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Sample records for monitors electronic tongues

  1. Automatic Monitoring Electronic Tongue with MEAs for Environmental Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaofang Zou; Hong Men; Yi Li; Yinping Wang; Ping Wang

    2006-01-01

    An automatic monitoring electronic tongue based on differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV) was developed for heavy metals analysis. Simultaneous detections of trace Zn(Ⅱ), Cd(Ⅱ), Pb(Ⅱ), Cu(Ⅱ), Fe(Ⅲ) and Cr(Ⅲ) in water samples were performed with three electrochemical sensors. The sensor chip combined a silicon-based Hg-coated Au microelectrode array (MEA) as the working electrode on one side with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode and a Pt counter electrode on the other side. With a computer controlled multipotentiostat, pumps and valves, the electronic tongue realized in-situ real-time detection of the six metals mentioned above at parts-per-billion level without manual operation.

  2. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation using near infrared and mid infrared spectroscopies combined with electronic nose and electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buratti, S., E-mail: susanna.buratti@unimi.it [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ballabio, D. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Giovanelli, G. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dominguez, C.M. Zuluanga [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Bogota (Colombia); Moles, A.; Benedetti, S.; Sinelli, N. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-07-04

    Graphical abstract: Application of non destructive methods for the monitoring of red wine fermentation in correlation with the evolution of chemical parameters. Highlights: > We monitored time-related changes in red wine fermentation process. > NIR and MIR spectroscopies, electronic nose and tongue were applied. > Data were kinetically modelled to identify critical points during fermentation. > NIR, MIR electronic nose and tongue were able to follow the fermentation process. > The models agreed with the evolution of chemical parameters. - Abstract: Effective fermentation monitoring is a growing need due to the rapid pace of change in the wine industry, which calls for fast methods providing real time information in order to assure the quality of the final product. The objective of this work is to investigate the potential of non-destructive techniques associated with chemometric data analysis, to monitor time-related changes that occur during red wine fermentation. Eight micro-fermentation trials conducted in the Valtellina region (Northern Italy) during the 2009 vintage, were monitored by a FT-NIR and a FT-IR spectrometer and by an electronic nose and tongue. The spectroscopic technique was used to investigate molecular changes, while electronic nose and electronic tongue evaluated the evolution of the aroma and taste profile during the must-wine fermentation. Must-wine samples were also analysed by traditional chemical methods in order to determine sugars (glucose and fructose) consumption and alcohol (ethanol and glycerol) production. Principal Component Analysis was applied to spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data, as an exploratory tool, to uncover molecular, aroma and taste modifications during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the chemical data and the PC1 scores from spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data were modelled as a function of time to identify critical points during fermentation. The results showed that NIR and MIR

  3. Electronic Tongue-FIA system for the Monitoring of Heavy Metal Biosorption Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D.; Florido, A.; Valderrama, C.; de Labastida, M. Fernández; Alegret, S.; del Valle, M.

    2011-09-01

    An automated flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system with electronic tongue detection (ET) was used for the monitoring of biosorption processes of heavy metals on waste biomaterial. Grape stalk wastes were used as biosorbent to remove Cu2+ ions in a fixed-bed column setup. For the monitoring, the used ET employed a sensor array formed by Cu2+ and Ca2+ selective electrodes and two generic heavy-metal electrodes. The subsequent cross-response obtained was processed by a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN) model in order to resolve the concentrations of the monitored species. The coupling of the electronic tongue with the automation features of the flow-injection system (ET-FIP) allowed us to accurately characterize the biosorption process, through obtaining its breakthrough curves. In parallel, fractions of the extract solution were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy in order to validate the results obtained with the reported methodology.

  4. Potentiometric electronic tongue-flow injection analysis system for the monitoring of heavy metal biosorption processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D; del Valle, M; Alegret, S; Valderrama, C; Florido, A

    2012-05-15

    An automated flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system with electronic tongue detection (ET) is used for the monitoring of biosorption processes of heavy metals on vegetable wastes. Grape stalk wastes are used as biosorbent to remove Cu(2+) ions in a fixed-bed column configuration. The ET is formed by a 5-sensor array with Cu(2+) and Ca(2+)-selective electrodes and electrodes with generic response to heavy-metals, plus an artificial neural network response model of the sensor's cross-response. The real-time monitoring of both the Cu(2+) and the cation exchanged and released (Ca(2+)) in the effluent solution is performed by using flow-injection potentiometric electronic tongue system. The coupling of the electronic tongue with automation features of the flow-injection system allows us to accurately characterize the Cu(2+) ion-biosorption process, through obtaining its breakthrough curves, and the profile of the Ca(2+) ion release. In parallel, fractions of the extract solution are analysed by spectroscopic techniques in order to validate the results obtained with the reported methodology. The sorption performance of grape stalks is also evaluated by means of well-established sorption models.

  5. On-line monitoring of food fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Miguel; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura

    2013-12-04

    Fermentation processes are often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, close follow-up of this type of processes is critical for detecting unfavorable deviations as early as possible in order to save downtime, materials and resources. Nevertheless the use of traditional analytical techniques is often hindered by the need for expensive instrumentation and experienced operators and complex sample preparation. In this sense, one of the most promising ways of developing rapid and relatively inexpensive methods for quality control in fermentation processes is the use of chemical multisensor systems. In this work we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the monitoring of fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues. After a brief description of the fundamentals of both types of devices, the different approaches are critically commented, their strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. Finally, future trends in this field are also mentioned in the last section of the article.

  6. Potentiometric electronic tongue-flow injection analysis system for the monitoring of heavy metal biosorption processes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    An automated flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system with electronic tongue detection (ET) is used for the monitoring of biosorption processes of heavy metals on vegetable wastes. Grape stalk wastes are used as biosorbent to remove Cu2+ ions in a fixed-bed column configuration. The ET is formed by a 5-sensor array with Cu2+ and Ca2+-selective electrodes and electrodes with generic response to heavy-metals, plus an artificial neural network response model of the sensor's cross-response. The...

  7. An Automated Electronic Tongue for In-Situ Quick Monitoring of Trace Heavy Metals in Water Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Gao, Xiaoming; Guo, Hongsun; Zhao, Huixin; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    An automated electronic tongue instrumentation has been developed for in-situ concentration determination of trace heavy metals in water environment. The electronic tongue contains two main parts. The sensor part consists of a silicon-based Hg-coated Au microelectrodes array (MEA) for the detection of Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) and a multiple light-addressable potentiometric sensor (MLAPS) for the detection of Fe(III) and Cr(VI). The control part employs pumps, valves and tubes to enable the pick-up and pretreatment of aqueous sample. The electronic tongue realized detection of the six metals mentioned above at part-per-billion (ppb) level without manual operation. This instrumentation will have wide application in quick monitoring and prediction the heavy metal pollution in lakes and oceans.

  8. Interface Electronic Circuitry for an Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.

  9. Electronic Tongue Containing Redox and Conductivity Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The Electronic Tongue (E-tongue 2) is an assembly of sensors for measuring concentrations of metal ions and possibly other contaminants in water. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings, and detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion. The device includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an oxidation/reduction (redox) sensor pair, an electrical sensor, an array of eight galvanic cells, and eight ion-specific electrodes.

  10. Multicomponent analysis of fermentation growth media using the electronic tongue (ET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legin, A.; Kirsanov, D.; Rudnitskaya, A.;

    2004-01-01

    A potentiometric electronic tongue (ET) consisting of eight cross-sensitive chemical sensors and a standard pH electrode has been appliedfor analysis of simulated fermentation solutions typical for fermentation processes with Aspergillus niger . The electronic tongue has been found capable...... samples. Sensor performance was fast and reproducible which promises well for routine application of the electronic tongue for fermentation process monitoring....

  11. Electronic Tongue for Quantitation of Contaminants in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Marlin; Kuhlman, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    An assembly of sensors, denoted an electronic tongue, is undergoing development as a prototype of compact devices for use in measuring concentrations of contaminants in water. Thus far, the electronic tongue has been tested on ions of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Fe and shown to respond to concentrations as low as about 10 parts per million. This electronic tongue is expected to be capable of measuring concentrations of other metal ions and organic compounds. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings; detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion; and characterizing compounds of interest to the pharmaceutical and food industries. This version of the electronic tongue includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an array of ion-specific electrodes, an oxidation/ reduction sensor pair, an electrical-conductivity sensor, and an array of galvanic cells, all on one compact ceramic substrate. Special-purpose electronic excitation and readout circuitry for the sensors has also been constructed. The main advantage of the electronic tongue, relative to electrodes of this type used traditionally to assess water quality, is extreme ruggedness. The types of measurements that can be performed by use of the sensors on the electronic tongue are quite varied. The best combination of types of measurements for a given application depends on the specific contaminants that one seeks to detect. Experimental studies to identify such combinations were in progress at the time of reporting the information for this article.

  12. Sensor Arrays and Electronic Tongue Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel del Valle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes recent work performed with electronic tongue systems utilizing electrochemical sensors. The electronic tongues concept is a new trend in sensors that uses arrays of sensors together with chemometric tools to unravel the complex information generated. Initial contributions and also the most used variant employ conventional ion selective electrodes, in which it is named potentiometric electronic tongue. The second important variant is the one that employs voltammetry for its operation. As chemometric processing tool, the use of artificial neural networks as the preferred data processing variant will be described. The use of the sensor arrays inserted in flow injection or sequential injection systems will exemplify attempts made to automate the operation of electronic tongues. Significant use of biosensors, mainly enzyme-based, to form what is already named bioelectronic tongue will be also presented. Application examples will be illustrated with selected study cases from the Sensors and Biosensors Group at the Autonomous University of Barcelona.

  13. Electronic tongue: An analytical gustatory tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Rewanthwar Swathi; Lakshmi, P K

    2012-01-01

    Taste is an important organoleptic property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. But majority of drugs available are bitter in taste. For patient acceptability and compliance, bitter taste drugs are masked by adding several flavoring agents. Thus, taste assessment is one important quality control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. The primary method for the taste measurement of drug substances and formulations is by human panelists. The use of sensory panelists is very difficult and problematic in industry and this is due to the potential toxicity of drugs and subjectivity of taste panelists, problems in recruiting taste panelists, motivation and panel maintenance are significantly difficult when working with unpleasant products. Furthermore, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-unapproved molecules cannot be tested. Therefore, analytical taste-sensing multichannel sensory system called as electronic tongue (e-tongue or artificial tongue) which can assess taste have been replacing the sensory panelists. Thus, e-tongue includes benefits like reducing reliance on human panel. The present review focuses on the electrochemical concepts in instrumentation, performance qualification of E-tongue, and applications in various fields.

  14. Electronic tongue: An analytical gustatory tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rewanthwar Swathi Latha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is an important organoleptic property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. But majority of drugs available are bitter in taste. For patient acceptability and compliance, bitter taste drugs are masked by adding several flavoring agents. Thus, taste assessment is one important quality control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. The primary method for the taste measurement of drug substances and formulations is by human panelists. The use of sensory panelists is very difficult and problematic in industry and this is due to the potential toxicity of drugs and subjectivity of taste panelists, problems in recruiting taste panelists, motivation and panel maintenance are significantly difficult when working with unpleasant products. Furthermore, Food and Drug Administration (FDA-unapproved molecules cannot be tested. Therefore, analytical taste-sensing multichannel sensory system called as electronic tongue (e-tongue or artificial tongue which can assess taste have been replacing the sensory panelists. Thus, e-tongue includes benefits like reducing reliance on human panel. The present review focuses on the electrochemical concepts in instrumentation, performance qualification of E-tongue, and applications in various fields.

  15. Electronic Noses and Tongues in Wine Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz Rodriguez-Mendez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of wines is usually evaluated by a sensory panel formed of trained experts or traditional chemical analysis. Over the last few decades, electronic noses and electronic tongues have been developed to determine the quality of foods and beverages. They consist of arrays of sensors with cross-sensitivity, combined with pattern recognition software, which provide a fingerprint of the samples that can be used to discriminate or classify the samples. This holistic approach is inspired by the method used in mammals to recognize food through their senses. They have been widely applied to the analysis of wines, including quality control, aging control or the detection of fraudulence, among others. In this paper, the current status of research and development in the field of electronic noses and tongues applied to the analysis of wines is reviewed. Their potential applications in the wine industry are described. The review ends with a final comment about expected future developments.

  16. Novel materials and applications of electronic noses and tongues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouma, Perena; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2004-10-01

    This introductory article describes the content of the October 2004 issue of MRS Bulletin focusing on novel materials and applications of electronic noses and tongues. The articles in this issue review the state of the art in materials, devices, and data processing algorithms used in electronic olfaction and taste systems. The most common gas- and liquid-phase analyte detection tools are presented and compared with traditional chemical analysis instrumentation such as gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy systems. Metal oxides, polymer/polymer composites, and dyes are covered in these articles as key sensing materials. Resistive, optical, electrochemical, and other types of electronic nose and tongue systems are reviewed, and their use in diverse applications, including environmental and food-quality monitoring and medical diagnostics, is discussed.

  17. Review: Highlights in recent applications of electronic tongues in food analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escuder-Gilabert, Laura [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Valencia, C/Vicente Andres Estelles s/n, E-46100 Burjasot, Valencia (Spain); Peris, Miguel, E-mail: mperist@qim.upv.es [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-04-14

    This paper examines the main features of modern electronic tongues (e-tongues) and their most important applications in food analysis in this new century. The components of an e-tongue (automatic sampler, array of chemical sensors, and data processing system) are described. Applications commented include process monitoring, freshness evaluation and shelf-life investigation, authenticity assessment, foodstuff recognition, quantitative analysis, and other quality control studies. Finally, some interesting remarks concerning the strengths and weaknesses of e-tongues in food analysis are also mentioned.

  18. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöllősi, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2011-09-01

    Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

  19. Evaluation of milk and dairy products by electronic tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Hruškar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of electronic tongue or taste sensor has been developed rapidly in the last decade due to their large potential in food quality control. The electronic tongue is based on electrochemical sensors combined with multivariate data analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminating ability of the electronic tongue for the recognition of different milk and yoghurt samples from different producers and various dairy products from one producer. The results were evaluated by multivariate data analysis - Principal components analysis. The electronic tongue α-ASTREE (Alpha M.O.S has successfully distinguished five brands of milk purchased on the Croatian market, five brands of yoghurt also purchased on Croatian market and differentiated among various products from one dairy producer.

  20. Love Acoustic Wave-Based Devices and Molecularly-Imprinted Polymers as Versatile Sensors for Electronic Nose or Tongue for Cancer Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Dejous

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and actual analytical techniques are restrictive in detecting it. Thus, there is still a challenge, as well as a need, for the development of quantitative non-invasive tools for the diagnosis of cancers and the follow-up care of patients. We introduce first the overall interest of electronic nose or tongue for such application of microsensors arrays with data processing in complex media, either gas (e.g., Volatile Organic Compounds or VOCs as biomarkers in breath or liquid (e.g., modified nucleosides as urinary biomarkers. Then this is illustrated with a versatile acoustic wave transducer, functionalized with molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIP synthesized for adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP as a model for nucleosides. The device including the thin film coating is described, then static measurements with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and electrical characterization after each step of the sensitive MIP process (deposit, removal of AMP template, capture of AMP target demonstrate the thin film functionality. Dynamic measurements with a microfluidic setup and four targets are presented afterwards. They show a sensitivity of 5 Hz·ppm−1 of the non-optimized microsensor for AMP detection, with a specificity of three times compared to PMPA, and almost nil sensitivity to 3′AMP and CMP, in accordance with previously published results on bulk MIP.

  1. Love Acoustic Wave-Based Devices and Molecularly-Imprinted Polymers as Versatile Sensors for Electronic Nose or Tongue for Cancer Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejous, Corinne; Hallil, Hamida; Raimbault, Vincent; Lachaud, Jean-Luc; Plano, Bernard; Delépée, Raphaël; Favetta, Patrick; Agrofoglio, Luigi; Rebière, Dominique

    2016-06-20

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and actual analytical techniques are restrictive in detecting it. Thus, there is still a challenge, as well as a need, for the development of quantitative non-invasive tools for the diagnosis of cancers and the follow-up care of patients. We introduce first the overall interest of electronic nose or tongue for such application of microsensors arrays with data processing in complex media, either gas (e.g., Volatile Organic Compounds or VOCs as biomarkers in breath) or liquid (e.g., modified nucleosides as urinary biomarkers). Then this is illustrated with a versatile acoustic wave transducer, functionalized with molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIP) synthesized for adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP) as a model for nucleosides. The device including the thin film coating is described, then static measurements with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrical characterization after each step of the sensitive MIP process (deposit, removal of AMP template, capture of AMP target) demonstrate the thin film functionality. Dynamic measurements with a microfluidic setup and four targets are presented afterwards. They show a sensitivity of 5 Hz·ppm(-1) of the non-optimized microsensor for AMP detection, with a specificity of three times compared to PMPA, and almost nil sensitivity to 3'AMP and CMP, in accordance with previously published results on bulk MIP.

  2. Application of electronic nose and electronic tongue in the dairy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Milna Tudor Kalit; Ksenija Marković; Samir Kalit; Nada Vahčić; Jasmina Havranek

    2014-01-01

    Electronic nose (e-nose) and electronic tongue (e-tongue) instrumental systems were designed to crudely mimic human olfactory and taste sensory organs and are composed of an array of sensors. Complex data sets from electronic nose and electronic tongue signals combined with multivariate statistics represent rapid and efficient tools for classification, discrimination, recognition and identification of samples, as well as for the prediction of concentrations of different compounds. A wide vari...

  3. Molecularly imprinted polymers as recognition materials for electronic tongues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Tan-Phat; Kutner, Wlodzimierz

    2015-12-15

    For over three decades now, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have successfully been used for selective chemical sensing because the shape and size of their imprinted molecular cavities perfectly matched those of the target analyte molecules. Moreover, orientation of recognizing sites of these cavities corresponded to those of the binding sites of the template molecules. In contrast, electronic tongue (e-tongue) is usually an array of low-affinity recognition units. Its selectivity is based on recognition pattern or multivariate analysis. Merging these two sensing devices led to a synergetic hybrid sensor, an MIP based e-tongue. Fabrication of these e-tongues permitted simultaneous sensing and discriminating several analytes in complex solutions of many components so that these arrays compensated for limitation in cross-reactivity of MIPs. Apparently, analytical signals generated by MIP-based e-tongues, compared to those of ordinary sensor arrays, were more reliable where a unique pattern or 'fingerprint' for each analyte was generated. Additionally, several transduction platforms (from spectroscopic to electrochemical) engaged in constructing MIP-based e-tongues, found their broad and flexible applications. The present review critically evaluates achievements in recent developments of the MIP based e-tongues for chemosensing.

  4. Application of electronic nose and electronic tongue in the dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor Kalit

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose (e-nose and electronic tongue (e-tongue instrumental systems were designed to crudely mimic human olfactory and taste sensory organs and are composed of an array of sensors. Complex data sets from electronic nose and electronic tongue signals combined with multivariate statistics represent rapid and efficient tools for classification, discrimination, recognition and identification of samples, as well as for the prediction of concentrations of different compounds. A wide variety of sensors can be employed into the design of these instrumental systems, especially that of electronic tongues, offering numerous practical applications. In this study, characteristics of sensors and possibilities of electronic nose and electronic tongue applications in the dairy industry were reviewed.

  5. Femtosecond laser ablation of gold interdigitated electrodes for electronic tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Alexandra; de Almeida, Gustavo F. B.; Filho, José A.; Mattoso, Luiz H. C.; Riul, Antonio; Mendonca, Cleber R.; Correa, Daniel S.

    2015-06-01

    Electronic tongue (e-tongue) sensors based on impedance spectroscopy have emerged as a potential technology to evaluate the quality and chemical composition of food, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. E-tongues usually employ transducers based on metal interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) coated with a thin layer of an active material, which is capable of interacting chemically with several types of analytes. IDEs are usually produced by photolithographic methods, which are time-consuming and costly, therefore, new fabrication technologies are required to make it more affordable. Here, we employed femtosecond laser ablation with pulse duration of 50 fs to microfabricate gold IDEs having finger width from 2.3 μm up to 3.2 μm. The parameters used in the laser ablation technique, such as light intensity, scan speed and beam spot size have been optimized to achieve uniform IDEs, which were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of gold IDEs fabricated by laser ablation were evaluated by impedance spectroscopy, and compared to those produced by conventional photolithography. The results show that femtosecond laser ablation is a promising alternative to conventional photolithography for fabricating metal IDEs for e-tongue systems.

  6. Measurement Of Beer Taste Attributes Using An Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polshin, Evgeny; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolaï, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-01

    The present work deals with the results of the application of an electronic tongue system as an analytical tool for rapid assessment of beer flavour. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types, characterized with respect to sensory properties and bitterness, were analyzed using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The ET was capable of predicting 10 sensory attributes of beer with good precision including sweetness, sourness, intensity, body, etc., as well as the most important instrumental parameter—bitterness. These results show a good promise for further progressing of the ET as a new analytical technique for the fast assessment of taste attributes and bitterness, in particular, in the food and brewery industries.

  7. Sensory intensity assessment of olive oils using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Ana C A; Dias, Luís G; Rodrigues, Nuno; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2016-01-01

    Olive oils may be commercialized as intense, medium or light, according to the intensity perception of fruitiness, bitterness and pungency attributes, assessed by a sensory panel. In this work, the capability of an electronic tongue to correctly classify olive oils according to the sensory intensity perception levels was evaluated. Cross-sensitivity and non-specific lipid polymeric membranes were used as sensors. The sensor device was firstly tested using quinine monohydrochloride standard solutions. Mean sensitivities of 14±2 to 25±6 mV/decade, depending on the type of plasticizer used in the lipid membranes, were obtained showing the device capability for evaluating bitterness. Then, linear discriminant models based on sub-sets of sensors, selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm, were established enabling to correctly classify 91% of olive oils according to their intensity sensory grade (leave-one-out cross-validation procedure). This capability was further evaluated using a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure, showing that the electronic tongue allowed an average correct classification of 80% of the olive oils used for internal-validation. So, the electronic tongue can be seen as a taste sensor, allowing differentiating olive oils with different sensory intensities, and could be used as a preliminary, complementary and practical tool for panelists during olive oil sensory analysis.

  8. SPR imaging based electronic tongue via landscape images for complex mixture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genua, Maria; Garçon, Laurie-Amandine; Mounier, Violette; Wehry, Hillary; Buhot, Arnaud; Billon, Martial; Calemczuk, Roberto; Bonnaffé, David; Hou, Yanxia; Livache, Thierry

    2014-12-01

    Electronic noses/tongues (eN/eT) have emerged as promising alternatives for analysis of complex mixtures in the domain of food and beverage quality control. We have recently developed an electronic tongue by combining surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) with an array of non-specific and cross-reactive receptors prepared by simply mixing two small molecules in varying and controlled proportions and allowing the mixtures to self-assemble on the SPRi prism surface. The obtained eT generated novel and unique 2D continuous evolution profiles (CEPs) and 3D continuous evolution landscapes (CELs) based on which the differentiation of complex mixtures such as red wine, beer and milk were successful. The preliminary experiments performed for monitoring the deterioration of UHT milk demonstrated its potential for quality control applications. Furthermore, the eT exhibited good repeatability and stability, capable of operating after a minimum storage period of 5 months.

  9. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa, E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polshin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kirsanov, Dmitry [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart [BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip [Centre for Malting and Brewing Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverelee (Belgium); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  10. Data Fusion of Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue for Detection of Mixed Edible-Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Men

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of the waste of the edible-oil in the food processing, on the premise of food security, they often need to add new edible-oil to the old frying oil which had been used in food processing to control the cost of the production. Due to the fact that the different additive proportion of the oil has different material and different volatile gases, we use fusion technology based on the electronic nose and electronic tongue to detect the blending ratio of the old frying oil and the new edible-oil in this paper. Principal component analysis (PCA is used to distinguish the different proportion of the old frying oil and new edible-oil; on the other hand we use partial least squares (PLS to predict the blending ratio of the old frying oil and new edible-oil. Two conclusions were proposed: data fusion of electronic nose and electronic tongue can be used to detect the blending ratio of the old frying oil and new edible-oil; in contrast to single used electronic nose or single used electronic tongue, the detection effect has increased by using data fusion of electronic nose and electronic tongue.

  11. An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An electronic tongue has been developed to monitor the presence of ammonium nitrate in water. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists of an array of eight working electrodes (Au; Pt; Rh; Ir; Cu; Co; Ag and Ni encapsulated in a stainless steel cylinder. In a first step the electrochemical response of the different electrodes was studied in the presence of ammonium nitrate in water in order to further design the wave form used in the voltammetric tongue. The response of the electronic tongue was then tested in the presence of a set of 15 common inorganic salts; i.e.; NH4NO3; MgSO4; NH4Cl; NaCl; Na2CO3; (NH42SO4; MgCl2; Na3PO4; K2SO4; K2CO3; CaCl2; NaH2PO4; KCl; NaNO3; K2HPO4. A PCA plot showed a fairly good discrimination between ammonium nitrate and the remaining salts studied. In addition Fuzzy Art map analyses determined that the best classification was obtained using the Pt; Co; Cu and Ni electrodes. Moreover; PLS regression allowed the creation of a model to correlate the voltammetric response of the electrodes with concentrations of ammonium nitrate in the presence of potential interferents such as ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate.

  12. Use of the smart tongue to monitor mold growth and discriminate between four mold species grown in liquid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Guangying, E-mail: zhaogy-user@163.com [Food Safety Key Lab of Zhejiang Province, Department of Food Quality and Safety, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Lin Xiaona; Dou Wenchao; Tian Shiyi; Deng Shaoping; Shi Jinqin [Food Safety Key Lab of Zhejiang Province, Department of Food Quality and Safety, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China)

    2011-04-01

    A novel voltammetric electronic tongue, smart tongue, was employed to monitor the growth of mold and to differentiate between four types of mold grown in liquid medium. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract the relevant information obtained by the smart tongue. Reference growth curves were based on measurements of dry weight and pH. The growth detected by the smart tongue was basically consistent with that observed by the measurement of dry weight and pH. The optimal combinations of electrodes and frequencies for monitoring growth were as follows: for Aspergillus, both the Pt and Au electrodes at 1 Hz, 10 Hz and 100 Hz; for Penicillium, the Pt and W electrodes at 100 Hz; for Mucor, the Pt, Pd and W electrodes at the three frequency segments; for Rhizopus, the Pd, Ti and Ag electrodes at the three frequency segments. The Ag electrode at 10 Hz or 100 Hz frequency could differentiate well between the four types of mold for culturing 6 h in the liquid media. Therefore, the smart tongue has a promising future as a modern rapid analytical technology for the real time detection of the growth of mold and for the classification model of mold.

  13. A correlative light microscopic, transmission and scanning electron microscopic study of the dorsum of human tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshell, J L; Wilborn, W H; Singh, B B

    1980-01-01

    The dorsum of the human tongue has three types of papillae, filiform, fungiform and circumvallate. Some investigators have studied these by light and transmission electron microscopy. Since knowledge of the morphology through studies by scanning of the morphology through studies by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is scant, this investigation was started with the purpose of studying human tongues at different ages. One fetal tongue and portions of three tongues from newborns were removed. Additional specimens were biopsied from the anterior region of three adult tongues. Samples were processed routinely for light microscopy, transmission electron microscoy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two distinct features were evident on the fetal tongue. The first was that the surface epithelial layer of the tongue appeared to be periderm. The second was that fungiform papillae began their development earlier than filiform. At birth, the putative periderm had disappeared and a few filiform papillae were observed. On the adult tongue, filiform papillae were numerous and were comprised of two cell populations. One cell population contained numerous keratohyalin granules (KHG). The KHG were two types, eosinophilic and basophilic. Ultrastructurally, the eosinophilic granules were less electron dense and larger in size than the basophilic KHG.

  14. Android and PSoC Technology Applied to Electronic Tongue Development

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, in the food industry, analyzing the quality of alimentary products has become a necessity. As a result, producers have been searching for new accurate methods to analyze food quality. The development of bio-inspired devices (electronic nose and electronic tongue) is a potential alternative to supply this need. The current project shows the development of a prototype circuit based on PSoC technology, which is used as a signal processing stage in an electronic tongue device with the a...

  15. Glyphosate Detection by Means of a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue and Discrimination of Potential Interferents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataller, Román; Campos, Inmaculada; Laguarda-Miro, Nicolas; Alcañiz, Miguel; Soto, Juan; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Gil, Luís; García-Breijo, Eduardo; Ibáñez-Civera, Javier

    2012-01-01

    A new electronic tongue to monitor the presence of glyphosate (a non-selective systemic herbicide) has been developed. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists in an array of three working electrodes (Pt, Co and Cu) encapsulated on a methacrylate cylinder. The electrochemical response of the sensing array was characteristic of the presence of glyphosate in buffered water (phosphate buffer 0.1 mol·dm−3, pH 6.7). Rotating disc electrode (RDE) studies were carried out with Pt, Co and Cu electrodes in water at room temperature and at pH 6.7 using 0.1 mol·dm−3 of phosphate as a buffer. In the presence of glyphosate, the corrosion current of the Cu and Co electrodes increased significantly, probably due to the formation of Cu2+ or Co2+ complexes. The pulse array waveform for the voltammetric tongue was designed by taking into account some of the redox processes observed in the electrochemical studies. The PCA statistical analysis required four dimensions to explain 95% of variance. Moreover, a two-dimensional representation of the two principal components differentiated the water mixtures containing glyphosate. Furthermore, the PLS statistical analyses allowed the creation of a model to correlate the electrochemical response of the electrodes with glyphosate concentrations, even in the presence of potential interferents such as humic acids and Ca2+. The system offers a PLS prediction model for glyphosate detection with values of 098, −2.3 × 10−5 and 0.94 for the slope, the intercept and the regression coefficient, respectively, which is in agreement with the good fit between the predicted and measured concentrations. The results suggest the feasibility of this system to help develop electronic tongues for glyphosate detection. PMID:23250277

  16. Beer classification by means of a potentiometric electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetó, Xavier; Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel; Calvo, Daniel; del Valle, Manel

    2013-12-01

    In this work, an electronic tongue (ET) system based on an array of potentiometric ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) for the discrimination of different commercial beer types is presented. The array was formed by 21 ISEs combining both cationic and anionic sensors with others with generic response. For this purpose beer samples were analyzed with the ET without any pretreatment rather than the smooth agitation of the samples with a magnetic stirrer in order to reduce the foaming of samples, which could interfere into the measurements. Then, the obtained responses were evaluated using two different pattern recognition methods, principal component analysis (PCA), which allowed identifying some initial patterns, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in order to achieve the correct recognition of sample varieties (81.9% accuracy). In the case of LDA, a stepwise inclusion method for variable selection based on Mahalanobis distance criteria was used to select the most discriminating variables. In this respect, the results showed that the use of supervised pattern recognition methods such as LDA is a good alternative for the resolution of complex identification situations. In addition, in order to show an ET quantitative application, beer alcohol content was predicted from the array data employing an artificial neural network model (root mean square error for testing subset was 0.131 abv).

  17. Measurements of the effects of wine maceration with oak chips using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Reis, Ana; Domingues, M Rosario M; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Debus, Bruno; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Legin, Andrey

    2017-08-15

    The use of oak products as a cheaper alternative to expensive wood barrels was recently permitted in Europe, which led to a continuous increase in the use of oak chips and staves in winemaking. The feasibility of the potentiometric electronic tongue as a tool for monitoring the effects of wine maceration with oak chips was evaluated. Four types of commercially available oak chips subjected to different thermal treatments and washing procedures and their mixture were studied. Ethanolic extracts of the chips were analysed using electrospray mass spectrometry and 28 phenolic and furanic compounds were identified. The electronic tongue comprising 22 potentiometric chemical sensors could distinguish artificial wine solutions and Cabernet Sauvignon wine macerated with different types of oak chips, quantify total and non-flavonoid phenolic content, as well as the concentrations of added oak chips. Using measurements at two pH levels, 3.2 and 6.5, improved the accuracy of quantification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potentiometric Electronic Tongue to Resolve Mixtures of Sulfide and Perchlorate Anions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the use of an array of potentiometric sensors and an artificial neural network response model to determine perchlorate and sulfide ions in polluted waters, by what is known as an electronic tongue. Sensors used have been all-solid-state PVC membrane selective electrodes, where their ionophores were different metal-phtalocyanine complexes with specific and anion generic responses. The study case illustrates the potential use of electronic tongues in the quantification of mi...

  19. Classification of Mixtures of Odorants from Livestock Buildings by a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An electronic tongue comprising different numbers of electrodes was able to classify test mixtures of key odorants characteristic of bioscrubbers of livestock buildings (n-butyrate, iso-valerate, phenolate, p-cresolate, skatole and ammonium). The classification of model solutions indicates that the electronic tongue has a promising potential as an on- line sensor for characterization of odorants in livestock buildings. Back propagation artificial neural network was used for classification. Th...

  20. Electronic tongue system for remote multi-ion sensing using blind source separation and wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wen-Yan; Cruz, Febus Reidj G.; Szu, Harold; Pijanowska, Dorota G.; Dawgul, Marek; Torbicz, Wladyslaw; Grabiec, Piotr B.; Jarosewicz, Bohdan; Chiang, Jung-Lung; Cheng, Cheanyeh; Chang, Kuo-Chung; Truc, Le Thanh; Lin, Wei-Chiang

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an electronic tongue system with blind source separation (BSS) and wireless sensor network (WSN) for remote multi-ion sensing applications. Electrochemical sensors, such as ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) and extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET), only provide the combined concentrations of all ions in aqueous solutions. Mixed hydrogen and sodium ions in chemical solutions are observed by means of H+ ISFET and H+ EGFET sensor array. The BSS extracts the concentration of individual ions using independent component analysis (ICA). The parameters of ISFET and EGFET sensors serve as a priori knowledge that helps solve the BSS problem. Using wireless transceivers, the ISFET/EGFET modules are realized as wireless sensor nodes. The integration of WSN technology into our electronic tongue system with BSS capability makes distant multi-ion measurement viable for environment and water quality monitoring.

  1. Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the Oriental scops owl (Otus scops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2009-05-01

    The dorsal lingual surface of an adult owl (Otus scops) was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of the adult owl was about 1 cm long. Three parts were distinguished in the dorsal surface of the tongue: the apex, the body and the root of the tongue. The conical region between the lingual apex and lingual root was very wide area. The conical papillae of the lingual body were inclined toward the posterior of the tongue. At low magnification of scanning electron microscopy, the desquamated cells were observed in the entire dorsal surface of the lingual apex. The connective tissue cores of the epithelium of the lingual apex showed the rod-shaped protrusions. The border between the lingual apex and body was clear and the small conical papillae were observed in the lingual body. The small and large conical papillae were observed on the lingual body. The many openings of the lingual glands existed in the lingual body and lingual root.

  2. Visualized attribute analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor using electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lin; Hu, Xianqiao [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Tian, Shiyi; Deng, Shaoping [College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Zhu, Zhiwei, E-mail: 615834652@qq.com [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2016-05-05

    This paper deals with a novel visualized attributive analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor attributes (softness, stickiness, sweetness and aroma) employing a multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue. Data preprocessing methods including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) were provided. An attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the interactive response in which each attribute responded by specific electrodes and frequencies. The model was trained using signal data from electronic tongue and attribute scores from artificial evaluation. The correlation coefficients for all attributes were over 0.9, resulting in good predictive ability of attributive analysis model preprocessed by FFT. This approach extracted more effective information about linear relationship between electronic tongue and taste flavor attribute. Results indicated that this approach can accurately quantify taste flavor attributes, and can be an efficient tool for data processing in a voltammetric electronic tongue system. - Graphical abstract: Schematic process for visualized attributive analysis approach using multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue for determination of rice taste flavor attribute. (a) sample; (b) sensors in electronic tongue; (c) excitation voltage program and response current signal from MLAPS; (d) similarity data matrix by data preprocessing and similarity extraction; (e) feature data matrix of attribute; (f) attribute characterization graph; (g) attribute scores predicted by the model. - Highlights: • Multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue was used. • A visualized attributive analysis approach was created as an efficient tool for data processing. • Rice taste flavor attribute was determined and predicted. • The attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the

  3. Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo (Phalacrocoracidae, Aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowiak, Hanna; Andrzejewski, Wojciech; Godynicki, Szymon

    2006-02-01

    The tongue of the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo is a small, immobile structure with a length of 1.4 cm, situated in the middle part of the elongated lower bill. The uniquely shaped tongue resembles a mushroom, with a short base and an elongated dorsal part with sharpened anterior and posterior tips. A median crest can be observed on the surface of the tongue. Examination by light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the whole tongue is formed by a dense connective tissue with many bundles of elastic fibers. The lingual mucosa is covered by a multilayered keratinized epithelium. The thickest, horny layer of the lingual epithelium was observed on the surface of the median crest and on the posterior tip of the tongue. Lingual glands are absent in cormorants. The framework of the tongue is composed of a hyoid cartilage incorporated into the base. The localization and structure of the tongue in the cormorant show that it is a rudimentary organ and that the lingual body, usually well-developed in birds, is conserved.

  4. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue for sensing flavored mineral water taste attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, László; Gere, Attila; Szöllősi, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2013-10-01

    In this article a trained sensory panel evaluated 6 flavored mineral water samples. The samples consisted of 3 different brands, each with 2 flavors (pear-lemon grass and josta berry). The applied sensory method was profile analysis. Our aim was to analyze the sensory profiles and to investigate the similarities between the sensitivity of the trained human panel and an electronic tongue device. Another objective was to demonstrate the possibilities for the prediction of sensory attributes from electronic tongue measurements using a multivariate statistical method (Partial Least Squares regression [PLS]). The results showed that the products manufactured under different brand name but with the same aromas had very similar sensory profiles. The panel performance evaluation showed that it is appropriate (discrimination ability, repeatability, and panel consensus) to compare the panel's results with the results of the electronic tongue. The samples can be discriminated by the electronic tongue and an accurate classification model can be built. Principal Component Analysis BiPlot diagrams showed that Brand A and B were similar because the manufacturers use the same aroma brands for their products. It can be concluded that Brand C was quite different compared to the other samples independently of the aroma content. Based on the electronic tongue results good prediction models can be obtained with high correlation coefficient (r(2) > 0.81) and low prediction error (RMSEP < 13.71 on the scale of the sensory evaluation from 0 to 100).

  5. A High Sensitivity IDC-Electronic Tongue Using Dielectric/Sensing Membranes with Solvatochromic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an electronic tongue/taste sensor array containing different interdigitated capacitor (IDC sensing elements to detect different types of tastes, such as sweetness (glucose, saltiness (NaCl, sourness (HCl, bitterness (quinine-HCl, and umami (monosodium glutamate is proposed. We present for the first time an IDC electronic tongue using sensing membranes containing solvatochromic dyes. The proposed highly sensitive (30.64 mV/decade sensitivity IDC electronic tongue has fast response and recovery times of about 6 s and 5 s, respectively, with extremely stable responses, and is capable of linear sensing performance (R2 ≈ 0.985 correlation coefficient over the wide dynamic range of 1 µM to 1 M. The designed IDC electronic tongue offers excellent reproducibility, with a relative standard deviation (RSD of about 0.029. The proposed device was found to have better sensing performance than potentiometric-, cascoded compatible lateral bipolar transistor (C-CLBT-, Electronic Tongue (SA402-, and fiber-optic-based taste sensing systems in what concerns dynamic range width, response time, sensitivity, and linearity. Finally, we applied principal component analysis (PCA to distinguish between various kinds of taste in mixed taste compounds.

  6. Light and scanning electron microcopy study of the tongue in Rhea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesso Santos, Tatiana; Yuri Fukuda, Katia; Plácido Guimarães, Juliana; Franco Oliveira, Moacir; Angelica Miglino, Maria; Watanabe, Li-Sei

    2011-01-01

    Morphological characteristics of the tongue were studied in adult rhea (Rhea americana). The lingual surface and the surface of epithelium-connective tissue interface of rhea tongue were examined macroscopically and by light and scanning electron microscopy. The rhea tongue revealed a triangular aspect, without adjustment of the inferior bill formation, occupying approximately ¼ of the length of the oral cavity. Lingual papilla-like structures were not observed over the lingual surface. The tongue mucosa was composed of a thick non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium in the dorsal and ventral part, supported by a connective tissue core. The submucosa contained numerous glands with cytoplasmic granules, and luminal secretion was positive for histochemical reaction to Alcian Blue in pH 2.5 and PAS, and negative to Alcian Blue in pH 0.5. Despite the rudimentary characteristic of the tongue in rhea, our results suggest an important role of tongue secretions in food lubrication and humidification during the swallowing process, based on the enormous quantity of lingual glands in the submucosa and the histochemical characteristics of their secretions.

  7. Comparison of multivariate preprocessing techniques as applied to electronic tongue based pattern classification for black tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palit, Mousumi [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Central Calcutta Polytechnic, Kolkata 700014 (India); Tudu, Bipan, E-mail: bt@iee.jusl.ac.in [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Bhattacharyya, Nabarun [Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Kolkata 700091 (India); Dutta, Ankur; Dutta, Pallab Kumar [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Jana, Arun [Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Kolkata 700091 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Rajib [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Chatterjee, Anutosh [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Heritage Institute of Technology, Kolkata 700107 (India)

    2010-08-18

    In an electronic tongue, preprocessing on raw data precedes pattern analysis and choice of the appropriate preprocessing technique is crucial for the performance of the pattern classifier. While attempting to classify different grades of black tea using a voltammetric electronic tongue, different preprocessing techniques have been explored and a comparison of their performances is presented in this paper. The preprocessing techniques are compared first by a quantitative measurement of separability followed by principle component analysis; and then two different supervised pattern recognition models based on neural networks are used to evaluate the performance of the preprocessing techniques.

  8. Comparison of multivariate preprocessing techniques as applied to electronic tongue based pattern classification for black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Mousumi; Tudu, Bipan; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Dutta, Ankur; Dutta, Pallab Kumar; Jana, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Chatterjee, Anutosh

    2010-08-18

    In an electronic tongue, preprocessing on raw data precedes pattern analysis and choice of the appropriate preprocessing technique is crucial for the performance of the pattern classifier. While attempting to classify different grades of black tea using a voltammetric electronic tongue, different preprocessing techniques have been explored and a comparison of their performances is presented in this paper. The preprocessing techniques are compared first by a quantitative measurement of separability followed by principle component analysis; and then two different supervised pattern recognition models based on neural networks are used to evaluate the performance of the preprocessing techniques.

  9. Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luís G., E-mail: ldias@ipb.pt [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Sequeira, Cédric, E-mail: cedric.b.s@hotmail.com [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Veloso, Ana C.A., E-mail: anaveloso@isec.pt [Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); CEB – Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Sousa, Mara E.B.C., E-mail: mebsousadias@gmail.com [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Peres, António M., E-mail: peres@ipb.pt [LSRE – Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering – Associate Laboratory LSRE/LCM, Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal)

    2014-10-27

    Highlights: • Overconsumption of soft-drinks and fruit-beverages may enhance health risks. • Beverage’s healthy and sensory indexes were calculated using chromatographic data. • A potentiometric electronic tongue with multivariate linear models was applied. • E-tongue discriminated samples according to glycemic load or fructose-intolerance levels. • Healthy and sensory indexes were accurately quantified using E-tongue data. - Abstract: Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue’s capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: R{sub adj} > 0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7 < glycemic load ≤ 30; 0.4 < fructose intolerance index ≤ 1.5; 32 < sweetness perception < 155; 1.3 < total acid flavor, g L{sup −1} < 8.3; and, 5.8 < well-balanced flavor ≤ 74. So, the proposed electronic tongue could be used as a practical, fast, low-cost and green tool for beverage’s healthy and sensory evaluation.

  10. Study on classification of soy sauce by electronic tongue technique combined with artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Qin; Zhao, Jie-Wen; Chen, Quan-Sheng; Lin, Hao; Huang, Xing-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Electronic tongue as an analytical tool coupled with pattern recognition was attempted to classify 4 different brands and 2 categories (produced by different processes) of Chinese soy sauce. An electronic tongue system was used for data acquisition of the samples. Some effective variables were extracted from electronic tongue data by principal component analysis (PCA). Backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was applied to build identification models. PCA score plots show an obvious cluster trend of different brands and different categories of soy sauce in the 2-dimensional space. The optimal BP-ANN model for different brands was achieved when principal components (PCs) were 2, and the identification rate of the discrimination model was 100% in both the calibration set and the prediction set, and the optimal BP-ANN model for different categories had the same result. This work demonstrates that electronic tongue technology combined with a suitable pattern recognition method can be successfully used in the classification of different brands and categories of soy sauce.

  11. Independent comparison study of six different electronic tongues applied for pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pein, Miriam; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Ciosek, Patrycja; del Valle, Manel; Yaroshenko, Irina; Wesoły, Małgorzata; Zabadaj, Marcin; Gonzalez-Calabuig, Andreu; Wróblewski, Wojciech; Legin, Andrey

    2015-10-10

    Electronic tongue technology based on arrays of cross-sensitive chemical sensors and chemometric data processing has attracted a lot of researchers' attention through the last years. Several so far reported applications dealing with pharmaceutical related tasks employed different e-tongue systems to address different objectives. In this situation, it is hard to judge on the benefits and drawbacks of particular e-tongue implementations for R&D in pharmaceutics. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of six different e-tongues applied to the same set of pharmaceutical samples. For this purpose, two commercially available systems (from Insent and AlphaMOS) and four laboratory prototype systems (two potentiometric systems from Warsaw operating in flow and static modes, one potentiometric system from St. Petersburg, one voltammetric system from Barcelona) were employed. The sample set addressed in the study comprised nine different formulations based on caffeine citrate, lactose monohydrate, maltodextrine, saccharin sodium and citric acid in various combinations. To provide for the fair and unbiased comparison, samples were evaluated under blind conditions and data processing from all the systems was performed in a uniform way. Different mathematical methods were applied to judge on similarity of the e-tongues response from the samples. These were principal component analysis (PCA), RV' matrix correlation coefficients and Tuckeŕs congruency coefficients.

  12. Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Discrimination of Milk Adulterated with Urea, Formaldehyde and Melamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Bueno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of a voltammetric electronic tongue for the detection and discrimination of harmful substances intentionally added to milk to increase its shelf life or imitate protein content. The electronic tongue consisted of three working electrodes composed of platinum, gold, and copper. The measurement principles involved the extraction of information from cyclic voltammograms recorded in unadulterated and adulterated milk. The extracted data were analysed using principal component analysis and the contaminants were successfully differentiated from one another in a score plot. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance analysis was used to investigate the electrode response in order to understand the mechanism by which the tongue could discriminate between the samples. It was found that the electrochemical formation and dissolution of platinum and gold oxides, and the reduction of a copper-melamine ionic pair formed at the surface of the copper electrode were the main factors responsible for discrimination. In addition, the electronic tongue was capable of identifying adulterations in different types of milk (whole, skimmed, and semi-skimmed and milk from different brands. The lowest concentration of adulterant that resulted in a good discrimination was 10.0, 4.16, and 0.95 mmol·L−1 for formaldehyde, urea, and melamine, respectively.

  13. Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Luís G; Sequeira, Cédric; Veloso, Ana C A; Sousa, Mara E B C; Peres, António M

    2014-10-27

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue's capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: Radj>0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7fructose intolerance index≤1.5; 32electronic tongue could be used as a practical, fast, low-cost and green tool for beverage's healthy and sensory evaluation.

  14. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  15. Electronic Tongue Based on Nanostructured Hybrid Films of Gold Nanoparticles and Phthalocyanines for Milk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza A. Mercante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of gold nanoparticles combined with other organic and inorganic materials for designing nanostructured films has demonstrated their versatility for various applications, including optoelectronic devices and chemical sensors. In this study, we reported the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles stabilized with poly(allylamine hydrochloride (Au@PAH NPs, as well as the capability of this material to form multilayer Layer-by-Layer (LbL nanostructured films with metal tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines (MTsPc. Film growth was monitored by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Once LbL films have been applied as active layers in chemical sensors, Au@PAH/MTsPc and PAH/MTsPc LbL films were used in an electronic tongue system for milk analysis regarding fat content. The capacitance data were treated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA, revealing the role played by the gold nanoparticles on the LbL films electrical properties, enabling this kind of system to be used for analyzing complex matrices such as milk without any prior pretreatment.

  16. Mimicking Daphnia magna bioassay performance by an electronic tongue for urban water quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsanov, Dmitry, E-mail: d.kirsanov@gmail.com [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sensor Systems LLC, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zagrebin, Anatoly; Ignatieva, Natalia; Rybakin, Vladimir [Institute of Limnology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Artificial Sensor Systems, ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • -Daphnia magna bioassay can be simulated with multisensor system. • Urban water toxicity can be predicted from potentiometric ET data. • Independent test set validation confirms statistical significance of the results. - Abstract: Toxicity is one of the key parameters of water quality in environmental monitoring. However, being evaluated as a response of living beings (as their mobility, fertility, death rate, etc.) to water quality, toxicity can only be assessed with the help of these living beings. This imposes certain restrictions on toxicity bioassay as an analytical method: biotest organisms must be properly bred, fed and kept under strictly regulated conditions and duration of tests can be quite long (up to several days), thus making the whole procedure the prerogative of the limited number of highly specialized laboratories. This report describes an original application of potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue) when the set of electrochemical sensors was calibrated against Daphnia magna death rate in order to perform toxicity assessment of urban waters without immediate involvement of living creatures. PRM (partial robust M) and PLS (projections on latent structures) regression models based on the data from this multisensor system allowed for prediction of toxicity of unknown water samples in terms of biotests but in the fast and simple instrumental way. Typical errors of water toxicity predictions were below 20% in terms of Daphnia death rate which can be considered as a good result taking into account the complexity of the task.

  17. Electron beam radiotherapy for tongue cancer using an intra-oral cone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Naoya; Murakami, Shumei; Nakatani, Atsutoshi; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei

    2012-05-01

    To explain the adaptation technique using an intra-oral cone (IOC) for radiation therapy, and to determine the optimal schedule resulting in a high local control rate and an acceptable complication rate using direct electron beam radiation for the treatment of tongue cancer. Thirty patients with the tongue cancer (T1:T2:T3=16:11:3) were treated with 6-15 MeV electron radiation using an IOC. Twenty-six patients were treated with electron radiation using an IOC with or without an excisional biopsy. The other four patients were treated with a combination of the external beam radiation and electron radiation using the IOC. In order to formulate a safe and effective treatment program, we calculated the biologically effective dose (BED). The two- and five-year local control rates for all patients were 63% and 52%, respectively. The two- and five-year overall survival rates for all patients were 73% and 69%, respectively. Local control was achieved in 12 of 15 patients who were irradiated with a BED of 90.9 Gy(10) or more, whereas it was not achieved in nine of the 15 patients who were treated with less than a BED of 90.9 Gy(10) (p=0.03). The application of electron radiation using an IOC for the treatment of tongue cancer provides acceptable local control and adverse effect rates, especially for elderly patients considered to be high risk for complications from anesthesia. The optimum BED(10) value for the treatment of early tongue cancer using the IOC technique appears to be at least 90.9 Gy(10). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Android and PSoC Technology Applied to Electronic Tongue Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Arrieta A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in the food industry, analyzing the quality of alimentary products has become a necessity. As a result, producers have been searching for new accurate methods to analyze food quality. The development of bio-inspired devices (electronic nose and electronic tongue is a potential alternative to supply this need. The current project shows the development of a prototype circuit based on PSoC technology, which is used as a signal processing stage in an electronic tongue device with the ability to discriminate and classify samples of raw milk. In general, electronic tongues consist of electrochemical sensors array, a signals processing stage and a data processing stage. PSoC is an integrated circuit composed of analog and digital blocks into a configurable core. With the use of PSoC microchip, it is possible to develop a portable and small electrochemical device. This prototype takes measures from electrochemical sensors exposed to samples of drinks using the cyclic voltammetry technique; these signals are processed and transmitted to the next stage, which shows the response from the electrochemical sensors through an I-V curve, called voltammogram. With the development of this device, it was found that the application of PSoC technology on electrochemical measurement devices is important, due to its ability to develop cheaper, smaller, faster and sturdier devices.

  19. Classification and prediction of rice wines with different marked ages by using a voltammetric electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenbo; Wang, Jun; Ye, Linshuang

    2011-08-15

    A voltammetric electronic tongue (VE-tongue) was developed to discriminate the difference between Chinese rice wines in this research. Three types of Chinese rice wine with different marked ages (1, 3, and 5 years) were classified by the VE-tongue by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). The VE-tongue consisted of six working electrodes (gold, silver, platinum, palladium, tungsten, and titanium) in a standard three-electrode configuration. The multi-frequency large amplitude pulse voltammetry (MLAPV), which consisted of four segments of 1 Hz, 10 Hz, 100 Hz, and 1000 Hz, was applied as the potential waveform. The three types of Chinese rice wine could be classified accurately by PCA and CA, and some interesting regularity is shown in the score plots with the help of PCA. Two regression models, partial least squares (PLS) and back-error propagation-artificial neural network (BP-ANN), were used for wine age prediction. The regression results showed that the marked ages of the three types of Chinese rice wine were successfully predicted using PLS and BP-ANN.

  20. Detection of antibiotic residues in bovine milk by a voltammetric electronic tongue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenbo; Wang, Jun

    2011-05-23

    A voltammetric electronic tongue (VE-tongue) was developed to detect antibiotic residues in bovine milk. Six antibiotics (Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Kanamycin sulfate, Neomycin sulfate, Streptomycin sulfate and Tetracycline HCl) spiked at four different concentration levels (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 maximum residue limits (MRLs)) were classified based on VE-tongue by two pattern recognition methods: principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The VE-tongue was composed of five working electrodes (gold, silver, platinum, palladium, and titanium) positioned in a standard three-electrode configuration. The Multi-frequency large amplitude pulse voltammetry (MLAPV) which consisted of four segments (1 Hz, 10 Hz, 100 Hz and 1000 Hz) was applied as potential waveform. The six antibiotics at the MRLs could not be separated from bovine milk completely by PCA, but all the samples were demarcated clearly by DFA. Three regression models: Principal Component Regression Analysis (PCR), Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR), and Least Squares-Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM) were used for concentrations of antibiotics prediction. All the regression models performed well, and PCR had the most stable results.

  1. Detection of antibiotic residues in bovine milk by a voltammetric electronic tongue system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Zhenbo [Zhejiang University, Department of Bio-Systems Engineering, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China); Wang Jun, E-mail: jwang@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang University, Department of Bio-Systems Engineering, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)

    2011-05-23

    A voltammetric electronic tongue (VE-tongue) was developed to detect antibiotic residues in bovine milk. Six antibiotics (Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Kanamycin sulfate, Neomycin sulfate, Streptomycin sulfate and Tetracycline HCl) spiked at four different concentration levels (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 maximum residue limits (MRLs)) were classified based on VE-tongue by two pattern recognition methods: principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The VE-tongue was composed of five working electrodes (gold, silver, platinum, palladium, and titanium) positioned in a standard three-electrode configuration. The Multi-frequency large amplitude pulse voltammetry (MLAPV) which consisted of four segments (1 Hz, 10 Hz, 100 Hz and 1000 Hz) was applied as potential waveform. The six antibiotics at the MRLs could not be separated from bovine milk completely by PCA, but all the samples were demarcated clearly by DFA. Three regression models: Principal Component Regression Analysis (PCR), Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR), and Least Squares-Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM) were used for concentrations of antibiotics prediction. All the regression models performed well, and PCR had the most stable results.

  2. Potentiometric Electronic Tongue to Resolve Mixtures of Sulfide and Perchlorate Anions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivy Wilson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the use of an array of potentiometric sensors and an artificial neural network response model to determine perchlorate and sulfide ions in polluted waters, by what is known as an electronic tongue. Sensors used have been all-solid-state PVC membrane selective electrodes, where their ionophores were different metal-phtalocyanine complexes with specific and anion generic responses. The study case illustrates the potential use of electronic tongues in the quantification of mixtures when interfering effects need to be counterbalanced: relative errors in determination of individual ions can be decreased typically from 25% to less than 5%, if compared to the use of a single proposed ion-selective electrode.

  3. Use of sequential injection analysis to construct an electronic-tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Daniel [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Duran, Alejandro [Materials and Reactants Institute, Havanna University, Havanna (Cuba); Valle, Manel del [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: manel.delvalle@uab.es

    2007-09-26

    An electronic tongue based on the transient response of an array of non-specific-response potentiometric sensors was developed. A sequential injection analysis (SIA) system was used in order to automate its training and operation. The use of the transient recording entails the dynamic nature of the sensor's response, which can be of high information content, of primary ions and also of interfering ions; these may better discriminated if the kinetic resolution is added. This work presents the extraction of significant information contained in the transient response of a sensor array formed by five all-solid-state potentiometric sensors. The tool employed was the Fourier transform, from which a number of coefficients were fed into an artificial neural network (ANN) model, used to perform a quantitative multidetermination. The studied case was the analysis of mixtures of calcium, sodium and potassium. Obtained performance is compared with the more traditional automated electronic tongue using final steady-state potentials.

  4. Classification of Mixtures of Odorants from Livestock Buildings by a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Khalaf, Nawaf; Iversen, Jens Jørgen Lønsmann

    2007-01-01

    An electronic tongue comprising different numbers of electrodes was able to classify test mixtures of key odorants characteristic of bioscrubbers of livestock buildings (n-butyrate, iso-valerate, phenolate, p-cresolate, skatole and ammonium). The classification of model solutions indicates that the electronic tongue has a promising potential as an online sensor for characterization of odorants in livestock buildings. Back propagation artificial neural network was used for classification. The average classification rate was above 80% in all cases. A limited, but sufficient number of electrodes were selected by average classification rate and relative entropy. The sufficient number of electrodes decreased standard deviation and relative standard deviation compared to the full electrode array.

  5. Potentiometric electronic tongue to resolve mixtures of sulfide and perchlorate anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deivy; Abbas, Mohammed N; Radwan, Abdel Latief A; del Valle, Manel

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the use of an array of potentiometric sensors and an artificial neural network response model to determine perchlorate and sulfide ions in polluted waters, by what is known as an electronic tongue. Sensors used have been all-solid-state PVC membrane selective electrodes, where their ionophores were different metal-phtalocyanine complexes with specific and anion generic responses. The study case illustrates the potential use of electronic tongues in the quantification of mixtures when interfering effects need to be counterbalanced: relative errors in determination of individual ions can be decreased typically from 25% to less than 5%, if compared to the use of a single proposed ion-selective electrode.

  6. Classification of Mixtures of Odorants from Livestock Buildings by a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Jørgen Lønsmann Iversen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An electronic tongue comprising different numbers of electrodes was able to classify test mixtures of key odorants characteristic of bioscrubbers of livestock buildings (n-butyrate, iso-valerate, phenolate, p-cresolate, skatole and ammonium. The classification of model solutions indicates that the electronic tongue has a promising potential as an on- line sensor for characterization of odorants in livestock buildings. Back propagation artificial neural network was used for classification. The average classification rate was above 80% in all cases. A limited, but sufficient number of electrodes were selected by average classification rate and relative entropy. The sufficient number of electrodes decreased standard deviation and relative standard deviation compared to the full electrode array.

  7. Discrimination of Rice with Different Pretreatment Methods by Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an application of a voltammetric electronic tongue for discrimination and prediction of different varieties of rice was investigated. Different pretreatment methods were selected, which were subsequently used for the discrimination of different varieties of rice and prediction of unknown rice samples. To this aim, a voltammetric array of sensors based on metallic electrodes was used as the sensing part. The different samples were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry with two sample-p...

  8. Application of an electronic tongue to detect gliadins in gluten-free foods

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, António M.; Dias, L. G.; Veloso, Ana C. A.; Meirinho, S.G.; Morais, Jorge Sá; Machado, A.A.S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune-mediated disorder triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by the ingestion of some gluten proteins, namely gliadins. To prevent inadvertent gluten consumption, the Commission Regulation (EC) Nº41/2009 will implement labelling foods as “gluten-free” or “low-gluten content”[1]. The feasibility of an all-solid-state potentiometric electronic tongue to detect the contamination of “gluten-free” foodstuffs with gliadins was evaluated. The devi...

  9. A hybrid electronic tongue for direct classification of baby liquid foods with or without gluten

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, António M.; Dias, L. G.; Veloso, Ana C. A.; Sousa, Mara E.B.C.; Machado, A.A.S.C.

    2011-01-01

    People suffering from celiac disease are gluten intolerant and inadvertent ingestion of gluten proteins must be avoided. Several techniques have been proposed to detect/quantify gluten proteins in foodstuffs: immunochemical methods, mass tandem spectrometry and polymerase chain reaction as well as gluten sensors [1]. Recently, a potentiometric electronic tongue (ET) with lipo/polymeric membranes has been used to detect gliadins, which are gluten proteins, in foodstuffs [2]. How...

  10. Discrimination of Rice with Different Pretreatment Methods by Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an application of a voltammetric electronic tongue for discrimination and prediction of different varieties of rice was investigated. Different pretreatment methods were selected, which were subsequently used for the discrimination of different varieties of rice and prediction of unknown rice samples. To this aim, a voltammetric array of sensors based on metallic electrodes was used as the sensing part. The different samples were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry with two sample-pretreatment methods. Discriminant Factorial Analysis was used to visualize the different categories of rice samples; however, radial basis function (RBF artificial neural network with leave-one-out cross-validation method was employed for prediction modeling. The collected signal data were first compressed employing fast Fourier transform (FFT and then significant features were extracted from the voltammetric signals. The experimental results indicated that the sample solutions obtained by the non-crushed pretreatment method could efficiently meet the effect of discrimination and recognition. The satisfactory prediction results of voltammetric electronic tongue based on RBF artificial neural network were obtained with less than five-fold dilution of the sample solution. The main objective of this study was to develop primary research on the application of an electronic tongue system for the discrimination and prediction of solid foods and provide an objective assessment tool for the food industry.

  11. Discrimination of Rice with Different Pretreatment Methods by Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Niu, Qunfeng; Hui, Yanbo; Jin, Huali

    2015-07-22

    In this study, an application of a voltammetric electronic tongue for discrimination and prediction of different varieties of rice was investigated. Different pretreatment methods were selected, which were subsequently used for the discrimination of different varieties of rice and prediction of unknown rice samples. To this aim, a voltammetric array of sensors based on metallic electrodes was used as the sensing part. The different samples were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry with two sample-pretreatment methods. Discriminant Factorial Analysis was used to visualize the different categories of rice samples; however, radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network with leave-one-out cross-validation method was employed for prediction modeling. The collected signal data were first compressed employing fast Fourier transform (FFT) and then significant features were extracted from the voltammetric signals. The experimental results indicated that the sample solutions obtained by the non-crushed pretreatment method could efficiently meet the effect of discrimination and recognition. The satisfactory prediction results of voltammetric electronic tongue based on RBF artificial neural network were obtained with less than five-fold dilution of the sample solution. The main objective of this study was to develop primary research on the application of an electronic tongue system for the discrimination and prediction of solid foods and provide an objective assessment tool for the food industry.

  12. Calibration of a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue) for Identification and Quantification of Odorants from Livestock Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This contribution serves a dual purpose. The first purpose was to investigate the possibility of using a sensor array (an electronic tongue) for on-line identification and quantification of key odorants representing a variety of chemical groups at two different acidities, pH 6 and 8. The second purpose was to simplify the electronic tongue by decreasing the number of electrodes from 14, which was the number of electrodes in the prototype. Different electrodes were used for identification and ...

  13. Taste masking analysis in pharmaceutical formulation development using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jack Y; Keeney, Melissa P

    2006-03-09

    The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility for taste masking and comparison of taste intensity during formulation development using a multichannel taste sensor system (e-Tongue). Seven taste sensors used in the e-Tongue were cross-selective for five basic tastes while having different sensitivity or responsibility for different tastes. Each of the individual sensors concurrently contributes to the detection of most substances in a complicated sample through the different electronic output. Taste-masking efficiency was evaluated using quinine as a bitter model compound and a sweetener, acesulfame K, as a bitterness inhibitor. In a 0.2 mM quinine solution, the group distance obtained from e-Tongue analysis was reduced with increasing concentration of acesulfame K. This result suggests that the sensors could detect the inhibition of bitterness by a sweetener and could be used for optimization of the sweetener level in a liquid formulation. In addition, the bitterness inhibition of quinine by using other known taste-masking excipients including sodium acetate, NaCl, Prosweet flavor, and Debittering powder or soft drinks could be detected by the e-Tongue. These results further suggest that the e-Tongue should be useful in a taste-masking evaluation study on selecting appropriate taste-masking excipients for a solution formulation or a reconstitution vehicle for a drug-in-bottle formulation. In another study, the intensity of the taste for several drug substances known to be bitter was compared using the e-Tongue. It was found that the group distance was 695 for prednisolone and 686 for quinine, which is much higher than that of caffeine (102). These results indicate that the taste of prednisolone and quinine is stronger or more bitter than that of caffeine as expected. Based on the group distance, the relative intensity of bitterness for these compounds could be ranked in the following order: ranitidine HCl>prednisolone Na>quinine HCl approximately

  14. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine.

  15. Integrated, paper-based potentiometric electronic tongue for the analysis of beer and wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska, E-mail: ewitkowskanery@ichf.edu.pl [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology in Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, Campinas (Brazil); Kubota, Lauro T. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology in Bioanalytics, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, Campinas (Brazil)

    2016-04-28

    The following manuscript details the stages of construction of a novel paper-based electronic tongue with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference, which can operate using a minimal amount of sample (40 μL). First, we optimized the fabrication procedure of silver electrodes, testing a set of different methodologies (electroless plating, use of silver nanoparticles and commercial silver paints). Later a novel, integrated electronic tongue system was assembled with the use of readily available materials such as paper, wax, lamination sheets, bleach etc. New system was thoroughly characterized and the ion-selective potentiometric sensors presented performance close to theoretical. An electronic tongue, composed of electrodes sensitive to sodium, calcium, ammonia and a cross-sensitive, anion-selective electrode was used to analyze 34 beer samples (12 types, 19 brands). This system was able to discriminate beers from different brands, and types, indicate presence of stabilizers and antioxidants, dyes or even unmalted cereals and carbohydrates added to the fermentation wort. Samples could be classified by type of fermentation (low, high) and system was able to predict pH and in part also alcohol content of tested beers. In the next step sample volume was minimalized by the use of paper sample pads and measurement in flow conditions. In order to test the impact of this advancement a four electrode system, with cross-sensitive (anion-selective, cation-selective, Ca{sup 2+}/Mg{sup 2+}, K{sup +}/Na{sup +}) electrodes was applied for the analysis of 11 types of wine (4 types of grapes, red/white, 3 countries). Proposed matrix was able to group wines produced from different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Americanas, Malbec, Merlot) using only 40 μL of sample. Apart from that, storage stability studies were performed using a multimeter, therefore showing that not only fabrication but also detection can be accomplished by means of off-the-shelf components. This manuscript not only

  16. A Portable Sensing System for Electronic Tongue Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilian Murphy

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A portable, low cost sensing system is described which interfaces to an electronictongue sensor. The sensor used is a voltammetric sensor which monitors electrochemicalreactions that occur in solutions. The sensor is able to test a range of liquids with differentelectrochemical properties without any hardware adjustments to the system. The system canautomatically adjust for the change in solution properties by performing a routine whichuses an auto-ranging feature to determine a current-to-voltage conversion of the sensor databy using a binary search strategy. This eliminates the intervention of the user to modify thesystem each time a new solution is tested. The effectiveness of the calibration routine wastested by carrying out cyclic voltammetry in two different solutions, 0.1M sulfuric acidsolution and the phosphate buffered solution of pH3. The sensor system was able toaccurately acquire the sensor data for each solution.

  17. Discrimination of Apple Liqueurs (Nalewka Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue, UV-Vis and Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Śliwińska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The capability of a phthalocyanine-based voltammetric electronic tongue to analyze strong alcoholic beverages has been evaluated and compared with the performance of spectroscopic techniques coupled to chemometrics. Nalewka Polish liqueurs prepared from five apple varieties have been used as a model of strong liqueurs. Principal Component Analysis has demonstrated that the best discrimination between liqueurs prepared from different apple varieties is achieved using the e-tongue and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Raman spectra coupled to chemometrics have not been efficient in discriminating liqueurs. The calculated Euclidean distances and the k-Nearest Neighbors algorithm (kNN confirmed these results. The main advantage of the e-tongue is that, using PLS-1, good correlations have been found simultaneously with the phenolic content measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu method (R2 of 0.97 in calibration and R2 of 0.93 in validation and also with the density, a marker of the alcoholic content method (R2 of 0.93 in calibration and R2 of 0.88 in validation. UV-Vis coupled with chemometrics has shown good correlations only with the phenolic content (R2 of 0.99 in calibration and R2 of 0.99 in validation but correlations with the alcoholic content were low. Raman coupled with chemometrics has shown good correlations only with density (R2 of 0.96 in calibration and R2 of 0.85 in validation. In summary, from the three holistic methods evaluated to analyze strong alcoholic liqueurs, the voltammetric electronic tongue using phthalocyanines as sensing elements is superior to Raman or UV-Vis techniques because it shows an excellent discrimination capability and remarkable correlations with both antioxidant capacity and alcoholic content—the most important parameters to be measured in this type of liqueurs.

  18. Discrimination of Apple Liqueurs (Nalewka) Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue, UV-Vis and Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Magdalena; Garcia-Hernandez, Celia; Kościński, Mikołaj; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek; Śliwińska-Bartkowiak, Małgorzata; Jurga, Stefan; Garcia-Cabezon, Cristina; Rodriguez-Mendez, Maria Luz

    2016-10-09

    The capability of a phthalocyanine-based voltammetric electronic tongue to analyze strong alcoholic beverages has been evaluated and compared with the performance of spectroscopic techniques coupled to chemometrics. Nalewka Polish liqueurs prepared from five apple varieties have been used as a model of strong liqueurs. Principal Component Analysis has demonstrated that the best discrimination between liqueurs prepared from different apple varieties is achieved using the e-tongue and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Raman spectra coupled to chemometrics have not been efficient in discriminating liqueurs. The calculated Euclidean distances and the k-Nearest Neighbors algorithm (kNN) confirmed these results. The main advantage of the e-tongue is that, using PLS-1, good correlations have been found simultaneously with the phenolic content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (R² of 0.97 in calibration and R² of 0.93 in validation) and also with the density, a marker of the alcoholic content method (R² of 0.93 in calibration and R² of 0.88 in validation). UV-Vis coupled with chemometrics has shown good correlations only with the phenolic content (R² of 0.99 in calibration and R² of 0.99 in validation) but correlations with the alcoholic content were low. Raman coupled with chemometrics has shown good correlations only with density (R² of 0.96 in calibration and R² of 0.85 in validation). In summary, from the three holistic methods evaluated to analyze strong alcoholic liqueurs, the voltammetric electronic tongue using phthalocyanines as sensing elements is superior to Raman or UV-Vis techniques because it shows an excellent discrimination capability and remarkable correlations with both antioxidant capacity and alcoholic content-the most important parameters to be measured in this type of liqueurs.

  19. Glomus tumor (golomangioma) of the tongue. A light and electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Y; Weather, D R; Neville, B W; Benoit, P W; Pedley, D M

    1981-09-01

    A rare case of an intraoral glomus tumor on the ventral surface on the tongue was studied by light and electron microscopy. With light microscopy, the tumor was composed of dilated vascular channels surrounded by "epithelioid" glomus cells exhibiting large round nuclei and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Bodian stains showed significant staining for nerve fibers among the tumor cells. Electron microscopic study demonstrated that the tumor cells had ultrastructural features which were similar to both smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, suggesting that a "transitional" cell may give rise to glomus tumor. The literature on oral glomus tumors is briefly reviewed.

  20. Structural characterization of the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) tongue by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Dos Santos Haemmerle, Carlos Alexandre; Dias, Fernando José; Cury, Diego Pulzatto; Da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira; Sosthines, Marcia Consentino Kronka; Dos Santos, Tatiana Carlesco; Guimarães, Juliana Plácido; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2013-02-01

    Capybara is the largest rodent in the world and displays a seasonally dependent herbivore feeding behavior. Here, we present an anatomical contribution for understand this fact, by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy methodologies for tongue tissue analysis. The histological preparations revealed filiform, fungiform, vallate, and foliate papillae on the dorsal mucosa of the capybara tongue. The epithelial layer exhibited a lining of keratinized stratified squamous epithelial cells. The lamina propria was characterized by a dense connective tissue composed of the primary and secondary papillar projections. We also revealed the original aspects of the connective papillae. The shapes of the papillae varied by region of the tongue, and filiform, fungiform, vallate, and foliate papillae and subjacent layers of muscular fibers were observed. Pyriform taste buds occupying the epithelial layer of fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae were identified and the intracellular components of the taste buds and the intracorpuscular amyelinated nerve fibers were observed. The taste buds were characterized by the distribution of granular endoplasmic reticulum throughout the perinuclear area, the Golgi apparatus, and mitochondrial assemblies of various distinct diameters. Mitochondrial accumulation was also observed in the collagen bundle-surrounded amyelinated nerve fibers beside the basal cells. Therefore, these peculiar anatomical descriptions may contribute to understanding the adaptation of the feeding behavior of capybaras in a seasonally changing environment.

  1. Scanning electron microscopic study on the tongue in the scarlet macaw (Ara macao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal lingual surface of scarlet macaw (Ara macao) was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Macroscopically, the lingual apex of the scarlet macaw had a lip-like shape. Three parts were distinguished in the dorsal surface of the tongue: the apex, body, and root of the tongue. The surface of the lingual apex had many grooves toward lingual root. The surface of the lingual apex was relatively smooth. The central surface of the papillary layer in the lingual apex after removal of the epithelium consisted of numerous dermal papillae, but the papillae were not observed in the lateral region. A pair of openings of the lingual glands was observed in the posterolateral region of the lingual body. The opening of the lingual gland after removal of the epithelium showed more clear structure than before removal. Many conical papillae in the posterior region of the lingual body were observed. The structure of the tongue of the scarlet macaw was different from that of the rainbow lorikeet.

  2. Bitterness prediction of H1-antihistamines and prediction of masking effects of artificial sweeteners using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masanori; Ikehama, Kiyoharu; Yoshida, Koichi; Haraguchi, Tamami; Yoshida, Miyako; Wada, Koichi; Uchida, Takahiro

    2013-01-30

    The study objective was to quantitatively predict a drug's bitterness and estimate bitterness masking efficiency using an electronic tongue (e-Tongue). To verify the predicted bitterness by e-Tongue, actual bitterness scores were determined by human sensory testing. In the first study, bitterness intensities of eight H(1)-antihistamines were assessed by comparing the Euclidean distances between the drug and water. The distances seemed not to represent the drug's bitterness, but to be greatly affected by acidic taste. Two sensors were ultimately selected as best suited to bitterness evaluation, and the data obtained from the two sensors depicted the actual taste map of the eight drugs. A bitterness prediction model was established with actual bitterness scores from human sensory testing. Concerning basic bitter substances, such as H(1)-antihistamines, the predictability of bitterness intensity using e-Tongue was considered to be sufficiently promising. In another study, the bitterness masking efficiency when adding an artificial sweetener was estimated using e-Tongue. Epinastine hydrochloride aqueous solutions containing different levels of acesulfame potassium and aspartame were well discriminated by e-Tongue. The bitterness masking efficiency of epinastine hydrochloride with acesulfame potassium was successfully predicted using e-Tongue by several prediction models employed in the study.

  3. Discrimination between washed Arabica, natural Arabica and Robusta coffees by using near infrared spectroscopy, electronic nose and electronic tongue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Susanna; Sinelli, Nicoletta; Bertone, Elisa; Venturello, Alberto; Casiraghi, Ernestina; Geobaldo, Francesco

    2015-08-30

    The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a 'holistic' approach, using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and electronic devices (electronic nose and electronic tongue), as instrumental tools for the classification of different coffee varieties. Analyses were performed on green coffee, on ground roasted coffee and on coffee beverage. Principal component analysis was applied on spectral and sensory data to uncover correlations between samples and variables. After variable selection, linear discriminant analysis was used to classify the samples on the basis of the three coffee classes: Robusta, natural Arabica and washed Arabica. Linear discriminant analysis demonstrates the practicability of this approach: the external test set validation performed with NIR data showed 100% of correctly classified samples. Moreover, a satisfying percentage of correct classification in cross-validation was obtained for the electronic devices: the average values of correctly classified samples were 81.83% and 78.76% for electronic nose and electronic tongue, respectively. NIR spectroscopy was shown to be a very reliable and useful tool to classify coffee samples in a fast, clean and inexpensive way compared to classical analysis, while the electronic devices could assume the role of investigating techniques to depict the aroma and taste of coffee samples. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Integrated, paper-based potentiometric electronic tongue for the analysis of beer and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska; Kubota, Lauro T

    2016-04-28

    The following manuscript details the stages of construction of a novel paper-based electronic tongue with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference, which can operate using a minimal amount of sample (40 μL). First, we optimized the fabrication procedure of silver electrodes, testing a set of different methodologies (electroless plating, use of silver nanoparticles and commercial silver paints). Later a novel, integrated electronic tongue system was assembled with the use of readily available materials such as paper, wax, lamination sheets, bleach etc. New system was thoroughly characterized and the ion-selective potentiometric sensors presented performance close to theoretical. An electronic tongue, composed of electrodes sensitive to sodium, calcium, ammonia and a cross-sensitive, anion-selective electrode was used to analyze 34 beer samples (12 types, 19 brands). This system was able to discriminate beers from different brands, and types, indicate presence of stabilizers and antioxidants, dyes or even unmalted cereals and carbohydrates added to the fermentation wort. Samples could be classified by type of fermentation (low, high) and system was able to predict pH and in part also alcohol content of tested beers. In the next step sample volume was minimalized by the use of paper sample pads and measurement in flow conditions. In order to test the impact of this advancement a four electrode system, with cross-sensitive (anion-selective, cation-selective, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), K(+)/Na(+)) electrodes was applied for the analysis of 11 types of wine (4 types of grapes, red/white, 3 countries). Proposed matrix was able to group wines produced from different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Americanas, Malbec, Merlot) using only 40 μL of sample. Apart from that, storage stability studies were performed using a multimeter, therefore showing that not only fabrication but also detection can be accomplished by means of off-the-shelf components. This manuscript not only describes new

  5. Electronic tongue-based discrimination of Korean rice wines (makgeolli) including prediction of sensory evaluation and instrumental measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bo-Sik; Lee, Jang-Eun; Park, Hyun-Jin

    2014-05-15

    A commercial electronic tongue was used to discriminate Korean rice wines (makgeolli) brewed from nine cultivars of rice with different amino acid and fatty acid compositions. The E-tongue was applied to establish prediction models with sensory evaluation or LC-MS/MS by partial least squares regression (PLSR). All makgeollis were classified into three groups by principal components analysis, and the separation pattern was affected by rice qualities and yeast fermentation. Makgeolli taste changed from the complicated comprising sweetness, saltiness, and umami to the uncomplicated, such as bitterness and then, sourness, with a decrease of amino acids and fatty acids in the rice. The quantitative correlation between E-tongue and sensory scores or LC-MS/MS by PLSR demonstrated that E-tongue could well predict most of the sensory attributes with relatively acceptable r(2), except for bitterness, but could not predict most of the chemical compounds responsible for taste attributes, except for ribose, lactate, succinate, and tryptophan.

  6. Rational development of taste masked oral liquids guided by an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woertz, Katharina; Tissen, Corinna; Kleinebudde, Peter; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2010-11-15

    Human taste testing is often associated with ethical concerns, organizational and validation issues. Electrochemical sensor array systems, so called electronic tongues, offer an alternative to assess the taste of multi-component liquid formulations. Therefore, it should be investigated how an electronic tongue can be implemented in the rational development of taste masked formulations. Taste masking of bitter tasting quinine hydrochloride (QH) in a liquid formulation was carried out by screening sweetening agents (sucrose, glucose, fructose, mannitol, sucralose, sodium saccharin, acesulfame potassium, and monoammonium glycyrrhizinate), strong and weak cation ion exchange (IE) resins (Amberlite™ IRP69, Amberlite™ IRP88, and Indion 234), and soluble complexing agents (α-, β-, hydroxypropyl-β-, sulfobutyl ether-β- and γ-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin). Amberlite™ IRP88 showed the best binding capacity for quinine (1.9 g quinine/1 g IE). The addition of sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) could significantly reduce the bitter taste of QH (79% reduction of free QH). The SBE-β-CD formulation was further improved by adding sodium saccharin as secondary taste masking agent. It could also be shown that presence of strawberry flavor and the preservative domiphen bromide does not affect evaluation of taste masking efficiency. The introduced stepwise approach was shown to be applicable to rationally develop novel taste masked formulations.

  7. Use of an Electronic Tongue System and Fuzzy Logic to Analyze Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Guilherme S.; Paterno, Leonardo G.; Fonseca, Fernando J.

    2009-05-01

    An electronic tongue (ET) system incorporating 8 chemical sensors was used in combination with two pattern recognition tools, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and Fuzzy logic for discriminating/classification of water samples from different sources (tap, distilled and three brands of mineral water). The Fuzzy program exhibited a higher accuracy than the PCA and allowed the ET to classify correctly 4 in 5 types of water. Exception was made for one brand of mineral water which was sometimes misclassified as tap water. On the other hand, the PCA grouped water samples in three clusters, one with the distilled water; a second with tap water and one brand of mineral water, and the third with the other two other brands of mineral water. Samples in the second and third clusters could not be distinguished. Nevertheless, close grouping between repeated tests indicated that the ET system response is reproducible. The potential use of the Fuzzy logic as the data processing tool in combination with an electronic tongue system is discussed.

  8. 基于电子舌的掺假牛乳的快速检测%Rapid Detection of Adulterated Milk Based on Electronic Tongue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范佳利; 韩剑众; 田师一; 邓少平

    2011-01-01

    以掺假牛乳样品为检测对象,利用电子舌结合主成分分析法进行研究,旨在寻求一种能有效监控牛乳品质的快速检测方法.对几种常见的掺假(掺入水、食盐、蔗糖、尿素、大豆油)牛乳样品、复原乳以及纯牛乳样品进行检测和评价.试验结果表明:电子舌可以很好地区分纯牛乳和掺入不同物质的牛乳样品,纯牛乳、纯鲜牛乳、复原乳及其混合乳样品得到有效辨识,同时各种掺假牛乳样品随掺入物质的比例在主成分得分图中呈规律性分布.电子舌可用于掺假牛乳的快速检测.在建立典型标准样品数据库的前提下电子舌可有效监控牛乳品质,其在乳制品的质量控制及评价中具有较大的应用潜力.%To seek a method of rapid monitoring of milk quality, adulterated milk were analyzed by the electronic tongue coupled with principal component analysis (PCA). Milk samples adulterated with water, NaCl, sucrose, urea or bean oil, reconstituted milk and UHT sterilized milk samples were analyzed. The experimental results showed that electronic tongue could discriminate not only between UHT sterilized milk and different kinds of adulterated milk, but also UHT sterilized milk, pasteurized milk, reconstituted milk and their mixed milk. The application of electronic tongue in adulterated milk with different additive proportions showed the similar result, too. The electronic tongue could be used for rapid detection of adulterated milk, and also for effective monitoring of milk quality with a database of typical standard samples. The electronic tongue shows a greater potential in the evaluation of dairy products quality.

  9. Detection of Adulteration in Argan Oil by Using an Electronic Nose and a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bougrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adulteration detection of argan oil is one of the main aspects of its quality control. Following recent fraud scandals, it is mandatory to ensure product quality and customer protection. The aim of this study is to detect the percentages of adulteration of argan oil with sunflower oil by using the combination of a voltammetric e-tongue and an e-nose based on metal oxide semiconductor sensors and pattern recognition techniques. Data analysis is performed by three pattern recognition methods: principal component analysis (PCA, discriminant factor analysis (DFA, and support vector machines (SVMs. Excellent results were obtained in the differentiation between unadulterated and adulterated argan oil with sunflower one. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to demonstrate whether the combined e-nose and e-tongue technologies could be successfully applied to the detection of adulteration of argan oil.

  10. Application of Electronic Tongue in Edible Oil Detection with Cluster Algorithm based on Artificial Fish Swarm Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyan Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods for edible oil quality detection mainly have conductivity and peroxide acid value, but as for currently blending edible detection, the effect of these methods is not satisfied. In this study, we propose a cluster algorithm based on artificial fish swarm improvement to detect edible oil by voltammetric electronic tongue. It can optimize the cluster centers value and the initial value. The results show that this is significant to classification and detection of edible oil using the artificial fish swarm cluster algorithm in voltammetric electronic tongue system.

  11. Single-cultivar extra virgin olive oil classification using a potentiometric electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Luís G; Fernandes, Andreia; Veloso, Ana C A; Machado, Adélio A S C; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2014-10-01

    Label authentication of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils is of great importance. A novel approach based on a potentiometric electronic tongue is proposed to classify oils obtained from single olive cultivars (Portuguese cvs. Cobrançosa, Madural, Verdeal Transmontana; Spanish cvs. Arbequina, Hojiblanca, Picual). A meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm was applied to select the most informative sets of sensors to establish predictive linear discriminant models. Olive oils were correctly classified according to olive cultivar (sensitivities greater than 97%) and each Spanish olive oil was satisfactorily discriminated from the Portuguese ones with the exception of cv. Arbequina (sensitivities from 61% to 98%). Also, the discriminant ability was related to the polar compounds contents of olive oils and so, indirectly, with organoleptic properties like bitterness, astringency or pungency. Therefore the proposed E-tongue can be foreseen as a useful auxiliary tool for trained sensory panels for the classification of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Practical procedure for discriminating monofloral honey with a broad pollen profile variability using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mara E B C; Dias, Luís G; Veloso, Ana C A; Estevinho, Letícia; Peres, António M; Machado, Adélio A S C

    2014-10-01

    Colour and floral origin are key parameters that may influence the honey market. Monofloral light honey are more demanded by consumers, mainly due to their flavour, being more valuable for producers due to their higher price when compared to darker honey. The latter usually have a high anti-oxidant content that increases their healthy potential. This work showed that it is possible to correctly classify monofloral honey with a high variability in floral origin with a potentiometric electronic tongue after making a preliminary selection of honey according their colours: white, amber and dark honey. The results showed that the device had a very satisfactory sensitivity towards floral origin (Castanea sp., Echium sp., Erica sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp. and Rubus sp.), allowing a leave-one-out cross validation correct classification of 100%. Therefore, the E-tongue shows potential to be used at analytical laboratory level for honey samples classification according to market and quality parameters, as a practical tool for ensuring monofloral honey authenticity.

  13. Optical Addressing Electronic Tongue Based on Low Selective Photovoltaic Transducer with Nanoporous Silicon Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, S. V.; Bielobrov, D. O.; Lysenko, V.; Skryshevsky, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The electronic tongue based on the array of low selective photovoltaic (PV) sensors and principal component analysis is proposed for detection of various alcohol solutions. A sensor array is created at the forming of p-n junction on silicon wafer with porous silicon layer on the opposite side. A dynamical set of sensors is formed due to the inhomogeneous distribution of the surface recombination rate at this porous silicon side. The sensitive to molecular adsorption photocurrent is induced at the scanning of this side by laser beam. Water, ethanol, iso-propanol, and their mixtures were selected for testing. It is shown that the use of the random dispersion of surface recombination rates on different spots of the rear side of p-n junction and principal component analysis of PV signals allows identifying mentioned liquid substances and their mixtures.

  14. Influence of Experimental Conditions on Electronic Tongue Results—Case of Valsartan Minitablets Dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Wesoły

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A potentiometric electronic tongue was applied to study the release of valsartan from pharmaceutical formulations, i.e., minitablets uncoated and coated with Eudragit E. Special attention was paid to evaluate the influence of medium temperature and composition, as well as to compare the performances of the sensor arrays working in various hydrodynamic conditions. The drug dissolution profiles registered with the ion-sensitive electrodes were compared with standard dissolution tests performed with USP Apparatus 2 (paddle. Moreover, the signal changes of all sensors were processed by principal component analysis to visualize the release modifications, related to the presence of the coating agent. Finally, the importance and influence of the experimental conditions on the results obtained using potentiometric sensor arrays were discussed.

  15. Use of an Electronic Tongue to Detect Geosmin in Distilled Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Guilherme S.; Paterno, Leonardo G.; Fonseca, Fernando J.

    2011-11-01

    An electronic tongue (ET) system consisting of conducting polymer sensors was employed to detect geosmin (GSM) in distilled water. GSM is a tainting compound and known to cause undesirable tastes and odors in water and aquaculture farming. Diluted solutions of GSM were prepared in distilled water at different concentrations. The electrical response (capacitance) of the sensors was analyzed using principal analysis component (PCA). The data obtained were separated into different clusters indicating a good sensibility of the ET system to this compound in distilled water. The ET showed signal saturation for concentrations higher than 300 ng.L-1. So far, the detection limit of our system is 25 ng.L-1. Nevertheless, close grouping between repeated tests indicated that the ET system response is reproducible.

  16. Light and scanning electron microscopy of the tongue of a degu (Octodon degus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Petr; Hamouzova, Pavla; Jekl, Vladimir; Kvapil, Pavel; Tichy, Frantisek

    2017-09-01

    The tongue of an adult degu was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. It consists of an apex, corpus, and radix and contains a lingual prominence. The aim of this study was to describe the course of muscle fascicles of the proper lingual muscle, the presence and nature of the lingual salivary glands, and particularly the appearance and distribution of the lingual papillae. Three major types of papillae have been observed: filiform, conical, and vallate. The dorsal surface of the lingual apex extends in caudally bent filiform papillae with two spines. The lingual corpus bears long filiform papillae with a single tip. The lingual radix contains crown-like papillae in the region of the prominence and conical papillae in the remaining areas. Two oval vallate papillae were discovered caudally on the lingual radix. This first description of the lingual structures in a degu could be used for comparative studies or as basic data for differentiation of lingual morphology in this species.

  17. Optical Addressing Electronic Tongue Based on Low Selective Photovoltaic Transducer with Nanoporous Silicon Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, S V; Bielobrov, D O; Lysenko, V; Skryshevsky, V A

    2016-12-01

    The electronic tongue based on the array of low selective photovoltaic (PV) sensors and principal component analysis is proposed for detection of various alcohol solutions. A sensor array is created at the forming of p-n junction on silicon wafer with porous silicon layer on the opposite side. A dynamical set of sensors is formed due to the inhomogeneous distribution of the surface recombination rate at this porous silicon side. The sensitive to molecular adsorption photocurrent is induced at the scanning of this side by laser beam. Water, ethanol, iso-propanol, and their mixtures were selected for testing. It is shown that the use of the random dispersion of surface recombination rates on different spots of the rear side of p-n junction and principal component analysis of PV signals allows identifying mentioned liquid substances and their mixtures.

  18. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phat, Chanvorleak; Moon, BoKyung; Lee, Chan

    2016-02-01

    Seventeen edible mushrooms commercially available in Korea were analysed for their umami taste compounds (5'-nucleotides: AMP, GMP, IMP, UMP, XMP; free amino acids: aspartic, glutamic acid) and subjected to human sensory evaluation and electronic tongue measurements. Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content (36.9 ± 1.50 mg/g), while monosodium glutamate-like components (42.4 ± 6.90 mg/g) were highest in Agaricus bisporus. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) ranged from 1.51 ± 0.42 to 3890 ± 833 mg MSG/g dry weight; most mushrooms exhibited a high umami taste. Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement. The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms.

  19. Calibration of a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue) for Identification and Quantification of Odorants from Livestock Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Khalaf, Nawaf; Iversen, Jens Jørgen Lønsmann

    2007-01-01

    This contribution serves a dual purpose. The first purpose was to investigate the possibility of using a sensor array (an electronic tongue) for on-line identification and quantification of key odorants representing a variety of chemical groups at two different acidities, pH 6 and 8. The second purpose was to simplify the electronic tongue by decreasing the number of electrodes from 14, which was the number of electrodes in the prototype. Different electrodes were used for identification and quantification of different key odorants. A total of eight electrodes were sufficient for identification and quantification in micromolar concentrations of the key odorants n-butyrate, ammonium and phenolate in test mixtures also containing iso-valerate, skatole and p-cresolate. The limited number of electrodes decreased the standard deviation and the relative standard deviation of triplicate measurements in comparison with the array comprising 14 electrodes. The electronic tongue was calibrated using 4 different test mixtures, each comprising 50 different combinations of key odorants in triplicates, a total of 600 measurements. Back propagation artificial neural network, partial least square and principal component analysis were used in the data analysis. The results indicate that the electronic tongue has a promising potential as an online sensor for odorants absorbed in the bioscrubber used in livestock buildings.

  20. Calibration of a Sensor Array (an Electronic Tongue for Identification and Quantification of Odorants from Livestock Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Jørgen Lønsmann Iversen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution serves a dual purpose. The first purpose was to investigate the possibility of using a sensor array (an electronic tongue for on-line identification and quantification of key odorants representing a variety of chemical groups at two different acidities, pH 6 and 8. The second purpose was to simplify the electronic tongue by decreasing the number of electrodes from 14, which was the number of electrodes in the prototype. Different electrodes were used for identification and quantification of different key odorants. A total of eight electrodes were sufficient for identification and quantification in micromolar concentrations of the key odorants n-butyrate, ammonium and phenolate in test mixtures also containing iso-valerate, skatole and p-cresolate. The limited number of electrodes decreased the standard deviation and the relative standard deviation of triplicate measurements in comparison with the array comprising 14 electrodes. The electronic tongue was calibrated using 4 different test mixtures, each comprising 50 different combinations of key odorants in triplicates, a total of 600 measurements. Back propagation artificial neural network, partial least square and principal component analysis were used in the data analysis. The results indicate that the electronic tongue has a promising potential as an on- line sensor for odorants absorbed in the bioscrubber used in livestock buildings.

  1. Use of electronic tongue for differentiation of tomato taste by cultivar, harvest maturity, and chilling or heating exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate whether an electronic-tongue (etongue) could differentiate “taste” profiles of tomato fruit between different cultivars, harvest maturities, and postharvest chilling or heating exposure. The four cultivars included: two common commercial cultivars, ‘Tyg...

  2. Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis van Bénéden, 1864).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Juliana Plácido; Mari, Renata de Britto; Marigo, Juliana; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

    2011-08-01

    The importance of the tongue during feeding, and the limited information on the tongue of most aquatic mammals led us to investigate its morphological aspects in sexually immature and mature Sotalia guianensis. Six tongues were measured and photo-documented after their removal from the oral cavity. The samples were divided into rostral, middle, and caudal regions, and examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.). Sotalia guianensis tongue presented lateral grooves from the apex to the middle portion, while the anterolateral region presented marginal papillae. Histological characteristics revealed the presence of a keratinized stratified epithelium, salivary glands in the middle and caudal portions of the tongue, and filiform papillae in the caudal region. S.E.M. images revealed the presence of filiform papillae and ducts of salivary glands in the middle and caudal portions of the tongue. We can conclude that the characteristics found in this study may reflect an adaptation to changes in diet after weaning.

  3. A novel approach for honey pollen profile assessment using an electronic tongue and chemometric tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luís G., E-mail: ldias@ipb.pt [Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); CQ-VR, Centro de Química – Vila Real, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Veloso, Ana C.A. [Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); CEB-Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Sousa, Mara E.B.C.; Estevinho, Letícia [CIMO-Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Machado, Adélio A.S.C. [LAQUIPAI – Laboratório de Química Inorgânica Pura e de Aplicação Interdisciplinar, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências da, Universidade do Porto, Rua Campo Alegre n°. 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2015-11-05

    Nowadays the main honey producing countries require accurate labeling of honey before commercialization, including floral classification. Traditionally, this classification is made by melissopalynology analysis, an accurate but time-consuming task requiring laborious sample pre-treatment and high-skilled technicians. In this work the potential use of a potentiometric electronic tongue for pollinic assessment is evaluated, using monofloral and polyfloral honeys. The results showed that after splitting honeys according to color (white, amber and dark), the novel methodology enabled quantifying the relative percentage of the main pollens (Castanea sp., Echium sp., Erica sp., Eucaliptus sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp., Rubus sp. and Trifolium sp.). Multiple linear regression models were established for each type of pollen, based on the best sensors' sub-sets selected using the simulated annealing algorithm. To minimize the overfitting risk, a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure was implemented, ensuring that at least 10–20% of the honeys were used for internal validation. With this approach, a minimum average determination coefficient of 0.91 ± 0.15 was obtained. Also, the proposed technique enabled the correct classification of 92% and 100% of monofloral and polyfloral honeys, respectively. The quite satisfactory performance of the novel procedure for quantifying the relative pollen frequency may envisage its applicability for honey labeling and geographical origin identification. Nevertheless, this approach is not a full alternative to the traditional melissopalynologic analysis; it may be seen as a practical complementary tool for preliminary honey floral classification, leaving only problematic cases for pollinic evaluation. - Highlights: • Honey's floral origin labeling is a legal requirement. • Melissopalynology analysis usually used to evaluate pollens profile is laborious. • A novel E-tongue based approach is applied to assess pollens

  4. A Novel Method for the Discrimination of Semen Arecae and Its Processed Products by Using Computer Vision, Electronic Nose, and Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut, commonly known locally as Semen Arecae (SA in China, has been used as an important Chinese herbal medicine for thousands of years. The raw SA (RAW is commonly processed by stir-baking to yellow (SBY, stir-baking to dark brown (SBD, and stir-baking to carbon dark (SBC for different clinical uses. In our present investigation, intelligent sensory technologies consisting of computer vision (CV, electronic nose (E-nose, and electronic tongue (E-tongue were employed in order to develop a novel and accurate method for discrimination of SA and its processed products. Firstly, the color parameters and electronic sensory responses of E-nose and E-tongue of the samples were determined, respectively. Then, indicative components including 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF and arecoline (ARE were determined by HPLC. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA and discriminant factor analysis (DFA were performed. The results demonstrated that these three instruments can effectively discriminate SA and its processed products. 5-HMF and ARE can reflect the stir-baking degree of SA. Interestingly, the two components showed close correlations to the color parameters and sensory responses of E-nose and E-tongue. In conclusion, this novel method based on CV, E-nose, and E-tongue can be successfully used to discriminate SA and its processed products.

  5. Light and scanning electron microscopic study on the tongue and lingual papillae of the common raccoon, Procyon lotor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Yoshiko; Yoshimura, Ken; Shindo, Junji; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2010-08-01

    We observed the external surface and connective tissue cores (CTCs), after exfoliation of the epithelium of the lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, foliate and vallate papillae) of the common raccoon (Procyon lotor) using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The tongue was elongated and their two-third width was almost fixed. Numerous filiform papillae were distributed along the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and fungiform papillae were distributed between the filiform papillae. Eight vallate papillae that had a weak circumferential ridge were distributed in a V-shape in the posterior part of the tongue and numerous taste buds were observable in the circumferential furrows of vallate papillae. Weak fold-like foliate papillae were observable at the lateral edge in the posterior part of the tongue and a few salivary duct orifices were observable beneath the foliate papillae. An islet-like structure with numerous taste buds, was observable on the deep part of the salivary duct of foliate papillae. Large conical papillae were distributed at the posterior part and root of the tongue. After removal of epithelium, filiform papillae of CTCs were appeared to be a thumb or cone-like main core and associating several finger-like short accessory cores. These cores were surrounded an oval concavity. The main core was situated behind the concavity and associated with accessory cores. CTCs of fungiform papillae were cylinder-like with numerous vertically running ridges and with a few concavities seen at the top of the cores. CTCs of vallate papillae and their surrounded circumferential ridge were covered with numerous pimple-like protrusions. The lingual papillae of Common raccoon's tongue had morphological feature of carnivore species.

  6. Fissured Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020 Annual Meeting Orlando, FL Our Partners Fissured Tongue The term fissured tongue describes the finding of multiple small furrows or grooves on the dorsal (top) surface of the tongue. These fissures can be shallow or deep, single ...

  7. Tongue biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - tongue ... A tongue biopsy can be done using a needle. You will get numbing medicine at the place where the ... provider will gently stick the needle into the tongue and remove a tiny piece of tissue. Some ...

  8. Your Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Tongue KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Tongue Print A A ... sing. And don't forget talking and tasting! Tongue Twister Has anyone ever told you that the ...

  9. Electronic Tongue for Qualitative Analysis of Aqueous Solutions of Salts Using Thick-film Technology and Metal Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Soto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An electronic tongue for the qualitative analysis of aqueous solutions of salts hasbeen developed. The following set of electrodes was used: RuO2, Ag, and Cu in thick-filmtechnology and Au, Pb, Zn and Ni as small bars of the corresponding metal. The response ofthe designed “electronic tongue” was tested on a family of samples containing pure salt andcomplex mixtures. The electrodes were used as potentiometric un-specific sensors and thee.m.f. of each electrode in contact with a certain aqueous solution was used as input signalfor a PCA analysis. The study showed that the set of electrodes were capable to discriminatebetween aqueous solutions of salts basically by their different content in anions and cations(the anions SO42-, Cl-, PO4H2-, CO3H-, NO3- and cations Na+ and K+ were studied. In orderto better analyze the basis for the discrimination power shown by the electronic tongue, aquantitative analysis was also envisaged. A fair estimation of the concentrations of thedifferent ions in the solutions studied appeared to be possible using this electronic tonguedesign.Keywords:

  10. A composite sensor array impedentiometric electronic tongue Part II. Discrimination of basic tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioggia, G; Di Francesco, F; Marchetti, A; Ferro, M; Leardi, R; Ahluwalia, A

    2007-05-15

    An impedentiometric electronic tongue based on the combination of a composite sensor array and chemometric techniques aimed at the discrimination of soluble compounds able to elicit different gustative perceptions is presented. A composite array consisting of chemo-sensitive layers based on carbon nanotubes or carbon black dispersed in polymeric matrices and doped polythiophenes was used. The electrical impedance of the sensor array was measured at a frequency of 150 Hz by means of an impedance meter. The experimental set-up was designed in order to allow the automatic selection of a test solution and dipping of the sensor array following a dedicated measurement protocol. Measurements were carried out on 15 different solutions eliciting 5 different tastes (sodium chloride, citric acid, glucose, glutamic acid and sodium dehydrocholate for salty, sour, sweet, umami and bitter, respectively) at 3 concentration levels comprising the human perceptive range. In order to avoid over-fitting, more than 100 repetitions for each sample were carried in a 4-month period. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to detect and remove outliers. Classification was performed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). A fairly good degree of discrimination was obtained.

  11. Determination of total polyphenol index in wines employing a voltammetric electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetó, Xavier; Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; Gutiérrez, Manuel; Céspedes, Francisco; Capdevila, Josefina; Mínguez, Santiago; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia; del Valle, Manel

    2012-06-30

    This work reports the application of a voltammetric electronic tongue system (ET) made from an array of modified graphite-epoxy composites plus a gold microelectrode in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of polyphenols found in wine. Wine samples were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry without any sample pretreatment. The obtained responses were preprocessed employing discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in order to compress and extract significant features from the voltammetric signals, and the obtained approximation coefficients fed a multivariate calibration method (artificial neural network-ANN-or partial least squares-PLS-) which accomplished the quantification of total polyphenol content. External test subset samples results were compared with the ones obtained with the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method and UV absorbance polyphenol index (I(280)) as reference values, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.979 and 0.963 in the range from 50 to 2400 mg L(-1) gallic acid equivalents, respectively. In a separate experiment, qualitative discrimination of different polyphenols found in wine was also assessed by principal component analysis (PCA).

  12. Automated electronic tongue based on potentiometric sensors for the determination of a trinary anionic surfactant mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Montserrat; Ecker, Christina; Calvo, Daniel; del Valle, Manuel

    2008-01-22

    An automated electronic tongue consisting of an array of potentiometric sensors and an artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed to resolve mixtures of anionic surfactants. The sensor array was formed by five different flow-through sensors for anionic surfactants, based on poly(vinyl chloride) membranes having cross-sensitivity features. Feedforward multilayer neural networks were used to predict surfactant concentrations. As a great amount of information is required for the correct modelling of the sensors response, a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system was used to automatically provide it. Dodecylsulfate (DS(-)), dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS(-)) and alpha-alkene sulfonate (ALF(-)) formed the three-analyte study case resolved in this work. Their concentrations varied from 0.2 to 4mM for ALF(-) and DBS(-) and from 0.2 to 5mM for DS(-). Good prediction ability was obtained with correlation coefficients better than 0.933 when the obtained values were compared with those expected for a set of 16 external test samples not used for training.

  13. Resolution of phenolic antioxidant mixtures employing a voltammetric bio-electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetó, Xavier; Céspedes, Francisco; Pividori, Maria Isabel; Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; del Valle, Manel

    2012-01-21

    This work reports the application of a Bio-Electronic Tongue (BioET) system made from an array of enzymatic biosensors in the analysis of polyphenols, focusing on major polyphenols found in wine. For this, the biosensor array was formed by a set of epoxy-graphite biosensors, bulk-modified with different redox enzymes (tyrosinase and laccase) and copper nanoparticles, aimed at the simultaneous determination of the different polyphenols. Departure information was the set of voltammograms generated with the biosensor array, selecting some characteristic features in order to reduce the data for the Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Finally, after the ANN model optimization, it was used for the resolution and quantification of each compound. Catechol, caffeic acid and catechin formed the three-analyte case study resolved in this work. Good prediction ability was attained, therefore allowing the separate quantification of the three phenols with predicted vs. expected slope better than 0.970 for the external test set (n = 10). Finally, BioET has been also tested with spiked wine samples with good recovery yields (values of 104%, 117% and 122% for catechol, caffeic acid and catechin, respectively).

  14. An electronic tongue for gliadins semi-quantitative detection in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, António M; Dias, Luís G; Veloso, Ana C A; Meirinho, Sofia G; Morais, Jorge Sá; Machado, Adélio A S C

    2011-01-15

    An all-solid-state potentiometric electronic tongue with 36 polymeric membranes has been used for the first time to detect gliadins, which are primarily responsible for gluten intolerance in people suffering from celiac disease. A linear discriminant model, based on the signals of 11 polymeric membranes, selected from the 36 above using a stepwise procedure, was used to semi-quantitatively classify samples of a "Gluten-free" foodstuff (baby milked flour), previously contaminated with known amounts of gliadins (50mg/kg), as "Gluten-free", "Low-Gluten content" or "Gluten-containing". For this food matrix, the device had sensitivity towards gliadins of 1-2mg/kg and overall sensitivity and specificity of 77% and 78%, respectively. Moreover, the device never identified an ethanolic extract containing gliadins as "Gluten-free". Finally, the system also allowed distinguishing "Gluten-free" and "Gluten-containing" foodstuffs (15 foods, including breads, flours, baby milked flours, cookies and breakfast cereals) with an overall sensitivity and specificity greater than 83%, using the signals of only 4 selected polymeric membranes (selected using a stepwise procedure). Since only one "Gluten-containing" foodstuff was misclassified as "Gluten-free", the device could be used as a preliminary tool for quality control of foods for celiac patients.

  15. Quantitative analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using a potentiometric electronic tongue in a SIA flow system

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    An advanced potentiometric electronic tongue and Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) measurement system was applied for the quantitative analysis of mixtures containing three active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs): acetaminophen, ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid, in the presence of various amounts of caffeine as interferent. The flow-through sensor array was composed of miniaturized classical ion-selective electrodes based on plasticized PVC membranes containing only ion exchangers. P...

  16. Anatomical and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Tongue in the Meerkat (Suricata suricatta, Schreber, 1776).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, S; Lima, M; Pérez, W

    2016-02-01

    This research presents the first anatomical description of the tongue and lingual papillae of the meerkat and compares the different information on the morphology of the other carnivore species. For this purpose, three tongues were used as material. The tongue was elongated with an oval or rounded apex. On the dorsal and ventrolateral surfaces of the tongue, filiform papillae had extent variations in morphology. Papillary body of each filiform papilla on the ventrolateral surface of the lingual body was ramified into 2-5 glovelike projections, and all pointed tips of these projections were directed caudally. On the dorsal lingual surface, each filiform papilla leaned on another without any space and both lateral borders of each filiform papilla included 4-6 small secondary projections or spines. A few rounded fungiform papillae were randomly distributed and embedded among the filiform papillae. On the caudal one-third of the body, there were two elongated circumvallate papillae. Some superficial fissures and taste pores were detected on the flat surfaces of each circumvallate papilla which was surrounded by a prominent and continuous gustatory groove. On the radix of the tongue, numerous dome-shaped protuberances of lingual salivary glands beneath the epithelium and one centrally located orificium was very invincible on the convex surface of each protuberance. Anatomical distribution of lingual papillae differed from those of other carnivores and represented morphological adaptation to the food type and feeding habits.

  17. Instrumental measurement of bitter taste in red wine using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; Muller, Nina; Legin, Andrey; du Toit, Maret; Bauer, Florian F

    2010-08-01

    An electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors was assessed as a rapid tool for the quantification of bitterness in red wines. A set of 39 single cultivar Pinotage wines comprising 13 samples with medium to high bitterness was obtained from the producers in West Cape, South Africa. Samples were analysed with respect to a set of routine wine parameters and major phenolic compounds using Fourier transform infrared-multiple internal reflection spectroscopy (WineScan) and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. A trained sensory panel assessed the bitterness intensity of 15 wines, 13 of which had a bitter taste of medium to high intensity. Thirty-one wine samples including seven bitter-tasting ones were measured by the ET. Influence of the chemical composition of wine on the occurrence of the bitter taste was evaluated using one-way analysis of variance. It was found that bitter-tasting wines had higher concentrations of phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, gallic and caffeic acids and quercetin) than non-bitter wines. Sensitivity of the sensors of the array to the phenolic compounds related to the bitterness was studied at different pH levels. Sensors displayed sensitivity to all studied compounds at pH 7, but only to quercetin at pH 3.5. Based on these findings, the pH of wine was adjusted to 7 prior to measurements. Calibration models for classification of wine samples according to the presence of the bitter taste and quantification of the bitterness intensity were calculated by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) regression. Statistical significance of the classification results was confirmed by the permutation test. Both ET and chemical analysis data could discriminate between bitter and control wines with the correct classification rates of 94% and 91%, respectively. Prediction of the bitterness intensity with good accuracy (root mean square error of 2 and mean relative error of 6% in validation) was

  18. Determination of total polyphenol index in wines employing a voltammetric electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceto, Xavier [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Gutierrez, Juan Manuel [Bioelectronics Section, Department of Electrical Engineering, CINVESTAV, 07360 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gutierrez, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cespedes, Francisco [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Capdevila, Josefina; Minguez, Santiago [Estacio de Viticultura i Enologia, INCAVI, Vilafranca del Penedes (Spain); Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Valle, Manel del, E-mail: manel.delvalle@uab.cat [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Array of voltammetric sensors modified with nanoparticles or conducting polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has been applied in wine analysis to predict polyphenol content index. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uses data processing tools such as discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural network. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of phenolics like gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, catechol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predicted polyphenol index agrees with Folin-Ciocalteau method and I{sub 280} index. - Abstract: This work reports the application of a voltammetric electronic tongue system (ET) made from an array of modified graphite-epoxy composites plus a gold microelectrode in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of polyphenols found in wine. Wine samples were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry without any sample pretreatment. The obtained responses were preprocessed employing discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in order to compress and extract significant features from the voltammetric signals, and the obtained approximation coefficients fed a multivariate calibration method (artificial neural network-ANN-or partial least squares-PLS-) which accomplished the quantification of total polyphenol content. External test subset samples results were compared with the ones obtained with the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method and UV absorbance polyphenol index (I{sub 280}) as reference values, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.979 and 0.963 in the range from 50 to 2400 mg L{sup -1} gallic acid equivalents, respectively. In a separate experiment, qualitative discrimination of different polyphenols found in wine was also assessed by principal component analysis (PCA).

  19. BioElectronic Tongue for the quantification of total polyphenol content in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetó, Xavier; Céspedes, Francisco; del Valle, Manel

    2012-09-15

    This work reports the application of a BioElectronic Tongue (BioET) in the estimation of polyphenol content in wine. The approach used an array of enzyme biosensors capable of giving a wide and complete response of the analyzed species, plus a chemometric processing tool able to interpret the chemical signals and extract meaningful data from the complex readings. In our case, the proposed BioET was formed by an array of four voltammetric enzymatic biosensors based on epoxy-graphite composites, one blank electrode and the other three bulk-modified with tyrosinase and laccase on one side, and copper nanoparticles on the other; these modifiers were used in order to incorporate differentiated or catalytic response to different polyphenols present in wine and aimed to the determination of its total polyphenol content value. The obtained voltammetric responses were pre-processed employing the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT); this was used to compress the relevant information whereas the obtained coefficients fed an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model that accomplished the quantification of total polyphenol content. For comparison purposes, obtained polyphenol content was compared against the one assessed by two different reference methods: Folin-Ciocalteu and UV polyphenol index (I(280)); good prediction ability was attained with correlation coefficients higher than 0.949 when comparing against reference methods. Qualitative discrimination of individual polyphenols found in wine was also assessed by means of Principal Component Analysis which allowed the discrimination of the individual polyphenols under study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel bio-electronic tongue using cellobiose dehydrogenase from different origins to resolve mixtures of various sugars and interfering analytes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A novel application of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) as sensing element for a Bioelectronic Tongue (BioET) system has been tested. In this work CDHs from various fungi, which exhibit different substrate specificities, were used to discriminate between lactose and glucose in presence of the interfering matrix compound Ca²⁺ in various mixtures. This work exploits the advantage of an electronic tongue system with practically zero pre-treatment of samples and operation at low voltages in a direc...

  1. Tongue (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tongue is mainly composed of muscles. It is covered with a mucous membrane. Small nodules of tissue (papillae) cover the upper surface of the tongue. Between the papillae are the taste buds, which ...

  2. Yellow Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may suggest jaundice References Goldstein BG, et al. Oral lesions. http://uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 21, 2015. ... Jan. 27, 2015. Geographic tongue. American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. http://www.aaomp.org/public/geographic-tongue.php. ...

  3. A sequential injection electronic tongue employing the transient response from potentiometric sensors for anion multidetermination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, M; Duran, A; Alegret, S; del Valle, M

    2006-08-01

    Intelligent and automatic systems based on arrays of non-specific-response chemical sensors were recently developed in our laboratory. For multidetermination applications, the normal choice is an array of potentiometric sensors to generate the signal, and an artificial neural network (ANN) correctly trained to obtain the calibration model. As a great amount of information is required for the proper modelling, we proposed its automated generation by using the sequential injection analysis (SIA) technique. First signals used were steady-state: the equilibrium signal after a step-change in concentration. We have now adapted our procedures to record the transient response corresponding to a sample step. The novelty in this approach is therefore the use of the dynamic components of the signal in order to better discriminate or differentiate a sample. In the developed electronic tongue systems, detection is carried out by using a sensor array formed by five potentiometric sensors based on PVC membranes. For the developed application we employed two different chloride-selective sensors, two nitrate-selective sensors and one generic response sensor. As the amount of raw data (fivefold recordings corresponding to the five sensors) is excessive for an ANN, some feature extraction step prior to the modelling was needed. In order to attain substantial data reduction and noise filtering, the data obtained were fitted with orthonormal Legendre polynomials. In this case, a third-degree Legendre polynomial was shown to be sufficient to fit the data. The coefficients of these polynomials were the input information fed into the ANN used to model the concentrations of the determined species (Cl-, NO3- and HCO3-). Best results were obtained by using a backpropagation neural network trained with the Bayesian regularisation algorithm; the net had a single hidden layer containing three neurons with the tansig transfer function. The results obtained from the time-dependent response were

  4. Tongue Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your tongue helps you taste, swallow, and chew. You also use it to speak. Your tongue is made up of many muscles. The upper surface contains your taste buds. Problems with the tongue include Pain Swelling Changes in color or texture ...

  5. A novel bio-electronic tongue using different cellobiose dehydrogenases to resolve mixtures of various sugars and interfering analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipri, Andrea; Schulz, Christopher; Ludwig, Roland; Gorton, Lo; Del Valle, Manel

    2016-05-15

    A novel application of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) as sensing element for a Bioelectronic Tongue (BioET) system has been tested. In this work CDHs from various fungi, which exhibit different substrate specificities, were used to discriminate between lactose and glucose in presence of the interfering matrix compound Ca(2+) in various mixtures. This work exploits the advantage of an electronic tongue system with practically zero pre-treatment of samples and operation at low voltages in a direct electron transfer mode. The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) used in the BioET system to interpret the voltammetric data was able to provide a correct prediction of the concentrations of the analytes considered. Correlation coefficients in the comparison of obtained vs. expected concentrations were highly significant, especially for lactose (R(2)=0.975) and Ca(2+) (R(2)=0.945). This BioET application has a high potential especially for the food and dairy industry and also, if further miniaturised in screen printed format, for its in-situ use.

  6. Light and scanning electron microscopic study on the tongue and lingual papillae of the common hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Ken; Hama, Natsuki; Shindo, Junji; Kobayashi, Kan; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2009-07-01

    We observed the three-dimensional structures of the external surface and connective tissue cores CTCs, after exfoliation of the epithelium of the lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, and foliate papillae) of the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius) using scanning electron microscopy and conventional light microscopy. Following unique features were found; typical vallate papillae with a circumferential furrow were not observable. Instead, numerous large fungiform papillae were rather densely distributed on the posterior of the lingual prominence. Taste buds were observable only on the dorsal epithelium. Serous lingual gland was not seen in the lamina propria; however, mucous-rich mixed lingual glands were found and in a few of orifices were seen on the large fungiform tops. Lingual prominence was diminished their width. Rather long and slender conical papillae were distributed on the lingual prominence and were similar to nonruminant herbivore, that is donkey. Beside this narrow lingual prominence, lateral slopes were situated with numerous short spine-like protrusions. After removal of the epithelium, CTCs of lateral slopes exhibited attenuated flower bud structures. Large-conical papillae were situated on the root of the tongue. These large conical papillae were not seen among ruminants and seen on the lingual root of omnivores and carnivores. It implies that lingual structure of common hippopotamus possessed mixed characteristics between Perissodactyls, Ruminantia, and nonherbivores such as Suiformes because of their unique evolutionally taxonomic position. Moreover, adaptation for soft grass diet and associating easier mastication may be also affecting these mixed morphological features of the tongue.

  7. Automated resolution of dichlorvos and methylparaoxon pesticide mixtures employing a Flow Injection system with an inhibition electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Ramírez, G; Gutiérrez, M; Del Valle, M; Ramírez-Silva, M T; Fournier, D; Marty, J-L

    2009-01-01

    An amperometric biosensor array has been developed to resolve pesticide mixtures of dichlorvos and methylparaoxon. The biosensor array has been used in a Flow Injection system, in order to operate automatically the inhibition procedure. The sensors used were three screen-printed amperometric biosensors that incorporated three different acetylcholinesterase enzymes: the wild type from Electric eel and two different genetically modified enzymes, B1 and B394 mutants, from Drosophila melanogaster. The inhibition response triplet was modelled using an Artificial Neural Network which was trained with mixture solutions that contain dichlorvos from 10(-4) to 0.1 microM and methylparaoxon from 0.001 to 2.5 microM. This system can be considered an inhibition electronic tongue.

  8. Electronic tongue response to chemicals in orange juice that change concentration in relation to harvest maturity and citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an earlier study, the electronic tongue system (etongue) was used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. This study investigated the reaction of an etongue system to the main chemicals in orange ...

  9. Bioelectronic tongues: New trends and applications in water and food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetó, Xavier; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Prieto-Simón, Beatriz

    2016-05-15

    Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand for fast, highly sensitive and selective methods of analysis to meet new challenges in environmental monitoring, food safety and public health. In response to this demand, biosensors have arisen as a promising tool, which offers accurate chemical data in a timely and cost-effective manner. However, the difficulty to obtain sensors with appropriate selectivity and sensitivity for a given analyte, and to solve analytical problems which do not require the quantification of a certain analyte, but an overall effect on a biological system (e.g. toxicity, quality indices, provenance, freshness, etc.), led to the concept of electronic tongues as a new strategy to tackle these problems. In this direction, to improve the performance of electronic tongues, and thus to spawn new application fields, biosensors have recently been incorporated to electronic tongue arrays, leading to what is known as bioelectronic tongues. Bioelectronic tongues provide superior performance by combining the capabilities of electronic tongues to derive meaning from complex or imprecise data, and the high selectivity and specificity of biosensors. The result is postulated as a tool that exploits chemometrics to solve biosensors' interference problems, and biosensors to solve electronic tongues' selectivity problems. The review presented herein aims to illustrate the capabilities of bioelectronic tongues as analytical tools, especially suited for screening analysis, with particular emphasis in water analysis and the characterization of food and beverages. After briefly reviewing the key concepts related to the design and principles of electronic tongues, we provide an overview of significant contributions to the field of bioelectronic tongues and their future perspectives.

  10. Discrimination and characterization of strawberry juice based on electronic nose and tongue: comparison of different juice processing approaches by LDA, PLSR, RF, and SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun; Gao, Liping

    2014-07-01

    An electronic nose (E-nose) and an electronic tongue (E-tongue) have been used to characterize five types of strawberry juices based on processing approaches (i.e., microwave pasteurization, steam blanching, high temperature short time pasteurization, frozen-thawed, and freshly squeezed). Juice quality parameters (vitamin C, pH, total soluble solid, total acid, and sugar/acid ratio) were detected by traditional measuring methods. Multivariate statistical methods (linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR)) and neural networks (Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machines) were employed to qualitative classification and quantitative regression. E-tongue system reached higher accuracy rates than E-nose did, and the simultaneous utilization did have an advantage in LDA classification and PLSR regression. According to cross-validation, RF has shown outstanding and indisputable performances in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. This work indicates that the simultaneous utilization of E-nose and E-tongue can discriminate processed fruit juices and predict quality parameters successfully for the beverage industry.

  11. Geographic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, most often related to eating hot, spicy, salty or acidic foods Many people with geographic tongue ... sensitive oral tissues, including: Hot, spicy, acidic or salty foods Tobacco products Toothpaste that contains tartar-control ...

  12. Tongue problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tongue pain may also occur with: Diabetic neuropathy Leukoplakia Mouth ulcers Oral cancer After menopause, some women ... problem. Medicine may be prescribed for mouth ulcers, leukoplakia, oral cancer, and other mouth sores. Anti-inflammatory ...

  13. Geographic tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a long time. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if the symptoms last longer than 10 days. Seek immediate medical help if: You have breathing problems. Your tongue ...

  14. Application of Electronic Tongue Technique in Taste Evaluation of Sweet Sauce%电子舌技术在甜面酱口感评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐; 黄明泉; 孙宝国; 田红玉; 陈海涛

    2012-01-01

    对7种不同品牌的甜面酱用电子舌交叉型传感器进行检测,同时测定其4项理化指标(总酸值、氨基态氮值、食盐含量、还原糖含量),所得数据用主成分分析法(PCA)进行分析比较,并将电子舌传感器响应信号值与理化指标进行了简单相关性分析(CCA),研究表明:该电子舌可以从综合口感方面对7个品牌的甜面酱样品进行有效的区分,并且理化指标和传感器相应信号之间具有较强相关性。因此,电子舌技术有望应用于甜面酱生产的在线监控,以保证其品质的一致性与评价的客观性。%Seven different brands of sweet sauces were evaluated using electronic tongue with cross-type sensors,and four physicochemical indices including total acid value,amino nitrogen value,salt content and reducing sugar content of these sweet sauces were also determined.The acquired data were analyzed by principal component analysis(PCA) and canonical correlation analysis(CCA).Results demonstrate that electronic tongue technique was very effective in discriminating 7 different sweet sauce brands according to overall taste evaluation.Moreover,an obvious correlation between physiochemical indices and sensor response signals was observed.Accordingly,electronic tongue technique can be hopefully applied for online production monitoring of sweet sauce so as to ensure consistency and objectivity in quality evaluation.

  15. Passive electronic identification with temperature monitoring. [Temperature monitor for cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, D.M.; Bobbett, R.E.; Koelle, A.R.; Landt, J.A.; Sanders, W.M.; Depp, S.W.; Seawright, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) have been supporting an electronic identification and temperature monitoring project at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) since early 1973. The development, so far, indicates that a subdermally-implanted, electronic transponder (having no batteries) can be remotely activated and transmit temperature and identification information back to a receiver in a few tenths of a second. If this electronic identification and temperature monitoring system is developed into a commercially available product line, and is widely accepted by the cattle industry, it will enable them to carry out more extensive management practices. Better management can result in greater efficiency and productivity. The system will also enable regulatory agencies to trace the movements of diseased animals through commerce, and thus assist in disease control measures. Work so far has been concentrated primarily on determining the technical feasibility of the electronic concepts. (auth)

  16. Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the filiform papillae of the tongue in adult rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus f. domestica, Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Kulawik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 10 tongues of adult rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. domestica, of both sexes (five females and five males. The filiform papillae of the tongue were studied, using light and scanning electron microscope. The filiform papillae were arranged on the dorsal surface of the apex and body of the tongue and on its margins. The investigation showed that there were single and complex filiform papillae on the rabbit tongue. These single filiform papillae were cone-shaped, similarly as their connective tissue cores. Complex papillae were palm-shaped and cone-shaped with three to seven processes. However, the number of processes towards the throat diminished. Connective tissue cores of these papillae had also processes. The filiform papillae consisted of an anterior and posterior epithelial cell column. The anterior epithelial cell column showed signs of parakeratinization or soft keratinization whereas the posterior epithelial cell column – hard keratinization. Between filiform papillae there was interpapillary epithelium which did not have any signs of keratinization.

  17. Educational Outcomes After Serving with Electronic Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The paper explores the effects of electronic monitoring (EM) on young offenders’ educational outcomes and contributes to the evaluation of EM as a non-custodial sanction with a new outcome measure. Methods The study is based on a natural experiment exploiting a reform in Denmark in 2006...... introducing electronic monitoring to all offenders under the age of 25 with a maximum prison sentence of 3 months. Information on program participation is used to estimate instrument variable models in order to assess the causal effects of EM on young offenders’ educational outcomes. The empirical analyses...

  18. Use of sequential injection analysis to construct an electronic-tongue: application to multidetermination employing the transient response of a potentiometric sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Daniel; Durán, Alejandro; Del Valle, Manel

    2007-09-26

    An electronic tongue based on the transient response of an array of non-specific-response potentiometric sensors was developed. A sequential injection analysis (SIA) system was used in order to automate its training and operation. The use of the transient recording entails the dynamic nature of the sensor's response, which can be of high information content, of primary ions and also of interfering ions; these may better discriminated if the kinetic resolution is added. This work presents the extraction of significant information contained in the transient response of a sensor array formed by five all-solid-state potentiometric sensors. The tool employed was the Fourier transform, from which a number of coefficients were fed into an artificial neural network (ANN) model, used to perform a quantitative multidetermination. The studied case was the analysis of mixtures of calcium, sodium and potassium. Obtained performance is compared with the more traditional automated electronic tongue using final steady-state potentials.

  19. Differentiation of Chinese robusta coffees according to species, using a combined electronic nose and tongue, with the aid of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjiang; Zhao, Jianping; Hu, Rongsuo; Dong, Yunping; Tan, Lehe

    2017-08-15

    Electronic nose and tongue sensors and chemometric multivariate analysis were applied to characterize and classify 7 Chinese robusta coffee cultivars with different roasting degrees. Analytical data were obtained from 126 samples of roasted coffee beans distributed in the Hainan Province of China. Physicochemical qualities, such as the pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), total solids (TS), and TSS/TA ratio, were determined by wet chemistry methods. Data fusion strategies were investigated to improve the performance of models relative to the performance of a single technique. Clear classification of all the studied coffee samples was achieved by principal component analysis, K-nearest neighbour analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and a back-propagation artificial neural network. Quantitative models were established between the sensor responses and the reference physicochemical qualities, using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The PLSR model with a fusion data set was considered the best model for determining the quality parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Resolution of galactose, glucose, xylose and mannose in sugarcane bagasse employing a voltammetric electronic tongue formed by metals oxy-hydroxide/MWCNT modified electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Second generation ethanol is produced from the carbohydrates released from the cell wall of bagasse and straw of sugarcane. The objective of this work is the characterization and application of a voltammetric electronic tongue using an array of glassy carbon electrodes modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes containing metal (Paladium, Gold, Copper, Nickel and Cobalt) oxy-hydroxide nanoparticles (GCE/MWCNT/MetalsOOH) towards a simpler analysis of carbohydrates (glucose, xylose, galactose ...

  1. Monitoring of two rapidly changing glacier tongues in the Swiss Alps by new drone data and historical documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Samuel U.; Jörg, Philip C.; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Rastner, Philipp; Ruff, Alexander; Steiner, Daniel; Vieli, Andreas; Zumbühl, Heinz J.

    2015-04-01

    Glaciers are considered among the most sensitive indicators of climate change. One of the most visually compelling examples of recent climate change is the retreat of glaciers in mountain regions, and knowledge about the past evolution of glacier fluctuations has been proven to be crucial for studying past decadal to century-scale climate variability. In this presentation, we evaluate the potential of a light fixed-wing UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle; drone) designed for surveying and remote sensing purposes, for monitoring glacier changes. We focus on the frontal zones of two well-known glaciers in the Swiss Alps: Unterer Grindelwaldgletscher in the Bernese Oberland, and Findelengletscher near Zermatt, Valais. We used a professional mapping drone (eBee by senseFly) to cover both frontal areas of the glaciers in the summer/autumn of 2014. We used a Canon IXUS 125HS RGB camera on-board the drone to collect overlapping nadir images for both study sites. For Unterer Grindelwaldgletscher (Findelengletscher), 187 (421) images were taken for a surveyed area of 3.2 km2 (2.9 km2) resulting in digital surface models and orthophotos with a very high spatial resolution of 0.16 m (0.11 m). The high number of images collected per area resulted in accurate elevation models and no detectable systematic horizontal shifts. Analysis of these images reveal in great detail the typical processes and features known for down-wasting and rapidly disintegrating Alpine glacier tongues: formation of (pro-)glacial lakes, dead ice, thermokarst phenomena, collapse of lateral moraines, and a complex interplay between many of those processes. Typically glacio-fluvial, gravitational, and periglacial processes occur in close vicinity and on different temporal scales (continuous, sporadic). We compare both glacier landscapes and address the important processes identified to be responsible for the glacier change at both sites. Finally, to set the observed geomorphological processes and the rapid

  2. Electronic noses and tongues: Applications for the food and pharmaceutical industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The electronic nose (enose) is designed to crudely mimic the human brain in that most contain sensors that non-selectively interact with odor molecules to produce some sort of signal that is then sent to a computer that uses multivariate statistics to determine patterns in the data. This pattern rec...

  3. Scanning electron microscopic study on the tongue and lingual papillae of the adult Spotted seal, Phoca largha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Ken; Shindo, Junji; Miyawaki, Yoshiko; Kobayashi, Kan; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2007-11-01

    We observed the external surface and connective tissue cores (CTCs) of the lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae) of adult Spotted seals (Phoca largha) using SEM and light microscopy. The tongue was V-shaped and its apex was rather rounded. On the dorsal surface from apex to the one-third posterior of the tongue, the lingual mucosa was densely covered by filiform papillae, with a scatted distribution of dome-like fungiform papillae, which have orthokeratinized epithelium. At the posterior part of the tongue, filiform papillae were totally diminished and their epithelium was parakeratinized. Approximately 6-7 vallate papillae were arranged in a V-shape on the posterior of the tongue. After removal of the epithelium, the CTCs of the filiform papillae that were distributed at apex consisted of a primary core and approximately 5-6 rod-shaped small accessory cores. The CTCs of filiform papillae that were distributed at anterior part of the tongue lacked primary protrusions and possessed approximately 10-15 rod shaped small accessory cores that were arranged in a horseshoe manner. The CTCs offungiform papillae had cylindrical primary cores and were fringed with accessory protrusion. In the Vallate papillae, taste buds were only seen at the dorsal epithelium.

  4. Imaging of tongue carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Cheng K.; Chong, Vincent F.H.

    2006-01-01

    The tongue enables taste and plays a critical role in formation of food bolus and deglutition. The tongue is also crucial for speech and the earliest sign of tongue paresis is a change in the quality of speech. Given the importance of the tongue, tongue carcinoma should be accurately staged in order to optimise treatment options and preserve organ function. The intent of this review is to familiarise radiologists with the pertinent anatomy of the tongue and the behaviour of tongue carcinoma s...

  5. Educational Outcomes After Serving with Electronic Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    introducing electronic monitoring to all offenders under the age of 25 with a maximum prison sentence of 3 months. Information on program participation is used to estimate instrument variable models in order to assess the causal effects of EM on young offenders’ educational outcomes. The empirical analyses......Objectives The paper explores the effects of electronic monitoring (EM) on young offenders’ educational outcomes and contributes to the evaluation of EM as a non-custodial sanction with a new outcome measure. Methods The study is based on a natural experiment exploiting a reform in Denmark in 2006...... are based on a comprehensive longitudinal dataset (n = 1013) constructed from multiple official administrative registers and including a high number of covariates. Results The EM-program increases the completion rates of upper secondary education by 18 % points among program participants 3 years post...

  6. Electronic monitoring of offenders: an ethical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülow, William

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers electronic monitoring (EM) a promising alternative to imprisonment as a criminal sanction for a series of criminal offenses. However, little has been said about EM from an ethical perspective. To evaluate EM from an ethical perspective, six initial ethical challenges are addressed and discussed. It is argued that since EM is developing as a technology and a punitive means, it is urgent to discuss its ethical implications and incorporate moral values into its design and development.

  7. Electronic Tongue Response to Chemicals in Orange Juice that Change Concentration in Relation to Harvest Maturity and Citrus Greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithore, Smita; Bai, Jinhe; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; Irey, Mike; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2015-12-02

    In an earlier study, an electronic tongue system (e-tongue) has been used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. This study investigated the reaction of an e-tongue system to the main chemicals in orange juice that impact flavor and health benefits and are also impacted by HLB. Orange juice was spiked with sucrose (0.2-5.0 g/100 mL), citric acid (0.1%-3.0% g/100 mL) and potassium chloride (0.1-3.0 g/100 mL) as well as the secondary metabolites nomilin (1-30 µg/mL), limonin (1-30 µg/mL), limonin glucoside (30-200 µg/mL), hesperidin (30-400 µg/mL) and hesperetin (30-400 µg/mL). Performance of Alpha MOS sensor sets #1 (pharmaceutical) and #5 (food) were compared for the same samples, with sensor set #1 generally giving better separation than sensor set #5 for sucrose, sensor set #5 giving better separation for nomilin and limonin, both sets being efficient at separating citric acid, potassium chloride, hesperitin and limonin glucoside, and neither set discriminating hesperidin efficiently. Orange juice made from fruit over the harvest season and from fruit harvested from healthy or HLB-affected trees were separated by harvest maturity, disease state and disease severity.

  8. Electronic Tongue Response to Chemicals in Orange Juice that Change Concentration in Relation to Harvest Maturity and Citrus Greening or Huanglongbing (HLB Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Raithore

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier study, an electronic tongue system (e-tongue has been used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB disease. This study investigated the reaction of an e-tongue system to the main chemicals in orange juice that impact flavor and health benefits and are also impacted by HLB. Orange juice was spiked with sucrose (0.2–5.0 g/100 mL, citric acid (0.1%–3.0% g/100 mL and potassium chloride (0.1–3.0 g/100 mL as well as the secondary metabolites nomilin (1–30 µg/mL, limonin (1–30 µg/mL, limonin glucoside (30–200 µg/mL, hesperidin (30–400 µg/mL and hesperetin (30–400 µg/mL. Performance of Alpha MOS sensor sets #1 (pharmaceutical and #5 (food were compared for the same samples, with sensor set #1 generally giving better separation than sensor set #5 for sucrose, sensor set #5 giving better separation for nomilin and limonin, both sets being efficient at separating citric acid, potassium chloride, hesperitin and limonin glucoside, and neither set discriminating hesperidin efficiently. Orange juice made from fruit over the harvest season and from fruit harvested from healthy or HLB-affected trees were separated by harvest maturity, disease state and disease severity.

  9. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080684; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D.P.; Stifter, K.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes. The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few ns resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is readout by IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providi...

  10. Electronic Noses for Environmental Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Capelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose applications in environmental monitoring are nowadays of great interest, because of the instruments’ proven capability of recognizing and discriminating between a variety of different gases and odors using just a small number of sensors. Such applications in the environmental field include analysis of parameters relating to environmental quality, process control, and verification of efficiency of odor control systems. This article reviews the findings of recent scientific studies in this field, with particular focus on the abovementioned applications. In general, these studies prove that electronic noses are mostly suitable for the different applications reported, especially if the instruments are specifically developed and fine-tuned. As a general rule, literature studies also discuss the critical aspects connected with the different possible uses, as well as research regarding the development of effective solutions. However, currently the main limit to the diffusion of electronic noses as environmental monitoring tools is their complexity and the lack of specific regulation for their standardization, as their use entails a large number of degrees of freedom, regarding for instance the training and the data processing procedures.

  11. Effect of Electronic Monitoring on Social Welfare Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Andersen, Signe Hald

    2014-01-01

    Research Summary We studied the effect on unemployment social welfare dependence of serving a sentence under elec-tronic monitoring rather than in prison, using Danish registry data and two policy shifts that extended the use of electronic monitoring in Denmark. We found electronic monitoring is ...

  12. Tongue-Tie (Ankyloglossia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Tongue-tie (Ankyloglossia) Tongue-tie (Ankyloglossia) Patient Health Information ... may be serious in some individuals. When Is Tongue-tie a Problem That Needs Treatment? In Infants ...

  13. Simultaneous titration of ternary mixtures of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) with potentiometric electronic tongue detection

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    An automatic titration method is reported to resolve ternary mixtures of transition metals (Pb²⁺,Cd²⁺ and Cu²⁺) employing electronic tongue detection and a reduced number of pre-defined additions of EDTA titrant. Sensors used were PVC membrane selective electrodes with generic response to heavy-metals, plus an artificial neural network response model. Detection limits obtained were ca. 1 mg L¯¹ for the three target ions and reproducibilities 3.0 % for Pb²⁺, 4.1 % for Cd²⁺ and 5.2 % for Cu²⁺. ...

  14. 电子舌在食品安全检测领域的研究进展%Research Progress of Application of Electronic Tongue Technique in Food Safety Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云雯; 吴彦蕾; 杨彦; 赵博

    2014-01-01

    Electronic tongue technique is a novel technique which has been developed in recent years. Due to its unique advantages,it shows a promising future in environmental monitoring,biomedicine, chemical engineering,food analysis and other fields.The basic concept and classification of electronic tongue technique are introduced,its application in food safety testing field,including food traceabili-ty,food freshness,food quality classification,adulteration identification,quality control,microor-ganism and heavy metal detection are summarized and its challenges and future development directions in food safety field are discussed.%电子舌技术是近年来迅速发展起来的一项新技术,因为其独特的优点在环境监测、生物医学、化学工程、食品分析等领域展现出广泛的应用前景。介绍了电子舌技术的基本概念、分类以及在食品溯源、食品新鲜度、食品品质分级、掺假鉴别、质量监控、微生物和重金属检测等食品安全检测方面的应用,探讨了电子舌技术在食品安全领域未来的挑战和发展趋势。

  15. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  16. Effect of Electronic Monitoring on Social Welfare Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Andersen, Signe Hald

    2014-01-01

    is less harmful than imprisonment, at least for younger offenders, whereas it does not leave older offenders worse off than imprisonment. Policy Implications As the United States moves towards noncustodial alternatives to imprisonment, it makes sense for policy makers to direct their attention...... the use of electronic monitoring in the United States could be accelerated.......Research Summary We studied the effect on unemployment social welfare dependence of serving a sentence under elec-tronic monitoring rather than in prison, using Danish registry data and two policy shifts that extended the use of electronic monitoring in Denmark. We found electronic monitoring...

  17. Discrimination Analysis of Tea Flower Fresh Beer by Electronic Tongue and Electronic Nose Technique%基于电子舌和电子鼻技术的茶树花保健鲜啤酒辨识分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岭; 张星海; 周晓红; 虞培力

    2014-01-01

    Health-care tea flower fresh beer and other five different beer samples were evaluated using electronic tongue and electronic nose technique. The acquired data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). Results demonstrate that electronic tongue and electronic nose technique were very effective in discriminating health-care tea flower fresh beer with other five different beer samples, which means tea flower fresh beer has a different taste and flavor.%应用电子舌与电子鼻技术对茶树花保健鲜啤酒与其他5种啤酒样品进行检测,所得数据用主成分分析方法(PCA)进行分析比较。研究表明,电子舌和电子鼻技术能够将茶树花保健鲜啤酒与其它五种啤酒样品进行很好的区分,说明茶树花鲜啤酒具有与众不同的口感与风味。

  18. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E.; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech, E-mail: wuwu@ch.pw.edu.pl

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Citric acid fermentation process (production) by Aspergillus niger. • Qualitative/quantitative monitoring of standard culture and culture infected with yeast. • Electronic tongue based on potentiometric and voltammetric sensors. • Evaluation of the progress and the correctness of the fermentation process. • The highest classification abilities of the hybrid electronic tongue. - Abstract: Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process.

  19. Electronic Health Monitoring for Space Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostic monitoring capabilities for space exploration aircrafts are crucial to enable safety and reliability in these platforms. Nokomis proposes to develop and...

  20. Research on Sensory Evaluation Indexes of Yellow Rice Wine and Quality Determination by Electronic Tongue%黄酒口味感官品评指标与智舌定量预测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周牡艳; 胡晓晖; 许瑾; 张珊珊; 寿谦; 陈扉然; 邓少平

    2012-01-01

    智舌能够以类似人的味觉感受方式检测味觉物质。本试验使用智舌对不同厂家生产的黄酒的口感进行评价,研究了智舌检测数据和感官分析数据的相关性,并对5种感官指标建立了相对应的模型,用未知样的预测结果评判了所建立模型的准确度。研究表明,智舌在甜度、酸度和醇和度的感官指标上和人的品评结果类似,实验数据可为电子舌在黄酒的感官分析评价中的进一步应用提供参考依据。%Electronic tongue could be used to detect substance taste as human beings. Electronic tongue was applied to evaluate on the taste of yel- low rice wine manufactured by different wineries, and the correlations between the detection data by electronic tongue and sensory evaluation re- suits by wine tasters were studied, and 5 models corresponding to sensory evaluation indexes had been established. Finally, the accuracy of the models was judged by the prediction of unknown wine samples. The experimental results revealed that electronic tongue had similar evaluation results as human beings in sweetness, sour taste and mellow taste. The experimental data could provide reference for further application of elec- tronic tongue in sensory evaluation on rice wine.

  1. 电子鼻和电子舌在果酒风味分析中的应用%Flavor Analysis of Fruit Wine by Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许春华; 肖作兵; 牛云蔚; 于海燕

    2011-01-01

    Comparison analysis of smell and taste between cherry wine (dry red & dry white) and grape wine (ChangCheng dry red wine & Changyu dry white wine) was conducted using an electronic nose, an electronic tongue and sensory evaluation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factorial analysis (DFA) were used for data analysis. The results of pattern recognition showed that the aroma between dry white cherry wine and dry white grape wine had little differences, but the taste difference between cherry wine and grape wine was significant. The results of electronic nose and electronic tongue were in accordance with that of sensory analysis. The conclusion is that electronic nose together with electronic tongue with pattern recognition fit for flavor analysis of fruit wine.%采用电子鼻嗅觉指纹分析系统、电子舌味觉指纹分析系统及人工感官评价对不同品种樱桃酒(中樱狄墨尔干红和干白)和不同品种葡萄酒(张裕干白和长城干红)的香气和口感进行了检测,并采用主成分分析(PCA)和判别因子分析法(DFA)对传感器响应信号进行了分析.经模式识别分析得到:在香气上,樱桃干白与葡萄干白的差异最小,其次是樱桃干红和葡萄干红,干白和干红之间的差异最大;在口感上,樱桃酒(干红和干白)与葡萄酒(干红和干白)的差异较大.电子鼻和电子舌分析结果与人工感官评价结果一致.研究表明,电子鼻和电子舌结合模式识别方法可用于果酒的风味评价.

  2. An approach to an inhibition electronic tongue to detect on-line organophosphorus insecticides using a computer controlled multi-commuted flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Gustavo A; Dominguez, Rocio B; Marty, Jean-Louis; Muñoz, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    An approach to an inhibition bioelectronic tongue is presented. The work is focused on development of an automated flow system to carry out experimental assays, a custom potentiostat to measure the response from an enzymatic biosensor, and an inhibition protocol which allows on-line detections. A Multi-commuted Flow Analysis system (MCFA) was selected and developed to carry out assays with an improved inhibition method to detect the insecticides chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), chlorfenvinfos (CFV) and azinphos methyl-oxon (AZMO). The system manifold comprised a peristaltic pump, a set of seven electronic valves controlled by a personal computer electronic interface and software based on LabView® to control the sample dilutions into the cell. The inhibition method consists in the injection of the insecticide when the enzyme activity has reached the plateau of the current; with this method the incubation time is avoided. A potentiostat was developed to measure the response from the enzymatic biosensor. Low limits of detection of 10 nM for CPO, CFV, and AZMO were achieved.

  3. Monitoring the Halitosis with an Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Enrico; Pennazza, Giorgio; Santonico, Marco; Capuano, Rosamaria; Mummolo, Stefano; Marzo, Giuseppe; Di Natale, Corrado

    2011-09-01

    Halitosis disease results in a distinctive volatile fingerprint of the individual exhaled breath. Here a QMB based electronic nose has been used to study such fingerprints. This study aimed at following the time evolution of halitosis conditions in patients undergoing two different treatments. Professional operators assessed oral odor, and their evaluation was used for classifier training. Results show that the electronic nose can identify the presence of oral malodor and the attenuation of the condition achieved by the application of the treatment.

  4. Electronic monitoring of patients with bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacoby, Anne Sophie; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a great challenge to patients, relatives and clinicians, and there is a need for development of new methods to identify prodromal symptoms of affective episodes in order to provide efficient preventive medical and behavioural intervention. Clinical trials prove that electronic...... monitoring is a feasible, valid and acceptable method. Hence it is recommended, that controlled trials on the effect of electronic monitoring on patients' course of illness, level of function and quality of life are conducted....

  5. 电子鼻和电子舌技术在葡萄酒检测中的应用概述%Application of Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue in Quality Detection of Grape Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昱; 侯旭杰

    2016-01-01

    Electronic nose and electronic tongue are intelligent sensory testing instruments which are made by imitating the smell and taste of mammals. In this paper, their basic principles and pattern recognition methods were introduced. Besides, their application status in quality de-tection of grape wine at present was summed up, and their research prospects in the future were discussed.%电子鼻和电子舌是模仿哺乳动物嗅觉和味觉而制成的智能感官检测仪器。介绍了两者的基本原理和模式识别方法,对目前电子鼻和电子舌在葡萄酒品质检测中的应用现状进行概述,并对电子鼻和电子舌今后的研究前景进行了展望。

  6. Patient perspective on remote monitoring of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, H; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Mastenbroek, M H;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Remote patient monitoring is a safe and effective alternative for the in-clinic follow-up of patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). However, evidence on the patient perspective on remote monitoring is scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The primary...

  7. Study of an integrated electronic monitor for neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barelaud, B.; Nexon-Mokhtari, F.; Barrau, C.; Decossac, J.L.; Vareille, J.C. [Limoges Univ., 87 (France); Sarrabayrouse, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France). Lab. d`Automatique et d`Analyse des Systemes

    1994-12-31

    Many neutron beams monitors in 10 keV - 50 keV range are perturbed by gamma radiation impact. This new monitor uses two silicon (junction) diodes operating coincidence detection, combined with an electronic threshold to eliminate gamma background noise. The results and analyses presented here only concern feasibility studies. (D.L.). 11 refs.

  8. Cat tongue Velcro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Alexis; Martinez, Andrea; Jung, Hyewon; Tsai, Ting-Wen; Hu, David

    2016-11-01

    A cat's tongue is covered in an array of spines called papillae. These spines are thought to be used in grooming and rasping meat from bones of prey, although no mechanism has been given. We use high-speed video to film a cat removing cat food deeply wedged into a 3-D printed fur mat. We show that the spines on the tongue act as Velcro for particles. The tongue itself is highly elastic. As the cat presses it against a substrate, the tongue flattens and the spines separate. When the tongue is removed from the substrate the spines come together, wedging particles between them. This elasticity-driven entrapment permits the surface of the tongue to act as a carrier for hard to reach particles, and to increase the efficacy of grooming and feeding.

  9. An electronic tongue using potentiometric all-solid-state PVC-membrane sensors for the simultaneous quantification of ammonium and potassium ions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, J; Alegret, S; Muñoz, R; De-Román, M; Leija, L; Hernández, P R; del Valle, M

    2003-09-01

    The simultaneous determination of NH(4)(+) and K(+) in solution has been attempted using a potentiometric sensor array and multivariate calibration. The sensors used are rather non-specific and of all-solid-state type, employing polymeric (PVC) membranes. The subsequent data processing is based on the use of a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN). This approach is given the name "electronic tongue" because it mimics the sense of taste in animals. The sensors incorporate, as recognition elements, neutral carriers belonging to the family of the ionophoric antibiotics. In this work the ANN type is optimized by studying its topology, the training algorithm, and the transfer functions. Also, different pretreatments of the starting data are evaluated. The chosen ANN is formed by 8 input neurons, 20 neurons in the hidden layer and 2 neurons in the output layer. The transfer function selected for the hidden layer was sigmoidal and linear for the output layer. It is also recommended to scale the starting data before training. A correct fit for the test data set is obtained when it is trained with the Bayesian regularization algorithm. The viability for the determination of ammonium and potassium ions in synthetic samples was evaluated; cumulative prediction errors of approximately 1% (relative values) were obtained. These results were comparable with those obtained with a generalized regression ANN as a reference algorithm. In a final application, results close to the expected values were obtained for the two considered ions, with concentrations between 0 and 40 mmol L(-1).

  10. Evaluation of Beef by Electronic Tongue System TS-5000Z: Flavor Assessment, Recognition and Chemical Compositions According to Its Correlation with Flavor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuang Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of electronic tongue system TS-5000Z to evaluate meat quality based on flavor assessment, recognition and correlation with the meat chemical composition. Meat was sampled from eighteen beef cattle including 6 Wagyu breed cattle, 6 Angus breed cattle and 6 Simmental breed cattle. Chemical composition including dry matter, crude protein, fat, ash, cholesterol and taurine and flavor of the meat were measured. The results showed that different breed cattle had different chemical compositions and flavor, which contains sourness, umami, saltiness, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste from astringency, aftertaste from bitterness and aftertaste from umami, respectively. A principal component analysis (PCA showed an easily visible separation between different breeds of cattle and indicated that TS-5000Z made a rapid identification of different breeds of cattle. In addition, TS-5000Z seemed to be used to predict the chemical composition according to its correlation with the flavor. In conclusion, TS-5000Z would be used as a rapid analytical tool to evaluate the beef quality both qualitatively and quantitatively, based on flavor assessment, recognition and chemical composition according to its correlation with flavor.

  11. Use of electronic nose and tongue for separation of fruit aromas and non-aroma compounds for quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The electronic nose (e-nose) was used to distinguish differences between mango fruit of different harvest maturities, apple fruit to which different coatings were applied, cut apple subjected to heat and ethanol treatments as well as strawberries of different ripeness stages, based on their volatile...

  12. Integrated electronic system for ultrasonic structural health monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz González, Mariano; Monje, Pedro María; Casado, Luciano; Aranguren, Gerardo; Cokonaj, Valerijan; Barrera Lopez de Turiso, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A fully integrated on-board electronic system that can perform in-situ structural health monitoring (SHM) of aircraft?s structures using specifically designed equipment for SHM based on guided wave ultrasonic method or Lamb waves? method is introduced. This equipment is called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment (PAMELA III) and is an essential part of overall PAMELA SHM? system. PAMELA III can generate any kind of excitation signals, acquire the response signals that propaga...

  13. EPICS interface to Libera electron beam position monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yingbing; LENG Yongbin; LIU Dekang; CHEN Yongzhong; YIN Chongxian

    2008-01-01

    SSRF diagnostics system will adopt a new generation digital electron beam position processor,Libera,as the signal condition,signal processing and data acquisition device for beam position monitor.In order to provide a uniform data and control interface for users,we developed an EPICS interface based on Control System Programming Interface(CSPI)layer,allowing the performance of the electron beam to be monitored through EPICS channels.In this interface a new record type for BPM was defined and its associated support routines were implemented.

  14. Wound dressing with reusable electronics for wireless monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2016-10-20

    A wound dressing device with reusable electronics for wireless monitoring and a method of making the same are provided. The device can be a smart device. In an embodiment, the device has a disposable portion including one or more sensors and a reusable portion including wireless electronics. The one or more sensors can be secured to a flexible substrate and can be printed by non-contact printing on the substrate. The disposable portion can be removably coupled to the one or more sensors. The device can include one or more sensors for wireless monitoring of a wound, a wound dressing, a body fluid exuded by the wound and/or wearer health.

  15. Image Analysis for Tongue Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENLansun; WEIBaoguo; CAIYiheng; ZHANGXinfeng; WANGYanqing; CHENJing; KONGLingbiao

    2003-01-01

    Tongue diagnosis is one of the essential methods in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis. The ac-curacy of tongue diagnosis can be improved by tongue char-acterization. This paper investigates the use of image anal-ysis techniques for tongue characterization by evaluating visual features obtained from images. A tongue imaging and analysis instrument (TIAI) was developed to acquire digital color tongue images. Several novel approaches are presented for color calibration, tongue area segmentation,quantitative analysis and qualitative description for the colors of tongue and its coating, the thickness and moisture of coating and quantification of the cracks of the toilgue.The overall accuracy of the automatic analysis of the colors of tongue and the thickness of tongue coating exceeds 85%.This work shows the promising future of tongue character-ization.

  16. [Observation of the ultrastructure of the tongue coating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideaki

    2006-03-01

    An observational study was conducted to clarify the morphological features of the fine structure of the tongue coating, which is one of the main causes of halitosis. Tongue specimens from cadavers, whom dental students had practiced on for anatomy class, were used as materials to observe the surface structure. Tongue coatings were obtained from patients who were referred to the Fresh Breath Clinic, Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. After macroscopic observation of the tongue surface, tongue coating and examination of halitosis, the tongue coating was scraped carefully, following which it was observed using a light microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results obtained were as follows. The tongue coating consisted mainly of bacteria and desquamated keratinized epithelium which originated chiefly from the filiform papilla. The desquamated keratinized epithelium was also composed of degenerated epithelium of every level, from a comparatively normal epithelium to a fragmented altered epithelium. In addition, the level of degeneration of the keratinized epithelium differed according to the state of distribution and the revitalization of bacteria located in its surroundings. The intensity of halitosis increased with the amount of tongue coating. Increased amounts of tongue coating, however, did not necessarily correlate with increased halitosis in the patients. It was suggested that the severity of halitosis was probably associated with the level of bacterial invasion-related degeneration of the desquamated keratinized epithelium (tongue coating's quality).

  17. Progress of Biomimetic Artificial Nose and Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Qingjun

    2009-05-01

    As two of the basic senses of human beings, olfaction and gustation play a very important role in daily life. These two types of chemical sensors are important for recognizing environmental conditions. Electronic nose and electronic tongue, which mimics animals' olfaction and gustation to detect odors and chemical components, have been carried out due to their potential commercial applications for biomedicine, food industry and environmental protection. In this report, the biomimetic artificial nose and tongue is presented. Firstly, the smell and taste sensors mimicking the mammalian olfaction and gustation was described, and then, some mimetic design of electronic nose and tongue for odorants and tastants detection are developed. Finally, olfactory and gustatory biosensors are presented as the developing trends of this field.

  18. An electronic tongue using potentiometric all-solid-state PVC-membrane sensors for the simultaneous quantification of ammonium and potassium ions in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, J.; Alegret, S.; del Valle, M. [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Munoz, R.; De-Roman, M.; Leija, L.; Hernandez, P.R. [Bioelectronics Section, Department of Electrical Engineering, CINVESTAV, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2003-09-01

    The simultaneous determination of NH{sub 4}{sup +} and K{sup +} in solution has been attempted using a potentiometric sensor array and multivariate calibration. The sensors used are rather non-specific and of all-solid-state type, employing polymeric (PVC) membranes. The subsequent data processing is based on the use of a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN). This approach is given the name ''electronic tongue'' because it mimics the sense of taste in animals. The sensors incorporate, as recognition elements, neutral carriers belonging to the family of the ionophoric antibiotics. In this work the ANN type is optimized by studying its topology, the training algorithm, and the transfer functions. Also, different pretreatments of the starting data are evaluated. The chosen ANN is formed by 8 input neurons, 20 neurons in the hidden layer and 2 neurons in the output layer. The transfer function selected for the hidden layer was sigmoidal and linear for the output layer. It is also recommended to scale the starting data before training. A correct fit for the test data set is obtained when it is trained with the Bayesian regularization algorithm. The viability for the determination of ammonium and potassium ions in synthetic samples was evaluated; cumulative prediction errors of approximately 1% (relative values) were obtained. These results were comparable with those obtained with a generalized regression ANN as a reference algorithm. In a final application, results close to the expected values were obtained for the two considered ions, with concentrations between 0 and 40 mmol L{sup -1}. (orig.)

  19. Detection of Electronic Anklet Wearers’ Groupings throughout Telematics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Lima Machado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankle bracelets (anklets imposed by law to track convicted individuals are being used in many countries as an alternative to overloaded prisons. There are many different systems for monitoring individuals wearing such devices, and these electronic anklet monitoring systems commonly detect violations of circulation areas permitted to holders. In spite of being able to monitor individual localization, such systems do not identify grouping activities of the monitored individuals, although this kind of event could represent a real risk of further offenses planned by those individuals. In order to address such a problem and to help monitoring systems to be able to have a proactive approach, this paper proposes sensor data fusion algorithms that are able to identify such groups based on data provided by anklet positioning devices. The results from the proposed algorithms can be applied to support risk assessment in the context of monitoring systems. The processing is performed using geographic points collected by a monitoring center, and as result, it produces a history of groups with their members, timestamps, locations and frequency of meetings. The proposed algorithms are validated in various serial and parallel computing scenarios, and the correspondent results are presented and discussed. The information produced by the proposed algorithms yields to a better characterization of the monitored individuals and can be adapted to support decision-making systems used by authorities that are responsible for planning decisions regarding actions affecting public security.

  20. Characteristics of filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae and surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the maned sloth tongue mucosa (Bradypus torquatus, Iliger, 1811): Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, E J; Pícoli, L C; Guimarães, J P; Motoyama, A A; Miglino, M A; Watanabe, L-S

    2009-02-01

    The study of lingual surfaces and the surface of interface epithelium-connective tissue of the tongue of Bradypus torquatus was performed by employing the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results revealed that the rostral part of the tongue presents a round apex and covered by filiform and fungiform lingual papillae and a ventral smooth surface. It was observed that the epithelial layer of the dorsal surface possesses the basal, spinosum, granular and cornified epithelial cells. The lamina propria is characterized by a dense connective tissue forming the long, short and round papillae. Numerous typical filiform papillae are located especially in the rostral part intermingled for few fungiform papillae, which were revealed in three-dimensional SEM images. Usually, the fungiform papillae are located in the border of rostral apex of the tongue exhibiting the rounded form. They are covered by keratinized epithelial cells. In the fungiform papillae, several taste pores were observed on the surface. The vallate papillae presented numerous taste buds in the wall of epithelial cells, being that the major number of taste buds is located on the superior half of vallate papilla. The taste pores are surrounded by several laminae of keratinized epithelial cells. The samples treated with NaOH solution and examined by SEM revealed, after removal of the epithelial layer, the dense connective core in original disposition, presenting different sizes and shapes. The specimens stained with Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed the connective tissue, indicating the collagen fibres type I and type III.

  1. Electronic noses and their applications in environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Compact, portable systems capable of quickly identifying contaminants in the field are of great importance when monitoring the environment. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of using artificial neural networks for real-time data analysis of a sensor array. Analyzing the sensor data in parallel may allow for rapid identification of contaminants in the field without requiring highly selective component sensors. A sensor array combined with a data analysis module is referred to as an electronic nose. In this paper, we investigate the trade off between sensor sensitivity and selectivity relating to the applications of neural network based-electronic noses in environmental monitoring. We use a prototype electronic nose which consists of nine tin-oxide Taguchi-type sensors, a temperature sensor, and a humidity sensor. We illustrate that by using neural network based analysis of a sensor data, the selectivity of a sensor array may be significantly improved, especially when some (or all) sensors are not highly selective.

  2. Geographic Tongue in Monozygotic Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhar M, Guna

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a case of 5-year-old girl monozygotic twins who were suffering from geographic tongue (GT), a benign inflammatory disorder of the tongue which is characterized by circinate, irregular erythematous lesions on the dorsum and lateral borders of the tongue caused by loss of filiform papillae of the tongue epithelium. Whilst geographic tongue is a common entity, reports on this condition are uncommon in the literature. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report which...

  3. The Tongue and Quill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    many sources; e.g., official records, private communications and automated transactions. emoticons —Facial expressions drawn on the computer (see page...AFH 33-337 30 June 1997 The Tongue and Quill Communication is an essential tool for the twenty-first century Air Force Report Documentation Page... Communications and Information THE TONGUE AND QUILL Supersedes AFH 37-137, 31 August 1994 Certified by: ACSC/DEX (Lt Col Kermit Phelps) OPR: ACSC/DEXP (Mrs

  4. Functional morphology of the tongue in the nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowiak, Hanna; Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Kwieciński, Zbigniew; Trzcielińska-Lorych, Joanna; Godynicki, Szymon

    2010-07-01

    The nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes belongs to a group of bird species that use their beak and tongue as tools for obtaining food, such as seeds from hard-to-reach cones or nuts from shells. The aim of the present study, carried out with a scanning electron microscope, was to define the morphological features of the tongue of the nutcracker, which seems to be adapted to its environment through specific methods of obtaining food. One of the characteristic features of the nutcracker's tongue is the unique structure of the anterior part of the tongue, which has two long and highly keratinized processes - a product of the renewable keratinized layer of the epithelium covering the ventral surface of the tongue. These dagger-like processes, which are a modified "lingual nail," take a major role in levering up and shelling seeds, which are transported over the short sulcus-shaped body of the tongue. A unique feature of the nutcracker's tongue is the groove separating the body from the root. Two rows of highly keratinized, mechanical, conical papillae are located at the junction of the body and the root. These papillae are mechanically protective elements for passing food particles in the form of seeds. Among lingual glands, only the posterior lingual glands on the root of the tongue have been observed. Their secretion agglutinates dry food before it is swallowed. Results of the present study indicate that the nutcracker's tongue is an efficient tool resembling a lever that is helpful in shelling seeds.

  5. Taste Pattern Recognition of Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Based on Electronic Tongue%基于电子舌技术的卷烟主流烟气味觉识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾永波; 李海涛; 肖作兵; 刘强; 李智字; 冒德寿; 冯涛; 田怀香; 许建营; 侯春

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of electronic tongue in recognition of smoke taste of different cigarettes, the taste characteristics of the aqueous solutions of mainstream smoke of 6 flue-cured and 3 blended cigarette samples were detected by an electronic tongue, and the principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminate function analysis (DFA) were used for analyzing the response signals from the electronic tongue. The results showed that the contribution rates of first two-dimensional PCA and first two-dimensional DFA to the taste recognition of cigarette reached 84.82% and 95.42%, respectively. It was concluded that DFA advantaged over PCA in the taste pattern recognition. Electronic tongue could distinguish the taste characteristics of different type cigarettes and had the potential to play a role in the sensory quality evaluation of cigarettes.%为考察电子舌对不同卷烟烟气味觉的识别效果,利用电子舌系统检测了6个烤烟型和3个混合型卷烟样品主流烟气水处理液的味觉特征,并对其传感器响应信号进行了主成分分析( PCA)和判别因子分析( DFA).结果表明:①前2维主成分对卷烟品种的味觉识别贡献率达84.82%;②前2维DFA对卷烟品种的味觉识别贡献率达95.42%.结论:在模式识别中,DFA法的区分效果优于PCA法;电子舌能区分不同香型卷烟味觉特征,有望成为一种辅助的卷烟感官质量评价方法.

  6. Use of an “electronic tongue” in the assessment of highly diluted systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Riul Jr

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: “Eletronic tongue” is a device commonly used in the analysis of tastants, heavy metal ions, fruit juice, wines and also in the development of biosensors [1-3]. Briefly, the e-tongue is constituted by sensing units formed by ultrathin films of distinct materials deposited on gold interdigitated electrodes, which are immersed in liquid samples, followed by impedance spectroscopy measurements [1]. The e-tongue sensor is based on the global selectivity concept, i.e., the materials forming the sensing units are not selective to any substance in the samples, therefore, it allows the grouping of information into distinct patterns of response, enabling the distinction of complex liquid systems [1]. Aim: Our aim was to use e-tongue system for the assessment the homeopathic medicine Belladonna at different degrees of dilution, in attempt to differentiate highly diluted systems. Methods: Ultrathin films forming the sensing units were prepared by the layer-by-layer technique [4], using conventional polyelectrolytes such as poly(sodium styene sulfonate (PSS and poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH, chitosan and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT. Homeopathic medicines (Belladonna 1cH, 6cH, 12cH and 30cH were prepared by dilution and agitation according to Hahnemann´s method [5], using ethanol at 30% (w/w as vehicle. Experimental data acquisition was conducted by blind tests measurements involving Belladonna samples and the vehicle used in the dilutions. Five independent and consecutive measurements were taken for each solution at 1 kHz, which were further analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA, a statistical method largely employed to reduce the dimensionality of the original data without losing information in the correlation of the samples [3]. Results: Figure 1 shows that the five independent measurements are grouped quite closed each other for each solution analysed, with a clear

  7. A Study of the electronic information monitoring of bruxism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinglu Zhang; Xinmin Yin; Zongxin Yao

    2008-01-01

    Objective:Bruxism is the term used for teeth grinding or jaw clenching. An electronic monitor of bruxism was developed to evaluate bruxism duration and frequency. Methods: Ten cases were selected in the Department of Prosthodontics of Jiangsu Stomatological Hospital to evaluate the monitor. A stabilization occlusal splint was fabricated for each of the 10 cases. The vertical dimension for each splint was 0.5 mm lower than mandibular postural position. Some sensors had been prearranged at each splint which could transfer the variation of the biting force into electronic signals. The data of sleeping duration, grinding duration and grinding frequency were recorded with this new type of bruxism monitor, which had been specifically invented to study bruxism. Results:The data from 10 bruxism cases were collected and the results were considered reliable. Subjects nocturnal duration parameters did not change significantly from night-to-night. Conclusion:The bruxiam monitor can automatically measure and record bruxism data using an occlusal splint. This device is valuable for diagnosis and evaluation of bruxism.

  8. Electronics and Calibration system for the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Nicolo

    2014-01-01

    In the context of increasing luminosity of LHC, it will be important to accurately measure the Machine Induced Background. A new monitoring system will be installed in the CMS cavern for measuring the beam background at high radius. This detector is composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators, coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The readout chain of this detector will make use of many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadron Calorimeter electronics, with a dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal will be digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing.The backend electronics will record bunch-by-bunch histograms, which will be published to CMS and the LHC using the newly designed CMS beam instrumentation specific DAQ. A calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the sys...

  9. Design and Fabrication of the Electronic Tongue Based on Light Addressable Potentiometric Sensor%基于LAPS的电子舌的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冲; 陈真诚

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A sensor system for measuring five basic taste substances is presented based on the principle of LAPS. Methods: The taste recognition system (Electronic tongue) based on the taste sensor arrays, which is the kind of taste perception system for intelligence qualitative and quantitative identification, can sense liquid sample by detection of response signal using advanced information fusion algorithm. It is mainly composed by the sensor array,signal processing and pattern recognition system. This paper introduced the working principle of LAPS; It expatiated the manufacture method of T1O2 Sol-Gel molecular imprinting membrane, the molecularly imprinted sensitive membrane showed high performance on taste material element identification and light addressing taste perception biosensors array research has the vital significance; designed a light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) taste perception hardware and software system to measure the response signals of five basic taste substances; the PCA and artificial neural network algorithm were carried out to distinguish and detection of five different taste substances. Results: Five test samples of the taste through this taste perception system were close to their respective output corresponding expected output. The system realized five different taste materials distinction and detection. Conclusions: Taste bionic perception technology research on artificial intelligence has very important significance for promoting the rapid development of artificial science, and the scientific and effective detection technology to taste quality assessment is an inevitable trend of development. Therefore, this paper was designed an electronic tongue system based on the principle of LAPS which has very important application value and practical significance.%目的:基于光寻址电位传感器(LAPS)的原理设计一种用于对酸、甜、苦、咸、鲜五种基本味觉物质进行测量的传感器系统.方法:基于

  10. High current precision long pulse electron beam position monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, S D; Fessenden, T J; Holmes, C

    2000-01-01

    Precision high current long pulse electron beam position monitoring has typically experienced problems with high Q sensors, sensors damped to the point of lack of precision, or sensors that interact substantially with any beam halo thus obscuring the desired signal. As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using transverse electromagnetic stripline kicker technology, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams for accurate beam position control (6 - 40 MeV, 1 - 4 kA, 2 μs beam pulse, sub millimeter beam position accuracy.) The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (< 20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt position measurements.

  11. Monitoring the Quality of Services in Electronic Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovovic Radislav

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful development of electronic banking is in direct correlation with the quality of services in electronic banking. Therefore, it is necessary that the banks are familiar with the attributes of electronic services on which clients assess the bank’s quality and client’s satisfaction with them, in order to be able to monitor, correct and improve the performance of electronic banking. We start from the hypothesis that there are already developed theoretical models for measuring the quality of e-banking services but they must be adjusted to the specific environment that is analysed in order to obtain reliable and quality information. The qualitative and quantitative research methods are applied in this paper in order to a get adjusted theoretical model (instrument for measuring the quality of electronic banking services. As a result of the conducted analysis, the initial theoretical model has been modified, so that the final version of the model (instrument for measuring quality of online banking allows obtaining reliable data, and information in the particular environment. And the results are: significant information about the quality of e-banking, modified theoretical model, information about the dimensions of quality of e-banking, customer satisfaction, and pathways and guidelines for the improvement of e-banking. The measuring of quality of electronic banking services in not one time activity but repeated one, as permanent monitoring strategy. This research is widely applicable even though it was conducted in the context of Montenegrin e-banking, since most of the banks in Montenegro are owned by well-known European banks, and it is expected that the obtained knowledge and information can be generalized.

  12. 樱桃酒感官评价与电子舌感官分析的相关性研究%Study on correlation between sensory evaluation and sensors analysis of electronic tongue of cherry wines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛云蔚; 张晓鸣; 肖作兵; 宋诗清; 朱建才; 顾永波

    2012-01-01

    Five different cherry wines ,which were described by sour, sweet, bitter and astringent attributes ,were analyzed by electronic tongue. The ability of discrimination cherry wines of electronic tongue was evaluated by PCA and DFA. The sensory evaluation results were correlated to response of seven sensors(ZZ,BA,BB,CA, GA,HA,JB) by PCA and PLSR. The results showed that there were better correlation between JB and sour, HA, CA and sweet,ZZ and astringent, bitter, respectively.%对五种不同樱桃酒的感官属性(酸、甜、苦、涩)进行了感官评价和电子舌指纹分析,利用主成分(PCA)与判别因子(DFA)分析对电子舌区分樱桃酒的能力进行了评价,并通过PCA、偏最小二乘法(PLSR)将感官评价结果与电子舌7根传感器(ZZ、BA、BB、CA、GA、HA、JB)响应相关联。结果表明,电子舌指纹分析系统对樱桃酒具有较好的区分辨别能力,传感器JB与酸味,传感器HA、CA与甜味,传感器ZZ与涩、苦味具有较高的相关性。

  13. Epidermoid Cyst of Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choubarga Naik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cyst occurring within the tongue is rare. A 5 year old male child was brought to OPD with a tongue mass which was gradually increasing in size. There was associated difficulty in speech and mastication as the swelling increased in size. Intraoral examination revealed moderately tender, fluctuant and enlarged tongue. A diagnosis of dermoid cyst was made and the patient was booked for surgery. Excision of the cyst was done under general anaesthesia. Post-operative histopathology was done. The histopathological findings confirm the diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst, characterized by the presence of: (I a cyst cavity lined by stratified squamous epithelium with keratinization on the surface; and (II connective tissue with a mild inflammation. The proposed treatment was considered successful as the case was solved and there was no recurrence. Keywords: dermoid; epidermoid cyst;tounge. | PubMed

  14. Aplicación de una lengua electrónica voltamétrica para la clasificación de vinos y estudio de correlación con la caracterización química y sensorial Voltametric electronic tongue application to wines classification and correlation study with the chemical and sensory characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro A. Arrieta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analytical application of a novel electronic tongue based on voltammetric sensors array. This device was used in the classification of wines aged in barrels of different origins and toasting levels. Furthermore, a study of correlation between the response of the electronic tongue and the sensory and chemical characterization of samples was carried out. The results were evaluated by applying both principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The samples were clearly classified. Their distribution showed a high correspondence degree with the characteristics of the analyzed wines, it also showed similarity with the classification obtained from organoleptic analysis.

  15. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process.

  16. Morphology of the tongue in a newborn Stejneger's beaked whale (Mesoplodon stejnegeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Junji; Yamada, Tadasu K; Yoshimura, Ken; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2008-02-01

    This light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) study on the tongue of a newborn Stejneger's beaked whale (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) demonstrated a clear difference in its form from than that of other cetacean and adult Stejneger's beaked whales. This newborn Stejneger's beaked whale had a spoon-like shaped tongue. The dorsal surface in the center part of the tongue was flat and did not have papillae, but there were marginal papillae and small papillae on the anterior part of the tongue. In the posterior of the tongue, hillock-shaped papillae with taste buds on the epithelium were observed.

  17. The LUCID detector ATLAS luminosity monitor and its electronic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghi, F. Lasagni

    2016-07-01

    In 2015 LHC is starting a new run, at higher center of mass energy (13 TeV) and with 25 ns bunch-spacing. The ATLAS luminosity monitor LUCID has been completely rebuilt, both the detector and the electronics, in order to cope with the new running conditions. The new detector electronics features a new read-out board (LUCROD) for signal acquisition and digitization, PMT-charge integration and single-side luminosity measurements, and a revisited LUMAT board for combination of signals from the two detectors. This note describes the new board design, the firmware and software developments, the implementation of luminosity algorithms, the optical communication between boards and the integration into the ATLAS TDAQ system.

  18. Tongue schwannoma: clinicopathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalfamo, Luciano; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Nava, Carla; Familiari, Elena; Petrocelli, Marzia; Iudicello, Valeria; Ieni, Antonio; Barresi, Valeria; De Ponte, Francesco Saverio

    2011-05-01

    Schwannomas are peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Approximately 25% of extracranial schwannomas are located in the head and neck district, but only 1% shows an intraoral origin. We report a case of a 28-year-old patient with a tongue schwannoma. Morphologic analysis and immunohistochemical findings strongly support the diagnosis. Surgical treatment is discussed.

  19. Schwannoma of tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-García, Carlos; Pons-García, María Asunción; González-García, Raúl; Monje-Gil, Florencio

    2014-06-01

    The schwannomas are nervous tissue tumors. We report a case of schwannoma of oral tongue. Because schwannomas are quite rare in the oral cavity, they are often not immediately included in the differential diagnosis of oropharyngeal masses, causing delay in identification and treatment. The definitive diagnosis requires histopathologic examination.

  20. Flexible and wearable electronic silk fabrics for human physiological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Cuiping; Zhang, Huihui; Lu, Zhisong

    2017-09-01

    The development of textile-based devices for human physiological monitoring has attracted tremendous interest in recent years. However, flexible physiological sensing elements based on silk fabrics have not been realized. In this paper, ZnO nanorod arrays are grown in situ on reduced graphene oxide-coated silk fabrics via a facile electro-deposition method for the fabrication of silk-fabric-based mechanical sensing devices. The data show that well-aligned ZnO nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structures are synthesized on the conductive silk fabric surface. After magnetron sputtering of gold electrodes, silk-fabric-based devices are produced and applied to detect periodic bending and twisting. Based on the electric signals, the deformation and release processes can be easily differentiated. Human arterial pulse and respiration can also be real-time monitored to calculate the pulse rate and respiration frequency, respectively. Throat vibrations during coughing and singing are detected to demonstrate the voice recognition capability. This work may not only help develop silk-fabric-based mechanical sensing elements for potential applications in clinical diagnosis, daily healthcare monitoring and voice recognition, but also provide a versatile method for fabricating textile-based flexible electronic devices.

  1. Three-Dimensional Aspects of the Lingual Papillae and Their Connective Tissue Cores in the Tongue of Rats: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginato, Gabriela de Souza; Watanabe, Ii-sei; Ciena, Adriano Polican

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the tridimensional morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) in Sprague Dawley rats. Four types of papillae were reported on the dorsal surface. Filiform papillae were distributed on the tongue surface and after epithelial maceration a conic and multifilamentary shape of the CTCs was revealed. Fungiform papillae were reported on the rostral and middle regions covered by a squamous epithelium. After the removal of the epithelium, the shape of a volcano with the taste orifice at its top was noted. Foliate papillae were composed of five pairs of epithelial folds situated on the lateral-caudal margin of the tongue. After the removal of the epithelium, they were shown to be limited by thin laminar projections. The vallate papilla with an oval shape was present in the caudal region and delimited by an incomplete groove. The morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae of Sprague Dowley rats, three-dimensional SEM images, and the types of papillae on the dorsal surface were similar to those reported previously in other rodent mammals. The maceration technique revealed the details of extracellular matrix with varied shapes form of connective tissue cores. PMID:25436229

  2. Three-Dimensional Aspects of the Lingual Papillae and Their Connective Tissue Cores in the Tongue of Rats: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Souza Reginato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the tridimensional morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores (CTCs in Sprague Dawley rats. Four types of papillae were reported on the dorsal surface. Filiform papillae were distributed on the tongue surface and after epithelial maceration a conic and multifilamentary shape of the CTCs was revealed. Fungiform papillae were reported on the rostral and middle regions covered by a squamous epithelium. After the removal of the epithelium, the shape of a volcano with the taste orifice at its top was noted. Foliate papillae were composed of five pairs of epithelial folds situated on the lateral-caudal margin of the tongue. After the removal of the epithelium, they were shown to be limited by thin laminar projections. The vallate papilla with an oval shape was present in the caudal region and delimited by an incomplete groove. The morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae of Sprague Dowley rats, three-dimensional SEM images, and the types of papillae on the dorsal surface were similar to those reported previously in other rodent mammals. The maceration technique revealed the details of extracellular matrix with varied shapes form of connective tissue cores.

  3. Three-dimensional aspects of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores in the tongue of rats: a scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginato, Gabriela de Souza; Bolina, Cristina de Sousa; Watanabe, Ii-sei; Ciena, Adriano Polican

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the tridimensional morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) in Sprague Dawley rats. Four types of papillae were reported on the dorsal surface. Filiform papillae were distributed on the tongue surface and after epithelial maceration a conic and multifilamentary shape of the CTCs was revealed. Fungiform papillae were reported on the rostral and middle regions covered by a squamous epithelium. After the removal of the epithelium, the shape of a volcano with the taste orifice at its top was noted. Foliate papillae were composed of five pairs of epithelial folds situated on the lateral-caudal margin of the tongue. After the removal of the epithelium, they were shown to be limited by thin laminar projections. The vallate papilla with an oval shape was present in the caudal region and delimited by an incomplete groove. The morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae of Sprague Dowley rats, three-dimensional SEM images, and the types of papillae on the dorsal surface were similar to those reported previously in other rodent mammals. The maceration technique revealed the details of extracellular matrix with varied shapes form of connective tissue cores.

  4. Electron stimulated carbon adsorption in ultra high vacuum monitored by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C

    2001-01-01

    Electron stimulated carbon adsorption at room temperature (RT) has been studied in the context of radiation induced surface modifications in the vacuum system of particle accelerators. The stimulated carbon adsorption was monitored by AES during continuous irradiation by 2.5 keV electrons and simultaneous exposure of the sample surface to CO, CO2 or CH4. The amount of adsorbed carbon was estimated by measuring the carbon Auger peak intensity as a function of the electron irradiation time. Investigated substrate materials are technical OFE copper and TiZrV non-evaporable getter (NEG) thin film coatings, which are saturated either in air or by CO exposure inside the Auger electron spectrometer. On the copper substrate electron induced carbon adsorption from gas phase CO and CO2 is below the detection limit of AES. During electron irradiation of the non-activated TiZrV getter thin films, electron stimulated carbon adsorption from gas phase molecules is detected when either CO or CO2 is injected, whereas the CH4 ...

  5. AMDO TIBETAN TONGUE TWISTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blo rtan rdo rje

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan tongue twisters are a distinctive and significant part of Tibetan oral folk literature. They are made up of words and phrases related to what people see and experience in daily life. These words are strung together and are difficult to articulate rapidly and fluently, often because of a succession of questions and/ or similar consonantal sounds. This article sheds light on this poorly studied, vanishing, aspect of Tibetan tradition by focusing on tongue twisters that were once popular in Pha bzhi (Hayu 哈 玉 , a subdivision of Skya rgya (Jiajia 贾 加 Administrative Village, Skya rgya Township, Gcan tsha (Jianzha 尖扎 County, Rma lho (Huangnan 黄南 Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai 青海 Province, PR China.

  6. Profile monitors for wide multiplicity range electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonomo, B.; Mazzitelli, G.; Quintieri, L. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati LNF - INFN (Italy); Bulgheroni, A.; Cappellini, C.; Prest, M. [Univ. Insubria e INFN Sez-Milano (Italy); Foggetta, L. [Consorzio Interunivesitario per la Fisica Spaziale, CIFS (Italy); Mozzanica, A. [Milano Univ., INFN Pavia (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN Trieste Via Valerio, Trieste (Italy); Valente, P. [INFN Sez Roma (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    The DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) provides electron and positron beams in a wide range of intensity, from single particle up to 10{sup 10} particles per pulse, and energy, from a few tens of MeV up to 800 MeV. The pulse time width can be 1 or 10 ns long, and the maximum repetition rate is 50 Hz. The large range of operation of the facility requires the implementation of different beam profile and multiplicity monitors. In the single particle operation mode, and up to a few 10{sup 3} particles/pulse, the beam spot profile and position are measured by a x-y scintillating fiber system with millimeter scale resolution and multi-anode photomultiplier tube readout. From a few tens up to 10{sup 6-7} particles per pulse, a silicon chamber made of two 9.5 x 9.5 cm{sup 2} wide 400 {mu}m thick silicon strip detectors organized in a x-y configuration with a pitch of 121 {mu}m has been developed. Once calibrated, the system can be used also as an intensity monitor. The description of the devices and the results obtained during the data taking periods of several experiments at the facility are presented. The system has showed very good performance operating with very high reliability in the energy range from a few tens of MeV up to 800 MeV, in single electron/positron mode as well as in the high intensity beam.

  7. "Hidden" tongue jewellery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    2001-06-01

    Tongue piercing has many associated risks. This is a case report of a patient who, to avoid parental disapproval, hid the dorsal aspect of a lingual stud device. Subsequently, the dorsum repaired. The device could no longer be removed manually and warranted surgical removal. Despite being in situ for over two years, no further complications arose, but all efforts to obtain patient agreement for removal of the device failed.

  8. Secondary Electron Emission Beam Loss Monitor for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Holzer, E B; Kramer, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is a vital part of the active protection of the LHC accelerators' elements. It should provide the number of particles lost from the primary hadron beam by measuring the radiation field induced by their interaction with matter surrounding the beam pipe. The LHC BLM system will use ionization chambers as standard detectors but in the areas where very high dose rates are expected, the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) chambers will be employed because of their high linearity, low sensitivity and fast response. The SEM needs a high vacuum for proper operation and has to be functional for up to 20 years, therefore all the components were designed according to the UHV requirements and a getter pump was included. The SEM electrodes are made of Ti because of its Secondary Emission Yield (SEY) stability. The sensitivity of the SEM was modeled in Geant4 via the Photo-Absorption Ionization module together with custom parameterization of the very low energy secondary electron production. ...

  9. Profile Monitors for Wide Multiplicity Range Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Buonomo, B; Quintieri, L

    2005-01-01

    The DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) provides electron and positron beams in a wide range of intensity, from single particle up to 1010 particles per pulse, and energy, from a few tens of MeV up to 800 MeV. The pulse time width can be adjusted between 1 and 10 ns and the maximum repetition rate is 50 Hz. The large range of operation of the facility requires the implementation of different beam profile and multiplicity monitors. In the single particle operation mode the beam spot profile and position are measured by a x-y scintillating fiber system with millimetric resolution and multi-anode PMT readout. From a few tens up to 106-107 particles per pulse, a silicon chamber made of two 9.5x9.5 cm2 wide 400μm thick silicon strip detectors organized in a x-y configuration with a pitch of 121μm has been developed. Once calibrated, the system can be used also as an intensity monitor. The description of the devices and the results obtained during the data taking periods of several experiments at the...

  10. Morphological study of the northern pike (Esox lucius) tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Rahmati-holasoo, Hooman; Fayyaz, Sahel; Zargar, Ashkan

    2015-09-01

    The northern pike (Esox lucius) is a fresh water species belonging to the Esocidae family. It is a carnivorous fish feeding mostly on invertebrates and fishes. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature regarding the morphology of the tongue in fish we carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the dorsal surface morphology and histological structures of the tongue in E. lucius. The tongues of five E. lucius were examined using light- and scanning electron- microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM studies revealed the presence of numerous teeth, longitudinal mucosal strands and scattered taste buds spread on the tongue surface. Histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the musculature was not visible in the tongue of E. lucius. The tongue is composed of mucosa, and submucosa supported by osteocartilagionous skeleton. The mucosa consists of several layers of unicellular mucous cells interrupted by numerous teeth. The derivation of teeth from the underlying bronchial skeleton was visible in longitudinal section. The scattered taste buds with a typical onion shape were also present. Overall, the morphological features of the E. lucius tongue together suggested its mechanical and sensory roles. The findings of this study together with morphological and physiological data from other fishes contribute to the knowledge of the nutrition and feeding behavior in aquaculture species.

  11. Modeling the consequences of tongue surgery on tongue mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Buchaillard, Stéphanie; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the current achievements of a long term project aiming at predicting and assessing the impact of tongue and mouth floor surgery on tongue mobility. The ultimate objective of this project is the design of a software with which surgeons should be able (1) to design a 3D biomechanical model of the tongue and of the mouth floor that matches the anatomical characteristics of each patient specific oral cavity, (2) to simulate the anatomical changes induced by the surgery and the possible reconstruction, and (3) to quantitatively predict and assess the consequences of these anatomical changes on tongue mobility and speech production after surgery.

  12. Black hairy tongue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-08-21

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient's re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment.

  13. Optical absorption properties of electron bubbles and experiments on monitoring individual electron bubbles in liquid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei

    When a free electron is injected into liquid helium, it forms a microscopic bubble essentially free of helium atoms, which is referred to as an electron bubble. It represents a fine example of a quantum-mechanical particle confined in a potential well. In this dissertation, we describe our studies on bubble properties, especially the optical absorption properties of ground state electron bubbles and experiments on imaging individual electron bubbles in liquid helium. We studied the effect of zero-point and thermal fluctuations on the shape of ground state electron bubbles in liquid helium. The results are used to determine the line shape for the 1S to 1P optical transition. The calculated line shape is in very good agreement with the experimental measurements of Grimes and Adams. For 1S to 2P transition, the obtained transition line width agrees well with the measured data of Zipfel over a range of pressure up to 15 bars. Fluctuations in the bubble shape also make other "unallowed" transitions possible. The transition cross-sections from the 1S state to the 1D and 2D states are calculated with magnitude approximately two orders smaller than that of the 1S to 1P and 2P transitions. In our electron bubble imaging experiments, a planar ultrasonic transducer was used to generate strong sound wave pulse in liquid helium. The sound pulse passed through the liquid so as to produce a transient negative pressure over a large volume (˜ 1 cm3). An electron bubble that was passed by the sound pulse exploded for a fraction of a microsecond and grew to have a radius of around 10 microns. While the bubble had this large size it was illuminated with a flash lamp and its position was recorded. In this way, we can determine its position. Through the application of a series of sound pulses, we can then take images along the track of individual electrons. The motion of individual electron bubbles has been successfully monitored. Interesting bubble tracks that may relate to electrons

  14. Contact hypersensitivity after tongue piercing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananta Herachakri P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently tongue piercing has become increasingly popular in the society. Several case reports have presented various complications of tongue piercing. However, there is no scientific evidence about contact hypersensitivity to tongue piercing. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the contact hypersensitivity after using tongue piercing. Methods: Nineteen male Rattus norvegicus were divided into three groups: group A treated with vaseline on the back and dorsum tongue (control group, group B (I treated with HgCl2 10% cream on the tongue dorsum, group B (II treated with tongue piercing for 10 days and group C with HgCl 2 10% cream on the back, ear lobe, and tongue, then re-exposure with same materials on ear, back and tongue for 24 and 48 hours. Before and after 24 and 48 hours applications, ear width was measured with sliding caliper. At the end of treatments, the rats were sacrificed. All tissue specimens were made for Hematoylin Eosine (H&E staining examination. The number of mononuclear cells was counted under light microscope Data was analyzed with One-Way ANOVA followed by LSD (p<0.05. Results: The result of this study showed that there were a significant difference of the thickness of ear lobe and the number of mononuclear cells (lymphocyte and monocyte among all groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that tongue piercing induce contact hypersensitivity.Latar belakang: Saat ini pemakaian tongue piercing sangat popular di masyarakat. Beberapa laporan kasus menunjukkan bahwa tongue piercing menimbulkan beberapa komplikasi. Namun, belum ada bukti ilmiah mengenai reaksi hipesensitivitas tongue piercing. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui reaksi hipersensitivitas setelah menggunakan tongue piercing. Metode: Sembilan belas tikus jantan Rattus novergicus yang dibagi dalam tiga kemlompok yaitu: grup A diberi perlakuan dengan vaselin pada punggung dan dorsum lidah, grup B (I diberi perlakuan dengan krim HgCl2 10% pada dorsum lidah dan B

  15. 7种面酱的电子鼻和电子舌辨别分析%Discrimination and Analysis of Seven Kinds of Fermented Flour Paste by Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉玉; 黄明泉; 陈海涛; 郑景洲; 孙宝国; 李全宏

    2012-01-01

    采用电子鼻和电子舌技术,对煮制前后7种面酱香气和口感进行检测,并对所得数据进行PCA和SQC分析.结果表明:煮制前六必居甜面酱与天源面酱之间的香气非常相似,经煮制后,差异比较大.麦酱和馒头酱的香气在煮制前后都比较接近,其区别指数分别为46.77%和56.61%.十笏园面酱和六必居面酱煮制前的香气特点截然不同,而煮制后的香气比较接近.自制的馒头酱与麦酱虽然香气比较相近,但在口感方面的差别比较明显.煮制前,六必居面酱、十笏园面酱与自制麦酱的口感差别明显,但煮制之后差别不大.%Electronic nose and tongue were used to detect the odor and taste vl 7 kinds of fermented flour paste before and after cooking. The obtained data were further analyzed by PCA and SQC. It was shown that the aroma between Liubiju and Tianyuan fermented flour paste was very similar before cooking, but the difference between them became considerable after cooking. The aroma of wheat paste and the steamed bread paste was relatively close with discrimination index of 46.77%(before cooking) and 56.61% (cooked). The aroma of Shihuyuan and Liubiju fermented flour paste showed clear difference before cooking, but after cooking the aroma between the two paste was very similar. The wheat paste and the steamed bread paste were similar in aroma and different in taste. Before cooking, the taste between the fermented flour paste of Liubiju and wheat, Shihuyuan and wheat was different obviously, while after cooking the taste was similar.

  16. Monitoring electron donor metabolism under variable electron acceptor conditions using 13C-labeled lactate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.; Yang, L.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Three sets of flow-through columns constructed with aquifer sediment from Hanford (WA) were used to study reduction of Cr(VI) to poorly soluble Cr(III) under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing/fermentative, and iron-reducing conditions with lactate as the electron donor. In order to understand the relationship between electron donors and biomarkers, and to determine the differences in carbon isotope fractionation resulting from different microbial metabolic processes, we monitored the variation in carbon isotopes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), in total organic carbon (TOC), and in lactate, acetate and propionate. The greatest enrichment in 13C in columns was observed under denitrifying conditions. The δ13C of DIC increased by ~1750 to ~2000‰ fifteen days after supplementation of natural abundance lactate with a 13C-labeled lactate tracer (for an influent δ13C of ~2250‰ for the lactate) indicating almost complete oxidation of the electron donor. The denitrifying columns were among the most active columns and had the highest cell counts and the denitrification rate was highly correlated with Cr(VI) reduction rate. δ13C values of DIC ranged from ~540 to ~1170‰ for iron-reducing conditions. The lower enrichment in iron columns was related to the lower biological activity observed with lower yields of RNA and cell numbers in the column effluents. The carbon isotope shift in the sulfate-reducing ~198 to ~1960‰ for sulfate-reducing conditions reflecting the lower levels of the lactate in these columns. Additionally, in two of the sulfate columns, almost complete fermentation of the lactate occurred, producing acetate and propionate with the labeled carbon signature, but relatively smaller amounts of inorganic carbon. For all electron-accepting conditions, TOC yielded similar δ13C values as lactate stock solutions. Differences in C use efficiency, metabolic rate or metabolic pathway contributed to the differing TOC δ13C to DIC δ13C ratios between treatments

  17. Electronic Fetal Monitoring and Cesarean Birth: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Mary T; McElroy, Kathleen; Regan, Mary

    2016-12-01

    In many United States hospitals, electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) is used continuously during labor for all patients regardless of risk status. Application of EFM, particularly at labor admission, may trigger a chain of interventions resulting in increased risk for cesarean birth among low-risk women. The goal of this review was to summarize evidence on use of EFM during low-risk labors and identify gaps in research. We conducted a scoping review of studies published in English since 1996 that addressed the relationship between EFM use and cesarean among low-risk women. We screened 57 full-text articles for appropriateness. Seven articles were included in the final review. The largest study demonstrated an 81 percent increased risk of primary cesarean birth when EFM was used in labor, but did not differentiate between high- and low-risk pregnancies. Four randomized controlled trials examined the association of admission EFM with obstetric outcomes; only one considered cesarean birth as a primary outcome and found a 23 percent increase in operative birth when EFM lasted more than 1 hour. A study examining application of continuous EFM before and after 4 centimeters dilatation found no differences between groups. In general, the research on this topic suggests an association between the use of EFM and cesarean birth; however, more well-designed studies are needed to examine benefits of EFM versus auscultation, determine if EFM is associated with use of other technologies that could cumulatively increase risk of cesarean birth, and understand provider motivation to use EFM over auscultation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 基于电子舌技术对不同年份的化橘红的识别%Discrimination of Exocarpium Citri Grandis in Different Years Based on Electronic Tongue Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊萧萧; 王鲁峰; 徐晓云; 潘思轶; 王可兴

    2012-01-01

    不同年份的化橘红功效和价格均存在差异,为了快速识别未知橘红样品的年份,采用电子舌对2001~2010年的10个样品和一个盲样进行了分析.对原始数据采用主成分分析和判别因子分析.结果表明:主成分分析可以将不同年份的样品进行有效的区分,判别因子分析可以更好地区分不同年份的样品,并能进行盲样识别.在模式识别中,判别因子分析法的识别结果均优于主成分分析法,前者2个判别因子的累计方差贡献量达到了99.929%.电子舌可以较好地区分不同年份的化橘红,改进后有望应用于化橘红的快速检测.%The effect and price vary in Exocarpium Citri Grandis of different years. Ten samples of Exocarpium Citri Grandis produced from 2001 to 2010 were analyzed with electronic tongue to discriminate their ages. The study shows that both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Factor Analysis (DFA) can be used to discriminate samples of different years with the latter mathod being more accurate. In the pattern recognition, the result of DFA is also more accurate than PCA with the fact that its conmulative contribution of 2-dimentional principal component reached as high as 99.929%. In conclusion, electronic tongue can be utilized as an effective way to discriminate the age level of Exocarpium Citri Grandis. The results of this study suggest the possibility of application of the propsed method in the rapid detection and analysis of Exocarpium Citri Grandis in the process of production, sales, and other related fields.

  19. 21 CFR 880.6230 - Tongue depressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tongue depressor. 880.6230 Section 880.6230 Food... § 880.6230 Tongue depressor. (a) Identification. A tongue depressor is a device intended to displace the tongue to facilitate examination of the surrounding organs and tissues. (b) Classification. Class...

  20. Monitoring the electron beam position at the TESLA test facility free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamps, T.

    2000-06-14

    The operation of a free electron laser working in the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission mode (SASE FEL) requires the electron trajectory to be aligned with very high precision in overlap with the photon beam. In order to ensure this overlap, one module of the SASE FEL undulator at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) is equipped with a new type of waveguide beam position monitor (BPM). Four waveguides are arranged symmetrically around the beam pipe, each channel couples through a small slot to the electromagnetic beam field. The induced signal depends on the beam intensity and on the transverse beam position in terms of beam-to-slot distance. With four slot--waveguide combinations a linear position sensitive signal can be achieved, which is independent of the beam intensity. The signals transduced by the slots are transferred by ridged waveguides through an impedance matching stage into a narrowband receiver tuned to 12 GHz. The present thesis describes design, tests, and implementation of this new type of BPM. (orig.)

  1. Quasi Real Time Data Analysis for Air Quality Monitoring with an Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hanying; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Pelletier, Christine C.; Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, M. Amy

    2006-01-01

    Cabin Air Quality Monitoring: A) Functions; 1) Incident monitor for targeted contaminants exceeding targeted concentrations. Identify and quantify. 2) Monitor for presence of compounds associated with fires or overheating electronics. 3) Monitor clean-up process. B) Characteristics; 1) Low mass, low power device. 2) Requires little crew time for maintenance and calibration. 3) Detects, identifies and quantifies selected chemical species at or below 24 hour SMAC.

  2. Applications of Electronic Tongue to Boost Medicine Research and Development of Healthcare Cause%运用电子舌促进医药研究和健康事业发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴华; 王光耀; 盛良; 汪宇; TeKianKeong; TehSiewHoon; OoiCiatHui

    2015-01-01

    电子舌是融汇多种科学技术的一种先进仪器,配以适当的模式识别系统与数字信号的处理方法,具有检测速度快捷、反映信息全面以及交互敏感等优点.该技术在近期有了长足的发展,已经被引入环境卫生、人体健康、食品安全、医药开发等研究之中,有快速应用趋势和巨大发展潜力.%Based on the appropriate use of pattern recognition technology and digital signal processing method, the electronic tongue,an advanced multi-disciplinary instrument,has enjoyed rapid development in recent years. With the merits of acute interactive sensitivity,comprehensive information submission,high detection efficiency,it has been introduced into the fields of environmental and human health,food safety and medical research,and has vast application prospect and huge development potential.

  3. Filiform papilla of holstein’s tongue and its relation with the Rhipicephalus microplus tick resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies describe anatomical, morphological and histological analysis of domestic and wild animals tongue. The tongue is an extendable muscular organ that performs gripping, chewing, and swallowing food actions and executes tasting and mechanical body self-cleaning functions (grooming. The distribution of these tongue characteristics may vary, according to different species, but studies made with different animals classes reveal the filiform papilla acting in mechanical body cleaning function. In order to evaluate these mechanical functions, especially the self-cleaning one, we proposed to investigate filiform papillae length or its base dimensions would be related to the heifers resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus tick. Biopsies were performed in eight (8 Holstein heifers’ tongues, with a 6 mm diameter punch, in the anterior third of tongues, at the distance of 3 cm from its tip. The animals were anesthetized with xylazine hydrochloride 2%, a sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxant and received local anesthetic, hydrochloride 2.0 g lidocaine. After tissue removal, the local lesions received an ointment of triamcinolone acetonide, 1.0 mg g-1. The Holstein heifers were one year and half old and naturally infested with ticks in a paddock situated at “Instituto de Zootecnia”. We monitored their natural infestation by counting females ticks, greater than 4.5 mm, presents in every animal, in four weekly evaluations (from 8 to 28 December – 2011. These samples were submitted to technical process of fixation and dehydration (as required by in the scanning electron microscope study, in the laboratory NAP/MEPA - ESALQ-USP. The papillae were visualized and measured with the aid of the measurement tool between two points of the software in the scanning electron microscope Zeiss LEO 435VP. Statistically analyses were performed by the SPSSP 12.0 program in a complete randomized design. We employed the Oneway method for variance analysis to

  4. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  5. Behavior Change Techniques Implemented in Electronic Lifestyle Activity Monitors: A Systematic Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Mayrsohn, Brian G; Rowland, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic activity monitors (such as those manufactured by Fitbit, Jawbone, and Nike) improve on standard pedometers by providing automated feedback and interactive behavior change tools via mobile device or personal computer. These monitors are commercially popular and show promise for use in public health interventions. However, little is known about the content of their feedback applications and how individual monitors may differ from one another. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior change techniques implemented in commercially available electronic activity monitors. Methods Electronic activity monitors (N=13) were systematically identified and tested by 3 trained coders for at least 1 week each. All monitors measured lifestyle physical activity and provided feedback via an app (computer or mobile). Coding was based on a hierarchical list of 93 behavior change techniques. Further coding of potentially effective techniques and adherence to theory-based recommendations were based on findings from meta-analyses and meta-regressions in the research literature. Results All monitors provided tools for self-monitoring, feedback, and environmental change by definition. The next most prevalent techniques (13 out of 13 monitors) were goal-setting and emphasizing discrepancy between current and goal behavior. Review of behavioral goals, social support, social comparison, prompts/cues, rewards, and a focus on past success were found in more than half of the systems. The monitors included a range of 5-10 of 14 total techniques identified from the research literature as potentially effective. Most of the monitors included goal-setting, self-monitoring, and feedback content that closely matched recommendations from social cognitive theory. Conclusions Electronic activity monitors contain a wide range of behavior change techniques typically used in clinical behavioral interventions. Thus, the monitors may represent a medium by which

  6. Beam Position Monitor Electronics Upgrade for Fermilab Switchyard

    CERN Document Server

    Stabile, P; Fitzgerald, J A; Liu, N; Morris, D K; Prieto, P S; Seraphin, J P

    2015-01-01

    The beam position monitor (BPM) system for Fermilab Switchyard (SY) provides the position, intensity and integrated intensity of the 53.10348 MHz RF bunched resonant extracted beam from the Main Injector over 4 seconds of spill. The total beam intensity varies from 1x10^11 to 1x10^13 protons. The spill is measured by stripline beam postion monitors and resonant circuit. The BPMs have an external resonant circuit tuned to 53.10348 MHz. The corresponding voltage signal out of the BPM has been estimated to be between -110 dBm and -80 dBm.

  7. Monitoring of MMCA-based Military Electronic Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG De-yu,; PAN Cheng-sheng; YANG Jing-yu

    2005-01-01

    A multiplex monitoring and control architecture (MMCA) for military supervision based on common information model (CIM) is put forward after analyzing the features of military system. Information format based on CIM can be compatible with other protocols by mapping data type into that of SNMP, DMI and CMIP, etc. And in order to realize transparence and dynamic expansibility of MMCA administrator, CIM object manager and CIM object provider are designed based on monitoring mechanism of agent extensibility--AgentX that MMCA agent uses.

  8. Fully integrated wireless inductive tongue computer interface for disabled people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struijk, Lotte N S Andreasen; Lontis, Eugen Romulus; Bentsen, Bo; Christensen, Henrik Vie; Caltenco, Hector A; Lund, Morten Enemark

    2009-01-01

    This work describes a novel fully integrated inductive tongue computer interface for disabled people. The interface consists of an oral unit placed in the mouth, including inductive sensors, related electronics, a system for wireless transmission and a rechargeable battery. The system is activated using an activation unit placed on the tongue, and incorporates 18 inductive sensors, arranged in both a key area and a mouse-pad area. The system's functionality was demonstrated in a pilot experiment, where a typing rate of up to 70 characters/minute was obtained with an error rate of 3%. Future work will include tests with disabled subjects.

  9. Thermographic Microstructure Monitoring in Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raplee, J.; Plotkowski, A.; Kirka, M. M.; Dinwiddie, R.; Okello, A.; Dehoff, R. R.; Babu, S. S.

    2017-03-01

    To reduce the uncertainty of build performance in metal additive manufacturing, robust process monitoring systems that can detect imperfections and improve repeatability are desired. One of the most promising methods for in situ monitoring is thermographic imaging. However, there is a challenge in using this technology due to the difference in surface emittance between the metal powder and solidified part being observed that affects the accuracy of the temperature data collected. The purpose of the present study was to develop a method for properly calibrating temperature profiles from thermographic data to account for this emittance change and to determine important characteristics of the build through additional processing. The thermographic data was analyzed to identify the transition of material from metal powder to a solid as-printed part. A corrected temperature profile was then assembled for each point using calibrations for these surface conditions. Using this data, the thermal gradient and solid-liquid interface velocity were approximated and correlated to experimentally observed microstructural variation within the part. This work shows that by using a method of process monitoring, repeatability of a build could be monitored specifically in relation to microstructure control.

  10. Thermographic Microstructure Monitoring in Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raplee, J.; Plotkowski, A.; Kirka, M. M.; Dinwiddie, R.; Okello, A.; Dehoff, R. R.; Babu, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the uncertainty of build performance in metal additive manufacturing, robust process monitoring systems that can detect imperfections and improve repeatability are desired. One of the most promising methods for in situ monitoring is thermographic imaging. However, there is a challenge in using this technology due to the difference in surface emittance between the metal powder and solidified part being observed that affects the accuracy of the temperature data collected. The purpose of the present study was to develop a method for properly calibrating temperature profiles from thermographic data to account for this emittance change and to determine important characteristics of the build through additional processing. The thermographic data was analyzed to identify the transition of material from metal powder to a solid as-printed part. A corrected temperature profile was then assembled for each point using calibrations for these surface conditions. Using this data, the thermal gradient and solid-liquid interface velocity were approximated and correlated to experimentally observed microstructural variation within the part. This work shows that by using a method of process monitoring, repeatability of a build could be monitored specifically in relation to microstructure control. PMID:28256595

  11. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and equipment for signal amplification, conditioning, and display. (b) Classification. Class II... systems. 880.2420 Section 880.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion...

  12. How effective is electronic monitoring in mixed bottom-trawl fisheries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, van A.T.M.; Chen, C.; Poos, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the landing obligation under the European Common Fisheries Policy, electronic monitoring (EM) is often presented as one of the solutions to fully document catches. EM includes video monitoring to record the catch handling process on board the vessels. This study evaluated the effic

  13. Implantable medical electronics prosthetics, drug delivery, and health monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Khanna, Vinod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary resource for the latest information on implantable medical devices, and is intended for graduate students studying electrical engineering, electronic instrumentation, and biomedical engineering. It is also appropriate for academic researchers, professional engineers, practicing doctors, and paramedical staff. Divided into two sections on Basic Concepts and Principles, and Applications, the first section provides an all-embracing perspective of the electronics background necessary for this work. The second section deals with pacing techniques used for the heart, brain, spinal cord, and the network of nerves that interlink the brain and spinal cord with the major organs, including ear and eye prostheses. The four main offshoots of implantable electronics, which this book discusses, are: The insertion of an implantable neural amplifier for accurate recording of neural signals for neuroengineering studies The use of implantable pulse generators for pacing the activi...

  14. Improving inflammatory arthritis management through tighter monitoring of patients and the use of innovative electronic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Piet; Alten, Rieke; Combe, Bernard; Abdulganieva, Diana; Bousquet, Paola; Courtenay, Molly; Curiale, Cinzia; Gómez-Centeno, Antonio; Haugeberg, Glenn; Leeb, Burkhard; Puolakka, Kari; Ravelli, Angelo; Rintelen, Bernhard; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo

    2016-01-01

    Treating to target by monitoring disease activity and adjusting therapy to attain remission or low disease activity has been shown to lead to improved outcomes in chronic rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. Patient-reported outcomes, used in conjunction with clinical measures, add an important perspective of disease activity as perceived by the patient. Several validated PROs are available for inflammatory arthritis, and advances in electronic patient monitoring tools are helping patients with chronic diseases to self-monitor and assess their symptoms and health. Frequent patient monitoring could potentially lead to the early identification of disease flares or adverse events, early intervention for patients who may require treatment adaptation, and possibly reduced appointment frequency for those with stable disease. A literature search was conducted to evaluate the potential role of patient self-monitoring and innovative monitoring of tools in optimising disease control in inflammatory arthritis. Experience from the treatment of congestive heart failure, diabetes and hypertension shows improved outcomes with remote electronic self-monitoring by patients. In inflammatory arthritis, electronic self-monitoring has been shown to be feasible in patients despite manual disability and to be acceptable to older patients. Patients' self-assessment of disease activity using such methods correlates well with disease activity assessed by rheumatologists. This review also describes several remote monitoring tools that are being developed and used in inflammatory arthritis, offering the potential to improve disease management and reduce pressure on specialists.

  15. Organic electronics based pressure sensor towards intracranial pressure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pratyush; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2010-04-01

    The intra-cranial space, which houses the brain, contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that acts as a fluid suspension medium for the brain. The CSF is always in circulation, is secreted in the cranium and is drained out through ducts called epidural veins. The venous drainage system has inherent resistance to the flow. Pressure is developed inside the cranium, which is similar to a rigid compartment. Normally a pressure of 5-15 mm Hg, in excess of atmospheric pressure, is observed at different locations inside the cranium. Increase in Intra-Cranial Pressure (ICP) can be caused by change in CSF volume caused by cerebral tumors, meningitis, by edema of a head injury or diseases related to cerebral atrophy. Hence, efficient ways of monitoring ICP need to be developed. A sensor system and monitoring scheme has been discussed here. The system architecture consists of a membrane less piezoelectric pressure sensitive element, organic thin film transistor (OTFT) based signal transduction, and signal telemetry. The components were fabricated on flexible substrate and have been assembled using flip-chip packaging technology. Material science and fabrication processes, subjective to the device performance, have been discussed. Capability of the device in detecting pressure variation, within the ICP pressure range, is investigated and applicability of measurement scheme to medical conditions has been argued for. Also, applications of such a sensor-OTFT assembly for logic sensor switching and patient specific-secure monitoring system have been discussed.

  16. Response of radiation monitoring labels to gamma rays and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahim, F. Abdel; Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    , and differences in dose rate and radiation type (gamma rays and electron beams) were made on 15 kinds of labels. The results show that, for many types of indicators, diverse effects may give misleading conclusions unless countermeasures are taken. For example, some of the most commonly used labels, which contain...

  17. 不同品牌食醋味感特征的电子舌分析%Analysis of Taste Characteristics of Vinegar in Different Brands with Electronic Tongue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒静; 陈轩; 潘从道; 邓莉; 肖甚圣

    2013-01-01

    为了研究不同区域、不同品牌食醋的味感差别,文章采用TS-5000Z型味觉分析系统,将食醋样品按陈醋∶水为1 ∶ 5(V/V)进行稀释后检测.经过丰富的图形展示,对其传感器响应信号进行了主成分分析(PCA).结果显示:电子舌能够很好地辨别不同地域、不同品牌的食醋,能够直观地反映各品牌之间的味感差异,这为消费者根据自己的喜好与需求购买商品提供参考.%In order to study the taste differences of vinegar from different areas with different brands,TS-5000Z taste analysis system is used in this paper to detect the sample of vinegar after diluting at the ratio of vinegar and water of 1 ∶ 5 (V/V).After plenty of graphics display,the sensor response signals are studied by principal component analysis (PCA).The result indicates that electronic tongue can distinguish vinegar from different areas with different brands,it can also reflect the taste differences among various brands intuitively,which provide references for consumers to purchase goods according to their preference and demands.

  18. Evaluation of the feasibility of the electronic tongue as a rapid analytical tool for wine age prediction and quantification of the organic acids and phenolic compounds. The case-study of Madeira wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, A., E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [CESAM/Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Rocha, S.M. [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Legin, A. [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Pereira, V.; Marques, J.C. [Madeira Chemistry Center, University of Madeira, Funchal 9000-390 (Portugal)

    2010-03-03

    A set of fourteen Madeira wines comprising wines produced from four Vitis vinifera L. varieties (Bual, Malvasia, Verdelho and Tinta Negra Mole) that were 3, 6, 10 and 17 years old was analysed using HPLC and an electronic tongue (ET) multisensor system. Concentrations of 24 organic acids, phenolic and furanic compounds were determined by HPLC. The ET consisting of 26 potentiometric chemical sensors with plasticized PVC and chalcogenide glass membranes was used. Significance of the effects of age and variety on the ET response and wine composition with respect to the organic acids, phenolics and furanic derivatives were evaluated using ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Significance of the effects was estimated using a permutation test (1000 permutations). It was found that effects of age, grape variety and their interaction were significant for the HPLC data set and only the effect of age was significant for the ET data. Calibration models of the HPLC and ET data with respect to the wine age and of the ET data with respect to the concentration of the organic acids and phenolics were calculated using PLS1 regression. Models were validated using cross-validation. It was possible to predict wine age from HPLC and ET data with the accuracy in cross-validation of 2.6 and 1.8 years respectively. The ET was capable of detecting the following components (mean relative error in cross-validation is shown in the parentheses): tartaric (8%), citric (5%), formic (12%), protocatehuic (5%), vanillic (18%) and sinapic (14%) acids, catechin (6%), vanillin (12%) and trans-resveratrol (5%). The ET capability of predicting Madeira wine age with good accuracy (1.8 years) as well as quantify of some organic acids and phenolic compounds was demonstrated.

  19. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your desktop! more... Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath Article Chapters Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce ... oral cavity. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Does a ...

  20. Tongue Image Feature Extraction in TCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong; DU Lian-xiang; LU Fu-ping; DU Jun-ping

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, digital image processing and computer vision techniques are applied to study tongue images for feature extraction with VC++ and Matlab. Extraction and analysis of the tongue surface features are based on shape, color, edge, and texture. The developed software has various functions and good user interface and is easy to use. Feature data for tongue image pattern recognition is provided, which form a sound basis for the future tongue image recognition.

  1. Remote temperature monitoring and electronic identification in food animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seawright, G.L.; Holm, D.M.; Sanders, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Two radiotelemetric systems were developed for remote monitoring of body temperature in livestock. A battery-powered transmitter system was developed as a laboratory tool for remote continuous monitoring of ear-canal temperatures in animals used in vaccine trials and in studies of livestock diseases. An automated data-recording and processing system was also developed. Pilot studies in cattle indicate that the system will be a valuable quantitative tool for vaccine testing and animal experiments. A second telemetry system was developed for widescale use in the livestock industry. It relies on an implantable passive (no batteries) transponder that is energized by an external source of microwaves to transmit temperature and decimal digit identification to a remote receiver. The animal identification feature, coupled with computers, offers the livestock producer unprecedented capabilities for efficient management of his operation. The temperature feature of transponders can aid in disease detection and control, disease diagnosis, and stress and ovulation detection. Its use for identifying temperature markers in disease and stress-tolerent breeding stock may be valuable in selective breeding programs.

  2. Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor of tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Yin Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECMT is a rare entity of the dorsal tongue first described in 1995. Herein, we report a rare case of lingual ECMT in a 41-year-old man. Patient presented with an asymptomatic, small nodule (0.5 cm in diameter in the anterior tongue. The pathological findings showed uni-lobular proliferation of fusiform cells, arranged in net-like sheets or swirls, in a chondromyxoid background. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for S-100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, but negative for epithelial markers. Familiarity with this entity helps pathologists make a correct diagnosis.

  3. Morphology and fibre-type distribution in the tongue of the Pogona vitticeps lizard (Iguania, Agamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zghikh, Leïla-Nastasia; Vangysel, Emilie; Nonclercq, Denis; Legrand, Alexandre; Blairon, Bernard; Berri, Cécile; Bordeau, Thierry; Rémy, Christophe; Burtéa, Carmen; Montuelle, Stéphane J; Bels, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Agamid lizards use tongue prehension for capturing all types of prey. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional relationship between tongue structure, both surface and musculature, and function during prey capture in Pogona vitticeps. The lack of a detailed description of the distribution of fibre-types in the tongue muscles in some iguanian lizards has hindered the understanding of the functional morphology of the lizard tongue. Three methodological approaches were used to fill this gap. First, morphological analyses were performed (i) on the tongue surface through scanning electron microscopy, and (ii) on the lingual muscle by histological coloration and histochemistry to identify fibre-typing. Secondly, kinematics of prey capture was quantified by using high-speed video recordings to determine the movement capabilities of the tongue. Finally, electromyography (EMG) was used to identify the motor pattern tongue muscles during prey capture. Morphological and functional data were combined to discuss the functional morphology of the tongue in agamid lizards, in relation to their diet. During tongue protraction, M. genioglossus contracts 420 ± 96 ms before tongue-prey contact. Subsequently, Mm. verticalis and hyoglossus contract throughout tongue protraction and retraction. Significant differences are found between the timing of activity of the protractor muscles between omnivorous agamids (Pogona sp., this study) and insectivorous species (Agama sp.), despite similar tongue and jaw kinematics. The data confirm that specialisation toward a diet which includes more vegetal materials is associated with significant changes in tongue morphology and function. Histoenzymology demonstrates that protractor and retractor muscles differ in fibre composition. The proportion of fast glycolytic fibres is significantly higher in the M. hyoglossus (retractor muscle) than in the M. genioglossus (protractor muscle), and this difference is proposed to be associated

  4. Tongue as the Window to the Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung O.Cheng

    2011-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: I read with great interest your masterful article on study of the tongue in patients with coronary heart disease. Tongue is, indeed, the window to the heart. Many cardiovascular diseases including coronary heart disease can be accurately diagnosed by the Chinese traditional physicians by careful inspection of the tongue (Figure 1).

  5. An Electronic Patch for Wearable Health Monitoring by Reflectance Pulse Oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Rasmus Grønbek; Duun, Sune Bro; Toft, Mette H.;

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of an Electronic Patch for wearable health monitoring. The Electronic Patch is a new health monitoring system incorporating biomedical sensors, microelectronics, radio frequency (RF) communication, and a battery embedded in a 3-dimensional hydrocolloid polymer...... photodiode to enable low power consumption by the light emitting components. The Electronic Patch has a disposable part of soft adhesive hydrocolloid polymer and a reusable part of hard polylaurinlactam. The disposable part contains the battery. The reusable part contains the reflectance pulse oximetry....... In this paper the Electronic Patch is demonstrated with a new optical biomedical sensor for reflectance pulse oximetry so that the Electronic Patch in this case can measure the pulse and the oxygen saturation. The reflectance pulse oximetry solution is based on a recently developed annular backside silicon...

  6. Detecting electron beam energy shifts with a commercially available energy monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M D; Moftah, B A; Olivares, M; Podgorsak, E B

    2000-07-01

    Routine electron beam quality assurance requires an accurate, yet practical, method of energy characterization. Subtle shifts in beam energy may be produced by the linac bending magnet assembly, and the sensitivity of a commercially available electron beam energy-monitoring device for monitoring these small energy drifts has been evaluated. The device shows an 11% change in signal for a 2 mm change in the I50 energy parameter for low energy electron beams (in the vicinity of 6 MeV) and a 2.5% change in signal for a 2 mm change in the I50 energy parameter for high energy electron beams (in the vicinity of 22 MeV). Thus the device is capable of detecting small energy shifts resulting from bending magnet drift for all clinically relevant electron beams.

  7. Conversion electrons used to monitor the energy scale of electron spectrometer near tritium endpoint - a simulation study

    CERN Document Server

    Rysavy, M

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of the endpoint region of the tritium beta-decay spectrum provides good possibility to determine neutrino mass. This, however, needs a perfect monitoring of the spectrometer energy scale. A parallel measurement of electron line of known energy - in particular the 83mKr conversion K-line - may serve well to this purpose. The 83Rb decaying to 83mKr seems to be a very suitable radioactive source due to its halflife of 86.2 day. In this work, we determine the amount of 83Rb which is necessary for a successful monitoring.

  8. Tongues of Men and Angels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGraw, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The accelerating popularity of Charismatic Christianity has brought with it a host of new sensibilities and ritual practices. Glossolalia, or ‘speaking in tongues,’ stands out among these as a particularly dramatic innovation. Typically staid churchgoers, once touched by the Holy Spirit, begin...

  9. Editorial: Mother Tongue and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Linguists, language experts and child-psychologists believe that children can learn better in their mother tongue but that doesn’t go against multilingual education. It has also been observed that children studying through multilingual system develop better thinking and skills than monolingual education systems. Parents and peer all can help the child understand the issues if it

  10. Solitary angiokeratoma of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sion-Vardy, Netta; Manor, Esther; Puterman, Max; Bodner, Lipa

    2008-01-01

    Angiokeratoma is a rare cutaneous lesion. It can be either a generalized systemic form, presenting as multiple asymptomatic papules on the skin, associated with metabolic diseases or a solitary cutaneous form. Oral cavity involvement is more common in the systemic form, as a part of a more generalized cutaneous disease, but very rare in the localized form of angiokeratoma. A 45-year-old female presented with a painless lesion on the tongue of one months duration, which bled occasionally. On clinical examination, a lesion of approximately 5 mm in diameter was observed on the left surface of the tongue. The lesion was purple in color with a granulomatous appearance. There were no other changes in the oral mucosa. On dermatologic examination, no angiokeratomas were found, anywhere on the skin. The lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The histologic diagnosis was angiokeratoma. A case of a solitary angiokeratoma of the tongue is reported. We report here the third intra-oral case and the second case in the tongue with solitary angiokeratoma.

  11. Mittal bonded tongue thrusting appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available These days majority of orthodontist includes bonded molar attachment in their inventory to eliminate the discomfort of molar separation during initial appointment and band spaces left at the end of treatment. This article describes a innovative and economical method of attachment of bonded tongue crib if required during the initial or later stages of treatment along with bonded molar tubes.

  12. Tongues of Men and Angels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGraw, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The accelerating popularity of Charismatic Christianity has brought with it a host of new sensibilities and ritual practices. Glossolalia, or ‘speaking in tongues,’ stands out among these as a particularly dramatic innovation. Typically staid churchgoers, once touched by the Holy Spirit, begin...

  13. RELEASE OF TONGUE-TIE IN NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Raveenthiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arguably, release of tongue tie is the oldest surgical procedure and it is perhaps older than circumcision. According to the Old Testament, the Lord released the tied tongue of Moses and made him speak well. Tongue-tie is pedantically known as ankyloglossia inferior minor. Simplicity of its treatment has earned this malady several etiological attributions such as difficulty of speech and breast feeding. All over the world, lactation consultants refer neonates for release of tongue tie as they believe it to be the cause of maternal nipple pain.Perhaps this is the only indication of tongue tie release in neonates.

  14. Bosnian and American students' attitudes toward electronic monitoring: is it about what we know or where we come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftić, Lisa R; Payne, Brian K; Maljević, Almir

    2015-06-01

    The use of community corrections continues to grow across the globe as alternatives to incarceration are sought. Little research attention, however, has been directed at correctional alternatives from a global orientation. The purpose of this research study is to compare the way that a sample of criminal justice students from the United States (n = 118) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (n = 133) perceive electronic monitoring. Because electronic monitoring is a newer sentencing alternative and it is used differently in Bosnia and Herzegovina than it is in the United States, it is predicted that Bosnian students will view electronic monitoring differently than will students from the United States. This study finds that while students are largely supportive of electronic monitoring sentences, support is affected by offender type and student nationality. For example, Bosnian students are more supportive of electronic monitoring sentences for drug offenders while American students are more supportive of electronic monitoring sentences for juvenile offenders. Differences were also found across student groups when attitudes toward electronic monitoring and the costs and pains associated with electronic monitoring were assessed. Specifically, American students were less likely to view electronic monitoring as meeting the goals of rehabilitation and more likely to view the conditions and restrictions associated with electronic monitoring as being punitive than Bosnian students were. Implications from these findings, as well as limitations and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  15. Daily electronic self-monitoring in bipolar disorder using smartphones - the MONARCA I trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Frost, Mads; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of studies on electronic self-monitoring in affective disorder and other psychiatric disorders is increasing and indicates high patient acceptance and adherence. Nevertheless, the effect of electronic self-monitoring in patients with bipolar disorder has never been...... investigated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The objective of this trial was to investigate in a RCT whether the use of daily electronic self-monitoring using smartphones reduces depressive and manic symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. METHOD: A total of 78 patients with bipolar disorder...... of a smartphone for normal communicative purposes (the control group) for 6 months. The primary outcomes were differences in depressive and manic symptoms measured using HAMD-17 and YMRS, respectively, between the intervention and control groups. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat analyses using linear mixed models...

  16. Tongue controlled computer game: A new approach for rehabilitation of tongue motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of tongue-disability, age and gender on motor performance for a tongue training paradigm involving playing a computer game using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). Design: Two controlled observational studies. Setting: A neurorehabilitation center and a dental...... of motivation, fun, pain and fatigue between groups in any of the studies (P>0.094). Conclusions: The present study provided evidence that tongue-disability and age can influence behavioral measures of tongue motor performance. TDS may be a new adjunctive neurorehabilitation regime in treating tongue...... school. Participants: In Study 1, eleven tongue-disabled patients with symptoms of dysphagia and dysarthria and 11 age-and sex-matched controls participated in tongue training. In Study 2, 16 healthy elderly and 16 healthy young participants volunteered. Intervention: In study 1 and study 2, the tongue...

  17. Repeated tongue lift movement induces neuroplasticity in corticomotor control of tongue and jaw muscles in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komoda, Yoshihiro; Lida, Takashi; Kothari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of repeated tongue lift training (TLT) on the excitability of the corticomotor representation of the human tongue and jaw musculature. Sixteen participants performed three series of TLT for 41min on each of 5 consecutive days. Each TLT series consisted of two....... EMG recordings from the left and right tongue dorsum and masseter muscles were made at three pressure levels (5kPa, 10kPa, 100% tongue lift), and tongue, masseter, and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) MEPs were measured. There were no significant day-to-day differences in the tongue pressure during...

  18. Automated and electronically assisted hand hygiene monitoring systems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Melissa A; Schweizer, Marin L; Polgreen, Philip M; Gupta, Kalpana; Reisinger, Heather S; Perencevich, Eli N

    2014-05-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the most effective ways to prevent transmission of health care-associated infections. Electronic systems and tools are being developed to enhance hand hygiene compliance monitoring. Our systematic review assesses the existing evidence surrounding the adoption and accuracy of automated systems or electronically enhanced direct observations and also reviews the effectiveness of such systems in health care settings. We systematically reviewed PubMed for articles published between January 1, 2000, and March 31, 2013, containing the terms hand AND hygiene or hand AND disinfection or handwashing. Resulting articles were reviewed to determine if an electronic system was used. We identified 42 articles for inclusion. Four types of systems were identified: electronically assisted/enhanced direct observation, video-monitored direct observation systems, electronic dispenser counters, and automated hand hygiene monitoring networks. Fewer than 20% of articles identified included calculations for efficiency or accuracy. Limited data are currently available to recommend adoption of specific automatic or electronically assisted hand hygiene surveillance systems. Future studies should be undertaken that assess the accuracy, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of such systems. Given the restricted clinical and infection prevention budgets of most facilities, cost-effectiveness analysis of specific systems will be required before these systems are widely adopted. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  19. GPS scintillation and irregularities at the front of an ionization tongue in the nightside polar ionosphere

    CERN Document Server

    van der Meeren, Christer; Lorentzen, Dag; Moen, Jøran Idar; Romano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study a tongue of ionization (TOI) on 31 October 2011 which stretched across the polar cap from the Canadian dayside sector to Svalbard in the nightside ionosphere. The TOI front arrived over Svalbard around 1930 UT. We have investigated GPS scintillation and irregularities in relation to this TOI front. This is the first study presenting such detailed multi-instrument data of scintillation and irregularities in relation to a TOI front. Combining data from an all-sky imager, the European Incoherent Scatter Svalbard Radar, the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network Hankasalmi radar, and three GPS scintillation and total electron content (TEC) monitors in Longyearbyen and Ny-{\\AA}lesund, we observe bursts of phase scintillation and no amplitude scintillation in relation to the leading gradient of the TOI. Spectrograms of 50 Hz phase measurements show highly localized and variable structuring of the TOI leading gradient, with no structuring or scintillation within the TOI or ahead of the TOI.

  20. Monitoring Nonadiabatic Electron-Nuclear Dynamics in Molecules by Attosecond Streaking of Photoelectrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Bennett, Kochise; Rouxel, Jérémy R; Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-07-22

    Streaking of photoelectrons has long been used for the temporal characterization of attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses. When the time-resolved photoelectrons originate from a coherent superposition of electronic states, they carry additional phase information, which can be retrieved by the streaking technique. In this contribution we extend the streaking formalism to include coupled electron and nuclear dynamics in molecules as well as initial coherences. We demonstrate how streaked photoelectrons offer a novel tool for monitoring nonadiabatic dynamics as it occurs in the vicinity of conical intersections and avoided crossings. Streaking can provide high time resolution direct signatures of electronic coherences, which affect many primary photochemical and biological events.

  1. Smart interactive electronic system for monitoring the electromagnetic activities of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Sorin G.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2001-08-01

    A novel electronic device capable of sensing and monitoring the myoelectric, polarization wave and electromagnetic activities of the biological systems and in particular the human body is presented. It is known that all the physical and chemical processes within biological systems are associated with polarization, depolarization waves from the brain, neural signals and myoelectric processes that manifest themselves in ionic and dipole motion. The technology developed in our laboratory is based on certain charge motion sensitive electronics. The electronic system developed is capable of sensing the electromagnetic activities of biological systems. The information obtained is then processed by specialized software in order to interpret it from physical and chemical point of view.

  2. Monitoring Nonadiabatic Electron-Nuclear Dynamics in Molecules by Attosecond Streaking of Photoelectrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalewski, Markus; Rouxel, Jérémy R; Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-01-01

    Streaking of photoelectrons has long been used for the temporal characterization of attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses. When the time-resolved photoelectrons originate from a coherent superposition of electronic states, they carry an additional phase information, which can be retrieved by the streaking technique. In this contribution we extend the streaking formalism to include coupled electron and nuclear dynamics in molecules as well as initial coherences and demonstrate how it offers a novel tool to monitor non-adiabatic dynamics as it occurs in the vicinity of conical intersections and avoided crossings. Streaking can enhance the time resolution and provide direct signatures of electronic coherences, which affect many primary photochemical and biological events.

  3. Monitoring Nonadiabatic Electron-Nuclear Dynamics in Molecules by Attosecond Streaking of Photoelectrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Bennett, Kochise; Rouxel, Jérémy R.; Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-07-01

    Streaking of photoelectrons has long been used for the temporal characterization of attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses. When the time-resolved photoelectrons originate from a coherent superposition of electronic states, they carry additional phase information, which can be retrieved by the streaking technique. In this contribution we extend the streaking formalism to include coupled electron and nuclear dynamics in molecules as well as initial coherences. We demonstrate how streaked photoelectrons offer a novel tool for monitoring nonadiabatic dynamics as it occurs in the vicinity of conical intersections and avoided crossings. Streaking can provide high time resolution direct signatures of electronic coherences, which affect many primary photochemical and biological events.

  4. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindan Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Black hairy tongue (BHT also called as lingua villosa nigra, is a self limiting benign condition characterized by hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae of tongue with brown or black discoloration. Smoking, poor oral hygiene, xerostomia, using peroxide containing mouth washes, substance abuse and drugs (steroids, methyldopa, olanzapine, etc are the predisposing factors. However its occurrence in relation to linezolid ingestion among south Indians has not been reported in PubMed database. Here we report a case, where significant association of linezolid intake with BHT was found in a 10-year-old boy, who was treated with tablet linezolid for post surgical infection of left side radial neck fracture. This case is reported for the rarity of occurrence with linezolid therapy. According to Naranjo adverse drug reaction (ADR causality scale, the association of BHT due to linezolid in our case was probable.

  5. Ossifying chondrolipoma of the tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Desanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chondrolipomas and osteolipomas are uncommon variants of lipomatous tumors. Case report. We presented a 60-year-old woman with ossifying chondrolipoma of the tongue. Clinical examination revealed a firm nodular mass, located in the midline of the posterior region on the dorsal surface of the tongue. Histologically, the lesion was well-delimited showing areas of mature adipocytes arranged in lobules and separated by fibrous connective tissue septa, islands of mature cartilaginous tissue and osseous metaplasia. Trabeculae of lamellar bone within a fibro-fatty background were visible throughout the tumor. The cartilaginous areas merging centrally with bone formation and fatty marrow tissue were present, as well as the hematopoietic elements in the fatty marrow. The bone forming was found to be through both membranous and enchondral mechanisms. Conclusion. Ossifying chrondrolipoma with hematopoietic elements is extremely unusual lesion. This interesting entity should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lingual lesions.

  6. A Toroidal Charge Monitor for High-Energy Picosecond Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Robert H.; Ng, Johnny S.T.

    2007-03-28

    A monitor system suitable for the accurate measurement of the total charge of a 2-ps 28.5 GeV electron beam over a large dynamic range is described. Systematic uncertainties and results on absolute calibration, resolution, and long-term stability are presented.

  7. Monitoring of biological odour filtration in closed environments with olfactometry and an electronic nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, H.C.; Gijsel, de P.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Amico, D' A.; Martinelli, E.; Natale, Di C.; Ras, van N.; Waarde, van der J.

    2004-01-01

    Air treatment with a compact biological membrane filter, and air quality monitoring with an electronic nose were tested in the laboratory on air from a cage containing six mice. Additional analyses of air to and from the filter were performed using olfactometry and ammonia and hydrogen sulphide gas

  8. Construction process and read-out electronics of amorphous silicon position detectors for multipoint alignment monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, C.; Schubert, M.B.; Lutz, B.; Werner, J.H. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik und Duennschichttechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A.; Fernandez, M.G.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria IFCA/CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)] (and others)

    2009-09-01

    We describe the construction process of large-area high-performance transparent amorphous silicon position detecting sensors. Details about the characteristics of the associated local electronic board (LEB), specially designed for these sensors, are given. In addition we report on the performance of a multipoint alignment monitoring application of 12 sensors in a 13 m long light path.

  9. Electronic monitoring of adherence, treatment of hypertension, and blood pressure control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzenoort, H.A. van; Verberk, W.J.; Kroon, A.A.; Kessels, A.G.; Neef, C.; Kuy, P.H. van der; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it is generally acknowledged that electronic monitoring of adherence to treatment improves blood pressure (BP) control by increasing patients' awareness to their treatment, little information is available on the long-term effect of this intervention. METHODS: In this observation

  10. Peroneal Flap for Tongue Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Sheng; Liu, Wen-Chung; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Chen, Lee-Wei; Yang, Kuo-Chung

    2017-07-01

    Background For large tongue defects, reconstructive surgeons have devised a variety of feasible options, such as radial forearm free flap and anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. In our institution, peroneal flap has been the workhorse flap for the soft tissue defect in head and neck reconstruction. We present our experience using peroneal flap in tongue reconstruction. Patients and Methods The study included 47 patients who had undergone tongue reconstructions with peroneal flaps after tumor resection. The size and location of the defect after tumor resection determined whether the peroneal flaps could be harvested as pure septocutaneous flaps to solely reconstruct the neotongue or to carry an additional muscle bulk to fill the adjacent defect. Retrospective chart review was used to look for postoperative complications and to perform functional assessments (which were also performed through telephone inquiry). Results Of the 47 patients, 3 (6%) had flap failure and 1 (2.1%) had partial flap necrosis. The hemiglossectomy group had better results than the total glossectomy group with respect to speech and diet, but neither of these results reached statistical significance (p = 1.0 for speech and p = 0.06 for diet). The results of the subtotal glossectomy group were better than those of the total glossectomy group with respect to diet (p = 0.03). No statistically significant differences were noted among the three groups with respect to cosmetic aspect (p = 0.64). Conclusions Considering its reasonable postoperative complication rates and functional results, peroneal flap can be considered a feasible option for tongue reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than...

  12. A Review of the Condition Monitoring of Capacitors in Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Hammam Abdelaal Hammam; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Capacitors are one type of reliability-critical components in power electronic systems. In the last two decades, many efforts in academic research have been devoted to the condition monitoring of capacitors to estimate their health status. Industry applications are demanding more reliable power...... electronics products with preventive maintenance. Nevertheless, most of the developed capacitor condition monitoring technologies are rarely adopted by industry due to the complexity, increased cost, and other relevant issues. An overview of the prior-art research in this area is therefore needed to justify......, this paper first classifies the capacitor condition monitoring methods into three categories, then the respective technology evolution in the last two decades is summarized. Finally, the state-of-the-art research and the future opportunities targeting for industry applications are given....

  13. The lingual dorsal surface of the blue-tongue skink (Tiliqua scincoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, F; Latella, G; Montalbano, G; Guerrera, M C; Germanà, G P; Levanti, M B

    2009-10-01

    The blue-tongue lizard (Tiliqua scincoides) is a variety of large skink common throughout Australia. There are seven species of Tiliqua and all of them have long bodies, short limbs and short and robust tails. T. scincoides occurs in a wide range of habitats; its diet is omnivorous. When threatened, it opens the mouth and protrudes its characteristic large fleshy cobalt blue tongue. It is currently found as a popular species and also as a pet animal in the European countries. No data are available in literature about the morphology of the tongue of T. scincoides; therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate by means of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, the anatomy of the dorsal lingual surface. Our results demonstrate the presence of a tongue tip with a smooth surface without papillae. The foretongue was characterized by a stratified epithelium with foliate-like papillae and deep inter-papillar spaces in the middle part and cylindrical papillae with a flat surface in the lateral parts. All the posterior area of the tongue was characterized by more compacted papillae and the inter-papillar spaces were very narrow. Light microscopy showed the presence of melanin throughout the tongue. No taste buds were recognized on the lingual dorsal surface. Therefore, the papillae probably have a mechanical function showing an important role in the swallowing phase. The morphology of the tongue surface can be correlated to the diet and, different roles, as in other examined species, can be hypothesized for different areas.

  14. Daily reduction of oral malodor with the use of a sonic tongue brush combined with an antibacterial tongue spray in a randomized cross-over clinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, S; Gomez-Pereira, P; Hewett, K; Horstman, P; Patel, J; Greenman, J

    2016-02-12

    The objective of this clinical investigation was to test the effectiveness on breath odor of a newly designed sonic tongue brush (TongueCare+, TC). It consists of a soft silicone brush optimally designed based on the tongue's anatomy to remove bacterial biofilm from the tongue's complex surface, and it is coupled with a sonic power toothbrush handle. TC was used in combination with an antibacterial tongue spray (BreathRx, BRx) containing 0.09% cetylpyridinium chloride and 0.7% zinc gluconate. A total of 21 participants with oral malodor exceeding the threshold for recognition took part in this cross-over clinical investigation, which consisted of a single use of four treatment arms with one week washout period in between. The treatments consisted of: (1) TC  +  BRx, (2) TC  +  water, (3) BRx and (4) water. Malodor levels and bacterial density were monitored up to 6 h by organoleptic scoring and selective plating, respectively. The organoleptic score and bacterial density were significantly lower after using TC  +  BRx compared to all alternative treatments at all time points. A significant decrease in both parameters was detected after a single use of TC  +  BRx, from levels characteristic of high oral malodor, to barely noticeable levels after treatment and this was maintained up to 6 h. Moreover, we identified a significant positive correlation between bacterial density and organoleptic score, confirming that bacterial tongue biofilm is the root cause of oral malodor in these subjects. The results of this clinical investigation demonstrated that the combined treatment of a sonic tongue brush with the antibacterial tongue spray is able to deliver more than 6 h of fresh breath following a single use. The clinical investigation was registered at the ISRCTN registry under study identification number ISRCTN38199132.

  15. When big brother is watching: goal orientation shapes reactions to electronic monitoring during online training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Aaron M; Foster Thompson, Lori; Rudolph, Jane V; Whelan, Thomas J; Behrend, Tara S; Gissel, Amanda L

    2013-07-01

    Web-based training is frequently used by organizations as a convenient and low-cost way to teach employees new knowledge and skills. As web-based training is typically unproctored, employees may be held accountable to the organization by computer software that monitors their behaviors. The current study examines how the introduction of electronic performance monitoring may provoke negative emotional reactions and decrease learning among certain types of e-learners. Through motivated action theory and trait activation theory, we examine the role of performance goal orientation when e-learners are exposed to asynchronous and synchronous monitoring. We show that some e-learners are more susceptible than others to evaluation apprehension when they perceive their activities are being monitored electronically. Specifically, e-learners higher in avoid performance goal orientation exhibited increased evaluation apprehension if they believed asynchronous monitoring was present, and they showed decreased skill attainment as a result. E-learners higher on prove performance goal orientation showed greater evaluation apprehension if they believed real-time monitoring was occurring, resulting in decreased skill attainment.

  16. Tongue Color Analysis for Medical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-depth systematic tongue color analysis system for medical applications is proposed. Using the tongue color gamut, tongue foreground pixels are first extracted and assigned to one of 12 colors representing this gamut. The ratio of each color for the entire image is calculated and forms a tongue color feature vector. Experimenting on a large dataset consisting of 143 Healthy and 902 Disease (13 groups of more than 10 samples and one miscellaneous group, a given tongue sample can be classified into one of these two classes with an average accuracy of 91.99%. Further testing showed that Disease samples can be split into three clusters, and within each cluster most if not all the illnesses are distinguished from one another. In total 11 illnesses have a classification rate greater than 70%. This demonstrates a relationship between the state of the human body and its tongue color.

  17. Somatosensory processing of the tongue in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwako Sakamoto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We review research on somatosensory (tactile processing of the tongue based on data obtained using non-invasive neurophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Technical difficulties in stimulating the tongue, due to the noise elicited by the stimulator, the fixation of the stimulator, and the vomiting reflex, have necessitated the development of specialized devices. In this article, we show the brain activity relating to somatosensory processing of the tongue evoked by such devices. More recently, the postero-lateral part of the tongue has been stimulated, and the brain response compared with that on stimulation of the antero-lateral part of the tongue. It is likely that a difference existed in somatosensory processing of the tongue, particularly around primary somatosensory cortex (SI, Brodmann area 40 (BA 40, and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC.

  18. Topographical organization of TRPV1-immunoreactive epithelium and CGRP-immunoreactive nerve terminals in rodent tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, M; Imura, K; Sato, I

    2012-05-10

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) is activated by capsaicin, acid, and heat and mediates pain through peripheral nerves. In the tongue, TRPV1 expression has been reported also in the epithelium. This indicates a possibility that sensation is first received by the epithelium. However, how nerves receive sensations from the epithelium remains unclear. To clarify the anatomical basis of this interaction, we performed immunohistochemical studies in the rodent tongue to detect TRPV1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neural marker. Strong expression of TRPV1 in the epithelium was observed and was restricted to the apex of the tongue. Double immunohistochemical staining revealed that CGRP-expressing nerve terminals were in close apposition to the strongly TRPV1-expressing epithelium of fungiform papilla in the apex of rodent tongues. These results suggest that the TRPV1-expressing epithelium monitors the oral environment and acquired information may then be conducted to the adjacent CGRP-expressing terminals.

  19. Beam monitor system for an x-ray free electron laser and compact laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Otake

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A beam-monitor system for XFEL/SPring 8, “SACLA,” has been constructed. In order to maintain a stable self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE interaction, the straightness and overlap of the axes to within 3  μm between the electron beams and the radiated x rays for an undulator section of about 100 m length is necessary. This straightness means relative alignment to an experimental target sample. Furthermore, a temporal stability of 30 fs in order to maintain a constant peak beam current is also necessary to conduct stable SASE lasing. The monitor system was developed to satisfy these spatial and temporal stability and resolution criteria. The system comprises spatial monitors, such as cavity-type beam-position monitors and screen monitors, as well as temporal measurement instruments, such as current monitors, waveguide spectrometers, coherent synchrotron-radiation detectors, a streak camera, and an rf deflector. Commissioning of SACLA started from March 2011, and the monitors performed sufficient roles to tune the beams for lasing. The achieved overall performances of the system, including data acquisition, are: the beam position monitor has a spatial resolution of 600 nm in rms; the bunch-length monitors show ability to observe bunch lengths from 1 ns in an injector with velocity bunching to less than 30 fs after three-stage bunch compressors. The less than 3  μm spatial resolution of the screen monitor was also confirmed during practical beam operation. Owing to these fulfilled performances, such as the high spatial and temporal resolutions, stable lasing of SACLA has been achieved.

  20. Giant Plexiform Schwannoma of the Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Nisa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 38-year-old woman that presented with a very slowly enlarging mass of the tongue. MRI revealed a large mass originating in the tongue base and extending to the supraglottic space. Biopsy of this tumor confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. An endaural approach allowed complete resection of the tumor. Definitive histopathological examination showed a plexiform schwannoma. Schwannoma or neurilemoma represents a benign tumor potentially affecting any nerve. The head and neck region is a relatively common location for schwannomas, but tongue schwannomas are considered to be rare and pose the problem of both clinical and histological differential diagnosis of tongue masses.

  1. Base of tongue schwannoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yu-Lan Mary; Zimmer, Lee A; Myers, Eugene N

    2006-07-01

    Both malignant and benign lesions may be found on the base of the tongue, including metastasis from other sites. Various surgical approaches to the base of tongue have been described. Here, we report a case of a 26-year-old woman with a schwannoma in the base of tongue removed through a suprahyoid pharyngotomy approach. The biology and pathology of schwannoma in the oral cavity are discussed. The advantage of the suprahyoid pharyngotomy approach for complete excision of a mass in the base of tongue is demonstrated.

  2. Giant plexiform schwannoma of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisa, Lluís; von Büren, Toni; Tiab, Amine; Giger, Roland

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a 38-year-old woman that presented with a very slowly enlarging mass of the tongue. MRI revealed a large mass originating in the tongue base and extending to the supraglottic space. Biopsy of this tumor confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. An endaural approach allowed complete resection of the tumor. Definitive histopathological examination showed a plexiform schwannoma. Schwannoma or neurilemoma represents a benign tumor potentially affecting any nerve. The head and neck region is a relatively common location for schwannomas, but tongue schwannomas are considered to be rare and pose the problem of both clinical and histological differential diagnosis of tongue masses.

  3. Effectiveness of mechanical tongue cleaning on breath odour and tongue coating: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.I. van der Sleen; D.E. Slot; E. van Trijffel; E.G. Winkel; G.A. van der Weijden

    2010-01-01

    Background:  The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence regarding the effects of mechanical tongue cleaning compared with no mechanical tongue cleaning on breath odour and tongue coating (TC). Methods:  PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane-CENTRAL were searched to identify p

  4. Effectiveness of mechanical tongue cleaning on breath odour and tongue coating : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Sleen, M. I.; Slot, D. E.; Van Trijffel, E.; Winkel, E. G.; Van der Weijden, G. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence regarding the effects of mechanical tongue cleaning compared with no mechanical tongue cleaning on breath odour and tongue coating (TC). Methods: PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane-CENTRAL were searched to identify pot

  5. Tongue Strength: Its Relationship to Tongue Thrusting, Open-Bite, and Articulatory Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, James P.; Culatta, Richard A.

    1980-01-01

    No significant differences in tongue strength were found between any of the three groups of 7- to 16-year old children: normal speaking with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, frontal lisping with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, and normal controls. (Author/DLS)

  6. Performance Studies of the Vibration Wire Monitor on the Test Stand with Low Energy Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Kota; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kinsho, Michikazu

    In the high intensity proton accelerator as the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) accelerators, serious radiation and residual dose is induced by a small beam loss such a beam halo. Therefore, diagnostics of the beam halo formation is one of the most important issues to control the beam loss. For the beam halo monitor, the vibration wire monitor (VWM) has a potential for investigating the beam halo and weak beam scanning. The VWM has a wide dynamic range, high resolution and the VWM is not susceptible to secondary electrons and electric noises. We have studied the VWM features as a new beam-halo monitor on the test stand with low energy electron gun. The frequency shift of the irradiated vibration wire was confirmed about wire material and the electron beam profile measured by using the VWM was consistent with the results of the Faraday cup measurement. Also we calculated a temperature distribution on the vibration wire which is irradiated by the electron beam with the numerical simulation. The simulations have been fairly successful in reproducing the transient of the irradiated vibration wire frequency measured by test stand experiments. In this paper, we will report a result of performance evaluation for the VWM on the test stands and discuss the VWM for beam halo diagnostic

  7. ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT TO MONITORIZE SOME BIOLOGICAL PROCESS OF ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE IN HONEYBEE COLONY AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SICEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The electronic hive is the result of the scientific researches carried out between2003-2006 by a research project funded by MEdC through the National ProgramRELANSIN, being accomplished by Institute for Beekeeping Research andDevelopment –Bucharest in cooperation with the Polytechnics University fromBucharest –The Center for Electronic Technology and Interconnection Techniquesand the Radio Consult CompanyTo achieve the great complexity of the electronic model adapted to the hive –the“smart” hive, it was necessary to establish the all electronic details which to makepossible to monitorize some very important information from the bee colony andits environment with the help of the honeybees and which to eliminate the errorsthat may occur in the information collection process.Thus, the project aimed to conceive the electronic system in order to collectinformation from inside the hive and from environment too, to storage andtransmit it to a data basis by GSM network in order to be analyzed and processedby users.By this complex electronic system, composed by electronic equipment and thehoney bee colony, which is dynamic and strong related with natural evolution ofvegetation correlated with the climate factors, is possible to identify instantaneousor periodically a large palette of aggression factors as well naturals (acids rains,extreme temperatures, calamities as anthropic factors –accidental chemical orbiologic pollution. The obtained data, electronically quantified and taken out intothe data basis, could offer accurate information about the moisturized areas atdifferent time intervals.

  8. Frog tongue acts as muscle-powered adhesive tape

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-01-01

    Frogs are well known to capture fast-moving prey by flicking their sticky tongues out of the mouth. This tongue projection behaviour happens extremely fast which makes frog tongues a biological high-speed adhesive system. The processes at the interface between tongue and prey, and thus the mechanism of adhesion, however, are completely unknown. Here, we captured the contact mechanics of frog tongues by filming tongue adhesion at 2000 frames per second through an illuminated glass. We found th...

  9. Improvements in electron beam monitoring and heat flux flatness at the JUDITH 2-facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Thomas, E-mail: weber.th@gmx.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Jülich (Germany); Bürger, Andreas; Dominiczak, Karsten; Pintsuk, Gerald [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Jülich (Germany); Banetta, Stefano; Bellin, Boris [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla, 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Mitteau, Raphael; Eaton, Russell [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Monitoring of the much faster electron beam motion by IR camera through a synchronized frame triggering. • Estimation of the heat flux generated by electron beam guns based on calorimetry and FEM simulations. • Consideration of the inclined electron beam loading of rectangular-shaped objects. - Abstract: Three beryllium-armoured small-scale mock-ups and one semi-prototype for the ITER first wall were tested by the electron beam facility JUDITH 2 at Forschungszentrum Jülich. Both testing campaigns with cyclic loads up to 2.5 MW/m{sup 2} are carried out in compliance with the extensive quality and management specifications of ITER Organization (IO) and Fusion for Energy (F4E). Several dedicated calibration experiments were performed before the actual testing in order to fulfil the testing requirements and tolerances. These quality requests have been the motivation for several experimental setup improvements. The most relevant results of these activities, being the electron beam monitoring and the heat flux flatness verification, will be presented.

  10. Reducing Clinical Trial Monitoring Resource Allocation and Costs Through Remote Access to Electronic Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Shannon C.; Kirkman, Mitchell B.; Dalton, Brad S.; Zalcberg, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. Methods: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. Results: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. Conclusion: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials. PMID:23633977

  11. The impact of an electronic monitoring and reminder device on patient compliance with antihypertensive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Arne; Christrup, Lona Louring; Fabricius, Paul Erik;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (BP) significantly increases overall cardiovascular risk, the incidence of ischemic heart disease and stroke. One of the most important causes of insufficient BP control is low treatment compliance. Reminders and electronic compliance monitoring have been shown...... to be effective in improving patient compliance to some extent, but the combined effect has not been documented. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of an electronic reminder and monitoring device on patient compliance and BP control. METHODS: All patients received medical treatment with telmisartan once daily...... group 1, and between 32 and 38% in study group 2. CONCLUSION: The Helping Hand reminder device was most suitable if used for newly diagnosed hypertensive patients, when it improved compliance by 6%. With the present medical treatment, the device does not have any influence on BP control, but with less...

  12. A wearable “electronic patch” for wireless continuous monitoring of chronically diseased patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Rasmus Grønbek; Duun, Sune; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2008-01-01

    We present a wearable health system (WHS) for non-invasive and wireless monitoring of physiological signals. The system is made as an electronic patch where sensors, low power electronics, and radio communication are integrated in an adhesive material of hydrocolloid polymer making it a sticking...... patch. The patch is made with a reusable part and a disposable part which contains the adhesive material and the battery. This part is changed once every week. The patch has a size of 88 mm by 60 mm and a thickness of 5 mm. It is made for attachment on truncus or the greater muscle groups. The patch...... is demonstrated in two applications: Monitoring of electromyography (EMG) and arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2). The pulse oximetry sensor is made of a concentric backside Silicon photodiode with a hole in the middle for the two light sources. This makes it suitable for reflectance pulse...

  13. Optically monitoring voltage in neurons by photo-induced electron transfer through molecular wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Evan W; Lin, John Y; Frady, E Paxon; Steinbach, Paul A; Kristan, William B; Tsien, Roger Y

    2012-02-07

    Fluorescence imaging is an attractive method for monitoring neuronal activity. A key challenge for optically monitoring voltage is development of sensors that can give large and fast responses to changes in transmembrane potential. We now present fluorescent sensors that detect voltage changes in neurons by modulation of photo-induced electron transfer (PeT) from an electron donor through a synthetic molecular wire to a fluorophore. These dyes give bigger responses to voltage than electrochromic dyes, yet have much faster kinetics and much less added capacitance than existing sensors based on hydrophobic anions or voltage-sensitive ion channels. These features enable single-trial detection of synaptic and action potentials in cultured hippocampal neurons and intact leech ganglia. Voltage-dependent PeT should be amenable to much further optimization, but the existing probes are already valuable indicators of neuronal activity.

  14. Monitoring the tracking performance of the ATLAS trigger for electrons in Z->ee decays

    CERN Document Server

    Langford, Jonathon

    2016-01-01

    This project was carried out to develop an algorithm which monitors the performance of the tracking system in the ATLAS trigger. The algorithm uses tag and probe methods to measure the efficiency of the tracking for electrons by looking at Z → ee candidates. Once this method is validated, the ultimate goal is to implement the algorithm into the High-Level-Trigger (HLT) of ATLAS whilst online. The advantage of this technique over traditional offline monitoring is continuous feedback during data taking and higher available statistics. In this report the results of an offline analysis are presented, showing electron tracking efficiencies between 96% and 99% across almost all regions of the inner detector (run 306278).

  15. Tongue's substance and coating recognition analysis using HSV color threshold in tongue diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Nur Diyana; Ooi, Chia Yee; Kawanabe, Tadaaki; Mi, Xiaoyu

    2016-07-01

    In ISO TC249 conference, tongue diagnosis has been one of the most active research and their objectifications has become significant with the help of numerous statistical and machine learning algorithm. Color information of substance or tongue body has kept valuable information regarding the state of disease and its correlation with the internal organs. In order to produce high reproducibility of color measurement analysis, tongue images have to undergo several procedures such as color correction, segmentation and tongue's substance-coating separation. This paper presents a novel method to recognize substance and coating from tongue images and eliminate the tongue coating for accurate substance color measurement for diagnosis. By utilizing Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV) color space, new color-brightness threshold parameters have been devised to improve the efficiency of tongue's substance and coating separation procedures and eliminate shadows. The algorithm offers fast processing time around 0.98 seconds for 60,000 pixels tongue image. The successful tongue's substance and coating separation rate reported is 90% compared to the labelled data verified by the practitioners. Using 300 tongue images, the substance Lab color measurement with small standard deviation had revealed the effectiveness of this proposed method in computerized tongue diagnosis system.

  16. The Electronic Monitoring Paradigm: A Proposal for Transforming Criminal Justice in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart S. Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a change in public policy that promises to greatly reduce major crime in the United States, protect society, eliminate prison overcrowding, and save taxpayer dollars. This policy would employ electronic monitoring (EM technology in a way that discourages individuals who might otherwise be tempted to commit crimes. The approach is arguably more effective, efficient, humane and ethical than any alternative strategy and potentially could revolutionize law enforcement and the American criminal justice system.

  17. Tongue force in patients with myasthenia gravis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijnen, FG; Kuks, JBM; van der Glas, HW; Wassenberg, MWM; Bosman, F

    2000-01-01

    Objectives - The aim was to study tongue force in patients with bulbar myasthenia gravis and compare it with that of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis, patients in clinical remission who previously suffered from bulbar myasthenia gravis, and healthy subjects. Material and methods - Tongue force

  18. Looking Mother Tongue Instruction through Different Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2008-01-01

    Mother Tongue Instruction has been a debatable issue since long. There may be two options in the medium of instruction: either to teach especially primary and preprimary schoolchildren in their own mother tongue or continue using second or foreign language as the medium of instruction. Both of the approaches bear some pros and cons. This article…

  19. A Brief Analysis on Slips of Tongue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆瑜

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of slips of tongue is very common in our daily life.And it is closely related to some psychological reasons.This paper aims to introduce the research about this phenomenon, to present the types of slips of tongue and some analysis on it.

  20. Tongue as the Window to the Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung O. Cheng

    2011-01-01

    To the Editor: I read with great interest your masterful article on study of the tongue in patients with coronary heart disease.Tongue is,indeed,the window to the heart.Many cardiovascular diseases including coronary heart disease can be accurately diagnosed by the Chinese traditional physicians by careful inspection of the tongue(Figure 1).

  1. Mu rhythm desynchronization by tongue thrust observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakihara, Kotoe; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the mu rhythm in the sensorimotor area during tongue thrust observation and to obtain an answer to the question as to how subtle non-verbal orofacial movement observation activates the sensorimotor area. Ten healthy volunteers performed finger tap execution, tongue thrust execution, and tongue thrust observation. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 128 electrodes placed on the scalp, and regions of interest were set at sensorimotor areas. The event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) for the mu rhythm (8-13 Hz) and beta (13-25 Hz) bands were measured. Tongue thrust observation induced mu rhythm ERD, and the ERD was detected at the left hemisphere regardless whether the observed tongue thrust was toward the left or right. Mu rhythm ERD was also recorded during tongue thrust execution. However, temporal analysis revealed that the ERD associated with tongue thrust observation preceded that associated with execution by approximately 2 s. Tongue thrust observation induces mu rhythm ERD in sensorimotor cortex with left hemispheric dominance.

  2. Electronic performance monitoring and social context: impact on productivity and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, J R; Kolb, K J

    1995-06-01

    In a laboratory study, the presence of individual- or work-group-level electronic performance monitoring (EPM) was manipulated as participants worked on a data-entry task alone, as a member of a noninteracting aggregate, or as a member of a cohesive group. The pattern of results suggested the operation of a social facilitation effect, as highly skilled monitored participants keyed more entries than highly skilled nonmonitored participants. The opposite pattern was detected among low-skilled participants. No signs of social loafing were detected among group-monitored participants. Nonmonitored workers and members of cohesive groups felt the least stressed. The implications of these findings for organizations adopting EPM systems are discussed.

  3. Non-invasive monitoring and control in silicon photonics by CMOS integrated electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Grillanda, Stefano; Morichetti, Francesco; Ciccarella, Pietro; Annoni, Andrea; Ferrari, Giorgio; Strain, Michael; Sorel, Marc; Sampietro, Marco; Melloni, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    As photonics breaks away from today's device level toward large scale of integration and complex systems-on-a-chip, concepts like monitoring, control and stabilization of photonic integrated circuits emerge as new paradigms. Here, we show non-invasive monitoring and feedback control of high quality factor silicon photonics resonators assisted by a transparent light detector directly integrated inside the cavity. Control operations are entirely managed by a CMOS microelectronic circuit, hosting many parallel electronic read-out channels, that is bridged to the silicon photonics chip. Advanced functionalities, such as wavelength tuning, locking, labeling and swapping are demonstrated. The non-invasive nature of the transparent monitor and the scalability of the CMOS read-out system offer a viable solution for the control of arbitrarily reconfigurable photonic integrated circuits aggregating many components on a single chip.

  4. Monitoring physicians' prescription patterns on electronic health record: the prescription pattern around clinical event (PACE) algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dukyong; Park, Inwhee; Park, Man Young; Hong, Seung Kwon; Park, Rae Woong

    2013-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) have gained attention as a valuable data source for medical research, as its adoption rate continues to rise. However, no method for the monitoring of physicians' prescription patterns has been established. Since EHR maintain all prescription data as well as clinical events that occur during the care of patients, we hypothesized that a physician's prescription pattern can be monitored from EHR. In this study, we developed a novel algorithm named PACE, Prescription pattern Around Clinical Event. This algorithm analyzes distribution of the prescription of specific drugs around the time of a clinical event. In the proof of concept study, prescription changes with regard to hyperkalemia were well represented by the algorithm, and the observed patterns well correlated with the physician's knowledge on hyperkalemia (Cohen's kappa, 0.457-0.653). We expect that this algorithm can be used to monitor the guideline adherence of physicians.

  5. A Fast Non Intercepting Linac Electron Beam Position and Current Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen-Walther; Wille, Mads

    1982-01-01

    A non-intercepting beam monitor consisting of four detecting loops is used to determine the spatial postion and current of a pulsed beam from an electron linear accelerator. The monitor detects the magnetic field radiated by the substructure of the electron bunches created by the accelerating...... microwave. The detecting loops are interconnected two by two, by means of two coaxial hybrid junctions, the two sets positioned perpendicular to each other. By means of the two signals from the diametrically positioned detecting loops, a good spatial displacement and current monitoring sensitivity...... are achieved by subtracting one signal from the other and adding the two signals, respectively. For displacements below 2 mm from the center axis an average sensitivity of 0.5 mV/mm·mA is measured, whereas displacements more than 2 mm yields 1.3 mV / mm·mA. A sensitivity of 0.2 mV / mA in current monitoring...

  6. Cortico-muscular synchronization by proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles during isometric tongue protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maezawa, Hitoshi; Mima, Tatsuya; Yazawa, Shogo; Matsuhashi, Masao; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Funahashi, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Tongue movements contribute to oral functions including swallowing, vocalizing, and breathing. Fine tongue movements are regulated through efferent and afferent connections between the cortex and tongue. It has been demonstrated that cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) is reflected at two frequency bands during isometric tongue protrusions: the beta (β) band at 15-35Hz and the low-frequency band at 2-10Hz. The CMC at the β band (β-CMC) reflects motor commands from the primary motor cortex (M1) to the tongue muscles through hypoglossal motoneuron pools. However, the generator mechanism of the CMC at the low-frequency band (low-CMC) remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of low-CMC during isometric tongue protrusion using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) were also recorded following electrical tongue stimulation. Significant low-CMC and β-CMC were observed over both hemispheres for each side of the tongue. Time-domain analysis showed that the MEG signal followed the electromyography signal for low-CMC, which was contrary to the finding that the MEG signal preceded the electromyography signal for β-CMC. The mean conduction time from the tongue to the cortex was not significantly different between the low-CMC (mean, 80.9ms) and SEFs (mean, 71.1ms). The cortical sources of low-CMC were located significantly posterior (mean, 10.1mm) to the sources of β-CMC in M1, but were in the same area as tongue SEFs in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). These results reveal that the low-CMC may be driven by proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles to S1, and that the oscillatory interaction was derived from each side of the tongue to both hemispheres. Oscillatory proprioceptive feedback from the tongue muscles may aid in the coordination of sophisticated tongue movements in humans.

  7. Paleoecology of the Niland Tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, E.I.

    1987-01-01

    The swamp or paludal ecosystem is preserved in coals and carbonaceous shales. Remains of organisms of the swamp communities consist of bacteria and fungi; algae; invertebrates such as pelecypods, gastropods, ostracodes, and insects; vertebrates such as a hard-shelled turtle and crocodiles; and vascular plant remains. Aquatic communities are found in dark shale and are represented by the remains of bacteria and fungi; algae; invertebrates such as pelecypods, gastropods, and insects; and vertebrates such as crocodiles, fish, and a soft-shelled turtle. No vascular macrophytes (rooted aquatic vegetation) could be identified in the pollen and spore assemblage. Charophytes are abundant and show that colonies of the aquatic alga lived on the lake bottoms. The great variety of organisms suggests that the environment had a high input of nutrients. The phosphate-rich Phosphoria Formation, which could serve as a good source of nutrients, cropped out in the watershed of the Niland Tongue basin. The ostracode-crocodile association, calcareous charophytes, and good preservation of plant tissues and palynomorphs put limits on the alkaline geochemical environment in which the lacustrine rocks were deposited. The palynomorphs in the Niland Tongue rocks are dark yellow and light brown in color. These colors suggest that rocks containing them have been buried deeper in the past than they are today.

  8. The source of monoenergetic electrons for the monitoring of spectrometer in the KATRIN neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Slezák, Martin

    The international project KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment) is a next-generation tritium $\\beta$-decay experiment. It is designed to measure the electron anti-neutrino mass by means of a unique electron spectrometer with sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c$^2$. This is an improvement of one order of magnitude over the last results. Important part of the measurement will rest in continuous precise monitoring of high voltage of the KATRIN main spectrometer. The monitoring will be done by means of conversion electrons emitted from a solid source based on $^{83}$Rb decay. Properties of several of these sources are studied in this thesis by means of the semiconductor $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy. Firstly, measurement of precise energy of the 9.4 keV nuclear transition observed in $^{83}$Rb decay, from which the energy of conversion electrons is derived, is reported. Secondly, measurement of activity distribution of the solid sources by means of the Timepix detector is described. Finally, a report on measurement of r...

  9. Effects of passive computer use time and non-computer work time on the performance of electronic activity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Chen, Yen-Ting; Yeh, Jao-Yu; Liang, Huey-Wen

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of passive and non-computer work time on the estimation of computer use times by electronic activity monitoring. A total of 20 subjects with computers were monitored for 3 h. Average relative error for total computer use time estimation was about 4%, given that non-computer work time was 20% of the 3-h monitored period. No significant impact of passive computer use time was found in this study. Non-computer work time of 40% or less is suggested as criteria for the application of electronic activity monitoring to ensure reliability in the physical work loading assessment. Statement of Relevance: This research studied the criteria of non-computer work time for the appropriate use of electronic activity monitoring to ensure reliability in the assessment of physical work loading. It is suggested that it should be set to 40% or less of the 3-h monitoring period.

  10. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, free-standing electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on-demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function. PMID:26974408

  11. Calibration of a Non-Linear Beam Position Monitor Electronics by Switching Electrode Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Gasior, M

    2013-01-01

    Button electrode signals from beam position monitors embedded into new LHC collimators will be individually processed with front-end electronics based on compensated diode detectors and digitized with 24-bit audio-range ADCs. This scheme allows sub-micrometre beam orbit resolution to be achieved with simple hardware and no external timing. As the diode detectors only operate in a linear regime with large amplitude signals, offset errors of the electronics cannot be calibrated in the classical way with no input. This paper describes the algorithms developed to calibrate the offset and gain asymmetry of these nonlinear electronic channels. Presented algorithm application examples are based on measurements performed with prototype diode orbit systems installed on the CERN SPS and LHC machines.

  12. Rugged and breathable forms of stretchable electronics with adherent composite substrates for transcutaneous monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyung-In; Han, Sang Youn; Xu, Sheng; Mathewson, Kyle E; Zhang, Yihui; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Kim, Gwang-Tae; Webb, R Chad; Lee, Jung Woo; Dawidczyk, Thomas J; Kim, Rak Hwan; Song, Young Min; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Kim, Stanley; Cheng, Huanyu; Rhee, Sang Il; Chung, Jeahoon; Kim, Byunggik; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dongjun; Yang, Yiyuan; Cho, Moongee; Gaspar, John G; Carbonari, Ronald; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-09-03

    Research in stretchable electronics involves fundamental scientific topics relevant to applications with importance in human healthcare. Despite significant progress in active components, routes to mechanically robust construction are lacking. Here, we introduce materials and composite designs for thin, breathable, soft electronics that can adhere strongly to the skin, with the ability to be applied and removed hundreds of times without damaging the devices or the skin, even in regions with substantial topography and coverage of hair. The approach combines thin, ultralow modulus, cellular silicone materials with elastic, strain-limiting fabrics, to yield a compliant but rugged platform for stretchable electronics. Theoretical and experimental studies highlight the mechanics of adhesion and elastic deformation. Demonstrations include cutaneous optical, electrical and radio frequency sensors for measuring hydration state, electrophysiological activity, pulse and cerebral oximetry. Multipoint monitoring of a subject in an advanced driving simulator provides a practical example.

  13. Comparative study on the tongue of Bufo regularis and Chalcides ocellatus in relation to their habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H. Elsheikh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the structure of the tongue of the toad, Bufo regularis and the lizard, Chalcides ocellatus. They have different feeding habits and live in different habitats. The tongue of the toad contains two types of lingual papillae; fungiform papillae and filiform papillae. The fungiform papillae are usually scattered among the filiform papillae and are believed to function in gustation and in the secretion of salivary fluid. Scanning electron microscopical studies revealed that no ciliated cells were observed on the surface of the filiform papillae or in the surrounding area of the sensory disc. In C. ocellatus the tip of the tongue is bifurcated and keratinized. The dorsal surface of the tongue is covered with several types of papillae; irregular, scale and ridge-shaped. Taste buds were present in the epithelium of the tongue. The lingual glands consist of mucous cells that form crypt-like invaginations between papillae. The present study revealed that there is a marked correlation between the structure of the tongue of both B. regularis and C. ocellatus and habitats and feeding mechanism of the two species.

  14. Speech and swallowing following tongue cancer surgery and free flap reconstruction--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lisetta; Samman, Nabil

    2013-06-01

    This was a systematic review of the current research on speech and swallowing outcomes and the factors affecting these outcomes after primary resection of tongue cancer and free flap reconstruction. A structured search in various electronic databases and relevant journals was performed. Retrieved articles were critically appraised in three rounds according to the level of evidence, the methodological quality, and the specific domain of speech and swallowing. A total of 21 articles were in the final review and the findings were categorized according to the area of tongue resection. For patients with resection and free flap reconstruction limited to either the oral tongue or the base of tongue (BOT), significant decline in speech and swallowing function was evident in the early postoperative phase, but the majority recovered close to preoperative level after 1 year. Poorer speech and swallowing outcomes were found following resections involving both oral and base of tongue (OBOT) regardless of the type of free flap reconstruction. Results overall were influenced by multiple factors including tumor size, area of resection, method of reconstruction and the use of adjuvant therapy. The use of free flaps in the immediate reconstruction of the tongue after tumor resection should aim at the maintenance of the mobility of the residual tongue and restoration of tongue bulk in order to optimize the recovery of speech and swallowing function. Future research in this field should employ standardized and reliable evaluation of speech and swallowing outcomes using multiple modalities in well-designed cohort studies with longer follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Actual versus prescribed timing of lovastatin doses assessed by electronic compliance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, W; Nikolaus, T; Rampmaier, J; Weber, E; Schlierf, G

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare compliance with and the hypocholesterolaemic effect of lovastatin given once daily as a morning or an evening dose. Twenty-four out-patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia were randomly assigned to receive placebo first, then lovastatin 20 mg, to be taken once daily for 4 weeks, either with the breakfast or evening meal, in a single-blind fashion. Drug compliance was assessed by pill counts and continuous electronic monitoring. Two compliance parameters were evaluated, consumption, defined as percentage of prescribed doses taken, and time compliance, the percentage of total dosing events recorded within defined intervals (6.00-10.00 h, and 17.00-21.00 h), for the morning and evening regimes. Both regimes satisfactorily reduced the total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, and there was no significant difference in the extent of the reductions. Pill counts overestimated compliance, as revealed by the monitoring method. The times of actual consumption of doses by the patients often differed from that prescribed, predominantly in patients who were told to take the evening dose. Partial time compliance may have confounded the efficacy of the drugs. Electronic compliance monitoring appears to be particularly useful in chronopharmacological studies.

  16. Analysing tutor feedback to students: first steps towards constructing an electronic monitoring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Whitelock

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Learning Environments provide the possibility of offering additional support to tutors, monitors and students in writing and grading essays and reports. They enable monitors to focus on the assignments that need most attention. This paper reports the findings from phase one of a feasibility study to assist the monitoring of student essays. It analyses tutor comments from electronically marked assignments and investigates how they match the mark awarded to each essay by the tutor. This involved carrying out a category analysis of the tutors' feedback to the students using Bales's 'interactional categories' as a theoretical basis. The advantage of this category system is that it distinguishes between task-orientated contributions, and the 'socio-emotive' element used by tutors to maintain student motivation. This reveals both how the tutor makes recommendations to improve the assignment content, and how they provide emotional support to students. Bales's analysis was presented to a group of tutors who felt an electronic feedback system based on this model would help them to get the right balance of responses to their students. These findings provide a modest start to designing a model of feedback for tutors of distance education students. Future work will entail refining these categories and testing this model with a larger sample from a different subject domain.

  17. CLINICAL PATHOLOGICAL FEATURE OF EARLY TONGUE AMYLOIDOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical pathological feature and diagnostic criteria of tongue amyloidosis (AL).Methods During 1992 to 2005, 25 patients pathologically diagnosed as tongue AL in our hospital were reviewed retrospectively, and all of them had no enlarged tongue. Haematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect the amyloid deposition on the tongue.Results Totally 84 % (21/25) patients had symptoms of xerostomia and taste-blindness, 44 % (11/25) patients complained of activity limitation of tongue. Macroscopic observation showed mucosa pallescence, punctuate hemorrhage, red grain particles, and ulcers on the tongue. HE staining indicated amyloid depositions in basement membrane,muscle cell, vessel wall, and nerve fiber. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated kappa light-chain deposition in 64%(16/25) cases, and lambda light-chain deposition in 36 % (9/25) cases. They presented in vessel wall, nerve fiber, and muscle cells.Conclusion The biopsy is an important means for the diagnosis of early tongue AL, and the wide variety of amyloid light chain is helpful to differential diagnosis.

  18. Surgical approaches for tongue base schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Binbin; Zhu, Songsong; Qiao, Yang; Ye, Weimin; Maimaiti, Abdikerimjian; Hu, Jingzhou; Zhang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Schwannomas (neurilemmomas) are benign nerve sheath tumor originating from Schwann cells. They are well circumscribed and rarely infiltrate and metastasize. Schwannomas of the head and neck commonly occur in the tongue followed by the palate, floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, and mandible. Tongue base schwannomas could extend to the pharyngeal cavity or the floor of the mouse, and it is difficult to differentiate between tumors of the lingual, hypoglossal, and glossopharyngeal nerves.Surgical treatment of tongue base schwannomas is difficult because of limited operative exposure. Although mandibulotomy with lip splitting could obtain good exposure, surgeons might strike a balance between exposure obtaining and morbidity following because there are intricate neurovascular anatomical relationships in this region, and mandibulotomy with lip splitting would cause significant morbidity. Surgical approach options are important for tongue base schwannoma removal. From March 2008 to March 2010, 8 patients were clinically and pathologically diagnosed with tongue base schwannomas in our department, and all underwent surgical treatment. In our experience, transoral approach was used for tongue base schwannomas extending to the floor of the mouse and suprahyroid pharyngotomy approach for those extending to the pharyngeal cavity. Follow-up was made until now. One patient who experienced transoral excision still experienced numbness in the region of the lateral tongue tip, and the other 7 patients had no postoperative long-term complications.

  19. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2016-09-21

    Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy), it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable.

  20. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Eusebio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy, it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable.

  1. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2016-01-01

    Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy), it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable. PMID:27657086

  2. AN INTERNET RACK MONITOR-CONTROLLER FOR APS LINAC RF ELECTRONICS UPGRADE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hengjie; Smith, Terry; Nassiri, Alireza; Sun, Yine; Doolittle, Lawrence; Ratti, Alex

    2016-06-01

    To support the research and development in APS LINAC area, the existing LINAC rf control performance needs to be much improved, and thus an upgrade of the legacy LINAC rf electronics becomes necessary. The proposed upgrade plan centers on the concept of using a modern, network-attached, rackmount digital electronics platform –Internet Rack Monitor-Controller (or IRMC) to achieve the goal of modernizing the rf electronics at a lower cost. The system model of the envisioned IRMC is basically a 3-tier stack with a high-performance DSP in the mid-layer to perform the core tasks of real-time rf data processing and controls. The Digital Front-End (DFE) attachment layer at bottom bridges the applicationspecific rf front-ends to the DSP. A network communication gateway, together with an embedded event receiver (EVR) in the top layer merges the Internet Rack MonitorController node into the networks of the accelerator controls infrastructure. Although the concept is very much in trend with today’s Internet-of-Things (IoT), this implementation has actually been used in the accelerators for over two decades.

  3. A configurable electronics system for the ESS-Bilbao beam position monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguira, L.; Belver, D.; Etxebarria, V.; Varnasseri, S.; Arredondo, I.; del Campo, M.; Echevarria, P.; Garmendia, N.; Feuchtwanger, J.; Jugo, J.; Portilla, J.

    2013-09-01

    A versatile and configurable system has been developed in order to monitorize the beam position and to meet all the requirements of the future ESS-Bilbao Linac. At the same time the design has been conceived to be open and configurable so that it could eventually be used in different kinds of accelerators, independent of the charged particle, with minimal change. The design of the Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) system includes a test bench both for button-type pick-ups (PU) and striplines (SL), the electronic units and the control system. The electronic units consist of two main parts. The first part is an Analog Front-End (AFE) unit where the RF signals are filtered, conditioned and converted to base-band. The second part is a Digital Front-End (DFE) unit which is based on an FPGA board where the base-band signals are sampled in order to calculate the beam position, the amplitude and the phase. To manage the system a Multipurpose Controller (MC) developed at ESSB has been used. It includes the FPGA management, the EPICS integration and Archiver Instances. A description of the system and a comparison between the performance of both PU and SL BPM designs measured with this electronics system are fully described and discussed.

  4. The tongue, mandible, hyoid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Messina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The craniocervical-mandibular system works in harmony and allows different functional tasks as the postural control of the cervical region. This system is formed by the temporomandibular joint, the masticatory muscles and ligaments connecting the temporomandibular joint and the cervical region. It has been seen to affect human posture, and many disorders of the temporomandibular joints may affect this functional arrangement. Notwithstanding this system considered as a functional arrangement, may offer various clinical explanations, it does not hold anatomical connections with the posterior region of the cranium, thus it should not be refered to as a craniocervical arrangement. For this reason a new interpretation of such system as the tongue, mandible, hyoid system should be considered. Such functional reinterpretation between these three anatomical structures allows further comprehension of specific clinical conditions connected to deglutition aspects or the temporomandibular joint, for such needs to be taken into account during clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Monitoring of electron bunch length by using Terahertz coherent transition radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaolu; Yan, Lixin; Du, Yingchao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Dong; Zheng, Lianmin; Tian, Qili; Huang, Wenhui; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, ultrashort bunch length monitoring was demonstrated based on Terahertz (THz) coherent transition radiation (CTR) in Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray (TTX) source. The radiation produced by electron bunch is split into three paths: one of them is used to detect the total energy, while the other two paths are filtered with different THz band-pass filters before detection. The bunch length variation can be obtained by calculating the ratio between the filtered energy and the total energy. The bunch is compressed by a chicane and via changing the current of chicane, the ratio of filtered energy and total energy changed correspondingly. It is a simple supplemental approach to monitor the bunch length during beam conditioning and facility operation. Bunch arrival-time jitter and nonlinear effects in chicane are observed in the experiment during the measurement of filtered energy and total energy.

  6. Clinical outcomes of the inclusion of the therapeutic drug monitoring report in the electronic clinical record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sáez Belló

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the inclusion of the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Report (TDMR in the Electronic Clinical Record (ECR. Method: An observational ambispective cohort study with a duration of 149 days: PRE (retrospective, 49 days with the TDMR printed in paper, and POST (prospective, 100 days with the TDMR included in the ECR. Exclusion criteria: Patients not hospitalized, applications for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring by Critical Care and Neonatal Units, as well as monitoring with an objective other than dose adjustment. Variables: Number of TDMRs prepared, number of patients admitted with TDMR, time of delay for treatment adjustment, defined as the number of adjustments made to the treatment within over or under 24 hours from the time of TDMR preparation, and medication errors (MEs associated with said delay, as well as the degree of acceptance of the TDMR. Results: 690 TDMRs were conducted in 391 patients, 339 in PRE (n = 206 and 351 in POST (n = 185. The number of treatment modifications made in under 24 hours increased from 73.9% in PRE to 87.3% in POST [RR = 1.2 (CI95% = 0.97-1.43. We identified 35 patients with ME, 9.7% of them in PRE and 8.1% in POST (RR = 0.84 (CI95% = 0.44-1.58]. The degree of acceptance of the pharmacist recommendation increased from 53.3% in PRE to 68.3% in POST [RR = 1.3 (CI95% = 1.02- 1.62]. Conclusions: The inclusion of the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Report (TDMR in the Electronic Clinical Record increases the degree of acceptance of recommendations, and may reduce the delay in treatment modifications, reducing MEs and improving the process quality in terms of efficacy and safety

  7. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Helder Onno K; van Goudoever Johannes B; Hop Wim C J; Brug Johannes; Kornelisse René F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of its usage. The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers with a built-in electronic counter in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting and to d...

  8. A wide dynamics neutron monitor with BF3 and logarithmic amplifier based front-end electronics

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a wide dynamics neutron monitor based on BF3 neutron detector is described. The detector is used in current mode, and a front-end electronics based on a logarithmic amplifier is used in order to have a measurement capability ranging over many decades. The system has been calibrated at Polytechnic of Milan, CESNEF, with an AmBe neutron source, and has been tested in a pulsed field at the PUNITA facility at JRC, Ispra. The detector has achieved a dynamics ranging ov...

  9. Remote electronic monitoring and the landing obligation – some insights into fishers’ and fishery inspectors’ opinions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber Plet-Hansen, Kristian; Qvist Eliasen, Søren; Mortensen, Lars O.;

    2017-01-01

    The European fisheries management is currently undergoing a fundamental change in the handling of catches of commercial fisheries with the implementation of the 2013 Common Fisheries Policy. One of the main objectives of the policy is to end the practice of discarding in the EU by 2019. However......, for such changes to be successful, it is vital to ensure stakeholders acceptance, and it is prudent to consider possible means to verify compliance with the new regulation. Remote Electronic Monitoring (REM) with Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) has been tested in a variety of fisheries worldwide for different...

  10. Tool Monitoring and Electronic Event Logging for Sheet Metal Forming Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Heiserich

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes some innovative solutions regarding sensor systems for tool monitoring in the sheet metal industry. Autonomous and tamper-proof sensors, which are integrated in the forming tools, can detect and count the strokes carried out by a sheet metal forming press. Furthermore, an electronic event logger for documentary purposes and quality control was developed. Based on this technical solution, new business models such as leasing of sheet metal forming tools can be established for cooperation among enterprises. These models allow usage-based billing for the contractors, taking the effectively produced number of parts into account.

  11. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L.; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-01

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4 kPa-1, a fast response time of 15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  12. Pickup design for high bandwidth bunch arrival-time monitors in free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelovski, Aleksandar; Penirschke, Andreas; Jakoby, Rolf [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Mikrowellentechnik und Photonik; Kuhl, Alexander; Schnepp, Sascha [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Graduate School of Computational Engineering; Bock, Marie Kristin; Bousonville, Michael; Schlarb, Holger [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder

    2012-07-01

    The increased demands for low bunch charge operation mode in the free-electron lasers (FELs) require an upgrade of the existing synchronization equipment. As a part of the laser-based synchronization system, the bunch arrival-time monitors (BAMs) should have a sub-10 femtosecond precision for high and low bunch charge operation. In order to fulfill the resolution demands for both modes of operation, the bandwidth of such a BAM should be increased up to a cutoff frequency of 40 GHz. In this talk, we present the design and the realization of high bandwidth cone-shaped pickup electrodes as a part of the BAM for the FEL in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL). The proposed pickup was simulated with CST STUDIO SUITE, and a non-hermetic model was built up for radio frequency (rf) measurements.

  13. Personalized Remote Monitoring of the Atrial Fibrillation Patients with Electronic Implant Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce B. Laleci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIED are gaining popularity in treating patients with heart disease. Remote monitoring through care management systems enables continuous surveillance of such patients by checking device functions and clinical events. These care management systems include decision support capabilities based on clinical guidelines. Data input to such systems are from different information sources including medical devices and Electronic Health Records (EHRs. Although evidence-based clinical guidelines provides numerous benefits such as standardized care, reduced costs, efficient and effective care management, they are currently underutilized in clinical practice due to interoperability problems among different healthcare data sources. In this paper, we introduce the iCARDEA care management system for atrial fibrillation patients with implant devices and describe how the iCARDEA care plan engine executes the clinical guidelines by seamlessly accessing the EHR systems and the CIED data through standard interfaces.

  14. Integration of Networks of Sensors and Electronics for Structural Health Monitoring of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Ghezzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-cost, widespread availability and robust nature of current electronic devices suggest the feasibility of creating a composite structure with integrated networked sensors to monitor in real time the life of civil and aerospace structures while in service conditions. For structures that need to survive to high number of life cycles under varying load-environmental conditions, it is of crucial importance that the strength, stiffness, endurance, and general load-bearing capabilities of the composite not to be severely degraded by the integrated networked components. Therefore, design tools must be developed to achieve optimized, safe, and reliable structures. High values of stress concentrations due to the presence of a rigid device within a highly anisotropic material can trigger the initiation of microcracks in the resin matrix. To quantify these effects, the acoustic emission technique is used to characterize the initiation of microfailures within laminated composites with integrated electronics.

  15. Tongue diagnosis:relationship between sublingual tongue morphology in three tongue protrusion angles and menstrual clinical symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tim Hideaki Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The morphological and color characteristics of the tongue sublingual veins (SLVs) can manifest differently within the subjects, depending on the way their tongue is curled upward. This study was conducted in order to investigate the clinical relevancy of tongue SLV diagnosis in relation to menstrual clinical symptoms (pain, clots, heavy, and scanty), using three different inspection procedures (IP1, IP2, and IP3). METHODS: Three-hundred and seventy-seven female patients were asked to stick out their tongues in three speciifc ways which were intended to create different tongue protrusion angles. The SLV parameters for thickness (TK), length (LE), color (CL), shape (SP), and nodules (ND) were then evaluated. RESULTS: According to the results of the Waldχ2 test, IP1 provides the best model for pain (R2 = 0.155), IP3 for clots (R2 = 0.437), IP2 for heavy (R2 = 0.268), and scanty (R2 = 0.192). Abnormal SLV diagnostic parameters were most strongly associated with the clinical symptom of clots (R2= 0.492). CONCLUSION: While the study showed the relations between tongue SLV features and menstrual clinical symptoms, as wel it showed that IP2 was the best overal predictor for the symptomatic indexes used in this study, and using one particular SLV inspection procedure may not be sufifcient. The application of a particular inspection method alone may cause under- or over-estimation of SLV abnormalities.

  16. From B. F. Skinner to Spiderman to Martha Stewart: The Past, Present and Future of Electronic Monitoring of Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, William D.; Gable, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic monitoring was originally designed as a system to facilitate the rehabilitation of young adult offenders. The concept was not well-received, and the first judicially sanctioned program was not initiated until 20 years later. Adoption of the technology then spread rapidly. The primary use of monitoring has evolved from being an adjunct…

  17. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuwen; Yang, Xi; Qi, Quan; Pan, Yuefen; Chen, Yongchao; Shen, Junjun; Liao, Haihong; Ji, Zhaoning

    2016-06-01

    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer.

  18. Transfer of mother tongue in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米海燕

    2012-01-01

    In SLA transfer of mother tongue can not be overlooked. And we group it into positive transfer and negative transfer, which are reflected on different levels including pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax and culture.

  19. Investigation of the Chinese rolling tongue consonants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ligang; Keni'ti Kido

    2000-01-01

    Some special monosyllabic Chinese words which contain rolling tongue consonants are discussed. Based on the spectrum analysis, the special characteristic is found at a frequency higher than 3 kHz. The distinction is not only in the consonant part but also in the vowel part.The people in the north region of China distinguish the rolling tongue consonants from the straight tongue consonants both in utterance and in hearing, but those in the south region of China do not. The results of the hearing investigation using synthesized speech show that the consonant part corresponding to the normal one has more effect than the vowel part on the recognition of the words containing the rolling tongue consonant.

  20. Huge Tongue Lipoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Damghani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipomas are among the most common tumors of the human body. However, they are uncommon in the oral cavity and are observed as slow growing, painless, and asymptomatic yellowish submucosal masses. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is not expected.    Case Report: The case of a 30-year-old woman with a huge lipoma on the tip of her tongue since 3 years, is presented. She had difficulty with speech and mastication because the tongue tumor was filling the oral cavity. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 8 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from the lingual surface. The tumor was surgically excised with restoration of normal tongue function and histopathological examination of the tumor confirmed that it was a lipoma.   Conclusion:  Tongue lipoma is rarely seen and can be a cause of macroglossia. Surgical excision for lipoma is indicated for symptomatic relief and exclusion of associated malignancy.

  1. Instruction in the Mother Tongues in Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikes, Melanie

    1984-01-01

    Educational practices and problems in Yugoslavia with regard to bilingual education are described. The effect of mother-tongue education on the students' academic achievement and literacy attainment is also examined. (RM)

  2. Giant Plexiform Schwannoma of the Tongue

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a 38-year-old woman that presented with a very slowly enlarging mass of the tongue. MRI revealed a large mass originating in the tongue base and extending to the supraglottic space. Biopsy of this tumor confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. An endaural approach allowed complete resection of the tumor. Definitive histopathological examination showed a plexiform schwannoma. Schwannoma or neurilemoma represents a benign tumor potentially affecting any nerve. The head and ...

  3. Tongue coating removal: comparison of the efficiency of three techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Sassa Marocchio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Compare the efficiency of three techniques for tongue cleaning, by comparison of the amount of tongue coating removed by each technique. Methods: Tongue cleaning was performed using an Oral B 30 (Procter&Gamble, São Paulo, Brasil toothbrush; a Saude Bucal (Odomed, São Paulo, Brasil tongue scraper, and a new tongue cleaning technique, consisting of a tongue cleaner with bristles and a scraping edge and a Halitus® (Halitus, Campinas, Brasil tongue cleaning spray solution. The study design used 15 healthy volunteers who were submitted to each of the tongue cleaning techniques, once every 21 days. The volunteers were instructed to abstain from any procedure to clean their tongues, for 48 hours before the application of each technique. At each scheduled time, a dental professional performed a single standardized tongue cleaning procedure using one of the cleaning methods, and inserted the removed tongue coating into a test tube. Results: The results were obtained by weighing the tube test with tongue coating after the cleaning procedure (final weight deducting the weight of the empty tube test (initial weight. The findings showed that the new tongue cleaning technique (combination of a tongue cleaner with brush and scraper plus a tongue cleaning spray solution was statistically superior in removing tongue coating when compared with the tongue scraper or toothbrush, probably due to the technique and materials used. Conclusion: The tongue cleaning procedure, when performed within a specific technique, associated with products that improve the cleaning action, makes possible to reach better results, allowing the removal of more tongue coating.

  4. Validation of a new algorithm for the BPM-100 electronic oscillometric office blood pressure monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J M; Mattu, G S; Perry Jr, T L; Gelferc, M E; Strange, K D; Zorn, A; Chen, Y

    2001-06-01

    To test the accuracy of a new algorithm for the BPM-100, an automated oscillometric blood pressure (BP) monitor, using stored data from an independently conducted validation trial comparing the BPM-100(Beta) with a mercury sphygmomanometer. Raw pulse wave and cuff pressure data were stored electronically using embedded software in the BPM-100(Beta), during the validation trial. The 391 sets of measurements were separated objectively into two subsets. A subset of 136 measurements was used to develop a new algorithm to enhance the accuracy of the device when reading higher systolic pressures. The larger subset of 255 measurements (three readings for 85 subjects) was used as test data to validate the accuracy of the new algorithm. Differences between the new algorithm BPM-100 and the reference (mean of two observers) were determined and expressed as the mean difference +/- SD, plus the percentage of measurements within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg. The mean difference between the BPM-100 and reference systolic BP was -0.16 +/- 5.13 mmHg, with 73.7% BPM-100 and reference diastolic BP was -1.41 +/- 4.67 mmHg, with 78.4% BPM-100(Beta) and pass the AAMI standard, and 'A' grade BHS protocol. This study illustrates a new method for developing and testing a change in an algorithm for an oscillometric BP monitor utilizing collected and stored electronic data and demonstrates that the new algorithm meets the AAMI standard and BHS protocol.

  5. Electronic Field Data Collection in Support of Satellite-Based Food Security Monitoring in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakalembe, C. L.; Dempewolf, J.; Justice, C. J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ibrahim, K.; Materu, S.

    2016-12-01

    In Tanzania agricultural extension agents traditionally collect field data on agriculture and food security on paper, covering most villages throughout the country. The process is expensive, slow and cumbersome and prone to data transcription errors when the data get entered at the district offices into electronic spreadsheets. Field data on the status and condition of agricultural crops, the population's nutritional status, food storage levels and other parameters are needed in near realtime for early warning to make critical but most importantly timely and appropriate decisions that are informed with verified data from the ground. With the ubiquitous distribution of cell phones, which are now used by the vast majority of the population in Tanzania including most farmers, new, efficient and cost-effective methods for field data collection have become available. Using smartphones and tablets data on crop conditions, pest and diseases, natural disasters and livelihoods can be collected and made available and easily accessible in near realtime. In this project we implemented a process for obtaining high quality electronic field data using the GeoODK application with a large network of field extension agents in Tanzania and Uganda. These efforts contribute to work being done on developing an advanced agriculture monitoring system for Tanzania, incorporating traditional data collection with satellite information and field data. The outcomes feed directly into the National Food Security Bulletin for Tanzania produced by the Ministry of Agriculture as well as a form a firm evidence base and field scale monitoring of the disaster risk financing in Uganda.

  6. Business process improvement: an electronic system to monitor compliance with medical resident work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landesman, Linda Young; Markowitz, Forest; Conde, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    The limitation of medical intern and resident work hours, known as the Bell 405 regulations, was initiated in New York State in 1989 with a modification to the state hospital code. The Bell 405 regulations were strengthened in 2000, and facilities would now be fined for noncompliance. Monitoring systems in place at that time were insufficient to provide an adequate level of review for the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) with more than 7,000 medical residents whose training is based at or who rotate through these public hospitals. A "simple to use," yet comprehensive, method of monitoring compliance needed to be developed to ensure that residents and interns complied with laws regulating working hours. The subsequent development of national accreditation standards increased the stakes for reliable scrutiny. HHC developed and implemented a Web-based Structured Query Language (SQL) application that facilitated easy access to work hour surveys captured through electronic time sheets. The time sheet data automatically entered a database that provided instant analysis of conformance to state law. The development of an electronic on-line application accessible from anywhere allowed HHC to efficiently identify nonconformance and pinpoint corrective action. Since the inception of the application and its expansion allowing access through the intranet, 26,000 individual time sheets have been submitted for evaluation. With the national movement regulating work hours, other hospitals still at the pencil and manual computation stage would greatly benefit by developing a similar application.

  7. A Portable Surface Contamination Monitor Based on the Principle of Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perey, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    Many industrial and aerospace processes involving the joining of materials, require sufficient surface cleanliness to insure proper bonding. Processes as diverse as painting, welding, or the soldering of electronic circuits will be compromised if prior inspection and removal of surface contaminants is inadequate. As process requirements become more stringent and the number of different materials and identified contaminants increases, various instruments and techniques have been developed for improved inspection. One such technique, based on the principle of Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE), has been explored for a number of years as a tool for surface contamination monitoring. Some of the benefits of OSEE are: it is non-contacting; requires little operator training; and has very high contamination sensitivity. This paper describes the development of a portable OSEE based surface contamination monitor. The instrument is suitable for both hand-held and robotic inspections with either manual or automated control of instrument operation. In addition, instrument output data is visually displayed to the operator and may be sent to an external computer for archiving or analysis.

  8. p53 Expression Helps Identify High Risk Oral Tongue Pre- malignant Lesions and Correlates with Patterns of Invasive Tumour Front and Tumour Depth in Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveka, Thangaraj Soundara; Shyamsundar, Vidyarani; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramani, Pratibha; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is the most common oral cancer subtype with a maximum propensity for regional spread. Our objective was to study if p53 expression might have any correlation with aggressive patterns of invasion within oral tongue cancers as well as with the histologically identified degree of oral tongue dysplasia. p53 immunoexpression was studied using immunohistochemistry in early staged OTSCCs (n=155), oral tongue dysplasias, (n=29) and oral tongue normal specimens (n=10) and evaluated for correlations with histological and clinicopathological parameters. Our study (n=194) showed a pattern of p53 expression increasing with different grades of tongue dysplasia to different grades of invasive OTSCC (p=0.000). Among the OTSCC tumours, positive p53 expression was seen in 43.2% (67/155) and a higher p53 labelling index was significantly associated with increased Bryne's grade of the tumour invasive front (p=0.039) and increased tumour depth (p=0.018). Among the OTSCC patients with tobacco habits, (n=91), a higher p53 labelling index was significantly associated with increased risk of local recurrence (p=0.025) and with lymphovascular space involvement (p=0.014). Evaluation of p53 through varying degrees of dysplasia to oral tongue cancer indicates that p53 expression is linked to aggressive features of oral tongue cancers and tongue precancers entailing a closer monitoring in positive cases. Among the OTSCCs, p53 expression is associated with tumour aggressiveness correlating with increased grading of invasive tumour front and tumour depth.

  9. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  10. Active safety monitoring of new medical products using electronic healthcare data: Selecting alerting rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Joshua J.; Rassen, Jeremy A.; Walker, Alexander M.; Glynn, Robert J.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Active medical-product-safety surveillance systems are being developed to monitor many products and outcomes simultaneously in routinely collected longitudinal electronic healthcare data. These systems will rely on algorithms to generate alerts about potential safety concerns. METHODS We compared the performance of five classes of algorithms in simulated data using a sequential matched-cohort framework, and applied the results to two electronic healthcare databases to replicate monitoring of cerivastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis. We generated 600,000 simulated scenarios with varying expected event frequency in the unexposed, alerting threshold, and outcome risk in the exposed, and compared the alerting algorithms in each scenario type using an event-based performance metric. RESULTS We observed substantial variation in algorithm performance across the groups of scenarios. Relative performance varied by the event frequency and by user-defined preferences for sensitivity versus specificity. Type I error-based statistical testing procedures achieved higher event-based performance than other approaches in scenarios with few events, whereas statistical process control and disproportionality measures performed relatively better with frequent events. In the empirical data, we observed 6 cases of rhabdomyolysis among 4,294 person-years of follow-up, with all events occurring among cerivastatin-treated patients. All selected algorithms generated alerts before the drug was withdrawn from the market. CONCLUSION For active medical-product-safety monitoring in a sequential matched cohort framework, no single algorithm performed best in all scenarios. Alerting algorithm selection should be tailored to particular features of a product-outcome pair, including the expected event frequencies and trade-offs between false-positive and false-negative alerting. PMID:22266893

  11. A configurable electronics system for the ESS-Bilbao beam position monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muguira, L., E-mail: lmuguira@essbilbao.org [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Belver, D. [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Etxebarria, V. [University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Department of Electricity and Electronics, Science and Technology Faculty, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Varnasseri, S.; Arredondo, I.; Campo, M. del; Echevarria, P.; Garmendia, N.; Feuchtwanger, J. [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Jugo, J.; Portilla, J. [University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Department of Electricity and Electronics, Science and Technology Faculty, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain)

    2013-09-01

    A versatile and configurable system has been developed in order to monitorize the beam position and to meet all the requirements of the future ESS-Bilbao Linac. At the same time the design has been conceived to be open and configurable so that it could eventually be used in different kinds of accelerators, independent of the charged particle, with minimal change. The design of the Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) system includes a test bench both for button-type pick-ups (PU) and striplines (SL), the electronic units and the control system. The electronic units consist of two main parts. The first part is an Analog Front-End (AFE) unit where the RF signals are filtered, conditioned and converted to base-band. The second part is a Digital Front-End (DFE) unit which is based on an FPGA board where the base-band signals are sampled in order to calculate the beam position, the amplitude and the phase. To manage the system a Multipurpose Controller (MC) developed at ESSB has been used. It includes the FPGA management, the EPICS integration and Archiver Instances. A description of the system and a comparison between the performance of both PU and SL BPM designs measured with this electronics system are fully described and discussed. -- Author-Highlights: • A versatile and configurable BPM system for the ESS-Bilbao Linac has been designed. • The design works for PU and SL detectors, both in continuous and pulsed wave modes. • Several tests at simulated beamlines at 352 MHz and 175 MHz have been performed. • The BPM system has been integrated in EPICS and Archiver.

  12. [Research progress on the risk factors of geographic tongue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamei, Yang; Yu, Zhou; Xin, Zeng; Ga, Liao; Qianming, Chen

    2015-02-01

    Geographic tongue, also called benign migratory glossitis, is a common and superficial benign inflammatory disorder that affects the tongue epithelium. The majority of geographic tongue lesions typically manifest as irregular central erythematous patches. These lesions, which are caused by the loss of filiform papillae, are defined by an elevated whitish band-like border that can change location, size, and pattern over a period of time. Histological observations of the oral mucosa affected by geographic tongue revealed nonspecific inflammation. Some reports described cases of migratory stomatitis, wherein lesions simultaneously manifested on the extra lingual oral mucosa. This condition is also called ectopic geographic tongue, which is clinically and histologically similar to the type normally confined to the tongue. In most cases, patients are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. The condition may spontaneously exhibit periods of remission and exacerbation with good prognosis. The specific etiology of geographic tongue remains unknown. Geographic tongue is age-related and is prevalent among young individuals. Various etiological factors that have been suggested in literature include immunological factors, genetic factors, atopic or allergic tendency, emotional stress, tobacco consumption, hormonal disturbances, and zinc deficiency. Geographic tongue may coexist with other disorders, such as fissured tongue, psoriasis, diabetes mellitus, gastroin- testinal diseases, burning mouth syndrome, and Down syndrome. Experts currently disagree on whether geographic tongue is an oral manifestation of psoriasis. Moreover, some scholars suggest that geographic tongue is a prestage of fissured tongue. The objective of this review is to summarize current research on risk factors of geographic tongue.

  13. Morphological study of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) tongue by SEM and LM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ghasem; Babaei, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Belal

    2017-02-03

    The hedgehog tongue is a tactile and taste organ which carries out various functions. Detailed functional and morphological studies are required to clearly define the relationship of the hedgehog tongue with taste, food palatability, mastication and swallowing of food, as well as the production of sounds. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the morphological characteristics of the European hedgehog tongue and the lifestyle of this animal, as well as to compare findings with the results of studies on other vertebrates. Gross and micro-anatomical light and scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that the hedgehog tongue could be divided in three areas, namely the apex, body and root. A keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, which was smooth on the ventral surface but bore four types of papillae on the dorsal surface, lined the tongue. Three types of these papillae were found to have gustatory functions and to express their activity in close relation with the salivary glands. These simple conical filiform papillae were situated caudally and distributed one after the other without a break. The dome-shaped fungiform papillae on the apex, with the highest distribution rate on the apex edge, were small, but those on the body and root were large. The three circular vallate papillae were arranged in a triangular shape. The foliate papillae with a few tiny projections, found in a shallow furrow, were situated between the root and the body. Most of the nerve fibers observed in different sections of the tongue tissue were of the unmyelinated type, confirming that the main task of the hedgehog tongue was its gustatory function.

  14. Electronic self-monitoring of mood using IT platforms in adult patients with bipolar disorder: A systematic review of the validity and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Various paper-based mood charting instruments are used in the monitoring of symptoms in bipolar disorder. During recent years an increasing number of electronic self-monitoring tools have been developed. The objectives of this systematic review were 1) to evaluate the validity of electronic self-monitoring tools as a method of evaluating mood compared to clinical rating scales for depression and mania and 2) to investigate the effect of electronic self-monitoring tools on clinicall...

  15. Quantitative diagnosis of tongue cancer from histological images in an animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guolan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Dongsheng; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Chen, Zhuo G.; Fei, Baowei

    2016-03-01

    We developed a chemically-induced oral cancer animal model and a computer aided method for tongue cancer diagnosis. The animal model allows us to monitor the progress of the lesions over time. Tongue tissue dissected from mice was sent for histological processing. Representative areas of hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue from tongue sections were captured for classifying tumor and non-tumor tissue. The image set used in this paper consisted of 214 color images (114 tumor and 100 normal tissue samples). A total of 738 color, texture, morphometry and topology features were extracted from the histological images. The combination of image features from epithelium tissue and its constituent nuclei and cytoplasm has been demonstrated to improve the classification results. With ten iteration nested cross validation, the method achieved an average sensitivity of 96.5% and a specificity of 99% for tongue cancer detection. The next step of this research is to apply this approach to human tissue for computer aided diagnosis of tongue cancer.

  16. Does bilingualism twist your tongue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H; Goldrick, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    The current study investigated whether bilingualism affects the processing of sub-lexical representations specifying the sound structure of words. Spanish-English bilinguals, Mandarin-English bilinguals, and English-only monolinguals repeated English tongue twisters. Twister materials had word or nonword targets (thus varying in whether lexical information did or did not support sound processing), and similar or dissimilar sounds (thus varying in difficulty with respect to competition at a sub-lexical level). Even though bilinguals had learned English at an early age, and spoke English without an accent, Spanish-English bilinguals produced significantly more twister errors than monolinguals, particularly in the absence of lexical support. Mandarin-English bilinguals were also disadvantaged, but more consistently across all twister types. These results reveal that bilingual disadvantages extend beyond the lexical level to affect the processing of sub-lexical representations. More generally, these findings suggest that experience with sound structures (and not simply their intrinsic complexity) shapes sub-lexical processing for all speakers.

  17. Repeated tongue lift movement induces neuroplasticity in corticomotor control of tongue and jaw muscles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoda, Yoshihiro; Iida, Takashi; Kothari, Mohit; Komiyama, Osamu; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Kawara, Misao; Sessle, Barry; Svensson, Peter

    2015-11-19

    This study investigated the effect of repeated tongue lift training (TLT) on the excitability of the corticomotor representation of the human tongue and jaw musculature. Sixteen participants performed three series of TLT for 41 min on each of 5 consecutive days. Each TLT series consisted of two pressure levels (5 kPa and 10 kPa). All participants underwent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in four sessions: (1) before TLT on Day 1 (baseline), (2) after TLT on Day 1, (3) before TLT on Day 5, and (4) after TLT on Day 5. EMG recordings from the left and right tongue dorsum and masseter muscles were made at three pressure levels (5 kPa, 10 kPa, 100% tongue lift), and tongue, masseter, and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) MEPs were measured. There were no significant day-to-day differences in the tongue pressure during maximum voluntary contractions. The amplitudes and thresholds of tongue and masseter MEPs after TLT on Day 5 were respectively higher and lower than before TLT on Day 1 (Ptongue and masseter MEP areas; no significant changes occurred in MEP onset latencies. FDI MEP parameters (amplitude, threshold, area, latency) were not significantly different between the four sessions. Our findings suggest that repeated TLT can trigger neuroplasticity reflected in increased excitability of the corticomotor representation of not only the tongue muscles but also the masseter muscles.

  18. Daily electronic self-monitoring of subjective and objective symptoms in bipolar disorder—the MONARCA trial protocol (MONitoring, treAtment and pRediCtion of bipolAr disorder episodes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Electronic self-monitoring of affective symptoms using cell phones is suggested as a practical and inexpensive way to monitor illness activity and identify early signs of affective symptoms. It has never been tested in a randomised clinical trial whether electronic self-monitoring improves outcom...

  19. Arnold tongues for a resonant injection-locked frequency divider: analytical and numerical results

    CERN Document Server

    Bartuccelli, Michele V; Gentile, Guido; Schilder, Frank

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider a resonant injection-locked frequency divider which is of interest in electronics, and we investigate the frequency locking phenomenon when varying the amplitude and frequency of the injected signal. We study both analytically and numerically the structure of the Arnold tongues in the frequency-amplitude plane. In particular, we provide exact analytical formulae for the widths of the tongues, which correspond to the plateaux of the devil's staircase picture. The results account for numerical and experimental findings presented in the literature for special driving terms and, additionally, extend the analysis to a more general setting.

  20. Influence of the ability to roll the tongue and tongue-training parameters on oral motor performance and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Basic, Aida;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Training of tongue function is an important part of rehabilitation of patients with brain damage. A standardized tongue-training task has been shown to induce cortical plasticity. This study tested the possible influence of the natural ability to roll the tongue and modulations of tongue......-training parameters on tongue-training performance. DESIGN: A total of 44 healthy adult subjects participated. 29 subjects (15 with and 14 without ability to roll their tongue) performed 1h standard tongue-training task. Another 15 subjects participated in 2 sessions: Standard and Modulation in randomized order....... Standard session: 1h tongue-training with fixed training parameters; Modulation session: 1h tongue-training with modulation of training parameters every 20min (3 different settings - A, B, C, with different timing of task). Perceived task difficulty was evaluated on a 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS...

  1. Morpholoical Study of the Brandt’s Hedgehog, Paraechinus hypomelas (Eulipotyphla, Erinaceidae, Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarzi N.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and histological structure of two adult Brandt’s hedgehog, Paraechinus hypomelas, (Brandt, 1836 tongue were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. On the dorsal surface of the tongue, three types of papillae were observed: filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae. Apex and corpus of the tongue as well as the lateral surface of the corpus were covered with numerous filiform papillae with bifurcated tip, while the epithelium lining the ventral lingual surface was free from papillae. Discoid shape fungiform papillae were scattered over the entire surface of the lingual apex, corpus and lateral surface uniformly between the filiform ones without regional variation in number and size. Three elliptical or oval vallate papillae in an inverted triangle form were found on the root of the tongue. Each papilla had a lobulated and very irregular dorsal surface. Both fungiform and vallate papillae contain taste buds. The foliate papillae was absent. Overall, the present findings reveal that despite some similarities, the lingual papillae of the Brandt’s hedgehog as an omnivore animal has spices-specific characteristics compare to the Erinaceous auritus as an insectivore species. This finding provides a set of basic data about the morphology of tongue and its lingual papillae in Brandt’s hedgehog.

  2. Electronic self-monitoring of mood using IT platforms in adult patients with bipolar disorder: A systematic review of the validity and evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Munkholm, Klaus; Frost, Mads

    2016-01-01

    in the majority of studies. Conclusions: Electronic self-monitoring of mood in depression appears to be a valid measure of mood in contrast to self-monitoring of mood in mania. There are yet few studies on the effect of electronic self-monitoring of mood in bipolar disorder. The evidence of electronic self......Background: Various paper-based mood charting instruments are used in the monitoring of symptoms in bipolar disorder. During recent years an increasing number of electronic self-monitoring tools have been developed. The objectives of this systematic review were 1) to evaluate the validity...... of electronic self-monitoring tools as a method of evaluating mood compared to clinical rating scales for depression and mania and 2) to investigate the effect of electronic self-monitoring tools on clinically relevant outcomes in bipolar disorder. Methods: A systematic review of the scientific literature...

  3. Monitoring compliance with transfusion guidelines in hospital departments by electronic data capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, Astrid; De Lichtenberg, Trine Honnens; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    -transfusion haemoglobin levels at the departmental level. In a tertiary care hospital, no such data were produced before this study. Our aim was to establish a Patient Blood Management database based on electronic data capture in order to monitor compliance with transfusion guidelines at departmental and hospital levels......BACKGROUND: The practice of transfusing red blood cells is still liberal in some centres suggesting a lack of compliance with guidelines recommending transfusion of red blood cells at haemoglobin levels of 6-8 g/dL in the non-bleeding patient. Few databases provide ongoing feedback of data on pre....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hospital data on admissions, diagnoses and surgical procedures were used to define the populations of patients. Data on haemoglobin measurements and red blood cell transfusions were used to calculate pre-transfusion haemoglobin, percentage of transfused patients and transfusion...

  4. Beam profile measurement of ES-200 using secondary electron emission monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ebrahimi Basabi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, different designs have been introduced for measurement beam profile accelerators. Secondary electron emission monitors (SEM are one of these devices which have been used for this purpose. In this work, a SEM has been constructed to measure beam profile of ES-200 accelerator, a proton electrostatic accelerator which is installed at SBU. Profile grid for both planes designed with 16 wires which are insulated relative to each other. The particles with maximum energy of 200 keV and maximum current of 400 μA are stopped in copper wires. Each of the wires has an individual current-to-voltage amplifier. With a multiplexer, the analogue values are transported to an ADC. The ADCs are read out by a microcontroller and finally profile of beam shows by a user interface program

  5. Molecular modeling of interactions in electronic nose sensors for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Yen, S. -P. S.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a study aimed at understanding analyte interactions with sensors made from polymer-carbon black composite films. The sensors are used in an Electronic Nose (ENose) which is used for monitoring the breathing air quality in human habitats. The model mimics the experimental conditions of the composite film deposition and formation and was developed using molecular modeling and simulation tools. The Dreiding 2.21 Force Field was used for the polymer and analyte molecules while graphite parameters were assigned to the carbon black atoms. The polymer considered for this work is methyl vinyl ether / maleic acid copolymer. The target analytes include both inorganic (NH3) and organic (methanol) types of compound. Results indicate different composite-analyte interaction behavior.

  6. Detailed Resolution Studies of the Synchrotron Radiation Profile Monitor for the HERA Electron Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kube, G; Wittenburg, K

    2005-01-01

    The precise determination of the beam emittance is essential for the understanding of the luminosity in colliding beam experiments as the ones at the e-p storage ring HERA at DESY. For the measurement of the electron beam emittance a monitor is used which is based on the direct imaging of visible synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet. In order to reduce the thermal heating of the light extracting beryllium mirror it is moved away from the beam axis in vertical direction. While the resolution of profile measurements by synchrotron radiation is already strictly limited by fundamental effects, the observation in off-axis geometry modifies the intensity distribution additionally leading to an increased contribution of the diffraction limited resolution. In order to describe the resolution broadening effects detailed calculations have been performed with the computer code SRW. Taking into account the calculated corrections the deduced beam emittances are in good agreement with independent measurements from a...

  7. The CMS Fast Beams Condition Monitor Backend Electronics based on MicroTCA technology

    CERN Document Server

    Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka Anna

    2015-01-01

    The Fast Beams Condition Monitor (BCM1F), upgraded for LHC Run II, is one sub-system of the Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity Project of the CMS experiment. It is based on 24 single crystal CVD diamond sensors. Each sensor is metallised with two pads, being read out by a dedicated fast frontend chip produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. Signals for real time monitoring are processed by custom-made back-end electronics to measure separately rates corresponding to LHC collision products, machine induced background and residual activation exploiting different arrival times. The system is built in MicroTCA technology and uses high speed analog-to-digital converters. The data processing module designed for the FPGA allows a distinguishing of collision and machine induced background, both synchronous to the LHC clock, from the residual activation products. In operational modes of high rates, consecutive events, spaced in time by less than 12.5 ns, may partially overlap. Hence, novel signal processing tec...

  8. Understanding the thermal sciences in the electron beam melting process through in-situ process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raplee, J.; Plotkowski, A.; Kirka, M. M.; Dinwiddie, R.; Dehoff, R. R.; Babu, S. S.

    2017-04-01

    Additive Manufacturing provides the opportunity to fabricate components of nearly limitless complexity compared to that of traditional manufacturing techniques. However, thermal gyrations imparted into the material from the passing of the heat source cause challenges in fabricating complex structures with the proper process parameters. While the thermal history of the material can be simulated, validating the simulations requires access to thermal data generated through in-situ process monitoring. While generation of in-situ thermal data seems trivial, acquiring and developing reliable calibrations for metallic materials is difficult due to the physical state of the material transitioning from powder to liquid to a solid. To be discussed is the methodology taken to integrate IR in-situ process monitoring within the electron beam melting process and the approach developed to accurately correlate a materials emissivity to temperature during the build process. Further the wealth of information contained within the thermal data will be discussed in the context of understanding of microstructural evolutions within the material during the build process, identification of material defects, and ability to determining the similarity/repeatability of builds fabricated with identical processing parameters as based only on the thermal signature of the build.

  9. Incorporating electronic monitoring feedback into clinical care: a novel and promising adherence promotion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzer, Michele; Ramey, Christina; Rohan, Jennifer; Cortina, Sandra

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents case examples that document the preliminary clinical utility of using electronic monitoring (EM) feedback to tailor empirically validated adherence-promoting interventions, delivered in standard clinical practice. Challenges of utilizing EM in standard clinical practice as well as future directions are also discussed. Two adolescents referred for behavioral adherence promotion intervention are described. Each youth was provided a MEMS® bottle and one oral medication was chosen jointly by the therapist, family, and medical provider for adherence monitoring. Graphical MEMS® feedback was provided to families during intervention visits and subsequently used to tailor adherence interventions to target each family's unique needs. EM feedback was a feasible and clinically rich supplement to adherence-promoting interventions. EM facilitated identification of adherence barriers and successes, and open and non-adversarial discussions regarding adherence between patients, families, and clinicians, and provided real-time representations of patients' medication administration. These case presentations suggest that EM feedback can be a clinically useful tool when used as a supplement to an empirically supported intervention delivered in standard psychological practice aimed at adherence promotion among chronically ill youth.

  10. In situ monitoring of flash-light sintering of copper nanoparticle ink for printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Chung, Wan-Ho; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2012-12-01

    In this work, a flash-light sintering process for Cu nanoinks was studied. In order to precisely monitor the milliseconds flash-light sintering process, a real-time Wheatstone bridge electrical circuit and a high-rate data acquisition system were used. The effects of several flash-light irradiation conditions (irradiation energy, pulse number, on-time, and off-time) and the effects of the amount of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) in the Cu nanoink on the flash-light sintering process were investigated. The microstructures of the sintered Cu films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. To investigate the oxidation or reduction of the oxide-covered copper nanoparticles, a crystal phase analysis using x-ray diffraction was performed. In addition, the sheet resistance of Cu film was measured using a four-point probe method. From this study, it was found that the flash-light sintered Cu nanoink films have a conductivity of 72 Ωm/sq without any damage to the polyimide substrate. Similar nanoinks are expected to be widely used in printed and flexible electronics products in the near future.

  11. Monitoring Chemical and Biological Electron Transfer Reactions with a Fluorogenic Vitamin K Analogue Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzile, Mei-Ni; Godin, Robert; Durantini, Andrés M; Cosa, Gonzalo

    2016-12-21

    We report herein the design, synthesis, and characterization of a two-segment fluorogenic analogue of vitamin K, B-VKQ, prepared by coupling vitamin K3, also known as menadione (a quinone redox center), to a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) fluorophore (a lipophilic reporter segment). Oxidation-reduction reactions, spectroelectrochemical studies, and enzymatic assays conducted in the presence of DT-diaphorase illustrate that the new probe shows reversible redox behavior on par with that of vitamin K, provides a high-sensitivity fluorescence signal, and is compatible with biological conditions, opening the door to monitor remotely (i.e., via imaging) redox processes in real time. In its oxidized form, B-VKQ is non-emissive, while upon reduction to the hydroquinone form, B-VKQH2, BODIPY fluorescence is restored, with emission quantum yield values of ca. 0.54 in toluene. Density functional theory studies validate a photoinduced electron transfer intramolecular switching mechanism, active in the non-emissive quinone form and deactivated upon reduction to the emissive dihydroquinone form. Our results highlight the potential of B-VKQ as a fluorogenic probe to study electron transfer and transport in model systems and biological structures with optimal sensitivity and desirable chemical specificity. Use of such a probe may enable a better understanding of the role that vitamin K plays in biological redox reactions ubiquitous in key cellular processes, and help elucidate the mechanism and pathological significance of these reactions in biological systems.

  12. Monitoring the Freshness of Moroccan Sardines with a Neural-Network Based Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benachir Bouchikhi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose was developed and used as a rapid technique to classify thefreshness of sardine samples according to the number of days spent under cold storage (4 ±1°C, in air. The volatile compounds present in the headspace of weighted sardine sampleswere introduced into a sensor chamber and the response signals of the sensors wererecorded as a function of time. Commercially available gas sensors based on metal oxidesemiconductors were used and both static and dynamic features from the sensorconductance response were input to the pattern recognition engine. Data analysis wasperformed by three different pattern recognition methods such as probabilistic neuralnetworks (PNN, fuzzy ARTMAP neural networks (FANN and support vector machines(SVM. The objective of this study was to find, among these three pattern recognitionmethods, the most suitable one for accurately identifying the days of cold storage undergoneby sardine samples. The results show that the electronic nose can monitor the freshness ofsardine samples stored at 4°C, and that the best classification and prediction are obtainedwith SVM neural network. The SVM approach shows improved classificationperformances, reducing the amount of misclassified samples down to 3.75 %.

  13. Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 496-3500 Share Science Highlight: January 2, 2014 Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition Researchers funded ... Imaging and Bioengineering have demonstrated that their novel Tongue Drive System is superior to other assistive devices ...

  14. The geometry of resonance tongues : a singularity theory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, Hendrik; Golubitsky, Martin; Vegter, Gert

    2003-01-01

    Resonance tongues and their boundaries are studied for nondegenerate and (certain) degenerate Hopf bifurcations of maps using singularity theory methods of equivariant contact equivalence and universal unfoldings. We recover the standard theory of tongues (the nondegencrate case) in a straightforwar

  15. Mother Tongue Eclipsing in the Linguistic Repertoire of Yoruba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-31

    Oct 31, 2016 ... Yoruba-speaking parents acquire English as their First Language and Yoruba ..... first language (or mother tongue) learning and reinforcement available to .... use their mother tongue, they would do things that would motivate.

  16. Schwannoma of the base of tongue – A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Panduranga Kamath

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Schwannomas arising in the base of tongue are rare and are not often included in the differential diagnosis. They are usually benign and have excellent prognosis as compared to the usual malignant lesions which occur in the tongue base.

  17. Isolated tongue tremor after gamma knife radiosurgery for acoustic schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun J; Im, Joo-Hyuk; Lee, Jae-Hong; Cho, A-Hyun; Kwon, Miseon; Lee, Myoung C

    2005-01-01

    We describe a patient who had an isolated tongue tremor with an audible click after gamma knife radiosurgery for acoustic schwannoma. The nature of the tongue tremor was clearly demonstrated by videofluoroscopy. The possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed.

  18. [Vasculogenic mimicry in tongue squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaogen; Liu, Chundong; Luo, Luqiao; Cai, Xiaohui

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the presence of vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in tongue squamous cell carcinoma and explore its clinical significance. Forty-two surgical specimens of tongue squamous cell carcinoma were examined for the presence of VM using HE staining and double staining of CD34 and PAS. Of the 42 specimens, 18 (42.86%) showed the presence of VM. VM was not correlated with the patients' age or gender, but with lymph node metastasis and the grade of tumor differentiation. Compared with tumors without VM, the tumors with VM had a significantly higher rate of lymph node metastasis (P<0.05) and a lower grade of differentiation (P<0.05). VM can be present in tongue squamous cell carcinoma, and the poorly differentiated tumors contain more VM, which is associated with a greater likeliness of lymph node metastasis and a poorer prognosis.

  19. The Tongue as an Excitable Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Seiden, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Geographic tongue (GT) is a benign condition affecting approximately 2% of the population, whereby the papillae covering the upper part of the tongue are lost due to a slowly expanding inflammation. The resultant dynamical appearance of the tongue has striking similarities with well known phenomena observed in excitable media, such as forest fires, cardiac dynamics and chemically-driven reaction-diffusion systems. Here we explore the dynamics associated with GT from a dynamical systems perspective, utilizing cellular automata simulations. We emphasize similarities with other excitable systems as well as unique features observed in GT. Our results shed light on the evolution of the inflammation and contribute to the classification of the severity of the condition, based on the characteristic patterns observed in GT patients.

  20. Undulating tongue in Wilson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nagappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an unusual occurrence of involuntary movement involving the tongue in a patient with confirmed Wilson′s disease (WD. She manifested with slow, hypophonic speech and dysphagia of 4 months duration, associated with pseudobulbar affect, apathy, drooling and dystonia of upper extremities of 1 month duration. Our patient had an uncommon tongue movement which was arrhythmic. There was no feature to suggest tremor, chorea or dystonia. It might be described as athetoid as there was a writhing quality, but of lesser amplitude. Thus, the phenomenology was uncommon in clinical practice and the surface of the tongue was seen to "ripple" like a liquid surface agitated by an object or breeze. Isolated lingual dyskinesias are rare in WD. It is important to evaluate them for WD, a potentially treatable disorder.

  1. Radiation response of the mouse tongue epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, R.; Kummermehr, J.

    1986-01-01

    Mouse tongue mucosa has been used as a model to study dose responses to local irradiation. Although the irradiation procedures is less feasible and more time-consuming than e.g. snout irradiation, the tongue is the only location where a reasonable area of intraoral, multilayered epithelium in the mouse can be locally treated and scored, and a relatively small burden is imposed on the animal. In pilot experiments with external 300 kV x-irradiation just tolerated by the lip, the authors did not see critical damage to the tongue. In the present model, the onset of denudation was not correctly predicted by the normal turnover time of the tissue.

  2. Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa, E-mail: sekikawa@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Kamiyama, Kyohei [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

  3. [True double dermoid cyst of the tongue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Callejo, F J; Roselló Millat, P; Alpera Lacruz, R; Platero Zamarreño, A; Jubert, A

    2001-10-01

    Dermoid cysts into ENT zone are specially infrequent--just the 7% of the organism--, and extremely rare if are located in the tongue. They are usually detected as midline acute swelling, and produce swallowing, speech and sleep disorders at neonatal period because of their congenital character. We present an eleven-year-old boy admitted at our Hospital bearing a submandibular and oral swelling, and dysphagia with odynophagia, finally diagnosed as an intralingual double dermoid cyst of the anterior two thirds. The history of frenulectomy due to a presumed ankyloglossia, the previous presence of a dorsal tumour in tongue with a difficult phonetic articulation, and the midline location of lesions made us to suspect on dermoid cysts of the tongue. Complete surgical excision were diagnostic and therapeutic, and the child recovered totally their mastication, swallowing and speech abilities. Pathophysiological aspects, treatment and the atypical course of the case are discussed.

  4. A Giant Hemangioma of the Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Saedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vascular abnormalities are relatively uncommon lesions, but head and neck is a common region for vascular malformation which is classified as benign tumors. In this paper, the authors report a rare presentation of vascular malformation in the tongue and its managements. Case Report: An 18 months 2 old child presented with a giant mass of tongue which caused functional and aesthetic problem. The rapid growth pattern of cavernous hemangioma was refractory to corticosteroid. The lesion was excised without any complication. Since the mass was so huge that not only filled entire oral cavity but was protruding outside, airway management was a great challenge for anesthesia plan and at the same time surgical technique was difficult to select. Conclusion: Despite different recommended modalities in managing hemangiomas of the tongue, in cases of huge malformations, surgery could be the mainstay treatment and provided that critical care measures are taken in to account, could be performed very safely.

  5. Stimulating effect of tongue on craniofacial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, G H; Becker, R; Hübner, A; Pommerenke, F

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the tongue on craniofacial growth was studied in 96 Mini-Lewe miniature pigs. The animals were partially glossectomized at different ages and slaughtered at various intervals after operation. The skulls were macerated for biometric analysis. Mandibular growth was significantly reduced lengthwise in animals glossectomized at age 12 weeks. The role played by the tongue in orofacial growth was also indicated by the reduced width of the lower jaw. In pigs partially glossectomized at age 12 weeks, lateral growth of the entire lower jaw was reduced after eight weeks. In animals glossectomized at age six weeks, lateral growth of the lower jaw was reduced in the region of the 1st deciduous molars and the canines after glossectomy. Partial glossectomy had no significant effects on vertical growth of the lower jaw, growth of the upper jaw or overall skull growth. Shortening of the tongue in miniature pigs six weeks old resulted in no measurable jaw changes 23 weeks after surgery.

  6. Convergence of macroscopic tongue anatomy in ruminants and scaling relationships with body mass or tongue length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Andrea R; Schmuck, Ute; Meloro, Carlo; Clauss, Marcus; Hofmann, Reinhold R

    2016-03-01

    Various morphological measures demonstrate convergent evolution in ruminants with their natural diet, in particular with respect to the browser/grazer dichotomy. Here, we report quantitative macroanatomical measures of the tongue (length and width of specific parts) of 65 ruminant species and relate them to either body mass (BM) or total tongue length, and to the percentage of grass in the natural diet (%grass). Models without and with accounting for the phylogenetic structures of the dataset were used, and models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion. Scaling relationships followed geometric principles, that is, length measures scaled with BM to the power of 0.33. Models that used tongue length rather than BM as a body size proxy were consistently ranked better, indicating that using size proxies that are less susceptible to a wider variety of factors (such as BM that fluctuates with body condition) should be attempted whenever possible. The proportion of the freely mobile tongue tip of the total tongue (and hence also the corpus length) was negatively correlated to %grass, in accordance with concepts that the feeding mechanism of browsers requires more mobile tongues. It should be noted that some nonbrowsers, such as cattle, use a peculiar mechanism for grazing that also requires long, mobile tongues, but they appear to be exceptions. A larger corpus width with increasing %grass corresponds to differences in snout shape with broader snouts in grazers. The Torus linguae is longer with increasing %grass, a finding that still warrants functional interpretation. This study shows that tongue measures covary with diet in ruminants. In contrast, the shape of the tongue (straight or "hourglass-shaped" as measured by the ratio of the widest and smallest corpus width) is unrelated to diet and is influenced strongly by phylogeny.

  7. Infrahyoid myofascial flap for tongue reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Remmert, Stephan

    2006-11-01

    For selected cases, reconstruction of the tongue may be required after tumor removal. This study was undertaken to demonstrate a simplified concept of tongue reconstruction with emphasis on infrahyoid myofascial flaps (IMF). The defects of the tongue were classified in 23 patients according to the extent of tumor growth, functional and surgical aspects. The oral tongue (OT; n = 1), base of tongue (BT; n = 12) or both areas (OT and BT; n = 10) were involved, with (n = 14) or without (n = 9) infiltration of adjacent tissues. Minor defects (extent (1/4) or less) required no reconstructive procedure at any area. Major defect closure (extent (1/2)-3/4) was accomplished with a combination of IMF covered by a radial forearm flap (RFF). A complete reconstruction of the OT was achieved with a combination of a bilateral IMF covered by a RFF. Whenever the complete BT has to be removed, interposition of a vein graft to establish a sufficient arterial blood supply to the remaining OT is mandatory. Moreover, a larynx lift to prevent aspiration is recommendable. Resection of adjacent soft tissues requires a larger RFF (OT; BT) or flaps from the shoulder-back region (BT and OT). Whenever the integrity of the mandible has to be sacrificed, a free fibula graft serves as an excellent tool for reconstruction. IMF serves as a reliable tool for minor or major reconstructive procedures of the tongue. Reliability and versatility of IMF may contribute to a reduced time required for surgery since harvesting is performed in the neck area immediately after neck dissection. Moreover, harvesting of the IMF does not result in an increased postoperative morbidity. Hence, functional restoration can be achieved with a more cost-effective procedure.

  8. Intraoperative monitoring during surgery for hypoglossal schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Mami; Kusaka, Gen; Takashima, Kouichi; Kamochi, Haruna; Shinoda, Soji

    2010-08-01

    A 54-year-old man presented with an intracranial schwannoma of the hypoglossal nerve between the medulla and the left hypoglossal canal. The condylar fossa approach was used with intra-operative electromyography (EMG) monitoring of the lower cranial nerves. The tumor was then removed carefully without decreasing the tongue EMG responses. EMG monitoring enabled us to remove the tumor while maintaining the function of the hypoglossal nerve. Tongue EMG was easily recorded by stimulating the hypoglossal nerve fibers, which was useful in identifying the hypoglossal nerve and evaluating its function. This suggests that tongue EMG is a useful monitoring tool to enhance neurological outcome following removal of tumors in this region.

  9. Tongues in degree 4 Blaschke products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Jordi; Fagella, Núria; Garijo, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate the family of Blasche products {{B}a}(z)={{z}3}\\frac{z-a}{1-\\bar{a}z} , which is a rational family of perturbations of the doubling map. We focus on the tongue-like sets which appear in its parameter plane. We first study their basic topological properties and afterwards we investigate how bifurcations take place in a neighborhood of their tips. Finally we see how the fixed tongue extends beyond its natural domain of definition.

  10. Lingual neurofibroma causing dysaesthesia of the tongue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Eva; Nørgaard, Tove; Rye Rasmussen, Eva

    2013-01-01

    of otorhinolaryngology with irritation and dysaesthesia of the lateral aspect of the tongue. The only finding was a slightly red area from which a biopsy was taken. The macroscopic findings observed by the surgeon were consistent with normal tongue tissue. The histopathological examination showed a small, rounded tumour...... closely approximated to an invagination of the surface epithelium and with a small lymphatic infiltrate. The tumour was a neurofibroma. A Schwannoma type B was considered but the presence of small nerves and positive neurofilament reaction favoured a neurofibroma. The patient had no other neurofibromas...

  11. [Comparative imaging of cancers of the tongue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradji-Melia, P; Bruneton, J N; Balu-Maestro, C; Marcy, P Y; Dubruque, F; Dassonville, O

    1993-05-01

    In a comparative study of 18 cases of tongue cancer examined with ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the authors assess the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. MRI seems to be more effective for the detection of small lesions, the examination of the mobile part of the tongue, in case of dental artifacts, for the study of regional extension and to screen recurrence. CT retains its indications for large tumors in patients who are in a poor general condition, tired, and cannot stand lengthy examinations. Ultrasonography remains the first-intention examination in all cases because of its indisputable superiority for lymph node examination.

  12. Schwannoma of the tongue: one case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevio, E; Gorini, E; Lenzi, A; Migliorini, L

    2002-01-01

    The schwannomas are nervous tissue tumours that arise from Schwann cells; they are uncommon in peripheral nerves and rare in the tongue. After, a review of the literature, we present a case of schwannoma which arose in the ventral part of the body of the tongue. The tumour presented as a slowly growing mass producing few symptoms. The diagnosis of schwannoma is usually made post-operatively by histological identification although modern imaging techniques can provide useful indications. The treatment is exclusively surgical and usually enucleation of the mass is uncomplicated. There are no reports of malignant transformation.

  13. SCHWANNOMA OF THE TONGUE - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyananda Rao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A case report of an 18 - year - old young girl presented with a slow - growing, painless swelling on the right side of the tongue since 4 years. This was associated with disturbances in mastication. Examination revealed a 3 cm x 4 cm, globular smooth, mobile mass on right side of the tongue. There was no neurological deficit and no neck nodes palpable. She underwent excision of the mass under general anaesthesia. Complete enucleation with primary closure was carried out. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery and histo patho logical evaluation was consistent with schwannoma. The patient is recurrence free till date

  14. Tongue Control and Its Implication in Pronunciation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouni, Slim

    2014-01-01

    Pronunciation training based on speech production techniques illustrating tongue movements is gaining popularity. However, there is not sufficient evidence that learners can imitate some tongue animation. In this paper, we argue that although controlling tongue movement related to speech is not such an easy task, training with visual feedback…

  15. Evidence for an elastic projection mechanism in the chameleon tongue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de J.H.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2004-01-01

    To capture prey, chameleons ballistically project their tongues as far as 1.5 body lengths with accelerations of up to 500 m s-2. At the core of a chameleon's tongue is a cylindrical tongue skeleton surrounded by the accelerator muscle. Previously, the cylindrical accelerator muscle was assumed to p

  16. A three-dimensional atlas of human tongue muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ira; Mu, Liancai

    2013-07-01

    The human tongue is one of the most important yet least understood structures of the body. One reason for the relative lack of research on the human tongue is its complex anatomy. This is a real barrier to investigators as there are few anatomical resources in the literature that show this complex anatomy clearly. As a result, the diagnosis and treatment of tongue disorders lags behind that for other structures of the head and neck. This report intended to fill this gap by displaying the tongue's anatomy in multiple ways. The primary material used in this study was serial axial images of the male and female human tongue from the Visible Human (VH) Project of the National Library of Medicine. In addition, thick serial coronal sections of three human tongues were rendered translucent. The VH axial images were computer reconstructed into serial coronal sections and each tongue muscle was outlined. These outlines were used to construct a three-dimensional (3D) computer model of the tongue that allows each muscle to be seen in its in vivo anatomical position. The thick coronal sections supplement the 3D model by showing details of the complex interweaving of tongue muscles throughout the tongue. The graphics are perhaps the clearest guide to date to aid clinical or basic science investigators in identifying each tongue muscle in any part of the human tongue.

  17. Tongue controlled computer game: A new approach for rehabilitation of tongue motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of tongue-disability, age and gender on motor performance for a tongue training paradigm involving playing a computer game using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). Design: Two controlled observational studies. Setting: A neurorehabilitation center and a dental...... training lasted 30 min and 40 min respectively. The participants were instructed to play a computer game with the tongue using TDS. Main Outcome Measures: Motor performance was compared between groups in both studies. Correlation analyses were performed between age and relative improvement in performance...... young participants performed better than healthy elderly (Peffect of gender (P=0.140). There was a significant negative correlation between age and relative improvement in performance (δ=-0.450, P=0.009). There were no significant differences in subject-based reports...

  18. Ablation of advanced tongue or base of tongue cancer and reconstruction with free flap: functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C Y; Su, C Y; Hwang, C F; Chuang, H C; Jeng, S F; Chen, Y C

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the functional outcomes of patients who underwent total or nearly total glossectomy for advanced tongue or base of tongue cancer. We used the radial forearm free flap (RFFF), anterior lateral thigh flap (ALTF) or fibular osteocutaneous flap (FOCF) to reconstruct the oral defect after radical resection in 39 patients undergoing total or nearly total glossectomy with laryngeal preservation. Good functional outcomes, measured by independent feeding, speech and swallowing were achieved in 35, 36 and 35 patients, respectively. The cumulative 4-year survival rates were 63.8% for tongue cancer and 42.9% for base of tongue cancer. Reconstruction with free flaps is a feasible method to restore the functional outcomes in speech and deglutition among patients who undergo total or nearly total glossectomy with laryngeal preservation.

  19. Use of a biomechanical tongue model to predict the impact of tongue surgery on speech production

    CERN Document Server

    Buchaillard, Stéphanie; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents predictions of the consequences of tongue surgery on speech production. For this purpose, a 3D finite element model of the tongue is used that represents this articulator as a deformable structure in which tongue muscles anatomy is realistically described. Two examples of tongue surgery, which are common in the treatment of cancers of the oral cavity, are modelled, namely a hemiglossectomy and a large resection of the mouth floor. In both cases, three kinds of possible reconstruction are simulated, assuming flaps with different stiffness. Predictions are computed for the cardinal vowels /i, a, u/ in the absence of any compensatory strategy, i.e. with the same motor commands as the one associated with the production of these vowels in non-pathological conditions. The estimated vocal tract area functions and the corresponding formants are compared to the ones obtained under normal conditions

  20. A Normative-Speaker Validation Study of Two Indices Developed to Quantify Tongue Dorsum Activity from Midsagittal Tongue Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    This study reported adult scores on two measures of tongue shape, based on midsagittal tongue shape data from ultrasound imaging. One of the measures quantified the extent of tongue dorsum excursion, and the other measure represented the place of maximal excursion. Data from six adult speakers of Scottish Standard English without speech disorders…

  1. The epithelia of the protrusible tongue of Eurycea longicauda guttolineata (Hoolbrook 1838) (Urodela: Plethodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opolka, Alfred; Effing, Ute; Wistuba, Joachim; Clemen, Günter

    2003-02-01

    In this study the lingual and sublingual glands, the lingual stem and the epithelial surface of the protrusible secondary tongue were investigated by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The quality of the secretions of the epithelia was characterized histochemically. The lingual epithelium is formed by superficial (pavement) and goblet cells and at the margin of the tongue pad are also regions covered by ciliated cells. On the dorsal part of the tongue there are goblet cells of type A with mainly acidic secretions and of type B containing neutral secretions. Most of the goblet cells on the ventral side of the tongue (hypoglottis) show a strong alcian blue/PAS positive reaction (type I) and some produce neutral secretions (type II). The glandular cells of the lingual gland react positively to alcian blue and PAS in the apical region of the gland. In contrast there is only alcian blue-positive staining in the basal part of the gland. The size and complexity of the inclusion bodies of the secretory granules increase in a basal direction. In addition, there are ciliated cells in the glandular epithelium. Although the epithelium of the lingual stem is thin, it is double-layered. The cell types observed in this region are identical to those of the ventral part of the protrusible tongue. At the margin of the sublingual gland are trough-like structures. In the center, tubular parts are observed. The cells of this gland are stain strongly with alcian blue (pH 1.0) mainly in the basal part of the gland. The results of this are compared to the tongue pad and the lingual gland of Salamandra salamandra and Ambystoma mexicanum.

  2. Morphological adaptations of yak (Bos grunniens) tongue to the foraging environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, B; Long, R; Ding, Y; Wang, J; Ding, L; Wang, H

    2010-08-01

    Using light and scanning electron microscopy, the morphological adaptations of the yak (Bos grunniens) tongue to its foraging environment in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were studied. The tongue of the yak was compared with that of cattle (Bos taurus). Compared with cattle, yak tongues are on average 4 cm shorter (P tongue into the harsh environment. The lingual prominence of yak is greater (P tongue and the upper palate. Filiform, conical, lenticular, fungiform, and vallate papillae were observed on the dorsal surface of the tongues studied; no foliate papillae were observed. The papillae were covered by keratinized epithelium, which was thicker (P epithelium, whereas they are multilayered (2 to 4) in those papillae in cattle. The number of taste buds in each vallate papillae was less (P < 0.001) in the yak than in cattle. Therefore, the gustatory function of the yak was weaker than in cattle. Yaks graze throughout the year on diverse natural grasslands and have evolved morphological characteristics enabling them to consume a wide variety of plant species, thereby better adapting them to the typically harsh characteristics of their pastures.

  3. Powering embedded electronics for wind turbine monitoring using multi-source energy harvesting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S. R.; Taylor, S. G.; Raby, E. Y.; Farinholt, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    With a global interest in the development of clean, renewable energy, wind energy has seen steady growth over the past several years. Advances in wind turbine technology bring larger, more complex turbines and wind farms. An important issue in the development of these complex systems is the ability to monitor the state of each turbine in an effort to improve the efficiency and power generation. Wireless sensor nodes can be used to interrogate the current state and health of wind turbine structures; however, a drawback of most current wireless sensor technology is their reliance on batteries for power. Energy harvesting solutions present the ability to create autonomous power sources for small, low-power electronics through the scavenging of ambient energy; however, most conventional energy harvesting systems employ a single mode of energy conversion, and thus are highly susceptible to variations in the ambient energy. In this work, a multi-source energy harvesting system is developed to power embedded electronics for wind turbine applications in which energy can be scavenged simultaneously from several ambient energy sources. Field testing is performed on a full-size, residential scale wind turbine where both vibration and solar energy harvesting systems are utilized to power wireless sensing systems. Two wireless sensors are investigated, including the wireless impedance device (WID) sensor node, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and an ultra-low power RF system-on-chip board that is the basis for an embedded wireless accelerometer node currently under development at LANL. Results indicate the ability of the multi-source harvester to successfully power both sensors.

  4. Peritoneal mesothelioma metastasis to the tongue – Comparison with 8 pleural mesothelioma reports with tongue metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa V. Vazquez

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Metastasis of MM to the tongue is rare and usually in the uncommon context of MM with multiple sites of extra-thoracic or extra-abdominal spread. We have described a unique clinical manifestation of a rare subtype of mesothelioma. Moreover, we have tabulated and summarised details (including responses to surgery or/and radiotherapy regarding all reported cases of mesotheliomas with tongue metastasis.

  5. Assessing medication adherence simultaneously by electronic monitoring and pill count in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzenoort, H.A.W. van; Verberk, W.J.; Kessels, A.G.; Kroon, A.A.; Neef, C.; Kuy, P.H. van der; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to antihypertensive medication is one of the major problems in the treatment of hypertension. Electronic monitoring is currently considered to be the gold standard for assessing adherence, but it may trigger patients to open the pill bottle without taking medication or to

  6. ST-analysis in electronic foetal monitoring is cost-effective from both the maternal and neonatal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van ’t Hooft, Janneke; Vink, Maarten; Opmeer, Brent C.; Ensing, Sabine; Kwee, Anneke; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Electronic foetal monitoring (EFM) together with non-invasive ST-analysis (STAN) has been suggested as a superior technique to EFM alone for foetal surveillance to prevent metabolic acidosis. This study aims to compare the cost-effectiveness of these two techniques from both maternal (sho

  7. Identification of high-risk areas for harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena bycatch using remote electronic monitoring and satellite telemetry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt-Larsen, Lotte; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Tougaard, J.

    2016-01-01

    and lower risk of porpoise bycatch. From May 2010 to April 2011, 4 commercial gillnet vessels were equipped with remote electronic monitoring (REM) systems. The REM system recorded time, GPS position and closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage of all gillnet hauls. REM data were used to identify fishing...

  8. The Tongue Map, Real or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    Students need practice in proposing hypotheses, developing experiments that will test these hypotheses, and generating data that they will analyze to support or refute them. I describe a guided-inquiry activity based on the "tongue map" concept, appropriate for middle school and high school students.

  9. Ground-Tracking With a Forked Tongue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Scientists since Aristotle’s day have wondered why the tongues of snakes and many lizards——are forked, a trait that dates from at least the Cretaceous,more than 65 million years ago.Now Kurt Schwenk,a University of Connecticut evolutionary biologist, thinks he knows the answer. "It gives them the abil-

  10. Native American Languages as Heritage Mother Tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Teresa L.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines current efforts to revitalise, stabilise, and maintain Indigenous languages in the USA. Most Native American languages are no longer acquired as a first language by children. They are nonetheless languages of identity and heritage, and in this sense can and should be considered mother tongues. The article begins with a…

  11. Mother Tongue Education: Necessary? Possible? Sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Barbara Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Issues affecting pre-school education in a rural area of Kenya are highlighted in a study of a mother tongue education (MTE) programme in one indigenous language group, the Pokomo. Factors supporting the introduction of MTE include official support for MTE, the welcoming of non-government stakeholder involvement in education, the presence of…

  12. Acute dystonia mimicking angioedema of the tongue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Pallesen, Kristine A U; Bygum, Anette

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of acute dystonia of the face, jaw and tongue caused by metoclopramide and mimicking angioedema. The patient had attacks for several years before the correct diagnosis was made and we present the first ever published video footage of an attack. This adverse drug reaction is known...

  13. Histological and morphological observations on tongue of Scincella tsinlingensis (Reptilia, Squamata, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The histology and morphology characteristics of the tongue in Scincella tsinlingensis were studied by light and electronic microscopy. Under light microscopy, the tongue consists of tip, lingual body and radix in sequence. Numerous lingual papillae widely distribute on the surface of the dorsal and ventral flanks in the tongue, in addition to some regions of the tip. The papillae's surface is covered with the epithelial layer. The lamina propria and dense connective tissue are distinct existing under the epithelial layer. There are many lingual glands spread over the lamina propria. Tongue muscle is developed and composed of distinct intrinsic muscle, hyoglossus and genioglossus. By scanning electron microscopy, at higher magnification, the epithelial cells of the dorsal surface in the divaricate tongue tips show numerous microvilli, micro-ridges and micro-pores. The surface of dorsal side of the papillae in lingual body is covered with abundant of micro-ridges and taste bud lacuna. On the surface of the papillae in radix, micro-facets and micro-ridges are compactly distributed, as well as scattered mucilage-pores. The lingual epithelium is divided into four layers observed by the transmission electron microscope. Cells of basal layer are irregularly elliptical in shape, with sparse organelles in the cytoplasm. The deep intermediate layer is not always distinct. Small numbers of organelles are scattered into the cytoplasm. The cells of the superficial intermediate layer gradually flatten, as do their nuclei. The cytoplasm contains many keratohyalin granules. Cell membranes are formed processes around cells and joined by abundant desmosomes to the cell membranes of adjacent cells. The cells located on the extreme free-surface side of the keratinized layer have fallen off. The basal lamina is intercalated between the basal layer and the lamina propria. The lamina propria of lingual body contains lingual gland. A large part of the cytoplasm is occupied by mucus

  14. ADIEU TO TONGUE TIE. LINGUAL FRENECTOMY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Sanadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A Frenum is a fold of mucous membrane, usually with enclosed muscle fibers, that attaches the lips and cheeks to the alveolar mucosa and/or mucosa and underlying periosteum. Tongue tie or ankyloglossia is a developmental anomaly of the tongue characterized by an abnormally short, thick lingual frenum resulting in limitation of tongue movement. It causes difficulty in speech articulation due to limitation in tongue movement. In this article we report a case of 24 years old female with Tongue tie, complaining of difficulty in speech. It was surgically treated with uneventful healing and good patient satisfaction.

  15. Availability of Tongue Diagnosis System for Assessing Tongue Coating Thickness in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyeon Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is an important procedure in traditional Korean medicine (TKM. In particular, tongue coating thickness (TCT is deemed to show the progression of the disease. However, conventional tongue diagnosis has limitations because of various external factors. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the availability of tongue diagnosis system (TDS in the assessment of TCT. This study has been designed as a prospective clinical trial involving 60 patients with functional dyspepsia. Tongue images will be obtained by TDS twice with a 30 min interval. The system will measure the percentage of TCT and classify it as either no coating, thin coating, or thick coating according to the existing diagnostic criteria. After finishing the collection of 60 patients' tongue images, TCT on the images will be simultaneously evaluated by the conventional method to establish the gold standard for assessing TCT by 5 well-trained clinicians. The evaluation will be repeated by the same clinicians after 2 weeks, but the order of the images will be changed. This trial is expected to provide clinical evidence for the availability of TDS as a diagnostic tool and to contribute to the standardization of the diagnosis system used in TKM. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01864837.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Pressure Fluctuation around the Tongue Region in a Centrifugal Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L. L.; Dou, H.-S.; Chen, X. P.; Zhu, Z. C.; Cui, B. L.

    2016-11-01

    Pressure fluctuation near the tongue is one of the primary sources of pump vibration and noise. In order to investigate the effect of pressure fluctuation near the tongue, the RANS equations and the RNG k-epsilon turbulence model are employed to simulate the flow in the pump. The SIMPLE algorithm is applied to couple the solutions of the system of equations. Flow field within the centrifugal pump under different flow rates are obtained by simulation. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data to verify the reliability of the calculation model. It is found that the pressure fluctuation at each monitor point is a periodic wave but non-uniform under small flow rate. When the flow rate is larger than the design flow rate, average pressure and standard deviation at monitor points is relative uniform. The dominate frequency of pressure fluctuation is the blade passing frequency and the amplitude of pressure fluctuation is regular. At small flow rate, complex unstable flow makes average pressure and standard deviation at monitor points increasing obviously. Amplitude of pressure fluctuation is larger than that of design flow rate conditions and the maximum amplitude of pressure fluctuation in frequency domain exists at the monitor point just behind the tongue along the impeller rotation direction.

  17. Sociolegal characteristics and parole infractions among Israeli released prisoners during electronic monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Efrat; Yehosha-Stern, Shirley; Efodi, Rotem

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the part played by sociolegal characteristics such as ethnic background, family status, or criminal past in the rate of infractions among ex-prisoners in Electronic Monitoring (EM) Programs. In addition, it focuses on the nature of the formal decisions made by community supervision agents regarding such infractions and their correlation with the sociolegal characteristics of the participants. The research population included all prisoners on license (i.e., prisoners who have been granted conditional early release) who took part in the EM project from mid-2007 until mid-2009 (24 months), altogether 155 participants. The data show no significant correlation between the number of infractions and the participant's sociolegal background. In spite of the fact that the EM coordinators have extensive discretionary power, which is likely to lead to discrimination attributable to variables such as ethnicity, this research shows that the most efficacious variable for explaining formal responses is an objective one-the number of infractions.

  18. Feasibility study of a single-shot 3D electron bunch shape monitor with an electro-optic sampling technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Okayasu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed a three-dimensional electron bunch charge distribution (3D-BCD monitor with single-shot detection, and a spectral decoding based electro-optic (EO sampling technique for a nondestructive monitor enables real-time reconstruction of the three-dimensional distribution of a bunch charge. We realized three goals by simultaneously probing a number of Pockels EO crystals that surround the electron beam axis with hollow and radial polarized laser pulses. First, we performed a feasibility test as a simple case of a 3D-BCD monitor probing two ZnTe crystals as EO detectors installed on the opposite angle to the electron beam axis and confirmed that we simultaneously obtained both EO signals. Since the adopted hollow probe laser pulse is not only radially polarized but also temporally shifted azimuthally, some disorders in the radial polarization distribution of such a laser pulse were numerically analyzed with a plane-wave expansion method. Based on the above investigations, the 3D-BCD monitor is feasible both in experimental and numerical estimations. Furthermore, we previously developed a femtosecond response organic crystal as a Pockels EO detector and a broadband probe laser (≥350  nm in FWHM; the 3D-BCD monitor realizes 30- to 40-fs (FWHM temporal resolution. Eventually, the monitor is expected to be equipped in such advanced accelerators as XFEL to measure and adjust the electron bunch charge distribution in real time. The 3D-BCD measurement works as a critical tool to provide feedback to seeded FELs.

  19. A 3-Dimensional Atlas of Human Tongue Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANDERS, IRA; MU, LIANCAI

    2013-01-01

    The human tongue is one of the most important yet least understood structures of the body. One reason for the relative lack of research on the human tongue is its complex anatomy. This is a real barrier to investigators as there are few anatomical resources in the literature that show this complex anatomy clearly. As a result, the diagnosis and treatment of tongue disorders lags behind that for other structures of the head and neck. This report intended to fill this gap by displaying the tongue’s anatomy in multiple ways. The primary material used in this study was serial axial images of the male and female human tongue from the Visible Human (VH) Project of the National Library of Medicine. In addition, thick serial coronal sections of three human tongues were rendered translucent. The VH axial images were computer reconstructed into serial coronal sections and each tongue muscle was outlined. These outlines were used to construct a 3-dimensional computer model of the tongue that allows each muscle to be seen in its in vivo anatomical position. The thick coronal sections supplement the 3-D model by showing details of the complex interweaving of tongue muscles throughout the tongue. The graphics are perhaps the clearest guide to date to aid clinical or basic science investigators in identifying each tongue muscle in any part of the human tongue. PMID:23650264

  20. A soft biomimetic tongue: model reconstruction and motion tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuanming; Xu, Weiliang; Li, Xiaoning

    2016-04-01

    A bioinspired robotic tongue which is actuated by a network of compressed air is proposed for the purpose of mimicking the movements of human tongue. It can be applied in the fields such as medical science and food engineering. The robotic tongue is made of two kinds of silicone rubber Ecoflex 0030 and PDMS with the shape simplified from real human tongue. In order to characterize the robotic tongue, a series of experiments were carried out. Laser scan was applied to reconstruct the static model of robotic tongue when it was under pressurization. After each scan, the robotic tongue was scattered into dense points in the same 3D coordinate system and the coordinates of each point were recorded. Motion tracking system (OptiTrack) was used to track and record the whole process of deformation dynamically during the loading and unloading phase. In the experiments, five types of deformation were achieved including roll-up, roll-down, elongation, groove and twist. Utilizing the discrete points generated by laser scan, the accurate parameterized outline of robotic tongue under different pressure was obtained, which could help demonstrate the static characteristic of robotic tongue. The precise deformation process under one pressure was acquired through the OptiTrack system which contains a series of digital cameras, markers on the robotic tongue and a set of hardware and software for data processing. By means of tracking and recording different process of deformation under different pressure, the dynamic characteristic of robotic tongue could be achieved.

  1. Case report macroglossia: Review and application of tongue reduction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilommi R. Irhamni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital macroglossia is uncommon condition, Enlargement can be true as seen in vascular malformations or muscular enlargement. It may cause significant symptoms in children such as sleep apnea, respiratory distress, drooling, difficulty in swallowing and dysarthria. Long-standing macroglossia leads to an anterior open bite deformity, mucosal changes, exposure to potential trauma, increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and failure to thrive. Tongue movements, sounds and Speech articulation may also be affected. It is important to achieve uniform global reduction of the enlarged tongue for functional as well as esthetic reasons. The multiple techniques advocated for tongue reduction reveal that an ideal procedure has yet to emerge. In our case report we describe a modified reduction technique of the tongue globally preserving the taste, sensation and mobility of the tongue suitable for cases of enlargement of the tongue as in muscular hypertrophy. It can be used for repeat reductions without jeopardizing the mobility and sensibility of the tongue.

  2. Design of a proton-electron beam overlap monitor for the new RHIC electron lens, based on detecting energetic backscattered electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieberger T.; Beebe, E.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D.; Gu, X.; Hamdi, K.; Hock, J.; Minty, M.; Miller, T.; Montag, C.; Pikin, A.

    2012-04-15

    The optimal performance of the two electron lenses that are being implemented for high intensity polarized proton operation of RHIC requires excellent collinearity of the {approx}0.3 mm RMS wide electron beams with the proton bunch trajectories over the {approx}2m interaction lengths. The main beam overlap diagnostic tool will make use of electrons backscattered in close encounters with the relativistic protons. These electrons will spiral along the electron guiding magnetic field and will be detected in a plastic scintillator located close to the electron gun. A fraction of these electrons will have energies high enough to emerge from the vacuum chamber through a thin window thus simplifying the design and operation of the detector. The intensity of the detected electrons provides a measure of the overlap between the e- and the opposing proton beams. Joint electron arrival time and energy discrimination may be used additionally to gain some longitudinal position information with a single detector per lens.

  3. Topographical organization of TRPV1-immunoreactive epithelium and CGRP-immunoreactive nerve terminals in rodent tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kawashima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1 is activated by capsaicin, acid, and heat and mediates pain through peripheral nerves. In the tongue, TRPV1 expression has been reported also in the epithelium. This indicates a possibility that sensation is first received by the epithelium. However, how nerves receive sensations from the epithelium remains unclear. To clarify the anatomical basis of this interaction, we performed immunohistochemical studies in the rodent tongue to detect TRPV1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, a neural marker. Strong expression of TRPV1 in the epithelium was observed and was restricted to the apex of the tongue. Double immunohistochemical staining revealed that CGRP-expressing nerve terminals were in close apposition to the strongly TRPV1-expressing epithelium of fungiform papilla in the apex of rodent tongues. These results suggest that the TRPV1-expressing epithelium monitors the oral environment and acquired information may then be conducted to the adjacent CGRPexpressing terminals.

  4. Simulations of the consequences of tongue surgery on tongue mobility: implications for speech production in post-surgery conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Buchaillard, Stéphanie; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents simulations of the impact of tongue surgery on tongue movements and on speech articulation. For this, a 3D biomechanical Finite Element (FE) model of the tongue is used. Muscles are represented within the FE structure by specific subsets of elements. The tongue model is inserted in the upper airways including jaw, palate and pharyngeal walls. Two examples of tongue surgery, which are quite common in the treatment of cancers of the oral cavity are modelled: hemiglossectomy and large resection of the mouth floor. Three kinds of reconstruction are also modelled, assuming flaps with a low, medium or high stiffnesses. The impact of the surgery without any reconstruction and with the three different reconstructions is quantitatively measured and compared during simulated speech production sequences. More precisely, differences in global 3D tongue shape and in velocity patterns during tongue displacements are evaluated.

  5. Applications of Hobbyist Electronics in Monitoring Stemflow Processes: Preliminary Insights and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle-Moses, D. E.; Turner, B.; Hill, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Leveraging the power and adaptability of inexpensive, accessible hobbyist electronics it has been possible to gain insights into the processes governing stemflow. The sensor platform utilizes an Arduino® microcontroller equipped with an ultrasonic sensor and wetness sensor as well as a GPS unit for accurate timestamps. The wetness sensor, which is attached to the terminus of a collection tube diverting water entering the stemflow collar to a collection vessel, provides the precise time in which stemflow commences. In turn, this time can be compared with the time stamp record of a high precision tipping-bucket rain gauge so that the rain depth required for stemflow generation can be derived. In addition, the ultrasonic sensor mounted above the stemflow collection vessel monitors changes in water depth over time. The changes in water depth are then converted to volumetric changes allowing for reasonable approximations of stemflow flow rates throughout the storm event. As a trial, the stemflow monitoring platform was deployed from May 1 to June 30, 2016 on an ornamental Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) tree on the grounds of Thompson Rivers University in Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada (500 40' 25" N, 1200 21' 50" W). The tree was in full-leaf condition, was 7.4 m in height and had a diameter at breast height of 10.8 cm. Rain totaled 77.2 mm during the study and was distributed over 15 events (mean = 5.1 mm, range = 0.2 - 14.3 mm), with the five smallest rain events (0.2 - 1.3 mm) not producing stemflow. The study period funneling ratio was 14.0 (event range = 0.0 - 40.0). Regression analysis revealed that for events in which stemflow was produced, rainfall depth explained only 50.2 percent of the variation in event stemflow volumes. The variant nature of stemflow in our study was a consequence of both highly variable mean event flow rates once stemflow had commenced (mean = 0.197 L / mm of rain, coefficient of variation = 0.67, range = 0.009 - 0.444 L

  6. Occlusal caries detection and quantification by DIAGNOdent and Electronic Caries Monitor: in vitro comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamzahim, Mohammad; Shi, Xie-Qi; Angmar-Månsson, Birgit

    2002-12-01

    The Electronic Caries Monitor (ECM) and the recently introduced laser-based KaVo DIAGNOdent have been developed as clinical diagnostic aids in the detection and quantification of occlusal carious lesions. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare their reproducibility and validity. The ability of DIAGNOdent to retrieve sites of occlusal carious lesions without reference to photographs or drawings from previous assessments was also tested. The material comprised 87 premolar teeth: the occlusal surfaces were sound or exhibited non-cavity carious lesions of varying severity. All were photographed and measured by DIAGNOdent and ECM on 2 occasions, 2 weeks apart. The teeth were then sectioned into 300 microm thick slices. Two observers independently classified the sections according to the histopathology, into 5 categories, ranging from sound to dentinal caries in the inner part of the dentin. Statistical analysis comprised intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) to test reproducibility and regression analysis of validity. Sensitivity and specificity were also calculated for detection of D3 lesions for both devices. DIAGNOdent recorded maximum readings at identical sites on both occasions in 89% of the teeth. The ICC for readings on 2 separate occasions was 0.97 for DIAGNOdent and 0.71 for ECM. The correlations with histology were r = 0.93 and 0.83, for DIAGNOdent and ECM, respectively. For detection of D3 lesions, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.8 and 1 for DIAGNOdent and 0.75 and 0.88 for ECM. In this in vitro study, DIAGNOdent was superior to ECM for occlusal caries detection.

  7. Electronic noses for monitoring benzene occupational exposure in biological samples of Egyptian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab I. Mohamed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Benzene is commonly emitted in several industries, leading to widespread environmental and occupational exposure hazards. While less toxic solvents have been substituted for benzene, it is still a component of petroleum products and is a trace impurity in industrial products resulting in continued higher occupational exposures in industrial settings in developing countries. Materials and Methods: We investigated the potential use of an electronic nose (e-nose to monitor the headspace volatiles in biological samples from benzene-exposed Egyptian workers and non-exposed controls. The study population comprised 150 non-smoking male workers exposed to benzene and an equal number of matching non-exposed controls. We determined biomarkers of benzene used to estimate exposure and risk including: benzene in exhaled air and blood; and its urinary metabolites such as phenol and muconic acid using gas chromatography technique and a portable e-nose. Results: The average benzene concentration measured in the ambient air of the workplace of all studied industrial settings in Alexandria, Egypt; was 97.56±88.12 μg/m3 (range: 4.69–260.86 μg/m3. Levels of phenol and muconic acid were signifi cantly (p < 0.001 higher in both blood and urine of benzene-exposed workers as compared to non-exposed controls. Conclusions: The e-nose technology has successfully classifi ed and distinguished benzene-exposed workers from non-exposed controls for all measured samples of blood, urine and the exhaled air with a very high degree of precision. Thus, it will be a very useful tool for the low-cost mass screening and early detection of health hazards associated with the exposure to benzene in the industry.

  8. Proposal for a New Noncontact Method for Measuring Tongue Moisture to Assist in Tongue Diagnosis and Development of the Tongue Image Analyzing System, Which Can Separately Record the Gloss Components of the Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Nakaguchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is a noninvasive diagnosis and is traditionally one of the most important tools for physicians who practice Kampo (traditional Japanese medicine. However, it is a subjective process, and its results can depend on the experience of the physician performing it. Previous studies have reported how to measure and evaluate the shape and color of the tongue objectively. Therefore, this study focused on the glossy component in order to quantify tongue moisture in tongue diagnosis. We hypothesized that moisture appears as a gloss in captured images and measured the amount of water on the tongue surface in 13 subjects. The results showed a high correlation between the degree of gloss and the amount of water on the tongue surface and suggested that the moisture on the tongue can be estimated by the degree of gloss in a captured image. Because the moisture level on the tongue changes during the course of taking photos, it became clear that we had to wait at least 3 minutes between photos. Based on these results, we established the tongue image analyzing system (TIAS, which can consistently record the gloss and color of the tongue surface simultaneously.

  9. Improved denture retention in patients with retracted tongues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hua; Chen, Jen-Hao; Lee, Huey-Er; Chang, Hong-Po; Chen, Hong-Sen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Chou, Tsau-Mau

    2009-08-01

    Patients who wear mandibular dentures and hold their tongues in retracted positions alter the dimensions of the sublingual space and disrupt the peripheral seal that is needed for optimal denture retention. The authors studied whether retention could be improved if patients moved their tongues from a retracted resting position to an ideal resting position. The authors observed and classified the mandibular residual ridge morphologies of 85 participants who wore complete dentures. The authors recorded and compared the retention of the mandibular denture before and after repositioning the tongue to the ideal resting position. When the participants' tongues were in a retracted resting position, the average retention of the mandibular denture was 75.38 gram weight (+/- 81.83 standard deviation [SD]). After participants repositioned their tongues to the ideal resting position, the average retention of the mandibular denture was 118.89 gw (+/- 93.00 SD), an increase of 57.73 percent. In all morphological classes, when participants held their tongues in the ideal resting position, the average mandibular denture retention increased by 57.73 percent, a statistically significant improvement compared with when participants held their tongues in a retracted resting position. Clinicians are encouraged to evaluate carefully the tongue resting position in all patients who wear dentures, help create reasonable therapeutic expectations by informing patients about the significant effect that tongue position will have on future denture retention and provide helpful neuromuscular training for patients with retracted-tongue habits.

  10. Electronic coupling of colloidal CdSe nanocrystals monitored by thin-film positron-electron momentum density methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijt, S.W.H.; Mijnarends, P.E.; van Schaarenburg, L.C.; Houtepen, A.J.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.A.M.; Barbiellini, B.; Bansil, A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of temperature controlled annealing on the confined valence electron states in CdSe nanocrystal arrays, deposited as thin films, was studied using two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation. A reduction in the intensity by 35% was observed in a feature of the positron

  11. Electronic coupling of colloidal CdSe nanocrystals monitored by thin-film positron-electron momentum density methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijt, S.W.H.; Mijnarends, P.E.; van Schaarenburg, L.C.; Houtepen, A.J.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.A.M.; Barbiellini, B.; Bansil, A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of temperature controlled annealing on the confined valence electron states in CdSe nanocrystal arrays, deposited as thin films, was studied using two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation. A reduction in the intensity by 35% was observed in a feature of the positron a

  12. Carcinoma cuniculatum arising in the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavaraj, Selvam; Cobb, Alistair; Kalavrezos, Nicholas; Beale, Timothy; Walker, Donald Murray; Jay, Amrita

    2012-03-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum (CC) is a rare, distinct clinico-pathological variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that is defined histologically by the characteristic infiltrative pattern of a deep, broad, and complex proliferation of stratified squamous epithelium with keratin cores and keratin-filled crypts. Herein, we present a case report of CC of the oral tongue and discuss its diagnosis, management, and outcome, as well as briefly review the world literature. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of CC of the tongue to be reported in the English literature. We draw attention to its clinico-pathological features and highlight that awareness of this entity as a distinct variant of SCC facilitates its correct management.

  13. Flow and mixing around a glacier tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Stevens

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A glacier tongue floating in the coastal ocean presents a significant obstacle to the local flow and influences oceanic mixing and transport processes. Here ocean shear microstructure observations at a glacier tongue side-wall show tidally-induced flow pulses and vortices as well as concomitant mixing. Flow speeds within the pulses reached around three times that of the ambient tidal flow amplitude and generated vertical velocity shear as large as 3×10−3 s−1. During the maximum flow period turbulent energy dissipation rates reached a maximum of 10−5 m2 s−3, around three decades greater than local background levels. This is in keeping with estimates of the gradient Richardson Number which dropped to around unity. Associated vertical diffusivities are higher that expected from parameterization, possibly reflecting the proximity of the cryotopography.

  14. Biomolecular Markers in Cancer of the Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daris Ferrari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tongue cancer is increasing worldwide, and its aggressiveness remains high regardless of treatment. Genetic changes and the expression of abnormal proteins have been frequently reported in the case of head and neck cancers, but the little information that has been published concerning tongue tumours is often contradictory. This review will concentrate on the immunohistochemical expression of biomolecular markers and their relationships with clinical behaviour and prognosis. Most of these proteins are associated with nodal stage, tumour progression and metastases, but there is still controversy concerning their impact on disease-free and overall survival, and treatment response. More extensive clinical studies are needed to identify the patterns of molecular alterations and the most reliable predictors in order to develop tailored anti-tumour strategies based on the targeting of hypoxia markers, vascular and lymphangiogenic factors, epidermal growth factor receptors, intracytoplasmatic signalling and apoptosis.

  15. Outward electron transfer by Saccharomyces cerevisiae monitored with a bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell-type activity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducommun, Raphaël; Favre, Marie-France; Carrard, Delphine; Fischer, Fabian

    2010-03-01

    A Janus head-like bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell was constructed to monitor the electron transfer from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to a woven carbon anode. The experiments were conducted during an ethanol cultivation of 170 g/l glucose in the presence and absence of yeast-peptone medium. First, using a basic fuel-cell type activity sensor, it was shown that yeast-peptone medium contains electroactive compounds. For this purpose, 1% solutions of soy peptone and yeast extract were subjected to oxidative conditions, using a microbial fuel cell set-up corresponding to a typical galvanic cell, consisting of culture medium in the anodic half-cell and 0.5 M K(3)Fe(CN)(6) in the cathodic half-cell. Second, using a bi-cathodic microbial fuel cell, it was shown that electrons were transferred from yeast cells to the carbon anode. The participation of electroactive compounds in the electron transport was separated as background current. This result was verified by applying medium-free conditions, where only glucose was fed, confirming that electrons are transferred from yeast cells to the woven carbon anode. Knowledge about the electron transfer through the cell membrane is of importance in amperometric online monitoring of yeast fermentations and for electricity production with microbial fuel cells.

  16. Detection of odoriferous subgingival and tongue microbiota in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with oral malodor using polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh R Kamaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Halitosis has been correlated with the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs produced in the oral cavity by metabolic activity of bacteria colonizing the periodontal pockets and the dorsum of the tongue. It has been assumed that there is a relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus. Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the malodor using the organoleptic method and tanita device; to quantify odoriferous microorganisms of subgingival plaque and tongue coating, such as P. gingivalis (Pg, T. forsythia (Tf, and F. nucleatum (Fn using polymerase chain reaction (PCR in nondiabetic and diabetic chronic periodontitis patients. Patients and Methods: Thirty chronic periodontitis patients (with and without diabetes with 5-7 mm pocket depth, radiographic evidence of bone loss, and presence of oral malodor participated in this study. Subjective assessment of mouth air was done organoleptically and by using a portable sulfide monitor. Tongue coating was also assessed. Results: The scores of plaque index, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, VSC levels, and tongue coating between the nondiabetic and diabetic patients were not significant (P>0.5. In nondiabetic patients, Fn was found to be significantly (P0.5. In diabetic patients, Fn and Tf have shown significant (P<0.5 an increase in subgingival and tongue samples, respectively, whereas Pg has not shown significant difference between subgingival and tongue samples. Interpretation and Conclusion: The results confirm that there is no difference in clinical parameters between nondiabetic and diabetic periodontitis patients, but the odoriferous microbial profiles in tongue samples of diabetic patients were found to be high. However, there is a weak positive correlation between VSC levels, clinical parameters, and odoriferous microbial profiles.

  17. Tongue Liminary Threshold Identification to Electrotactile Stimulation

    CERN Document Server

    Robineau, Fabien; Orliaguet, Jean-Pierre; Payan, Yohan

    2007-01-01

    Many applications use electrostimulation of the human skin to provide tactile sensation. The effect of electrotactile stimulations were studied on a 6x6 matrix of tactile electrodes placed on the anterior part of the tongue. The liminary threshold with continuous or discontinuous waveform and patterns with 2 or 4 electrodes was investigated. The result suggest that for energy saving and to improve the yield, it would probably be better to use discontinuous stimulation with two electrode patterns.

  18. Actinomycosis of The Tongue: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniece Chowdary, Anirudh Kaul, Surinder Atri*

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is a bacterial, suppurative chronic infectious disease caused by Actinomyces israelli.Actinomycotic infections of the cervicofacial region are not uncommon , however Actinomycosis of tongueis rare. A mass that may mimic both benign and malignant neoplasms can be seen at clinical presentationand may mislead the diagnosis. We report a patient who presented with a tumor like tongue mass causingspeech disturbance and difficulty in swallowing, diagnosed as actinomycosis

  19. Cysticercosis of tongue: Cytohistologic approach to diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaswamy Koteeswaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is continuing to be a major health problem in developing countries. Radiological and serological techniques are routinely used for pre-operative diagnosis of cysticercosis. But fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is cost effective and simple procedure, so it is important to be aware of diagnostic pitfalls in the cytomorphologic diagnosis of cysticercosis. We present a case of cysticercosis of tongue, which accounts for only 34 cases in the world literature.

  20. The added value of an electronic monitoring and alerting system in the management of medication-overuse headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tassorelli, Cristina; Jensen, Rigmor; Allena, Marta

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a chronic disabling condition associated with a high rate of relapse. METHODS: We evaluated whether the adoption of electronic-assisted monitoring, advice and communication would improve the outcome over a follow-up of 6 months in a controlled......, multicentre, multinational study conducted in six headache centres located in Europe and Latin America. A total of 663 MOH subjects were enrolled and divided into two groups: the Comoestas group was monitored with an electronic diary associated with an alert system and a facilitated communication option...... of patients suffering from MOH after withdrawal from overused drugs. Information and communication technology represents a valid aid for optimizing the management of chronic conditions at risk of worsening or of relapsing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (no. NCT02435056)....

  1. Base of Tongue Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chiesa Estomba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that has displayed increasing incidence in the last decades. It is estimated that up to 20% of tuberculosis cases affect extra-pulmonary organs. In the ENT area, soft palate and tongue are the least probable locations.   Case Report A 62-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and treatment with corticosteroids and Adalimumab, developed a foreign body sensation in the pharynx accompanied by a sore throat and halitosis. The laryngoscopy with a 70 degree rigid telescope showed an ulcerated hypertrophic lesion in the right vallecula of about 2-3 cm in the base of the tongue. Acid-alcohol resistant bacilli were found positive for M. tuberculosis, through the Ziehl Neelsen method and Löwenstein culture the patient was treated with tuberculostatic medication. Conclusion:  TB is a possible diagnosis when in the presence of an ulcerated lesion at the base of the tongue, accompanied by sore throat, dysphagia, or foreign body sensation.

  2. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF LONG TERM TONGUE ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde Nidarsh D.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Oral ulcers is a very common disorder of the oral mucosa. Patients with signs or symptoms of oral ulcers are sometimes referred to gastroenterology clinics, however, in most instances the ulcers does not reflect gastrointestinal disease, some with a chronic non- healing ulcer are advised biopsy. Indeed, a spectrum of disorders can give rise to oral mucosal ulcers ranging from minor local trauma to significant local disease such as malignancy or systemic illness. Lesions of the tongue have a broad differential diagnosis ranging from benign idiopathic processes to infections, cancers, and infiltrative disorders. This article will focus on common ulcerative disorders of the tongue in aspects of their clinical features and differential diagnosis, two case reports with the diagnosis and conservative management for long-term chronic ulcers. The two cases which are reported in this article had a differential diagnosis of Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. The clinical picture was craterlike lesion, having a velvety-red base and a rolled, indurated border and most important painless in both cases. Removal of the irritant which was the tooth, rehabilitation of the oral mucosa by lubrication with Cocus Nucifera resulted in the healing of the ulcers. Functional components of Cocus Nucifera are Squaline, tocopherol, phytosterols and other sterols which are all plant steroids.

  3. Methods and studies of tongue reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahmi A. Numan; LIAO Gui-qing

    2007-01-01

    Total and even partial glossectomy could be a major event in the life of a patient. Tongue function is so complicated which makes maintaining normal functions of the tongue such as swallowing and speech and preserving larynx integrity after the surgery is a primary objective of the surgeon. This task is very difficult and the result is not predictable. Recent years, however, there has been interesting developments in microsurgical techniques, and these advancements enable oral and maxillofacial surgeons to achieve better results and improve the quality of their patient's life. The results even with use of the new technology are still far from perfect. Several reasons may cause variation in the result. Some of them have to do with the patient such as general health and other reasons are due to the method that is used and nature of the defect after the removal of the tumor. This article was undertaken to summarize the various methods and techniques used over the years to restore oral tongue functions after defects.

  4. TONGUE BASE SCHWANNOMA : A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schwannomas are the benign tumours arising from the Schwann cells. Intraoral and pharyngeal schwannomas are rare and constitute less than 1%. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 39 year old lady who presented with progressive dysphagia and dysphonia since three months. Intraoral examination showed a well - defined reddish lesion arising from the base of the tongue. She was referred to the department of radiodiagnosis for CT and MRI of the neck to know the extent of the lesion. Differential diagnosis of schwannoma and minor salivary gland tumor was given. Excision biopsy of the lesion was done and the histologic examination showed it as schwannoma. DISCUSSION: Schwannomas of the base of the tongue are rare and should be included in the differential diagnosis based on the imaging features and enhancem ent pattern. CONCLUSION: Imaging features, particularly MRI with contrast helps in differentiating benign from malignant lesions of the base of the tongue. Schwannomas are benign and have good prognosis as they can be excised when compared to the other intraoral malignant lesions.

  5. Effectiveness of a new toothbrush design versus a conventional tongue scraper in improving breath odor and reducing tongue microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Assirati Casemiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, specific instruments or regular toothbrushes have routinely been used to remove tongue biofilm and improve breath odor. Toothbrushes with a tongue scraper on the back of their head have recently been introduced to the market. The present study compared the effectiveness of a manual toothbrush with this new design, i.e., possessing a tongue scraper, and a commercial tongue scraper in improving breath odor and reducing the aerobic and anaerobic microbiota of tongue surface. The evaluations occurred at 4 moments, when the participants (n=30 had their halitosis quantified with a halimeter and scored according to a 4-point scoring system corresponding to different levels of intensity. Saliva was collected for counts of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Data were analyzed statistically by Friedman's test (p<0.05. When differences were detected, the Wilcoxon test adjusted for Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons (group to group. The results confirmed the importance of mechanical cleaning of the tongue, since this procedure provided an improvement in halitosis and reduction of aerobe and anaerobe counts. Regarding the evaluated methods, the toothbrush's tongue scraper and conventional tongue scraper had a similar performance in terms of breath improvement and reduction of tongue microbiota, and may be indicated as effective methods for tongue cleaning.

  6. Measuring Patient Adherence to Malaria Treatment: A Comparison of Results from Self-Report and a Customised Electronic Monitoring Device

    OpenAIRE

    Bruxvoort, K; Festo, C; Cairns, M.; Kalolella, A; Mayaya, F; Kachur, SP; Schellenberg, D; Goodman, C

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-report is the most common and feasible method for assessing patient adherence to medication, but can be prone to recall bias and social desirability bias. Most studies assessing adherence to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have relied on self-report. In this study, we use a novel customised electronic monitoring device—termed smart blister packs—to examine the validity of self-reported adherence to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in southern Tanzania. Methods Smart...

  7. Defatting Vestibuloplasty for Functional and Esthetic Reconstruction of Tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si-Yeok; Kim, Min-Keun; Kim, Seong-Gon; Kwon, Kwang-Jun; Byun, Jin-Soo; Park, Chan-Jin; Park, Young-Wook

    2014-11-01

    The radial forearm free flap (RFFF) is a thin and pliable tissue with many advantages for tongue reconstruction. However, tongues reconstructed with RFFF occasionally need revision surgery because inadequate defect measurement at primary surgery can lead to bulkiness and limited movement of reconstructed tongue. In this case, the patient underwent partial glossectomy and RFFF reconstruction for treatment of tongue cancer five years prior. We could not make a lower denture for the patient, because the alveolo-lingual sulcus of tongue was almost lost. So we performed vestibuloplasty with a modified Kazanjian method on the lingual vestibule of the mandibular right posterior area, and defatting surgery to debulk the flap. After surgery, we observed that the color and texture of the revised tongue changed to become similar with adjacent tissue. The patient obtained a more functional and esthetic outcome. Accordingly, we present a case report with a review of relevant literature.

  8. Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonadaceae on the dorsum of the human tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Conti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to correlate the presence of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae and Xanthomonadaceae on the posterior dorsum of the human tongue with the presence of tongue coating, gender, age, smoking habit and denture use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bacteria were isolated from the posterior tongue dorsum of 100 individuals in MacConkey agar medium and were identified by the API 20E system (Biolab-Mérieux. RESULTS: 43% of the individuals, presented the target microorganisms on the tongue dorsum, with greater prevalence among individuals between 40 and 50 years of age (p = 0.001 and non-smokers (p=0.0485. CONCLUSIONS: A higher prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae was observed on the tongue dorsum of the individuals evaluated. There was no correlation between these species and the presence and thickness of tongue coating, gender and presence of dentures.

  9. 电子舌分析山西老陈醋固态发酵过程及主要有机酸的预测%Analysis of the solid-state fermentation of Shanxi aged vinegar and prediction of key organic acids using electronic tongues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宏福; 董爱静; 聂志强; 王敏; 郑宇; 林枫

    2015-01-01

    Shanxi aged vinegar,one of famous vinegars in China,is brewed using traditional solid-state fermentation technology.During the fermentation process,abundant organic acids which give the vinegar unique taste and flavor are produced.In this research,the samples of acetic acid fermentation were analyzed using the method of HPLC and electronic tongues,respectively.Results showed that acetic acid and lactic acid were the main organic acids which accounted for over 60% of total acids and the samples could be distinguished with the data acquired from the electronic tongues by using the method of principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA).Furthermore,back propagation neural network (BP NN) was used to construct a model for quantitative prediction of acetic acid and lactic acid.For the testing samples,the correlation coefficients of acetic acid and lactic acid between observed and predicted values were 0.961 5 and 0.994 2 and the root mean standard errors of prediction were 54.4mg/100g for acetic acid and 59.0mg/100g for lactic acid,respectively.It was indicated that this model could be used for quantitative prediction of acetic acid and lactic acid during the fermentation process.Thus,this research suggested a rapid method to analyze key organic acids,which could be used for scale-up production of vinegar.%山西老陈醋是我国著名的传统食醋之一,主要采用固态发酵工艺,在醋酸发酵过程中产生的有机酸赋予了老陈醋独特的口感和风味.采用HPLC和电子舌的方法对山西老陈醋醋酸发酵阶段的样品进行分析,发现乙酸和乳酸是醋酸发酵阶段的主要有机酸,占总酸的60%以上,利用电子舌结合主成分分析和聚类分析可以明显区分不同发酵时间的醋醅样品.进一步,采用BP神经网络建立了发酵过程中乙酸和乳酸的定量预测模型,测试样品预测值和实测值相关系数分别为0.961 5和0.994 2,均方根误差分别为54.4 mg/100 g和59.0 mg/100

  10. [Tongue play and manganese deficiency in dairy cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, H; Roubies, N; Polizopoulou, Z; Papasteriades, A

    1995-09-01

    The present paper discusses "tongue rolling" observed in dairy cattle farms of a region in northern Greece associated with manganese deficiency. In these animals total body manganese status was evaluated by determining hair, as well as feed manganese content. Cows exhibiting tongue rolling had significantly lower hair manganese content, compared to non-tongue rolling control animals from other farms; in addition, feedstuff analysis demonstrated that manganese and inorganic phosphorus intake of affected cows was also significantly lower.

  11. ENTEROBACTERIACEAE AND PSEUDOMONADACEAE ON THE DORSUM OF THE HUMAN TONGUE

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Conti; Silvana Soléo Ferreira dos Santos; Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito; Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to correlate the presence of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae and Xanthomonadaceae on the posterior dorsum of the human tongue with the presence of tongue coating, gender, age, smoking habit and denture use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bacteria were isolated from the posterior tongue dorsum of 100 individuals in MacConkey agar medium and were identified by the API 20E system (Biolab-Mérieux). RESULTS: 43% of the individuals, presented the targ...

  12. Influence of visual observational conditions on tongue motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Liu, Xuimei; Baad-Hansen, Lene;

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of visual observational conditions on performance during a standardized tongue-protrusion training (TPT) task and to evaluate subject-based reports of helpfulness, disturbance, pain, and fatigue due to the observational conditions on 0-10 numerical rating scales. Forty...... regarding the level of disturbance, pain or fatigue. Self-observation of tongue-training facilitated behavioral aspects of tongue motor learning compared with model-observation but not compared with control....

  13. Base of tongue neurilemmoma: excision by transoral laser microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Ferran; Vilaseca, Isabel; Blanch, Jose Luis; Gaspa, Albert; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel

    2007-09-01

    Benign and malignant tumors of the tongue base can be removed by various surgical approaches. A rare case of neurilemmoma of the base of the tongue removed by transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) is presented. Schwannomas in this area usually present as a slow-growing, painless mass on the tongue surface. In this case, fiberoptic examination and magnetic resonance imaging were crucial as first step studies to elucidate the biology of the lesion.

  14. Ancient schwannoma of the tongue: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilici, Suat; Akpınar, Meltem; Yiğit, Ozgür; Günver, Feray

    2011-01-01

    A 45-year-old male patient had left sided submucosal swelling extending backwards from the tip of the tongue disturbing articulation and swallowing. Submucosally located lesion was 3 x 2 x 1.5 cm in size and totally excised under local anesthesia. In this article, we present a case of ancient schwannoma of tongue. Although a very rare entity, ancient schwannoma should be considered in differential diagnosis of tongue lesions.

  15. From offender to victim-oriented monitoring: a comparative analysis of the emergence of electronic monitoring systems in Argentina and England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Paterson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly psychological terrain of crime and disorder management has had a transformative impact upon the use of electronic monitoring technologies. Surveillance technologies such as electronic monitoring e#8209; EM, biometrics, and video surveillance have flourished in commercial environments that market the benefits of asocial technologies in managing disorderly behavior and which, despite often chimerical crime prevention promises, appeal to the ontologically insecure social imagination. The growth of EM in criminal justice has subsequently taken place despite, at best, equivocal evidence that it protects the public and reduces recidivism. Innovative developments in Portugal, Argentina and the United States have re-imagined EM technologies as more personalized devices that can support victims rather than control offenders. These developments represent a re-conceptualization of the use of the technology beyond the neoliberal prism of rational choice theories and offender-oriented thinking that influenced first generation thinking about EM. This paper identifies the socio-political influences that helped conceptualize first generation thinking about EM as, firstly, a community sentence and latterly, as a technique of urban security. The paper reviews attempts to theorize the role and function of EM surveillance technologies within and beyond criminal justice and explores the contribution of victimological perspectives to the use of EM 2.0.

  16. Linezolid-induced black hairy tongue: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasawneh Faisal Abdullah

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Linezolid-induced black hairy tongue has been rarely reported. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue and review the literature. Case presentation A 56-year-old Caucasian man was admitted with community-acquired pneumonia that failed to respond to levofloxacin 750mg daily. He was started on linezolid and meropenem and was subsequently discharged home on oral linezolid 600mg every 12 hours and intravenous ertapenem 1g daily. On a follow-up clinic visit, day 14 of linezolid therapy, he complained of dysgeusia and his tongue examination was consistent with black hairy tongue. After he finished his antibiotic course, his complaints resolved with regular tongue brushing. Conclusion Black hairy tongue is characterized by abnormal hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae. Five reported cases of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue were identified in a MEDLINE search (from January 2000 to June 2012. The Naranjo Probability Scale revealed a probable adverse drug reaction of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue. Potential contributing factors included other antibiotics, drug–drug interaction and poor oral hygiene. Health care professionals should be aware of the possibility of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue. Thorough history for other possible contributing factors should be obtained. Patients on linezolid should be counseled to perform good oral hygiene.

  17. Relationship between tongue positions and formant frequencies in female speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimin; Shaiman, Susan; Weismer, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship (1) between acoustic vowel space and the corresponding tongue kinematic vowel space and (2) between formant frequencies (F1 and F2) and tongue x-y coordinates for the same time sampling point. Thirteen healthy female adults participated in this study. Electromagnetic articulography and synchronized acoustic recordings were utilized to obtain vowel acoustic and tongue kinematic data across ten speech tasks. Intra-speaker analyses showed that for 10 of the 13 speakers the acoustic vowel space was moderately to highly correlated with tongue kinematic vowel space; much weaker correlations were obtained for inter-speaker analyses. Correlations of individual formants with tongue positions showed that F1 varied strongly with tongue position variations in the y dimension, whereas F2 was correlated in equal magnitude with variations in the x and y positions. For within-speaker analyses, the size of the acoustic vowel space is likely to provide a reasonable inference of size of the tongue working space for most speakers; unfortunately there is no a priori, obvious way to identify the speakers for whom the covariation is not significant. A second conclusion is that F1 variations reflect tongue height, but F2 is a much more complex reflection of tongue variation in both dimensions.

  18. The role of extensional viscosity in frog tongue projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Alexis; Wagner, Caroline; McKinley, Gareth; Mendelson, Joe; Hu, David

    2014-11-01

    Frogs and other amphibians capture insects through high-speed tongue projection, some achieving tongue accelerations of over fifty times gravity. In this experimental study, we investigate how a frog's sticky saliva enables high-speed prey capture. At the Atlanta zoo, we used high-speed video to film the trajectory of frog tongues during prey capture. We have also designed and built a portable extensional rheometer; by following the capillary-driven thinning in the diameter of a thread of saliva we characterize the relaxation time and extensional viscosity and so infer the adhesive force between the frog tongue and prey.

  19. Plasma Charge Current for Controlling and Monitoring Electron Beam Welding with Beam Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Shchavlev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam welding (EBW shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process.

  20. Plasma charge current for controlling and monitoring electron beam welding with beam oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Belenkiy, Vladimir; Shchavlev, Valeriy; Piskunov, Anatoliy; Abdullin, Aleksandr; Mladenov, Georgy

    2012-12-14

    Electron beam welding (EBW) shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process.

  1. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Onno K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of its usage. The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers with a built-in electronic counter in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU setting and to determine compliance with hand hygiene protocols by direct observation. Methods A one-year observational study was conducted at a 27 bed level III NICU at a university hospital. All healthcare workers employed at the NICU participated in the study. The use of bedside dispensers was continuously monitored and compliance with hand hygiene was determined by random direct observations. Results A total of 258,436 hand disinfection events were recorded; i.e. a median (interquartile range of 697 (559–840 per day. The median (interquartile range number of hand disinfection events performed per healthcare worker during the day, evening, and night shifts was 13.5 (10.8 - 16.7, 19.8 (16.3 - 24.1, and 16.6 (14.2 - 19.3, respectively. In 65.8% of the 1,168 observations of patient contacts requiring hand hygiene, healthcare workers fully complied with the protocol. Conclusions We conclude that the electronic devices provide useful information on frequency, time, and location of its use, and also reveal trends in hand disinfection events over time. Direct observations offer essential data on compliance with the hand hygiene protocol. In future research, data generated by the electronic devices can be supplementary used to evaluate the effectiveness of hand hygiene promotion campaigns.

  2. Attosecond electronic and nuclear quantum photodynamics of ozone monitored with time and angle resolved photoelectron spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Decleva, P; Perveaux, A; Lauvergnat, D; Gatti, F; Lasorne, B; Halász, G J; Vibók, Á

    2016-01-01

    Recently we reported a series of numerical simulations proving that it is possible in principle to create an electronic wave packet and subsequent electronic motion in a neutral molecule photoexcited by a UV pump pulse within a few femtoseconds. We considered the ozone molecule: for this system the electronic wave packet leads to a dissociation process. In the present work, we investigate more specifically the time-resolved photoelectron angular distribution of the ozone molecule that provides a much more detailed description of the evolution of the electronic wave packet. We thus show that this experimental technique should be able to give access to observing in real time the creation of an electronic wave packet in a neutral molecule and its impact on a chemical process.

  3. Attosecond electronic and nuclear quantum photodynamics of ozone monitored with time and angle resolved photoelectron spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decleva, Piero; Quadri, Nicola; Perveaux, Aurelie; Lauvergnat, David; Gatti, Fabien; Lasorne, Benjamin; Halász, Gábor J.; Vibók, Ágnes

    2016-11-01

    Recently we reported a series of numerical simulations proving that it is possible in principle to create an electronic wave packet and subsequent electronic motion in a neutral molecule photoexcited by a UV pump pulse within a few femtoseconds. We considered the ozone molecule: for this system the electronic wave packet leads to a dissociation process. In the present work, we investigate more specifically the time-resolved photoelectron angular distribution of the ozone molecule that provides a much more detailed description of the evolution of the electronic wave packet. We thus show that this experimental technique should be able to give access to observing in real time the creation of an electronic wave packet in a neutral molecule and its impact on a chemical process.

  4. Effects of tongue position and lung volume on voluntary maximal tongue protrusion force in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboisky, Julian P; Luu, Billy L; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C

    2015-01-15

    Maximal voluntary protrusion force of the human tongue has not been examined in positions beyond the incisors or at different lung volumes. Tongue force was recorded with the tongue tip at eight positions relative to the incisors (12 and 4mm protrusion, neutral and 4, 12, 16, 24 and 32mm retraction) at functional residual capacity (FRC), total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) in 15 healthy subjects. Maximal force occurred between 12mm and 32mm retraction (median 16mm). Maximum force at FRC was reproducible at the optimal tongue position across sessions (P=0.68). Across all positions at FRC the average force was highest at 24mm retraction (28.3±5.3N, mean±95% CI) and lowest at 12mm protrusion (49.1±4.6% maximum; Ptongue positions, maximal force was on average 9.3% lower at FRC than TLC and RV (range: 4.5-12.7% maximum, P<0.05). Retracted positions produce higher-force protrusions with a small effect of lung volume.

  5. Development of an electronic monitor for the determination of individual radon and thoron exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irlinger, Josef

    2015-06-11

    The carcinogenic effect of the radio isotope {sup 222}Rn of the noble gas radon and its progeny, as well as its residential distribution, are well studied. In contrast, the knowledge about the effects and average dwelling concentration levels of its radio isotope {sup 220}Rn (thoron) is still limited. Generally, this isotope has been assumed to be a negligible contributor to the effective annual dose. However, only recently it has been pointed out in several international studies, that the dose due to thoron exceeds the one from {sup 222}Rn under certain conditions. Additionally, radon monitors may show a considerable sensitivity towards thoron which was also not accounted for in general. Therefore a reliable, inexpensive exposimeter, which allows to distinguish between decays of either radon and thoron, is required to conduct further studies. The scope of this thesis was to develop an electronic radon/thoron exposimeter which features small size, low weight and minimal power consumption. The design is based on the diffusion chamber principle and employs state-of-the-art alpha particle spectroscopy to measure activity concentrations. The device was optimized via inlet layout and filter selection for high thoron diffusion. Calibration measurements showed a similar sensitivity of the monitor towards radon and thoron, with a calibration factor of cf{sup {sub 2}{sub 2}{sub 2Rn}} = 16.2 ± 0.9 Bq m{sup -3}/cph and cf{sup {sub 2}{sub 2}{sub 0Rn}} = 14.4 ± 0.8 Bq m{sup -3}/cph, respectively. Thus, the radon sensitivity of the device was enhanced by a factor two compared to a previous prototype. The evaluation method developed in this work, in accordance with ISO 11665 standards, was validated by intercomparison measurements. The detection limits for radon and thoron were determined to be C{sup {sub 2}{sub 2}{sub 2Rn}} = 44.0 Bq m{sup -3} and C{sup {sub 2}{sub 2}{sub 0Rn}} = 40.0 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively, in case of a low radon environment, a one-hour measurement

  6. Spindle cell haemangioma of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kathryn E M; Felstead, Andrew M; Haacke, Norman; Theaker, Jeffrey; Brennan, Peter A; Colbert, Serryth D

    2016-11-01

    Spindle cell hemangioma (SCH) is an uncommon benign vascular tumor that rarely occurs in the mouth. We present an SCH arising in the tongue of a 52-year-old otherwise healthy woman. SCH should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular tumors in the oral cavity and not misinterpreted as a more aggressive vascular tumor. We describe the clinical presentation, investigation, differential diagnosis and management of this condition and a literature search showing published case reports. Although SCH rarely presents in the oral cavity it needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of oral cavity tumors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Development Of An Electronic Nose For Environmental Monitoring: Detection Of Specific Environmentally Important Gases At Their Odor Detection Threshold Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Del Rosso, Renato; Centola, Paolo; Della Torre, Matteo; Demattè, Fabrizio

    2011-09-01

    The use of a sensor array is demonstrated to be an effective approach to evaluate hazardous odor (or gas) emissions from industrial sites1. Therefore the possibility to use electronic noses for the prolonged survey of odor emissions from industrial sites is of particular interest for environmental monitoring purposes2. At the Olfactometric Laboratory of the Politecnico di Milano, in collaboration with Sacmi Group, Imola, an innovative electronic nose for the continuous monitoring of environmental odors is being developed. The aim of this work is to show the laboratory tests conducted to evaluate the capability of the electronic nose to recognize some specific environmentally important gases at their odor detection threshold concentration. The laboratory studies up to now focused on ammonia and butyric acid, those being compounds that can typically be found in the emissions from waste treatment plants, that may cause health effects when they exceed a given concentration level. The laboratory tests proved the sensors to be sensitive towards the considered compounds and the system to be capable of discriminating between odorous or non-odorous air, with a detection limit comparable with the detection limit of human nose.

  8. Solid electron sources for the energy scale monitoring in the KATRIN experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zbořil, Miroslav; Vénos, D

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment represents a next-generation tritium $\\beta$-decay experiment designed to perform a high precision direct measurement of the electron anti-neutrino mass m($\

  9. In situ electrical and thermal monitoring of printed electronics by two-photon mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco; Accanto, Nicolo; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Printed electronics is emerging as a new, large scale and cost effective technology that will be disruptive in fields such as energy harvesting, consumer electronics and medical sensors. The performance of printed electronic devices relies principally on the carrier mobility and molecular packing...... of the polymer semiconductor material. Unfortunately, the analysis of such materials is generally performed with destructive techniques, which are hard to make compatible with in situ measurements, and pose a great obstacle for the mass production of printed electronics devices. A rapid, in situ, non...... photoluminescence and second harmonic response. We show that, in our experimental conditions, it is possible to relate the total amount of photoluminescence detected to important material properties such as the charge carrier density and the molecular packing of the printed polymer material, all with a spatial...

  10. Wireless Monitoring in Intensive Care Units by a 3D-Printed System with Embedded Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Basilotta, Flavia; Riario, Stefano; Stradolini, Francesca; Taurino, Irene; Demarchi, Danilo; De Micheli, Giovanni; Carrara, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The design, realization, and preliminary test of a portable wireless system for measuring key metabolites (e.g., glucose, lactate, calcium, potassium, etc..) in intensive cure monitoring is presented. The system is composed by a 3D-Printed case, which includes the fluidic system that drives the monitored human fluids on top of the sensing devices. The case fully integrates a hardware platform on PCB that connects the biosensors to the read-out frontend and to a Bluetooth® module for the data ...

  11. Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

  12. Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

  13. Malignant melanoma of the tongue following low-dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalemeris, G.C.; Rosenfeld, L.; Gray, G.F. Jr.; Glick, A.D.

    1985-03-01

    A 47-year-old man had a spindly malignant melanoma of the tongue many years after low-dose radiation therapy for lichen planus. To our knowledge, only 12 melanomas of the tongue have been reported previously, and in none of these was radiation documented.

  14. Extremely high-power tongue projection in plethodontid salamanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deban, S.M.; O'Reilly, J.C.; Dicke, U.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Many plethodontid salamanders project their tongues ballistically at high speed and for relatively great distances. Capturing evasive prey relies on the tongue reaching the target in minimum time, therefore it is expected that power production, or the rate of energy release, is maximized during tong

  15. Pedagogical Competencies for Mother-Tongue Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to elaborate a framework for both the foundation and application of professional standards for mother-tongue teachers. The main issue with which this study is concerned constitutes the lack of a set of clear standards for the initial training of mother-tongue teachers. In terms of theory, that which has currently been analyzed in…

  16. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

  17. Phonological Encoding in Mandarin Chinese: Evidence from Tongue Twisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, Heather; Croot, Karen; Patrick, Ellis

    2015-12-01

    Models of connected speech production in Mandarin Chinese must specify how lexical tone, speech segments, and phrase-level prosody are integrated in speech production. This study used tongue twisters to test predictions of the two different models of word form encoding. Tongue twisters were constructed from 5 sets of characters that rotated pairs of initial segments or pairs of tones, or both, across format (ABAB, ABBA), and across position of the characters in four-character tongue twister strings. Fifty two native Mandarin Chinese speakers read aloud 120 tongue twisters, repeating each one six times in a row. They made a total of 3503 (2.34%) segment errors and 1372 (.92%) tone errors. Segment errors occurred on the onsets of the first and third characters in the ABBA but not ABAB segment-alternating tongue twisters, and on the onsets of the second and fourth characters of the tone-alternating tongue twisters. Tone errors were highest on the third and fourth characters in the tone-alternating tongue twisters. The pattern of tone errors is consistent with the claim that tone is associated to a metrical frame prior to segment encoding, while the format by position interaction found for the segment-alternating tongue twisters suggest articulatory gestures oscillate in segment production as proposed by gestural phonology.

  18. Alterations in contractile properties of tongue muscles in old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Fumikazu; Connor, Nadine P; Konopacki, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Fatigue and weakness are well-known signs of aging that are related to sarcopenia, or loss of skeletal muscle mass, organization, and strength. Sarcopenia may affect swallowing. The tongue plays a vital role in swallowing, but there is limited knowledge regarding age-related changes in lingual muscle contractile properties. Our purpose was to determine whether alterations in tongue force, temporal features of tongue muscle contraction, and fatigability are manifested as a function of aging in old rats. We evaluated tongue muscle contractile properties in young and old Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats. Contractions were elicited via bilateral electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerves. Maximum tongue forces and fatigability were not significantly altered in old animals, but aging was associated with significantly longer twitch contraction time and longer half-decay recovery time intervals (p < .01). The results indicated that old animals generated sufficient maximum tongue forces, but were slower in achieving these forces than young animals. These findings are consistent with reports of altered temporal parameters of tongue actions during swallowing in humans, and suggest that a disruption in the timing of muscle contraction onset and recovery may contribute to the altered tongue kinetics observed with aging.

  19. Repair of large palatal fistula using tongue flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejjal Nawfal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large palatal fistulas are a challenging problem in cleft surgery. Many techniques are used to close the defect. The tongue flap is an easy and reproductible procedure for managing this complication. The authors report a case of a large palatal fistula closure with anteriorly based tongue flap.

  20. Tongue Measures in Individuals with Normal and Impaired Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Youmans, Scott R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation sought to add to the extant literature on measures of normal tongue function, to provide information on measures of tongue function in a group of individuals with oral phase dysphagia, and to provide a comparison of these 2 groups matched for age and gender. Method: The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was utilized to…

  1. Effect of tongue thrust swallowing on position of anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaly, Tahereh; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Amini, Foroozandeh

    2009-01-01

    There is no consensus about the effect of tongue thrusting on incisor position. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position of anterior teeth in growing children with tongue thrust swallowing. In the present study 193 subjects with an age range of 9 to 13 years participated. All the patients were examined by a trained investigator and those having tongue thrust swallowing were selected and the position of their anterior teeth was compared with a control group consisting of 36 subjects with normal occlusion. Data was analyzed by independent sample t-test. Among the 193 students who were examined in this study, 10 cases (5%) were diagnosed to be tongue thrusters. Overjet was significantly increased in tongue thrust individuals (P 0.05). The results indicated that tongue thrust may have an environmental effect on dentofacial structures. Considering the high incidence of tongue thrust in orthodontic patients, it is suggested that dental practitioners observe patients of all ages and those in all stages of orthodontic treatment for evidence of tongue thrust swallowing.

  2. Mother Tongue and Education in Africa: Publicising the Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioko, Angelina N.; Ndung'u, Ruth W.; Njoroge, Martin C.; Mutiga, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Varied realities surround the use of mother tongue education in Africa. These realities are entrenched in the attitudes and misconceptions that have gone unchallenged due to inadequate literature on the successful use of mother tongues in the classroom and beyond. The realities discussed in this paper include the frustrations of children…

  3. The Use of Mother Tongue in Second Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鸣霄; 张立杰

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the specific application of mother tongue in Second Language learning from the perspective of class management, introducing learning methods, teaching vocabulary, teaching grammar, dealing with exercises and testing, and cooperation among students. It is concluded that mother tongue should be properly used in Second Language Teaching in or-der to improve the teaching of second language.

  4. Electron transfer flavoprotein domain II orientation monitored using double electron-electron resonance between an enzymatically reduced, native FAD cofactor, and spin labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Michael A; Kathirvelu, Velavan; Majtan, Tomas; Frerman, Frank E; Eaton, Gareth R; Eaton, Sandra S

    2011-03-01

    Human electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) is a soluble mitochondrial heterodimeric flavoprotein that links fatty acid β-oxidation to the main respiratory chain. The crystal structure of human ETF bound to medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase indicates that the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain (αII) is mobile, which permits more rapid electron transfer with donors and acceptors by providing closer access to the flavin and allows ETF to accept electrons from at least 10 different flavoprotein dehydrogenases. Sequence homology is high and low-angle X-ray scattering is identical for Paracoccus denitrificans (P. denitrificans) and human ETF. To characterize the orientations of the αII domain of P. denitrificans ETF, distances between enzymatically reduced FAD and spin labels in the three structural domains were measured by double electron-electron resonance (DEER) at X- and Q-bands. An FAD to spin label distance of 2.8 ± 0.15 nm for the label in the FAD-containing αII domain (A210C) agreed with estimates from the crystal structure (3.0 nm), molecular dynamics simulations (2.7 nm), and rotamer library analysis (2.8 nm). Distances between the reduced FAD and labels in αI (A43C) were between 4.0 and 4.5 ± 0.35 nm and for βIII (A111C) the distance was 4.3 ± 0.15 nm. These values were intermediate between estimates from the crystal structure of P. denitrificans ETF and a homology model based on substrate-bound human ETF. These distances suggest that the αII domain adopts orientations in solution that are intermediate between those which are observed in the crystal structures of free ETF (closed) and ETF bound to a dehydrogenase (open).

  5. Upgrading the Digital Electronics of the PEP-II Bunch Current Monitors at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Josh; /SLAC

    2006-08-28

    The testing of the upgrade prototype for the bunch current monitors (BCMs) in the PEP-II storage rings at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is the topic of this paper. Bunch current monitors are used to measure the charge in the electron/positron bunches traveling in particle storage rings. The BCMs in the PEP-II storage rings need to be upgraded because components of the current system have failed and are known to be failure prone with age, and several of the integrated chips are no longer produced making repairs difficult if not impossible. The main upgrade is replacing twelve old (1995) field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) with a single Virtex II FPGA. The prototype was tested using computer synthesis tools, a commercial signal generator, and a fast pulse generator.

  6. A multi-channel opto-electronic sensor to accurately monitor heart rate against motion artefact during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain

    2015-10-12

    This study presents the use of a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor (OEPS) to effectively monitor critical physiological parameters whilst preventing motion artefact as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work was to study how to capture the heart rate (HR) efficiently through a well-constructed OEPS and a 3-axis accelerometer with wireless communication. A protocol was designed to incorporate sitting, standing, walking, running and cycling. The datasets collected from these activities were processed to elaborate sport physiological effects. t-test, Bland-Altman Agreement (BAA), and correlation to evaluate the performance of the OEPS were used against Polar and Mio-Alpha HR monitors. No differences in the HR were found between OEPS, and either Polar or Mio-Alpha (both p > 0.05); a strong correlation was found between Polar and OEPS (r: 0.96, p heart rate.

  7. Improving high-altitude emp modeling capabilities by using a non-equilibrium electron swarm model to monitor conduction electron evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusateri, Elise Noel

    abruptly. The objective of the PhD research is to mitigate this effect by integrating a conduction electron model into CHAP-LA which can calculate the conduction current based on a non-equilibrium electron distribution. We propose to use an electron swarm model to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in the EMP environment which is characterized by electric field and pressure. Swarm theory uses various collision frequencies and reaction rates to study how the electron distribution and the resultant transport coefficients change with time, ultimately reaching an equilibrium distribution. Validation of the swarm model we develop is a necessary step for completion of the thesis work. After validation, the swarm model is integrated in the air chemistry model CHAP-LA employs for conduction electron simulations. We test high altitude EMP simulations with the swarm model option in the air chemistry model to show improvements in the computational capability of CHAP-LA. A swarm model has been developed that is based on a previous swarm model developed by Higgins, Longmire and O'Dell 1973, hereinafter HLO. The code used for the swarm model calculation solves a system of coupled differential equations for electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Important swarm parameters, including the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are recalculated and compared to the previously reported empirical results given by HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford 2005. BOLSIG+ utilizes updated electron scattering cross sections that are defined over an expanded energy range found in the atomic and molecular cross section database published by Phelps in the Phelps Database 2014 on the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. 2012. The swarm model is also updated from the original HLO model by including

  8. Comparison of AC electronic monitoring and field data for estimating tolerance to Empoasca kraemeri (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in common bean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M S; Backus, E A; Cardona, C

    2000-12-01

    Two methods for estimating the tolerance of common bean genotypes to Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore were compared, using a yield trial carried out at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia, versus stylet penetration tactics measured by AC electronic feeding monitors. A stylet penetration index was devised based on principal component scores of three penetration tactics identified (pulsing laceration, cell rupturing, and lancing sap ingestion), combined with knowledge of the hopperburn symptoms caused by each tactic. Tolerant genotypes, as classified by the CIAT yield index, showed significantly more unprotected yield and lower hopperburn scores than the susceptible control. They also induced performance of less pulsing laceration (the tactic considered most damaging to the plant), and more of the other two, mitigating tactics, especially cell rupturing. When index values were calculated for each genotype, stylet penetration index values matched those of the yield index for three out of five genotypes: two EMP-coded tolerant lines ('EMP 385' and 'EMP 392') and the susceptible control 'BAT 41'. Thus, for these three genotypes, all subsequent hoppereburn symptoms are predictable by the type of feeding behavior performed on them. 'Porrillo Sintético' and 'EMP 84', considered borderline genotypes by the yield index, were overestimated and underestimated respectively, by the stylet penetration index. We postulate that, for these two genotypes, plant physiological responses to feeding (either compensatory or heightened sensitivity, respectively) synergize with type of feeding performed to generate the overall hopperburn condition. This multivariate analysis of electronic monitoring data was successfully used to devise an index of resistance. The implications of using the stylet penetration index and the advantages of using electronic monitoring in a bean-breeding program are discussed.

  9. Modeling the Costs and Environmental Benefits of Disposal Options for End-of-Life Electronic Equipment: The Case of Used Computer Monitors

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Karen; Macauley, Molly; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Cline, Sarah; Holsinger, Heather

    2001-01-01

    Managing the growing quantity of used electronic equipment poses challenges for waste management officials. In this paper, we focus on a large component of the electronic waste stream—computer monitors—and the disposal concerns associated with the lead embodied in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in most monitors. We develop a policy simulation model of consumers’ disposal options based on the costs of these options and their associated environmental impacts. For the stock of monitors disposed o...

  10. Methods for quantifying tongue shape and complexity using ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Katherine M; Tiede, Mark K; Whalen, D H

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of tongue shape is potentially useful for indexing articulatory strategies arising from intervention, therapy and development. Tongue shape complexity is a parameter that can be used to reflect regional functional independence of the tongue musculature. This paper considers three different shape quantification methods - based on Procrustes analysis, curvature inflections and Fourier coefficients - and uses a linear discriminant analysis to test how well each method is able to classify tongue shapes from different phonemes. Test data are taken from six native speakers of American English producing 15 phoneme types. Results classify tongue shapes accurately when combined across quantification methods. These methods hold promise for extending the use of ultrasound in clinical assessments of speech deficits.

  11. Training induced cortical plasticity compared between three tongue training paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different training types and secondary to test gender differences on the training-related cortical plasticity induced by three different tongue training paradigms: 1. Therapeutic tongue exercises (TTE), 2. Playing computer games......) (control) were established using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at three time-points: (1) before tongue training, (2) immediately after training, (3) 1 h after training. Subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain and fatigue were evaluated on 0-10 numerical rating scales (NRS) after training......-points. No significant effect of tongue training on FDI MEPs was observed (P>0.335). The tongue cortical motor map areas were not significantly increased by training (P>0.142). Training with TDS was most motivating and fun (Plevel was not different between groups...

  12. Measuring tongue volumes and visualizing the chewing and swallowing process using real-time TrueFISP imaging - initial clinical experience in healthy volunteers and patients with acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajaj, W.; Goyen, M.; Herrmann, B.; Massing, S.; Goehde, S.; Lauenstein, T.; Ruehm, S.G. [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Essen (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    This study assessed both two-dimensional (2D) TrueFISP imaging for quantifying tongue volume and real-time TrueFISP imaging for evaluating chewing and swallowing in healthy volunteers and patients with acromegaly. In 50 healthy volunteers, tongue volumes were measured using a 2D TrueFISP sequence. Chewing and swallowing were visualized using a real-time TrueFISP sequence. Ten patients with acromegaly were examined twice with the same magnetic resonance imaging protocol: once prior to therapy and a second time 6 months after therapy. Prior to therapy, healthy volunteers had an average tongue volume of 140 ml for men and 90 ml for women, and patients with acromegaly had an average tongue volume of 180 ml for men and 145 ml for women. However, 6 months after therapy the mean tongue volumes in patients with acromegaly had decreased to 154 ml in the men and to 125 ml in the women. The chewing and swallowing process was normal in all volunteers. Prior to therapy, just two patients showed a chewing and swallowing pathology, which disappeared after therapy. Patients with acromegaly had larger tongue volumes than healthy volunteers, and TrueFISP imaging proved feasible for visualizing chewing and swallowing in real time and is capable of detecting possible pathologies. Furthermore, TrueFISP imaging can be used to monitor therapeutic approaches in patients with acromegaly. (orig.)

  13. The impacts of a pharmacist-managed outpatient clinic and chemotherapy-directed electronic order sets for monitoring oral chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battis, Brandon; Clifford, Linda; Huq, Mostaqul; Pejoro, Edrick; Mambourg, Scott

    2016-10-12

    Patients treated with oral chemotherapy appear to have less contact with the treating providers. As a result, safety, adherence, medication therapy monitoring, and timely follow-up may be compromised. The trend of treating cancer with oral chemotherapy agents is on the rise. However, standard clinical guidance is still lacking for prescribing, monitoring, patient education, and follow-up of patients on oral chemotherapy across the healthcare settings. The purpose of this project is to establish an oral chemotherapy monitoring clinic, to create drug and lab specific provider order sets for prescribing and lab monitoring, and ultimately to ensure safe and effective treatment of the veterans we serve. A collaborative agreement was reached among oncology pharmacists, a pharmacy resident, two oncologists, and a physician assistant to establish a pharmacist-managed oral chemotherapy monitoring clinic at the VA Sierra Nevada Healthcare System. Drug-specific electronic order sets for prescribing and lab monitoring were created for initiating new drug therapy and prescription renewal. The order sets were created to be provider-centric, minimizing clicks needed to order necessary medications and lab monitoring. A standard progress note template was developed for documenting interventions made by the clinic. Patients new to an oral chemotherapy regimen were first counseled by an oncology pharmacist. The patients were then enrolled into the oral chemotherapy monitoring clinic for subsequent follow up and pharmacist interventions. Further, patients lacking monitoring or missing provider appointments were captured through a Clinical Dashboard developed by the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Regional Office (VISN21) using SQL Server Reporting Services. Between September 2014 and April 2015, a total of 68 patients on different oral chemotherapy agents were enrolled into the clinic. Out of the 68 patients enrolled into the oral chemotherapy monitoring clinic, 31 patients (45

  14. Tongue piercing by a Yogi: QEEG observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Erik; Wilson, Vietta E; Gunkelman, Jay; Kawakami, Mitsumasa; Sata, Misa; Barton, William; Johnston, James

    2006-12-01

    : This study reports on the QEEG observations recorded from a yogi during tongue piercing in which he demonstrated voluntary pain control. The QEEG was recorded with a Lexicor 1620 from 19 sites with appropriate controls for impedence and artifacts. A neurologist read the data for abnormalities and the QEEG was analyzed by mapping, single and multiple hertz bins, coherence, and statistical comparisons with a normative database. The session included a meditation baseline and tongue piercing. During the meditative baseline period the yogi's QEEG maps suggesting that he was able to lower his brain activity to a resting state. This state showed a predominance of slow wave potentials (delta) during piercing and suggested that the yogi induced a state that may be similar to those found when individuals are under analgesia. Further research should be conducted with a group of individuals who demonstrate exceptional self-regulation to determine the underlying mechanisms, and whether the skills can be used to teach others how to manage pain.

  15. Base of Tongue Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prepageran Narayanan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of base of tongue tuberculosis following pulmonary tuberculosis. Patient presented to us with chief complaints of sore throat and pain on swallowing for period of 3 months. On examination with 70 degree telescope, we observed an ulcer on right side of base of tongue. The edges of the ulcer appeared to be undermined with whitish slough at the centre of the ulcer. Examination of neck showed a multiple small palpable middle deep cervical lymph nodes on right side of neck. Biopsy of the ulcer was taken, which showed granulomatous inflammation, suggestive of tuberculosis. Laboratory investigations revealed a raise in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, sputum for acid fast bacilli was strongly positive. Chest X ray was performed for patient showed multiple areas of consolidation. Patient was referred to chest clinic for further management of tuberculosis and was started on anti-tuberculous drugs. In conclusion tuberculosis of oral cavity is rare, but should be considered among one of the differential diagnosis of the oral lesions and biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

  16. Biofiltration of composting gases using different municipal solid waste-pruning residue composts: monitoring by using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R; Cabeza, I O; Giráldez, I; Díaz, M J

    2011-09-01

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the composting of kitchen waste and pruning residues, and the abatement of VOCs by different compost biofilters was studied. VOCs removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained using composts of municipal solid waste (MSW) or MSW-pruning residue as biofilter material. An electronic nose identified qualitative differences among the biofilter output gases at very low concentrations of VOCs. These differences were related to compost constituents, compost particle size (2-7 or 7-20mm), and a combination of both factors. The total concentration of VOCs determined by a photoionization analyser and inferred from electronic nose data sets were correlated over an ample range of concentrations of VOCs, showing that these techniques could be specially adapted for the monitoring of these processes.

  17. Clinical evaluation of the Philips 5306B electronic blood pressure monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C L; Goodfellow, J; Waites, J

    1991-01-01

    A patient-recorded home blood pressure series using an electronic manometer is used increasingly to provide a representative sample of blood pressure (BP) and to avoid frequent office visits and office rises in BP. Few of the many available electronic manometers have undergone rigorous testing and validation against a standard mercury manometer. We have evaluated fully the commonly used Philips 5306B electronic manometer against a Hawksley random zero mercury manometer employing a randomized, single-blind, crossover design and statistical analyses that have been validated previously. Although correlation coefficients greater than 0.9 were achieved for both systolic and diastolic pressure, the electronic manometer gave systolic and diastolic readings that differed from the mercury manometer by greater than or equal to +/- 5 mmHg in some 33% of patients and by greater than or equal to +/- 1- mmHg in some 18% of patients. Thus, in common with most electronic manometers, the Philips 5306B needs to be improved to correlate more closely with the standard mercury manometer to enhance its clinical usefulness.

  18. Tongue pressure patterns during water swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Daniel; Kieser, Jules; Bolter, Chris; Swain, Michael; Singh, Bhavia; Waddell, J Neil

    2010-03-01

    Bolus propulsion during the normal oral phase of swallowing is thought to be characterised by the sequential elevation of the front, middle, and posterior regions of the dorsum of the tongue. However, the coordinated orchestration of lingual movement is still poorly understood. This study examined how pressures generated by the tongue against the hard palate differed between three points along the midline of the tongue. Specifically, we tested three hypotheses: (1) that there are defined individual patterns of pressure change within the mouth during liquid swallowing; (2) that there are significant negative pressures generated at defined moments during normal swallowing; and, (3) that liquid swallowing is governed by the interplay of pressures generated in an anteroposterior direction in the mouth. Using a metal appliance described previously, we measured absolute pressures during water swallows in six healthy volunteers (4 male, 2 female) with an age range of 25-35 years. Participants performed three 10-ml water swallows from a small cup on five separate days, thus providing data for a total of 15 separate water swallows. There was a distinct pattern to the each of the pressure signals, and this pattern was preserved in the mean obtained when the data were pooled. Furthermore, raw signals from the same subjects presented consistent patterns at each of the five testing sessions. In all subjects, pressure at the anterior and hind palate tended to be negative relative to the preswallow value; at mid-palate, however, pressure changes were less consistent between individuals. When the pressure differences between the sites were calculated, we found that during the swallow a net negative pressure difference developed between anterior and mid-palate and a net positive pressure difference developed between mid-palate and hind palate. Large, rapid fluctuations in pressure occurred at all sites and these varied several-fold between subjects. When the brief sharp reduction

  19. Utilizing distributional analytics and electronic records to assess timeliness of inpatient blood glucose monitoring in non-critical care wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular and timely monitoring of blood glucose (BG levels in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus is crucial to optimizing inpatient glycaemic control. However, methods to quantify timeliness as a measurement of quality of care are lacking. We propose an analytical approach that utilizes BG measurements from electronic records to assess adherence to an inpatient BG monitoring protocol in hospital wards. Methods We applied our proposed analytical approach to electronic records obtained from 24 non-critical care wards in November and December 2013 from a tertiary care hospital in Singapore. We applied distributional analytics to evaluate daily adherence to BG monitoring timings. A one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (1S-KS test was performed to test daily BG timings against non-adherence represented by the uniform distribution. This test was performed among wards with high power, determined through simulation. The 1S-KS test was coupled with visualization via the cumulative distribution function (cdf plot and a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (2S-KS test, enabling comparison of the BG timing distributions between two consecutive days. We also applied mixture modelling to identify the key features in daily BG timings. Results We found that 11 out of the 24 wards had high power. Among these wards, 1S-KS test with cdf plots indicated adherence to BG monitoring protocols. Integrating both 1S-KS and 2S-KS information within a moving window consisting of two consecutive days did not suggest frequent potential change from or towards non-adherence to protocol. From mixture modelling among wards with high power, we consistently identified four components with high concentration of BG measurements taken before mealtimes and around bedtime. This agnostic analysis provided additional evidence that the wards were adherent to BG monitoring protocols. Conclusions We demonstrated the utility of our proposed analytical approach as a monitoring

  20. Catching Conical Intersections in the Act; Monitoring Transient Electronic Coherences by Attosecond Stimulated X-Ray Raman Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kochise; Kowalewski, Markus; Dorfman, Konstantin; Mukamel, Shaul

    Conical intersections (CIs) dominate the pathways and outcomes of virtually all photochemical molecular processes. Despite extensive experimental and theoretical effort, CIs have not been directly observed yet and the experimental evidence is inferred from fast reaction rates and vibrational signatures. We show that short X-ray pulses can directly detect the passage through a CI with the adequate temporal and spectral sensitivity. The non-adiabatic coupling that exists in the region of a CI redistributes electronic population but also generates electronic coherence. This coherent oscillation can then be detected via a coherent Raman process that employs a composite femtosecond/attosecond X-ray pulse. This technique, dubbed Transient Redistribution of Ultrafast Electronic Coherences (TRUECARS) is reminiscent of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) in that a coherent oscillation is set in motion and then monitored, but differs in that the dynamics is electronic (CARS generally observes nuclear dynamics) and the coherence is generated internally by passage through a region of non-adiabatic coupling rather than by an externally applied laser. Support provided by U.S. Department of Energy through Award No. DE-FG02-04ER15571, the National Science Foundation (Grant No CHE-1361516), and the Alexander von Humboldt foundation through the Feodor Lynen program.