation for authorization of the foreseen strategy and activities. The first phase study shows that several areas of the TINT’s Rare Earth Research & Development Center are contaminated, such as the U/Th extraction, monazite processing and NORM residues storage.

  12. The Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus; Squamata: Varanidae) as a sentinel species for lead and cadmium contamination in sub-Saharan wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciliberti, Alexandre [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile, UMR 1233 Mycotoxines et Toxicologie Comparee des Xenobiotiques (France); Berny, Philippe, E-mail: [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile, UMR 1233 Mycotoxines et Toxicologie Comparee des Xenobiotiques (France); Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure [Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Vetagro-Sup, Campus Veterinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, F-69280 Marcy-l' Etoile (France); Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, F-69622, Villeurbanne (France); Buffrenil, Vivian de [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 48, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75005 Paris, Departement Histoire de la Terre, UMR 7207 CR2P (France)


    Wetland pollution is a matter of concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Though regularly exploited, the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus), a large amphibious lizard, is not threatened. This work aims at assessing the value of this varanid as a sentinel species in surveys of environmental contamination by metals. Lead and cadmium quantifications were performed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry in bone, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle in 71 monitors from three unevenly polluted sites in Mali and Niger, plus a reference site. The effects of sex, size and fat reserves as well as factors related to the sampling strategy (tissue sampled, sampling site) were studied with a mixed linear model. Metal contamination is moderate at the four sites but clear differences nevertheless occur. Lead levels are generally maximal in bone, with a gender-independent median value 320 ng.g{sup -1}. Median cadmium concentrations never exceed 70.2 ng.g{sup -1} in females (kidney) and 57.5 ng.g{sup -1} in males (intestine). Such levels should have no detrimental effects on the monitors. Lead and cadmium levels in muscles are generally below 200 and 20 ng.g{sup -1}, respectively, and should provoke no health hazard to occasional consumers of monitor meat. Metal organotropisms are consistent with those observed in other studies about Squamates: for lead: bone > [kidney, intestine, liver] > muscle in males and [bone, kidney] > [intestine, liver] > muscle in females; for cadmium: [liver, intestine, kidney] > [bone, muscle] for both genders. Females are more contaminated, especially in their kidneys. In this tissue, median values in ng.g{sup -1} are 129.7 and 344.0 for lead and 43.0 and 70.2 for cadmium, for males and females, respectively. Nile monitors can reveal subtle differences in local pollution by metals; moreover, the spatial resolution of the pollution indication that they give seems to be very sharp. The practical relevance of this new tool is thus validated.

  13. Computer-Aided Evaluation of Breast MRI for the Residual Tumor Extent and Response Monitoring in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyou, Chae Yeon; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University Hospital and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Mi; Jang, Mi Jung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Seon [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seung Yon [School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the accuracy of a computer-aided evaluation program (CAE) of breast MRI for the assessment of residual tumor extent and response monitoring in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Fifty-seven patients with breast cancers who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI before and after chemotherapy were included as part of this study. For the assessment of residual tumor extent after completion of chemotherapy, the mean tumor diameters measured by radiologists and CAE were compared to those on histopathology using a paired student t-test. Moreover, the agreement between unidimensional (1D) measurement by radiologist and histopathological size or 1D measurement by CAE and histopathological size was assessed using the Bland-Altman method. For chemotherapy monitoring, we evaluated tumor response through the change in the 1D diameter by a radiologist and CAE and three-dimensional (3D) volumetric change by CAE based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Agreement between the 1D response by the radiologist versus the 1D response by CAE as well as by the 3D response by CAE were evaluated using weighted kappa (k) statistics. For the assessment of residual tumor extent after chemotherapy, the mean tumor diameter measured by radiologists (2.0 {+-} 1.7 cm) was significantly smaller than the mean histological diameter (2.6 {+-} 2.3 cm) (p = 0.01), whereas, no significant difference was found between the CAE measurements (mean = 2.2 {+-} 2.0 cm) and histological diameter (p = 0.19). The mean difference between the 1D measurement by the radiologist and histopathology was 0.6 cm (95% confidence interval: -3.0, 4.3), whereas the difference between CAE and histopathology was 0.4 cm (95% confidence interval: -3.9, 4.7). For the monitoring of response to chemotherapy, the 1D measurement by the radiologist and CAE showed a fair agreement (k = 0.358), while the 1D measurement by the radiologist

  14. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 5 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L.; James, Brenda B. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)


    This report examines some of the factors that can influence the success of supplementation, which is currently being tested in the Yakima Basin using upper Yakima stock of spring chinook salmon. Supplementation success in the Yakima Basin is defined relative to four topic areas: natural production, genetics, ecological interactions, and harvest (Busack et al. 1997). The success of spring chinook salmon supplementation in the Yakima Basin is dependent, in part, upon fish culture practices and favorable physical and biological conditions in the natural environment (Busack et al. 1997; James et al. 1999; Pearsons et al., 2003). Shortfalls in either of these two topics (i.e., failure in culturing many fish that have high long-term fitness or environmental conditions that constrain spring chinook salmon production) will cause supplementation success to be limited. For example, inadvertent selection or propagation of spring chinook that residualize or precocially mature may hinder supplementation success. Spring chinook salmon that residualize (do not migrate during the normal migration period) may have lower survival rates than migrants and, additionally, may interact with wild fish and cause unacceptable impacts to non-target taxa. Large numbers of precocials (nonanadromous spawners) may increase competition for females and significantly skew ratios of offspring sired by nonanadromous males, which could result in more nonanadromous spring chinook in future generations. Conditions in the natural environment may also limit the success of spring chinook supplementation. For example, intra or interspecific competition may constrain spring chinook salmon production. Spring chinook salmon juveniles may compete with each other for food or space or compete with other species that have similar ecological requirements. Monitoring of spring chinook salmon residuals, precocials, prey abundance, carrying capacity, and competition will help researchers interpret why supplementation

  15. In situ mass spectrometry monitoring of fungal cultures led to the identification of four peptaibols with a rare threonine residue. (United States)

    Sica, Vincent P; Rees, Evan R; Raja, Huzefa A; Rivera-Chávez, José; Burdette, Joanna E; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H


    Peptaibols are an intriguing class of fungal metabolites due both to their wide range of reported bioactivities and to the structural variability that can be generated by the exchange of variable amino acid building blocks. In an effort to streamline the discovery of structurally diverse peptaibols, a mass spectrometry surface sampling technique was applied to screen the chemistry of fungal cultures in situ. Four previously undescribed peptaibols, all containing a rare threonine residue, were identified from a fungal culture (MSX53554), which was identified as Nectriopsis Maire (Bionectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota). These compounds not only increased the known threonine-containing peptaibols by nearly 20%, but also, the threonine residue was situated in a unique place compared to the other reported threonine-containing peptaibols. After the initial in situ detection and characterization, a large-scale solid fermentation culture was grown. The four peptaibols were isolated and characterized by mass spectrometry. In addition, one of the peptaibols was fully characterized by NMR and amino acid analysis using Marfey's reagent and exhibited moderate in vitro anticancer activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitoring quinolone antibacterial residues in bovine tissues: extraction with hot water and liquid chromatography coupled to a single- or triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. (United States)

    Bogialli, Sara; D'Ascenzo, Giuseppe; Di Corcia, Antonio; Innocenti, Giorgiana; Laganà, Aldo; Pacchiarotta, Tiziana


    A rapid and sensitive procedure for determining residues of seven quinolone antibacterials in bovine muscle, kidney and liver is presented. The method is based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique with hot water as extractant followed by liquid chromatography/single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). After dispersing tissue samples on hydrazine sulfate treated sand, target compounds were eluted from the MSPD column by passing through it 4 mL of water heated at 100 degrees C. After pH adjustment and filtration, 200 and 5 microL of the aqueous extracts were respectively injected into the LC/MS and LC/MS/MS instruments. With the former instrument, MS data were acquired in the three-ion selected ion monitoring mode, while MS/MS data acquisition was performed in the multi-reaction monitoring mode by selecting two precursor ion to product ion transitions for each target compound. Hot water appeared to be an efficient extracting medium, since absolute recoveries of the analytes were 84-102%. Using norfloxacin (a quinolone not used in veterinary medicine) as surrogate internal standard, the accuracy of the method at three concentration levels equal to 0.5, 1 and 1.5 times the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by the european union was 88-109% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) not higher than 7%. The use of LC/MS/MS allowed detection and quantification of the analytes in any tissue considered to be performed at concentrations by far lower than half of their MRLs. Vice versa, the single-quadrupole MS arrangement, while succeeding in monitoring quinolones in muscle tissue at the 0.5 MRL level, showed to be not sufficiently selective for unambiguous identification of some quinolones in kidney and liver.

  17. PCDD/F and WHO-PCB contamination in an industrialized area in Brazil. First results of atmospheric monitoring and the use of Tillandsia usneoides (L) as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, M. de S. [Dept. de Geoquimica, Univ. Federal Fluminense. Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Waller, U.; Reifenhaeuser, W.; Koerner, W. [Bavarian Environmental Protection Agency, Augsburg (Germany); Torres, J.P.; Malm, O. [Inst. de Biofisica, CCS-UFRJ. Ilha do Fundao, RJ (Brazil)


    A major issue of concern in developing countries like Brazil is to conciliate increasing industrialization rates to secure health and environmental standards already required to promote the free market among countries. This was pointed out during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 (Agenda 21). There it became clear that Brazil needs to develop better methods and techniques for environmental monitoring in order to control pollution sources and promote sustainable development. Among dozens of different kinds of persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are a matter of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicological properties. PCDD and PCDF are unwanted by-products from the combustion of organic material containing trace amounts of chlorine set free in both stationary thermal sources and diffuse fuel burning. They can also be present as unwanted by-products of various industrial and metallurgical processes and metal recycling and smelters. PCB are ubiquitous contaminants of the environment and can be produced during thermal processes. In spite of their high environmental persistence and relevance in human health concerns, legal aspects regarding maximum emission limits and control of these contaminants are absent in Brazil at present. Moreover, the absence of adequately equipped laboratories and human resources together with the high costs associated hampers the research and monitoring of these contaminants in Brazil. The present work is a first report of the monitoring of total deposition rates of PCDD/PCDF and PCB in Volta Redonda City, a highly industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro State. Simultaneously, the use of an endemic Bromeliad species, Tillandsia usneoides (L), an epiphytic bromeliad, as a possible bio-monitor for persistent organochlorine compounds was investigated.

  18. Geophysical technique and groundwater monitoring to detect leachate contamination in the surrounding area of a landfill--Londrina (PR--Brazil). (United States)

    Lopes, Deize Dias; Silva, Sandra M C P; Fernandes, Fernandes; Teixeira, Raquel S; Celligoi, André; Dall'Antônia, Luiz Henrique


    The aim of the present study was to define leachate plume by using two techniques: geophysical and groundwater sampling in order to evaluate groundwater contamination. After performing a topographic survey and using geophysics, the leachate plume was identified. With this data, the wells for groundwater monitoring were located. Groundwater samples were analyzed for: COD, BOD, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, TKN and heavy metals. Through the electroresistivity method it was possible to define the shape of plume contamination. This method was important to locate the groundwater monitoring wells. The results of the physicochemical parameters showed the suitability of the geophysical study. The highest values of electric conductivity and alkalinity correspond to the wells located in the area interpreted as contaminated by leachate in the map of the resistivity. Even with seasonal variations, BOD values are low if compared to Brazilian environmental regulations, but COD values are higher up to 40 times the values of BOD. The concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd and Cu in the groundwater are below the limits established by the potable water quality standards in Brazil, except for Pb whose concentration in groundwater were higher if compared to Brazilian legislation.

  19. Aquatic Global Passive Sampling (AQUA-GAPS) Revisited: First Steps toward a Network of Networks for Monitoring Organic Contaminants in the Aquatic Environment. (United States)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Muir, Derek; Zeng, Eddy Y; Bao, Lian-Jun; Allan, Ian J; Arinaitwe, Kenneth; Booij, Kees; Helm, Paul; Kaserzon, Sarit; Mueller, Jochen F; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Smedes, Foppe; Tsapakis, Manolis; Wong, Charles S; You, Jing


    Organic contaminants, in particular persistent organic pollutants (POPs), adversely affect water quality and aquatic food webs across the globe. As of now, there is no globally consistent information available on concentrations of dissolved POPs in water bodies. The advance of passive sampling techniques has made it possible to establish a global monitoring program for these compounds in the waters of the world, which we call the Aquatic Global Passive Sampling (AQUA-GAPS) network. A recent expert meeting discussed the background, motivations, and strategic approaches of AQUA-GAPS, and its implementation as a network of networks for monitoring organic contaminants (e.g., POPs and others contaminants of concern). Initially, AQUA-GAPS will demonstrate its operating principle via two proof-of-concept studies focused on the detection of legacy and emerging POPs in freshwater and coastal marine sites using both polyethylene and silicone passive samplers. AQUA-GAPS is set up as a decentralized network, which is open to other participants from around the world to participate in deployments and to initiate new studies. In particular, participants are sought to initiate deployments and studies investigating the presence of legacy and emerging POPs in Africa, Central, and South America.

  20. Critical evaluation of monitoring strategy for the multi-residue determination of 90 chiral and achiral micropollutants in effluent wastewater. (United States)

    Petrie, Bruce; Proctor, Kathryn; Youdan, Jane; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara


    It is essential to monitor the release of organic micropollutants from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for developing environmental risk assessment and assessing compliance with legislative regulation. In this study the impact of sampling strategy on the quantitative determination of micropollutants in effluent wastewater was investigated. An extended list of 90 chiral and achiral micropollutants representing a broad range of biological and physico-chemical properties were studied simultaneously for the first time. During composite sample collection micropollutants can degrade resulting in the under-estimation of concentration. Cooling collected sub-samples to 4°C stabilised ≥81 of 90 micropollutants to acceptable levels (±20% of the initial concentration) in the studied effluents. However, achieving stability for all micropollutants will require an integrated approach to sample collection (i.e., multi-bottle sampling with more than one stabilisation method applied). Full-scale monitoring of effluent revealed time-paced composites attained similar information to volume-paced composites (influent wastewater requires a sampling mode responsive to flow variation). The option of monitoring effluent using time-paced composite samplers is advantageous as not all WWTPs have flow controlled samplers or suitable sites for deploying portable flow meters. There has been little research to date on the impact of monitoring strategy on the determination of chiral micropollutants at the enantiomeric level. Variability in wastewater flow results in a dynamic hydraulic retention time within the WWTP (and upstream sewerage system). Despite chiral micropollutants being susceptible to stereo-selective degradation, no diurnal variability in their enantiomeric distribution was observed. However, unused medication can be directly disposed into the sewer network creating short-term (e.g., daily) changes to their enantiomeric distribution. As enantio-specific toxicity is observed

  1. GIS applied to agriclimatological zoning and agrotoxin residue monitoring in tomatoes: A case study in Espírito Santo state, Brazil. (United States)

    dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Teixeira, Luciano José Quintão; Saraiva, Sérgio Henriques; Freitas, Deivid França; Pereira, Olavo dos Santos; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Eugenio, Fernando Coelho; Neves, Antônio Augusto; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro; Scherer, Rodrigo


    Searches related to global warming have provided important insights into the response of terrestrial ecosystems, but few have examined the impacts on agricultural crops, particularly those associated with the monitoring of agrotoxin residues. In this context, the agriclimatological zoning is an important tool in the planning and consolidation of crops and should be considered in any initiative that involves such planning. This tool is particularly important in the analysis of agrotoxin residues and may be applied by the Program Analysis of Agrotoxin Residues in Food (PARA) created by the National Health Vigilance Agency of Brazil (ANVISA), which enables greater food security and contributes to the improvement of human health. The aim of this study was to elaborate the current and future agriclimatological zoning for the tomato crop, relating it with the monitoring of samples collected by PARA in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The results indicate that a temperature increase of 5 °C creates a decrease in apt areas from 37.3% to 4.3%, for a total reduction of 33 percentage points (-88.5%). It is noted that of the 41 producing municipalities, only 26 have apt areas greater than 50%, highlighting the municipalities with apt areas greater than 90%, represented by Mantenópolis (100%), Guaçuí (98.5%), São José do Calçado (97.8%), Irupi (94.4%), Santa Teresa (92.3%), and Marechal Floriano (91.4%). The veracity of agriclimatological zoning is proved by a Kendall rank correlation coefficient of 0.876, indicating that the distribution of the variables of apt areas and productivity are similar at the significance level of 0.05 with a confidence interval 95%. After validation of the agriclimatological zoning for the tomato crop, it is recommended that the PARA should monitor 36 municipalities rather than the current 18, representing an increase of 100%. The methodology can be adjusted to agricultural crops of other countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. VAMOS: The verification and monitoring options study: Current research options for in-situ monitoring and verification of contaminant remediation and containment within the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsill, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R.D. [Tech Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Verification and Monitoring Options Study Project (VAMOS) was established to identify high-priority options for future vadose-zone environmental research in the areas of in-situ remediation monitoring, post-closure monitoring, and containment emplacement and verification monitoring. VAMOS examined projected needs not currently being met with applied technology in order to develop viable monitoring and verification research options. The study emphasized a compatible systems approach to reinforce the need for utilizing compatible components to provide user friendly site monitoring systems. To identify the needs and research options related to vadose-zone environmental monitoring and verification, a literature search and expert panel forums were conducted. The search included present drivers for environmental monitoring technology, technology applications, and research efforts. The forums included scientific, academic, industry, and regulatory environmental professionals as well as end users of environmental technology. The experts evaluated current and future monitoring and verification needs, methods for meeting these needs, and viable research options and directions. A variety of high-priority technology development, user facility, and technology guidance research options were developed and presented as an outcome of the literature search and expert panel forums.

  3. 广州地区奶类抗生素残留和金黄色葡萄球菌污染调查%Investigation on antibiotic residual and staphyloccocus aureus rosenbach contamination in milk of guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 刘巧宜; 龙芝美; 邓志爱; 肖扬; 李迎月


    Objective To investigate the milk contamination caused by antibiotic residual and staphyloccocus aureus Rosenbach in Cuangzhou Method During 2006 to 2009, 302 milk samples from ten distncts and two counties of Guangzhou were collected. Antibiotic residual, staphyloccocus aureus rosenbach and staphylococal enterotoxin were detected. Staphylococcus aureus rosenbach was detected by national CB method. Antibiotic residual and staphylococcal enterotoxins were detected by kits. Results Among 302 samples, 62 were antibiotic residual positive, the positive rate was 20. 53% , the milk powder was the highest (29. 51%) , and followed by pure milk (22. 67% ) . The positive rate of antibiotic residual has been increasing year by year. staphyloccocus aureus rosenbach and staphylococcal enterotoxin were not detected from the 42 randomly selected milk samples. In ten milk products, seven were detected staphylococcus aureus and five of them staphylococcal enterotoxin were positive. Conclusions High antibiotic residual risk in the milk products and the contamination of fresh milk were antibiotic residual, staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin in Guangzhou, the data showed that milk source exit contamination Supervisory board should further regulate the supply of fresh milk; strengthen the control and surveillance of antibiotic residual in milk products, in order to maintain the Sood health of the general public.%目的 为了解广州地区奶类抗生素残留和金黄色葡萄球菌污染状况.方法 2006-2009年期间,采用随机抽样方法分别对我市十个区以及两个地级市共计302份奶类样品进行了抗生素残留、金黄色葡萄球菌以及葡萄球菌肠毒素的检测.金黄色葡萄球菌的检测按照国标GB4789.10进行;抗生素残留和葡萄球菌肠毒素的检测则依照试剂盒的要求进行.结果 302份样品,其中有62份检测到有抗生素残留,阳性率为20.53%;奶粉类为高,29.51%;纯奶类次之,为22

  4. Concentrations of contaminants in muscle of the American alligator in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delany, M.F.; Bell, J.U.; Sundlof, S.F.


    Samples of tail muscle from 32 American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida were analyzed for contaminant concentrations to provide preliminary information on the potential public health hazard of meat consumption. Detectable levels were found for eight metals; copper, zinc, iron, chromium, mercury, lead, cadmium and arsenic. Mean residue was highest for mercury (geometric mean = 0.61 ppm). DDE, DDD, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, and PCB's were found. Mean residue concentrations were compared by lake. Alligators appeared to be suitable monitors of environmental pollution. Concentrations of contaminants found in these animals probably pose little threat to public health. However, recommendations must await analysis of larger sample sizes and information on amount and frequency of meat consumption. Alligators killed for human consumption should continue to be monitored for contaminant residues.

  5. Survival, growth, and body residues of Hyalella azteca (Saussure) exposed to fipronil contaminated sediments from non-vegetated and vegetated microcosms (United States)

    We assessed chronic effects of fipronil and metabolite contaminated sediments from non-vegetated and Thallia dealbata vegetated wetland microcosms on Hyalella azteca during wet and dry exposures. Mean sediment concentrations (ng g-1) ranged from 0.72-1.26, 0.01-0.69, 0.07-0.23, and 0.49-7.87 for fip...

  6. 2010年-2012年包头市食品中化学污染物监测结果分析%Analysis on chemical contaminant monitoring result of food in Baotou city from 2010 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志红; 要媛; 贺敏


    Objective:To understand the pollution of chemical contamination in food in Baotou. Methods: According to "Food safety risk monitoring plan of Inner Mongolia" , different kinds of food were collected to monitor and analyze some heavy metals, food additives, pesticide residues and other chemical contaminants in Baotou urban and two counties from 2010 to 2012. Results: As to metals pollution, the over - limit rate was 3.75% (12/320) for lead, 2.50% (6/240) for cadmium, 31.00% (31/3100) for aluminum. While the over -limit rate of food additives was 4.52% (14/310), including nitrite(5.00% ) , sodium saccharin( 15.56% ) , benzoic acid and sorbic acid (6. 67% ). The over - limit rate of vegetable residues was 5. 00% and methamidophos was not detected. In addition, the prohibited additives and mycotoxins were found in the limited range. Conclusion: The overall level of chemical contaminations in market food was low, but there are still contamination in some food, more attention should be paid to take specific measures to strengthen supervision to ensure public health.%目的:了解包头市市售食品的污染状况.方法:按《内蒙古自治区食品安全风险监测方案》的要求,2010年-2012年在包头市区及2个旗县区采集各类食品进行部分重金属、食品添加剂、农药残留等化学污染物的监测分析.结果:金属污染情况:铅超标率3.75% (12/320),镉超标率2.50% (6/240),铝超标率31.00% (31/100).食品添加剂污染情况:食品添加剂超标率4.52% (14/310),其中亚硝酸盐超标率5.00%,糖精钠超标率15.56%,苯甲酸、山梨酸超标率6.67%.蔬菜农药残留超标率5.00%(甲胺磷不得检出).违禁添加物、真菌毒素监测项目未有超标.结论:包头市售食品污染总体水平较低,但部分食品仍存在污染,应引起重视,采取针对性措施,加强监管力度,保证大众健康.

  7. Development of high-throughput multi-residue method for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs monitoring in swine muscle by LC-MS/MS. (United States)

    Castilhos, Tamara S; Barreto, Fabiano; Meneghini, Leonardo; Bergold, Ana Maria


    A reliable and simple method for the detection and quantification of residues of 14 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and a metamizole metabolite in swine muscle was developed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with acetonitrile (ACN) in solid-liquid extraction followed by a low-temperature partitioning (LLE-LTP) process at -20 ± 2°C. After evaporation to dryness, the residue was reconstituted with hexane and a mixture of water:acetonitrile (1:1). LC separation was achieved on a reversed-phase (RP18) column with gradient elution using water (phase A) and ACN (phase B) both containing 1 mmol l(-)(1) ammonium acetate (NH4COO) with 0.025% acetic acid. Analysis was carried out on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode using an electrospray interface in negative and positive mode in a single run. Method validation was performed according to the criteria of Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC. The matrix effect and linearity were evaluated. Decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), accuracy and repeatability of the method are also reported. The proposed method proved to be simple, easy and adequate for high-throughput analysis and was applied to routine analysis by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply.

  8. Flow cytometric minimal residual disease monitoring in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated by regimens with reduced intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Popov


    Full Text Available 191 consecutive unselected children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged from 1 to 16 years were enrolled in the study. Bone marrow samples were obtained at the time of initial diagnostics as well as at days 15 (n = 188, 36 (n = 191, and 85 (n = 187 of remission induction. Minimal residual disease (MRD was assessed by 6–10-color flow cytometry. Flow cytometry data at day 15 allowed distinguishing three patients groups with significantly different outcome (p ˂ 0.0001: 35.64 % patients with MRD < 0.1 % represented 5-year event-free survival (EFS of 100 %; 48.40 % cases with 0.1 % ≤ MRD< 10 % had EFS 84.6 ± 4.2 %; 15.96 % patients with very high MRD (≥ 10 % belonged to group with poor outcome (EFS 56.7 ± 9.0 %. At the end of remission induction (day 36 36 children (18.85 % with MRD higher than 0.1 % had significantly worse outcome compared to remaining ones (EFS 49.4 ± 9.0 and 93.5 ± 2.1 % respectively; p ˂ 0.0001. From a clinical standpoint it is relevant to evaluate both low-risk and high-risk criteria. Multivariate analysis showed that day 15 MRD data is better for low-risk patients definition while end-induction MRD is the strongest unfavorable prognostic factor.

  9. Mussel-based monitoring of trace metal and organic contaminants along the east coast of China using Perna viridis and Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, C.N.; Lam, J.C.W.; Zheng, G.J.; Connell, D.W.; Monirith, I.; Tanabe, S.; Richardson, B.J.; Lam, P.K.S


    Green lipped mussels, Perna viridis, and blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were collected from seven locations along the east coast of China in September and October 2001. The mussel tissues were analyzed for metals (Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, Cu, Fe and Hg), and trace organic contaminants including organochlorine compounds (OCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; based on 24 individual PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Maximum concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, Cu, Fe and Hg in the mussel tissues were 0.14, 26.76, 5.31, 15.72, 4.78, 2.93, 7.40, 231.0, 54.17, 1002 and 317.3 {mu}g/g dry weight respectively. Levels of DDTs, PAHs, PCBs and PHCs in the mussel samples were 14-640, 456-3495, 1-13 ng/g and 621-2863 {mu}g/g dry weight, respectively. Results of this study indicated that contaminant levels were, in general, higher or at least comparable to those reported in other local or regional studies. Mussel samples collected in Chongming Dao in Shanghai and Jiao Zhou Wan in Qingdao had significantly higher levels of metal and trace organic contaminants among the seven sampling stations. Examination of the contaminant profiles suggests that PHCs originated from petrogenic sources, while both petrogenic and pyrolytic sources were important for PAHs. The generally high levels of metals and organochlorine compounds are probably the result of increasingly intense industrial activities along the east coast of China. An assessment of potential risks to human health due to consumption of the mussels was undertaken for the metals, PCBs, DDTs and chlordanes, and the results indicated that all metals, except Ni, could pose a health risk to heavy seafood consumers, while Hg appears to be of concern even for low level consumers. - Mussel-based monitoring revealed trace metal and organic contaminants which pose potential human health risks.

  10. Integrated project: Microbiological and physiological studies on the presence of residual concentrations in mineral-oil-contaminated soils after rehabilitation. Final report. Pt. 2; Mikrobiologische und physiologische Untersuchungen zur Frage der Restkonzentration bei der Sanierung mineraloelkontaminierter Boeden. Abschlussbericht. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miethe, D.; Riis, V.; Stimming, M.


    It has been known for a long time that microorganisms are able to utilise mineral oils. Today various methods are practised which exploit autochthonous microorganisms` ability to utilise mineral oils. The main problem of microbial decomposition of hydrocarbons is that mineral oil residues remain. The aim of the present research project was therefore to determine the limits of the metabolisability of the substrate and find out why residues remain. Mineral oils and residual fractions differ markedly in their decomposability. Intermediate distillates are easily decomposed to a degree of 95-97% by well-adapted consorts. For high-boiling mineral oils (bp>400 C) the degree of decomposition is approx. 60%. Extracts from contaminated sites range from 40 to 60% in their degree of decomposability. The incomplete microbial decomposition of mineral oils is mainly due to their structure. There remain chemically and thermally extremely, inert hydrocarbons (mainly aliphatic and aromatic fused-ring systems) which are either hardly metabolisable or not at all. An important factor in soils or at other contaminated sites is that some of the substrate is not available because it is bound to the matrix thus increasing the proportion of residue. The next task after examining and presenting the causes of incomplete decomposition is to minimise residual mineral oil concentrations remaining after microbial decomposition. Here the use of special surfactants or of auxiliary substrates could point a way. Project applications to this end have already been submitted to the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. (orig.) [Deutsch] Dass Mikroorganismen in der Lage sind, Mineraloele zu verwerten, ist seit langem bekannt. Verfahren, die das Potential autochthoner Mikroorganismen zur Verwertung von Mineraloelen nutzen sind Praxis. Hauptproblem beim mikrobiellen Abbau der Kohlenwasserstoffe ist das Verbleiben von Mineraloelresten. Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens war die Ermittlung der Grenzen

  11. Chemical amendment and phytostabilization of an industrial residue contaminated with Zn and Cd Correção química e fitoestabilização de um resíduo industrial contaminado com Zn e Cd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Soares dos Santos


    Full Text Available Phytostabilisation of a contaminated soil with heavy metals is considered a very appropriate technology to reduce erosion and dispersion of contaminants. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effects of both chemical amendments (calcium silicate and brewery sludge, and phytoremediation using the grass Brachiaria decumbens, on an industrial residue contaminated with Zn and Cd (industrial residue. Industrial residue samples placed into 30 L containers were amended with 20% brewery sludge, calcium silicate (2%, 3%, and 20% of brewery sludge + calcium silicate (2.5%, 4%, and were compared to the control treatment (non-amended residue. After pH stabilization, B. decumbens plants were grown on all treatments in order to evaluate the ability of the species to tolerate high Zn and Cd concentrations from the residue. Samples were collected twice, at planting and harvesting, for pH determination and simple extractions with water, sodium nitrate, acetic acid and DTPA. Differences in Zn and Cd concentrations in extracts allowed to estimate the concentrations of these elements in the most likely chemical forms they are found in the residue. Alkaline and organic industrial amendments reduced Zn and Cd percentages, both in the soluble and exchangeable fractions, as well as caused the predominance of Zn and Cd in the most stable chemical fractions, such as complexed and precipitated compounds. B. decumbens was tolerant to Zn and Cd from the industrial residue after addition of the amendments.A fitoestabilização de solos contaminados com metais pesados é considerada uma boa alternativa para reduzir a erosão e dispersão de contaminantes no ambiente. Foi conduzido um experimento em casa-de-vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar a contenção química (silicato de cálcio e lodo do biodigestor de uma cervejaria e a fitorremediação pela Brachiaria decumbens, de um resíduo industrial contaminado com Zn e Cd, utilizando vasos de 30 L. Os tratamentos

  12. Fatty acid composition of muscle tissue measured in amphibians living in radiologically contaminated and non-contaminated environments. (United States)

    Audette-Stuart, M; Ferreri, C; Festarini, A; Carr, J


    Fatty acid composition was identified as a potential biological indicator of the effects of environmental exposure to radiological contaminants. This end point was measured in muscle tissues of Mink frogs ( Rana septentrionalis ) obtained from a radiologically contaminated pond and from a non-contaminated pond. It was also measured after the frogs obtained from both ponds were exposed to a 4 Gy (60)Co γ radiation dose delivered in vivo at a dose rate of approximately 8 Gy/min. Statistically significant differences for the increase of a couple of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid residues and the decrease of a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid residue were observed between radiologically contaminated and non-contaminated frogs, indicating a partial remodeling of muscle lipids in response to a chronic low-dose tritium exposure. The effects of an acute high-dose exposure to (60)Co γ radiation, either for the radiologically contaminated or non-contaminated frogs indicated fast post-irradiation fatty acid changes with an increase of polyunsaturated and decrease of saturated fatty acid contents. Fatty acid composition was found to be a sensitive marker that may be useful to study and monitor biota health in environments that are radiologically contaminated, as well as for understanding the differences between low chronic and high acute stress responses.

  13. The effects of Pantoea sp. strain Y4-4 on alfalfa in the remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soil, and auxiliary impacts of plant residues on the remediation of saline-alkali soils. (United States)

    Li, Shuhuan; Wang, Jie; Gao, Nanxiong; Liu, Lizhu; Chen, Yahua


    The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Y4-4 was isolated from plant rhizosphere soil and identified as Pantoea sp. by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The effects of strain Y4-4 on alfalfa grown in heavy-metals-contaminated soil was investigated using a pot experiment. In a Cu-rich environment, the shoot dry mass and total dry mass of plants inoculated with strain Y4-4 increased by 22.6% and 21%, and Cu accumulation increased by 15%. In a Pb-Zn-rich environment, the shoot dry mass and total dry mass of plants inoculated with strain Y4-4 increased by 23.4% and 22%, and Zn accumulation increased by 30.3%. In addition, the salt tolerance and biomass of wheat seedlings could be improved by applying strain Y4-4 mixed with plant residue as a result of the Cu-rich plant residues providing copper nutrition to wheat. This study offers an efficient PGPR with strong salt tolerance and a safe strategy for the post-treatment of plant residue.

  14. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on germination and subsequent growth of grasses and legumes in freshly contaminated soil and soil with aged PAHs residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.J.; Flowers, T.H.; Duncan, H.J.; Alder, J. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Glasgow Marine Technological Centre


    The relevance of germination trials for screening plants that may have potential for use in the phytoremediation of PAH contaminated land was evaluated. The germination and subsequent growth of 7 grass and legume species were evaluated in soil spiked with a pure PAH mixture or coal tar and soil from a former coking plant heavily contaminated with aged PAHs. None of these treatments adversely affected germination of the plants. However, apart from Lolium perenne all species exhibited reduced growth in the coking plant soil after 12 weeks growth when compared to the untreated soil. In the coal tar spiked soil 4 out of the 7 species showed reduced growth, as did 3 out of the 7 in the soil spiked with a mixture of 7 PAHs. Therefore, germination studies alone would not predict the success of subsequent growth of the species tested in the ranges of soil PAH levels studied.

  15. Target and non-target screening strategies for organic contaminants, residues and illicit substances in food , environmental and human biological samples by UHPLC-QTOF-MS


    Hernández Hernández, Félix; Díaz San Pedro, Ramón; Sancho Llopis, Juan Vicente; Ibáñez Martínez, María


    In this paper, we illustrate the potential of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) for large scale screening of organic contaminants in different types of samples. Thanks to the full-spectrum acquisition at satisfactory sensitivity, it is feasible to apply both (post)-target and non-target approaches for the rapid qualitative screening of organic pollutants in food, biological and environmental samples. ...

  16. Residues of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs in eggs, fat and livers of laying hens following consumption of contaminated feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Kan, C.A.; Weg, van der G.; Onstenk, C.G.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.


    Laying hens were fed with feed from the Belgian dioxin incident diluted ten-fold with non-contaminated feed, resulting in concentrations of 61 ng TEQ kg(-1) PCDD/Fs, 23 ng TEQ kg(-1) non-ortho PCBs, 116 ng TEQ kg(-1) mono-ortho PCBs and 3.2 mg kg(-1) of the seven indicator PCBs. Following exposure f

  17. Heavy metals bioaccumulation in selected tissues of red swamp crayfish: An easy tool for monitoring environmental contamination levels. (United States)

    Goretti, E; Pallottini, M; Ricciarini, M I; Selvaggi, R; Cappelletti, D


    In this paper we explored the heavy metal bioaccumulation (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in Procambarus clarkii, a crayfish recently suggested as a potential bioindicator for metals pollution in freshwater systems. The present study is focused on crayfishes populations caught in a heavily polluted industrial and in a reference sites (Central Italy), though the results are generalized with a thorough analysis of literature metadata. In agreement with the literature, the hepatopancreas (Hep, detoxification tissues) of the red swamp crayfish showed a higher concentration of heavy metals in comparison to the abdominal muscle (AbM, not detoxification tissues) in the sites under scrutiny. Hep/AbM concentration ratio was dependent on the specific metal investigated and on its sediment contamination level. Specifically we found that Hep/AbM ratio decreases as follows: Cd (11.7)>Cu (5.5)>Pb (3.6)>Zn (1.0) and Pb (4.34)>Cd (3.66)>Zn (1.69)>Cu (0.87) for the industrial and reference sites, respectively. The analysis of our bioaccumulation data as well as of literature metadata allowed to elaborate a specific contamination index (Toxic Contamination Index, TCI), dependent only on the bioaccumulation data of hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle. In the industrial site, TCI expressed values much higher than the unit for Cd and Cu, confirming that these metals were the main contaminants; in contrast for lower levels of heavy metals, as those observed in the reference site for Cu, Zn and Pb, the index provided values below unit. TCI is proposed as a useful and easy tool to assess the toxicity level of contaminated sites by heavy metals in the environmental management.

  18. Monitoring of N-methyl carbamate pesticide residues in water using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane and solid phase extraction (United States)

    Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    The aim of this work was to develop a method for the determination of N-methyl carbamates in water involving hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) as sample preparation methods. Four N-methyl carbamate pesticides, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb sulfoxide, were simultaneously extracted and analysed by a liquid chromatograph with a diode array detector (LC-UV/DAD) and a liquid chromatograph coupled to a ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS). The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of carabamate extracts was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The mass spectrometry analyses were carried out in the positive mode, operating under both the selected ion monitoring (SIM) and full scan modes. The solid phase recoveries of the extracts ranged between 8% and 98%, with aldicarb having the highest recoveries, followed by carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb had the lowest recovery. The HFSLM recovery ranged between 8% and 58% and the order of recovery was similar to the SPE trend. Factors controlling the efficiency of the HFSLM extraction such as sample pH, stripping phase pH, enrichment time, stirring speed as well as organic solvent used for entrapment of analytes, were optimised to achieve the highest enrichment factors.

  19. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy: Health and Hygiene Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tempesta


    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy. To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school. A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found.  On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens.

  20. [Monitoring of contamination of foodstuffs with elements noxious to human health. Part II. Mineral waters, soft drinks, fruits, nuts, rice, soybeans, fish and seafood]. (United States)

    Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Mania, Monika; Brulińska-Ostrowska, Elzbieta; Biernat, Urszula; Karłowski, Kazimierz


    Results of the 5-years cycle (2004-2008) monitoring investigations on food contamination with elements noxious to human health, involving testing of mineral waters and soft drinks (226 samples), fruits (467 samples), rice (234 samples), soybeans (236 samples), nuts and peanuts (237 samples), fish and seafood (237 samples) are discussed. The parties involved in testing were: laboratories of State Sanitary Inspection and the national reference laboratory of the Department of Food and Consumer Articles Research of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. The reported metals contents did not give rise to health concerns, remaining generally below the levels set forth in food legislation and being comparable with contamination levels reported in other European countries; and for cadmium--often lower. Health hazard assessment was performed taking into account the mean contamination levels obtained and average domestic consumption of these food products groups in Poland. The highest intake expressed as the percentage of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was obtained for mercury in fish, which has reached mean 3.2% PTWI. Controlled fish consumption recommendations should be adhered to by prospective mothers, pregnant women, breast-feeding women and young children. Lead and arsenic intake with mineral waters and soft drinks comprises approx. 15% of total intake of these elements with food.

  1. First Industrial Tests of a Drum Monitor Matrix Correction for the Fissile Mass Measurement in Large Volume Historic Metallic Residues with the Differential Die-away Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, R.; Passard, C.; Perot, B.; Batifol, M.; Vandamme, J.C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance, (France); Grassi, G. [AREVA NC, 1 place Jean-Millier, 92084 Paris-La-Defense cedex (France)


    The fissile mass in radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA La Hague reprocessing plant is measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT. In the next years, old hulls and nozzles mixed with Ion-Exchange Resins will be measured. The ion-exchange resins increase neutron moderation in the matrix, compared to the waste measured in the current process. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (NML) of CEA Cadarache has studied a matrix effect correction method, based on a drum monitor ({sup 3}He proportional counter inside the measurement cavity). A previous study performed with the NML R and D measurement cell PROMETHEE 6 has shown the feasibility of method, and the capability of MCNP simulations to correctly reproduce experimental data and to assess the performances of the proposed correction. A next step of the study has focused on the performance assessment of the method on the industrial station using numerical simulation. A correlation between the prompt calibration coefficient of the {sup 239}Pu signal and the drum monitor signal was established using the MCNPX computer code and a fractional factorial experimental design composed of matrix parameters representative of the variation range of historical waste. Calculations have showed that the method allows the assay of the fissile mass with an uncertainty within a factor of 2, while the matrix effect without correction ranges on 2 decades. In this paper, we present and discuss the first experimental tests on the industrial ACC measurement system. A calculation vs. experiment benchmark has been achieved by performing dedicated calibration measurement with a representative drum and {sup 235}U samples. The preliminary comparison between calculation and experiment shows a satisfactory agreement for the drum monitor. The final objective of this work is to confirm the reliability of the

  2. Micro-flow-injection analysis (μFIA) immunoassay of herbicide residue 2,6-dichlorobenzamide – towards automated at-line monitoring using modular microfluidics. (United States)

    Uthuppu, Basil; Heiskanen, Arto; Kofoed, Dan; Aamand, Jens; Jørgensen, Claus; Dufva, Martin; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen


    As a part of developing new systems for continuously monitoring the presence of pesticides in groundwater, a microfluidic amperometric immunosensor was developed for detecting the herbicide residue 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in water. A competitive immunosorbent assay served as the sensing mechanism and amperometry was applied for detection. Both the immunoreaction chip (IRC) and detection (D) unit are integrated on a modular microfluidic platform with in-built micro-flow-injection analysis (μFIA) function. The immunosorbent, immobilized in the channel of the IRC, was found to have high long-term stability and withstand many regeneration cycles, both of which are key requirements for systems utilized in continuous monitoring. The IRC was regenerated during 51 cycles in a heterogeneous competitive assay out of which 27 were without the analyte (the highest possible signal level) in order to assess the regeneration capability of the immunosorbent. Detection of BAM standard solutions was performed in the concentration range from 62.5 μg L(-1) to 0.0008 μg L(-1). Non-linear regression of the data using the four-parameter logistic equation generated a sigmoidal standard curve showing an IC50 value (concentration that reduces the signal by 50%) of 0.25 μg L(-1). The strongest signal variation is observed in the concentration range between 0.02 and 2.5 μg L(-1), which includes the 0.1 μg L(-1) threshold limit set by the European Commission for BAM in drinking water. The presented results demonstrate the potential of the constructed μFIA immunosensor as an at-line monitoring system for controlling the quality of ground water supply.

  3. 新西兰国家化学污染物监控计划--乳制品监控%New Zealand national chemical contaminants programme--The dairy monitoring programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘良; 刘环; 焦阳; 张锡全; 贝君; 仇华磊; 张伟; 张雷


    ABSTRACT:New Zealand national chemical contaminants programme (NCCP) is a statistically based pro-gramme designed to confirm that the control of chemical residues in milk and dairy products is appropriate and effective. It assures the safety, wholesomeness and truth of labeling of milk and dairy products for both domes-tic and export markets. NCCP enables Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) to assess the effectiveness of the New Zealand regulatory programme in preventing the risk of contamination from milk production to the final dairy product, generate information on chemical contaminants in dairy production and processing to enable the industry and MPI negotiations for access to export markets and mitigate trading risks, implement surveillance testing of dairy materials or processors that pose higher risks than normal, and provide assurances that the ex-ported dairy products meet the requirements of the destination countries. The MPI of New Zealand specially formulated operational criteria of the diary monitoring programme and made a detailed list of the technical re-quirements and expectations for relative parties to fulfill specified functions under the dairy NCCP. This paper introduced the dairy NCCP and the specific operational standards and the requirements of NCCP formulated by MPI as well as the legal basis, the scope of monitoring and the monitoring process.%新西兰在统计学基础上制定国家化学污染物监控计划(national chemical contaminants programme, NCCP)的目的是:确认对乳和乳制品中化学污染物的控制是恰当和有效的。通过监控乳和乳制品中(包括出口乳品)的化学残留和污染物,确保其供给国内外市场的乳和乳制品安全、卫生,并加贴了正确、真实的标签。NCCP帮助初级产业部(Ministry for Primary Industries, MPI)据此评估新西兰预防乳制品从生产到终产品过程中污染物风险因子官方管理程序的有效性;获得乳品生产和加工过程

  4. Monitoring the bio-stimulation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by measurements of soil electrical properties, and CO2 content and its 13C/12C isotopic signature (United States)

    Noel, C.; Gourry, J.; Ignatiadis, I.; Colombano, S.; Dictor, M.; Guimbaud, C.; Chartier, M.; Dumestre, A.; Dehez, S.; Naudet, V.


    Hydrocarbon contaminated soils represent an environmental issue as it impacts on ecosystems and aquifers. Where significant subsurface heterogeneity exists, conventional intrusive investigations and groundwater sampling can be insufficient to obtain a robust monitoring of hydrocarbon contaminants, as the information they provide is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations, with no information between sampling points. In order to obtain wider information in space volume on subsurface modifications, complementary methods can be used like geophysics. Among geophysical methods, geoelectrical techniques such as electrical resistivity (ER) and induced polarization (IP) seem the more promising, especially to study the effects of biodegradation processes. Laboratory and field geoelectrical experiments to characterize soils contaminated by oil products have shown that mature hydrocarbon-contaminated soils are characterized by enhanced electrical conductivity although hydrocarbons are electrically resistive. This high bulk conductivity is due to bacterial impacts on geological media, resulting in changes in the chemical and physical properties and thus, to the geophysical properties of the ground. Moreover, microbial activity induced CO2 production and isotopic deviation of carbon. Indeed, produced CO2 will reflect the pollutant isotopic signature. Thus, the ratio δ13C(CO2) will come closer to δ13C(hydrocarbon). BIOPHY, project supported by the French National Research Agency (ANR), proposes to use electrical methods and gas analyses to develop an operational and non-destructive method for monitoring in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons in order to optimize soil treatment. Demonstration field is located in the South of Paris (France), where liquid fuels (gasoline and diesel) leaked from some tanks in 1997. In order to stimulate biodegradation, a trench has been dug to supply oxygen to the water table and thus stimulate aerobic metabolic bioprocesses. ER and

  5. Monitoring and assessment of toxic metals in Gulf War oil spill contaminated soil using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. (United States)

    Hussain, T; Gondal, M A


    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for the detection of toxic metals in oil spill contaminated soil (OSCS). The OSCS samples were collected from Khursania Saudi Arabia along the coast of Persian Gulf exposed to oil spills in 1991 Gulf war. Environmentally important elements like Aluminum Magnesium, Calcium, Chromium, Titanium, Strontium, Iron, Barium, Sodium, potassium, Zirconium and Vanadium from the contaminated soil have been detected. Optimal experimental conditions for analysis were investigated. The LIBS system was calibrated using standard samples containing these trace elements. The results obtained using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) were compared with the results obtained using Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICP). The concentrations of some elements (Ba and Cr) were found higher than permissible safe limits. Health risks associated with exposure to such toxic elements are also discussed.