WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitoring tropical deforestation

  1. Monitoring tropical deforestation for emerging carbon markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFries, R.; Townshend, J. [Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park (United States); Asner, G. [Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA (United States); Achard, F. [Joint Research Centre JRC, European Commission EC, Ispra (Italy); Justice, C. [Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park (United States); Laporte, N. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Price, K. [University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Small, C. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, New York (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The ability to quantify and verify tropical deforestation is critically important for assessing carbon credits from reduced deforestation. Analysis of satellite data is the most practicable approach for routine and timely monitoring of forest cover at the national scale. To develop baselines of historical deforestation as proposed elsewhere in this book, and to detect new deforestation, we address the following issues: (1) Are data available to monitor and verify tropical deforestation?: The historical database is adequate to develop baselines of tropical deforestation in the 1990's and current plans call for the launch of a Landsat class sensor after 2010. However a coordinated effort to assemble data from Landsat, ASTER, IRS, and other high resolution sensors is needed to maintain coverage for monitoring deforestation in the current decade and to ensure future observations; (2) Are there accepted, standard methods for monitoring and verifying tropical deforestation?: Effective methods for nearly-automated regional monitoring have been demonstrated in the research arena, but have been implemented for operational monitoring only in a few cases. It is feasible to establish best practices for monitoring and verifying deforestation through agreement among international technical experts. A component of this effort is to define types of forest and forest disturbances to be included in monitoring systems; and (3) Are the institutional capabilities in place for monitoring tropical deforestation?: A few tropical rainforest countries have expertise, institutions, and programs in place to monitor deforestation (e.g. Brazil and India) and US and European institutions are technically able to monitor deforestation across the tropics. However, many tropical countries require development of national and regional capabilities. This capability underpins the long-term viability of monitoring tropical deforestation to support compensated reductions.The main obstacles are

  2. Pan-tropical monitoring of deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achard, F [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, I-21020 Ispra (Italy); DeFries, R [Department of Geography and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Eva, H [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, I-21020 Ispra (Italy); Hansen, M [Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Box 506B, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Mayaux, P [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, I-21020 Ispra (Italy); Stibig, H-J [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, I-21020 Ispra (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    This paper reviews the technical capabilities for monitoring deforestation from a pan-tropical perspective in response to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process, which is studying the technical issues surrounding the ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries. The successful implementation of such policies requires effective forest monitoring systems that are reproducible, provide consistent results, meet standards for mapping accuracy, and can be implemented from national to pan-tropical levels. Remotely sensed data, supported by ground observations, are crucial to such efforts. Recent developments in global to regional monitoring of forests can contribute to reducing the uncertainties in estimates of emissions from deforestation. Monitoring systems at national levels in developing countries can also benefit from pan-tropical and regional observations, mainly by identifying hot spots of change and prioritizing areas for monitoring at finer spatial scales. A pan-tropical perspective is also required to ensure consistency between different national monitoring systems. Data sources already exist to determine baseline periods in the 1990s as historical reference points. Key requirements for implementing such monitoring programs, both at pan-tropical and at national scales, are international commitment of resources to increase capacity, coordination of observations to ensure pan-tropical coverage, access to free or low-cost data, and standardized, consensus protocols for data interpretation and analysis.

  3. Pan-tropical monitoring of deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achard, F.; DeFries, R.; Eva, H.; Hansen, M.; Mayaux, P.; Stibig, H.-J.

    2007-10-01

    This paper reviews the technical capabilities for monitoring deforestation from a pan-tropical perspective in response to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process, which is studying the technical issues surrounding the ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries. The successful implementation of such policies requires effective forest monitoring systems that are reproducible, provide consistent results, meet standards for mapping accuracy, and can be implemented from national to pan-tropical levels. Remotely sensed data, supported by ground observations, are crucial to such efforts. Recent developments in global to regional monitoring of forests can contribute to reducing the uncertainties in estimates of emissions from deforestation. Monitoring systems at national levels in developing countries can also benefit from pan-tropical and regional observations, mainly by identifying hot spots of change and prioritizing areas for monitoring at finer spatial scales. A pan-tropical perspective is also required to ensure consistency between different national monitoring systems. Data sources already exist to determine baseline periods in the 1990s as historical reference points. Key requirements for implementing such monitoring programs, both at pan-tropical and at national scales, are international commitment of resources to increase capacity, coordination of observations to ensure pan-tropical coverage, access to free or low-cost data, and standardized, consensus protocols for data interpretation and analysis.

  4. Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Peter H.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the deforestation problem and some efforts for solving the problem. Considers the impact of population growth, poverty, and ignorance. Includes a discussion of the current rapid decline in tropical forests, the consequences of destruction, and an outlook for the future. (YP)

  5. Error Sources in Deforestation Detection Using BFAST Monitor on Landsat Time Series Across Three Tropical Sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, Michael; Verbesselt, Jan; Avitabile, Valerio; Souza, Carlos; Herold, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Accurate tropic deforestation monitoring using time series requires methods which can capture gradual to abrupt changes and can account for site-specific properties of the environment and the available data. The generic time series algorithm BFAST Monitor was tested using Landsat time series at thre

  6. Tropical deforestation and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moutinho, P.; Schwartzman, S. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    This book represents the effort of a group of contributors that believes that finding the means to promote large-scale reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions produced by tropical deforestation and forest fires, within the parameters of the UNFCCC, is an urgent necessity, both in order to prevent dangerous interference in the climate system, and to achieve sustainable development in the tropics. Part 1 contains 3 chapters on the subject Tropical deforestation, fires and emissions: measurement and monitoring. Part 2 contains 6 chapters on the subject How to reduce deforestation emissions for carbon credit: Compensated Reduction. Part 3 contains 4 chapters on the subject Policy and legal frameworks for reducing deforestation emissions. Separate abstracts were prepared for the chapters in this book.

  7. Tropical deforestation and climate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voldoire, A.; Royer, J.F. [CNRM/GMGEC/UDC, Meteo-France, 42 Avenue G. Coriolis, 31057, Toulouse Cedex 1 (France)

    2004-07-01

    A new tropical deforestation experiment has been performed, with the ARPEGE-Climat atmospheric global circulation model associated with the ISBA land surface scheme. Simulations are forced with observed monthly mean sea surface temperatures and thus inter-annual variability of the ocean system is taken into account. The local mean response to deforestation over Amazonia and Africa is relatively weak compared with most published studies and compensation effects are particularly important. However, a large increase in daily maximum temperatures is obtained during the dry season when soil water stress dominates. The analysis of daily variability shows that the distributions of daily minimum and maximum temperatures are noticeably modified with an increase in extreme temperatures. Daily precipitation amounts also indicate a weakening of the convective activity. Conditions for the onset of convection are less frequently gathered, particularly over southern Amazonia and western equatorial Africa. At the same time, the intensity of convective events is reduced, especially over equatorial deforested regions. The inter-annual variability is also enhanced. For instance, El Nino events generally induce a large drying over northern Amazonia, which is well reproduced in the control simulation. In the deforested experiment, a positive feedback effect leads to a strong intensification of this drying and a subsequent increase in surface temperature. The change in variability as a response to deforestation can be more crucial than the change of the mean climate since more intense extremes could be more detrimental for agriculture than an increase in mean temperatures. (orig.)

  8. Certification of tropical timber and deforestation. Micro monitoring without macro conditions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Soest, D.P.; Jepma, C.J. [Department of Economics, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01

    Due to external effects associated with rainforest conservation, it is likely that the preferred size of rainforests is larger from the point of view of the international community than from the point of view of those who directly exploit the forests. As trade in tropical timber is the main direct link between forest exploitation and the international community, trade policy instruments have been proposed to promote sustainable forest exploitation. One such instrument is certification of internationally traded tropical timber: sustainable produced timber is labelled so that it becomes distinguishable from unsustainable produced timber. One of the aspects of the current debate is the level at which monitoring of compliance to the certification criteria should take place, i.e. at the macro (country) level or at the micro (concession) level. There seems to be a consensus that in order to be acceptable for industrialized countries` consumers, monitoring and certification should in any case take place at a micro level. However, we argue that in terms of maintaining tropical forests a firm level certification regime may be counter-effective in the short and medium run if no macro conditions are included in the certification process as well. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 29 refs., 2 appendices

  9. Tropical deforestation and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebeling, J.

    2006-08-15

    This dissertation evaluates recent proposals to include tropical deforestation into international climate change mitigation strategies. Deforestation is responsible for up to 25 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. The research aim here is to evaluate implications of a range of policy options for the environmental effectiveness of a prospective agreement, as well as for its political and economic attractiveness for different countries and stakeholders. A literature review, 48 key stakeholder interviews, analyses of submissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), modelling approaches and statistical analyses were carried out to answer these questions. On this basis the study identifies potential deal breakers and explores possible solutions to existing 'real' and perceived obstacles. Findings suggest that, given sufficient political will, an effective agreement between current UNFCCC Parties is feasible and that existing concerns can be addressed in pragmatic ways. Among the different policy alternatives, creating a new carbon trading mechanism under a post-2012 Kyoto regime is likely to deliver greatest economic and environmental benefits. Measuring emission reductions against national-level baselines based on historical base periods would increase the environmental integrity of resulting carbon credits. The study also finds that potential monetary benefits are distributed very unevenly between potential host countries, and that this may partly explain current negotiation positions. Complementary approaches, not based on emission trading, may have to be developed to foster broader support for an agreement. Finally, setting more ambitious emission reduction targets for industrialised countries would overcome concerns about 'flooding' of carbon markets, and would make the most of a unique opportunity to tackle both climate change and deforestation.

  10. Tropical deforestation : an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to increase insight in the underlying causes of deforestation and forest degradation by analysing the factors that induce unsustainable land use. Several types of actors involved in the deforestation process are taken into account: the decision-making processes of vario

  11. Tropical deforestation : an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to increase insight in the underlying causes of deforestation and forest degradation by analysing the factors that induce unsustainable land use. Several types of actors involved in the deforestation process are taken into account: the decision-making processes of vario

  12. Tropical deforestation and the global carbon budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W. [Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States). Marine Biological Lab.; Houghton, R.A. [Woods Hole Research Center, MA (United States); McGuire, A.D. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} concentration of the atmosphere has increased by almost 30% since 1800. This increase is due largely to two factors: the combustion of fossil fuel and deforestation to create croplands and pastures. Deforestation results in a net flux of carbon to the atmospheric because forests contain 20--50 times more carbon per unit area than agricultural lands. In recent decades, the tropics have been the primary region of deforestation.The annual rate of CO{sub 2} released due to tropical deforestation during the early 1990s has been estimated at between 1.2 and 2.3 gigatons C. The range represents uncertainties about both the rates of deforestation and the amounts of carbon stored in different types of tropical forests at the time of cutting. An evaluation of the role of tropical regions in the global carbon budget must include both the carbon flux to the atmosphere due to deforestation and carbon accumulation, if any, in intact forests. In the early 1990s, the release of CO{sub 2} from tropical deforestation appears to have been mostly offset by CO{sub 2} uptake occurring elsewhere in the tropics, according to an analysis of recent trends in the atmospheric concentrations of O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. Interannual variations in climate and/or CO{sub 2} fertilization may have been responsible for the CO{sub 2} uptake in intact forests. These mechanisms are consistent with site-specific measurements of net carbon fluxes between tropical forests and the atmosphere, and with regional and global simulations using process-based biogeochemistry models. 86 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  13. Jamaica: Test case for tropical deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyre, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Deforestation in Jamaica, according to the United Nations (FAO/UNEP) and other sources, is occurring at an annual rate of about tree percent. This is accepted by some Jamaican government agencies, but strongly disputed by others. The Ministry of Agriculture, in particular, claims that the national forested area is actually increasing rapidly. A survey of humid tropical forests in Jamaica, carried out by the author in 1986, indicates a 3.3 percent per annum rate of deforestation for 1980-1986. But, despite significant commercial lumber production, large clear fellings are rare and most modification of the forest is due to expansion of small-scale farming (including Cannabis sativa) and pastoral activity. The size of area cleared is most often 20 to 25 hectares. As uncontrolled deforestation is adversely affecting watersheds and inducing serious flooding some form of control and management is urgently required.

  14. Carbon credits to contrast tropical deforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grassi G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation accounts for about 15-20% of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions. Given the magnitude of this process, and the need of an active involvement of developing countries in future efforts to combat climate change, the possibility to reduce emissions from deforestation is emerging as a decisive element of the post-Kyoto negotiations. Here we present some relevant issues discussed during a recent UNFCCC workshop (Rome, 30 August - 1 September on this topic, including scientific, technical and methodological issues, policy approaches and positive incentives. Overall, the workshop provided a good opportunity for UNFCCC Parties to share experiences on reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries, clarify the key challenges in this area and identify useful ways to move forward. Although many important political and methodological details still need to be clarified, all the Parties showed a constructive attitude and the workshop ended in a positive and optimistic atmosphere.

  15. The Environmental Legacy of Modern Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Smith, Matthew J; Wearn, Oliver R; Purves, Drew; Ewers, Robert M

    2016-08-22

    Tropical deforestation has caused a significant share of carbon emissions and species losses, but historical patterns have rarely been explicitly considered when estimating these impacts [1]. A deforestation event today leads to a time-delayed future release of carbon, from the eventual decay either of forest products or of slash left at the site [2]. Similarly, deforestation often does not result in the immediate loss of species, and communities may exhibit a process of "relaxation" to their new equilibrium over time [3]. We used a spatially explicit land cover change model [4] to reconstruct the annual rates and spatial patterns of tropical deforestation that occurred between 1950 and 2009 in the Amazon, in the Congo Basin, and across Southeast Asia. Using these patterns, we estimated the resulting gross vegetation carbon emissions [2, 5] and species losses over time [6]. Importantly, we accounted for the time lags inherent in both the release of carbon and the extinction of species. We show that even if deforestation had completely halted in 2010, time lags ensured there would still be a carbon emissions debt of at least 8.6 petagrams, equivalent to 5-10 years of global deforestation, and an extinction debt of more than 140 bird, mammal, and amphibian forest-specific species, which if paid, would increase the number of 20(th)-century extinctions in these groups by 120%. Given the magnitude of these debts, commitments to reduce emissions and biodiversity loss are unlikely to be realized without specific actions that directly address this damaging environmental legacy.

  16. Deforestation homogenizes tropical parasitoid-host networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Etienne; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2010-06-01

    Human activities drive biotic homogenization (loss of regional diversity) of many taxa. However, whether species interaction networks (e.g., food webs) can also become homogenized remains largely unexplored. Using 48 quantitative parasitoid-host networks replicated through space and time across five tropical habitats, we show that deforestation greatly homogenized network structure at a regional level, such that interaction composition became more similar across rice and pasture sites compared with forested habitats. This was not simply caused by altered consumer and resource community composition, but was associated with altered consumer foraging success, such that parasitoids were more likely to locate their hosts in deforested habitats. Furthermore, deforestation indirectly homogenized networks in time through altered mean consumer and prey body size, which decreased in deforested habitats. Similar patterns were obtained with binary networks, suggesting that interaction (link) presence-absence data may be sufficient to detect network homogenization effects. Our results show that tropical agroforestry systems can support regionally diverse parasitoid-host networks, but that removal of canopy cover greatly homogenizes the structure of these networks in space, and to a lesser degree in time. Spatiotemporal homogenization of interaction networks may alter coevolutionary outcomes and reduce ecological resilience at regional scales, but may not necessarily be predictable from community changes observed within individual trophic levels.

  17. The Political Economy of Deforestation in the Tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Robin; Hansen, Matthew; Olken, Benjamin; Potapov, Peter; Sieber, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Tropical deforestation accounts for almost one-fifth of greenhouse gas emissions worldwide and threatens the world's most diverse ecosystems. The prevalence of illegal forest extraction in the tropics suggests that understanding the incentives of local bureaucrats and politicians who enforce forest policy may be critical to understanding tropical deforestation. We find support for this thesis using a novel satellite-based dataset that tracks annual changes in forest cover across eight years o...

  18. Remote tropical and sub-tropical responses to Amazon deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Andrew M.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2016-05-01

    Replacing natural vegetation with realistic tropical crops over the Amazon region in a global Earth system model impacts vertical transport of heat and moisture, modifying the interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free atmosphere. Vertical velocity is decreased over a majority of the Amazon region, shifting the ascending branch and modifying the seasonality of the Hadley circulation over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans. Using a simple model that relates circulation changes to heating anomalies and generalizing the upper-atmosphere temperature response to deforestation, agreement is found between the response in the fully-coupled model and the simple solution. These changes to the large-scale dynamics significantly impact precipitation in several remote regions, namely sub-Saharan Africa, Mexico, the southwestern United States and extratropical South America, suggesting non-local climate repercussions for large-scale land use changes in the tropics are possible.

  19. Export-oriented deforestation in Mato Grosso: harbinger or exception for other tropical forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Ruth; Herold, Martin; Verchot, Louis; Macedo, Marcia N; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2013-06-05

    The Brazilian state of Mato Grosso was a global deforestation hotspot in the early 2000s. Deforested land is used predominantly to produce meat for distal consumption either through cattle ranching or soya bean for livestock feed. Deforestation declined dramatically in the latter part of the decade through a combination of market forces, policies, enforcement and improved monitoring. This study assesses how representative the national-level drivers underlying Mato Grosso's export-oriented deforestation are in other tropical forest countries based on agricultural exports, commercial agriculture and urbanization. We also assess how pervasive the governance and technical monitoring capacity that enabled Mato Grosso's decline in deforestation is in other countries. We find that between 41 and 54 per cent of 2000-2005 deforestation in tropical forest countries (other than Brazil) occurred in countries with drivers similar to Brazil. Very few countries had national-level governance and capacity similar to Brazil. Results suggest that the ecological, hydrological and social consequences of land-use change for export-oriented agriculture as discussed in this Theme Issue were applicable in about one-third of all tropical forest countries in 2000-2005. However, the feasibility of replicating Mato Grosso's success with controlling deforestation is more limited. Production landscapes to support distal consumption similar to Mato Grosso are likely to become more prevalent and are unlikely to follow a land-use transition model with increasing forest cover.

  20. Weak simulated extratropical responses to complete tropical deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findell, K.L.; Knutson, T.R.; Milly, P.C.D.

    2006-01-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory atmosphere-land model version 2 (AM2/LM2) coupled to a 50-m-thick slab ocean model has been used to investigate remote responses to tropical deforestation. Magnitudes and significance of differences between a control run and a deforested run are assessed through comparisons of 50-yr time series, accounting for autocorrelation and field significance. Complete conversion of the broadleaf evergreen forests of South America, central Africa, and the islands of Oceania to grasslands leads to highly significant local responses. In addition, a broad but mild warming is seen throughout the tropical troposphere (deforested run and the control run are similar in magnitude and area to the differences between nonoverlapping segments of the control run. These simulations suggest that extratropical responses to complete tropical deforestation are unlikely to be distinguishable from natural climate variability.

  1. Effects of tropical deforestation on climate and agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Deborah; Vandecar, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Tower, ground-based and satellite observations indicate that tropical deforestation results in warmer, drier conditions at the local scale. Understanding the regional or global impacts of deforestation on climate, and ultimately on agriculture, requires modelling. General circulation models show that completely deforesting the tropics could result in global warming equivalent to that caused by burning of fossil fuels since 1850, with more warming and considerable drying in the tropics. More realistic scenarios of deforestation yield less warming and less drying, suggesting critical thresholds beyond which rainfall is substantially reduced. In regional, mesoscale models that capture topography and vegetation-based discontinuities, small clearings can actually enhance rainfall. At this smaller scale as well, a critical deforestation threshold exists, beyond which rainfall declines. Future agricultural productivity in the tropics is at risk from a deforestation-induced increase in mean temperature and the associated heat extremes and from a decline in mean rainfall or rainfall frequency. Through teleconnections, negative impacts on agriculture could extend well beyond the tropics.

  2. The spectral changes of deforestation in the Brazilian tropical savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancoso, Ralph; Sano, Edson E; Meneses, Paulo R

    2015-01-01

    The Cerrado is a biome in Brazil that is experiencing the most rapid loss in natural vegetation. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in the spectral response in the red, near infrared (NIR), middle infrared (MIR), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested. The test sites were regions of the Cerrado located in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Mato Grosso. For each region, a pair of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes from 2008 (before deforestation) and 2009 (after deforestation) was compared. A set of 1,380 samples of deforested polygons and an equal number of samples of native vegetation have their spectral properties statistically analyzed. The accuracy of deforestation detections was also evaluated using high spatial resolution imagery. Results showed that the spectral data of deforested areas and their corresponding native vegetation were statistically different. The red band showed the highest difference between the reflectance data from deforested areas and native vegetation, while the NIR band showed the lowest difference. A consistent pattern of spectral change when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested was identified regardless of the location in the biome. The overall accuracy of deforestation detections was 97.75%. Considering both the marked pattern of spectral changes and the high deforestation detection accuracy, this study suggests that deforestation in Cerrado can be accurately monitored, but a strong seasonal and spatial variability of spectral changes might be expected.

  3. Tropical Deforestation and the Kyoto Protocol. An Editorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, M. [Instituto Socioambiental ISA., Brasilia DF (Brazil); Moutinho, P.; Nepstad, D. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM Belem (Brazil); Schwartzman, S. [Environmental Defense, Washington, DC (United States); Nepstad, D. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Curran, L. [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT (United States); Nobre, C. [Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-08-01

    The current annual rates of tropical deforestation from Brazil and Indonesia alone would equal four-fifths of the emissions reductions gained by implementing the Kyoto Protocol in its first commitment period, jeopardizing the goal of Protocol to avoid 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' with the climate system. We propose the novel concept of 'compensated reduction', whereby countries that elect to reduce national level deforestation to below a previously determined historical level would receive post facto compensation, and commit to stabilize or further reduce deforestation in the future. Such a program could create large-scale incentives to reduce tropical deforestation, as well as for broader developing country participation in the Kyoto Protocol, and leverage support for the continuity of the Protocol beyond the 2008-2012 first commitment period.

  4. Tropical deforestation and the Kyoto Protocol. An editorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, M. [Instituto Socioambiental ISA., Brasilia DF (Brazil); Moutinho, P.; Nepstad, D. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM, Belem (Brazil); Schwartzman, S. [Environmental Defense, Washington, DC (United States); Curran, L. [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT (United States); Nobre, C. [Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The current annual rates of tropical deforestation from Brazil and Indonesia alone would equal four-fifths of the emissions reductions gained by implementing the Kyoto Protocol in its first commitment period, jeopardizing the goal of Protocol to avoid 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' with the climate system. We propose the novel concept of 'compensated reduction', whereby countries that elect to reduce national level deforestation to below a previously determined historical level would receive post facto compensation, and commit to stabilize or further reduce deforestation in the future. Such a program could create large-scale incentives to reduce tropical deforestation, as well as for broader developing country participation in the Kyoto Protocol, and leverage support for the continuity of the Protocol beyond the 2008-2012 first commitment period.

  5. Proximate Population Factors and Deforestation in Tropical Agricultural Frontiers

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Forest conversion for agriculture expansion is the most salient signature of human occupation of the earth’s land surface. Although population growth and deforestation are significantly associated at the global and regional scales, evidence for population links to deforestation at micro-scales—where people are actually clearing0020forests—is scant. Much of the planet’s forest elimination is proceeding along tropical agricultural frontiers. This article examines the evolution of thought on pop...

  6. The drivers of tropical deforestation: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. J.; Boucher, D.; Elias, P.; Lininger, K.; May-Tobin, C.; Roquemore, S.; Saxon, E.; Martin, J.; Mulik, K.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical forests are disappearing around the world. This clearing causes around 15% of global carbon emissions, leads to the rapid loss of biodiversity, and destroys the livelihoods of many indigenous peoples. We comprehensively reviewed the literature on drivers of tropical deforestation and found a number of trends. While deforestation was predominately driven by small farmers and government action in the 1970s and 1980s, since the 1990s most deforestation has been driven by large scale commercial agriculture. In Latin America, and Brazil in particular, forest clearing has mostly been due to expansion of cattle pastures and for a period in the late 1990s and early 2000s soy bean expansion. In Southeast Asia, deforestation has mainly been due to expansion of oil palm plantations and timber harvesting. In Africa small farmers and wood fuel collection still play a role, although deforestation rates are considerably lower there than in other regions. Additionally, increased urbanization and trends toward a diet based on meat, particularly beef, have help drive deforestation. Biofuels policies around the world are also adding demand, both directly for vegetable oil, and by expanding demand for competing crops such as corn. We examine the extent to which biofuels demand directly and indirectly acts as a driver of deforestation, and the policies that can mitigate this problem by analyzing alternative scenarios of biofuel expansion and their impact on land use change, commodity prices and green house gas emissions.

  7. Nitrogen deposition in tropical forests from deforestation and savanna fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G.; Morton, D. C.; Kasibhatla, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Tropical forests account for nearly half of global net primary production (NPP) and may contribute substantially to contemporary and future land carbon (C) sinks. We used satellite-derived estimates of global fire emissions and a chemical transport model to estimate atmospheric nitrogen (N) fluxes from deforestation and savanna fires in tropical ecosystems. N emissions and deposition led to a substantial net transport of N equatorward, from savannas and areas undergoing deforestation to tropical forests. On average, N emissions from fires were equivalent to approximately 28% of biological N fixation (BNF) in savannas (4.8 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and 38% of BNF from ecosystems at the deforestation frontier (9.1 kg N ha-1 yr-1). N deposition occurred in interior tropical forests at a rate equivalent to 4% of their BNF (1.1 kg N ha-1 yr-1). This percentage was highest for African tropical forests in the Congo Basin (16%; 3.7 kg N ha-1 yr-1) owing to equatorward transport from northern and southern savannas. These results suggest that land use change, including deforestation fires, may be enhancing nutrient availability and carbon sequestration in nearby tropical forest ecosystems.

  8. Trends in size of tropical deforestation events signal increasing dominance of industrial-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kemen G.; González-Roglich, Mariano; Schaffer-Smith, Danica; Schwantes, Amanda M.; Swenson, Jennifer J.

    2017-05-01

    Deforestation continues across the tropics at alarming rates, with repercussions for ecosystem processes, carbon storage and long term sustainability. Taking advantage of recent fine-scale measurement of deforestation, this analysis aims to improve our understanding of the scale of deforestation drivers in the tropics. We examined trends in forest clearings of different sizes from 2000-2012 by country, region and development level. As tropical deforestation increased from approximately 6900 kha yr-1 in the first half of the study period, to >7900 kha yr-1 in the second half of the study period, >50% of this increase was attributable to the proliferation of medium and large clearings (>10 ha). This trend was most pronounced in Southeast Asia and in South America. Outside of Brazil >60% of the observed increase in deforestation in South America was due to an upsurge in medium- and large-scale clearings; Brazil had a divergent trend of decreasing deforestation, >90% of which was attributable to a reduction in medium and large clearings. The emerging prominence of large-scale drivers of forest loss in many regions and countries suggests the growing need for policy interventions which target industrial-scale agricultural commodity producers. The experience in Brazil suggests that there are promising policy solutions to mitigate large-scale deforestation, but that these policy initiatives do not adequately address small-scale drivers. By providing up-to-date and spatially explicit information on the scale of deforestation, and the trends in these patterns over time, this study contributes valuable information for monitoring, and designing effective interventions to address deforestation.

  9. Tropical deforestation as a source of greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, R.A. [The Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Tropical deforestation, including both the permanent conversion of forests to croplands and pastures and the temporary or partial removal of forests for shifting cultivation and selective logging, is estimated to have released on the order of 1-2 PgC/yr (15-35% of annual fossil fuel emissions) during the 1990s. The magnitude of emissions depends on the rates of deforestation, the biomass of the forests deforested, and other reductions in biomass that result from forest use. If, in addition to carbon dioxide, one considers the emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, and other chemically reactive gases that result from deforestation and subsequent uses of the land, annual emissions during the 1990s accounted for about 25% of the total anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Trends in the rates of tropical deforestation are difficult to predict, but at today's rates, another 85 to 130 PgC will be released over the next 100 years, the emissions declining only as tropical forests are eliminated.

  10. Clearing the way for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, M.; Bird, N.; Trines, E.; Dutschke, M.; Frumhoff, P.; Jong, de B.H.J.; Laake, van P.; Masera, O.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for reduce

  11. Clearing the Way for Reducing Emissions from Tropical Deforestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret; Bird, N.; Trines, E.; Dutschke, M.; Frumhoff, P.; de Jong, B.H.J.; van Laake, P.E.; Masera, O.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for reduce

  12. Albedo as a modulator of climate response to tropical deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Shukla, J.

    1994-01-01

    An atmospheric general circulation model with land surface properties represented by the simplified Simple Biosphere model is used to investigate the effects on local climate due to tropical deforestation for the Amazon basin. One control and three anomaly integrations of 4 years' duration are performed. In the anomaly integrations, rain forest in South America is replaced by degraded grassland. The anomaly integrations differ only in the optical properties of the grassland vegetation, with net surface albedos ranging from the same as to 0.09 lighter than that of rain forest. It is found that the change in climate, particularly rainfall, is strongly dependent on the change in surface albedo that accompanies deforestation. Replacement of forest by grass causes a reduction in transpiration and reduces frictional convergence by decreasing surface roughness. However, precipitation averaged over the deforested area is not necessarily reduced. Average precipitation decreases when the increase in albedo is greater than 0.03. If surface albedo is not increased appreciably as a result of deforestation, moisture flux convergence driven by the increase in surface temperature can offset the other effects, and average precipitation increases. As albedo is increased, surface temperature does not change, but surface latent and sensible heat flux decreases due to reduced radiational energy absorbed at the surface, resulting in a reduction in convection and precipitation. A change in the distribution of precipitation due to deforestation that appears to be independent of the albedo is observed.

  13. Clearing the way for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skutsch, M. [Department of Technology and Sustainable Development, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Bird, N. [Joanneum Research, Elizabethstrasse 5/1, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Trines, E. [Gramserweg 2, 3711 AW Austerlitz (Netherlands); Dutschke, M. [Biocarbon, Badstrasse 41, 77652 Offenburg (Germany); Frumhoff, P. [Union of Concerned Scientists, 2 Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA 02238-9105 (United States); De Jong, B.H.J. [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad Villahermosa, Carr. Vhsa-Reforma Km. 15.5, C.P. 86280, Ra Guineo 2da Secc, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Van Laak, P. [ITC, Department of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede (Netherlands); Masera, O. [Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, UNAMAP 27-3 Xangari 58089, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Murdiyarso, D. [Center for International Forestry Research, Jl. CIFOR, Situ Gede Sindangbarang, Bogor 16680 (Indonesia)

    2007-06-15

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for reduced emissions from deforestation arises. The paper reviews two approaches for this, compensated reductions (CR) as proposed by Santilli et al. and the Joint Research Centre proposal that combine voluntary commitments by non-Annex I countries to reduce emissions from deforestation with carbon market financing. Both approaches have the clear advantages of simplicity and the possibility of fitting to an evolving greenhouse gas emission reduction regime. The authors consider the strengths and limitations of each proposal and build upon them to address several implementation challenges and options for improvement. Given the urgency of avoiding dangerous climate change, the timely development of technically sound, politically acceptable, cost-effective and practicable measures to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is essential. These two approaches take us a step closer to this goal, but they need to be refined rapidly to enable this goal to be realised.

  14. Tropical deforestation and habitat fragmentation in the Amazon - Satellite data from 1978 to 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skole, David; Tucker, Compton

    1993-01-01

    Landsat satellite imagery covering the entire forested portion of the Brazilian Amazon Basin was used to measure, for 1978 and 1988, deforestation, fragmented forest, defined as areas less than 100 square kilometers surrounded by deforestation, and edge effects of 1 kilometer into forest from adjacent areas of deforestation. Tropical deforestation increased from 78,000 square kilometers in 1978 to 230,000 square kilometers in 1988 while tropical forest habitat, severely affected with respect to biological diversity, increased from 208,000 to 588,000 square kilometers. Although this rate of deforestation is lower than previous estimates, the effect on biological diversity is greater.

  15. Land Surface Biophysical-Climate Impacts of Tropical Deforestation with Time-dependence: Sensitivity to Deforestation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, C. G.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    Deforestation perturbs both biophysical and carbon feedbacks on climate. However, biophysical feedbacks operate at more temporally-immediate and spatially-focused scales, and thus may be sensitive to the actual rate at which deforestation occurs rather than just to the total forest cover loss. Most of previous modeling experiments have focused on equilibrium impacts of mass instantaneous replacement of trees; but, anthropogenic deforestation evolves in time and may result in transient climatic changes which holistic assessments of land cover change impacts must be able to characterize for mitigation and adaptation initiatives to be effective. This exploratory work therefore attempts to determine if there exists a time-dependence within biophysical-climate impacts of deforestation; specifically, if indeed the rates of deforestation affect terrestrial biophysics-climate feedbacks during the period of active deforestation as well as the post-deforestation period. Described here is a method for simulating annual tropical deforestation in the fully-coupled Community Climate System Model 3.0 (CCSM3) with the Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) for testing biosphere-climate sensitivity to “preservation pathways.” We test two deforestation curves- one with a 10% annual tree population thinning (DFC10-PT10), and one with 1% (DFC1-PT10) - each with a preservation target of 10% tree cover. During the period of active deforestation, surface albedo, net radiation, latent heat flux and climate variables are compared for time-dependence and sensitivity to total tropical tree foliar projective cover across the tropical band, the Amazon Basin, Central Africa and Southeast Asia. The deforestation rates produce characteristic trends in biophysical variables with DFC10-PT10 resulting in rapid increase/decrease during the initial 10-30 years before a slow leveling off, while DFC1-PT10 exhibits more gradual changes. The deforestation rate is also found to have little effect on

  16. Performance of vegetation indices from Landsat time series in deforestation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Michael; Clevers, Jan G. P. W.; Carter, Sarah; Verbesselt, Jan; Avitabile, Valerio; Quang, Hien Vu; Herold, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The performance of Landsat time series (LTS) of eight vegetation indices (VIs) was assessed for monitoring deforestation across the tropics. Three sites were selected based on differing remote sensing observation frequencies, deforestation drivers and environmental factors. The LTS of each VI was analysed using the Breaks For Additive Season and Trend (BFAST) Monitor method to identify deforestation. A robust reference database was used to evaluate the performance regarding spatial accuracy, sensitivity to observation frequency and combined use of multiple VIs. The canopy cover sensitive Normalized Difference Fraction Index (NDFI) was the most accurate. Among those tested, wetness related VIs (Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) and the Tasselled Cap wetness (TCw)) were spatially more accurate than greenness related VIs (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Tasselled Cap greenness (TCg)). When VIs were fused on feature level, spatial accuracy was improved and overestimation of change reduced. NDVI and NDFI produced the most robust results when observation frequency varies.

  17. RCCM2-BATS model over tropical South America: Applications to tropical deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahmann, A.N.; Dickinson, R.E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-08-01

    A multiyear simulation of the global climate uses a revised version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model Version 2 (CCM2) coupled to the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). It is compared with global and rain gauge precipitation climatologies to evaluate precipitation fields and European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts analyses to evaluate the atmospheric circulation. The near-surface climate is compared with data from Amazonian field campaigns. The model simulation of the South American climate agrees closely with the observational record and is much improved from past simulations with previous versions of the NCAR Community Climate model over this portion of the Tropics. The model is then used to study the local and regional response to tropical deforestation over Amazonia. In addition to the standard deforestation forcing, consisting mainly of increased albedo and decreased roughness length, two additional sensitivity experiments were conducted to assess the individual contributions from these forcings to the deforestation changes. The standard deforestation simulation shows slight increases in annually averaged surface temperature (+1{degrees}C) and reductions in annually averaged precipitation and evaporation (-363 and -149 mm yr{sup -1}, respectively). As expected, increases in surface albedo over Amazonia produce a reduction in net downward solar radiation at the surface and consequently a reduction in net surface radiation and surface latent heat flux. The roughness decrease, on the other hand, reduces the surface latent heat fluxes through decreases in the surface drag coefficient. The regional changes in moisture convergence and precipitation during the Amazonian wet season display a shift in the area of maximum precipitation rather than an overall decrease over the deforested area. 45 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Deforestation trends of tropical dry forests in central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Carlos A.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical dry forests are the most threatened forest type in the world yet a paucity of research about them stymies development of appropriate conservation actions. The Paranã River Basin has the most significant dry forest formations in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil and is threatened by intense land conversion to pastures and agriculture. We examined changes in Paranã River Basin deforestation rates and fragmentation across three time intervals that covered 31 yr using Landsat imagery. Our results indicated a 66.3 percent decrease in forest extent between 1977 and 2008, with an annual rate of forest cover change of 3.5 percent. Landscape metrics further indicated severe forest loss and fragmentation, resulting in an increase in the number of fragments and reduction in patch sizes. Forest fragments in flatlands have virtually disappeared and the only significant forest remnants are mostly found over limestone outcrops in the eastern part of the basin. If current patterns persist, we project that these forests will likely disappear within 25 yr. These patterns may be reversed with creation of protected areas and involvement of local people to preserve small fragments that can be managed for restoration.

  19. Forecasting deforestation and carbon emissions in tropical developing countries facing demographic expansion: a case study in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Vieilledent, Ghislain; Grinand, Clovis; Vaudry, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic deforestation in tropical countries is responsible for a significant part of global carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere. To plan efficient climate change mitigation programs (such as REDD+, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation), reliable forecasts of deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions are necessary. Although population density has been recognized as a key factor in tropical deforestation, current methods of prediction do not allow the popul...

  20. Monitoring Deforestation at Sub-Annual Scales as Extreme Events in Landsat Data Cubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliakim Hamunyela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for monitoring deforestation from satellite data at sub-annual scales require pixel time series to have many historical observations in the reference period to model normal forest dynamics before detecting deforestation. However, in some areas, pixel time series often do not have many historical observations. Detecting deforestation at a pixel with scarce historical observations can be improved by complementing the pixel time series with spatial context information. In this work, we propose a data-driven space-time change detection method that detects deforestation events at sub-annual scales in data cubes of satellite image time series. First we spatially normalised observations in the local space-time data cube to reduce seasonality. Subsequently, we detected deforestation by assessing whether a newly acquired observation in the monitoring period is an extreme when compared against spatially normalised values in a local space-time data cube defined over reference period. We demonstrated our method at two sites, a dry tropical Bolivian forest and a humid tropical Brazilian forest, by varying the spatial and temporal extent of data cube. We emulated a “near real-time” monitoring scenario, implying that observations in the monitoring period were sequentially rather than simultaneously assessed for deforestation. Using Landsat normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI time series, we achieved a median temporal detection delay of less than three observations, a producer’s accuracy above 70%, a user’s accuracy above 65%, and an overall accuracy above 80% at both sites, even when the reference period of the data cube only contained one year of data. Our results also show that large percentile thresholds (e.g., 5th percentile achieve higher producer’s accuracy and shorter temporal detection delay, whereas smaller percentiles (e.g., 0.1 percentile achieve higher user’s accuracy, but longer temporal detection delay. The

  1. Heterogeneity of experts’ opinion regarding opportunities and challenges of tackling deforestation in the tropics: a Q methodology application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnik, M.; Nijnik, A.; Bergsma, E.; Matthews, R.

    2014-01-01

    Making the concept of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) ready to be a mechanism to combat tropical deforestation and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by compensating developing countries for income foregone in reducing their rates of deforestation, requires solut

  2. On the response of the tropical atmosphere to large-scale deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.; Bras, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies on the Amazon deforestation problem predict that removal of the forest will result in a higher surface temperature, a significant reduction in evaporation and precipitation, and possibly significant changes in the tropical circulation. Here, we discuss the basic mechanisms contributing to the response of the tropical atmosphere to deforestation. A simple linear model of the tropical atmosphere is used in studying the effects of deforestation on climate. It is suggested that the impact of large-scale deforestation on the circulation of the tropical atmosphere consists of two components: the response of the tropical circulation to the negative change in precipitation (heating), and the response of the same circulation to the positive change in surface temperature. Owing to their different signs, the changes in predicted temperature and precipitation excite competing responses working in opposite directions. The predicted change in tropical circulation determines the change, if any, in atmospheric moisture convergence, which is equivalent to the change in run-off. The dependence of run-off predictions on the relative magnitudes of the predicted changes in precipitation and surface temperature implies that the predictions about run-off are highly sensitive, which explains, at least partly, the disagreement between the different models concerning the sign of the predicted change in Amazonian run-off.

  3. The Amazon region: tropical deforestation, biogeochemical cycles and the climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Andreae, M.O.; Silva-Dias, M.A.; Veraart, J.A.; Brink, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, aerosols, and trace gases in the Amazon Basin, and the interactions between deforestation, rainfall and climate were all investigated in this programme as a part of an integrated cluster of inter-linked and complementary research projects. These i

  4. The Amazon region: tropical deforestation, biogeochemical cycles and the climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Andreae, M.O.; Silva-Dias, M.A.; Veraart, J.A.; Brink, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, aerosols, and trace gases in the Amazon Basin, and the interactions between deforestation, rainfall and climate were all investigated in this programme as a part of an integrated cluster of inter-linked and complementary research projects. These i

  5. Reducing emissions from tropical forest deforestation. Applying compensated reduction in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osafo, Y.B.

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to determine whether Compensated Reduction (CR) can provide sufficient economic incentives to help reduce emissions from tropical forest deforestation in non- Annex 1 countries. It will explore the concept of CR explaining the problem it aims to remedy and how it seeks to solve the problem. It will then take the concept and apply it to a non-Annex 1 country with threatened and decreasing forests estates. Using Ghana as a case-study, the paper will seek to determine whether an instrument like CR will make avoided deforestation economically viable an alternative to deforestation. In order to determine the market value of deforestation in Ghana deforestation will be defined as land-use change, the conversion of forest land into non-forest land. Even though there is a lack of empirical data to determine the relative contributions to deforestation in Ghana by the various land-use change forms or factors, it is believed that 'slash and burn' is the predominant factor. In this paper deforestation will therefore refer specifically to the activities of timber harvesting, clearing of the remaining vegetation and the use of the land cleared for agricultural farming thereafter.

  6. Defining and explaining tropical deforestation: shifting cultivation and population growth in colonial Madagascar (1896-1940).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, L

    1993-10-01

    The case study of deforestation in Madagascar demonstrated how deforestation is a complex phenomenon that reflects interconnections between land-based resources, human groups, and global political economy; specifically, there is a link between changing land use practices affecting shifting cultivation and tropical deforestation. The general development model of exponential population growth and shifting cultivation causing deforestation and environmental degradation is too simplified, places undue blame on the victims, and isolates shifting cultivation practices from the reality of land use patterns in specific places at specific times. Problematic also is the way definition, delimitation, and discussion of environmental problems shapes possible solutions. This analysis suggests a theoretical view that links reconstructed regional geography with political ecology. The assertion is that deforestation is historically based on multiple social processes within Madagascar. Land use practices and resource access decisions during the colonial period affected land management and degradation. The colonial state policy played a role in the destruction of tropical flora by fire, shifting cultivation, and grazing, and the responses of Europeans and Malagasys. Context and multiplicity of motivations and practices were key. A review was presented of reconstructed regional geography and political ecology and global tropical deforestation. The description of the political economy of deforestation during colonial times focused on the movement of population into the forests after 1896 and French annexation. Famine resulted. Shifting cultivation laws were passed between 1881 and 1913, due to the desire for rational forest resource management. Ecologically and socially these rules were difficult to enforce; there were resistance due to the threat of the elimination of subsistence living for wage work. Destructive logging practices and forest product extraction after 1921 are described

  7. Can carbon emissions from tropical deforestation drop by 50% in 5 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarin, Daniel J; Harris, Nancy L; Baccini, Alessandro; Aksenov, Dmitry; Hansen, Matthew C; Azevedo-Ramos, Claudia; Azevedo, Tasso; Margono, Belinda A; Alencar, Ane C; Gabris, Chris; Allegretti, Adrienne; Potapov, Peter; Farina, Mary; Walker, Wayne S; Shevade, Varada S; Loboda, Tatiana V; Turubanova, Svetlana; Tyukavina, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Halving carbon emissions from tropical deforestation by 2020 could help bring the international community closer to the agreed goal of deforestation at 2.270 Gt CO2 yr(-1). Brazil did not sign the NYDF, yet from 2001 to 2013, Brazil ranks first for both carbon emissions from gross tropical deforestation and reductions in those emissions - its share of the total declined from a peak of 69% in 2003 to a low of 20% in 2012. Indonesia, an NYDF signatory, is the second highest emitter, peaking in 2012 at 0.362 Gt CO2 yr(-1) before declining to 0.205 Gt CO2 yr(-1) in 2013. The other 14 NYDF tropical country signatories were responsible for a combined average of 0.317 Gt CO2 yr(-1) , while the other 86 tropical country non-signatories were responsible for a combined average of 0.688 Gt CO2 yr(-1). We outline two scenarios for achieving the 50% emission reduction target by 2020, both emphasizing the critical role of Brazil and the need to reverse the trends of increasing carbon emissions from gross tropical deforestation in many other tropical countries that, from 2001 to 2013, have largely offset Brazil's reductions. Achieving the target will therefore be challenging, even though it is in the self-interest of the international community. Conserving rather than cutting down tropical forests requires shifting economic development away from a dependence on natural resource depletion toward recognition of the dependence of human societies on the natural capital that tropical forests represent and the goods and services they provide.

  8. Soil organic carbon dynamics in pastures established after deforestation in the humid tropics of Costa Rica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, E.

    1993-01-01

    Currently, rates of deforestation in the tropics are probably higher than ever before in the past. As a consequence, changes in the earth's physical and chemical environments are proceeding at unprecedented rates. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 , N

  9. Deforestation and avian extinction on tropical landbridge islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, Navjot S; Wilcove, David S; Lee, Tien Ming; Sekercioglu, Cagan H; Subaraj, R; Bernard, Henry; Yong, Ding Li; Lim, Susan L H; Prawiradilaga, Dewi M; Brook, Barry W

    2010-10-01

    There are few empirical data, particularly collected simultaneously from multiple sites, on extinctions resulting from human-driven land-use change. Southeast Asia has the highest deforestation rate in the world, but the resulting losses of biological diversity remain poorly documented. Between November 2006 and March 2008, we conducted bird surveys on six landbridge islands in Malaysia and Indonesia. These islands were surveyed previously for birds in the early 1900 s, when they were extensively forested. Our bird inventories of the islands were nearly complete, as indicated by sampling saturation curves and nonparametric true richness estimators. From zero (Pulau Malawali and Pulau Mantanani) to 15 (Pulau Bintan) diurnal resident landbird species were apparently extirpated since the early 1900 s. Adding comparable but published extinction data from Singapore to our regression analyses, we found there were proportionally fewer forest bird extinctions in areas with greater remaining forest cover. Nevertheless, the statistical evidence to support this relationship was weak, owing to our unavoidably small sample size. Bird species that are restricted to the Indomalayan region, lay few eggs, are heavier, and occupy a narrower habitat breadth, were most vulnerable to extinction on Pulau Bintan. This was the only island where sufficient data existed to analyze the correlates of extinction. Forest preservation and restoration are needed on these islands to conserve the remaining forest avifauna. Our study of landbridge islands indicates that deforestation may increasingly threaten Southeast Asian biodiversity.

  10. Mapping dynamics of deforestation and forest degradation in tropical forests using radar satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Neha; Mitchard, Edward TA; Woo, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Mapping anthropogenic forest disturbances has largely been focused on distinct delineations of events of deforestation using optical satellite images. In the tropics, frequent cloud cover and the challenge of quantifying forest degradation remain problematic. In this study, we detect processes...... of deforestation, forest degradation and successional dynamics, using long-wavelength radar (L-band from ALOS PALSAR) backscatter. We present a detection algorithm that allows for repeated disturbances on the same land, and identifies areas with slow- and fast-recovering changes in backscatter in close spatial...... along the tri-national Interoceanic Highway, as well as in mining areas and areas under no land use allocation. A continuous spatial gradient of disturbance was observed, highlighting artefacts arising from imposing discrete boundaries on deforestation events. The magnitude of initial radar backscatter...

  11. Mapping dynamics of deforestation and forest degradation in tropical forests using radar satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Neha; Mitchard, Edward TA; Woo, Natalia;

    2015-01-01

    Mapping anthropogenic forest disturbances has largely been focused on distinct delineations of events of deforestation using optical satellite images. In the tropics, frequent cloud cover and the challenge of quantifying forest degradation remain problematic. In this study, we detect processes...... of deforestation, forest degradation and successional dynamics, using long-wavelength radar (L-band from ALOS PALSAR) backscatter. We present a detection algorithm that allows for repeated disturbances on the same land, and identifies areas with slow- and fast-recovering changes in backscatter in close spatial...... along the tri-national Interoceanic Highway, as well as in mining areas and areas under no land use allocation. A continuous spatial gradient of disturbance was observed, highlighting artefacts arising from imposing discrete boundaries on deforestation events. The magnitude of initial radar backscatter...

  12. Emerging deforestation trends in tropical dry forests ecoregions of Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, C. A.; Cao, G.; Smith, V.

    2015-12-01

    Neotropical dry forests (TDF) have experienced an unprecedented deforestation that is leading to the loss of tropical biodiversity at a rapid pace, but information on deforestation dynamics in TDF is scarce. In this study, we present a sub-continental and national level assessment of TDF loss patterns in Mexico and Central America at high spatial and temporal resolution using remote sensing and GIS technologies. We used the Global Forest Change (GFC) dataset published by Hansen et al. (2013) which shows results from time-series analysis of Landsat images in characterizing global forest extent and change from 2000 through 2013. We analyzed forest loss within and around mapped TDF cover mapped by Portillo-Quintero et al. 2010. In order to minimize errors in source data, we overlaid a 25 x 25 km grid on top of the regional dataset and conducted a cell by cell and country by country inspection at multiple scales using high resolution ancillary data. We identified trends in the clustering of space-time TDF deforestation data using ArcGIS, categorizing trends in: new, consecutive, intensifying, persistent, diminishing, sporadic, oscillating and historical hotspots (high frequency of deforestation events) and cold spots (low frequency of deforestation). In general, the region is experiencing less frequent deforestation events with a higher number of intensifying and new cold spots across TDF landscapes. However, an important number of intensifying and persistent hotspots exist so no general trend in forest loss was detected for the period 2001-2013, except for El Salvador which shows a significant decreasing trend in forest loss. Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala are the major sources of intensifying, persistent and new deforestation hot spots. These were identified in the southern pacific coast and the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, northwestern Guatemala, both western and eastern Honduras and around Lake Nicaragua in Nicaragua.

  13. Forests and drugs: coca-driven deforestation in tropical biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávalos, Liliana M; Bejarano, Adriana C; Hall, Mark A; Correa, H Leonardo; Corthals, Angelique; Espejo, Oscar J

    2011-02-15

    Identifying drivers of deforestation in tropical biodiversity hotspots is critical to assess threats to particular ecosystems and species and proactively plan for conservation. We analyzed land cover change between 2002 and 2007 in the northern Andes, Chocó, and Amazon forests of Colombia, the largest producer of coca leaf for the global cocaine market, to quantify the impact of this illicit crop on forest dynamics, evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas in this context, and determine the effects of eradication on deforestation. Landscape-level analyses of forest conversion revealed that proximity to new coca plots and a greater proportion of an area planted with coca increased the probability of forest loss in southern Colombia, even after accounting for other covariates and spatial autocorrelation. We also showed that protected areas successfully reduced forest conversion in coca-growing regions. Neither eradication nor coca cultivation predicted deforestation rates across municipalities. Instead, the presence of new coca cultivation was an indicator of municipalities, where increasing population led to higher deforestation rates. We hypothesize that poor rural development underlies the relationship between population density and deforestation in coca-growing areas. Conservation in Colombia's vast forest frontier, which overlaps with its coca frontier, requires a mix of protected areas and strategic rural development to succeed.

  14. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin O Sills

    Full Text Available Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012. This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and

  15. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Erin O; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on policies

  16. Trading Forests: Quantifying the Contribution of Global Commodity Markets to Emissions from Tropical Deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Martin; Henders, Sabine; Kastner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to improve our understanding of how and where global supply-chains linkconsumers of agricultural and forest commodities across the world to forest destruction in tropicalcountries. A better understanding of these linkages can help inform and support the design ofdemand-side interventions to reduce tropical deforestation. To that end, we map the link betweendeforestation for four commodities (beef, soybeans, palm oil, and wood products) in eight casecountries (Argentina, Bolivi...

  17. Tropical Deforestation, Community Forests, and Protected Areas in the Maya Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barton. Bray

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Community forests and protected areas have each been proposed as strategies to stop deforestation. These management strategies should be regarded as hypotheses to be evaluated for their effectiveness in particular places. We evaluated the community-forestry hypothesis and the protected-area hypothesis in community forests with commercial timber production and strict protected areas in the Maya Forest of Guatemala and Mexico. From land-use and land cover change (LUCC maps derived from satellite images, we compared deforestation in 19 community forests and 11 protected areas in both countries in varying periods from 1988 to 2005. Deforestation rates were higher in protected areas than in community forests, but the differences were not significant. An analysis of human presence showed similar deforestation rates in inhabited protected areas and recently inhabited community forests, but the differences were not significant. There was also no significant difference in deforestation between uninhabited protected areas, uninhabited community forests, and long-inhabited community forests. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the factors correlated with deforestation varied by country. Distance to human settlements, seasonal wetlands, and degree and length of human residence were significant in Guatemala, and distance to previous deforestation and tropical semideciduous forest were significant in Mexico. Varying contexts and especially colonization histories are highlighted as likely factors that influence different outcomes. Poorly governed protected areas perform no better as a conservation strategy than poorly governed community forests with recent colonists in active colonization fronts. Long-inhabited extractive communities perform as well as uninhabited strict protected areas under low colonization pressure. A review of costs and benefits suggests that community forests may generate more local income with lower costs. Small sample sizes

  18. Elevation, Not Deforestation, Promotes Genetic Differentiation in a Pioneer Tropical Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Antonio R.; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Jha, Shalene

    2016-01-01

    The regeneration of disturbed forest is an essential part of tropical forest ecology, both with respect to natural disturbance regimes and large-scale human-mediated logging, grazing, and agriculture. Pioneer tree species are critical for facilitating the transition from deforested land to secondary forest because they stabilize terrain and enhance connectivity between forest fragments by increasing matrix permeability and initiating disperser community assembly. Despite the ecological importance of early successional species, little is known about their ability to maintain gene flow across deforested landscapes. Utilizing highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we examined patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation for the pioneer understory tree Miconia affinis across the Isthmus of Panama. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of geographic distance, forest cover, and elevation on genetic differentiation among populations using circuit theory and regression modeling within a landscape genetics framework. We report marked differences in historical and contemporary migration rates and moderately high levels of genetic differentiation in M. affinis populations across the Isthmus of Panama. Genetic differentiation increased significantly with elevation and geographic distance among populations; however, we did not find that forest cover enhanced or reduced genetic differentiation in the study region. Overall, our results reveal strong dispersal for M. affinis across human-altered landscapes, highlighting the potential use of this species for reforestation in tropical regions. Additionally, this study demonstrates the importance of considering topography when designing programs aimed at conserving genetic diversity within degraded tropical landscapes. PMID:27280872

  19. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamini Kashimshetty

    Full Text Available Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG, which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively, with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene

  20. Anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests can double biodiversity loss from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jos; Lennox, Gareth D; Ferreira, Joice; Berenguer, Erika; Lees, Alexander C; Mac Nally, Ralph; Thomson, James R; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Louzada, Julio; Oliveira, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Parry, Luke; Solar, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro; Vieira, Ima C G; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Begotti, Rodrigo Anzolin; Braga, Rodrigo F; Cardoso, Thiago Moreira; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Souza, Carlos M; Moura, Nárgila G; Nunes, Sâmia Serra; Siqueira, João Victor; Pardini, Renata; Silveira, Juliana M; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Veiga, Ruan Carlo Stulpen; Venturieri, Adriano; Gardner, Toby A

    2016-07-07

    Concerted political attention has focused on reducing deforestation, and this remains the cornerstone of most biodiversity conservation strategies. However, maintaining forest cover may not reduce anthropogenic forest disturbances, which are rarely considered in conservation programmes. These disturbances occur both within forests, including selective logging and wildfires, and at the landscape level, through edge, area and isolation effects. Until now, the combined effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the conservation value of remnant primary forests has remained unknown, making it impossible to assess the relative importance of forest disturbance and forest loss. Here we address these knowledge gaps using a large data set of plants, birds and dung beetles (1,538, 460 and 156 species, respectively) sampled in 36 catchments in the Brazilian state of Pará. Catchments retaining more than 69–80% forest cover lost more conservation value from disturbance than from forest loss. For example, a 20% loss of primary forest, the maximum level of deforestation allowed on Amazonian properties under Brazil’s Forest Code, resulted in a 39–54% loss of conservation value: 96–171% more than expected without considering disturbance effects. We extrapolated the disturbance-mediated loss of conservation value throughout Pará, which covers 25% of the Brazilian Amazon. Although disturbed forests retained considerable conservation value compared with deforested areas, the toll of disturbance outside Pará’s strictly protected areas is equivalent to the loss of 92,000–139,000 km2 of primary forest. Even this lowest estimate is greater than the area deforested across the entire Brazilian Amazon between 2006 and 2015 (ref. 10). Species distribution models showed that both landscape and within-forest disturbances contributed to biodiversity loss, with the greatest negative effects on species of high conservation and functional value. These results demonstrate an urgent need

  1. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  2. Riparian forest buffers mitigate the effects of deforestation on fish assemblages in tropical headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorion, Christopher M; Kennedy, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Riparian forest buffers may play a critical role in moderating the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream ecosystems, but very few studies have examined the ecological effects of riparian buffers in the tropics. To test the hypothesis that riparian forest buffers can reduce the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream biota, we sampled fish assemblages in lowland headwater streams in southeastern Costa Rica representing three different treatments: (1) forested reference stream reaches, (2) stream reaches adjacent to pasture with a riparian forest buffer averaging at least 15 m in width on each bank, and (3) stream reaches adjacent to pasture without a riparian forest buffer. Land cover upstream from the study reaches was dominated by forest at all of the sites, allowing us to isolate the reach-scale effects of the three study treatments. Fish density was significantly higher in pasture reaches than in forest and forest buffer reaches, mostly due to an increase in herbivore-detritivores, but fish biomass did not differ among reach types. Fish species richness was also higher in pasture reaches than in forested reference reaches, while forest buffer reaches were intermediate. Overall, the taxonomic and trophic structure of fish assemblages in forest and forest buffer reaches was very similar, while assemblages in pasture reaches were quite distinct. These patterns were persistent across three sampling periods during our 15-month study. Differences in stream ecosystem conditions between pasture reaches and forested sites, including higher stream temperatures, reduced fruit and seed inputs, and a trend toward increased periphyton abundance, appeared to favor fish species normally found in larger streams and facilitate a native invasion process. Forest buffer reaches, in contrast, had stream temperatures and allochthonous inputs more similar to forested streams. Our results illustrate the importance of riparian areas to stream ecosystem integrity in the tropics

  3. Determination of tropical deforestation rates and related carbon losses from 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achard, Frédéric; Beuchle, René; Mayaux, Philippe; Stibig, Hans-Jürgen; Bodart, Catherine; Brink, Andreas; Carboni, Silvia; Desclée, Baudouin; Donnay, François; Eva, Hugh D; Lupi, Andrea; Raši, Rastislav; Seliger, Roman; Simonetti, Dario

    2014-08-01

    We estimate changes in forest cover (deforestation and forest regrowth) in the tropics for the two last decades (1990-2000 and 2000-2010) based on a sample of 4000 units of 10 ×10 km size. Forest cover is interpreted from satellite imagery at 30 × 30 m resolution. Forest cover changes are then combined with pan-tropical biomass maps to estimate carbon losses. We show that there was a gross loss of tropical forests of 8.0 million ha yr(-1) in the 1990s and 7.6 million ha yr(-1) in the 2000s (0.49% annual rate), with no statistically significant difference. Humid forests account for 64% of the total forest cover in 2010 and 54% of the net forest loss during second study decade. Losses of forest cover and Other Wooded Land (OWL) cover result in estimates of carbon losses which are similar for 1990s and 2000s at 887 MtC yr(-1) (range: 646-1238) and 880 MtC yr(-1) (range: 602-1237) respectively, with humid regions contributing two-thirds. The estimates of forest area changes have small statistical standard errors due to large sample size. We also reduce uncertainties of previous estimates of carbon losses and removals. Our estimates of forest area change are significantly lower as compared to national survey data. We reconcile recent low estimates of carbon emissions from tropical deforestation for early 2000s and show that carbon loss rates did not change between the two last decades. Carbon losses from deforestation represent circa 10% of Carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production during the last decade (2000-2010). Our estimates of annual removals of carbon from forest regrowth at 115 MtC yr(-1) (range: 61-168) and 97 MtC yr(-1) (53-141) for the 1990s and 2000s respectively are five to fifteen times lower than earlier published estimates. © The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A Global Analysis of Deforestation in Moist Tropical Forest Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, B D; Kalamandeen, M; Galbraith, D; Gloor, E; Spracklen, D V

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) have been established to conserve tropical forests, but their effectiveness at reducing deforestation is uncertain. To explore this issue, we combined high resolution data of global forest loss over the period 2000-2012 with data on PAs. For each PA we quantified forest loss within the PA, in buffer zones 1, 5, 10 and 15 km outside the PA boundary as well as a 1 km buffer within the PA boundary. We analysed 3376 tropical and subtropical moist forest PAs in 56 countries over 4 continents. We found that 73% of PAs experienced substantial deforestation pressure, with >0.1% a(-1) forest loss in the outer 1 km buffer. Forest loss within PAs was greatest in Asia (0.25% a(-1)) compared to Africa (0.1% a(-1)), the Neotropics (0.1% a(-1)) and Australasia (Australia and Papua New Guinea; 0.03% a(-1)). We defined performance (P) of a PA as the ratio of forest loss in the inner 1 km buffer compared to the loss that would have occurred in the absence of the PA, calculated as the loss in the outer 1 km buffer corrected for any difference in deforestation pressure between the two buffers. To remove the potential bias due to terrain, we analysed a subset of PAs (n = 1804) where slope and elevation in inner and outer 1 km buffers were similar (within 1° and 100 m, respectively). We found 41% of PAs in this subset reduced forest loss in the inner buffer by at least 25% compared to the expected inner buffer forest loss (P<0.75). Median performance (P) of subset reserves was 0.87, meaning a reduction in forest loss within the PA of 13%. We found PAs were most effective in Australasia (P = 0.16), moderately successful in the Neotropics (P = 0.72) and Africa (p = 0.83), but ineffective in Asia (P = 1). We found many countries have PAs that give little or no protection to forest loss, particularly in parts of Asia, west Africa and central America. Across the tropics, the median effectiveness of PAs at the national level improved with gross domestic product per

  5. Deforestation monitoring in the Amazon River estuary by multi-temporal Envisat ScanSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Ishwaran, N.; Brito Pezzuti, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have capitalized on the all-weather, all-day operational capability of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems and used multi-temporal (from 2002 to 2006), multi-track (track 174, 360 and 447) Envisat ScanSAR amplitude images for deforestation mapping and change detection in the Amazon River estuary. A synergistic approach to deforestation mapping was adopted using SAR backscattering anomalies, the neighbouring forest constraint and DEM-derived slopes based on the three following characteristics: (1) backscattering is reduced in regions suspected to have undergone deforestation; (2) open regions without neighbouring forests were identified for removal; and (3) false-alarms linked to water bodies are mitigated using the shape threshold of flat-slope objects. Our results show that deforestation in the Amazon River estuary continues to be a serious problem, particularly along the rivers, streams or roads, which are more susceptible to anthropogenic activities than other areas. Up to 2006, the deforested portion accounts for 4.6 per cent (3,096,000 pixels) of the entire study site of approximately 458,000 square kilometers (67,320,000 pixels). However, this figure, validated by Landsat ETM images, may have overestimated deforestation to some extent. Nevertheless, multi-temporal analysis using SAR systems, as done in this study, have a clear potential for surveillance of deforestation in the Amazon, particularly in light of the frequent cloud cover typical of the area and the limitations of deforestation monitoring by means of optical satellite imagery.

  6. Effect of taxes and climate policy instruments on harvesting of managed forests and on tropical deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barua, Sepul K.

    2011-07-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of taxes and policy instruments that aim to regulate climate services from forests. It consists of a summary section and four articles. Articles (1) and (2) examine the effects of taxes on management decisions in the context of managed boreal forests distinguished by forest-owners amenity preferences and also their age. Articles (3) and (4) examine the role of carbon-based policy instruments in the presence of taxes on land incomes in curbing tropical deforestation. Article (1) reveals that the intensity of forest-owners preferences for forest amenities affects the non-neutrality of forest taxes pertaining to forest harvesting. Therefore, the effects of taxes depend on this intensity. This highlights the importance of developing methods to measure forest-owners amenity preferences quantitatively. Article (2) shows that the age of forest-owners governs their propensity to consume as opposed to leave bequests. Furthermore, it shown that the effects of capital income and inheritance taxes vary across different age-groups of forest-owners. Article (3) demonstrates that taxes on forestry and cash-crop incomes, per se, may be ineffective in curbing tropical forest loss. The carbon payments may complement these taxes, and an effective policy to combat tropical deforestation should jointly target forestry and cash-crop sectors. Article (4) demonstrates the link between carbon compensation policies and land income taxation. An optimal carbon compensation scheme may require that national governments are allowed to use different compensation rates from that applied globally when passing national level compensations on to the local level. These results suggest that existing policies such as taxation should be accounted for in the analysis and design of international carbon policy instruments that aim at enhancing forests role in climate change mitigation. (orig.)

  7. Tropical deforestation in the context of the post-2012 Climate Change Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, J.L. [WWF International, Global Climate Change Program, Washington DC (United States); Maretti, C. [WWF Brazil, Brasilia (Brazil); Volpi, G. [WWF Latin American Climate Change Program, Brasilia (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    There is overwhelming evidence and consensus that climate change is real and happening now. In fact, the impacts of climate change are occurring faster than what many scientists first predicted. Whether assessing impacts to coral reefs, the arctic, sub-Saharan Africa or the tropical rainforests, change is happening and time is short to avoid the most devastating impacts. In order to prevent dangerous climate change, governments, WWF and other NGOs have stated that global average temperature must stay well below a 2 degrees C rise in comparison to pre-industrial temperature. In order to ensure that this dangerous threshold is not crossed, global greenhouse gas emissions will have to be rapidly and deeply reduced over the next one to two decades. The sources of emissions are clear. An estimated 75 to 80% of global emissions stem from industrial sources, specifically, the burning of fossil fuels. The remaining 20 to 25% can be sourced to deforestation emissions, predominantly in the tropics. Both, the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation, must be urgently and effectively addressed in order to save the world's biodiversity and people from catastrophic climate change. At this time, a new opportunity exists to address the issue of deforestation within the climate change regime. The Kyoto Protocol entered into force in February 2005, thus setting the stage for the first Meeting of the Protocol Parties in late 2005 in Montreal, Canada. The Protocol requires that already in 2005, Parties begin assessing and negotiating changes to the Protocol, as noted in Articles 3.9 and 9.2. Due to the urgency of emissions reductions, it is clear that each country will have to commit to more action than in the past, whether it be an Annex I developed country Party or a non-Annex I developing country Party. The Climate Action Network (CAN), a network of over three hundred NGOs worldwide, has put forth a concrete proposal on how such commitments could (a) evolve over time and (b

  8. Temporal changes in physical, chemical and biological sediment parameters in a tropical estuary after mangrove deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegaard, Marianne; Nguyen, Ngoc Tuong Giang; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Michelsen, Anders; Nguyen, Ngoc Lam; Doan, Nhu Hai; Kristensen, Erik; Weckström, Kaarina; Son, Tong Phuoc Hoang; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten

    2014-04-01

    Dated sediment cores taken near the head and mouth of a tropical estuary, Nha-Phu/Binh Cang, in south central Viet Nam were analyzed for changes over time in physical, chemical and biological proxies potentially influenced by removal of the mangrove forest lining the estuary. A time-series of satellite images was obtained, which showed that the depletion of the mangrove forest at the head of the estuary was relatively recent. Most of the area was converted into aquaculture ponds, mainly in the late 1990's. The sediment record showed a clear increase in sedimentation rate at the head of the estuary at the time of mangrove deforestation and a change in diatom assemblages in the core from the mouth of the estuary indicating an increase in the water column turbidity of the entire estuary at the time of the mangrove deforestation. The proportion of fine-grained sediment and the δ13C signal both increased with distance from the head of the estuary while the carbon content decreased. The nitrogen content and the δ15N signal were more or less constant throughout the estuary. The proportion of fine-grained material and the chemical proxies were more or less stable over time in the core from the mouth while they varied synchronously over time in the core from the head of the estuary. The sediment proxies combined show that mangrove deforestation had large effects on the estuary with regard to both the physical and chemical environment with implications for the biological functioning.

  9. Deforestation-driven food-web collapse linked to emerging tropical infectious disease, Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron L; Guégan, Jean-François; Andreou, Demetra; Marsollier, Laurent; Carolan, Kevin; Le Croller, Marie; Sanhueza, Daniel; Gozlan, Rodolphe E

    2016-12-01

    Generalist microorganisms are the agents of many emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), but their natural life cycles are difficult to predict due to the multiplicity of potential hosts and environmental reservoirs. Among 250 known human EIDs, many have been traced to tropical rain forests and specifically freshwater aquatic systems, which act as an interface between microbe-rich sediments or substrates and terrestrial habitats. Along with the rapid urbanization of developing countries, population encroachment, deforestation, and land-use modifications are expected to increase the risk of EID outbreaks. We show that the freshwater food-web collapse driven by land-use change has a nonlinear effect on the abundance of preferential hosts of a generalist bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans. This leads to an increase of the pathogen within systems at certain levels of environmental disturbance. The complex link between aquatic, terrestrial, and EID processes highlights the potential importance of species community composition and structure and species life history traits in disease risk estimation and mapping. Mechanisms such as the one shown here are also central in predicting how human-induced environmental change, for example, deforestation and changes in land use, may drive emergence.

  10. The role of tropical deforestation in the global carbon cycle: Spatial and temporal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.; Skole, David; Moore, Berrien; Melillo, Jerry; Steudler, Paul

    1995-01-01

    'The Role of Tropical Deforestation in the Global Carbon cycle: Spatial and Temporal Dynamics', was a joint project involving the University of New Hampshire, the Marine Biological Laboratory, and the Woods Hole Research Center. The contribution of the Woods Hole Research Center consisted of three tasks: (1) assist University of New Hampshire in determining the net flux of carbon between the Brazilian Amazon and the atmosphere by means of a terrestrial carbon model; (2) address the spatial distribution of biomass across the Amazon Basin; and (3) assist NASA Headquarters in development of a science plan for the Terrestrial Ecology component of the NASA-Brazilian field campaign (anticipated for 1997-2001). Progress on these three tasks is briefly described.

  11. Theorizing Land Cover and Land Use Changes: The Case of Tropical Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses land-cover and land-use dynamics from the perspective of regional science and economic geography. It first provides an account of the so-called spatially explicit model, which has emerged in recent years as a key empirical approach to the issue. The article uses this discussion as a springboard to evaluate the potential utility of von Thuenen to the discourse on land-cover and land-use change. After identifying shortcomings of current theoretical approaches to land use in mainly urban models, the article filters a discussion of deforestation through the lens of bid-rent and assesses its effectiveness in helping us comprehend the destruction of tropical forest in the Amazon basin. The article considers the adjustments that would have to be made to existing theory to make it more useful to the empirical issues.

  12. Linking requirements with capabilities for deforestation monitoring in the context of the UNFCCC-REDD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, Martin [GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, Department of Earth Observation, Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena 07743 (Germany); Johns, Tracy [Joanneum Research, Institute for Energy Research, Graz 8010 (Austria)

    2007-10-15

    As the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change nears the end of a two-year period of evaluation of the issue of reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries, participating countries have agreed on the need to address this globally important source of greenhouse gas emissions. Negotiations on policy frameworks to monitor and reduce deforestation rely on an understanding of the scientific and technical capacity to support these efforts. Current UNFCCC programs to improve observation of land and forest cover change can provide valuable input to a future policy mechanism focusing on deforestation emissions from developing countries. Countries participating in the current debate have officially referenced the value of remote sensing tools and methods for deforestation monitoring, and have identified specific needs and goals related to their implementation. Based on these identified needs, this paper outlines recommendations for a monitoring framework that can be globally applied with sufficient levels of accuracy and certainty. This framework can serve as a starting point for monitoring programs, and can be modified in response to expected progress in establishing an international policy framework for reducing emissions from deforestation.

  13. Export-oriented deforestation in Mato Grosso: harbinger or exception for other tropical forests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeFries, R.; Herold, M.; Verchot, L.; Macedo, M.N.; Shimabukuro, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian state of Mato Grosso was a global deforestation hotspot in the early 2000s. Deforested land is used predominantly to produce meat for distal consumption either through cattle ranching or soya bean for livestock feed. Deforestation declined dramatically in the latter part of the decade

  14. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries : considerations for monitoring and measuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFries, R. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States); Achard, F. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra (Italy); Brown, S. [Winrock International, Arlington, VA (United States). Ecosystem Services Unit; Herold, M. [Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Dept. of Geography, GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Office; Murdiyarso, D. [CIFOR Headquarters, Jakarta (Indonesia); Schlamadinger, B. [Joanneum Research, Graz (Austria); De Souza, C.Jr. [Inst. Homem e Meio Ambiente da Amazonia, Belem (Brazil)

    2006-08-15

    The removal of forest cover through deforestation is a primary contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This report presented technical considerations for the measurement and monitoring of GHG emissions reductions from avoided deforestation. The process of quantifying GHG emissions averted from reduced deforestation requires the measurement of changes in forest cover and carbon stocks using remotely sensed data from aircraft and satellite. Methods for analyzing satellite data for changes in forest cover ranged from visual photo-interpretation to digital analysis, hot spot analysis, and statistical sampling. The study showed that new technologies are now being developed for monitoring changes in forest carbon stocks. International coordination is needed to implement the technologies, which use a combination of satellite and airborne images to reduce uncertainties in accounting for changes in GHG emissions. Coordination is also needed to ensure adequate coverage of forests around the world as there is limited capacity in many developing countries to both acquire and analyze deforestation and degradation data. It was concluded that data from the 1990s are now being used as historical reference points. 38 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. Big earth-observation data analytics for modelling pan-tropical land-use change trajectories for newly deforested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Castro, Alejandro; Reymondin, Louis; Rebetez, Julien; Fabio Satizabal Mejia, Hector; Perez-Uribe, Andres; Mulligan, Mark; Smith, Thomas; Hyman, Glenn

    2017-04-01

    Global land use monitoring is important to the the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The latest advances in storage and manipulation of big earth-observation data have been key to developing multiple operational forest monitoring initiatives such as FORMA, Terra-i and Global Forest Change. Although the data provided by these systems are useful for identifying and estimating newly deforested areas (from 2000), they do not provide details about the land use to which these deforested areas are transitioned. This information is critical to understand the biodiversity and ecosystem services impact of deforestation and the resulting impacts on human wellbeing, locally and downstream. With the aim of contributing to current forest monitoring initiatives, this research presents a set of experimental case studies in Latin America which integrate existing land-change information derived from remote sensing image and aerial photography/ground datasets, high-temporal resolution MODIS data, advanced machine learning (i.e deep learning) and big data technologies (i.e. Hadoop and Spark) to assess land-use change trajectories in newly deforested areas in near real time.

  16. Progressive recovery of a tropical deforested stream community after a flash flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cerqueira Marques

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In this study, we evaluated and compared community attributes from a tropical deforested stream, located in a pasture area, in a period before (PRED I and three times after (POSD I, II, and III a flash flood, in order to investigate the existence of temporal modifications in community structure that suggests return to conditions previous to the flash flood. METHODS: Biota samples included algae, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates, and fish assemblages. Changes in stream physical structure we also evaluated. Similarity of the aquatic biota between pre and post-disturbance periods was examined by exploratory ordination, known as Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling associated with Cluster Analysis, using quantitative and presence/absence Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients. Presence and absence data were used for multivariate correlation analysis (Relate Analysis in order to investigate taxonomic composition similarity of biota between pre and post-disturbance periods. RESULTS: Our results evidenced channel simplification and an expressive decrease in richness and abundance of all taxa right after the flood, followed by subsequent increases of these parameters in the next three samples, indicating trends towards stream community recovery. Bray-Curtis similarity coefficients evidenced a greater community structure disparity among the period right after the flood and the subsequent ones. Multivariate correlation analysis evidenced a greater correlation between macroinvertebrates and algae/macrophytes, demonstrating the narrow relation between their recolonization dynamics. CONCLUSIONS: Despite overall community structure tended to return to previous conditions, recolonization after the flood was much slower than that reported in literature. Finally, the remarkably high flood impact along with the slow recolonization could be a result of the historical presence of anthropic impacts in the region, such as siltation, riparian forest complete depletion

  17. Unexprected Changes in Soil Phosphorus Dynamics Following Tropical Deforestation to Cattle Pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Asner, Gregory P.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Lefer, Margaret E.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.

    2001-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is widely believed to limit plant growth and organic matter storage in a large fraction of the world's lowland tropical rainforests. We investigated how the most common land use change in such forests, conversion to cattle pasture, affects soil P fractions along forest to pasture chronosequences in the central Brazilian Amazon and in southwestern Costa Rica. Our sites represent a broad range in rainfall, soil type, management strategies, and total soil P (45.2 - 1228.0 microng P / g soil), yet we found some unexpected and at times strikingly similar changes in soil P in all sites. In the Brazilian sites, where rainfall is relatively low and pasture management is more intense than in the Costa Rican sites, significant losses in total soil P and soil organic carbon (SOC) were seen with pasture age on both fine-textured oxisol and highly sandy entisol soils. However, P losses were largely from occluded, inorganic soil P fractions, while organic forms of soil P remained constant or increased with pasture age, despite the declines in SOC. In Costa Rica, SOC remained constant across the oxisol sites and increased from forest to pasture on the mollisols, while total soil P increased with pasture age in both sequences. The increases in total soil P were largely due to changes in organic P; occluded soil P increased only slightly in the mollisols, and remained unchanged in the older oxisols. We suggest that changes in the composition and/or the primary limiting resources of the soil microbial community may drive the changes in organic P. We also present a new conceptual model for changes in soil P following deforestation to cattle pasture.

  18. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from tropical deforestation by applying compensated reduction to Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Chavez, G.A. [Environmental Defense, Wahington DC (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Bolivia's deforestation emissions from land use change, including deforestation, account for 82% of its total greenhouse gas emissions. In recent years, soybean production has been the main cause of deforestation. There are currently no policies in place that will lead to a reduction in its deforestation rate or associated carbon emissions in the near-future. This analysis shows that in today's carbon-constrained world, a standing tree already has a potentially greater financial value than soybean production. Based on the results of this analysis, it is expected that the break even price (BEP) of carbon in Bolivia will be USD 4.43 in 2005 and USD 9.50 in 2012. Compensated Reduction (CR) creates large-scale financial incentives needed for forest protection at the national level and allows developing countries access to the global carbon market.

  19. Sampling global deforestation databases. The role of persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. [Research Center on Sustainable Development, University of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica); Skole, D.L. [Complex Systems Research Center Morse Hall, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Chomentowski, W. [Ball State University, Department of Geology, Munci, IN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    One of the concerns regarding transformation of land cover in tropical areas has been the large degree of uncertainty associated with both rates of deforestation over time and total deforestation. Special monitoring mechanisms must be taken into consideration if a program toward deforestation control is going to be implemented at the national or regional scale. The premise of the paper is that any attempt to quantify tropical deforestation and deforestation rates - at regional level, by randomly selecting sites within a population of satellite scenes - would require an overwhelming number of samples. The paper suggests a methodological approach for sampling remote sensing databases to be used as part of land use/cover change or joint implementation projects. The paper uses the concept of stratification and persistence as main tools. 5 figs., 10 refs.

  20. Deforestation and carbon emissions at tropical frontiers: a case study from the Peruvian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naughton-Treves, L. [University of Wisconsin, Madison and Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of national development policy on land cover change and associated carbon fluxes at a Peruvian Amazon frontier. Remote sensing and field transects reveal changes in forest carbon stocks and accumulation rates. Deforestation was most rapid along the Interoceanic Highway during 1986-91 when credit and guaranteed markets were available, resulting in emissions of 708,000 Mg C yr{sup -1}, of which 14% was offset by secondary regrowth. Despite continued population growth, deforestation slowed during 1991-97 when fiscal austerity measures were imposed, resulting in emissions of 389,000 Mg C yr{sup -1}, of which 41% was offset by regrowth. Strategies to conserve frontier forests are compared in terms of carbon, biodiversity and economic costs and benefits. (author)

  1. Baselines For Land-Use Change In The Tropics: Application ToAvoided Deforestation Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sandra; Hall, Myrna; Andrasko, Ken; Ruiz, Fernando; Marzoli, Walter; Guerrero, Gabriela; Masera, Omar; Dushku, Aaron; Dejong,Ben; Cornell, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    Although forest conservation activities particularly in thetropics offer significant potential for mitigating carbon emissions,these types of activities have faced obstacles in the policy arena causedby the difficulty in determining key elements of the project cycle,particularly the baseline. A baseline for forest conservation has twomain components: the projected land-use change and the correspondingcarbon stocks in the applicable pools such as vegetation, detritus,products and soil, with land-use change being the most difficult toaddress analytically. In this paper we focus on developing and comparingthree models, ranging from relatively simple extrapolations of pasttrends in land use based on simple drivers such as population growth tomore complex extrapolations of past trends using spatially explicitmodels of land-use change driven by biophysical and socioeconomicfactors. The three models of the latter category used in the analysis atregional scale are The Forest Area Change (FAC) model, the Land Use andCarbon Sequestration (LUCS) model, and the Geographical Modeling (GEOMOD)model. The models were used to project deforestation in six tropicalregions that featured different ecological and socioeconomic conditions,population dynamics, and uses of the land: (1) northern Belize; (2) SantaCruz State, Bolivia; (3) Parana State in Brazil; (4) Campeche, Mexico;(5) Chiapas, Mexico; and (6) Michoacan, Mexico. A comparison of all modeloutputs across all six regions shows that each model produced quitedifferent deforestation baseline. In general, the simplest FAC model,applied at the national administrative-unit scale, projected the highestamount of forest loss (four out of six) and the LUCS model the leastamount of loss (four out of five). Based on simulations of GEOMOD, wefound that readily observable physical and biological factors as well asdistance to areas of past disturbance were each about twice as importantas either sociological/demographic or economic

  2. An assessment of monitoring requirements and costs of 'Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCallum Ian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negotiations on a future climate policy framework addressing Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD are ongoing. Regardless of how such a framework will be designed, many technical solutions of estimating forest cover and forest carbon stock change exist to support policy in monitoring and accounting. These technologies typically combine remotely sensed data with ground-based inventories. In this article we assess the costs of monitoring REDD based on available technologies and requirements associated with key elements of REDD policy. Results We find that the design of a REDD policy framework (and specifically its rules can have a significant impact on monitoring costs. Costs may vary from 0.5 to 550 US$ per square kilometre depending on the required precision of carbon stock and area change detection. Moreover, they follow economies of scale, i.e. single country or project solutions will face relatively higher monitoring costs. Conclusion Although monitoring costs are relatively small compared to other cost items within a REDD system, they should be shared not only among countries but also among sectors, because an integrated monitoring system would have multiple benefits for non-REDD management. Overcoming initialization costs and unequal access to monitoring technologies is crucial for implementation of an integrated monitoring system, and demands for international cooperation.

  3. Stratifying Tropical Fires by Land Cover: Insights into Amazonian Fires, Aerosol Loading, and Regional Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    TenHoeve, J. E.; Remer, L. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes changes in the number of fires detected on forest, grass, and transition lands during the 2002-2009 biomass burning seasons using fire detection data and co-located land cover classifications from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the total number of detected fires correlates well with MODIS mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) from year to year, in accord with other studies. However, we also show that the ratio of forest to savanna fires varies substantially from year to year. Forest fires have trended downward, on average, since the beginning of 2006 despite a modest increase in 2007. Our study suggests that high particulate matter loading detected in 2007 was likely due to a large number of savanna/agricultural fires that year. Finally, we illustrate that the correlation between annual Brazilian deforestation estimates and MODIS fires is considerably higher when fires are stratified by MODIS-derived land cover classifications.

  4. Landscape dynamics in northwestern Amazonia: an assessment of pastures, fire and illicit crops as drivers of tropical deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Rodríguez, Nelly; Retana, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have identified drivers of deforestation throughout the tropics and, in most cases, have recognised differences in the level of threat. However, only a few have also looked at the temporal and spatial dynamics by which those drivers act, which is critical for assessing the conservation of biodiversity as well as for landscape planning. In this study, we analyse land cover change between 2000 and 2009 in north-western Colombian Amazonia to identify the interactions between the use of fire, cultivation of illicit crops and establishment of pastures, and their impacts on the loss of forest in the region. Yearly analyses were undertaken at randomly selected sample areas to quantify the average areas of transition of land cover types under different landscape compositions: forest-dominated mosaics, pasture mosaics, fire mosaics, and illicit crop mosaics. Our results indicate that despite the fact that forest areas were well-preserved, deforestation occurred at a low annual rate (0.06%). Conversion to pasture was the main factor responsible for forest loss (the area of pastures tripled within forest mosaics over 8 years), and this process was independent of the landscape matrix in which the forests were located. In fire mosaics, burning is a common tool for forest clearing and conversion to pasture. Thus, forests in fire mosaics were highly disturbed and frequently transformed from primary to secondary forests. The use of fire for illicit cropping was not detected, partly due to the small size of common illicit crops. Forest regeneration from pastures and secondary vegetation was observed in areas with large amounts of natural forest. Overall, assuming the continuation of the observed pasture conversion trend and the use of forest fire, we suggest that our results should be incorporated into a spatially explicit and integrated decision support tool to target and focus land-planning activities and policies.

  5. Researching illegal logging and deforestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical deforestation such as in the Amazon can be studied well from a green criminological perspective. Ethnographic research methods form a useful way to get insight into the dynamics and complexity of tropical deforestation, which often is illegal. This article gives an account of various ethnog

  6. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolman, A.J.; Ashby, M.; Kabat, P. [DLO, Wageningen (Netherlands). Winand Staring Centre; Silva Dias, M.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Calvet, J.-C.; Delire, C. [Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, 31 - Toulouse (France); Tahara, A.S.; Nobre, C.A. [INPE/CPTEC, Cachoeira Paulista (Brazil). Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estidps Climaticos; Fisch, G.A. [Centro Tecnico Aerospacial, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    1999-08-01

    As part of the preparation for the large-scale biosphere atmosphere experiment in amazonia, a mesoscale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to subcontinental scales in the dry season. Mesoscale models were run in 1D and 3D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture) poor. The models` underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area. The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the mesoscale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric mesoscale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role. (orig.) 39 refs.

  7. On-Line Change Monitoring with Transformed Multi-Spectral Time Series, a Study Case in Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng; Hamunyela, Eliakim

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the methods for detecting structural changes in time series have been adapted for forest disturbance monitoring using satellite data. The BFAST (Breaks For Additive Season and Trend) Monitor framework, which detects forest cover disturbances from satellite image time series based on empirical fluctuation tests, is particularly used for near real-time deforestation monitoring, and it has been shown to be robust in detecting forest disturbances. Typically, a vegetation index that is transformed from spectral bands into feature space (e.g. normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI)) is used as input for BFAST Monitor. However, using a vegetation index for deforestation monitoring is a major limitation because it is difficult to separate deforestation from multiple seasonality effects, noise, and other forest disturbance. In this study, we address such limitation by exploiting the multi-spectral band of satellite data. To demonstrate our approach, we carried out a case study in a deciduous tropical forest in Bolivia, South America. We reduce the dimensionality from spectral bands, space and time with projective methods particularly the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), resulting in a new index that is more suitable for change monitoring. Our results show significantly improved temporal delay in deforestation detection. With our approach, we achieved a median temporal lag of 6 observations, which was significantly shorter than the temporal lags from conventional approaches (14 to 21 observations).

  8. Landscape-scale deforestation decreases gene flow distance of a keystone tropical palm, Euterpe edulis Mart (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alesandro S; Cazetta, Eliana; Dodonov, Pavel; Faria, Deborah; Gaiotto, Fernanda A

    2016-09-01

    Habitat loss represents one of the main threats to tropical forests, which have reached extremely high rates of species extinction. Forest loss negatively impacts biodiversity, affecting ecological (e.g., seed dispersal) and genetic (e.g., genetic diversity and structure) processes. Therefore, understanding how deforestation influences genetic resources is strategic for conservation. Our aim was to empirically evaluate the effects of landscape-scale forest reduction on the spatial genetic structure and gene flow of Euterpe edulis Mart (Arecaceae), a palm tree considered a keystone resource for many vertebrate species. This study was carried out in nine forest remnants in the Atlantic Forest, northeastern Brazil, located in landscapes within a gradient of forest cover (19-83%). We collected leaves of 246 adults and 271 seedlings and performed genotyping using microsatellite markers. Our results showed that the palm populations had low spatial genetic structure, indicating that forest reduction did not influence this genetic parameter for neither seedlings nor adults. However, forest loss decreased the gene flow distance, which may negatively affect the genetic diversity of future generations by increasing the risk of local extinction of this keystone palm. For efficient strategies of genetic variability conservation and maintenance of gene flow in E. edulis, we recommend the maintenance of landscapes with intermediary to high levels of forest cover, that is, forest cover above 40%.

  9. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Dolman

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  10. Tropical Forest Monitoring in Southeast Asia Using Remotely Sensed Optical Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Kenneth Joseph

    -scale plantations. In particular, the global demand for natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) has been reported as the cause of widespread forest conversion. A critical component of forest conservation strategies, such as Reduced Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+), relies upon the monitoring...... global rubber markets can be linked to forest cover change, the effects of land policy in Cambodia, and beyond, have also had a major influence. It remains to be seen if intervention initiatives such as REDD+ can materialise over the coming years to make a meaningful contribution to tropical forest...... conservation....

  11. National compacts to reduce deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, M. [Instituto Socioambiental ISA., Brasilia DF (Brazil); Moutinho, P.; Nepstad, D. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM, Belem (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Finding ways for developing countries with tropical forests to participate more effectively in international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has become central to the success of any future international agreement. The most obvious means would be the reduction of tropical deforestation and the emissions associated with it. Unless tropical deforestation is reduced it will not be possible to avoid 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' in the planet's climate. In this chapter the necessary conditions for these countries to use reduced deforestation, in the context of 'compensated reduction of deforestation', as an internationally recognized, valid form of mitigation of global climate change and, in return, receive compensation for demonstrated reductions. The proposal for compensated reduction suggests that countries that reduce their emissions from tropical deforestation during a Kyoto Protocol commitment period, in relation to an agreed baseline in accordance with historical deforestation rates, be remunerated with credits equivalent to the volume of emissions avoided, tradable in subsequent commitment periods. As we know, under the current terms of the Kyoto Protocol, covering the first commitment period, there are no means to offer incentives for reducing deforestation, which are a recognized factor in global emissions (25%). Eligible forestry projects in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) include only carbon sequestration. Since tropical deforestation is a problem occurring in non-Annex 1 developing countries, and is associated with development strategies historically linked to global markets, international instruments to encourage reduction of deforestation emissions should consider the objective conditions of these countries in a manner consistent with the principle of mutual, but differentiated responsibilities. The compensated reduction proposal emerges in this context: more effective participation of these

  12. Trends in deforestation and forest degradation after a decade of monitoring in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Omar; López-García, José; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo

    2014-02-01

    We used aerial photographs, satellite images, and field surveys to monitor forest cover in the core zones of the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico from 2001 to 2012. We used our data to assess the effectiveness of conservation actions that involved local, state, and federal authorities and community members (e.g., local landowners and private and civil organizations) in one of the world's most iconic protected areas. From 2001 through 2012, 1254 ha were deforested (i.e., cleared areas had social and economic problems remain, and they must be addressed to ensure the reserve's long-term conservation. The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) overwintering colonies in Mexico-which engage in one of the longest known insect migrations-are threatened by deforestation, and a multistakeholder, regional, sustainable-development strategy is needed to protect the reserve.

  13. Carbon budget of tropical forests in Southeast Asia and the effects of deforestation: an approach using a process-based model and field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adachi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available More reliable estimates of the carbon (C stock within forest ecosystems and C emission induced by deforestation are urgently needed to mitigate the effects of emissions on climate change. A process-based terrestrial biogeochemical model (VISIT was applied to tropical primary forests of two types (a seasonal dry forest in Thailand and a rainforest in Malaysia and one agro-forest (an oil palm plantation in Malaysia to estimate the C budget of tropical ecosystems in Southeast Asia, including the impacts of land-use conversion. The observed aboveground biomass in the seasonal dry tropical forest in Thailand (226.3 t C ha−1 and the rainforest in Malaysia (201.5 t C ha−1 indicate that tropical forests of Southeast Asia are among the most C-abundant ecosystems in the world. The model simulation results in rainforests were consistent with field data, except for the NEP, however, the VISIT model tended to underestimate C budget and stock in the seasonal dry tropical forest. The gross primary production (GPP based on field observations ranged from 32.0 to 39.6 t C ha−1 yr−1 in the two primary forests, whereas the model slightly underestimated GPP (26.5–34.5 t C ha−1 yr−1. The VISIT model appropriately captured the impacts of disturbances such as deforestation and land-use conversions on the C budget. Results of sensitivity analysis showed that the proportion of remaining residual debris was a key parameter determining the soil C budget after the deforestation event. According to the model simulation, the total C stock (total biomass and soil C of the oil palm plantation was about 35% of the rainforest's C stock at 30 yr following initiation of the plantation. However, there were few field data of C budget and stock, especially in oil palm plantation. The C budget of each ecosystem must be evaluated over the long term using both the model simulations and observations to

  14. Carbon budget of tropical forests in Southeast Asia and the effects of deforestation: an approach using a process-based model and field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, M.; Ito, A.; Ishida, A.; Kadir, W. R.; Ladpala, P.; Yamagata, Y.

    2011-09-01

    More reliable estimates of the carbon (C) stock within forest ecosystems and C emission induced by deforestation are urgently needed to mitigate the effects of emissions on climate change. A process-based terrestrial biogeochemical model (VISIT) was applied to tropical primary forests of two types (a seasonal dry forest in Thailand and a rainforest in Malaysia) and one agro-forest (an oil palm plantation in Malaysia) to estimate the C budget of tropical ecosystems in Southeast Asia, including the impacts of land-use conversion. The observed aboveground biomass in the seasonal dry tropical forest in Thailand (226.3 t C ha-1) and the rainforest in Malaysia (201.5 t C ha-1) indicate that tropical forests of Southeast Asia are among the most C-abundant ecosystems in the world. The model simulation results in rainforests were consistent with field data, except for the NEP, however, the VISIT model tended to underestimate C budget and stock in the seasonal dry tropical forest. The gross primary production (GPP) based on field observations ranged from 32.0 to 39.6 t C ha-1 yr-1 in the two primary forests, whereas the model slightly underestimated GPP (26.5-34.5 t C ha-1 yr-1). The VISIT model appropriately captured the impacts of disturbances such as deforestation and land-use conversions on the C budget. Results of sensitivity analysis showed that the proportion of remaining residual debris was a key parameter determining the soil C budget after the deforestation event. According to the model simulation, the total C stock (total biomass and soil C) of the oil palm plantation was about 35% of the rainforest's C stock at 30 yr following initiation of the plantation. However, there were few field data of C budget and stock, especially in oil palm plantation. The C budget of each ecosystem must be evaluated over the long term using both the model simulations and observations to understand the effects of climate and land-use conversion on C budgets in tropical forest

  15. Earth observations for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFries, R. [Department of Geography and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Achard, F. [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission 21020 Ispra, VA (Italy); Brown, S. [Winrock International, Ecosystem Services Unit 1621 N. Kent Street, Suite 1200, Arlington, VA 22207 (United States); Herold, M. [Department of Geography, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Loebdergraben 32, 07743 Jena (Germany); Murdiyarso, D. [Center for International Forestry Research, P.O. Box 6596, JKPWB, Jakarta 10065 (Indonesia); Schlamadinger, B. [Joanneum Research, Elisabethstrasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); De Souza, C. Jr [Instituto Homem e Meio Ambiente da Amazonia, Imazon, Caixa Postal 5101, Belem, PA 66613-397 (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    In response to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process investigating the technical issues surrounding the ability to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation in developing countries, this paper reviews technical capabilities for monitoring deforestation and estimating emissions. Implementation of policies to reduce emissions from deforestation require effective deforestation monitoring systems that are reproducible, provide consistent results, meet standards for mapping accuracy, and can be implemented at the national level. Remotely sensed data supported by ground observations are key to effective monitoring. Capacity in developing countries for deforestation monitoring is well-advanced in a few countries and is a feasible goal in most others. Data sources exist to determine base periods in the 1990s as historical reference points. Forest degradation (e.g. from high impact logging and fragmentation) also contribute to greenhouse gas emissions but it is more technically challenging to measure than deforestation. Data on carbon stocks, which are needed to estimate emissions, cannot currently be observed directly over large areas with remote sensing. Guidelines for carbon accounting from deforestation exist and are available in approved Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports and can be applied at national scales in the absence of forest inventory or other data. Key constraints for implementing programs to monitor greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation are international commitment of resources to increase capacity, coordination of observations to ensure pan-tropical coverage, access to free or low-cost data, and standard and consensual protocols for data interpretation and analysis.

  16. Linear spectral mixture model as a tool for monitoring deforestation and timber exploitation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Joao R.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Duarte, Valdete; de Alencastro Graea, Paulo Mauricio Lima; Guedes da Silva, Patricia

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study is to show the operational capacity of a "linear spectral mixture model" using TM/Landsat data for the characterization/monitoring of the annual deforestation and the timber logging exploitation process in the Amazon. In the methodological procedure, the original TM bands were initially converted to "vegetation", "shade" and "soil" fraction images, derived from the linear spectral mixture model. After the selection of fraction images, the scene segmentation was made using a region growing algorithm, and then an unsupervised classifier (per region) as applied. Afterwards, the thematic polygons were manually edited to generate the final maps. An analysis was made on the proportion of "vegetation", "shade" and "soil" components, for primary forest, selective logging, regrowth, and deforestation areas, for the timeframe 1997-2001. This analysis demonstrates, through the ternary diagram, that the variations in the spatial attributes of these component fractions were caused by a land cover/land use change process. A set of images and maps, showing the temporal identification of deforested and timber logging exploitation areas is shown, as a result of the operational use of this technique. The spatial distribution of these landscape changes provides subsidies to environmental agencies for the control and enforcement of specific conservation policies referring to the Amazon forest resources.

  17. Carbon budget of tropical forests in Southeast Asia and the effects of deforestation: an approach using a process-based model and field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adachi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available More reliable estimates of carbon (C stock within forest ecosystems and C emission induced by deforestation are urgently needed to mitigate the effects of emissions on climate change. A process-based terrestrial biogeochemical model (VISIT was applied to tropical primary forests of two types (a seasonal dry forest in Thailand and a rainforest in Malaysia and one agro-forest (an oil palm plantation in Malaysia to estimate the C budget of tropical ecosystems, including the impacts of land-use conversion, in Southeast Asia. Observations and VISIT model simulations indicated that the primary forests had high photosynthetic uptake: gross primary production was estimated at 31.5–35.5 t C ha−1 yr−1. In the VISIT model simulation, the rainforest had a higher total C stock (plant biomass and soil organic matter, 301.5 t C ha−1 than that in the seasonal dry forest (266.5 t C ha−1 in 2008. The VISIT model appropriately captured the impacts of disturbances such as deforestation and land-use conversions on the C budget. Results of sensitivity analysis implied that the ratio of remaining residual debris was a key parameter determining the soil C budget after deforestation events. The C stock of the oil palm plantation was about 46% of the rainforest's C at 30 yr following initiation of the plantation, when the ratio of remaining residual debris was assumed to be about 33%. These results show that adequate forest management is important for reducing C emission from soil and C budget of each ecosystem must be evaluated over a long term using both the model simulations and observations.

  18. Land Speculation as a Cause of Deforestation : The Role of Cattle Ranching in the Humid Tropics of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebeling, P.C.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of land speculation on investment decisions by cattle ranchers in Latin America, and the subsequent consequences for deforestation under varying levels of land price uncertainty and interest rate subsidy. Based on the Neoclassical investment theory, a stochastic revers

  19. Polarimetric Data for Tropical Forest Monitoring. Studies at the Colombian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiñones Fernández, M.

    2002-01-01

    An urgent need exists for accurate data on the actual tropical forest extent, deforestation, forest structure, regeneration and diversity. The availability of accurate land cover maps and tropical forest type maps, and the possibility to update these maps frequently, is of great importance for the d

  20. Satellite-based Tropical Cyclone Monitoring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, J.; Richardson, K.; Surratt, M.; Yang, S.; Lee, T. F.; Sampson, C. R.; Solbrig, J.; Kuciauskas, A. P.; Miller, S. D.; Kent, J.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing capabilities to monitor tropical cyclone (TC) location, structure, and intensity have evolved by utilizing a combination of operational and research and development (R&D) sensors. The microwave imagers from the operational Defense Meteorological Satellite Program [Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS)] form the "base" for structure observations due to their ability to view through upper-level clouds, modest size swaths and ability to capture most storm structure features. The NASA TRMM microwave imager and precipitation radar continue their 15+ yearlong missions in serving the TC warning and research communities. The cessation of NASA's QuikSCAT satellite after more than a decade of service is sorely missed, but India's OceanSat-2 scatterometer is now providing crucial ocean surface wind vectors in addition to the Navy's WindSat ocean surface wind vector retrievals. Another Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) onboard EUMETSAT's MetOp-2 satellite is slated for launch soon. Passive microwave imagery has received a much needed boost with the launch of the French/Indian Megha Tropiques imager in September 2011, basically greatly supplementing the very successful NASA TRMM pathfinder with a larger swath and more frequent temporal sampling. While initial data issues have delayed data utilization, current news indicates this data will be available in 2013. Future NASA Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) sensors starting in 2014 will provide enhanced capabilities. Also, the inclusion of the new microwave sounder data from the NPP ATMS (Oct 2011) will assist in mapping TC convective structures. The National Polar orbiting Partnership (NPP) program's VIIRS sensor includes a day night band (DNB) with the capability to view TC cloud structure at night when sufficient lunar illumination exits. Examples highlighting this new capability will be discussed in concert with additional data fusion efforts.

  1. Modelling Deforestation and Land Cover Transitions of Tropical Peatlands in Sumatra, Indonesia Using Remote Sensed Land Cover Data Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Elz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In Southeast Asia land use change associated with forest loss and degradation is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. This is of particular concern where deforestation occurs on peat soils. A business-as-usual (BAU land change model was developed using Dinamica EGO© for a REDD+ Demonstration Activity area in south-east Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia containing Berbak National Park (NP. The model output will be used as baseline land change predictions for comparison with alternative land cover management scenarios as part of a REDD+ feasibility study. The study area is approximately 376,000 ha with approximately 50% on peat soils. The model uses published 2000 and 2010 land cover maps as input and projects land cover change for thirty years until 2040. The model predicted that under a BAU scenario the forest area, 185,000 ha in 2010, will decline by 37% by 2040. In protected forest areas, approximately 50% of the study area, forest cover will reduce by 25%. Peat swamp forest will reduce by almost 37%. The greatest land cover category increases are plantation/regrowth areas (which includes oil palm and open areas which each increase by 30,000 ha. These results indicate that the site has great potential as an Indonesian REDD+ Demonstration Activity.

  2. Is tackling deforestation a cost-effective mitigation approach?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieg-Gran, Maryanne

    2006-10-15

    Tropical deforestation is estimated to contribute 20-25% of global CO2 emissions each year. Tropical forests have particularly high carbon stocks, holding on average 50% more carbon per hectare than forests in temperate and boreal areas. They are also experiencing the highest rates of deforestation. The Food and Agriculture Organisation estimates deforestation to equal 13 million hectares per year, most of it in tropical countries. It is surprising therefore that deforestation in tropical countries has been given so little space in the mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) notably allows credits for afforestation and reforestation but not for avoided deforestation. There have been several recent calls from governments of countries with tropical forest, notably Papua New Guinea, for financial mechanisms to provide positive incentives for developing countries to reduce their emissions from deforestation.

  3. Integrating remotely sensed fires for predicting deforestation for REDD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Gibbes, Cerian; Anaya, Jesús A; Dávalos, Liliana M

    2017-06-01

    Fire is an important tool in tropical forest management, as it alters forest composition, structure, and the carbon budget. The United Nations program on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) aims to sustainably manage forests, as well as to conserve and enhance their carbon stocks. Despite the crucial role of fire management, decision-making on REDD+ interventions fails to systematically include fires. Here, we address this critical knowledge gap in two ways. First, we review REDD+ projects and programs to assess the inclusion of fires in monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) systems. Second, we model the relationship between fire and forest for a pilot site in Colombia using near-real-time (NRT) fire monitoring data derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The literature review revealed fire remains to be incorporated as a key component of MRV systems. Spatially explicit modeling of land use change showed the probability of deforestation declined sharply with increasing distance to the nearest fire the preceding year (multi-year model area under the curve [AUC] 0.82). Deforestation predictions based on the model performed better than the official REDD early-warning system. The model AUC for 2013 and 2014 was 0.81, compared to 0.52 for the early-warning system in 2013 and 0.68 in 2014. This demonstrates NRT fire monitoring is a powerful tool to predict sites of forest deforestation. Applying new, publicly available, and open-access NRT fire data should be an essential element of early-warning systems to detect and prevent deforestation. Our results provide tools for improving both the current MRV systems, and the deforestation early-warning system in Colombia. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network: An early warning system for tropical rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovero, Francesco; Ahumada, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    While there are well established early warning systems for a number of natural phenomena (e.g. earthquakes, catastrophic fires, tsunamis), we do not have an early warning system for biodiversity. Yet, we are losing species at an unprecedented rate, and this especially occurs in tropical rainforests, the biologically richest but most eroded biome on earth. Unfortunately, there is a chronic gap in standardized and pan-tropical data in tropical forests, affecting our capacity to monitor changes and anticipate future scenarios. The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network was established to contribute addressing this issue, as it generates real time data to monitor long-term trends in tropical biodiversity and guide conservation practice. We present the Network and focus primarily on the Terrestrial Vertebrates protocol, that uses systematic camera trapping to detect forest mammals and birds, and secondarily on the Zone of Interaction protocol, that measures changes in the anthroposphere around the core monitoring area. With over 3 million images so far recorded, and managed using advanced information technology, TEAM has created the most important data set on tropical forest mammals globally. We provide examples of site-specific and global analyses that, combined with data on anthropogenic disturbance collected in the larger ecosystem where monitoring sites are, allowed us to understand the drivers of changes of target species and communities in space and time. We discuss the potential of this system as a candidate model towards setting up an early warning system that can effectively anticipate changes in coupled human-natural system, trigger management actions, and hence decrease the gap between research and management responses. In turn, TEAM produces robust biodiversity indicators that meet the requirements set by global policies such as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Standardization in data collection and public sharing of data in near real time

  5. A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with deforestation, gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achard, F.; Boschetti, L.; Brown, S.; Brady, M.; DeFries, R.; Grassi, G.; Herold, M.; Mollicone, D.; Mora, B.; Pandey, D.; Souza, C.

    2014-01-01

    A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with deforestation, gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation

  6. GOFC-GOLD REDD Sourcebook, COP-18 release - A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with deforestation, gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achard, F.; Brown, S.; Brady, M.; DeFries, R.; Grassi, G.; Herold, M.; Mollicone, D.; Mora, B.; Pandey, D.; Souza, C.

    2012-01-01

    A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with deforestation, gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation

  7. Detecting deforestation with a spectral change detection approach using multitemporal Landsat data: a case study of Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Mui-How; Tsuyuki, Satoshi; Furuya, Naoyuki; Lee, Jung Soo

    2008-09-01

    Tropical deforestation is occurring at an alarming rate, threatening the ecological integrity of protected areas. This makes it vital to regularly assess protected areas to confirm the efficacy of measures that protect that area from clearing. Satellite remote sensing offers a systematic and objective means for detecting and monitoring deforestation. This paper examines a spectral change approach to detect deforestation using pattern decomposition (PD) coefficients from multitemporal Landsat data. Our results show that the PD coefficients for soil and vegetation can be used to detect deforestation using change vector analysis (CVA). CVA analysis demonstrates that deforestation in the Kinabalu area, Sabah, Malaysia has significantly slowed from 1.2% in period 1 (1973 and 1991) to 0.1% in period 2 (1991 and 1996). A comparison of deforestation both inside and outside Kinabalu Park has highlighted the effectiveness of the park in protecting the tropical forest against clearing. However, the park is still facing pressure from the area immediately surrounding the park (the 1 km buffer zone) where the deforestation rate has remained unchanged.

  8. Painting the world REDD: addressing scientific barriers to monitoring emissions from tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P.

    2011-06-01

    In December 2010, parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreed to encourage reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from forest losses with the financial support of developed countries. This important international agreement followed about seven years of effort among governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO) and the scientific community, and is called REDD+, the program for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. REDD+ could achieve its potential to slow emissions from deforestation and forest degradation either as a new market option to offset emissions from developed nations, or as a mitigation option for developing countries themselves. Aside from representing an important step towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions, a growing list of potential co-benefits to REDD+ include improved forestry practices, forest restoration, sustainable development, and biodiversity protection. Indeed the agreement is heralded as a win-win for climate change mitigation and tropical forest conservation, and it could end up contributing to a global economy based on carbon and ecosystem services. That's good news, and some governments are now working to become 'REDD ready' in preparation for the forthcoming international program. This is important because, according to the agreements made by governments in the UNFCCC, developing countries which voluntarily decide to take part in REDD+ must establish their own national forest monitoring system to report changes in emissions from forests (UNFCCC 2009). But as of today, no developing country has implemented a system for monitoring, reporting and verifying (MRV) emission reductions for REDD+. Of course, it is all still very new, but many REDD-type projects have been underway for years now (Parker et al 2008), and many MRV practitioners involved in those projects are the same people being asked to help with government-led, national MRV programs. Yet going from the

  9. Researching Illegal Logging and Deforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Boekhout van Solinge

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation such as in the Amazon can be studied well from a green criminological perspective. Ethnographic research methods form a useful way to get insight into the dynamics and complexity of tropical deforestation, which often is illegal. This article gives an account of various ethnographic visits to the rainforests of the Amazon in the period 2003-2014. Ethnographic methods provide insight into the overlap between the legal and illegal, the functioning (or not of state institutions, the power of (corporate lobbies, and why tropical deforestation correlates with crimes such as corruption and violence. The use of ethnographic methods in forest areas where trustworthy state actors and institutions are not very present can also present danger and raise ethical issues (such as when the researcher, for reasons of safety, does not present as a criminological researcher. However, a large advantage of ethnographic visits to tropical rainforests is that they allow the gathering of local views and voices, which rarely reach the international level. These local views lead to interesting contradictions at the international level where corporate views and lobbies dominate.

  10. Toward an integrated monitoring framework to assess the effects of tropical forest degradation and recovery on carbon stocks and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Roitman, Iris; Aide, T Mitchell; Alencar, Ane; Anderson, Liana O; Aragão, Luiz; Asner, Gregory P; Barlow, Jos; Berenguer, Erika; Chambers, Jeffrey; Costa, Marcos H; Fanin, Thierry; Ferreira, Laerte G; Ferreira, Joice; Keller, Michael; Magnusson, William E; Morales-Barquero, Lucia; Morton, Douglas; Ometto, Jean P H B; Palace, Michael; Peres, Carlos A; Silvério, Divino; Trumbore, Susan; Vieira, Ima C G

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests harbor a significant portion of global biodiversity and are a critical component of the climate system. Reducing deforestation and forest degradation contributes to global climate-change mitigation efforts, yet emissions and removals from forest dynamics are still poorly quantified. We reviewed the main challenges to estimate changes in carbon stocks and biodiversity due to degradation and recovery of tropical forests, focusing on three main areas: (1) the combination of field surveys and remote sensing; (2) evaluation of biodiversity and carbon values under a unified strategy; and (3) research efforts needed to understand and quantify forest degradation and recovery. The improvement of models and estimates of changes of forest carbon can foster process-oriented monitoring of forest dynamics, including different variables and using spatially explicit algorithms that account for regional and local differences, such as variation in climate, soil, nutrient content, topography, biodiversity, disturbance history, recovery pathways, and socioeconomic factors. Generating the data for these models requires affordable large-scale remote-sensing tools associated with a robust network of field plots that can generate spatially explicit information on a range of variables through time. By combining ecosystem models, multiscale remote sensing, and networks of field plots, we will be able to evaluate forest degradation and recovery and their interactions with biodiversity and carbon cycling. Improving monitoring strategies will allow a better understanding of the role of forest dynamics in climate-change mitigation, adaptation, and carbon cycle feedbacks, thereby reducing uncertainties in models of the key processes in the carbon cycle, including their impacts on biodiversity, which are fundamental to support forest governance policies, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation.

  11. A novel approach in monitoring land-cover change in the tropics: oil palm cultivation in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro, Stanley U.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for palm oil and bioenergy has promoted the expansion of tropical farmland covered with oil palms (Elaeis guineensis, resulting in increased competition with food production as well as environmental degradation. Moreover, oil palm cultivation may have increased greenhouse gas (GHG emissions through deforestation. The overall impact estimation of oil palm related land-use change requires spatiotemporal land-use maps. So far, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO has not established guidelines on how to measure and evaluate oil palm related land-cover change. While remote sensing methods are suitable in general, the use of Landsat images in the tropics for the monitoring and modeling of land-cover changes has been restricted due to the influence of cloud cover. This study presents a novel approach for mapping tropical land-cover change ­using the Google Earth Engine (GEE cloud-based platform and the System for Automated Geoscientific Analysis (SAGA GIS. Spatiotemporal land-use and land-cover changes in relation to oil palm cultivation are assessed using a median pixel composite mosaic of Landsat 5, 7 and 8 image scenes for the time periods 1999-2005 and 2009-2015. The proposed approach yields an overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of 70.33 % and 0.62 for the first image composite period, and 84.5 % and 0.80 for the second image composite period respectively.

  12. Simulating Future Global Deforestation Using Geographically Explicit Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witmer, F. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2005-03-15

    What might the spatial distribution of forests look like in 2100? Global deforestation continues to be a significant component of human activity affecting both the terrestrial and atmospheric environments. This work models the relationship between people and forests using two approaches. Initially, a brief global scale analysis of recent historical trends is conducted. The remainder of the paper then focuses on current population densities as determinants of cumulative historical deforestation. Spatially explicit models are generated and used to generate two possible scenarios of future deforestation. The results suggest that future deforestation in tropical Africa may be considerably worse than deforestation in the Amazon region.

  13. Forest deforestation dynamics and drivers in Latin America: a review since 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Dolors Armenteras; Nelly Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years there have been a considerable number of studies on deforestation in Latin America. Deforestation rates reported up to the 2000s are generally lower in the region than in other tropical areas. The causes of deforestation in Latin America are similar to those identified in other regions. In general, studies of deforestation are regional or very localized and do not permit comparison of intraregional variability within the American tropics. In this paper we present resul...

  14. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M D Rosa

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1 it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2 the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3 deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia"-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy, annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is

  15. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia")-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is currently

  16. Spectral Reflectance and Vegetation Index Changes in Deciduous Forest Foliage Following Tree Removal: Potential for Deforestation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, D.; Hu, Y.; Li, Z.

    2016-05-01

    It is important to detect and quantify deforestation to guide strategic decisions regarding environment, socioeconomic development, and climate change. In the present study, we conducted a field experiment to examine spectral reflectance and vegetation index changes in poplar and locust tree foliage with different leaf area indices over the course of three sunny days, following tree removal from the canopy. The spectral reflectance of foliage from harvested trees was measured using an ASD FieldSpec Prospectroradiometer; synchronous meteorological data were also obtained. We found that reflectance in short-wave infrared and red-edge reflectance was more time sensitive after tree removal than reflectance in other spectral regions, and that the normalized difference water index (NDWI) and the red-edge chlorophyll index (CIRE) were the preferred indicators of these changes from several indices evaluated. Synthesized meteorological environments were found to influence water and chlorophyll contents after tree removal, and this subsequently changed the spectral canopy reflectance. Our results indicate the potential for such tree removal to be detected with NDWI or CIRE from the second day of a deforestation event.

  17. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Classroom Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Jan; Hill, A. David

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classroom project dealing with tropical deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Addresses environmental consequences and economic, social, and political causes. Involves both lectures and individual research and reports by student groups on deforestation causes. Includes a note-playing activity in which students make recommendations for…

  18. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Classroom Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Jan; Hill, A. David

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classroom project dealing with tropical deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Addresses environmental consequences and economic, social, and political causes. Involves both lectures and individual research and reports by student groups on deforestation causes. Includes a note-playing activity in which students make recommendations for…

  19. Guidance on Monitoring of Gross Changes in Forest Area

    OpenAIRE

    Achard, Frederic; DeFries, Ruth; Herold, Martin; Mollicone, Danilo; Pandey, Devendra; Souza, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents the state of the art for data and approaches to be used for monitoring forest area changes at the national scale in tropical countries using remote sensing imagery. It includes approaches and data for monitoring both deforestation and forest degradation and for establishing historical reference scenarios. The chapter presents the minimum requirements to develop first order national deforestation databases, using typical and internationally accepted methods. There are ...

  20. Tropical forest monitoring, combining satellite and social data, to inform management and livelihood implications: Case studies from Indonesian West Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Rohan

    2012-06-01

    Deforestation in the world's tropics is an urgent international issue. One response has been the development of satellite based monitoring initiatives largely focused on the carbon rich forests of western Indonesia. In contrast this study focuses on one eastern Indonesian district, Kabupaten Kupang, which has some of the largest and least studied tracts of remaining forest in West Timor. A combination of remote sensing, GIS and social science methods were used to describe the state of forests in Kabupaten Kupang, how and why they are changing. Using satellite imagery, case studies and on-ground interviews, this study explores the proposition that transdisciplinary local social, cultural and biophysical knowledge is important for effectively using remotely sensed data as a tool to inform local management policies. When compared to some other parts of Indonesia, the rate and extent of deforestation in West Timor was found to be relatively small and a satellite based assessment alone could conclude that it is not a critical issue. However this study showed that when on-ground social data are coupled with (such) satellite-based data a more complex picture emerges, related to key livelihood issues. The causes of forest cover change were found to be multivariate and location specific, requiring management approaches tailored to local social issues. This study suggests that integrative research can maximise the utility of satellite data for understanding causation and thus informing management strategies. In addition, the satellite based assessment found that at the time of the study less than 4% of forested land was within national parks and nature reserves and less than a third of the protected catchment forest zone was forested. These data suggest considerable scope for upland re-forestation activities or the redrawing of protected forest boundaries.

  1. Monitoring tropical peatland ecosystem in regional scale using multi-temporal MODIS data: Present possibilities and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Y.; Pawitan, H.; Prasetyo, L. B.; Permatasari, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies on peatland ecosystem have been focused on forest conversion or forest degradation as a single pathway, meanwhile; in the context of peatland ecosystem, the change in land surface is more complicated since it can be categorized into two types and mechanisms: 1) gradual change, caused by interannual climate variability and forestland degradation, and 2) abrupt change, caused by disturbances such as deforestation and wildfires. Understanding this change types is needed for conservation and management, particularly to improve understanding of terrestrial environmental change in peatland ecosystem. In such situation, simultaneous analysis of land surface attributes from long-term datasets and seasonal variation seems to be a way to monitor the tropical peatland ecosystem. This analysis provides information about how the changes occurred accurately as well as how big are these affected areas. In this article, the feasibility of using long-term MODIS data for monitoring the dynamics change in peatland ecosystem is examined. The temporal vegetation dynamics of long-term MODIS datasets offer great promise for characterizing gradual change as well as abrupt change at large scale, however, the mixed pixel issue and some residual noises in temporal sequences are quite problematic when using MODIS data.

  2. Monitoring optical properties of the southwest tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupouy, Cécile; Savranski, Tatiana; Lefevre, Jérôme; Despinoy, Marc; Mangeas, Morgan; Fuchs, Rosalie; Faure, Vincent; Ouillon, Sylvain; Petit, Michel

    2010-10-01

    We present data collected as part of ValHyBio- VALidation HYperspectral of a BIOgeochemical model in the South Western Tropical Lagoon of New Caledonia, a PNTS-sponsored program dedicated to chlorophyll satellite imaging and validation as affected by bathymetry. The specific goals of ValHyBio are to: - examine time-dependent oceanic reflectance in relation to dynamic surface processes, - construct field/satellite reflectance-based chlorophyll models, - investigate the feasibility of inverting the model to yield surface chlorophyll and turbidity, - validate the biogeochemical model with field/satellite observations. In situ bio-optical parameters include absorption coefficients by CDOM and particles, Secchi disk depth, backscattering coefficient, pigment concentration, suspended matter concentration, and K_dPAR. They are measured every month at 5 stations, of contrasted bathymetry and bottom reflectance, as well as at a reference station situated 4 miles offshore, and on a station over coral reefs. Remote sensing reflectance is calculated from the absorption and backscattering coefficients and compared with satellite data. SeaWIFS and MODIS AQUA match-ups collected over the period 1997-2010 (ValHySat-VALidation HYperspectral SATellite database) are used. Satellite retrievals are examined as a function of bathymetry. The feasibility of a longterm monitoring program of optical water retrieval with satellite remote sensing technique is examined in the frame of the GOPS (South Pacific Integrated Observatory).

  3. Deforestation scenarios for the Bolivian lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Graciela; Dalla-Nora, Eloi; Cordoba, Diana; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Ovando, Alex; Assis, Talita; Aguiar, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests in South America play a key role in the provision of ecosystem services such as carbon sinks, biodiversity conservation, and global climate regulation. In previous decades, Bolivian forests have mainly been deforested by the expansion of agricultural frontier development, driven by the growing demands for beef and other productions. In the mid-2000s the Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) party rose to power in Bolivia with the promise of promoting an alternative development model that would respect the environment. The party passed the world's first laws granting rights to the environment, which they termed Mother Earth (Law No. 300 of 2012), and proposed an innovative framework that was expected to develop radical new conservation policies. The MAS conservationist discourse, policies, and productive practices, however, have since been in permanent tension. The government continues to guarantee food production through neo-extractivist methods by promoting the notion to expand agriculture from 3 to 13 million ha, risking the tropical forests and their ecosystem services. These actions raise major environmental and social concerns, as the potential impacts of such interventions are still unknown. The objective of this study is to explore an innovative land use modeling approach to simulate how the growing demand for land could affect future deforestation trends in Bolivia. We use the LuccME framework to create a spatially-explicit land cover change model and run it under three different deforestation scenarios, spanning from the present-2050. In the Sustainability scenario, deforestation reaches 17,703,786 ha, notably in previously deforested or degraded areas, while leaving forest extensions intact. In the Middle of the road scenario, deforestation and degradation move toward new or paved roads spreading across 25,698,327 ha in 2050, while intact forests are located in Protected Areas (PAs). In the Fragmentation scenario, deforestation expands to almost

  4. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Kwaw S; Ferraro, Paul J; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Robalino, Juan A

    2008-10-21

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighboring forests. We demonstrate that estimates of effectiveness can be substantially improved by controlling for biases along dimensions that are observable, measuring spatial spillovers, and testing the sensitivity of estimates to potential hidden biases. We apply matching methods to evaluate the impact on deforestation of Costa Rica's renowned protected-area system between 1960 and 1997. We find that protection reduced deforestation: approximately 10% of the protected forests would have been deforested had they not been protected. Conventional approaches to evaluating conservation impact, which fail to control for observable covariates correlated with both protection and deforestation, substantially overestimate avoided deforestation (by over 65%, based on our estimates). We also find that deforestation spillovers from protected to unprotected forests are negligible. Our conclusions are robust to potential hidden bias, as well as to changes in modeling assumptions. Our results show that, with appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policy makers can better understand the relationships between human and natural systems and can use this to guide their attempts to protect critical ecosystem services.

  5. Limits of Brazil's Forest Code as a means to end illegal deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Andrea A; Rajão, Raoni; Costa, Marcelo A; Stabile, Marcelo C C; Macedo, Marcia N; Dos Reis, Tiago N P; Alencar, Ane; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Pacheco, Rayane

    2017-07-18

    The 2012 Brazilian Forest Code governs the fate of forests and savannas on Brazil's 394 Mha of privately owned lands. The government claims that a new national land registry (SICAR), introduced under the revised law, could end illegal deforestation by greatly reducing the cost of monitoring, enforcement, and compliance. This study evaluates that potential, using data from state-level land registries (CAR) in Pará and Mato Grosso that were precursors of SICAR. Using geospatial analyses and stakeholder interviews, we quantify the impact of CAR on deforestation and forest restoration, investigating how landowners adjust their behaviors over time. Our results indicate rapid adoption of CAR, with registered properties covering a total of 57 Mha by 2013. This suggests that the financial incentives to join CAR currently exceed the costs. Registered properties initially showed lower deforestation rates than unregistered ones, but these differences varied by property size and diminished over time. Moreover, only 6% of registered producers reported taking steps to restore illegally cleared areas on their properties. Our results suggest that, from the landowner's perspective, full compliance with the Forest Code offers few economic benefits. Achieving zero illegal deforestation in this context would require the private sector to include full compliance as a market criterion, while state and federal governments develop SICAR as a de facto enforcement mechanism. These results are relevant to other tropical countries and underscore the importance of developing a policy mix that creates lasting incentives for sustainable land-use practices.

  6. GHG emissions due to deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.; Van Valkengoed, M.

    2009-05-15

    An assessment was made for the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation in tropical forests in Malaysia and Indonesia related to Dutch economic activities. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are calculated in relation to (1) the emissions related to vegetation removal sec; and (2) the emissions related to removal and more long term effects related to assimilation of CO2 in forest regrowth and changes in organic material in soils. Emissions related to vegetation removal and aggregated emissions for both vegetation removal and long term effects are reported separately. Soil organic carbon stock changes are considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emissions. Changes in carbon stocks and N2O emissions and actually also changes in vegetation all are events that occur gradually, rather than immediately. Only removal of existing vegetation and possible burning of this vegetation and associated emissions related to both activities are immediate by nature. Carbon stocks and N2O emissions change to a new level within several decades after deforestation or forest degradation. Removed vegetation can grow back or be replaced eventually by other vegetation, thereby changing the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to deforestation or forest degradation. Vegetation extracted for commercial purposes such as timber or pulp will also take years or decades to become waste and be converted into CO2. In IPCC and LCA's all these emissions are taken into account - or at least all emissions occurring within a period of 20 years, as required by IPCC. Soil organic carbon stock changes are also considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emmissions.

  7. The developmental cycle of domestic groups and Amazonian deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    MORAN, EMILIO; McCracken,Stephen

    2004-01-01

    It has been common to attribute tropical deforestation to population growth and/or migration. This paper finds that this is true only at large and aggregated spatial and temporal scales. When one examines regional-scaled processes, there are numberous mediating factors and more complex demographic processes that account for differences in rates of deforestation. Based upon three years of research in the Altamira region, Xingu Basin, Brazilian Amazon, we differenttiate between period and cohor...

  8. Effectiveness of Protected Areas in the Pan-Tropics and International Aid for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Protected areas are crucial for tropical forest conservation efforts. Estimation of the effectiveness of protected areas is thus important for evaluating the efficacy of forest conservation policies and priorities. However, comprehensive evaluation of the long-term effects of Protected Areas and international aid is lacking. However, with the recent availability of long-term, large-scale forest cover change data at 30-m resolution, it has become possible to address some of the issues surrounding the effectiveness of protected areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of Protected Areas in the pan-tropics and international aid for conservation, we use the 30m resolution data along with econometrics 1) to estimate avoided deforestation by PAs in the tropics during the 2000s, 2) estimate effects of international aid on avoided deforestation by PAs and 3) analyze the relationships between the socio-economic variables and increases in deforestation, avoided deforestation by PAs and effects of international aid. Our results show that protected areas avoided 83,500 ± 21,200 km2 of deforestation during the 2000s. Brazil showed the highest estimates of effects of international aid on the avoided deforestation of 22 m2/USD, which is about 50 times higher compared to Indonesia (0.5 m2/USD). The regression analysis between avoided deforestation, effects of international aid and socio-economic factors demonstrates that PAs have been relatively more effective in the countries where the deforestation pressures were increasing and that governance and forest change monitoring capacity may be important factors enhancing the efficacy of international aid. Our study presents the first pan-tropical analysis of the long-term evaluation of the effectiveness of protected areas, international aid and their regulating factors using spatially explicit fine resolution data. Our findings allow us to pinpoint where conservation initiatives and resource management are effectively practiced and to

  9. Glacier monitoring and glacier-climate interactions in the tropical Andes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veettil, Bijeesh Kozhikkodan; Wang, Shanshan; Florêncio de Souza, Sergio; Bremer, Ulisses Franz; Simões, Jefferson Cardia

    2017-08-01

    In this review, we summarized the evolution of glacier monitoring in the tropical Andes during the last few decades, particularly after the development of remote sensing and photogrammetry. Advantages and limitations of glacier mapping, applied so far, in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia are discussed in detail. Glacier parameters such as the equilibrium line altitude, snowline and mass balance were given special attention in understanding the complex cryosphere-climate interactions, particularly using remote sensing techniques. Glaciers in the inner and the outer tropics were considered separately based on the precipitation and temperature conditions within a new framework. The applicability of various methods to use glacier records to understand and reconstruct the tropical Andean climate between the Last Glacial Maximum (11,700 years ago) and the present is also explored in this paper. Results from various studies published recently were analyzed and we tried to understand the differences in the magnitudes of glacier responses towards the climatic perturbations in the inner tropics and the outer tropics. Inner tropical glaciers, particularly those in Venezuela and Colombia near the January Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), are more vulnerable to increase in temperature. Surface energy balance experiments show that outer tropical glaciers respond to precipitation variability very rapidly in comparison with the temperature variability, particularly when moving towards the subtropics. We also analyzed the gradients in glacier response to climate change from the Pacific coast towards the Amazon Basin as well as with the elevation. Based on the current trends synthesised from recent studies, it is hypothesized that the glaciers in the inner tropics and the southern wet outer tropics will disappear first as a response to global warming whereas glaciers in the northern wet outer tropics and dry outer tropics show resistance to warming trends due to

  10. Assessment of Large Scale Land Cover Change Classifications and Drivers of Deforestation in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, A.; Sugardiman Budiharto, R. A.; Tosiani, A.; Murdiyarso, D.; Verchot, L. V.

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia possesses the third largest tropical forests coverage following Brazilian Amazon and Congo Basin regions. This country, however, suffered from the highest deforestation rate surpassing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon in 2012. National capacity for forest change assessment and monitoring has been well-established in Indonesia and the availability of national forest inventory data could largely assist the country to report their forest carbon stocks and change over more than two decades. This work focuses for refining forest cover change mapping and deforestation estimate at national scale applying over 10,000 scenes of Landsat scenes, acquired in 1990, 1996, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, 2011 and 2012. Pre-processing of the data includes, geometric corrections and image mosaicking. The classification of mosaic Landsat data used multi-stage visual observation approaches, verified using ground observations and comparison with other published materials. There are 23 land cover classes identified from land cover data, presenting spatial information of forests, agriculture, plantations, non-vegetated lands and other land use categories. We estimated the magnitude of forest cover change and assessed drivers of forest cover change over time. Forest change trajectories analysis was also conducted to observe dynamics of forest cover across time. This study found that careful interpretations of satellite data can provide reliable information on forest cover and change. Deforestation trend in Indonesia was lower in 2000-2012 compared to 1990-2000 periods. We also found that over 50% of forests loss in 1990 remains unproductive in 2012. Major drivers of forest conversion in Indonesia range from shrubs/open land, subsistence agriculture, oil palm expansion, plantation forest and mining. The results were compared with other available datasets and we obtained that the MOF data yields reliable estimate of deforestation.

  11. Diagnosing nonlinearities in the local and remote responses to partial Amazon deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Andrew M.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2016-08-01

    Using a set of fully coupled climate model simulations, the response to partial deforestation over the Amazon due to agricultural expansion has been analyzed. Three variations of 50% deforestation (all of western half, all of eastern half, and half of each grid box) were compared with total deforestation to determine the degree and character of nonlinearity of the climate response to partial deforestation. A metric is developed to quantify the degree and distribution of nonlinearity in the response, applicable to any variable. The metric also quantifies whether the response is saturating or accelerating, meaning significantly either more or less than 50% of the simulated response to total deforestation is attained at 50% deforestation. The spatial structure of the atmospheric response to Amazon deforestation reveals large areas across the tropics that exhibit a significant nonlinear component, particularly for temperature and geopotential height. Over the domain between 45°S and 45°N across all longitudes, 50% deforestation generally provides less than half of the total response to deforestation over oceans, indicating the marine portion of climate system is somewhat resilient to progressive deforestation. However, over continents there are both accelerating and saturating responses to 50% Amazon deforestation, and the response is different depending on whether the eastern or western half of Amazonia is deforested or half of the forest is removed uniformly across the region.

  12. Linking Reduced Deforestation and a Global Carbon Market: Impacts on Costs, Financial Flows, and Technological Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Bosetti, Valentina; Lubowski, Ruben; Golub, Alexander; Markandya, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Discussions of tropical deforestation are currently at the forefront of climate change policy negotiations at national, regional, and international levels. This paper analyzes the effects of linking Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) to a global market for greenhouse gas emission reductions. We supplement a global climate-energy-economy model with alternative cost estimates for reducing deforestation emissions in order to examine a global program for stabilizin...

  13. Could the STARS detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, M. P.; Trabaquini, K.; Rudorff, B. F.; Oliveira, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    The Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) has been monitoring the Brazilian Legal Amazon deforestation through the PRODES project since 1988, providing yearly deforestation maps based on about 60 m spatial resolution. Additionally, INPE's Real Time Deforestation Detection System (DETER) has monthly indicating, based on high temporal resolution satellite data, where and when the forest is being felled. However, those monitoring processes are mainly based on visual interpretation, which is accurate but a hard and time consuming task. The Spectral-Temporal Analysis by Response Surface (STARS), which synthesizes the full information content of a multitemporal-multispectral remote sensing image dataset to represent the spectral variation over time of features on the Earth's surface, comes as an alternative for applications in land cover change detection, such as deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Thus, since deforestation process presents particular spectral changes over time, spectral-temporal response surfaces could be fitted to describe its change patterns, allowing to detect deforested areas. In this context, this work aims to apply the STARS to detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, using Landsat-5 multitemporal-multispectral images. Four georeferenced images covering about 3.400 square kilometres within the Mato Grosso State, Brazil (13°17'S; 55°50'W to 14°20'S; 55°10'W) were used: one Multispectral Scanner (MSS) image from 1980 (bands 4, 5, 6 and 7 - 60 m spatial resolution); and three Thematic Mapper (TM) images from 1990, 2000 and 2010 (bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 - 30 m spatial resolution). The MSS image was resampled to 30 m to match the TM spatial resolution. All images were then used as input for STARS resulting in a Multi-Coefficient Image (MCI) with 10 synthetic bands formed by the 10 fitted coefficients of a Polynomial Trend Surface (PTS) model with degree equal to three. The MCI was used as input for a decision tree (DT

  14. Tropical Forest Monitoring in Southeast Asia Using Remotely Sensed Optical Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Kenneth Joseph

    -scale plantations. In particular, the global demand for natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) has been reported as the cause of widespread forest conversion. A critical component of forest conservation strategies, such as Reduced Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+), relies upon the monitoring...... monitoring systems. Thematic objectives of the research focussed on estimating forest loss in Cambodia in the post-2000 era, determining how much of this loss was caused by conversions to natural rubber tree cover, and analysing if there is a link between forest-to-rubber conversion rates and global rubber...... of the forest transition curve. Forest-to-rubber conversions were estimated to be responsible for 20% of total forest clearances, and were more prevalent in the later years. Annual forest-to-rubber conversion rates were found to be highly correlated to global rubber prices at local and national scales. Although...

  15. Near-continuous thermal monitoring of a diverse tropical forest canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, S.; Still, C. J.; Kim, Y.; Detto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical species may be highly sensitive to temperature increases associated with climate change because of their narrow thermal tolerances. Recent work has highlighted the importance of temperature in tropical forest function, however most studies use air temperature measurements from sparse meteorological stations even though surface temperatures are known to deviate from air temperatures. Tropical organisms exist in microclimates that are highly variable in space and time and not easily measured in natural environments. This is in part because of the complex structure of tropical forests and the potential for organisms themselves to modify their own environment. In the case of plants, leaf temperature is linked to the water and surface energy balance of their microenvironment. Here we present results from near-continuous thermal camera monitoring of the forest canopy in Barro Colorado Island, Panama (5-minute intervals for approximately 9 months). We compare daytime (maximum) vs. nighttime (minimum) differences between canopy temperature and air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and precipitation. On average, canopy temperatures are consistently ~2 degrees Celsius higher than air temperatures. These data can paired with flux tower data on-site and used to advance understanding of temperature controls on the structure and function of tropical forests, such as carbon assimilation, phenology, and habitat monitoring, and can be integrated into models to improve predictions of tropical forest response to future climate change.

  16. The national determinants of deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Thomas K

    2013-01-01

    For decades, the dynamics of tropical deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have defied easy explanation. The rates of deforestation have been lower than elsewhere in the tropics, and the driving forces evident in other places, government new land settlement schemes and industrialized agriculture, have largely been absent in SSA. The context and causes for African deforestation become clearer through an analysis of new, national-level data on forest cover change for SSA countries for the 2000-2005 period. The recent dynamic in SSA varies from dry to wet biomes. Deforestation occurred at faster rates in nations with predominantly dry forests. The wetter Congo basin countries had lower rates of deforestation, in part because tax receipts from oil and mineral industries in this region spurred rural to urban migration, declines in agriculture and increased imports of cereals from abroad. In this respect, the Congo basin countries may be experiencing an oil and mineral fuelled forest transition. Small farmers play a more important role in African deforestation than they do in southeast Asia and Latin America, in part because small-scale agriculture remains one of the few livelihoods open to rural peoples.

  17. Forest deforestation dynamics and drivers in Latin America: a review since 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years there have been a considerable number of studies on deforestation in Latin America. Deforestation rates reported up to the 2000s are generally lower in the region than in other tropical areas. The causes of deforestation in Latin America are similar to those identified in other regions. In general, studies of deforestation are regional or very localized and do not permit comparison of intraregional variability within the American tropics. In this paper we present results obtained from a meta-analysis of 283 articles on deforestation rates for different types of forests in Latin America (Atlantic, Montane , Dry, Lowland and others. Causes of deforestation identified in the literature and published at the national or subnational level since 1990 are also analyzed. There is an overall deforestation rate of -1.54 for the region, but results indicate a high variability of deforestation rates between countries and that there are even cases of forest cover gains, e.g. in El Salvador. The highest deforestation rates are in dry forest followed by montane forests. Most countries identify agricultural and livestock expansion as the main cause of deforestation.

  18. Avoided deforestation as a greenhouse gas mitigation tool: economic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohngen, Brent; Beach, Robert H; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Tropical deforestation is a significant contributor to accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. GHG emissions from deforestation in the tropics were in the range of 1 to 2 Pg C yr(-1) for the 1990s, which is equivalent to as much as 25% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. While there is growing interest in providing incentives to avoid deforestation and consequently reduce net carbon emissions, there is limited information available on the potential costs of these activities. This paper uses a global forestry and land use model to analyze the potential marginal costs of reducing net carbon emissions by avoiding deforestation in tropical countries. Our estimates suggest that about 0.1 Pg C yr(-1) of emissions reductions could be obtained over the next 30 to 50 yr for $5 per Mg C, and about 1.6 Pg C yr(-1) could be obtained over the same time frame for $100 per Mg C. In addition, the effects of carbon incentives on land use could be substantial. Relative to projected baseline conditions, we find that there would be around 3 million additional hectares (ha) of forestland in 2055 at $5 per Mg C and 422 million ha at $100 per Mg C. Estimates of reductions in area deforested, GHG mitigation potential, and annual land rental payments required are presented, all of which vary by region, carbon price paid, and time frame of mitigation.

  19. The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Vijay; Pimm, Stuart L.; Clinton N Jenkins; Smith, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is the most widely traded vegetable oil globally, with demand projected to increase substantially in the future. Almost all oil palm grows in areas that were once tropical moist forests, some of them quite recently. The conversion to date, and future expansion, threatens biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Today, consumer pressure is pushing companies toward deforestation-free sources of palm oil. To guide interventions aimed at reducing tropical deforestation due to...

  20. The role of spatial scale and background climate in the latitudinal temperature response to deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.; N. de Noblet-Ducoudré; E. L. Davin; Zeng, N.; S. Motesharrei; Li, S.C.; Kalnay, E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous modeling and empirical studies have shown that the biophysical impact of deforestation is to warm the tropics and cool the extra-tropics. In this study, we use an earth system model to investigate how deforestation at various spatial scales affects ground temperature, with an emphasis on the latitudinal temperature response and its underlying mechanisms. Results show that the latitudinal pattern of temperature response depends non-linearly on the s...

  1. Road Impact on Deforestation and Jaguar Habitat Loss in the Mayan Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    The construction of roads, either as an economic tool or as necessity for the implementation of other infrastructure projects is increasing in the tropical forest worldwide. However, roads are one of the main deforestation drivers in the tropics. In this study we analyzed the impact of road...... investments on both deforestation and jaguar habitat loss, in the Mayan Forest. As well we used these results to forecast the impact of two road investments planned in the region. Our results show that roads are the single deforestation driver in low developed areas, whether many other drivers play...

  2. Assessing deforestation in the coastal zone of the Campeche State, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, J.F.; Vega, A.P.; Aponte, G.P.; Lomeli, D.Z. [Univ. of Campeche (Mexico)

    1997-06-01

    In order to determine rates of deforestation in the State of Campeche, Mexico, forest maps of 1978/80 and 1992 were compared within a geographic information system (GIS). Results indicate that more than 25 per cent of the tropical forest and mangroves were deforested and other 29 per cent were fragmented during this period. The rate of deforestation in the whole state is about 4.4 per cent per year, but the analysis showed that rates of deforestation are much higher in the coastal zone. For this reason an attempt was made to study deforestation patterns in the coastal zone. Data such as distance from roads and from settlements images were incorporated in the GIS data base and a model which represents influence of population on its environment was developed in order to establish the influence of socioeconomic factors on forest clearing. Results indicate that deforestation presents a higher correlation with levels of poverty and social abandonment than with demographic aspects.

  3. Rethinking the causes of deforestation: lessons from economic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsen, A; Kaimowitz, D

    1999-02-01

    Concern is rising over the deleterious effects of tropical deforestation. For example, the loss of forest cover influences the climate and reduces biodiversity, while reduced timber supplies, siltation, flooding, and soil degradation affect economic activity and threaten the livelihoods and cultural integrity of forest-dependent people. Such concerns have led economists to expand their efforts to model why, where, and to what extent forests are being converted to other land uses. This synthesis of the results of more than 140 economic models analyzing the causes of tropical deforestation brings into question many conventional hypotheses upon deforestation. More roads, higher agricultural prices, lower wages, and a shortage of off-farm employment generally lead to more deforestation. However, it is not known how technical change, agricultural input prices, household income levels, and tenure security affect deforestation. The role of macroeconomic factors such as population growth, poverty reduction, national income, economic growth, and foreign debt is also unclear. The authors nonetheless determine through their review that policy reforms included in current economic liberalization and adjustment efforts may increase pressure upon forests.

  4. TIPEX (Tropical Indo-Pacific water transport and ecosystem monitoring EXperiment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongchull Jeon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors influencing the climate around Korea is the oceanic-atmospheric variability in the tropical region between the eastern Indian and the western Pacific Oceans. Lack of knowledge about the air-sea interaction in the tropical Indo-Pacific region continues to make it problematic forecasting the ocean climate in the East Asia. The ‘Tropical Indo-Pacific water transport and ecosystem monitoring EXperiment (TIPEX’ is a program for monitoring the ocean circulation variability between Pacific and Indian Oceans and for improving the accuracy of future climate forecasting. The main goal of the TIPEX program is to quantify the climate and ocean circulation change between the Indian and the Pacific Oceans. The contents of the program are 1 to observe the mixing process of different water masses and water transport in the eastern Indian and the western Pacific, 2 to understand the large-scale oceanic-climatic variation including El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO/Warm Pool/Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO/Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD, and 3 to monitor the biogeochemical processes, material flux, and biological changes due to the climate change. In order to effectively carry out the monitoring program, close international cooperation and the proper co-work sharing of tasks between China, Japan, Indonesia, and India as well as USA is required.

  5. A high-resolution monitoring network investigating stem growth of tropical forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofhansl, F.; De Araujo, A. C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2015-12-01

    The proportion of carbon (C) allocated to tree stems is an important determinant of the C sink-strength of global forest ecosystems. Understanding the mechanisms controlling stem growth is essential for parameterization of global vegetation models and to accurately predict C sequestration of forest ecosystems. However, we still lack a thorough understanding of intra-annual variations in stem growth of tropical forest ecosystems, which could be especially prone to projected climatic changes. We here present high-resolution data (≤ 6 µm; ≥ 1 min) from a novel monitoring network of wireless devices for automated measurement of expansion and contraction in tree diameter using a membrane potentiometer, as well as point dendrometers on phloem and xylem to analyze diurnal changes in stem growth. Our results indicate that diurnal changes in stem diameter were associated with sap flow and related to seasonal variations in daytime temperature and water availability, such that daily maximum stem growth was positively related to temperature during the wet season but showed the opposite trend during the onset of the dry season. We show that high-resolution monitoring of stem growth of tropical trees is crucial to determine the response to intra-annual climate variation and therefore will be key to accurately predict future responses of tropical aboveground C storage, and should be of special interest for tropical ecosystem research and earth system science.

  6. Achieving zero deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: What is missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Moutinho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amazon deforestation causes severe climatic and ecological disruptions, with negative consequences for the livelihood of forest-dependent peoples. To avoid further disruptions, Brazil will need to take bold steps to eliminate both illegal and legal Amazon deforestation over the short term. Amazon deforestation declined by 70% between 2005 and 2014 due to drops in commodity prices and interventions by federal and state governments, such as law enforcement campaigns and credit restrictions for landowners who deforest illegally. Despite these impressive achievements, Brazil still deforests 5,000 km2 of Amazonian forests each year. How then will Brazil eliminate Amazon deforestation altogether if the country is only committed to cut illegal deforestation by 2030—as stated in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (iNDC to the 2015 climate change treaty meeting in Paris? Here we provide an analysis of the major socio-economic-political threats that could constrain Brazil from achieving its current goals. We then propose six fundamental strategies to help Brazil achieve a more ambitious goal to eliminate all major legal and illegal Amazon deforestation. These strategies involve bringing social and environmental safeguards to the infrastructure plans in the region, consolidating and expanding positive incentives for the production of sustainable commodities, establishing a new policy to guarantee the social and environmental sustainability of rural settlements, fully implementing the national legislation protecting forests (the Forest Code, protecting the land rights of indigenous people and traditional communities, and expanding the existing network of protected areas, allocating the 80 million hectares of not designated public forests as protected areas or areas for sustainable use of timber and non-timber forest products. The implementation of these strategies however depends on the formulation of a new development paradigm that

  7. Changing drivers of deforestation and new opportunities for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Thomas K; Defries, Ruth; Asner, Gregory P; Laurance, William F

    2009-12-01

    Over the past 50 years, human agents of deforestation have changed in ways that have potentially important implications for conservation efforts. We characterized these changes through a meta-analysis of case studies of land-cover change in the tropics. From the 1960s to the 1980s, small-scale farmers, with state assistance, deforested large areas of tropical forest in Southeast Asia and Latin America. As globalization and urbanization increased during the 1980s, the agents of deforestation changed in two important parts of the tropical biome, the lowland rainforests in Brazil and Indonesia. Well-capitalized ranchers, farmers, and loggers producing for consumers in distant markets became more prominent in these places and this globalization weakened the historically strong relationship between local population growth and forest cover. At the same time, forests have begun to regrow in some tropical uplands. These changing circumstances, we believe, suggest two new and differing strategies for biodiversity conservation in the tropics, one focused on conserving uplands and the other on promoting environmental stewardship in lowlands and other areas conducive to industrial agriculture.

  8. Effectiveness of community forest management at reducing deforestation in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala; Ferraro, Paul J.; Jenkins, Clinton N.;

    2015-01-01

    Community Forest Management (CFM) is a widespread conservation approach in the tropics. It is also promoted as a means by which payment for ecosystem services schemes can be implemented. However, evidence on its performance is weak. We investigated the effectiveness of CFM at reducing deforestation...... restricted the sample to only where information suggests effective CFM implementation on the ground. Likewise, we cannot detect an effect of CFM where commercial use of natural resources is allowed. However, we can detect a reduction in deforestation in CFM that does not permit commercial uses, compared...

  9. Tropical wetlands, climate, and land-use change: adaptation and mitigation opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy Kolka; D. Murdiyarso; J. B. Kauffman; Richard Birdsey

    2016-01-01

    Tropical wetland ecosystems, especially mangroves and peatlands, are carbon (C) rich ecosystems. Globally, tropical mangroves store about 20 PgC, however, deforestation has contributed 10 % of the total global emissions from tropical deforestation, even though mangroves account for only about 0.7 % of the world’s tropical forest area (Donato et al. 2011). Meanwhile,...

  10. Modified Whittaker plots as an assessment and monitoring tool for vegetation in a lowland tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick; Comiskey, James; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Nuñez, Percy; Beltran, Hamilton; Baldeon, Severo; Nauray, William; de la Colina, Rafael; Acurio, Lucero; Udvardy, Shana

    2002-05-01

    Resource exploitation in lowland tropical forests is increasing and causing loss of biodiversity. Effective evaluation and management of the impacts of development on tropical forests requires appropriate assessment and monitoring tools. We propose the use of 0.1-ha multi-scale, modified Whittaker plots (MWPs) to assess and monitor vegetation in lowland tropical rainforests. We established MWPs at 4 sites to: (1) describe and compare composition and structure of the sites using MWPs, (2) compare these results to those of 1-ha permanent vegetation plots (BDPs), and (3) evaluate the ability of MWPs to detect changes in populations (statistical power). We recorded more than 400 species at each site. Species composition among the sites was distinctive, while mean abundance and basal area was similar. Comparisons between MWPs and BDPs show that they record similar species composition and abundance and that both perform equally well at detecting rare species. However, MWPs tend to record more species, and power analysis studies show that MWPs were more effective at detecting changes in the mean number of species of trees > or = 10 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) and in herbaceous plants. Ten MWPs were sufficient to detect a change of 11% in the mean number of herb species, and they were able to detect a 14% change in the mean number of species of trees > or =10 cm dbh. The value of MWPs for assessment and monitoring is discussed, along with recommendations for improving the sampling design to increase power.

  11. Estimates of fire emissions from an active deforestation region in the southern Amazon based on satellite data and biogeochemical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    van der Werf, G. R.; D. C. Morton; R. S. DeFries; Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Tropical deforestation contributes to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Within the deforestation process, fire is frequently used to eliminate biomass in preparation for agricultural use. Quantifying these deforestation-induced fire emissions represents a challenge, and current estimates are only available at coarse spatial resolution with large uncertainty. Here we developed a biogeochemical model using remote sensing observations of plant productivity, fire activ...

  12. Predicting the deforestation-trend under different carbon-prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obersteiner Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global carbon stocks in forest biomass are decreasing by 1.1 Gt of carbon annually, owing to continued deforestation and forest degradation. Deforestation emissions are partly offset by forest expansion and increases in growing stock primarily in the extra-tropical north. Innovative financial mechanisms would be required to help reducing deforestation. Using a spatially explicit integrated biophysical and socio-economic land use model we estimated the impact of carbon price incentive schemes and payment modalities on deforestation. One payment modality is adding costs for carbon emission, the other is to pay incentives for keeping the forest carbon stock intact. Results Baseline scenario calculations show that close to 200 mil ha or around 5% of todays forest area will be lost between 2006 and 2025, resulting in a release of additional 17.5 GtC. Today's forest cover will shrink by around 500 million hectares, which is 1/8 of the current forest cover, within the next 100 years. The accumulated carbon release during the next 100 years amounts to 45 GtC, which is 15% of the total carbon stored in forests today. Incentives of 6 US$/tC for vulnerable standing biomass payed every 5 year will bring deforestation down by 50%. This will cause costs of 34 billion US$/year. On the other hand a carbon tax of 12 $/tC harvested forest biomass will also cut deforestation by half. The tax income will, if enforced, decrease from 6 billion US$ in 2005 to 4.3 billion US$ in 2025 and 0.7 billion US$ in 2100 due to decreasing deforestation speed. Conclusion Avoiding deforestation requires financial mechanisms that make retention of forests economically competitive with the currently often preferred option to seek profits from other land uses. Incentive payments need to be at a very high level to be effective against deforestation. Taxes on the other hand will extract budgetary revenues from the regions which are already poor. A combination of

  13. Predicting the deforestation-trend under different carbon-prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindermann, Georg E; Obersteiner, Michael; Rametsteiner, Ewald; McCallum, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Background Global carbon stocks in forest biomass are decreasing by 1.1 Gt of carbon annually, owing to continued deforestation and forest degradation. Deforestation emissions are partly offset by forest expansion and increases in growing stock primarily in the extra-tropical north. Innovative financial mechanisms would be required to help reducing deforestation. Using a spatially explicit integrated biophysical and socio-economic land use model we estimated the impact of carbon price incentive schemes and payment modalities on deforestation. One payment modality is adding costs for carbon emission, the other is to pay incentives for keeping the forest carbon stock intact. Results Baseline scenario calculations show that close to 200 mil ha or around 5% of todays forest area will be lost between 2006 and 2025, resulting in a release of additional 17.5 GtC. Today's forest cover will shrink by around 500 million hectares, which is 1/8 of the current forest cover, within the next 100 years. The accumulated carbon release during the next 100 years amounts to 45 GtC, which is 15% of the total carbon stored in forests today. Incentives of 6 US$/tC for vulnerable standing biomass payed every 5 year will bring deforestation down by 50%. This will cause costs of 34 billion US$/year. On the other hand a carbon tax of 12 $/tC harvested forest biomass will also cut deforestation by half. The tax income will, if enforced, decrease from 6 billion US$ in 2005 to 4.3 billion US$ in 2025 and 0.7 billion US$ in 2100 due to decreasing deforestation speed. Conclusion Avoiding deforestation requires financial mechanisms that make retention of forests economically competitive with the currently often preferred option to seek profits from other land uses. Incentive payments need to be at a very high level to be effective against deforestation. Taxes on the other hand will extract budgetary revenues from the regions which are already poor. A combination of incentives and taxes could turn

  14. Design of Tropical Flowers Environmental Parameters Wireless Monitoring System Based on MSP430

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jian-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of real-time monitoring tropical flower environment parameters, the paper designs a wireless monitoring system based on MSP430F149 for tropical flower growing parameters. The proposed system uses sensor nodes to obtain data of temperature, humidity and light intensity, sink node to collect data from sensor nodes through wireless sensor network, and monitoring center to process data downloaded from the sink node through RS232 serial port. The node hardware platform is composed of a MSP430F149 processor, AM2306 and NHZD10AI sensors used to adopt temperature, humidity and light intensity data, and an nRF905 RF chip used to receive and send data. The node software, operated in IAR Embedded Workbench, adopts C Language to do node data collection and process, wireless transmission and serial port communication. The software of monitoring center develops in VB6.0, which can provide vivid and explicit real-time monitoring platform for flower farmers.

  15. Design of water quality monitoring networks with two information scenarios in tropical Andean basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Juan Carlos; Vélez, Jorge Julián; Zambrano, Jeannette; Londoño, Adela

    2017-04-21

    Design and redesign of water quality monitoring networks were evaluated for two similarly sized watersheds in the tropical Andes via optimization techniques using geographic information system technology (GIS) and a matter-element analysis of 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and total suspended solids (TSS). This resulted in a flexible, objectively based design for a 1128-km(2) watershed without prior water quality data (La Miel River), and a network redesign of a 1052-km(2) watershed with historical water quality monitoring (Chinchiná River). Monitoring design for the undocumented basin incorporated mathematical expressions for physical, anthropological, and historical factors-and was based on clear objectives for diagnosis and intervention of water pollution. Network redesign identified network redundancy, which resulted in a 64% reduction in the number of water quality monitoring stations along the channel, and a 78% reduction of stations throughout the basin. Most tropical drainage basins throughout the world have little to no prior water quality data. But even in well-studied drainage basins like the Chinchiná River, which is among the most thoroughly studied basins in Colombia, redesign of historical and existing monitoring networks will become a standard tool to advance the restoration of polluted surface waters, not only in Colombia, but also throughout the world.

  16. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  17. Actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Javier; Gardner, Toby A; Tizado, E Jorge; Pacheco, Pablo

    2014-10-28

    Annual deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon fell by 77% between 2004 and 2011, yet have stabilized since 2009 at 5,000-7,000 km(2). We provide the first submunicipality assessment, to our knowledge, of actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown by linking agricultural census and remote-sensing data on deforestation and forest degradation. Almost half (36,158 km(2)) of the deforestation between 2004 and 2011 occurred in areas dominated by larger properties (>500 ha), whereas only 12% (9,720 km(2)) occurred in areas dominated by smallholder properties (deforestation rates fell during this period by 68-85% for all actors, the contribution of the largest landholders (>2,500 ha) to annual deforestation decreased over time (63% decrease between 2005 and 2011), whereas that of smallholders went up by a similar amount (69%) during the same period. In addition, the deforestation share attributable to remote areas increased by 88% between 2009 and 2011. These observations are consistent across the Brazilian Amazon, regardless of geographical differences in actor dominance or socioenvironmental context. Our findings suggest that deforestation policies to date, which have been particularly focused on command and control measures on larger properties in deforestation hotspots, may be increasingly limited in their effectiveness and fail to address all actors equally. Further reductions in deforestation are likely to be increasingly costly and require actor-tailored approaches, including better monitoring to detect small-scale deforestation and a shift toward more incentive-based conservation policies.

  18. The role of spatial scale and background climate in the latitudinal temperature response to deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; De Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Davin, Edouard L.; Motesharrei, Safa; Zeng, Ning; Li, Shuangcheng; Kalnay, Eugenia

    2016-03-01

    Previous modeling and empirical studies have shown that the biophysical impact of deforestation is to warm the tropics and cool the extratropics. In this study, we use an earth system model of intermediate complexity to investigate how deforestation on various spatial scales affects ground temperature, with an emphasis on the latitudinal temperature response and its underlying mechanisms. Results show that the latitudinal pattern of temperature response depends nonlinearly on the spatial extent of deforestation and the fraction of vegetation change. Compared with regional deforestation, temperature change in global deforestation is greatly amplified in temperate and boreal regions but is dampened in tropical regions. Incremental forest removal leads to increasingly larger cooling in temperate and boreal regions, while the temperature increase saturates in tropical regions. The latitudinal and spatial patterns of the temperature response are driven by two processes with competing temperature effects: decrease in absorbed shortwave radiation due to increased albedo and decrease in evapotranspiration. These changes in the surface energy balance reflect the importance of the background climate in modifying the deforestation impact. Shortwave radiation and precipitation have an intrinsic geographical distribution that constrains the effects of biophysical changes and therefore leads to temperature changes that are spatially varying. For example, wet (dry) climate favors larger (smaller) evapotranspiration change; thus, warming (cooling) is more likely to occur. Our analysis reveals that the latitudinal temperature change largely results from the climate conditions in which deforestation occurs and is less influenced by the magnitude of individual biophysical changes such as albedo, roughness, and evapotranspiration efficiency.

  19. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  20. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  1. Deforestation driven by urban population growth and agricultural trade in the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defries, Ruth S.; Rudel, Thomas; Uriarte, Maria; Hansen, Matthew

    2010-03-01

    Reducing atmospheric carbon emissions from tropical deforestation is at present considered a cost-effective option for mitigating climate change. However, the forces associated with tropical forest loss are uncertain. Here we use satellite-based estimates of forest loss for 2000 to 2005 (ref. 2) to assess economic, agricultural and demographic correlates across 41 countries in the humid tropics. Two methods of analysis-linear regression and regression tree-show that forest loss is positively correlated with urban population growth and exports of agricultural products for this time period. Rural population growth is not associated with forest loss, indicating the importance of urban-based and international demands for agricultural products as drivers of deforestation. The strong trend in movement of people to cities in the tropics is, counter-intuitively, likely to be associated with greater pressures for clearing tropical forests. We therefore suggest that policies to reduce deforestation among local, rural populations will not address the main cause of deforestation in the future. Rather, efforts need to focus on reducing deforestation for industrial-scale, export-oriented agricultural production, concomitant with efforts to increase yields in non-forested lands to satisfy demands for agricultural products.

  2. Cloud Cover Assessment for Operational Crop Monitoring Systems in Tropical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaque Daniel Rocha Eberhardt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential of optical remote sensing data to identify, map and monitor croplands is well recognized. However, clouds strongly limit the usefulness of optical imagery for these applications. This paper aims at assessing cloud cover conditions over four states in the tropical and sub-tropical Center-South region of Brazil to guide the development of an appropriate agricultural monitoring system based on Landsat-like imagery. Cloudiness was assessed during overlapping four months periods to match the typical length of crop cycles in the study area. The percentage of clear sky occurrence was computed from the 1 km resolution MODIS Cloud Mask product (MOD35 considering 14 years of data between July 2000 and June 2014. Results showed high seasonality of cloud occurrence within the crop year with strong variations across the study area. The maximum seasonality was observed for the two states in the northern part of the study area (i.e., the ones closer to the Equator line, which also presented the lowest averaged values (15% of clear sky occurrence during the main (summer cropping period (November to February. In these locations, optical data faces severe constraints for mapping summer crops. On the other hand, relatively favorable conditions were found in the southern part of the study region. In the South, clear sky values of around 45% were found and no significant clear sky seasonality was observed. Results underpin the challenges to implement an operational crop monitoring system based solely on optical remote sensing imagery in tropical and sub-tropical regions, in particular if short-cycle crops have to be monitored during the cloudy summer months. To cope with cloudiness issues, we recommend the use of new systems with higher repetition rates such as Sentinel-2. For local studies, Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAVs might be used to augment the observing capability. Multi-sensor approaches combining optical and microwave data can be another

  3. issues of tropical forest transformation in ashanti region, ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    global discourse of tropical deforestation obscures the more complex process that contributes to ... more effective ways of engaging in sustainable tropical forest management in the Ashanti Re- .... Institutional surveys using structured question-.

  4. Deforestation Along the Maya Mountain Massif Belize-Guatemala Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S. D.; Omine, K.; Arevalo, B.; Ford, J. B.; Sugimura, K.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize's Maya Mountain Massif (MMM) have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize's protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were -1.04% and -6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  5. DEFORESTATION ALONG THE MAYA MOUNTAIN MASSIF BELIZE-GUATEMALA BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Chicas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize’s Maya Mountain Massif (MMM have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize’s protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were −1.04% and −6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  6. Spatial patterns of carbon, biodiversity, deforestation threat, and REDD+ projects in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Josil P; Grenyer, Richard; Wunder, Sven; Raes, Niels; Jones, Julia PG

    2015-01-01

    There are concerns that Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) may fail to deliver potential biodiversity cobenefits if it is focused on high carbon areas. We explored the spatial overlaps between carbon stocks, biodiversity, projected deforestation threats, and the location of REDD+ projects in Indonesia, a tropical country at the forefront of REDD+ development. For biodiversity, we assembled data on the distribution of terrestrial vertebrates (ranges of amphibia...

  7. Climate change, deforestation and the fate of Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberti G

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, deforestation and the fate of Amazon. Understanding and mitigation the impact of the increasing population and global economic activities on tropical forests is one of the greatest challenges for scientists and policy makers. A summary of some of the latest findings and thinking on this topic has been reported by Malhi and colleagues in a recent paper published on Science. An overview and comments on this paper is herein proposed.

  8. Visualizing the Impacts of Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents two activities with investigation procedures to aid students in examining the extent and impact of biomass burning and deforestation in Brazil as an example of the global problem. Provides background information, tables, and diagrams. (five references) (MCO)

  9. Visualizing the Impacts of Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents two activities with investigation procedures to aid students in examining the extent and impact of biomass burning and deforestation in Brazil as an example of the global problem. Provides background information, tables, and diagrams. (five references) (MCO)

  10. Monitoring Changes of Tropical Extreme Rainfall Events Using Differential Absorption Barometric Radar (DiBAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Harrah, Steven; Lawrence, R. Wes; Hu, Yongxiang; Min, Qilong

    2015-01-01

    This work studies the potential of monitoring changes in tropical extreme rainfall events such as tropical storms from space using a Differential-absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR) operating at 50-55 gigahertz O2 absorption band to remotely measure sea surface air pressure. Air pressure is among the most important variables that affect atmospheric dynamics, and currently can only be measured by limited in-situ observations over oceans. Analyses show that with the proposed radar the errors in instantaneous (averaged) pressure estimates can be as low as approximately 5 millibars (approximately 1 millibar) under all weather conditions. With these sea level pressure measurements, the forecasts, analyses and understanding of these extreme events in both short and long time scales can be improved. Severe weathers, especially hurricanes, are listed as one of core areas that need improved observations and predictions in WCRP (World Climate Research Program) and NASA Decadal Survey (DS) and have major impacts on public safety and national security through disaster mitigation. Since the development of the DiBAR concept about a decade ago, our team has made substantial progress in advancing the concept. Our feasibility assessment clearly shows the potential of sea surface barometry using existing radar technologies. We have developed a DiBAR system design, fabricated a Prototype-DiBAR (P-DiBAR) for proof-of-concept, conducted lab, ground and airborne P-DiBAR tests. The flight test results are consistent with our instrumentation goals. Observational system simulation experiments for space DiBAR performance show substantial improvements in tropical storm predictions, not only for the hurricane track and position but also for the hurricane intensity. DiBAR measurements will lead us to an unprecedented level of the prediction and knowledge on tropical extreme rainfall weather and climate conditions.

  11. Global near-realtime monitoring of Tropical Cyclones Using Weather Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.; Hawkins, J.; Turk, F.; Miller, S.; Sampson, C.; Kuciauskas, A.; Richardson, K.; Kent, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory maintains a satellite web portal that monitors global tropical cyclones in every basin on a continuing basis. The portal is used routinely by agencies around the world in forecasting operations and the issuance of warnings. Products from this site are widely redistributed and published frequently in journal articles, seasonal storm summaries, and ongoing World Wide Web discussions. Traditionally, weather satellite reconnaissance of tropical cyclones has depended on the interpretation of visible and infrared imagery. But such methods have limitations. Visible images are not available during the nighttime, and both kinds of imagery often fail to detect important structure, including storm eyes, which are vital for determining the strength and location of tropical systems. Thus, the portal supplements visible and infrared coverage with products from satellite microwave sensors. These sensors penetrate higher clouds to reveal important detail about low-level cloud and precipitation features. The first part of the talk will discuss how these various products can be used together for improved analysis. The second part of talk will present information about tropical cyclone structure. Surface winds from aircraft will be compared to features seen in passive microwave images. We see that low brightness temperature features on 85 GHz images often corresponding to wind maxima near the sea surface. We shall make some inferences about how the observation of specific structures in satellite images can help characterize the wind field when no aircraft data are available. Special attention will be paid to multiple eye walls apparent on satellite images. These are associated with very intense storms which undergo an evolutionary process not observed in weaker systems.

  12. Assessing deforestation and habitat fragmentation in Uganda using satellite observations and fractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Strong, Laurence L.

    1992-01-01

    The MSS, SPOT, and AVHRR imagery of Ugandan forests were analyzed to assess the information content related to deforestation and tropical habitat fragmentation, focusing primarily on the Kibale and Mabira Forests. Analysis of actual and simulated AVHRR imagery showed that it might be possible to monitor major changes in forest extent with the relatively coarse spatial resolution of AVHRR imagery (about 1 km) provided ancillary data were available. The fractal dimension of the forest edges, measured with the Landsat and SPOT imagery, was consistently about 1.7 or 1.8. This high fractal dimension was due to the coplex pattern of clearings, remnant forest stands, and jagged forest edges caused by repeated human encroachment over centuries.

  13. Migration and Deforestation in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Darmawan, Rivayani; Klasen, Stephan; Nuryartono, Nunung

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia now has the highest deforestation rate in the world, with an average increase of about 47,600 ha per year. As a result, the nation is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world and putting its rich biodiversity at risk. Although the literature discussing the political economy of Indonesia commercial's logging is growing, only a small amount focuses on the relationship between migration and deforestation. Migration may contribute to the forest cover change, as migra...

  14. Implementation of avoided deforestation in a post-2012 climate regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederblom, Johan

    2009-01-15

    The awareness of the global warming has increased the last few years and a majority of the world's scientists believes that anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide are the strongest contributing cause. Greenhouse gas emissions due to clearing of tropical rain forest has so far been given little attention, even though deforestation is responsible for 20-25 percent of the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and is the second largest sector of emissions after energy production. Forest ecosystems contain large amounts of carbon, and in total there is more carbon stored in forests on earth than what is held in form of carbon dioxide in earth's atmosphere. During the latest years the rate of deforestation has been about 13 million hectares annually, which is calculated to release almost 6 Gton of carbon dioxide each year. The underlying causes of deforestation are normally depending on present as well as historical circumstances and the drivers of deforestation can vary substantially between different countries. This study describes the proceedings of deforestation and discusses the carbon balance for possible scenarios when a forest has been cleared. The amount of emissions can vary substantially depending on the land use after deforestation and the usage of the harvested biomass. The carbon balance in soil is also of importance for the carbon emissions. Uncertainties regarding carbon emissions from soil are however large and is therefore often neglected in estimations of carbon emissions due to deforestation, the figures mentioned above included. Reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide through REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing countries) is considered to be cost effective. In this study a Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve is created to illustrate how the cost of REDD will increase with time. A selection of reports that estimate the total cost of REDD is also reviewed. These estimates are all more or less uncertain and in

  15. Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Silvius, Kirsten M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-03-26

    Protected areas in tropical countries are managed under different governance regimes, the relative effectiveness of which in avoiding deforestation has been the subject of recent debates. Participants in these debates answer appeals for more strict protection with the argument that sustainable use areas and indigenous lands can balance deforestation pressures by leveraging local support to create and enforce protective regulations. Which protection strategy is more effective can also depend on (i) the level of deforestation pressures to which an area is exposed and (ii) the intensity of government enforcement. We examine this relationship empirically, using data from 292 protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that, for any given level of deforestation pressure, strictly protected areas consistently avoided more deforestation than sustainable use areas. Indigenous lands were particularly effective at avoiding deforestation in locations with high deforestation pressure. Findings were stable across two time periods featuring major shifts in the intensity of government enforcement. We also observed shifting trends in the location of protected areas, documenting that between 2000 and 2005 strictly protected areas were more likely to be established in high-pressure locations than in sustainable use areas and indigenous lands. Our findings confirm that all protection regimes helped reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

  16. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+: Transaction Costs of Six Peruvian Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia R. Rendón Thompson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ has received strong support as a major component of future global climate change policy. The financial mechanism of REDD+ is payment for the ecosystem service of carbon sequestration in tropical forests that is expected to create incentives for conservation of forest cover and condition. However, the costs of achieving emissions reduction by these means remain largely unknown. We assess the set-up, implementation, and monitoring costs, i.e., collectively the transaction costs, of six of the first seven REDD+ project designs from the Peruvian Amazon and compare them with established projects in Brazil and Bolivia. The estimated costs vary greatly among the assessed projects from US$0.16 to 1.44 ha-1 yr-1, with an average of US$0.73 ha-1 yr-1, though they are comparable to earlier published estimates. The results indicate that the costs of implementing REDD+ are highly uncertain for participating developing countries because of issues such as inadequate project design and how additionality is determined. Furthermore, some insight is obtained into how different activities to reduce deforestation and forest degradation, the type of implementer, and project location affect implementation costs of REDD+ projects. Even with these first estimates, the cost of preserving existing intact forests in the Peruvian Amazon may have been underestimated.

  17. Deforestation imperils Ambuklao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M C

    1990-01-01

    Due to a massive accumulation of sedimentation, the Ambuklao Dam may have to cease operation, a problem that is the result of the rampant destruction of the surrounding environment. The Ambuklao Dam is located in the Benguet region of the Philippines. Completed in 1956, Ambuklao is the biggest earth-and-rockfill dam in the Far East, build to provide electricity and serve as an irrigation source for the region. The dam was supposed to service the region until 2006, but it may now suspend operation in 1995. When the dam was built, the designers anticipated that 2.6 million cu. m. silt would accumulate each year for the 1st 10 years, but recently, the accumulation rate has hovered around 3.6 million cu. m. Already an estimated 110 million cubic meters of silt has piled up in the water reservoir. Experts blame the problem on massive erosion, the result of the deforestation of the surrounding environment caused by the practices of people: slash-and-burn farming, grazing, logging, mining, quarrying, road-building, and forest fires started by humans. Despite a ban on the cutting of the Benguet pine, a valuable timber for construction, logging has continued. And although mining companies are required to set up impounding ponds and siltation dams, few of them actually comply. These problems have been compounded by the growing numbers of migrants to the region, who come because of the region's work opportunities. Between 1980 and 2000, the population of the watershed region is expected to increase from 134,496 to 231,307 -- a 71.9% increase. Unless the destructive practices are curbed, the Ambuklao dam will soon cease to operate.

  18. Building capacity for national carbon measurements for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N.; Horning, N.; Pelletier, J.; Jantz, P.; Ndunda, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many tropical countries are now working on developing their strategies for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, including activities that result in conservation or enhancement of forest carbon stocks and sustainable management of forests to effectively decrease atmospheric carbon emissions (i.e. REDD+). A new international REDD+ agreement is at the heart of recent negotiations of the parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). REDD+ mechanisms could provide an opportunity to not only diminish an important source of emissions, but also to promote large-scale conservation of tropical forests and establish incentives and opportunities to alleviate poverty. Most tropical countries still lack basic information for developing and implementing their forest carbon stock assessments, including the extent of forest area and the rate at which forests are being cleared and/or degraded, and the carbon amounts associated with these losses. These same countries also need support to conduct integrated assessments of the most promising approaches for reducing emissions, and in identifying those policy options that hold the greatest potential while minimizing potential negative impacts of REDD+ policies. The WHRC SERVIR project in East Africa is helping to provide these data sets to countries via best practice tools and methods to support cost effective forest carbon monitoring solutions and more informed decision making processes under REDD+. We will present the results of our capacity building activites in the region and planned future efforts being coordinated with the NASA-SERVIR Hub in Kenya to support to REDD+ decision support.

  19. Integrating and Visualizing Tropical Cyclone Data Using the Real Time Mission Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Conover, Helen; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery, radar, surface and airborne instrument data sets, model output parameters, lightning location observations, aircraft navigation data, soundings, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. RTMM is extremely valuable for optimizing individual Earth science airborne field experiments. Flight planners, scientists, and managers appreciate the contributions that RTMM makes to their flight projects. A broad spectrum of interdisciplinary scientists used RTMM during field campaigns including the hurricane-focused 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA), 2007 NOAA-NASA Aerosonde Hurricane Noel flight, 2007 Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4), plus a soil moisture (SMAP-VEX) and two arctic research experiments (ARCTAS) in 2008. Improving and evolving RTMM is a continuous process. RTMM recently integrated the Waypoint Planning Tool, a Java-based application that enables aircraft mission scientists to easily develop a pre-mission flight plan through an interactive point-and-click interface. Individual flight legs are automatically calculated "on the fly". The resultant flight plan is then immediately posted to the Google Earth-based RTMM for interested scientists to view the planned flight track and subsequently compare it to the actual real time flight progress. We are planning additional capabilities to RTMM including collaborations with the Jet Propulsion

  20. Trading Fat for Forests: On Palm Oil, Tropical Forest Conservation, and Rational Consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isenhour, Cindy

    2014-01-01

      The longstanding butter vs margarine debate has recently become more complex as the links between margarine, industrial palm oil plantations, and tropical deforestation are made increasingly clear...

  1. The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor - A Situational Awareness Tool for Conducting Tropical Cyclone Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Hall, John; Parker, Philip; He, Yubin

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a situational awareness tool that integrates satellite, aircraft state information, airborne and surface instruments, and weather state data in to a single visualization package for real time field experiment management. RTMM optimizes science and logistic decision-making during field experiments by presenting timely data and graphics to the users to improve real time situational awareness of the experiment's assets. The RTMM is proven in the field as it supported program managers, scientists, and aircraft personnel during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (investigated African easterly waves and Tropical Storm Debby and Helene) during August-September 2006 in Cape Verde, the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling experiment during July-August 2007 in Costa Rica, and the Hurricane Aerosonde mission into Hurricane Noel in 2-3 November 2007. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible through data acquisition systems, network communication links, and network server resources built and managed by collaborators at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). RTMM is evolving towards a more flexible and dynamic combination of sensor ingest, network computing, and decision-making activities through the use of a service oriented architecture based on community standards and protocols. Each field experiment presents unique challenges and opportunities for advancing the functionality of RTMM. A description of RTMM, the missions it has supported, and its new features that are under development will be presented.

  2. Global cost estimates of reducing carbon emissions through avoided deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasko, K. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Beach, R. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kindermann, G. [International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Obersteiner, M. [International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Rametsteiner, E. [International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Sathaye, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlamadinger, B. [TerraCarbon, Graz, (Austria); Sohngen, B. [Department of Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Wunder, S. [Center for International Forestry Research, Belem-PA (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    Tropical deforestation is estimated to cause about one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon emissions, loss of biodiversity, and other environmental services. United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change talks are now considering mechanisms for avoiding deforestation (AD), but the economic potential of AD has yet to be addressed. We use three economic models of glboal land use and management to analyze the potential contribution of AD activities to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. AD activities are found to be a competitive, low-cost abatement option. A program providing a 10% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 0.3-0.6 Gt (1 Gt = 1 x 105 g) CO2{center_dot}yr-1 in emission reductions and would require $0.4 billion to $1.7 billion{center_dot}yr-1 for 30 years. A 50% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 1.5-2.7 Gt CO2{center_dot}yr-1 in emission reductions and would require $17.2 billion to $28.0 billion{center_dot}yr-1. Finally, some caveats to the analysis that could increase costs of AD programs are described.

  3. SUSTAINING CARBON SINK POTENTIALS IN TROPICAL FOREST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Key words: Carbon sequestration, tropical forest, deforestation, conservation. INTRODUCTION ... to complex organic molecules which are then used by the whole plant. ..... Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems.

  4. Recent Shift of Deforestation to High Elevation Areas from 2001 to 2013 in Borneo Detected by MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, S.; Suzuki, R.

    2015-12-01

    The biomass of tropical forests sequestrates tons of carbon and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle regulating the climate. Also its high biodiversity ecosystems bring us many valuable resources and cultural and educational ecosystem services. However, large areas of the tropical forest are deforested and converted to oil palm or acacia plantation for the economic benefit of the local society mainly in Southeast Asia. Monitoring of the tropical forest from satellites provides us the information about the deforestation for decadal time period over extensive areas and enables us to discuss it from a scientific point of view. The purpose of this study is to reveal the interannual change and recent trend of deforestation in relation to the land elevation for decadal time period over Borneo by using data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We acquired the atmospherically corrected and cloud free Terra-MODIS and Aqua-MODIS daily data products (MOD09GA and MYD09GA; collection 5) from 2001 to 2013 for Borneo. We extracted the pixel values in the 500m surface reflectance bands 1 (red) and 4 (green) products and calculated the green-red vegetation index (GRVI), (band 4 - band 1) / (band 4 + band 1), at a daily time step. GRVI shows a positive value for the land prevailed by green vegetation, while it shows a negative value for the land prevailed by no-green components such as bare land. As for the elevation data, ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) which has 33.3m spatial resolution was employed. The original resolution was resampled to the grid system of MODIS data (i.e. 500m resolution). Pixels which had a negative GRVI ratio more than 80 % (termed as "no green pixel") in each year were regarded as the land characterized by no vegetation, and mapped the distribution for each year. Throughout the 13 years, no green pixels mainly found over the coastal low land below 20m of the elevation and the area was almost constant (around

  5. Decoupling of Deforestation and Soy Production in the Southern Amazon During the Late 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Marcia N.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Morton, Douglas C.; Stickler, Claudia M.; Galford, Gillian L.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    2011-01-01

    From 2006-2010 deforestation in the Amazon frontier state of Mato Grosso decreased to 30% of its historical average (1996-2005) while agricultural production reached an all time high, achieving the oft-cited objective of increasing production while maintaining forest cover. This study combines satellite data with government deforestation and production statistics to assess land-use transitions and potential market and policy drivers associated with these trends. In the forested region of the state, increased soy production from 2001-2005 was entirely due to cropland expansion into previously cleared areas (74%) or forests (26%). From 2006-2010, 78% of production increases were due to expansion (22% to yield increases), with 91% on previously cleared land. Cropland expansion fell from 10% to 2% of deforestation between the two periods, with pasture expansion accounting for most remaining deforestation. Declining deforestation coincided with a collapse of commodity markets and implementation of policy measures to reduce deforestation. Soybean profitability has since increased to pre-2006 levels while deforestation continued to decline, suggesting that anti-deforestation measures may have influenced the agricultural sector. We found little evidence of leakage of soy expansion into cerrado in Mato Grosso or forests in neighboring Amazon states during the late 2000s, although leakage to more distant regions is possible. This study provides empirical evidence that reduced deforestation and increased agricultural production can occur simultaneously in tropical forest frontiers through productive use of already cleared lands. It remains uncertain whether government and industry-led policies can contain deforestation when market conditions again favor a boom in agricultural expansion.

  6. Characterizing Forest Change Using Community-Based Monitoring Data and Landsat Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Ben; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Verbesselt, Jan; Kooistra, Lammert; Herold, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing awareness of the issue of deforestation and degradation in the tropics has resulted in efforts to monitor forest resources in tropical countries. Advances in satellite-based remote sensing and ground-based technologies have allowed for monitoring of forests with high spatial, temporal and thematic detail. Despite these advances, there is a need to engage communities in monitoring activities and include these stakeholders in national forest monitoring systems. In this study, we analyzed activity data (deforestation and forest degradation) collected by local forest experts over a 3-year period in an Afro-montane forest area in southwestern Ethiopia and corresponding Landsat Time Series (LTS). Local expert data included forest change attributes, geo-location and photo evidence recorded using mobile phones with integrated GPS and photo capabilities. We also assembled LTS using all available data from all spectral bands and a suite of additional indices and temporal metrics based on time series trajectory analysis. We predicted deforestation, degradation or stable forests using random forest models trained with data from local experts and LTS spectral-temporal metrics as model covariates. Resulting models predicted deforestation and degradation with an out of bag (OOB) error estimate of 29% overall, and 26% and 31% for the deforestation and degradation classes, respectively. By dividing the local expert data into training and operational phases corresponding to local monitoring activities, we found that forest change models improved as more local expert data were used. Finally, we produced maps of deforestation and degradation using the most important spectral bands. The results in this study represent some of the first to combine local expert based forest change data and dense LTS, demonstrating the complementary value of both continuous data streams. Our results underpin the utility of both datasets and provide a useful foundation for integrated forest

  7. Land use patterns and related carbon losses following deforestation in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sy, V.; Herold, M.; Achard, F.; Beuchle, R.; Clevers, J. G. P. W.; Lindquist, E.; Verchot, L.

    2015-12-01

    Land use change in South America, mainly deforestation, is a large source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Identifying and addressing the causes or drivers of anthropogenic forest change is considered crucial for global climate change mitigation. Few countries however, monitor deforestation drivers in a systematic manner. National-level quantitative spatially explicit information on drivers is often lacking. This study quantifies proximate drivers of deforestation and related carbon losses in South America based on remote sensing time series in a systematic, spatially explicit manner. Deforestation areas were derived from the 2010 global remote sensing survey of the Food and Agricultural Organisation Forest Resource Assessment. To assess proximate drivers, land use following deforestation was assigned by visual interpretation of high-resolution satellite imagery. To estimate gross carbon losses from deforestation, default Tier 1 biomass levels per country and eco-zone were used. Pasture was the dominant driver of forest area (71.2%) and related carbon loss (71.6%) in South America, followed by commercial cropland (14% and 12.1% respectively). Hotspots of deforestation due to pasture occurred in Northern Argentina, Western Paraguay, and along the arc of deforestation in Brazil where they gradually moved into higher biomass forests causing additional carbon losses. Deforestation driven by commercial cropland increased in time, with hotspots occurring in Brazil (Mato Grosso State), Northern Argentina, Eastern Paraguay and Central Bolivia. Infrastructure, such as urban expansion and roads, contributed little as proximate drivers of forest area loss (1.7%). Our findings contribute to the understanding of drivers of deforestation and related carbon losses in South America, and are comparable at the national, regional and continental level. In addition, they support the development of national REDD+ interventions and forest monitoring systems, and provide valuable input

  8. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Tropical Rain Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaruzaman Jusoff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sensing, mapping and monitoring the rain forest in forested regions of the world, particularly the tropics, has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years as deforestation and forest degradation account for up to 30% of anthropogenic carbon emissions and are now included in climate change negotiations. Approach: We reviewed the potential for air and spaceborne hyperspectral sensing to identify and map individual tree species measure carbon stocks, specifically Aboveground Biomass (AGB and provide an overview of a range of approaches that have been developed and used to map tropical rain forest across a diverse set of conditions and geographic areas. We provided a summary of air and spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing measurements relevant to mapping the tropical forest and assess the relative merits and limitations of each. We then provided an overview of modern techniques of mapping the tropical forest based on species discrimination, leaf chlorophyll content, estimating aboveground forest productivity and monitoring forest health. Results: The challenges in hyperspectral Imaging of tropical forests is thrown out to researchers in such field as to come with the latest techniques of image processing and improved mapping resolution leading towards higher precision mapping accuracy. Some research results from an airborne hyperspectral imaging over Bukit Nanas forest reserve was shared implicating high potential of such very high resolution imaging techniques for tropical mixed dipterocarp forest inventory and mapping for species discrimination, aboveground forest productivity, leaf chlorophyll content and carbon mapping. Conclusion/Recommendations: We concluded that while spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing has often been discounted as inadequate for the task, attempts to map with airborne sensors are still insufficient in tropical developing countries like Malaysia. However, we demonstrated this with a case

  9. Road Infrastructure Development and Deforestation in Southwest Amazonia: a Tri-National Frontier Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeyda Zambrano, A. M.; Broadbent, E. N.; Asner, G. P.; Knapp, D. E.; Durham, W. H.; Duchelle, A. E.; Wunder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Infrastructure development is a priority in many tropical countries. Road infrastructure, in particular, has been linked to deforestation. However, there is an insufficient understanding of how road infrastructure interacts with population and market dynamics to influence forest clearing. To address this we conducted a large-scale interdisciplinary research project in the tri-national Amazonian frontier of Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia encompassing 101,463 km2. This setting, a gradient of young to old Amazon frontier areas, provided a unique opportunity for the study of human environment interactions under varying stages of road infrastructure development while controlling for biophysical variation. We coupled multivariate statistical approaches on roads, population, markets, and deforestation with multitemporal spatial analysis of deforestation and infrastructure development using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Our results highlight the dynamic conditions occurring in Amazonian frontier regions, including rapid road infrastructure development, expansion of markets, and decrease in forest cover. We found that travel time to the nearest market dominated deforestation dynamics, with infrastructure development resulting in increased market access. Findings from this study support a deforestation framework focusing on urban population and market dynamics, and highlight the importance of modeling landscape deforestation using travel time versus spatial proximity approaches. Results are directly applicable to both furthering the theoretical understanding of human-environment interactions in frontier landscapes, as well as for applied environmental conservation and sustainable development efforts in the tropics.;

  10. Near real time detection of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon using MODIS imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egídio Arai

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide near real time information about deforestation detection (DETER in the entire Brazilian Amazon using MODIS high temporal resolution images. It is part of the operational deforestation monitoring project to estimate the annual deforestation rate in the Brazilian Amazon (PRODES. A rapid deforestation detection method was designed to support land use policies in this region. In order to evaluate the proposed method a test site was selected covering a Landsat ETM+ scene (227/68 located in Mato Grosso State. For this purpose a multitemporal series of MODIS surface reflectance images (MOD09 and the corresponding ETM+ images from June to October 2002 were analyzed. It was found that small deforested areas (lower than 15 ha were detected by MODIS images with lower accuracy when compared with ETM+ images. As the deforested areas increase MODIS and ETM+ results tend to converge. This procedure showed to be adequate to operationally detect and monitor deforested areas and has been used since 2004 as part of a government plan to control the Amazon deforestation.

  11. Near real time detection of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon using MODIS imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício A. Moreira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide near real time information about deforestation detection (DETER in the entire Brazilian Amazon using MODIS high temporal resolution images. It is part of the operational deforestation monitoring project to estimate the annual deforestation rate in the Brazilian Amazon (PRODES. A rapid deforestation detection method was designed to support land use policies in this region. In order to evaluate the proposed method a test site was selected covering a Landsat ETM+ scene (227/68 located in Mato Grosso State. For this purpose a multitemporal series of MODIS surface reflectance images (MOD09 and the corresponding ETM+ images from June to October 2002 were analyzed. It was found that small deforested areas (lower than 15 ha were detected by MODIS images with lower accuracy when compared with ETM+ images. As the deforested areas increase MODIS and ETM+ results tend to converge. This procedure showed to be adequate to operationally detect and monitor deforested areas and has been used since 2004 as part of a government plan to control the Amazon deforestation.

  12. Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects of large-scale deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Wickett, M; Phillips, T J; Lobell, D B; Delire, C; Mirin, A

    2007-04-17

    The prevention of deforestation and promotion of afforestation have often been cited as strategies to slow global warming. Deforestation releases CO(2) to the atmosphere, which exerts a warming influence on Earth's climate. However, biophysical effects of deforestation, which include changes in land surface albedo, evapotranspiration, and cloud cover also affect climate. Here we present results from several large-scale deforestation experiments performed with a three-dimensional coupled global carbon-cycle and climate model. These simulations were performed by using a fully three-dimensional model representing physical and biogeochemical interactions among land, atmosphere, and ocean. We find that global-scale deforestation has a net cooling influence on Earth's climate, because the warming carbon-cycle effects of deforestation are overwhelmed by the net cooling associated with changes in albedo and evapotranspiration. Latitude-specific deforestation experiments indicate that afforestation projects in the tropics would be clearly beneficial in mitigating global-scale warming, but would be counterproductive if implemented at high latitudes and would offer only marginal benefits in temperate regions. Although these results question the efficacy of mid- and high-latitude afforestation projects for climate mitigation, forests remain environmentally valuable resources for many reasons unrelated to climate.

  13. Combined Climate and Carbon-Cycle Effects of Large-Scale Deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Wickett, M; Phillips, T J; Lobell, D B; Delire, C; Mirin, A

    2006-10-17

    The prevention of deforestation and promotion of afforestation have often been cited as strategies to slow global warming. Deforestation releases CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, which exerts a warming influence on Earth's climate. However, biophysical effects of deforestation, which include changes in land surface albedo, evapotranspiration, and cloud cover also affect climate. Here we present results from several large-scale deforestation experiments performed with a three-dimensional coupled global carbon-cycle and climate model. These are the first such simulations performed using a fully three-dimensional model representing physical and biogeochemical interactions among land, atmosphere, and ocean. We find that global-scale deforestation has a net cooling influence on Earth's climate, since the warming carbon-cycle effects of deforestation are overwhelmed by the net cooling associated with changes in albedo and evapotranspiration. Latitude-specific deforestation experiments indicate that afforestation projects in the tropics would be clearly beneficial in mitigating global-scale warming, but would be counterproductive if implemented at high latitudes and would offer only marginal benefits in temperate regions. While these results question the efficacy of mid- and high-latitude afforestation projects for climate mitigation, forests remain environmentally valuable resources for many reasons unrelated to climate.

  14. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Kayla; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Espírito-Santo, Mário; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil's Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO). This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC) model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i) business as usual, (ii) increased deforestation, and (iii) decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation.

  15. A review of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for deforestation policy in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah MD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation in the tropical developing countries is the critical environmental concern to ecologists and environmentalists. Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC hypothesis is critical to understanding the development path of a nation in relevance to its environment. The dictation of national economic growth to deforestation can be found through the study of EKC. To understand the EKC phenomena for deforestation, the study was undertaken through reviewing the literature. With the understanding of the different EKC trajectories for deforestation, an attempt was made to implicate the economic development of Bangladesh with the EKC. The proven EKC trajectories for deforestation in some regions/countries show a higher income per capita requirement for the turning point. The study suggests that tunneling in the EKC trajectory for Bangladesh would be favorable. The type of economic and forest policy that Bangladesh should follow to retard deforestation is also revealed. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD have been suggested for tunneling the EKC in Bangladesh. The findings of the study are expected to contribute to the environmental development of Bangladesh.

  16. Overview of the Existing Forest Area Changes Monitoring Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Achard, Frederic; DeFries, Ruth; Pandey, Devendra; Souza, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the existing forest area changes monitoring systems at the national scale in tropical countries using remote sensing imagery. Section 3.2.2 describes national case studies: the Brazilian system which produces annual estimates of deforestation in the legal Amazon, the Indian National biannual forest cover assessment, an example of a sampling approach in the Congo basin and an example of wall-to-wall approach in Cameroon.

  17. Privately-owned forests and deforestation reduction. An overview of policy and legal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benatti, J. Heder; Rodrigues, L. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM, Belem, Para (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    It is widely known that the main causes of deforestation in the Amazon region are related to various anthropogenic activities: various land uses (cattle ranching, grain cultivation, slash and burn agriculture, etc.), infrastructure plans (dams, roads and mining projects), and illegal titling and forestry degradation (unplanned logging and forest fires). In different historical time periods, each of these factors played an important role due to their specific economic relevance and environmental impacts, although this did not mean that other economic or speculative activities were halted. Thus, even today, all of these deforestation drivers are still taking place, and together, the degradation of natural resources in the Amazon continues unabated. Tropical deforestation in the Amazon alone is responsible for 2/3 of the Brazilian greenhouse gas emissions and it is estimated that 200 million tons of carbon, not including emissions from forest fires, are released annually into the atmosphere. Although land use activities, and associated carbon emissions in the Amazon and other tropical forests around the world continue to be a major problem, the so-called issue of 'avoided deforestation' or 'forest conservation' has not yet been recognized by Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol (KP) as creditable activities in the carbon market. In this context, some in the scientific community, as well as some countries, are convinced that part of the efforts to stabilize concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere must rely on the conservation of tropical forests, or deforestation control, which in the Amazon case has meant an increase in its deforestation rate of approximately 30% between 2001 and 2004. This paper presents an analysis on how to establish legal mechanisms in order to stimulate forest protection in private proprieties, and the emphasis is given to the concept of

  18. The neglected nonlocal effects of deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, Johannes; Reick, Christian; Pongratz, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Deforestation changes surface temperature locally via biogeophysical effects by changing the water, energy and momentum balance. Adding to these locally induced changes (local effects), deforestation at a given location can cause changes in temperature elsewhere (nonlocal effects). Most previous studies have not considered local and nonlocal effects separately, but investigated the total (local plus nonlocal) effects, for which global deforestation was found to cause a global mean cooling. Recent modeling and observational studies focused on the isolated local effects: The local effects are relevant for local living conditions, and they can be obtained from in-situ and satellite observations. Observational studies suggest that the local effects of potential deforestation cause a warming when averaged globally. This contrast between local warming and total cooling indicates that the nonlocal effects of deforestation are causing a cooling and thus counteract the local effects. It is still unclear how the nonlocal effects depend on the spatial scale of deforestation, and whether they still compensate the local warming in a more realistic spatial distribution of deforestation. To investigate this, we use a fully coupled climate model and separate local and nonlocal effects of deforestation in three steps: Starting from a forest world, we simulate deforestation in one out of four grid boxes using a regular spatial pattern and increase the number of deforestation grid boxes step-wise up to three out of four boxes in subsequent simulations. To compare these idealized spatial distributions of deforestation to a more realistic case, we separate local and nonlocal effects in a simulation where deforestation is applied in regions where it occurred historically. We find that the nonlocal effects scale nearly linearly with the number of deforested grid boxes, and the spatial distribution of the nonlocal effects is similar for the regular spatial distribution of deforestation

  19. The role of spatial scale and background climate in the latitudinal temperature response to deforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous modeling and empirical studies have shown that the biophysical impact of deforestation is to warm the tropics and cool the extra-tropics. In this study, we use an earth system model to investigate how deforestation at various spatial scales affects ground temperature, with an emphasis on the latitudinal temperature response and its underlying mechanisms. Results show that the latitudinal pattern of temperature response depends non-linearly on the spatial extent of deforestation and the fraction of vegetation change. Compared with regional deforestation, temperature change in global deforestation is greatly amplified in temperate and boreal regions, but is dampened in tropical regions. Incremental forest removal leads to increasingly larger cooling in temperate and boreal regions, while the temperature increase saturates in tropical regions. The latitudinal and spatial patterns of the temperature response are driven by two processes with competing temperature effects: decreases in absorbed shortwave radiation due to increased albedo and decreases in evapotranspiration. These changes in the surface energy balance reflect the importance of the background climate on modifying the deforestation impact. Shortwave radiation and precipitation have an intrinsic geographical distribution that constrains the effects of biophysical changes and therefore leads to temperature changes that are spatially varying. For example, wet (dry climate favors larger (smaller evapotranspiration change, thus warming (cooling is more likely to occur. Further analysis on the contribution of individual biophysical factors (albedo, roughness, and evapotranspiration efficiency reveals that the latitudinal signature embodied in the temperature change probably result from the background climate conditions rather than the initial biophysical perturbation.

  20. Synergistic effects of drought and deforestation on the resilience of the south-eastern Amazon rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Arie; Dekker, Stefan C.; Hirota, Marina; van Nes, Egbert H.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Amazon rainforest is subject to ongoing deforestation and is expected to become drier due to climate change. Recent analyses of the distribution of tree cover in the tropics show three modes that have been interpreted as representing alternative stable states: forest, savanna and t

  1. Synergistic effects of drought and deforestation on the resilience of the south-eastern Amazon rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, A.; Dekkers, S.; Hirota Magalhaes, M.; Nes, van E.H.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Amazon rainforest is subject to ongoing deforestation and is expected to become drier due to climate change. Recent analyses of the distribution of tree cover in the tropics show three modes that have been interpreted as representing alternative stable states: forest, savanna and t

  2. Small Drones for Community-Based Forest Monitoring: An Assessment of Their Feasibility and Potential in Tropical Areas

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    Jaime Paneque-Gálvez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Data gathered through community-based forest monitoring (CBFM programs may be as accurate as those gathered by professional scientists, but acquired at a much lower cost and capable of providing more detailed data about the occurrence, extent and drivers of forest loss, degradation and regrowth at the community scale. In addition, CBFM enables greater survey repeatability. Therefore, CBFM should be a fundamental component of national forest monitoring systems and programs to measure, report and verify (MRV REDD+ activities. To contribute to the development of more effective approaches to CBFM, in this paper we assess: (1 the feasibility of using small, low-cost drones (i.e., remotely piloted aerial vehicles in CBFM programs; (2 their potential advantages and disadvantages for communities, partner organizations and forest data end-users; and (3 to what extent their utilization, coupled with ground surveys and local ecological knowledge, would improve tropical forest monitoring. To do so, we reviewed the existing literature regarding environmental applications of drones, including forest monitoring, and drew on our own firsthand experience flying small drones to map and monitor tropical forests and training people to operate them. We believe that the utilization of small drones can enhance CBFM and that this approach is feasible in many locations throughout the tropics if some degree of external assistance and funding is provided to communities. We suggest that the use of small drones can help tropical communities to better manage and conserve their forests whilst benefiting partner organizations, governments and forest data end-users, particularly those engaged in forestry, biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation projects such as REDD+.

  3. Monitoring tropical and montane forest dynamics and structure using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jonathan Asher

    Uncertainties in our understanding of the basic inputs and dynamics at work in the global carbon cycle severely restrict our ability to address why climate change is happening and how best to mitigate it. I focused on advances in regional and global climate change model inputs, addressing two major uncertainties: (1) what are the anthropogenic factors influencing deforestation and (2) what is the carbon load of an ecosystem? Analysis of anthropogenic factors leading to land use changes are presented in an evaluation of deforestation at the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, Parque National Yasuni, located in the rainforest of eastern Ecuador, using multitemporal Landsat satellite imagery. Using survival analysis, I assessed current and future trends in deforestation rates and investigated the impact of spatial, cultural, and economic factors on deforestation. I found the annual rate of deforestation is currently only 0.11%, but is increasing with time, so that by 2063, 50% of the forest within 2 km of a major oil access road will be lost due to unhindered colonization and anthropogenic conversion. To improve accuracy in estimating landscape level carbon sequestration, I developed a new approach to generating regional aboveground biomass estimates for tree species of the Lake Tahoe Basin, California using hyperspatial (<1m2) remote sensing imagery. I demonstrate how, with accurate classification maps and allometric equations relating DBH or crown area to biomass, that crown parameters can be used to estimate regional biomass. I show that biomass estimated with fine-scale optical sensors does not saturate at high biomass levels as does coarse-scale optical and RADAR sensors. Finally, I address a technical problem to improve quantitative comparison of remote sensing datasets. I present a modification of the empirical line method for normalizing the radiance or reflectance scales of two images. Radiometric normalization of multitemporal remote sensing datasets is a critical

  4. Combining multi-spectral proximal sensors and digital cameras for monitoring grazed tropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, R. N.; Gobbett, D. L.; González, L. A.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; McGavin, S. L.

    2015-11-01

    Timely and accurate monitoring of pasture biomass and ground-cover is necessary in livestock production systems to ensure productive and sustainable management of forage for livestock. Interest in the use of proximal sensors for monitoring pasture status in grazing systems has increased, since such sensors can return data in near real-time, and have the potential to be deployed on large properties where remote sensing may not be suitable due to issues such as spatial scale or cloud cover. However, there are unresolved challenges in developing calibrations to convert raw sensor data to quantitative biophysical values, such as pasture biomass or vegetation ground-cover, to allow meaningful interpretation of sensor data by livestock producers. We assessed the use of multiple proximal sensors for monitoring tropical pastures with a pilot deployment of sensors at two sites on Lansdown Research Station near Townsville, Australia. Each site was monitored by a Skye SKR-four-band multi-spectral sensor (every 1 min), a digital camera (every 30 min), and a soil moisture sensor (every 1 min), each operated over 18 months. Raw data from each sensor were processed to calculate a number of multispectral vegetation indices. Visual observations of pasture characteristics, including above-ground standing biomass and ground cover, were made every 2 weeks. A methodology was developed to manage the sensor deployment and the quality control of the data collected. The data capture from the digital cameras was more reliable than the multi-spectral sensors, which had up to 63 % of data discarded after data cleaning and quality control. We found a strong relationship between sensor and pasture measurements during the wet season period of maximum pasture growth (January to April), especially when data from the multi-spectral sensors were combined with weather data. RatioNS34 (a simple band ratio between the near infrared (NIR) and lower shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands) and rainfall since 1

  5. Geophysical and botanical monitoring of simulated graves in a tropical rainforest, Colombia, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K.; Saumett, Miguel; Evans, Gethin T.

    2016-12-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of missing people and forced disappearances, currently 80,000 only in Colombia. Successful detection of shallow buried human remains by forensic search teams is currently difficult in varying terrain and climates. Within this research we built four simulated clandestine burial styles in tropical rainforests, as this is a common scenario and depositional environment encountered in Latin America, to gain knowledge of optimum forensic geophysics detection techniques. The results of geophysically monitoring these burials using ground penetrating radar, magnetic susceptibility, bulk ground conductivity and electrical resistivity are presented from one to forty three weeks post-burial. Radar survey results with both the 250 MHz and 500 MHz frequency antennae showed good detection of modern simulated burials on 2D profiles and horizontal time slices but poor detection on the other simulated graves. Magnetic susceptibility, bulk ground conductivity and electrical resistivity results were generally poor at detecting the simulated targets. Observations of botanical variations on the test site show rapid regrowth of Malvaceae and Petiveria alliacea vegetation over all burials that are common in these forests, which can make detection more difficult.

  6. Estimates of fire emissions from an active deforestation region in the southern Amazon based on satellite data and biogeochemical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation contributes to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Within the deforestation process, fire is frequently used to eliminate biomass in preparation for agricultural use. Quantifying these deforestation-induced fire emissions represents a challenge, and current estimates are only available at coarse spatial resolution with large uncertainty. Here we developed a biogeochemical model using remote sensing observations of plant productivity, fire activity, and deforestation rates to estimate emissions for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 2001–2005. Our model of DEforestation CArbon Fluxes (DECAF runs at 250-m spatial resolution with a monthly time step to capture spatial and temporal heterogeneity in fire dynamics in our study area within the ''arc of deforestation'', the southern and eastern fringe of the Amazon tropical forest where agricultural expansion is most concentrated. Fire emissions estimates from our modelling framework were on average 90 Tg C year−1, mostly stemming from fires associated with deforestation (74% with smaller contributions from fires from conversions of Cerrado or pastures to cropland (19% and pasture fires (7%. In terms of carbon dynamics, about 80% of the aboveground living biomass and litter was combusted when forests were converted to pasture, and 89% when converted to cropland because of the highly mechanized nature of the deforestation process in Mato Grosso. The trajectory of land use change from forest to other land uses often takes more than one year, and part of the biomass that was not burned in the dry season following deforestation burned in consecutive years. This led to a partial decoupling of annual deforestation rates and fire emissions, and lowered interannual variability in fire emissions. Interannual variability in the region was somewhat dampened as well because annual emissions from fires following deforestation

  7. Estimates of fire emissions from an active deforestation region in the southern Amazon based on satellite data and biogeochemical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.

    2009-02-01

    Tropical deforestation contributes to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Within the deforestation process, fire is frequently used to eliminate biomass in preparation for agricultural use. Quantifying these deforestation-induced fire emissions represents a challenge, and current estimates are only available at coarse spatial resolution with large uncertainty. Here we developed a biogeochemical model using remote sensing observations of plant productivity, fire activity, and deforestation rates to estimate emissions for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 2001-2005. Our model of DEforestation CArbon Fluxes (DECAF) runs at 250-m spatial resolution with a monthly time step to capture spatial and temporal heterogeneity in fire dynamics in our study area within the ''arc of deforestation'', the southern and eastern fringe of the Amazon tropical forest where agricultural expansion is most concentrated. Fire emissions estimates from our modelling framework were on average 90 Tg C year-1, mostly stemming from fires associated with deforestation (74%) with smaller contributions from fires from conversions of Cerrado or pastures to cropland (19%) and pasture fires (7%). In terms of carbon dynamics, about 80% of the aboveground living biomass and litter was combusted when forests were converted to pasture, and 89% when converted to cropland because of the highly mechanized nature of the deforestation process in Mato Grosso. The trajectory of land use change from forest to other land uses often takes more than one year, and part of the biomass that was not burned in the dry season following deforestation burned in consecutive years. This led to a partial decoupling of annual deforestation rates and fire emissions, and lowered interannual variability in fire emissions. Interannual variability in the region was somewhat dampened as well because annual emissions from fires following deforestation and from maintenance fires did not covary, although

  8. Deforestation and Carbon Stock Loss in Brazil's Amazonian Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Aurora Miho; Nogueira, Euler Melo; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-03-01

    We estimate deforestation and the carbon stock in 2740 (82 %) of the 3325 settlements in Brazil's Legal Amazonia region. Estimates are made both using available satellite data and a carbon map for the "pre-modern" period (prior to 1970). We used data from Brazil's Project for Monitoring Deforestation in Amazonia updated through 2013 and from the Brazilian Biomes Deforestation Monitoring Project (PMDBBS) updated through 2010. To obtain the pre-modern and recent carbon stocks we performed an intersection between a carbon map and a map derived from settlement boundaries and deforestation data. Although the settlements analyzed occupied only 8 % of Legal Amazonia, our results indicate that these settlements contributed 17 % (160,410 km(2)) of total clearing (forest + non-forest) in Legal Amazonia (967,003 km(2)). This represents a clear-cutting of 41 % of the original vegetation in the settlements. Out of this total, 72 % (115,634 km(2)) was in the "Federal Settlement Project" (PA) category. Deforestation in settlements represents 20 % (2.6 Pg C) of the total carbon loss in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C). The carbon stock in remaining vegetation represents 3.8 Pg C, or 6 % of the total remaining carbon stock in Legal Amazonia (58.6 Pg C) in the periods analyzed. The carbon reductions in settlements are caused both by the settlers and by external actors. Our findings suggest that agrarian reform policies contributed directly to carbon loss. Thus, the implementation of new settlements should consider potential carbon stock losses, especially if settlements are created in areas with high carbon stocks.

  9. Deforestation and Carbon Stock Loss in Brazil's Amazonian Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Aurora Miho; Nogueira, Euler Melo; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-03-01

    We estimate deforestation and the carbon stock in 2740 (82 %) of the 3325 settlements in Brazil's Legal Amazonia region. Estimates are made both using available satellite data and a carbon map for the "pre-modern" period (prior to 1970). We used data from Brazil's Project for Monitoring Deforestation in Amazonia updated through 2013 and from the Brazilian Biomes Deforestation Monitoring Project (PMDBBS) updated through 2010. To obtain the pre-modern and recent carbon stocks we performed an intersection between a carbon map and a map derived from settlement boundaries and deforestation data. Although the settlements analyzed occupied only 8 % of Legal Amazonia, our results indicate that these settlements contributed 17 % (160,410 km2) of total clearing (forest + non-forest) in Legal Amazonia (967,003 km2). This represents a clear-cutting of 41 % of the original vegetation in the settlements. Out of this total, 72 % (115,634 km2) was in the "Federal Settlement Project" (PA) category. Deforestation in settlements represents 20 % (2.6 Pg C) of the total carbon loss in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C). The carbon stock in remaining vegetation represents 3.8 Pg C, or 6 % of the total remaining carbon stock in Legal Amazonia (58.6 Pg C) in the periods analyzed. The carbon reductions in settlements are caused both by the settlers and by external actors. Our findings suggest that agrarian reform policies contributed directly to carbon loss. Thus, the implementation of new settlements should consider potential carbon stock losses, especially if settlements are created in areas with high carbon stocks.

  10. e-phenology: monitoring leaf phenology and tracking climate changes in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellato, Patrícia; Alberton, Bruna; Almeida, Jurandy; Alex, Jefersson; Mariano, Greice; Torres, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    The e-phenology is a multidisciplinary project combining research in Computer Science and Phenology. Its goal is to attack theoretical and practical problems involving the use of new technologies for remote phenological observation aiming to detect local environmental changes. It is geared towards three objectives: (a) the use of new technologies of environmental monitoring based on remote phenology monitoring systems; (b) creation of a protocol for a Brazilian long term phenology monitoring program and for the integration across disciplines, advancing our knowledge of seasonal responses within tropics to climate change; and (c) provide models, methods and algorithms to support management, integration and analysis of data of remote phenology systems. The research team is composed by computer scientists and biology researchers in Phenology. Our first results include: Phenology towers - We set up the first phenology tower in our core cerrado-savanna 1 study site at Itirapina, São Paulo, Brazil. The tower received a complete climatic station and a digital camera. The digital camera is set up to take daily sequence of images (five images per hour, from 6:00 to 18:00 h). We set up similar phenology towers with climatic station and cameras in five more sites: cerrado-savanna 2 (Pé de Gigante, SP), cerrado grassland 3 (Itirapina, SP), rupestrian fields 4 ( Serra do Cipo, MG), seasonal forest 5 (Angatuba, SP) and Atlantic raiforest 6 (Santa Virginia, SP). Phenology database - We finished modeling and validation of a phenology database that stores ground phenology and near-remote phenology, and we are carrying out the implementation with data ingestion. Remote phenology and image processing - We performed the first analyses of the cerrado sites 1 to 4 phenology derived from digital images. Analysis were conducted by extracting color information (RGB Red, Green and Blue color channels) from selected parts of the image named regions of interest (ROI). using the green color

  11. Deforestation and Forest Fragmentation in South Ecuador since the 1970s - Losing a Hotspot of Biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Tapia-Armijos

    Full Text Available Deforestation and fragmentation are major components of global change; both are contributing to the rapid loss of tropical forest area with important implications for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity conservation. The forests of South Ecuador are a biological 'hotspot' due to their high diversity and endemism levels. We examined the deforestation and fragmentation patterns in this area of high conservation value using aerial photographs and Aster satellite scenes. The registered annual deforestation rates of 0.75% (1976-1989 and 2.86% (1989-2008 for two consecutive survey periods, the decreasing mean patch size and the increasing isolation of the forest fragments show that the area is under severe threat. Approximately 46% of South Ecuador's original forest cover had been converted by 2008 into pastures and other anthropogenic land cover types. We found that deforestation is more intense at lower elevations (premontane evergreen forest and shrubland and that the deforestation front currently moves in upslope direction. Improved awareness of the spatial extent, dynamics and patterns of deforestation and forest fragmentation is urgently needed in biologically diverse areas like South Ecuador.

  12. Deforestation and Forest Fragmentation in South Ecuador since the 1970s - Losing a Hotspot of Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Armijos, María Fernanda; Homeier, Jürgen; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Leuschner, Christoph; de la Cruz, Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation are major components of global change; both are contributing to the rapid loss of tropical forest area with important implications for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity conservation. The forests of South Ecuador are a biological 'hotspot' due to their high diversity and endemism levels. We examined the deforestation and fragmentation patterns in this area of high conservation value using aerial photographs and Aster satellite scenes. The registered annual deforestation rates of 0.75% (1976-1989) and 2.86% (1989-2008) for two consecutive survey periods, the decreasing mean patch size and the increasing isolation of the forest fragments show that the area is under severe threat. Approximately 46% of South Ecuador's original forest cover had been converted by 2008 into pastures and other anthropogenic land cover types. We found that deforestation is more intense at lower elevations (premontane evergreen forest and shrubland) and that the deforestation front currently moves in upslope direction. Improved awareness of the spatial extent, dynamics and patterns of deforestation and forest fragmentation is urgently needed in biologically diverse areas like South Ecuador.

  13. A Bayesian Spatial Model Highlights Distinct Dynamics in Deforestation from Coca and Pastures in an Andean Biodiversity Hotspot

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    Maria Alejandra Chadid

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The loss of tropical forests has continued in recent decades despite wide recognition of their importance to maintaining biodiversity. Here, we examine the conversion of forests to pastures and coca crops (illicit activity on the San Lucas Mountain Range, Colombia for 2002–2007 and 2007–2010. Land use maps and biophysical variables were used as inputs to generate land use and cover change (LUCC models using the DINAMICA EGO software. These analyses revealed a dramatic acceleration of the pace of deforestation in the region, with rates of conversion from forest to pasture doubling from the first to the second period. Altitude, distance to other crops, and distance to rivers were the primary drivers of deforestation. The influence of these drivers, however, differed markedly depending on whether coca cultivation or pastures replaced forest. Conversion to coca was more probable farther from other crops and from settlements. In contrast, proximity to other crops and to settlements increased conversion to pasture. These relationships highlight the different roles of coca and pastures in forest loss, with coca tending to open up new forest frontiers, and pastures tending to consolidate agricultural expansion and urban influence. Large differences between LUCC processes for each period suggest highly dynamic changes, likely associated with shifting underlying causes of deforestation. These changes may relate to shifts in demand for illicit crops, land, or mining products; however, the data to test these hypotheses are currently lacking. More frequent and detailed monitoring is required to guide actions to decrease the loss of forest in this highly vulnerable biodiversity hotspot in the Northern Andes.

  14. Deforestation effects on Amazon forest resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, D. C.; Schleussner, C.-F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Rammig, A.

    2017-06-01

    Through vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks, rainfall reductions as a result of Amazon deforestation could reduce the resilience on the remaining forest to perturbations and potentially lead to large-scale Amazon forest loss. We track observation-based water fluxes from sources (evapotranspiration) to sinks (rainfall) to assess the effect of deforestation on continental rainfall. By studying 21st century deforestation scenarios, we show that deforestation can reduce dry season rainfall by up to 20% far from the deforested area, namely, over the western Amazon basin and the La Plata basin. As a consequence, forest resilience is systematically eroded in the southwestern region covering a quarter of the current Amazon forest. Our findings suggest that the climatological effects of deforestation can lead to permanent forest loss in this region. We identify hot spot regions where forest loss should be avoided to maintain the ecological integrity of the Amazon forest.

  15. A pilot project combining multispectral proximal sensors and digital cameras for monitoring tropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Gobbett, D. L.; González, Luciano A.; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; McGavin, Sharon L.

    2016-08-01

    Timely and accurate monitoring of pasture biomass and ground cover is necessary in livestock production systems to ensure productive and sustainable management. Interest in the use of proximal sensors for monitoring pasture status in grazing systems has increased, since data can be returned in near real time. Proximal sensors have the potential for deployment on large properties where remote sensing may not be suitable due to issues such as spatial scale or cloud cover. There are unresolved challenges in gathering reliable sensor data and in calibrating raw sensor data to values such as pasture biomass or vegetation ground cover, which allow meaningful interpretation of sensor data by livestock producers. Our goal was to assess whether a combination of proximal sensors could be reliably deployed to monitor tropical pasture status in an operational beef production system, as a precursor to designing a full sensor deployment. We use this pilot project to (1) illustrate practical issues around sensor deployment, (2) develop the methods necessary for the quality control of the sensor data, and (3) assess the strength of the relationships between vegetation indices derived from the proximal sensors and field observations across the wet and dry seasons. Proximal sensors were deployed at two sites in a tropical pasture on a beef production property near Townsville, Australia. Each site was monitored by a Skye SKR-four-band multispectral sensor (every 1 min), a digital camera (every 30 min), and a soil moisture sensor (every 1 min), each of which were operated over 18 months. Raw data from each sensor was processed to calculate multispectral vegetation indices. The data capture from the digital cameras was more reliable than the multispectral sensors, which had up to 67 % of data discarded after data cleaning and quality control for technical issues related to the sensor design, as well as environmental issues such as water incursion and insect infestations. We recommend

  16. Inhibition of Amazon deforestation and fire by parks and indigenous lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, D; Schwartzman, S; Bamberger, B; Santilli, M; Ray, D; Schlesinger, P; Lefebvre, P; Alencar, A; Prinz, E; Fiske, Greg; Rolla, Alicia

    2006-02-01

    Conservation scientists generally agree that many types of protected areas will be needed to protect tropical forests. But little is known of the comparative performance of inhabited and uninhabited reserves in slowing the most extreme form of forest disturbance: conversion to agriculture. We used satellite-based maps of land cover and fire occurrence in the Brazilian Amazon to compare the performance of large (> 10,000 ha) uninhabited (parks) and inhabited (indigenous lands, extractive reserves, and national forests) reserves. Reserves significantly reduced both deforestation and fire. Deforestation was 1.7 (extractive reserves) to 20 (parks) times higher along the outside versus the inside of the reserve perimeters and fire occurrence was 4 (indigenous lands) to 9 (national forests) times higher. No strong difference in the inhibition of deforestation (p = 0. 11) or fire (p = 0.34) was found between parks and indigenous lands. However, uninhabited reserves tended to be located away from areas of high deforestation and burning rates. In contrast, indigenous lands were often created in response to frontier expansion, and many prevented deforestation completely despite high rates of deforestation along their boundaries. The inhibitory effect of indigenous lands on deforestation was strong after centuries of contact with the national society and was not correlated with indigenous population density. Indigenous lands occupy one-fifth of the Brazilian Amazon-five times the area under protection in parks--and are currently the most important barrier to Amazon deforestation. As the protected-area network expands from 36% to 41% of the Brazilian Amazon over the coming years, the greatest challenge will be successful reserve implementation in high-risk areas of frontier expansion as indigenous lands are strengthened. This success will depend on a broad base of political support.

  17. Elevational Ranges of Montane Birds and Deforestation in the Western Andes of Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ocampo-Peñuela

    Full Text Available Deforestation causes habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, and can ultimately cause extinction of the remnant species. Tropical montane birds face these threats with the added natural vulnerability of narrower elevational ranges and higher specialization than lowland species. Recent studies assess the impact of present and future global climate change on species' ranges, but only a few of these evaluate the potentially confounding effect of lowland deforestation on species elevational distributions. In the Western Andes of Colombia, an important biodiversity hotspot, we evaluated the effects of deforestation on the elevational ranges of montane birds along altitudinal transects. Using point counts and mist-nets, we surveyed six altitudinal transects spanning 2200 to 2800 m. Three transects were forested from 2200 to 2800 m, and three were partially deforested with forest cover only above 2400 m. We compared abundance-weighted mean elevation, minimum elevation, and elevational range width. In addition to analysing the effect of deforestation on 134 species, we tested its impact within trophic guilds and habitat preference groups. Abundance-weighted mean and minimum elevations were not significantly different between forested and partially deforested transects. Range width was marginally different: as expected, ranges were larger in forested transects. Species in different trophic guilds and habitat preference categories showed different trends. These results suggest that deforestation may affect species' elevational ranges, even within the forest that remains. Climate change will likely exacerbate harmful impacts of deforestation on species' elevational distributions. Future conservation strategies need to account for this by protecting connected forest tracts across a wide range of elevations.

  18. Elevational Ranges of Montane Birds and Deforestation in the Western Andes of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation causes habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, and can ultimately cause extinction of the remnant species. Tropical montane birds face these threats with the added natural vulnerability of narrower elevational ranges and higher specialization than lowland species. Recent studies assess the impact of present and future global climate change on species' ranges, but only a few of these evaluate the potentially confounding effect of lowland deforestation on species elevational distributions. In the Western Andes of Colombia, an important biodiversity hotspot, we evaluated the effects of deforestation on the elevational ranges of montane birds along altitudinal transects. Using point counts and mist-nets, we surveyed six altitudinal transects spanning 2200 to 2800 m. Three transects were forested from 2200 to 2800 m, and three were partially deforested with forest cover only above 2400 m. We compared abundance-weighted mean elevation, minimum elevation, and elevational range width. In addition to analysing the effect of deforestation on 134 species, we tested its impact within trophic guilds and habitat preference groups. Abundance-weighted mean and minimum elevations were not significantly different between forested and partially deforested transects. Range width was marginally different: as expected, ranges were larger in forested transects. Species in different trophic guilds and habitat preference categories showed different trends. These results suggest that deforestation may affect species' elevational ranges, even within the forest that remains. Climate change will likely exacerbate harmful impacts of deforestation on species' elevational distributions. Future conservation strategies need to account for this by protecting connected forest tracts across a wide range of elevations.

  19. Assessing the impact of international conservation aid on deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare, Matthew; Kauffman, Craig; Miller, Daniel C.

    2015-12-01

    International conservation donors have spent at least 3.4 billion to protect biodiversity and stem tropical deforestation in Africa since the early 1990s. Despite more than two decades of experience, however, there is little research on the effect of this aid at a region-wide scale. Numerous case studies exist, but show mixed results. Existing research is usually based on community perception or focused on short-term donor objectives rather than specific conservation outcomes, like deforestation rates. Thus, the impact of billions of dollars of conservation aid on deforestation rates remains an open question. This article uses an original dataset to analyze the effect of international conservation aid on deforestation rates in 42 African countries between 2000 and 2013. We first describe patterns of conservation aid across the continent and then assess its impact (with one to five-year lags), controlling for other factors that may also affect deforestation, including rural population, protected areas (PAs), governance, and other economic and commodity production variables. We find that conservation aid is associated with higher rates of forest loss after one- or two-year lags. A similar result holds for PA extent, suggesting possible displacement of deforestation from PAs. However, governance quality in high forest cover countries moderates these effects such that deforestation rates are reduced. Rural population is the most consistent factor associated with forest loss, confirming previous studies of this driver. Our results suggest that in heavily forested countries, development projects designed to support conservation work initially in conditions of good governance, but that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate larger deforestation drivers.

  20. Narco-scapes: Cocaine Trafficking and Deforestation in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrathall, D.; McSweeney, K.; Nielsen, E.; Pearson, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Narcotics trafficking and drug interdiction efforts have resulted in a well-documented social crisis in Central America, but more recently, has been tightly linked to environmental catastrophe and accelerated deforestation in transit zones. This talk will outline synthesis findings from multi-country, interdisciplinary research on cocaine trafficking as an engine of forest loss in Central America. During the "narco-boom" of the mid-2000s, we observed a geographical evolution of cocaine flows into Central America, and the transit of cocaine through new spaces, accompanied by specific patterns of social and environmental change in new nodes of transit. We coarsely estimated that the total amount of cocaine flowing through Central America increased from 70 metric tons in 2000 to 350 mt in 2012, implying that total cocaine trafficking revenue in the region increased from roughly 600 million dollars to 3.5 billion in that time. We describe the mechanism by which these locally captured cocaine rents resulted in a rapid conversion of forest into cattle pasture. Narco-traffickers are drawn to invest in the cattle economy, as a direct means of laundering and formalizing proceeds. Ranching is a land intensive activity, and new narco-enriched cattle pastures can be isolated from other forms forest loss solely by their spatial and temporal change characteristics. A preliminary forest change study in Honduras, for example, indicated that areas of accelerated deforestation were in close proximity to known narcotics trafficking routes and were thirteen times more extensive on average than other forest clearings. Deforested areas commonly appeared in isolated and biodiverse lowland tropical rainforest regions that often intersected with protected areas and indigenous reserves. We find that narco-deforestation is a readily identifiable signal of the extent and health of the cocaine economy. This talk will feature summaries of both ethnographic and land cover change we have observed

  1. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Gaveau, David L.A.; Douglas Sheil; Husnayaen; Mohammad A. Salim; Sanjiwana Arjasakusuma; Marc Ancrenaz; Pablo Pacheco; Erik Meijaard

    2016-01-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian...

  2. The Improved NRL Tropical Cyclone Monitoring System with a Unified Microwave Brightness Temperature Calibration Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The near real-time NRL global tropical cyclone (TC monitoring system based on multiple satellite passive microwave (PMW sensors is improved with a new inter-sensor calibration scheme to correct the biases caused by differences in these sensor’s high frequency channels. Since the PMW sensor 89 GHz channel is used in multiple current and near future operational and research satellites, a unified scheme to calibrate all satellite PMW sensor’s ice scattering channels to a common 89 GHz is created so that their brightness temperatures (TBs will be consistent and permit more accurate manual and automated analyses. In order to develop a physically consistent calibration scheme, cloud resolving model simulations of a squall line system over the west Pacific coast and hurricane Bonnie in the Atlantic Ocean are applied to simulate the views from different PMW sensors. To clarify the complicated TB biases due to the competing nature of scattering and emission effects, a four-cloud based calibration scheme is developed (rain, non-rain, light rain, and cloudy. This new physically consistent inter-sensor calibration scheme is then evaluated with the synthetic TBs of hurricane Bonnie and a squall line as well as observed TCs. Results demonstrate the large TB biases up to 13 K for heavy rain situations before calibration between TMI and AMSR-E are reduced to less than 3 K after calibration. The comparison stats show that the overall bias and RMSE are reduced by 74% and 66% for hurricane Bonnie, and 98% and 85% for squall lines, respectively. For the observed hurricane Igor, the bias and RMSE decrease 41% and 25% respectively. This study demonstrates the importance of TB calibrations between PMW sensors in order to systematically monitor the global TC life cycles in terms of intensity, inner core structure and convective organization. A physics-based calibration scheme on TC’s TB corrections developed in this study is able to significantly reduce the

  3. Multiple successional pathways in human-modified tropical landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Melo, Felipe P.L.; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Bongers, Frans; Chazdon, Robin L.; Meave, Jorge A.; Norden, Natalia; Santos, Bráulio A.; Leal, Inara R.; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Old-growth tropical forests are being extensively deforested and fragmented worldwide. Yet forest recovery through succession has led to an expansion of secondary forests in human-modified tropical landscapes (HMTLs). Secondary forests thus emerge as a potential repository for tropical biodiversi

  4. Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco Canyon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W H; Drake, Brandon L; Dorshow, Wetherbee B

    2014-08-12

    Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical "collapse" associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860-1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the canyon in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world.

  5. Predicting and Monitoring Drought for a Rice Cultivation Season in the Humid Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, D. N.; Robinson, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The study presents an operational tool for predicting and monitoring drought applicable to the humid tropics. Using Sri Lanka as a case example, it examines the operational predictability of drought and investigates how moisture stress could be monitored as a season unfurls. Drought occurs frequently in Sri Lanka when rainfall associated with the main cultivation season - the Maha (October to March) - fails. During the period 1951-2008, there were 4 extreme [Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) seasonal droughts can be predicted on an operational basis by predicting the failure of the two rainfall regimes that supply moisture during the season. The contemporaneous westerly zonal wind at 850hPa (U850) over the domain 60°E-105°E and 5°S-15°N controls the strength of the October-November convective rainfall season - with failure of the season associated with anomalously strong U850. The contemporaneous northerly vertical shear of the mean meridional wind (Vs) in the domain 80°E-90°E and 0°N-20°N controls the strength of the December-February northeast monsoon season - with failure of the season associated with an anomalously weak Vs. Drought forecast skill was assessed for the period 1981-2002 using predicted fields of U850 issued in September, and Vs, issued in November from three Global Climate Model ensembles - i.e. the fully coupled Climate Forecast System of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP_CFS); the ECHAM4.5 forced with persisted sea surface temperature anomalies (ECHAM4.5_PSST) and the ECMAM4.5 forced with constructed analogues of sea surface temperature anomalies (ECHAM4.5_CA). The failure of October-November rainfall can be predicted with good skill over the rice cultivation regions in the central and southeastern parts of Sri Lanka using predicted fields of U850 generated from the two versions of the ECHAM4.5. The failure of December-February rainfall can be predicted with good skill in the rice cultivation regions in the

  6. What Drives Indirect Land Use Change? How Brazil's Agriculture Sector Influences Frontier Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Peter

    2015-09-01

    From 2000-2005 high returns to soybeans set off an unprecedented expansion of agricultural production across Brazil. The expansion occurred concurrently to a sharp rise in deforestation, leading academics and policy makers to question the extent and means by which the growing agricultural sector was driving regional forest loss. In this article we consider and question the underlying drivers of indirect land use change, namely the potential impact of soybean expansion on beef prices and of land use displacement, via migration. We then present field level results documenting the displacement process in northern Mato Grosso and western Pará States of the Amazon. Our results question the extent to which tropical Amazon deforestation is attributable to land use displacement; however, we argue that the agricultural sector may drive deforestation through other channels, namely through regional land markets.

  7. National forest cover change in Congo Basin: deforestation, reforestation, degradation and regeneration for the years 1990, 2000 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céline, Ernst; Philippe, Mayaux; Astrid, Verhegghen; Catherine, Bodart; Musampa, Christophe; Pierre, Defourny

    2013-04-01

    This research refers to an object-based automatic method combined with a national expert validation to produce regional and national forest cover change statistics over Congo Basin. A total of 547 sampling sites systematically distributed over the whole humid forest domain are required to cover the six Central African countries containing tropical moist forest. High resolution imagery is used to accurately estimate not only deforestation and reforestation but also degradation and regeneration. The overall method consists of four steps: (i) image automatic preprocessing and preinterpretation, (ii) interpretation by national expert, (iii) statistic computation and (iv) accuracy assessment. The annual rate of net deforestation in Congo Basin is estimated to 0.09% between 1990 and 2000 and of net degradation to 0.05%. Between 2000 and 2005, this unique exercise estimates annual net deforestation to 0.17% and annual net degradation to 0.09%. An accuracy assessment reveals that 92.7% of tree cover (TC) classes agree with independent expert interpretation. In the discussion, we underline the direct causes and the drivers of deforestation. Population density, small-scale agriculture, fuelwood collection and forest's accessibility are closely linked to deforestation, whereas timber extraction has no major impact on the reduction in the canopy cover. The analysis also shows the efficiency of protected areas to reduce deforestation. These results are expected to contribute to the discussion on the reduction in CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) and serve as reference for the period. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla Stan

    Full Text Available Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil's Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO. This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i business as usual, (ii increased deforestation, and (iii decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation.

  9. A Near Real-time Decision Support System Improving Forest Management in the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, K.; Musinsky, J.; Ledezma, J.; Rasolohery, A.; Mendoza, E.; Kistler, H.; Steininger, M.; Morton, D. C.; Melton, F. S.; Manwell, J.; Koenig, K.

    2013-12-01

    Conservation International (CI) has a decade of experience developing near real-time fire and deforestation monitoring and forecasting systems that channel monitoring information from satellite observations directly to national and sub-national government agencies, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), and local communities. These systems are used to strengthen forest surveillance and monitoring, fire management and prevention, protected areas management and sustainable land use planning. With support from a NASA Wildland Fires grant, in September 2013 CI will launch a brand new near real-time alert system (FIRECAST) to better meet the outstanding needs and challenges users face in addressing ecosystem degradation from wildland fire and illegal forest activities. Outreach efforts and user feedback have indicated the need for seasonal fire forecasts for effective land use planning, faster alert delivery to enhance response to illegal forest activities, and expanded forest monitoring capabilities that enable proactive responses and that strengthen forest conservation and sustainable development actions. The new FIRECAST system addresses these challenges by integrating the current fire alert and deforestation systems and adding improved ecological forecasting of fire risk; expanding data exchange capabilities with mobile technologies; and delivering a deforestation alert product that can inform policies related to land use management and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). In addition to demonstrating the capabilities of this new real-time alert system, we also highlight how coordination with host-country institutions enhances the system's capacity to address the implementation needs of REDD+ forest carbon projects, improve tropical forest management, strengthen environmental law enforcement, and facilitate the uptake of near real-time satellite monitoring data into business practices of these national/sub-national institutions.

  10. Deforestation Analysis of Riverine Forest of Sindh Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibullah Abbasi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During recent decades the large scale deterioration of forests and natural resources is an eye opener. The degradation of forests and other natural resources has affected the ecology, environment, health and economy. The ecological problems with living organisms such as animals and plants and environmental problems such as increase in temperature and carbon dioxide, these factors have contributed to change in regional climate, health problems such as skin, eye diseases and sunstroke and economic problems such as loss of income to rural population and resources which depend on forests such as livestock. Therefore, it was necessary to carry out land cover/use research focusing on the monitoring and management of the present and past state of forests cover and other related objects using RS (Remote Sensing technologies. The RS is a way of mapping and monitoring the changes taking place in forests cover and other objects on a continuing basis. Sukkur and Shikarpur riverine forests are vanishing quickly due to the construction of barrages /dams on upper streams to produce hydroelectricity and irrigation installations which reduce the discharge of fresh water into the downstream Indus basin. Moreover, anthropogenic activities, livestock population, increased grazing, load and illegal tree cutting have contributed to this. The riverine forests are turning into barren land and most of the land is used for agriculture. These uncontrolled changes contribute to climate change and global warming. These changes are difficult to monitor and control without using RS technology. Assessment of deforestation of the Sukkur and Shikarpur to find temporal changes in the forests cover from April, 1979 to April, 2009 is presented in this paper. The integrated classes such as water body, grass/agriculture land, dry/barren land and forest cover maps show the temporal changes taking place in the forests cover for the last 30 years period. RS has been employed in the

  11. Implementing REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation): evidence on governance, evaluation and impacts from the REDD-ALERT project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Mathews; M. van Noordwijk; E. Lambin; P. Meyfroidt; J. Gupta; L. Verchot; K. Hergoualc'h; E. Veldkamp

    2014-01-01

    The REDD-ALERT (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation from Alternative Land Uses in the Rainforests of the Tropics) project started in 2009 and finished in 2012, and had the aim of evaluating mechanisms that translate international-level agreements into instruments that would help ch

  12. Implementing REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation): evidence on governance, evaluation and impacts from the REDD-ALERT project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, R.B.; Noordwijk, van M.; Lambin, E.; Meyfroidt, P.; Gupta, J.; Verschot, L.; Hergoualc'h, K.; Veldkamp, E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The REDD-ALERT (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation from Alternative Land Uses in the Rainforests of the Tropics) project started in 2009 and finished in 2012, and had the aim of evaluating mechanisms that translate international-level agreements into instruments that woul

  13. Development of national database on long-term deforestation (1930-2014) in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Pasha, S. Vazeed; Jha, C. S.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to prepare a nation-wide spatial database on forest cover to assess and monitor the land use changes associated with deforestation in Bangladesh. The multi-source data were interpreted to get the forest cover map of 1930, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2006 and 2014. The spatial information generated on total area under forest cover, rate of deforestation and afforestation, changes across forest types, forest canopy density, replacement land use in deforested area and deforestation hotspots. This spatial analysis has indicated that forest cover is undergoing significant negative change in area and quality. We report that forests in Bangladesh covered an area of 23,140 km2 in 1930 which has decreased to 14,086 km2 in 2014, a net loss of 9054 km2 (39.1%) in eight decades. Analysis of annual rate of gross deforestation for the recent period indicates 0.77% during 2006-2014. During the past eight decades, semi-evergreen forests show loss of 56.4% of forest cover followed by moist deciduous forests (51.5%), dry deciduous forests (43.1%) and mangroves (6.5%). The loss of 23.5% of dense forest cover was found from 1975 to 2014. Dense semi-evergreen forests shows more negative change (36.9%) followed by dense moist deciduous forest (32.7%) from 1975 to 2014. Annual rate of deforestation is higher in dense forests compared to open forests from 2006 to 2014 and indicates increased threat due to anthropogenic pressures. The spatial analysis of forest cover change in mangroves has shown a lower rate of deforestation. Most of the forest conversions have led to the degradation of forests to scrub and transition to agriculture and plantation. The study has identified the 'deforestation hotspots' can help in strategic planning for conservation and management of forest resources.

  14. The effectiveness of contrasting protected areas in preventing deforestation in Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuohelainen, Anni Johanna; Coad, Lauren; Marthews, Toby R; Malhi, Yadvinder; Killeen, Timothy J

    2012-10-01

    Accurate monitoring of the effectiveness of protected areas (PAs) in decreasing deforestation is increasingly important given the vital role of forest protection in climate change mitigation. Recent studies on PA effectiveness have used remote-sensing imagery to compare deforestation rates within PAs to surrounding areas. However, remote-sensing data used in isolation provides limited information on the factors contributing to effectiveness. We used landscape-modelling techniques to estimate the effectiveness of ten PAs in Madre de Dios, Peru. Factors influencing PA effectiveness were investigated using in situ key-informant interviews. Although all of the PAs studied had positive effectiveness scores, those with the highest scores were ecotourism and conservation concessions, where monitoring and surveillance activities and good relations with surrounding communities were reported as possible factors in decreasing deforestation rates. Native community areas had the lowest scores, with deforestation mainly driven by internal resource use and population growth. Weak local governance and immigration were identified as underlying factors decreasing the effectiveness of protection, whereas good relations with surrounding communities and monitoring activity increased effectiveness. The results highlight the need to combine remote sensing with in situ information on PA management because identification of drivers and deterrents of deforestation is vital for improving the effectiveness of protection.

  15. The Effectiveness of Contrasting Protected Areas in Preventing Deforestation in Madre de Dios, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuohelainen, Anni Johanna; Coad, Lauren; Marthews, Toby R.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2012-10-01

    Accurate monitoring of the effectiveness of protected areas (PAs) in decreasing deforestation is increasingly important given the vital role of forest protection in climate change mitigation. Recent studies on PA effectiveness have used remote-sensing imagery to compare deforestation rates within PAs to surrounding areas. However, remote-sensing data used in isolation provides limited information on the factors contributing to effectiveness. We used landscape-modelling techniques to estimate the effectiveness of ten PAs in Madre de Dios, Peru. Factors influencing PA effectiveness were investigated using in situ key-informant interviews. Although all of the PAs studied had positive effectiveness scores, those with the highest scores were ecotourism and conservation concessions, where monitoring and surveillance activities and good relations with surrounding communities were reported as possible factors in decreasing deforestation rates. Native community areas had the lowest scores, with deforestation mainly driven by internal resource use and population growth. Weak local governance and immigration were identified as underlying factors decreasing the effectiveness of protection, whereas good relations with surrounding communities and monitoring activity increased effectiveness. The results highlight the need to combine remote sensing with in situ information on PA management because identification of drivers and deterrents of deforestation is vital for improving the effectiveness of protection.

  16. Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons

  17. Deforestation in eastern and central nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Shuji; Miyamoto, Shinji; Kariya, Yoshihiko

    1996-01-01

    Dated charcoal and humic materials in soil, both of which are evidence of forest fire and vegetation changes, as well as pollen analysis of soil indicate occurrence of past deforestation in the Nepal Himalayas. In Sirubari, central Nepal, human impact such as population growth and cultural change may have accelerated an environmental change during the 14-15th centuries. In Junbesi and Phaplu, the Solu area of eastern Nepal, temporary deforestation caused by hunting and grazing is evident of h...

  18. Trade and deforestation: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Robalino, Juan; Herrera, Luis Diego

    2010-01-01

    Forest plays a significant role in the overall balance of carbon in the atmosphere. Forest carbon sequestration can potentially reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. However, when deforestation takes place, carbon is released to the atmosphere again. Globally, it has been estimated that about 11% to 39% of all carbon emissions from human origin come from the forest sector (Hao et al. 1990). Regarding global warming, the balance between forest conservation and deforest...

  19. DEFORESTATION: ENVIRONMENT CHALLENGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romit Agrawal, Gorang Vashistha, Rahul Mutha [Gujarat National Law University, Gujarat (India)

    2008-09-30

    This paper deals with the concept of deforestation, its impact on environment and measure to attain sustainable development. Spanning over in various parts, this research paper looks at the problem of deforestation and global warming. The first part of this paper deals with definition and general introduction of deforestation and corporate social responsibility. In this part, authors have relied on various reports proving the degradation of environment due to corporations in India and have emphasized on the concern of corporations towards the environment. The next part gives a brief overview of the problem of deforestation and its impact on environment leading to deforestation. It also highlights the causes, effect, reasons, and other issues related to deforestation. Relying on various reports and statistics, authors in this part, have mentioned that what a forest is, what the causes of deforestation are and how it is degrading the environment. The third part of this paper deals with the legislative and judicial response to deforestation problem. In this part, authors have supported their arguments with handful of International treaties, legislations and case laws relating to the problem of global warming. The fourth part of this paper deals with the concept that how corporate social responsibility can play a significant role in lessen the degradation of environment and how global warming will be reduced. Authors have also mentioned the emerging concept of carbon credits. This paper is than concluded with the remarks and suggestion of authors that corporate social responsibility is a measure to lessen global warming and to attain sustainable development.

  20. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, G R; Dempewolf, J; Trigg, S N; Randerson, J T; Kasibhatla, P S; Giglio, L; Murdiyarso, D; Peters, W; Morton, D C; Collatz, G J; Dolman, A J; DeFries, R S

    2008-12-23

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire emissions from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea during 2000-2006. We found that average fire emissions from this region [128 +/- 51 (1sigma) Tg carbon (C) year(-1), T = 10(12)] were comparable to fossil fuel emissions. In Borneo, carbon emissions from fires were highly variable, fluxes during the moderate 2006 El Niño more than 30 times greater than those during the 2000 La Niña (and with a 2000-2006 mean of 74 +/- 33 Tg C yr(-1)). Higher rates of forest loss and larger areas of peatland becoming vulnerable to fire in drought years caused a strong nonlinear relation between drought and fire emissions in southern Borneo. Fire emissions from Sumatra showed a positive linear trend, increasing at a rate of 8 Tg C year(-2) (approximately doubling during 2000-2006). These results highlight the importance of including deforestation in future climate agreements. They also imply that land manager responses to expected shifts in tropical precipitation may critically determine the strength of climate-carbon cycle feedbacks during the 21st century.

  1. Deforestation, floodplain dynamics, and carbon biogeochemistry in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, M. L.; Dunne, T.; Richey, J.; Melack, J.; Simonett, D. S.; Woodwell, G.

    1984-07-01

    Three aspects of the physical geographic environment of the Amazon Basin are considered: (1) deforestation and reforestation, (2) floodplain dynamics, and (3) fluvial geomorphology. Three independent projects are coupled in this experiment to improve the in-place research and to ensure that the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) experiment stands on a secure base of ongoing work. Major benefits to be obtained center on: (1) areal and locational information, (2) data from various depression angles, and (3) digital radar signatures. Analysis will be conducted for selected sites to define how well SIR-B data can be used for: (1) definition of extent and location of deforestation in a tropical moist forest, (2) definition and quantification of the nature of the vegetation and edaphic conditions on the (floodplain) of the Amazon River, and (3) quantification of the accuracy with which the geometry and channel shifting of the Amazon River may be mapped using SIR-B imagery in conjunction with other remote sensing data.

  2. Mixed Effectiveness of Africa's Tropical Protected Areas for Maintaining Forest Cover: Insights from a Global Forest Change Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, A.; Bowker, J.; Ament, J.; Cumming, G.

    2016-12-01

    The effectiveness of parks for forest conservation is widely debated in Africa, where increasing human pressure, insufficient funding, and lack of management capacity frequently place significant demands on forest habitats. Tropical forests house a significant portion of the world's remaining biodiversity and are being heavily impacted by anthropogenic activity. We used Hansen et al.'s (2013) global forest change dataset to analyse park effectiveness at the individual (224 parks) and national (23 countries) level across Africa by comparing the extent of forest loss (as a proxy for deforestation) inside parks to matched unprotected control samples. We found that, although significant geographical variation exists between parks, the majority of African parks experienced significantly lower deforestation within their boundaries. Accessibility was a significant driver of deforestation, with less accessible areas having a higher probability of forest loss in ineffective parks and more accessible areas having a higher probability of forest loss in effective parks. Smaller parks were less effective at preventing forest loss inside park boundaries than larger parks, and older parks were less effective than younger parks. Our analysis, which is the first individual and national assessment of park effectiveness across Africa, demonstrates the complexity of factors influencing the ability of a park to curb deforestation within its boundaries and highlights the potential of web-based remote sensing technology in monitoring protected area effectiveness.

  3. Annual fluxes of carbon from deforestation and regrowth in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R A; Skole, D L; Nobre, C A; Hackler, J L; Lawrence, K T; Chomentowski, W H

    2000-01-20

    The distribution of sources and sinks of carbon among the world's ecosystems is uncertain. Some analyses show northern mid-latitude lands to be a large sink, whereas the tropics are a net source; other analyses show the tropics to be nearly neutral, whereas northern mid-latitudes are a small sink. Here we show that the annual flux of carbon from deforestation and abandonment of agricultural lands in the Brazilian Amazon was a source of about 0.2 Pg Cyr(-1) over the period 1989-1998 (1 Pg is 10(15) g). This estimate is based on annual rates of deforestation and spatially detailed estimates of deforestation, regrowing forests and biomass. Logging may add another 5-10% to this estimate, and fires may double the magnitude of the source in years following a drought. The annual source of carbon from land-use change and fire approximately offsets the sink calculated for natural ecosystems in the region. Thus this large area of tropical forest is nearly balanced with respect to carbon, but has an interannual variability of +/- 0.2 PgC yr(-1).

  4. Amazon Fund: financing deforestation avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marcovitch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Fund, created in 2008 by the Brazilian Federal Government, is managed by Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. It is a pioneering initiative to fundraise and manage financial resources to cut back deforestation and support sustainable development for 30 million inhabitants in the Amazon Biome. The Amazon Fund has already received more than R$ 1.7 billion in grants (about USD 787 million. This essay analyzes the Amazon Fund's governance and management with focus on its operation and from its stakeholders' perspectives. A combination of research methods includes: documental research, in-depth interviews, and speech analysis. The study offers a comparative analysis of strengths and weaknesses related to its governance. Furthermore, it proposes ways to improve its management towards greater effectiveness. The essay also includes an assessment of the government of Norway, a major donor to the fund. The governments of Norway and Germany, in partnership with Brazil, reveal how important it is to experiment with new means of international cooperation to successfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rainforest preservation.

  5. Evaluating the use of local ecological knowledge to monitor hunted tropical-forest wildlife over large spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Parry

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the distribution and abundance of hunted wildlife is critical to achieving sustainable resource use, yet adequate data are sparse for most tropical regions. Conventional methods for monitoring hunted forest-vertebrate species require intensive in situ survey effort, which severely constrains spatial and temporal replication. Integrating local ecological knowledge (LEK into monitoring and management is appealing because it can be cost-effective, enhance community participation, and provide novel insights into sustainable resource use. We develop a technique to monitor population depletion of hunted forest wildlife in the Brazilian Amazon, based on the local ecological knowledge of rural hunters. We performed rapid interview surveys to estimate the landscape-scale depletion of ten large-bodied vertebrate species around 161 Amazonian riverine settlements. We assessed the explanatory and predictive power of settlement and landscape characteristics and were able to develop robust estimates of local faunal depletion. By identifying species-specific drivers of depletion and using secondary data on human population density, land form, and physical accessibility, we then estimated landscape- and regional-scale depletion. White-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, for example, were estimated to be absent from 17% of their putative range in Brazil's largest state (Amazonas, despite 98% of the original forest cover remaining intact. We found evidence that bushmeat consumption in small urban centers has far-reaching impacts on some forest species, including severe depletion well over 100 km from urban centers. We conclude that LEK-based approaches require further field validation, but have significant potential for community-based participatory monitoring as well as cost-effective, large-scale monitoring of threatened forest species.

  6. Foreign transfers and tropical deforestation : what terms of conditionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, Daan van; Lensink, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a nonparametric interest rate term structure model and investigate its implications on term structure dynamics and prices of interest rate derivative securities. The nonparametric spot interest rate process is estimated from the observed short-term interest

  7. Deforestation Impacts on Bat Functional Diversity in Tropical Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Rodrigo; Badano, Ernesto I.; Zuria, Iriana; Galindo-González, Jorge; Rojas-Martínez, Alberto E.; Ávila-Gómez, Eva S.

    2016-01-01

    Functional diversity is the variability in the functional roles carried out by species within ecosystems. Changes in the environment can affect this component of biodiversity and can, in turn, affect different processes, including some ecosystem services. This study aimed to determine the effect of forest loss on species richness, abundance and functional diversity of Neotropical bats. To this end, we identified six landscapes with increasing loss of forest cover in the Huasteca region of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. We captured bats in each landscape using mist nets, and calculated functional diversity indices (functional richness and functional evenness) along with species richness and abundance. We analyzed these measures in terms of percent forest cover. We captured 906 bats (Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae), including 10 genera and 12 species. Species richness, abundance and functional richness per night are positively related with forest cover. Generalized linear models show that species richness, abundance and functional richness per night are significantly related with forest cover, while seasonality had an effect on abundance and functional richness. Neither forest cover nor season had a significant effect on functional evenness. All these findings were consistent across three spatial scales (1, 3 and 5 km radius around sampling sites). The decrease in species, abundance and functional richness of bats with forest loss may have implications for the ecological processes they carry out such as seed dispersal, pollination and insect predation, among others. PMID:27926923

  8. Deforestation Impacts on Bat Functional Diversity in Tropical Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Rodrigo; Moreno, Claudia E; Badano, Ernesto I; Zuria, Iriana; Galindo-González, Jorge; Rojas-Martínez, Alberto E; Ávila-Gómez, Eva S

    2016-01-01

    Functional diversity is the variability in the functional roles carried out by species within ecosystems. Changes in the environment can affect this component of biodiversity and can, in turn, affect different processes, including some ecosystem services. This study aimed to determine the effect of forest loss on species richness, abundance and functional diversity of Neotropical bats. To this end, we identified six landscapes with increasing loss of forest cover in the Huasteca region of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. We captured bats in each landscape using mist nets, and calculated functional diversity indices (functional richness and functional evenness) along with species richness and abundance. We analyzed these measures in terms of percent forest cover. We captured 906 bats (Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae), including 10 genera and 12 species. Species richness, abundance and functional richness per night are positively related with forest cover. Generalized linear models show that species richness, abundance and functional richness per night are significantly related with forest cover, while seasonality had an effect on abundance and functional richness. Neither forest cover nor season had a significant effect on functional evenness. All these findings were consistent across three spatial scales (1, 3 and 5 km radius around sampling sites). The decrease in species, abundance and functional richness of bats with forest loss may have implications for the ecological processes they carry out such as seed dispersal, pollination and insect predation, among others.

  9. Uncertainty in land-use change and forestry sector mitigation options for global warming: plantation silviculture versus avoided deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M. [National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Amazonas (Brazil). Dept. of Ecology

    2000-07-01

    How land-use change and forestry sector options can be used to mitigate global warming will depend on a variety of pending decisions regarding interpretation of the Kyoto Protocol, including treatment of uncertainty. In tropical Forest countries, the allocation of effort between plantation silviculture and reduction of deforestation would be influenced by the stringency of requirements regarding certainty. Slowing deforestation offers much greater potential benefits, but the certainty associated with these is much lower than in the case of plantations. In the Brazilian case, deforestation avoidance could produce carbon benefits worth 6-45 times as much as the destructive ranching and logging uses to which the forest is now being converted. Capturing the potential value of carbon benefits from avoided deforestation will depend on increasing our understanding of the deforestation process and consequent ability to reduce the uncertainty associated with the effects of deforestation-avoidance measures. It will also depend on whether carbon credits are defined in terms of a maximum level of uncertainty. (author)

  10. Deforestation and Forest Fragmentation in South Ecuador since the 1970s – Losing a Hotspot of Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Armijos, María Fernanda; Homeier, Jürgen; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Leuschner, Christoph; de la Cruz, Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation are major components of global change; both are contributing to the rapid loss of tropical forest area with important implications for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity conservation. The forests of South Ecuador are a biological ‘hotspot’ due to their high diversity and endemism levels. We examined the deforestation and fragmentation patterns in this area of high conservation value using aerial photographs and Aster satellite scenes. The registered annual deforestation rates of 0.75% (1976–1989) and 2.86% (1989–2008) for two consecutive survey periods, the decreasing mean patch size and the increasing isolation of the forest fragments show that the area is under severe threat. Approximately 46% of South Ecuador’s original forest cover had been converted by 2008 into pastures and other anthropogenic land cover types. We found that deforestation is more intense at lower elevations (premontane evergreen forest and shrubland) and that the deforestation front currently moves in upslope direction. Improved awareness of the spatial extent, dynamics and patterns of deforestation and forest fragmentation is urgently needed in biologically diverse areas like South Ecuador. PMID:26332681

  11. Building capacity for national level carbon Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) systems for a ``Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation'' (REDD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, N.; Goetz, S. J.; Baccini, A.; Walker, W. S.; Ndunda, P.; Mekui, P.; Kellndorfer, J. M.; Knight, D.

    2010-12-01

    An international policy mechanism is under negotiation for compensating tropical nations that succeed in lowering their greenhouse gas emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation, responsible for approximately one-fifth of worldwide carbon emissions. One of the barriers to its success is the adoption of a unique MRV system and the participation of developing countries in carbon monitoring. A successful REDD policy must rely on a robust, scalable, cost effective method that will allow the Measurement Reporting and Verification from local to national scales, while also developing well-trained technical personnel to implement national REDD carbon monitoring systems. Participation of governments and forest stakeholders in forest and carbon monitoring methods at WHRC is achieved through ongoing technical workshops which include training of participants to collect field data to calibrate biomass models, and an annual Scholar’s Program where forest officers from the tropical regions of Latin America, Africa and Southeast Asia work with Woods Hole Research Center scientsts to improve skills in forest measurement and remote sensing monitoring techniques . Capacity building activities focus on technical aspects and approaches to forest-cover and carbon mapping and the use of satellite imagery together with ground-based measurement techniques in the development of forest cover and carbon-stock maps. After two years, the three-year project has involved more than 200 forest specialists from governments and NGOs in Bolivia, Cambodia, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Kenya, Uganda, Vietnam and Zambia, among others with participation of ten scholars actively participating in the developement of National REDD plans for forest mapping and monitoring. Field Training Mbandaka- DR Congo 2010

  12. Indigenous burning as conservation practice: neotropical savanna recovery amid agribusiness deforestation in Central Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Welch

    Full Text Available International efforts to address climate change by reducing tropical deforestation increasingly rely on indigenous reserves as conservation units and indigenous peoples as strategic partners. Considered win-win situations where global conservation measures also contribute to cultural preservation, such alliances also frame indigenous peoples in diverse ecological settings with the responsibility to offset global carbon budgets through fire suppression based on the presumed positive value of non-alteration of tropical landscapes. Anthropogenic fire associated with indigenous ceremonial and collective hunting practices in the Neotropical savannas (cerrado of Central Brazil is routinely represented in public and scientific conservation discourse as a cause of deforestation and increased CO2 emissions despite a lack of supporting evidence. We evaluate this claim for the Xavante people of Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reserve, Brazil. Building upon 23 years of longitudinal interdisciplinary research in the area, we used multi-temporal spatial analyses to compare land cover change under indigenous and agribusiness management over the last four decades (1973-2010 and quantify the contemporary Xavante burning regime contributing to observed patterns based on a four year sample at the end of this sequence (2007-2010. The overall proportion of deforested land remained stable inside the reserve (0.6% but increased sharply outside (1.5% to 26.0%. Vegetation recovery occurred where reserve boundary adjustments transferred lands previously deforested by agribusiness to indigenous management. Periodic traditional burning by the Xavante had a large spatial distribution but repeated burning in consecutive years was restricted. Our results suggest a need to reassess overreaching conservation narratives about the purported destructiveness of indigenous anthropogenic fire in the cerrado. The real challenge to conservation in the fire-adapted cerrado biome is the long

  13. Indigenous burning as conservation practice: neotropical savanna recovery amid agribusiness deforestation in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, James R; Brondízio, Eduardo S; Hetrick, Scott S; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2013-01-01

    International efforts to address climate change by reducing tropical deforestation increasingly rely on indigenous reserves as conservation units and indigenous peoples as strategic partners. Considered win-win situations where global conservation measures also contribute to cultural preservation, such alliances also frame indigenous peoples in diverse ecological settings with the responsibility to offset global carbon budgets through fire suppression based on the presumed positive value of non-alteration of tropical landscapes. Anthropogenic fire associated with indigenous ceremonial and collective hunting practices in the Neotropical savannas (cerrado) of Central Brazil is routinely represented in public and scientific conservation discourse as a cause of deforestation and increased CO2 emissions despite a lack of supporting evidence. We evaluate this claim for the Xavante people of Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reserve, Brazil. Building upon 23 years of longitudinal interdisciplinary research in the area, we used multi-temporal spatial analyses to compare land cover change under indigenous and agribusiness management over the last four decades (1973-2010) and quantify the contemporary Xavante burning regime contributing to observed patterns based on a four year sample at the end of this sequence (2007-2010). The overall proportion of deforested land remained stable inside the reserve (0.6%) but increased sharply outside (1.5% to 26.0%). Vegetation recovery occurred where reserve boundary adjustments transferred lands previously deforested by agribusiness to indigenous management. Periodic traditional burning by the Xavante had a large spatial distribution but repeated burning in consecutive years was restricted. Our results suggest a need to reassess overreaching conservation narratives about the purported destructiveness of indigenous anthropogenic fire in the cerrado. The real challenge to conservation in the fire-adapted cerrado biome is the long

  14. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. Laurance; D.C. Useche; J. Rendeiro; and others NO-VALUE; Ariel Lugo

    2012-01-01

    The rapid disruption of tropical forests probably imperils global biodiversity more than any other contemporary phenomenon1–3. With deforestation advancing quickly, protected areas are increasingly becoming final refuges for threatened species and natural ecosystem processes. However, many protected areas in the tropics are themselves vulnerable to human encroachment...

  15. Does the Pressure of Population and Poverty cause Deforestation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pungky Widiaryanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation has created several negative impacts such as reducing biodiversity, decreasing life support system and increasing green house gases emission. Identifying the causes of deforestation is a key to tackle this problem. Various studies have been conducted to investigate the driver of deforestation in the world. Some experts believe that the pressure of population and poverty cause deforestation. On the other hand, the others argue that there is no relationship among the pressure of population, poverty and deforestation. This paper tries to examine the link of pressure of population, poverty and deforestation by reviewing some recent studies.

  16. Land use patterns and related carbon losses following deforestation in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sy, De V.; Herold, M.; Achard, F.; Beuchle, R.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Lindquist, E.; Verchot, L.

    2015-01-01

    Land use change in South America, mainly deforestation, is a large source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Identifying and addressing the causes or drivers of anthropogenic forest change is considered crucial for global climate change mitigation. Few countries however, monitor deforesta

  17. Land use patterns and related carbon losses following deforestation in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sy, De V.; Herold, M.; Achard, F.; Beuchle, R.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Lindquist, E.; Verchot, L.

    2015-01-01

    Land use change in South America, mainly deforestation, is a large source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Identifying and addressing the causes or drivers of anthropogenic forest change is considered crucial for global climate change mitigation. Few countries however, monitor deforesta

  18. Temporal mapping of deforestation and forest degradation in Nepal: Applications to forest conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panta, M.; Kim, K.; Joshi, C.

    2008-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation are associated and progressive processes resulting in the conversion of forest area into a mosaic of mature forest fragments, pasture, and degraded habitat. Monitoring of forest landscape spatial structures has been recommended to detect degenerative trends in

  19. Comparing climate and cost impacts of reference levels for reducing emissions from deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Jonah [Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA (United States); Strassburg, Bernardo [Center for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Cattaneo, Andrea [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540-1644 (United States); Lubowski, Ruben [Environmental Defense Fund, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC (United States); Bruner, Aaron; Rice, Richard; Boltz, Frederick [Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA (United States); Creed, Anna; Ashton, Ralph, E-mail: jbusch@conservation.or [Terrestrial Carbon Group, 900 17th Street NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The climate benefit and economic cost of an international mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) will depend on the design of reference levels for crediting emission reductions. We compare the impacts of six proposed reference level designs on emission reduction levels and on cost per emission reduction using a stylized partial equilibrium model (the open source impacts of REDD incentives spreadsheet; OSIRIS). The model explicitly incorporates national incentives to participate in an international REDD mechanism as well as international leakage of deforestation emissions. Our results show that a REDD mechanism can provide cost-efficient climate change mitigation benefits under a broad range of reference level designs. We find that the most effective reference level designs balance incentives to reduce historically high deforestation emissions with incentives to maintain historically low deforestation emissions. Estimates of emission reductions under REDD depend critically on the degree to which demand for tropical frontier agriculture generates leakage. This underscores the potential importance to REDD of complementary strategies to supply agricultural needs outside of the forest frontier.

  20. Deforestation, land conversion and illegal logging in Bangladesh: the case of the Sal (Shorea robusta forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh, with a forest cover estimated at 17.08% of all land surface area, has experienced massive degradation of its natural resources and a conside­rable change in its land cover. While deforestation in Bangladesh is obviously a complex issue, one important aspect emerges from previous research findings in explaining deforestation: industrialization. This study focuses on the causes of deforestation in Bangladesh, particularly in tropical moist deciduous Sal forests, using multi levels factor analysis framework. Data were collected through questionnaire surveys, formal and informal discussions with local people, expert interviews and literature reviews. The main findings of defore­station framework show that illegal logging and forest land conversion were the ultimate causes of Sal forests deforestation in Bangladesh. Illegal logging is a complex phenomenon and is being patronized by a local syndicate, functio­ning from behind the scenes. On the other hand, land conversion into different commercial activities has direct influence on national policy and the predispo­sing conditions of this country. Therefore, the immediate task of the nation would be to stop illegal logging and land conversion of Sal forests. This can be done by involving all relevant stakeholders in the form of effective forest policy formulation and execution of strict environmental protection law.

  1. Simulating fire regimes in the Amazon in response to climate change and deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrini, Rafaella Almeida; Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira; Nepstad, Daniel; Coe, Michael; Rodrigues, Hermann; Assunção, Renato

    2011-07-01

    Fires in tropical forests release globally significant amounts of carbon to the atmosphere and may increase in importance as a result of climate change. Despite the striking impacts of fire on tropical ecosystems, the paucity of robust spatial models of forest fire still hampers our ability to simulate tropical forest fire regimes today and in the future. Here we present a probabilistic model of human-induced fire occurrence for the Amazon that integrates the effects of a series of anthropogenic factors with climatic conditions described by vapor pressure deficit. The model was calibrated using NOAA-12 night satellite hot pixels for 2003 and validated for the years 2002, 2004, and 2005. Assessment of the fire risk map yielded fitness values > 85% for all months from 2002 to 2005. Simulated fires exhibited high overlap with NOAA-12 hot pixels regarding both spatial and temporal distributions, showing a spatial fit of 50% within a radius of 11 km and a maximum yearly frequency deviation of 15%. We applied this model to simulate fire regimes in the Amazon until 2050 using IPCC's A2 scenario climate data from the Hadley Centre model and a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario of deforestation and road expansion from SimAmazonia. Results show that the combination of these scenarios may double forest fire occurrence outside protected areas (PAs) in years of extreme drought, expanding the risk of fire even to the northwestern Amazon by midcentury. In particular, forest fires may increase substantially across southern and southwestern Amazon, especially along the highways slated for paving and in agricultural zones. Committed emissions from Amazon forest fires and deforestation under a scenario of global warming and uncurbed deforestation may amount to 21 +/- 4 Pg of carbon by 2050. BAU deforestation may increase fires occurrence outside PAs by 19% over the next four decades, while climate change alone may account for a 12% increase. In turn, the combination of climate change

  2. Deforestation and cultivation mobilize mercury from topsoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamby, Rebecca L; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Costello, David M; Lamborg, Carl H; Runkle, James R

    2015-11-01

    Terrestrial biomass and soils are a primary global reservoir of mercury (Hg) derived from natural and anthropogenic sources; however, relatively little is known about the fate and stability of Hg in the surface soil reservoir and its susceptibility to change as a result of deforestation and cultivation. In southwest Ohio, we measured Hg concentrations in soils of deciduous old- and new-growth forests, as well as fallow grassland and agricultural soils that had once been forested to examine how, over decadal to century time scales, man-made deforestation and cultivation influence Hg mobility from temperate surface soils. Mercury concentrations in surficial soils were significantly greater in the old-growth than new-growth forest, and both forest soils had greater Hg concentrations than cultivated and fallow fields. Differences in Hg:lead ratios between old-growth forest and agricultural topsoils suggest that about half of the Hg lost from deforested and cultivated Ohio soils may have been volatilized and the other half eroded. The estimated mobilization potential of Hg as a result of deforestation was 4.1 mg m(-2), which was proportional to mobilization potentials measured at multiple locations in the Amazon relative to concentrations in forested surface soils. Based on this relationship and an estimate of the global average of Hg concentrations in forested soils, we approximate that about 550 M mol of Hg has been mobilized globally from soil as a result of deforestation during the past two centuries. This estimate is comparable to, if not greater than, the amount of anthropogenic Hg hypothesized by others to have been sequestered by the soil reservoir since Industrialization. Our results suggest that deforestation and soil cultivation are significant anthropogenic processes that exacerbate Hg mobilization from soil and its cycling in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbiological quality and bacterial diversity of the tropical oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in a monitored farming system and from natural stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Neta, M T; Maciel, B M; Lopes, A T S; Marques, E L S; Rezende, R P; Boehs, G

    2015-12-02

    Microbiological evaluation is one of the most important parameters for analyzing the viability of an oyster farming system, which addresses public health and ecological concerns. Here, the microbiological quality of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae cultivated in a monitored environment and from natural beds in Bahia, northeastern Brazil, was determined. Bacterial diversity in oysters was measured by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Sequence analysis revealed that most bacterial species showed similarity with uncultured or unidentified bacteria from environmental samples, and were clustered into the phylum Proteobacteria. Diverse bacteria from cultivated (monitored) oyster samples were grouped in the same cluster with a high similarity index (above 79%). Microbiological analyses revealed that these oysters did not contain pathogens. These results reflect the natural balance of the microbial communities essential to the maintenance of health and in inhibiting pathogen colonization in the oyster. On the other hand, bacterial diversity of samples from native stocks in extractive areas displayed a similarity index varying between 55 and 77%, and all samples were clustered separately from each other and from the cluster of samples derived from the cultivation area. Microbiological analyses showed that oysters from the extractive area were not fit for human consumption. This reflected a different composition of the microbial community in this area, probably resulting from anthropic impact. Our study also demonstrated that low temperatures and high rainfall limits the bacterial concentration in tropical oysters. This is the first study analyzing the total bacterial community profiles of the oyster C. rhizophorae.

  4. Multi-temporal InSAR monitoring of landslides in a tropical urban environment: focus on Bukavu (DR Congo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Adriano; Monsieurs, Elise; Dewitte, Olivier; d'Oreyes, Nicolas; Kervyn, Francois

    2016-04-01

    The western branch of the East African Rift System, in Central Africa, is characterized by the presence of several geohazards: earthquakes, volcanoes, and landslides. Every year, landslides cause fatalities, structural and functional damage to infrastructure and private properties with serious disruptions of the organization of societies and severe impact on the populations. These impacts are particularly important in the city of Bukavu (DR Congo) located within the Rift, on the southern shore of Lake Kivu. Large slow-moving landslides continuously affect highly populated slopes in the city. However little is known about their actual kinematics and the processes at play. Here we use multi-temporal InSAR technique to monitor these ground deformations. Using 50 Cosmo-SkyMed SAR images, acquired between March - October 2015 with a revisiting time of 8 days (ascending and descending orbits), we produce displacement-rate maps and ground deformation time series using the PS technique. Movements with a velocity >5cm/yr are detected, which is consistent with field observations. DGPS measurements, taken at 21 benchmarks in the area during the same period, allow validating the results. Similar ground deformation rates are found for the period 2002-2008 using Envisat ASAR images. Furthermore, comparison with rainfall monitoring data acquire on site should help us to understand the influence of water and the tropical seasonality in the slide mechanisms.

  5. Community monitoring of carbon stocks for REDD+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brofeldt, Søren; Theilade, Ida; Burgess, Neil David;

    2014-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) is a potentially powerful international policy mechanism that many tropical...

  6. Casuses of deforestation in southwestern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Ranaivoson, Socrate

    2004-01-01

    Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products......Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products...

  7. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chazdon, R.L.; Broadbent, E.N.; Rozendaal, Danae; Bongers, F.; Jakovac, A.C.; Braga Junqueira, A.; Lohbeck, M.W.M.; Pena Claros, M.; Poorter, L.

    2016-01-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We

  8. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chazdon, R.L.; Broadbent, E.N.; Rozendaal, Danae; Bongers, F.; Jakovac, A.C.; Braga Junqueira, A.; Lohbeck, M.W.M.; Pena Claros, M.; Poorter, L.

    2016-01-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We es

  9. Does the Pressure of Population and Poverty cause Deforestation?

    OpenAIRE

    Pungky Widiaryanto

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation has created several negative impacts such as reducing biodiversity, decreasing life support system and increasing green house gases emission. Identifying the causes of deforestation is a key to tackle this problem. Various studies have been conducted to investigate the driver of deforestation in the world. Some experts believe that the pressure of population and poverty cause deforestation. On the other hand, the others argue that there is no relationship among the pressure of p...

  10. Deforestation Induced Climate Change: Effects of Spatial Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Longobardi, Patrick; Montenegro, Alvaro; Beltrami, Hugo; Eby, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation is associated with increased atmospheric CO2 and alterations to the surface energy and mass balances that can lead to local and global climate changes. Previous modelling studies show that the global surface air temperature (SAT) response to deforestation depends on latitude, with most simulations showing that high latitude deforestation results in cooling, low latitude deforestation causes warming and that the mid latitude response is mixed. These earlier conclusions are based ...

  11. Spatial scale dependency of the modelled climatic response to deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Longobardi, P.; Montenegro, A.; H. Beltrami; M. Eby

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation is associated with increased atmospheric CO2 and alterations to the surface energy and mass balances that can lead to local and global climate changes. Previous modelling studies show that the global surface air temperature (SAT) response to deforestation depends on latitude, with most simulations showing that high latitude deforestation results in cooling, low latitude deforestation causes warming and that the mid latitude response is mixed. T...

  12. Trading Fat for Forests: On Palm Oil, Tropical Forest Conservation, and Rational Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Cindy Isenhour

    2014-01-01

    The longstanding butter vs margarine debate has recently become more complex as the links between margarine, industrial palm oil plantations, and tropical deforestation are made increasingly clear. Yet despite calls for consumers to get informed and take responsibility for tropical deforestation by boycotting margarine or purchasing buttery spreads made with sustainably-sourced palm oil, research in multiple contexts demonstrates that even the most aware, engaged, and rational consumers run i...

  13. A modeling study of the role of deforestation on the climate of central and eastern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semazzi, F.H.M.; Sun, Liqiang [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Giorgi, F. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This study assessed the effects of deforestation on the physical climate system of eastern and central Africa. The model used was the regional climate model (RegCM2) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and customized for the region under study. In the anomaly simulation, the land cover was systematically altered to replace the tropical forest with grass and Savannah cover. The RegCM2 realistically simulated the main features of the climate over eastern and central Africas. It was found that: (1) the rainfall dramatically decreased in 2 subregions, decreased in two subregions, increased in 1 subregion, and remained the same in 1 subregion; (2) rainfall deficit mainly happened during night time over the TF subregion and daytime over the LV subregion; and (3) mean surface air temperature increased over 5 subregions and decreased in 1 subregions. Deforestation also increased the diurnal variation of surface air temperature over one subregion. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Links between plant and fungal communities across a deforestation chronosequence in the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rebecca C; Paula, Fabiana S; Mirza, Babur S; Rodrigues, Jorge L M; Nüsslein, Klaus; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the interactions among microbial communities, plant communities and soil properties following deforestation could provide insights into the long-term effects of land-use change on ecosystem functions, and may help identify approaches that promote the recovery of degraded sites. We combined high-throughput sequencing of fungal rDNA and molecular barcoding of plant roots to estimate fungal and plant community composition in soil sampled across a chronosequence of deforestation. We found significant effects of land-use change on fungal community composition, which was more closely correlated to plant community composition than to changes in soil properties or geographic distance, providing evidence for strong links between above- and below-ground communities in tropical forests.

  15. Casuses of deforestation in southwestern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Ranaivoson, Socrate

    2004-01-01

    Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products...

  16. Deforestation crimes and conflicts in the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers,

  17. Deforestation crimes and conflicts in the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers,

  18. Debunking three myths about Madagascar's deforestation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-06

    Dec 6, 2012 ... do researchers, practitioners, politicians, and farmers remain perplexed ... capacity and willingness to address the problem. And the third .... ers who carry out the acts of deforestation. What is easy (or ... Farmers know this well. So, what do ... systems of rules and norms regarding proper behavior vis - à - vis.

  19. Intersectoral labor mobility and deforestation in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu, V.; Yerfi Fosu, K.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper quantifies the effects of the determinants of intersectoral labor mobility and the effect of intersectoral labor mobility on deforestation in Ghana over the period 1970–2008. A cointegration and error correction modeling approach is employed. The empirical results show that labor mobility

  20. Climate Impacts of Deforestation/Land-Use Changes in Central South America in the PRECIS Regional Climate Model: Mean Precipitation and Temperature Response to Present and Future Deforestation Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo O. Canziani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961–2000 (40-year runs, potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated. Current 2002 and estimated 2030 land-use scenarios are used to assess PRECIS's response during 1960–2000. ERA-40 and ECHAM4 Baseline driven runs yield similar results. Precipitation changes for 2002 and 2030 land-use scenarios, while significant within deforested areas, do not result in significant regional changes. For temperature significant changes are found within deforested areas and beyond, with major temperature enhancements during winter and spring. Given the current climate, primary effects of deforestation/land-use changes remain mostly confined to the tropical latitudes of Gran Chaco, and Amazonia.

  1. Climate impacts of deforestation/land-use changes in Central South America in the PRECIS regional climate model: mean precipitation and temperature response to present and future deforestation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canziani, Pablo O; Carbajal Benitez, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961-2000 (40-year runs), potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated. Current 2002 and estimated 2030 land-use scenarios are used to assess PRECIS's response during 1960-2000. ERA-40 and ECHAM4 Baseline driven runs yield similar results. Precipitation changes for 2002 and 2030 land-use scenarios, while significant within deforested areas, do not result in significant regional changes. For temperature significant changes are found within deforested areas and beyond, with major temperature enhancements during winter and spring. Given the current climate, primary effects of deforestation/land-use changes remain mostly confined to the tropical latitudes of Gran Chaco, and Amazonia.

  2. Climate Impacts of Deforestation/Land-Use Changes in Central South America in the PRECIS Regional Climate Model: Mean Precipitation and Temperature Response to Present and Future Deforestation Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canziani, Pablo O.; Carbajal Benitez, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961–2000 (40-year runs), potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated. Current 2002 and estimated 2030 land-use scenarios are used to assess PRECIS's response during 1960–2000. ERA-40 and ECHAM4 Baseline driven runs yield similar results. Precipitation changes for 2002 and 2030 land-use scenarios, while significant within deforested areas, do not result in significant regional changes. For temperature significant changes are found within deforested areas and beyond, with major temperature enhancements during winter and spring. Given the current climate, primary effects of deforestation/land-use changes remain mostly confined to the tropical latitudes of Gran Chaco, and Amazonia. PMID:22645487

  3. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-09-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5-4.8 Mha (24-26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7-3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8-0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57-60% versus 15-16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development.

  4. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5–4.8 Mha (24–26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7–3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8–0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57–60% versus 15–16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development. PMID:27605501

  5. Spatial patterns of carbon, biodiversity, deforestation threat, and REDD+ projects in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Josil P; Grenyer, Richard; Wunder, Sven; Raes, Niels; Jones, Julia P G

    2015-10-01

    There are concerns that Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) may fail to deliver potential biodiversity cobenefits if it is focused on high carbon areas. We explored the spatial overlaps between carbon stocks, biodiversity, projected deforestation threats, and the location of REDD+ projects in Indonesia, a tropical country at the forefront of REDD+ development. For biodiversity, we assembled data on the distribution of terrestrial vertebrates (ranges of amphibians, mammals, birds, reptiles) and plants (species distribution models for 8 families). We then investigated congruence between different measures of biodiversity richness and carbon stocks at the national and subnational scales. Finally, we mapped active REDD+ projects and investigated the carbon density and potential biodiversity richness and modeled deforestation pressures within these forests relative to protected areas and unprotected forests. There was little internal overlap among the different hotspots (richest 10% of cells) of species richness. There was also no consistent spatial congruence between carbon stocks and the biodiversity measures: a weak negative correlation at the national scale masked highly variable and nonlinear relationships island by island. Current REDD+ projects were preferentially located in areas with higher total species richness and threatened species richness but lower carbon densities than protected areas and unprotected forests. Although a quarter of the total area of these REDD+ projects is under relatively high deforestation pressure, the majority of the REDD+ area is not. In Indonesia at least, first-generation REDD+ projects are located where they are likely to deliver biodiversity benefits. However, if REDD+ is to deliver additional gains for climate and biodiversity, projects will need to focus on forests with the highest threat to deforestation, which will have cost implications for future REDD+ implementation.

  6. Long-term monitoring of change in Tropical grasslands- GLORIA network in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, F. X.; Muriel, P.; Halloy, S.; Beck, S.; Meneses, R. I.; Irazabal, J.; Aguirre, N.; Viñas, P.; Suarez, D.; Becerra, M. T.; Gloria-Andes Network

    2013-05-01

    It has been shown that predicted warming and increased frequency of extreme weather events increase with altitude in the Andean mountains. Combined with enormous topographic (and hence precipitation) heterogeneity, poverty and intensive land use, creates in the region a situation of high vulnerability to global change. Since 2005 the network Global Research Initiative in Alpine Environment (GLORIA) sites have been progressively installed in Andean countries to monitor changes, document the type and magnitude of impacts and provide guidance to develop adaptation strategies for biodiversity, humans, and productive systems. We report the preliminary results from 10 of those sites, in addition to new sites planned in South America. These sites provide baseline data and identify processes and patterns in plant biodiversity across different geographic contexts. These preliminary results show the tremendous singularity of the vegetation and flora patterns in the study sites, suggesting high sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate anomalies. It is expected that the consolidation of this network will support and strengthen long-term observation and monitoring research programs to enable the documentation and understanding of climate change impacts on the Andean biota. Our research considers complementary modules of investigation (e.g. carbon stocks and fluxes, plant responses to experimental manipulation) that contextualize the challenges and opportunities of adaptation for biodiversity and socio-economic components, providing measures of trends as well as effectiveness of adaptive management strategies.

  7. Use of cholinesterase activity in monitoring organophosphate pesticide exposure of cattle produced in tropical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardío, V T; Ibarra, N; Rodríguez, M A; Waliszewski, K N

    2001-12-01

    The use of cholinesterase activity as a biochemical method for monitoring organophosphate pesticide exposure in cattle is described herein. Determination of cholinesterase activity of whole blood, erythrocyte, and plasma was carried out according to the Ellman modified kinetic method. The mean baseline acetylcholinesterase activities of 9.549 +/- 3.619 IU/mL in whole blood, 9.444 +/- 3.006 IU/mL in erythrocytes, and 0.149 +/- 0.063 IU/mL in plasma were estimated for steers from the control group. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the general responses between the control and experimental groups (in vivo, monitoring and case studies) treated with Coumaphos and Fenthion were statistically different, and the general responses of these experimental groups were statistically different over time as well. Among the fractions that were analyzed, the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity could be adequate for the diagnosis of exposure or acute poisoning in cattle as it showed a good within-run and between-run precision with CVs <10% better than those in plasma.

  8. Regional impacts of Atlantic Forest deforestation on climate and vegetation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, J. A.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2012-12-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest was a large and important forest due to its high biodiversity, endemism, range in climate, and complex geography. The original Atlantic Forest was estimated to cover 150 million hectares, spanning large latitudinal, longitudinal, and elevation gradients. This unique environment helped contribute to a diverse assemblage of plants, mammals, birds, and reptiles. Unfortunately, due to land conversion into agriculture, pasture, urban areas, and increased forest fragmentation, only ~8-10% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Tropical deforestation in the Americas can have considerable effects on local to global climates, and surrounding vegetation growth and survival. This study uses a fully coupled, global climate model (Community Earth System Model, CESM v.1.0.1) to simulate the full removal of the historical Atlantic Forest, and evaluate the regional climatic and vegetation responses due to deforestation. We used the fully coupled atmosphere and land surface components in CESM, and a partially interacting ocean component. The vegetated grid cell portion of the land surface component, the Community Landscape Model (CLM), is divided into 4 of 16 plant functional types (PFTs) with vertical layers of canopy, leaf area index, soil physical properties, and interacting hydrological features all tracking energy, water, and carbon state and flux variables, making CLM highly capable in predicting the complex nature and outcomes of large-scale deforestation. The Atlantic Forest removal (i.e. deforestation) was conducted my converting all woody stem PFTs to grasses in CLM, creating a land-use change from forest to pasture. By comparing the simulated historical Atlantic Forest (pre human alteration) to a deforested Atlantic Forest (close to current conditions) in CLM and CESM we found that live stem carbon, NPP (gC m-2 yr-1), and other vegetation dynamics inside and outside the Atlantic Forest region were largely altered. In addition to vegetation

  9. Tracking deforestation, tree plantation expansion, and forest regrowth in a Costa Rican biological corridor using a Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, M. E.; Sesnie, S.; Arroyo, J.; Walker, W. S.; Soto, C.; Chazdon, R. L.; Sanchun, A.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Wood demand and voluntary carbon markets have driven a rapid global expansion in tropical tree plantations. To effectively monitor this expansion, new remote sensing-based methods are needed that can overcome difficulties in distinguishing between tree plantations, mature forests, and forest regrowth using low-cost moderate-resolution (10-100 m) satellite sensors. The objective of this study was to accurately map changes in the area of these three forest types in northern Costa Rica using Landsat imagery spanning a 25 year period (1986-2011). We mapped forest and tree plantation cover in a fragmented tropical landscape spanning approximately 2500 km2: the San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor (SJLSBC). In 1996, the Costa Rican government banned deforestation country-wide and concentrated payments for environmental services (PES) within Biological Corridors to promote native tree plantations and protect forests on private land. To evaluate this program's long-term success, we first tracked forest cover change over time and then distinguished between spectrally-similar forest types. We classified five dates (1986, 1996, 2001, 2005, and 2011) of multispectral Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (30 m resolution). Using Random Forests, we classified each single-date Landsat image first to forest/nonforest and then to thirteen land cover classes (Figures 1-3). To improve mapping of reforestation, final land cover classification was constrained by forest masks integrated over the time series. Training and validation data (1932 polygons covering 2185 ha) were collected using field data and aerial photography; final accuracy analysis was conducted by withholding twenty bootstrapped samples of the training data. Overall mean change-detection accuracy for the forest mask time series was 95.1% (Kappa= 0.93) and the overall land cover accuracy for all maps was greater than 80%. For tree plantations, the inclusion of multitemporal data improved classification accuracy over single

  10. Tropical Wetland Monitoring Using RapidEye and Sentinel 1 Satellite Images in Ifakara (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirimi, Fridah; Menz, Gunter

    2016-08-01

    Food insecurity has been a topic of concern particularly for the developing countries. Wetlands have a consistent supply of water throughout the year. To determine whether the utilization of the wetland for increased food production is viable, there was need to analyse the land uses in different months of the year to better understand the dynamics of existing vegetation.Support Vector Machine was used to classify the optical to establish the dynamics of changing vegetation. Bare land coverage gives an indication of the potentially available land that can be utilized for crop growth. The optical images are affected by cloud coverage. As a remedial action the use of SAR images in monitoring the wetlands is assessed. A great percentage of land remains bare. Quantification of this from the classified images forms a basis upon which decisions on strategic plans of increasing production sustainably in the region can be implemented.

  11. Hydrologic monitoring using open-source Arduino logging platforms in a socio-hydrological system of the drought-prone tropics, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, S. V.; Johnson, M. S.; Steyn, D. G.; Keddie, T.; Morillas, L.

    2015-12-01

    Water supply is highly disputed in the tropics of northwestern Costa Rica where rainfall exhibits high seasonal variability and long annual dry seasons. Water shortages are common during the dry season, and water conflicts emerge between domestic water users, intensively irrigated agriculture, the tourism industry, and ecological flows. Climate change may further increase the variability of precipitation and the risk for droughts, and pose challenges for small rural agricultural communities experiencing water stress. To adapt to seasonal droughts and improve resilience of communities to future changes, it is essential to increase understanding of interactions between components of the coupled hydrological-social system. Yet, hydrological monitoring and data on water use within developing countries of the humid tropics is limited. To address these challenges and contribute to extended monitoring networks, low-cost and open-source monitoring platforms were developed based off Arduino microelectronic boards and software and combined with hydrological sensors to monitor river stage and groundwater levels in two watersheds of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Hydrologic monitoring stations are located in remote locations and powered by solar panels. Monitoring efforts were made possible through collaboration with local rural communities, and complemented with a mix of digitized water extraction data and community water use narratives to increase understanding of water use and challenges. We will present the development of the Arduino logging system, results of water supply in relation to water use for both the wet and dry season, and discuss these results within a socio-hydrological system context.

  12. Deforestation Induced Climate Change: Effects of Spatial Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Patrick; Montenegro, Alvaro; Beltrami, Hugo; Eby, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation is associated with increased atmospheric CO2 and alterations to the surface energy and mass balances that can lead to local and global climate changes. Previous modelling studies show that the global surface air temperature (SAT) response to deforestation depends on latitude, with most simulations showing that high latitude deforestation results in cooling, low latitude deforestation causes warming and that the mid latitude response is mixed. These earlier conclusions are based on simulated large scal land cover change, with complete removal of trees from whole latitude bands. Using a global climate model we examine the effects of removing fractions of 5% to 100% of forested areas in the high, mid and low latitudes. All high latitude deforestation scenarios reduce mean global SAT, the opposite occurring for low latitude deforestation, although a decrease in SAT is simulated over low latitude deforested areas. Mid latitude SAT response is mixed. In all simulations deforested areas tend to become drier and have lower SAT, although soil temperatures increase over deforested mid and low latitude grid cells. For high latitude deforestation fractions of 45% and above, larger net primary productivity, in conjunction with colder and drier conditions after deforestation cause an increase in soil carbon large enough to produce a net decrease of atmospheric CO2. Our results reveal the complex interactions between soil carbon dynamics and other climate subsystems in the energy partition responses to land cover change.

  13. Review of Methods for the Monitoring of Biomass and Vegetal Carbon in Tropical Forest Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fonseca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of vegetal biomass is the key to know the carbon that forest ecosystems store, and therefore, its capacity to mitigate climatic change. There is a variety of methods to estimate biomass, many with small variations, such as size and shape of sampling units, inclusion or not of any reservoir component (leaves, branches, roots, necromasses, minimum diameter inventoried, among others. The objective of the paper is to explain the most important aspects to be considered in the inventory of removals, based on the inventory design (statistical design, size and shape of the sampling units, components of the biomass to be evaluated. A second point deals with the determination of aerial biomass and roots, referring to the direct or destructive method, and indirect methods, especially to the use of mathematical models for their easy application and low cost; besides, some models for natural forest and plantations are noted. Reference is also made to the study of carbon in soils, biomass expansion factors, and how to determine carbon in biomass. We hope that these notes will facilitate the understanding of the topic and be a reference for the establishment of monitoring, reporting and verification schemes.

  14. Changes in size of deforested patches in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2012-10-01

    Different deforestation agents, such as small farmers and large agricultural businesses, create different spatial patterns of deforestation. We analyzed the proportion of deforestation associated with different-sized clearings in the Brazilian Amazon from 2002 through 2009. We used annual deforestation maps to determine total area deforested and the size distribution of deforested patches per year. The size distribution of deforested areas changed over time in a consistent, directional manner. Large clearings (>1000 ha) comprised progressively smaller amounts of total annual deforestation. The number of smaller clearings (6.25-50.00 ha) remained unchanged over time. Small clearings accounted for 73% of all deforestation in 2009, up from 30% in 2002, whereas the proportion of deforestation attributable to large clearings decreased from 13% to 3% between 2002 and 2009. Large clearings were concentrated in Mato Grosso, but also occurred in eastern Pará and in Rondônia. In 2002 large clearings accounted for 17%, 15%, and 10% of all deforestation in Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, respectively. Even in these states, where there is a highly developed agricultural business dominated by soybean production and cattle ranching, the proportional contribution of large clearings to total deforestation declined. By 2009 large clearings accounted for 2.5%, 3.5%, and 1% of all deforestation in Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, respectively. These changes in deforestation patch size are coincident with the implementation of new conservation policies by the Brazilian government, which suggests that these policies are not effectively reducing the number of small clearings in primary forest, whether these are caused by large landholders or smallholders, but have been more effective at reducing the frequency of larger clearings. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Smoke and fire characteristics for Cerrado and deforestation burns in Brazil: BASE-B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. E.; Susott, R. A.; Kauffman, J. B.; Babbitt, R. E.; Cummings, D. L.; Dias, B.; Holben, B. N.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Setzer, A. W.

    1992-09-01

    Fires of the tropical forests and savannas are a major source of particulate matter and trace gases affecting the atmosphere globally. A paucity of quantitative information exists for these ecosystems with respect to fuel biomass, smoke emissions, and fire behavior conditions affecting the release of emissions. Five test fires were performed during August and September 1990 in the cerrado (savannalike region) in central Brazil (three fires) and tropical moist forest (two fires) in the eastern Amazon. This paper details the gases released, the ratios of the gases to each other and to particulate matter, fuel loads and the fraction consumed (combustion factors), and the fire behavior associated with biomass consumption. Models are presented for evaluating emission factors for CH4, CO2, CO, H2, and particles less than 2.5 μm diameter (PM2.5) as a function of combustion efficiency. The ratio of carbon released as CO2 (combustion efficiency) for the cerrado fires averaged 0.94 and for the deforestation fires it decreased from 0.88 for the flaming phase to <0.80 during the smoldering phase of combustion. For tropical ecosystems, emissions of most products of incomplete combustion are projected to be lower than previous estimates for savanna ecosystems and somewhat higher for fires used for deforestation purposes.

  16. Deforestation and Secondary Growth in Rondonia, Brazil from SIR-C SAR and Landsat.SPOT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric; Salas, William A.; Skole, David L.

    1996-01-01

    Covers problems with existing data collected with high-resolution optical sensors. They say active microwave sensors could complement other sensors in getting through things like cloud cover. They analyzed SIR-C data in combination with Landsat TM data, a 9-year time series of SPOT XS data, and a preliminary field survey. They report findings and draw conclusions, including that SARs operating at long radar wavelengths, with both like and cross-polarizations, are needed for tropical deforestation studies.

  17. Generalist birds promote tropical forest regeneration and increase plant diversity via rare-biased seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Tomás A; Morales, Juan M

    2016-07-01

    Regenerated forests now compose over half of the world's tropical forest cover and are increasingly important as providers of ecosystem services, freshwater, and biodiversity conservation. Much of the value and functionality of regenerating forests depends on the plant diversity they contain. Tropical forest diversity is strongly shaped by mutualistic interactions between plants and fruit-eating animals (frugivores) that disperse seeds. Here we show how seed dispersal by birds can influence the speed and diversity of early successional forests in Puerto Rico. For two years, we monitored the monthly fruit production of bird-dispersed plants on a fragmented landscape, and measured seed dispersal activity of birds and plant establishment in experimental plots located in deforested areas. Two predominantly omnivorous bird species, the Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) and the Gray Kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis), proved critical for speeding up the establishment of woody plants and increasing the species richness and diversity of the seed rain in deforested areas. Seed dispersal by these generalists increased the odds for rare plant species to disperse and establish in experimental forest-regeneration plots. Results indicate that birds that mix fruit and insects in their diets and actively forage across open and forested habitats can play keystone roles in the regeneration of mutualistic plant-animal communities. Furthermore, our analyses reveal that rare-biased (antiapostatic) frugivory and seed dispersal is the mechanism responsible for increasing plant diversity in the early-regenerating community. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Quantifying rate of deforestation and CO2 emission in Peninsular Malaysia using Palsar imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, O.; Abd Rahman, K.; Samsudin, M.

    2016-06-01

    monitoring of deforestation over the Peninsular Malaysia region.

  19. Precolonial institutions and deforestation in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.10.030 We find that local institutions inherited from the precolonial era continue to play an important role in natural resource governance in Africa. Using satellite image data, we find a significant and robust relationship between deforestation and precolonial succession rules of local leaders (local chiefs). In particular, we find that those precolonial ar...

  20. Effects of systematic sampling on satellite estimates of deforestation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steininger, M K; Godoy, F; Harper, G, E-mail: msteininger@conservation.or [Center for Applied Biodiversity Science-Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Options for satellite monitoring of deforestation rates over large areas include the use of sampling. Sampling may reduce the cost of monitoring but is also a source of error in estimates of areas and rates. A common sampling approach is systematic sampling, in which sample units of a constant size are distributed in some regular manner, such as a grid. The proposed approach for the 2010 Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a systematic sample of 10 km wide squares at every 1 deg. intersection of latitude and longitude. We assessed the outcome of this and other systematic samples for estimating deforestation at national, sub-national and continental levels. The study is based on digital data on deforestation patterns for the five Amazonian countries outside Brazil plus the Brazilian Amazon. We tested these schemes by varying sample-unit size and frequency. We calculated two estimates of sampling error. First we calculated the standard errors, based on the size, variance and covariance of the samples, and from this calculated the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Second, we calculated the actual errors, based on the difference between the sample-based estimates and the estimates from the full-coverage maps. At the continental level, the 1 deg., 10 km scheme had a CI of 21% and an actual error of 8%. At the national level, this scheme had CIs of 126% for Ecuador and up to 67% for other countries. At this level, increasing sampling density to every 0.25 deg. produced a CI of 32% for Ecuador and CIs of up to 25% for other countries, with only Brazil having a CI of less than 10%. Actual errors were within the limits of the CIs in all but two of the 56 cases. Actual errors were half or less of the CIs in all but eight of these cases. These results indicate that the FRA 2010 should have CIs of smaller than or close to 10% at the continental level. However, systematic sampling at the national level yields large CIs unless the

  1. Deforestation in Amazonia impacts riverine carbon dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Langerwisch

    2016-12-01

    find that high deforestation (business-as-usual scenario will strongly decrease (locally by up to 90 % riverine particulate and dissolved organic carbon amount until the end of the current century. At the same time, increase in discharge leaves net carbon transport during the first decades of the century roughly unchanged only if a sufficient area is still forested. After 2050 the amount of transported carbon will decrease drastically. In contrast to that, increased temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration determine the amount of riverine inorganic carbon stored in the Amazon basin. Higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase riverine inorganic carbon amount by up to 20 % (SRES A2. The changes in riverine carbon fluxes have direct effects on carbon export, either to the atmosphere via outgassing or to the Atlantic Ocean via discharge. The outgassed carbon will increase slightly in the Amazon basin, but can be regionally reduced by up to 60 % due to deforestation. The discharge of organic carbon to the ocean will be reduced by about 40 % under the most severe deforestation and climate change scenario. These changes would have local and regional consequences on the carbon balance and habitat characteristics in the Amazon basin itself as well as in the adjacent Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Regional monitoring of lead and cadmium contamination in a tropical grazing land site, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkpian, Preeda; Leong, Shing Tet; Laortanakul, Preecha; Thunthaisong, Nasavan

    2003-06-01

    An investigation was carried out to monitor Pb and Cd contamination in grazing land located near a highway. Environmental media at different distances from highway (soil, grass, water, cow's forage, fertilizer, manure and milk samples) were collected from three sampling locations. Soil and grass were characterized by high metal mobility (soil with Pb: 5.25 +/- 0.71-14.59 +/- 1.17 mg kg(-1), dry mass and Cd: 0.038-0.33 +/- 0.04 mg kg(-1), dry mass and grass with Pb: 0.76 +/- 0.05-6.62 +/- 0.18 mg kg(-1), dry mass and Cd: 0.17+/- 0.01-0.73 +/- 0.09 mg kg(-1), dry mass). One-way analysis of variane (ANOVA) was applied to find out the correlation between metal (total and bioavailable) concentrations in the soil and the distance from roadside. In most cases, the finding showed that plants growing nearer to the highway are usually exposed to more heavy metal accumulations than those away from the highway. In addition, a correlation was established between plant available metal concentrations and plant metal uptake concentrations. Analysis of fertilizer and manure showed considerable amount of metals (fertilizer with Pb: 1.53 +/- 0.06 mg kg(-1) and Cd: 0.038 mg kg(-1) and manure with Pb: 2.55-3.34 mg kg(-1) and Cd: 0.14-0.31 mg kg(-1)). Long-.term simultaneous application of fertilizer and manure on the commercial farm showed higher metal accumulation in the soil and plants than those of co-operative farm. Considerable concentrations of metals (Pb: 1.60-2.94 mg kg(-1) and Cd: 0.025-0.19 mg kg(-1)) were observed in fodder. The finding clearly demonstrated that there are seasonal variation in total daily metal intake by individual cow (Pb: 109.37 mg day(-1) (dry), 273.47 mg day(-1) (rainy) and Cd: 2.02 mg day(-1) (dry), 19.62 mg day(-1) (rainy)). The provisional tolerable weekly intake of heavy metals in cows is 390 microg Pb and 28 microg Cd per kg body weight in the rainy season and 156 microg Pb and 2 microg Cd per kg body weight in the dry season. The levels of metals

  3. Tropical Controls on the CO2 Atmospheric Growth Rate 2010-2011 from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, K. W.; Liu, J.; Parazoo, N.; Lee, M.; Menemenlis, D.; Gierach, M. M.; Brix, H.; Gurney, K. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Bousserez, N.; Henze, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Interannual variations in the atmospheric growth rate of CO2 have been attributed to the tropical regions and the controls are correlated with temperature anomalies. We investigate the spatial drivers of the atmospheric growth rate and the processes controlling them over the exceptional period of 2010-2011. This period was marked by a marked shift from an El Nino to La Nina period resulting in historically high sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Atlantic leading to serious droughts in the Amazon. However, in 2011, unusual precipitation in Australia was linked to gross primary productivity anomalies in semi-arid regions. We use satellite observations of CO2, CO, and solar induced fluorescence assimilated into the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Project (CMS-Flux) to attribute the atmospheric growth rate to global, spatially resolved fluxes. This system is based upon observationally-constrained "bottom-up" estimates from the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS), the ECCO2­-Darwin physical and biogeochemical adjoint ocean state estimation system, and CASA-GFED3 land-surface biogeochemical model. The system is used to compute regional tropical and extra-tropical fluxes and quantify the role of biomass burning and gross primary productivity in controlling those fluxes.

  4. Preserving the world's tropical forests--a price on carbon may not do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, U Martin; Azar, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Climate policy will create both disincentives and incentives for tropical deforestation. Disincentives if the carbon emissions from forest clearing are priced, as is currently being discussed within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); incentives as a price on carbon will increase the demand for carbon-neutral energy sources, including bioenergy, making deforestation for biomass cultivation increasingly profitable. The question is whether the increased cost for forest clearing, through the price on carbon emissions, will be enough to counter-balance the increased profitability of deforestation through the escalating value of agricultural land. In an attempt to answer this question we analyze the profitability of tropical deforestation and subsequent bioenergy production, taking oil palm plantations as an illustrative example. We estimate that deforesting for palm oil bioenergy production is likely to remain highly profitable, even in the face of a price on the carbon emissions from forest clearing. Current efforts to include carbon emissions from tropical deforestation in a future international climate regime, while a step in the right direction, may therefore not suffice as protection for the world's tropical forests. Additional, and stronger, protection measures for the world's tropical forests will still be needed.

  5. Predicting pan-tropical climate change induced forest stock gains and losses—implications for REDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpenberger, Marlies; Vohland, Katrin; Heyder, Ursula; Poulter, Benjamin; Macey, Kirsten; Rammig, Anja; Popp, Alexander; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Deforestation is a major threat to tropical forests worldwide, contributing up to one-fifth of global carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Despite protection efforts, deforestation of tropical forests has continued in recent years. Providing incentives to reducing deforestation has been proposed in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Bali negotiations in 2007 to decelerate emissions from deforestation (REDD—reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation). A number of methodological issues such as ensuring permanence, establishing reference emissions levels that do not reward business-as-usual and having a measuring, reporting and verification system in place are essential elements in implementing successful REDD schemes. To assess the combined impacts of climate and land-use change on tropical forest carbon stocks in the 21st century, we use a dynamic global vegetation model (LPJ DGVM) driven by five different climate change projections under a given greenhouse gas emission scenario (SRES A2) and two contrasting land-use change scenarios. We find that even under a complete stop of deforestation after the period of the Kyoto Protocol (post-2012) some countries may continue to lose carbon stocks due to climate change. Especially at risk is tropical Latin America, although the presence and magnitude of the risk depends on the climate change scenario. By contrast, strong protection of forests could increase carbon uptake in many tropical countries, due to CO2 fertilization effects, even under altered climate regimes.

  6. Environmental Concerns of Deforestation in Myanmar 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuyuan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation in Myanmar has recently attracted much attention worldwide. This study examined spatio-temporal patterns of deforestation and forest carbon flux in Myanmar from 2001 to 2010 and environmental impacts at the regional scale using land products of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. The results suggest that the total deforestation area in Myanmar was 21,178.8 km2, with an annual deforestation rate of 0.81%, and that the total forest carbon release was 20.06 million tons, with an annual rate of 0.37%. Mangrove forests had the highest deforestation and carbon release rates, and deciduous forests had both the largest deforestation area and largest amount of carbon release. During the study period, the south and southwestern regions of Myanmar, especially Ayeyarwady and Rakhine, were deforestation hotspots (i.e., the highest deforestation and carbon release rates occurred in these regions. Deforestation caused significant carbon release, reduced evapotranspiration (ET, and increased land surface temperatures (LSTs in deforested areas in Myanmar during the study period. Constructive policy recommendations are put forward based on these research results.

  7. Hydrological and Geoelectrical monitoring of Landslides in the tropical Andes: Case Study Medellín - Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza-Usuga, J. C.; Monsalve, G.; Arce, L.; Vahos, L. S.; Smolikova, J.; Alzate, J. A.; Ramirez-Hoyos, L.

    2016-12-01

    With the aim of understanding the dynamics of landslides in the tropical Andes of Colombia, we started a long-term project of monitoring different variables that might play a significant role in triggering mass movements. We selected an area of high slopes and active geomorphic processes in the city of Medellín - Colombia. Landslides in this area are mostly triggered by rain, and their frequency is known to be highly correlated with the bimodal distribution of rainfall that characterizes the region. After a stage of geologic and geomorphic mapping, we selected an area of active landslide processes of nearly 6 square kilometers, which is clearly affecting the nearby roads. We installed some basic equipment to measure several hydrologic variables in the soil, such as porosity, moisture, infiltration and percolation, obtaining clearly differentiated estimations for the dry and wet seasons. We also conducted several electrical resistivity tests, which included vertical soundings at specific locations along the slope, electromagnetic induction measurements to constrain lateral heterogeneity at those locations, and a resistivity tomography along the direction of maximum slope. Preliminary results suggest the presence of a layer of a debris flow about 4 m thick on top of a more consolidated material. The water table seems to fluctuate within the debris flow. The average infiltration and percolation decrease during the wet season by nearly 20% and 61% respectively. According to the measurements taken up to date, we speculate that the landslide dynamics is linked to subsurface flow in the first meters / tens of centimeters of the soil, favored by the high porosity, the presence of a fluctuating water table between 1.5 and 3 m deep, and the large contrast in electrical resistivity at a depth of 4 m.

  8. Spatial Model of Deforestation in Sumatra Islands Using Typological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin Sulistiyono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High rate of deforestation occurred in Sumatra Islands had been allegedly triggered by various factors. This study examined how the deforestation pattern was related to the typology of the area, as well as how the deforestation is being affected by many factors such as physical, biological, and socio-economic of the local community. The objective of this study was to formulate a spatial model of deforestation based on triggering factors within each typology in Sumatra Islands. The typology classes were developed on the basis of socio-economic factors using the standardized-euclidean distance measure and the memberships of each cluster was determined using the furthest neighbor method. The logistic regression method was used for modeling and estimating the spatial distribution of deforestation.Two deforestation typologies were distinguished in this study, namely typology 1 (regencies/cities with low deforestation rate and typology 2 (regencies/cities with high deforestation rate. The study found that growth rate of farm households could be used to assign each regencies or cities in Sumatra Islands into their corresponding typology. The resulted spatial model of deforestation from logistic regression analysis were logit (deforestation = 1.355 + (0.012*total of farm households – (0.08*elevation – (0.019*distance from road for typology 1 and logit (deforestation = 1.714 + (0.007*total of farm households – (0.021*slope – (0.051*elevation – (0.038* distance from road + (0.039* distance from river for typology 2, respectively. The accuracy test of deforestation model in 2000–2006 showed overall accuracy of 68.52% (typology 1 and 74.49% (typology 2, while model of deforestation in 2006–2012 showed overall accuracy of 65.37% (typology 1 and 72.24% (typology 2, respectively.

  9. Spatio-Temporal Deforestation Measurement Using Automatic Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Erlyn Wina Rachmawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation is one of the crucial issues in Indonesia. In 2012, deforestation rate in Indonesia reached 0.84 million hectares, exceeding Brazil. According to the 2009 Guinness World Records, Indonesia's deforestation rate was 1.8 million hectares per year between 2000 and 2005. An interesting view is the fact that Indonesia government denied the deforestation rate in those years and said that the rate was only 1.08 million hectares per year in 2000 and 2005. The different problem is on the technique how to deal with the deforestation rate. In this paper, we proposed a new approach for automatically identifying the deforestation area and measuring the deforestation rate. This approach involves differential image processing for detecting Spatio-temporal nature changes of deforestation. It consists series of important features extracted from multiband satellite images which are considered as the dataset of the research. These data are proceeded through the following stages: (1 Automatic clustering for multiband satellite images, (2 Reinforcement Programming to optimize K-Means clustering, (3 Automatic interpretation for deforestation areas, and (4 Deforestation measurement adjusting with elevation of the satellite. For experimental study, we applied our proposed approach to analyze and measure the deforestation in Mendawai, South Borneo. We utilized Landsat 7 to obtain the multiband images for that area from the year 2001 to 2013. Our proposed approach is able to identify the deforestation area and measure the rate. The experiment with our proposed approach made a temporal measurement for the area and showed the increasing deforestation size of the area 1.80 hectares during those years.

  10. The future of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Five anthropogenic drivers--land use change, wood extraction, hunting, atmospheric change, climate change--will largely determine the future of tropical forests. The geographic scope and intensity of these five drivers are in flux. Contemporary land use change includes deforestation (approximately 64,000 km(2) yr(-1) for the entire tropical forest biome) and natural forests regenerating on abandoned land (approximately 21,500 km(2) yr(-1) with just 29% of the biome evaluated). Commercial logging is shifting rapidly from Southeast Asia to Africa and South America, but local fuelwood consumption continues to constitute 71% of all wood production. Pantropical rates of net deforestation are declining even as secondary and logged forests increasingly replace old-growth forests. Hunters reduce frugivore, granivore and browser abundances in most forests. This alters seed dispersal, seed and seedling survival, and hence the species composition and spatial template of plant regeneration. Tropical governments have responded to these local threats by protecting 7% of all land for the strict conservation of nature--a commitment that is only matched poleward of 40 degrees S and 70 degrees N. Protected status often fails to stop hunters and is impotent against atmospheric and climate change. There are increasing reports of stark changes in the structure and dynamics of protected tropical forests. Four broad classes of mechanisms might contribute to these changes. Predictions are developed to distinguish among these mechanisms.

  11. Global demand for gold is another threat for tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Berríos, Nora L.; Aide, T. Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The current global gold rush, driven by increasing consumption in developing countries and uncertainty in financial markets, is an increasing threat for tropical ecosystems. Gold mining causes significant alteration to the environment, yet mining is often overlooked in deforestation analyses because it occupies relatively small areas. As a result, we lack a comprehensive assessment of the spatial extent of gold mining impacts on tropical forests. In this study, we provide a regional assessment of gold mining deforestation in the tropical moist forest biome of South America. Specifically, we analyzed the patterns of forest change in gold mining sites between 2001 and 2013, and evaluated the proximity of gold mining deforestation to protected areas (PAs). The forest cover maps were produced using the Land Mapper web application and images from the MODIS satellite MOD13Q1 vegetation indices 250 m product. Annual maps of forest cover were used to model the incremental change in forest in ˜1600 potential gold mining sites between 2001-2006 and 2007-2013. Approximately 1680 km2 of tropical moist forest was lost in these mining sites between 2001 and 2013. Deforestation was significantly higher during the 2007-2013 period, and this was associated with the increase in global demand for gold after the international financial crisis. More than 90% of the deforestation occurred in four major hotspots: Guianan moist forest ecoregion (41%), Southwest Amazon moist forest ecoregion (28%), Tapajós-Xingú moist forest ecoregion (11%), and Magdalena Valley montane forest and Magdalena-Urabá moist forest ecoregions (9%). In addition, some of the more active zones of gold mining deforestation occurred inside or within 10 km of ˜32 PAs. There is an urgent need to understand the ecological and social impacts of gold mining because it is an important cause of deforestation in the most remote forests in South America, and the impacts, particularly in aquatic systems, spread well

  12. Assessment of surface dryness due to deforestation using satellite-based temperature-vegetation dryness index (TVDI) in Rondônia, Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J. H.; Cho, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Rondônia is the most deforested region in the Amazon due to human activities such as forest lumbering for the several decades. The deforestation affects to water cycle because evapotranspiration was reduced, and then soil moisture and precipitation will be changed. In this study, we assess surface dryness using satellite-based data such as moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), albedo, TRMM Multi-sensor Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) precipitation from 2002 to 2014, and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) from 2007 to 2014. Temperature-vegetation dryness index (TVDI) was calculated using LST and NDVI to evaluate surface dryness during dry season (June-July). TVDI relatively represents the surface dryness on specific area and period. Forest, deforesting and deforested regions were selected in the Rondônia to assess the relative changes on surface dryness occurred from human activity. The relative TVDI (rTVDI) at deforesting region increased because of deforestation, it means that surface in deforesting region became more dryness. We also found that to assess the impact of deforestation using satellite-based precipitation and vegetation conditions such as NDVI and sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) is possible. The relative NDVI (rNDVI) and SIF decreased when TVDI increased, and two variables (rTVDI-rNDVI, rTVDI-SIF) had linear correlation. Thesis results can be helpful to comprehend impact of deforestation in Amazon, and to validate simulations of deforestation from hydrological models.

  13. Influence of Deforestation on Infiltration and Erosion in the Brazilian Caatinga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, P. A.; Souza, E.; Gomes, R. J.; Jacques, Y.; Cantalice, J. R. B.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and changes in land use are leading to increasing rates of deforestation and land degradation in the Brazilian Caatinga—a semiarid tropical forest. The influence of deforestation and subsequent recovery on soil hydrological properties and erosion are poorly understood. To investigate the influence of forest regeneration stage on soil hydrological processes, we conducted small plot rainfall simulation experiments on (1) a degraded pasture, recently abandoned; (2) an abandoned pasture left for natural recovery in the past seven years; (3) a 40 year old regenerating forestland; and (4) an old-growth forestland. In addition, we determined infiltration rates using single rings (following the Beerkan Method) and in the laboratory we applied the constant head method to soil core samples. Hydraulic parameters will be obtained using the BEST method with SciLab software and statistical analysis of the data will be carried in R. We found that infiltration rates were highest and erosion the lowest in the old-growth forest. Surprisingly, differences in both infiltration and erosion rates were quite small in the other sites. These results suggest that significant time is required following deforestation for recovery of soil hydrological properties.

  14. Securing tropical forest carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison;

    2010-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6-17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world's humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate...... that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25-0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation...... in protected sites in humid tropical forests could be valued at USD 6,200-7,400 million depending on the land use after clearance. This is >1.5 times the estimated spending on protected area management in these regions. Improving management of protected areas to retain forest cover better may be an important...

  15. Remotely Sensed Fire Type Classification of the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Roy, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetation fires in the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome can be broadly classified into three types: i) Deforestation fires, lit to aid deforestation by burning of slashed, piled and dried forest biomass, ii) Maintenance fires, lit on agricultural fields or pasture areas to maintain and clear woody material and to rehabilitate degraded pasture areas, iii) Forest fires, associated with escaped anthropogenic fires or, less frequently, caused by lightning. Information on the incidence and spatial distribution of fire types is important as they have widely varying atmospheric emissions and ecological impacts. Satellite remote sensing offers a practical means of monitoring fires over areas as extensive as the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome which spans almost 4 million square kilometers. To date, fire type has been inferred based on the geographic context and proximity of satellite active fire detections relative to thematic land cover classes, roads, and forest edges, or by empirical consideration of the active fire detection frequency. In this paper a classification methodology is presented that demonstrates a way to classify the fire type of MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire detections. Training and validation fire type data are defined conservatively for MODIS active fire detections using a land cover transition matrix that labels MODIS active fires by consideration of the PRODES 120m land cover for the previous year and the year of fire detection. The training data are used with a random forest classifier and remotely sensed predictor variables including the number of MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite detections, the maximum and median Fire Radiative Power (FRP) [MW km-2], the scaling parameter of the FRP power law distribution, the number of day and night detections, and the fire surrounding "background" surface brightness temperature [K]. In addition, the total rainfall over periods from 1 to 24 months prior to fire

  16. THE IMPACT OF DEFORESTATION ON BIODIVERSITY LOSS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Gede Ardhana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of deforestation on biodiversity loss in Indonesia. Firstly author presented information about deforestation trends that spread across Indonesia. And presented information about forest fires that triggered off the continuous deforestation and occurred one after another throughout the year. The collected data showed deforestation and forest fires have occurred since 1960 to 2015, and deforestation and forest fires implicated in the extinction of species diversity, genetics, and ecosystems that spreads from Sunda region to Sahul region. Author used descriptive regulation and legislation methods, used literature approach, as well as arranged with descriptive and interpretational form in papers. From the results of this study author concluded that deforestation rate implicates in forest fires that occur continuously throughout the year and can not be inevitable possibility of extinction of biodiversity spread across Indonesia.

  17. The Dutch Economic Contribution to Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Indonesia and Malaysia 1995-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    Several studies and approaches look upon the ecological footprint of countries and cities, including the Netherlands. These studies show that the ecological footprint of the Netherlands has increased to about six times its current area in 2002. An important component of the footprint is the impact of Dutch trade and consumption of agro-commodities, putting a claim on land. This study takes a comparable but slightly different approach by looking at the contribution by Dutch imports of selected agro-commodities on the change of land-use from forests to degraded forests or croplands by deforestation. This transition is accompanied by a loss of various ecosystem services, especially habitat for biodiversity and carbon sequestration. The impact on deforestation and forest degradation generally has an irreversible character, and can be interpreted as the increasing proportion of land of which productivity is being focused at human consumption demands. This study was originally inspired by the 1991 policy study 'Regeringsstandpunt Tropisch Regenwoud' (Governmental point of view with regard to tropical forests), and subsequent policy decisions, stating Dutch government commitments to contribute to the protection of tropical and temperate intact forests. These policy decisions include a variety of initiatives aimed at reducing deforestation, such as encouraging certification, afforestation and forest management projects, regional agreements to combat illegal logging (FLEGT: Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade, and others), conventions to protect biodiversity, and development aid to strengthen institutional capacity in timber producing countries. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence that Dutch imports and consumption of commodities results in deforestation and forest degradation in the countries where those commodities are produced. Curbing deforestation plays an important roIe in the negotiations towards a climate agreement in Copenhagen at the

  18. Spatial scale dependency of the modelled climatic response to deforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Longobardi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation is associated with increased atmospheric CO2 and alterations to the surface energy and mass balances that can lead to local and global climate changes. Previous modelling studies show that the global surface air temperature (SAT response to deforestation depends on latitude, with most simulations showing that high latitude deforestation results in cooling, low latitude deforestation causes warming and that the mid latitude response is mixed. These earlier conclusions are based on simulated large scale land cover change, with complete removal of trees from whole latitude bands. Using a global climate model we determine effects of removing fractions of 5% to 100% of forested areas in the high, mid and low latitudes. All high latitude deforestation scenarios reduce mean global SAT, the opposite occurring for low latitude deforestation, although a decrease in SAT is registered over low latitude deforested areas. Mid latitude SAT response is mixed. For all simulations deforested areas tend to become drier and have lower surface air temperature, although soil temperatures increase over deforested mid and low latitude grid cells. For high latitude deforestation fractions of 45% and above, larger net primary productivity, in conjunction with colder and drier conditions after deforestation, cause an increase in soil carbon large enough to generate a previously not reported net drawdown of CO2 from the atmosphere. Our results support previous indications of the importance of changes in cloud cover in the modelled temperature response to deforestation at low latitudes. They also show the complex interaction between soil carbon dynamics and climate and the role this plays on the climatic response to land cover change.

  19. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Arief A. Yusuf; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that...

  20. Synergistic impacts of deforestation, climate change and fire on the future biomes distribution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, G.; Cardoso, M. F.; Nobre, C. A.; Salazar, L. F.

    2013-05-01

    Several studies indicate future increase of environmental risks for the ecosystems in the Amazon region as a result of climate and land-use change, and their synergistic interactions. Modeling studies (e.g. Oyama and Nobre 2004, Salazar et al. 2007, Malhi et al. 2008) project rapid and irreversible replacement of forests by savannas with large-scale losses of biodiversity and livelihoods for people in the region. This process is referred to as the Amazon Dieback, where accelerated plant mortality due to environmental changes lead to forest collapse and savannas expansion after "tipping points" in climate and land surface changes are achieved. In this study we performed new analyses to quantify how deforestation, climate change and fire may combine to affect the distribution of major biomes in Amazonia. Changes in land use consider deforestation scenarios of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 50% (Sampaio et al., 2007), with and without fires (Cardoso et al., 2008), under the two greenhouse gases scenarios B1 and A2 and three "representative concentration pathways" (RCPs): 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5, for years 2015-2034 and 2040-2059 ("2025" and "2050" time-slices), from IPCC AR4 and CMIP5. The results show that the area affected in scenarios A2 and RCP 8.5 is larger than in the climate scenario B1 and RCP 2.6, and in both cases the effect is progressively higher in time. Most important changes occur in the East and South of the Amazon, with replacement of tropical forest by seasonal forest and savanna. The effect of fire in this region is important in all scenarios. The Northwest Amazon presents the smallest changes in the area of tropical forest, indicating that even for substantial land-use modifications and global climate change, the resulting atmospheric conditions would still support tropical forest in the region. In summary, we conclude that the synergistic combination of deforestation, climate change resulting from global warming, and the potential for higher fire occurrence may lead

  1. Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (RED). An overview of risks and opportunities for the poor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funder, M.

    2009-07-01

    Deforestation and land use change is estimated to account for 18% of total greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Current debates over forestry and climate change mitigation center on the development of a global scheme for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD). Under such a scheme, countries would be financially compensated for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation through an international forest carbon market and/or fund. This Report provides an overview of the risks and opportunities associated with REDD for the rural poor in developing countries, with a particular emphasis on practical forestry options under REDD in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). REDD could potentially direct very significant funds towards developing countries. Approximately 65% of the mitigation potential in forestry is located in the tropics. While much of this is found in countries such as Brazil and Indonesia, REDD may also have significant implications for LDCs. While only 5% of total global GHG emissions come from LDCs, they are responsible for approximately 20% of global emissions from land use change and forestry. Within LDCs, deforestation and land us change are responsible for 74% of all emissions. Land use change and forestry are thus the only genuinely significant sources of emissions from LDCs on the global scale, and are by far the major source of emissions within LDCs.The extent to which REDD outcomes end up in the 'best' or 'worst' case scenario (or somewhere in between) depends on a number of issues, not all of which lie within REDD itself. Nevertheless, important steps can be taken in how REDD is developed and designed, and the principles upon which this is based. The report discusses these various options in terms of three important aspects of a pro-poor REDD mechanism: (i) the design options for a possible international forest carbon funding mechanism; (ii) the practical mitigation options that may be accommodated

  2. Development of deforestation and land cover database for Bhutan (1930-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C Sudhakar; Satish, K V; Jha, C S; Diwakar, P G; Murthy, Y V N Krishna; Dadhwal, V K

    2016-12-01

    Bhutan is a mountainous country located in the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot. This study has quantified the total area under land cover types, estimated the rate of forest cover change, analyzed the changes across forest types, and modeled forest cover change hotpots in Bhutan. The topographical maps and satellite remote sensing images were analyzed to get the spatial patterns of forest and associated land cover changes over the past eight decades (1930-1977-1987-1995-2005-2014). Forest is the largest land cover in Bhutan and constitutes 68.3% of the total geographical area in 2014. Subtropical broad leaved hill forest is predominant type occupies 34.1% of forest area in Bhutan, followed by montane dry temperate (20.9%), montane wet temperate (18.9%), Himalayan moist temperate (10%), and tropical moist sal (8.1%) in 2014. The major forest cover loss is observed in subtropical broad leaved hill forest (64.5 km(2)) and moist sal forest (9.9 km(2)) from 1977 to 2014. The deforested areas have mainly been converted into agriculture and contributed for 60.9% of forest loss from 1930 to 2014. In spite of major decline of forest cover in time interval of 1930-1977, there is no net rate of deforestation is recorded in Bhutan since 1995. Forest cover change analysis has been carried out to evaluate the conservation effectiveness in "Protected Areas" of Bhutan. Hotspots that have undergone high transformation in forest cover for afforestation and deforestation were highlighted in the study for conservation prioritisation. Forest conservation policies in Bhutan are highly effective in controlling deforestation as compared to neighboring Asian countries and such service would help in mitigating climate change.

  3. The Perplex of Deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Yalew, A.W. (Alemayehu W.)

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation has been a complex phenomenon to study in sub-Saharan Africa. The average annual deforestation rate in the region is by far higher than the world average. What causes and drives deforestation in the region are debated to date. The present paper is motivated by this debate. It attempts to test whether the maintained hypotheses on the causes of deforestation can give answer to the problem in sub-Saharan Africa. It used average cross-national data of forty eight countries in the re...

  4. Measuring the Effectiveness of Protected Area Networks in Reducing Deforestation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwaw S. Andam; Paul J. Ferraro; Alexander Pfaff; G. Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa; Juan A. Robalino

    2008-01-01

    .... Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement...

  5. A contemporary assessment of change in humid tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Rudel, Thomas K; Aide, T Mitchell; Defries, Ruth; Emerson, Ruth

    2009-12-01

    In recent decades the rate and geographic extent of land-use and land-cover change has increased throughout the world's humid tropical forests. The pan-tropical geography of forest change is a challenge to assess, and improved estimates of the human footprint in the tropics are critical to understanding potential changes in biodiversity. We combined recently published and new satellite observations, along with images from Google Earth and a literature review, to estimate the contemporary global extent of deforestation, selective logging, and secondary regrowth in humid tropical forests. Roughly 1.4% of the biome was deforested between 2000 and 2005. As of 2005, about half of the humid tropical forest biome contained 50% or less tree cover. Although not directly comparable to deforestation, geographic estimates of selective logging indicate that at least 20% of the humid tropical forest biome was undergoing some level of timber harvesting between 2000 and 2005. Forest recovery estimates are even less certain, but a compilation of available reports suggests that at least 1.2% of the humid tropical forest biome was in some stage of long-term secondary regrowth in 2000. Nearly 70% of the regrowth reports indicate forest regeneration in hilly, upland, and mountainous environments considered marginal for large-scale agriculture and ranching. Our estimates of the human footprint are conservative because they do not resolve very small-scale deforestation, low-intensity logging, and unreported secondary regrowth, nor do they incorporate other impacts on tropical forest ecosystems, such as fire and hunting. Our results highlight the enormous geographic extent of forest change throughout the humid tropics and the considerable limitations of the science and technology available for such a synthesis.

  6. Deforestation in Amazonia impacts riverine carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerwisch, Fanny; Walz, Ariane; Rammig, Anja; Tietjen, Britta; Thonicke, Kirsten; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Fluxes of organic and inorganic carbon within the Amazon basin are considerably controlled by annual flooding, which triggers the export of terrigenous organic material to the river and ultimately to the Atlantic Ocean. The amount of carbon imported to the river and the further conversion, transport and export of it depend on temperature, atmospheric CO2, terrestrial productivity and carbon storage, as well as discharge. Both terrestrial productivity and discharge are influenced by climate and land use change. The coupled LPJmL and RivCM model system (Langerwisch et al., 2016) has been applied to assess the combined impacts of climate and land use change on the Amazon riverine carbon dynamics. Vegetation dynamics (in LPJmL) as well as export and conversion of terrigenous carbon to and within the river (RivCM) are included. The model system has been applied for the years 1901 to 2099 under two deforestation scenarios and with climate forcing of three SRES emission scenarios, each for five climate models. We find that high deforestation (business-as-usual scenario) will strongly decrease (locally by up to 90 %) riverine particulate and dissolved organic carbon amount until the end of the current century. At the same time, increase in discharge leaves net carbon transport during the first decades of the century roughly unchanged only if a sufficient area is still forested. After 2050 the amount of transported carbon will decrease drastically. In contrast to that, increased temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration determine the amount of riverine inorganic carbon stored in the Amazon basin. Higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase riverine inorganic carbon amount by up to 20 % (SRES A2). The changes in riverine carbon fluxes have direct effects on carbon export, either to the atmosphere via outgassing or to the Atlantic Ocean via discharge. The outgassed carbon will increase slightly in the Amazon basin, but can be regionally reduced by up to 60 % due to

  7. The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Varsha; Pimm, Stuart L; Jenkins, Clinton N; Smith, Sharon J

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is the most widely traded vegetable oil globally, with demand projected to increase substantially in the future. Almost all oil palm grows in areas that were once tropical moist forests, some of them quite recently. The conversion to date, and future expansion, threatens biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Today, consumer pressure is pushing companies toward deforestation-free sources of palm oil. To guide interventions aimed at reducing tropical deforestation due to oil palm, we analysed recent expansions and modelled likely future ones. We assessed sample areas to find where oil palm plantations have recently replaced forests in 20 countries, using a combination of high-resolution imagery from Google Earth and Landsat. We then compared these trends to countrywide trends in FAO data for oil palm planted area. Finally, we assessed which forests have high agricultural suitability for future oil palm development, which we refer to as vulnerable forests, and identified critical areas for biodiversity that oil palm expansion threatens. Our analysis reveals regional trends in deforestation associated with oil palm agriculture. In Southeast Asia, 45% of sampled oil palm plantations came from areas that were forests in 1989. For South America, the percentage was 31%. By contrast, in Mesoamerica and Africa, we observed only 2% and 7% of oil palm plantations coming from areas that were forest in 1989. The largest areas of vulnerable forest are in Africa and South America. Vulnerable forests in all four regions of production contain globally high concentrations of mammal and bird species at risk of extinction. However, priority areas for biodiversity conservation differ based on taxa and criteria used. Government regulation and voluntary market interventions can help incentivize the expansion of oil palm plantations in ways that protect biodiversity-rich ecosystems.

  8. The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Vijay

    Full Text Available Palm oil is the most widely traded vegetable oil globally, with demand projected to increase substantially in the future. Almost all oil palm grows in areas that were once tropical moist forests, some of them quite recently. The conversion to date, and future expansion, threatens biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Today, consumer pressure is pushing companies toward deforestation-free sources of palm oil. To guide interventions aimed at reducing tropical deforestation due to oil palm, we analysed recent expansions and modelled likely future ones. We assessed sample areas to find where oil palm plantations have recently replaced forests in 20 countries, using a combination of high-resolution imagery from Google Earth and Landsat. We then compared these trends to countrywide trends in FAO data for oil palm planted area. Finally, we assessed which forests have high agricultural suitability for future oil palm development, which we refer to as vulnerable forests, and identified critical areas for biodiversity that oil palm expansion threatens. Our analysis reveals regional trends in deforestation associated with oil palm agriculture. In Southeast Asia, 45% of sampled oil palm plantations came from areas that were forests in 1989. For South America, the percentage was 31%. By contrast, in Mesoamerica and Africa, we observed only 2% and 7% of oil palm plantations coming from areas that were forest in 1989. The largest areas of vulnerable forest are in Africa and South America. Vulnerable forests in all four regions of production contain globally high concentrations of mammal and bird species at risk of extinction. However, priority areas for biodiversity conservation differ based on taxa and criteria used. Government regulation and voluntary market interventions can help incentivize the expansion of oil palm plantations in ways that protect biodiversity-rich ecosystems.

  9. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+): game changer or just another quick fix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Oscar; Koh, Lian Pin

    2012-02-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) provides financial compensation to land owners who avoid converting standing forests to other land uses. In this paper, we review the main opportunities and challenges for REDD+ implementation, including expectations for REDD+ to deliver on multiple environmental and societal cobenefits. We also highlight a recent case study, the Norway-Indonesia REDD+ agreement and discuss how it might be a harbinger of outcomes in other forest-rich nations seeking REDD+ funds. Looking forward, we critically examine the fundamental assumptions of REDD+ as a solution for the atmospheric buildup of greenhouse gas emissions and tropical deforestation. We conclude that REDD+ is currently the most promising mechanism driving the conservation of tropical forests. Yet, to emerge as a true game changer, REDD+ must still demonstrate that it can access low transaction cost and high-volume carbon markets or funds, while also providing or complimenting a suite of nonmonetary incentives to encourage a developing nation's transition from forest losing to forest gaining, and align with, not undermine, a globally cohesive attempt to mitigate anthropogenic climate change.

  10. Smoke and fire characteristics for cerrado and deforestation burns in Brazil - BASE-B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. E.; Susott, R. A.; Kauffman, J. B.; Babbitt, R. E.; Cummings, D. L.; Dias, B.; Holben, B. N.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Setzer, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    Five test fires were performed during August and September 1990 in the cerrado (savannalike region) in central Brazil (three fires) and tropical moist forest (two fires) in the eastern Amazon. This paper details the gases released, the ratios of the gases to each other and to particulate matter, fuel loads, and the fraction consumed (combustion factors), and the fire behavior associated with biomass consumption. Models are presented for evaluating emission factors for CH4, CO2, CO, H2, and particles less than 2.5 micron diam (PM2.5) as a function of combustion efficiency. The ratio of carbon released as CO2 (combustion efficiency) for the cerrado fires averaged 0.94 and for the deforestation fires it decreased from 0.88 for the flaming phase to less than 0.80 during the smoldering phase of combustion. For tropical ecosystems, emissions of most products of incomplete combustion are projected to be lower than previous estimates for savanna ecosystems and somewhat higher for fires used for deforestation purposes.

  11. Reference scenarios for deforestation and forest degradation in support of REDD: a review of data and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, Lydia P; Murray, Brian C [Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University (United States); Gibbs, Holly K [Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Steininger, Marc [Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International (United States); Swenson, Jennifer J [Nicholas School for the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Global climate policy initiatives are now being proposed to compensate tropical forest nations for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). These proposals have the potential to include developing countries more actively in international greenhouse gas mitigation and to address a substantial share of the world's emissions which come from tropical deforestation. For such a policy to be viable it must have a credible benchmark against which emissions reduction can be calculated. This benchmark, sometimes termed a baseline or reference emissions scenario, can be based directly on historical emissions or can use historical emissions as input for business as usual projections. Here, we review existing data and methods that could be used to measure historical deforestation and forest degradation reference scenarios including FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) national statistics and various remote sensing sources. The freely available and corrected global Landsat imagery for 1990, 2000 and soon to come for 2005 may be the best primary data source for most developing countries with other coarser resolution high frequency or radar data as a valuable complement for addressing problems with cloud cover and for distinguishing larger scale degradation. While sampling of imagery has been effectively useful for pan-tropical and continental estimates of deforestation, wall-to-wall (or full coverage) allows more detailed assessments for measuring national-level reference emissions. It is possible to measure historical deforestation with sufficient certainty for determining reference emissions, but there must be continued calls at the international level for making high-resolution imagery available, and for financial and technical assistance to help countries determine credible reference scenarios. The data available for past years may not be sufficient for assessing all forms of forest degradation, but new data

  12. Damage-controlled logging in managed tropical rain forest in Suriname.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrison, J.

    1990-01-01

    Concern about worldwide deforestation and exploitation of the tropical rain forests has led to friction between national governments, wood industries and timber trade on the one hand, and scientists and environmental organizations on the other. One way to safeguard the tropical rain forests is to av

  13. Selective logging and fire as drivers of alien grass invasion in a Bolivian tropical dry forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, J.W.; Mostacedo, B.; Peña-Claros, M.; Putz, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    Logging is an integral component of most conceptual models that relate human land-use and climate change to tropical deforestation via positive-feedbacks involving fire. Given that grass invasions can substantially alter fire regimes, we studied grass distributions in a tropical dry forest 1-5 yr af

  14. The conservation value of small, isolated fragments of lowland tropical rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, I M; T Corlett, R

    1996-08-01

    Deforestation is occurring at an alarming rate in the lowland tropics. In many tropical regions, rain forest is restricted to small (rainforest species that are on the brink of extinction. In areas with little rain forest remaining, fragments can be the 'seeds' from which to re-establish extensive forest.

  15. Tropical forest transitions: structural changes in forest area, composition and landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersum, K.F.

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on tropical forest dynamics focus on the processes of deforestation and forest degradation and its associated ecological impacts; comparatively little attention is given to the emergence of forest transitions. This review gives an overview of forest transitions in the tropics as

  16. A Multi-Resolution Multi-Temporal Technique for Detecting and Mapping Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandamudi L. Vijaykumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of rapid environment changes requires orbital sensors with high frequency of data acquisition to minimize cloud interference in the study of dynamic processes such as Amazon tropical deforestation. Moreover, a medium to high spatial resolution data is required due to the nature and complexity of variables involved in the process. In this paper we describe a multiresolution multitemporal technique to simulate Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ image using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. The proposed method preserves the spectral resolution and increases the spatial resolution for mapping Amazon Rainfores deforestation using low computational resources. To evaluate this technique, sample images were acquired in the Amazon rainforest border (MODIS tile H12-V10 and ETM+/Landsat 7 path 227 row 68 for 17 July 2002 and 05 October 2002. The MODIS-based simulated ETM+ and the corresponding original ETM+ images were compared through a linear regression method. Additionally, the bootstrap technique was used to calculate the confidence interval for the model to estimate and to perform a sensibility analysis. Moreover, a Linear Spectral Mixing Model, which is the technique used for deforestation mapping in Program for Deforestation Assessment in the Brazilian Legal Amazonia (PRODES developed by National Institute for Space Research (INPE, was applied to analyze the differences in deforestation estimates. The results showed high correlations, with values between 0.70 and 0.94 (p < 0.05, student’s t test for all ETM+ bands, indicating a good assessment between simulated and observed data (p < 0.05, Z-test. Moreover, simulated image showed a good agreement with a reference image, originating commission errors of 1% of total area estimated as deforestation in a sample area test. Furthermore, approximately 6% or 70 km² of deforestation areas were missing in simulated image classification. Therefore

  17. A comparison between Landsat ETM+ and MODIS/TERRA images for detecting deforestation increments in the Eastern Acre region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson da S. Costa

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluated the capacity of MODIS images with 250 m spatial resolution to detect and map deforestation increments relative to the capacity of Landsat ETM+ images. This study was conducted in the state of Acre covering an area of 34,225 km². Our results show that the 250 m MODIS images are highly accurate to detected deforestation larger than 3 ha. Additionally, MODIS can be used to estimate the area subject to deforestation with increments larger than 70 ha with an error of less than 5% relative to the estimates obtained with Landsat images. Finally, we estimated that 86% of the total area deforested in the state of Acre between 2002 and 2003 can be detected and mapped with MODIS. Therefore, the 250 m-pixel MODIS images can be useful to monitor the forest changes due to deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon in more regular basis, overcoming the low temporal coverage of Landsat due to frequent cloud cover in the region.

  18. Deforestation and the environmental Kuznets curve. An institutional perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culas, Richard J. [School of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678 (Australia)

    2007-03-01

    Institutions for secure property rights and better environmental policies for moving the system towards a sustainable growth path can reduce the height of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationship between income and deforestation. This study examines the impact of these specific institutional factors on the EKC relationship for deforestation across Latin American, African and Asian countries. The factors related to agricultural production, population, economy and governmental policies of each country are hypothesised to affect deforestation. Results of the Latin American countries show significant evidence of an EKC relationship for deforestation and also relevance of the institutional factors to reduce the rate of deforestation. Improvements in institutions for secure property rights and better environmental policies can thus significantly reduce the rate of deforestation without hindering the level of economic growth. Evidence also suggests that the effect of agricultural production on deforestation could be halted by strengthening institutional factors. There was found to be complementarity between the institutional factors and forest sector polices, and an additive effect between the institutional factors and forest products export promotion policies, which could also eventually reduce the rate of deforestation. (author)

  19. Assessing the Relative Ecological Importance and Deforestation Risks of Unprotected Areas in Western Brazil Using Landsat, CBERS and Quantum GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Sevilla, C.; Lanclos, A.; Carson, C.; Larson, J.; Sankaran, M.; Saad, M.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to understanding Brazilian policies and currently utilized methodologies, the measurement of the impacts of deforestation is essential for enhancing techniques to reduce deforestation in the future. Adverse impacts of deforestation include biodiversity loss, increased carbon dioxide emissions, and a reduced rate of evapotranspiration, all of which contribute directly or indirectly to global warming. With the continual growth in population in developing countries such as Brazil, increased demands are placed on infrastructural development and food production. As a result, forested areas are cleared for agricultural production. Recently, exploration for hydrocarbons in Western Brazil has also intensified as a means to stimulate the economy, as abundant oil and gas is believed to be found in these regions. Unfortunately, hydrocarbon-rich regions of Western Brazil are also home to thousands of species. Many of these regions are as of yet untapped but are at risk of ecological disruption as a result of impending human activity. This project utilized Landsat 5 TM to monitor deforestation in a subsection of the Brazilian states of Rondônia and Amazonas. A risk map identifying areas susceptible to future deforestation, based on factors such as proximity to roads, bodies of water, cities, and proposed hydrocarbon activities such as pipeline construction, was created. Areas at higher risk of clearance were recommended to be a target for enhanced monitoring and law enforcement. In addition, an importance map was created based on biodiversity and location of endangered species. This map was used to identify potential areas for future protection. A Chinese-Brazilian satellite, CBERS 2B CCD was also utilized for comparison. The NDVI model was additionally replicated in Quantum GIS, an open source software, so that local communities and policymakers could benefit without having to pay for expensive ArcGIS software. The capabilities of VIIRS were also investigated to

  20. Tropical forest conservation versus conversion trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutoko, M.C.; Hein, Lars; Shisanya, Chris A.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by tropical forests are becoming scarcer due to continued deforestation as demand for forest benefits increases with the growing population. There is need for comprehensive valuation of key ecosystem services in order to inform policy and implement better management sy

  1. Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas C; DeFries, Ruth S; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Anderson, Liana O; Arai, Egidio; del Bon Espirito-Santo, Fernando; Freitas, Ramon; Morisette, Jeff

    2006-09-26

    Intensive mechanized agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon grew by >3.6 million hectares (ha) during 2001-2004. Whether this cropland expansion resulted from intensified use of land previously cleared for cattle ranching or new deforestation has not been quantified and has major implications for future deforestation dynamics, carbon fluxes, forest fragmentation, and other ecosystem services. We combine deforestation maps, field surveys, and satellite-based information on vegetation phenology to characterize the fate of large (>25-ha) clearings as cropland, cattle pasture, or regrowing forest in the years after initial clearing in Mato Grosso, the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate and soybean production since 2001. Statewide, direct conversion of forest to cropland totaled >540,000 ha during 2001-2004, peaking at 23% of 2003 annual deforestation. Cropland deforestation averaged twice the size of clearings for pasture (mean sizes, 333 and 143 ha, respectively), and conversion occurred rapidly; >90% of clearings for cropland were planted in the first year after deforestation. Area deforested for cropland and mean annual soybean price in the year of forest clearing were directly correlated (R(2) = 0.72), suggesting that deforestation rates could return to higher levels seen in 2003-2004 with a rebound of crop prices in international markets. Pasture remains the dominant land use after forest clearing in Mato Grosso, but the growing importance of larger and faster conversion of forest to cropland defines a new paradigm of forest loss in Amazonia and refutes the claim that agricultural intensification does not lead to new deforestation.

  2. Population growth, human development, and deforestation in biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S; Bawa, K S

    2006-06-01

    Human population and development activities affect the rate of deforestation in biodiversity hotspots. We quantified the effect of human population growth and development on rates of deforestation and analyzed the relationship between these causal factors in the 1980s and 1990s. We compared the averages of population growth, human development index (HDI, which measures income, health, and education), and deforestation rate and computed correlations among these variables for countries that contain biodiversity hotspots. When population growth was high and HDI was low there was a high rate of deforestation, but when HDI was high, rate of deforestation was low, despite high population growth. The correlation among variables was significant for the 1990s but not for the 1980s. The relationship between population growth and HDI had a regional pattern that reflected the historical process of development. Based on the changes in HDI and deforestation rate over time, we identified two drivers of deforestation: policy choice and human-development constraints. Policy choices that disregard conservation may cause the loss of forests even in countries that are relatively developed. Lack of development in other countries, on the other hand, may increase the pressure on forests to meet the basic needs of the human population. Deforestation resulting from policy choices may be easier to fix than deforestation arising from human development constraints. To prevent deforestation in the countries that have such constraints, transfer of material and intellectual resources from developed countries may be needed. Popular interest in sustainable development in developed countries can facilitate the transfer of these resources.

  3. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdiyarso, D; Hergoualc'h, K; Verchot, L V

    2010-11-16

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO(2) per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO(2) per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N(2)O emissions compared to CO(2) losses remains unclear.

  4. Terrestrial Carbon Fluxes from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Regions Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, S.; Potter, C.; Genovese, V.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate tropical forest and savanna (Cerrado) carbon pools for the Brazilian Amazon region over the period 2000-2004. Adjustments for mean age of forest stands were carried out across the region, resulting in a new mapping of aboveground biomass pools based on MODIS satellite data. Yearly maps of newly deforested lands from the Brazilian PRODES (Programa de calculo do desflorestamento da Amazonia ) project were combined with these NASA-CASA biomass predictions to generate seasonal budgets of potential carbon and nitrogen trace gas losses from biomass burning events. Simulations of plant residue and soil carbon decomposition were conducted in the NASA-CASA model during and following deforestation events to track the fate of aboveground biomass pools that were cut and burned each year across the region.

  5. Carbon stock loss from deforestation through 2013 in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Euler Melo; Yanai, Aurora M; Fonseca, Frederico O R; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2015-03-01

    The largest carbon stock in tropical vegetation is in Brazilian Amazonia. In this ~5 million km(2) area, over 750,000 km(2) of forest and ~240,000 km(2) of nonforest vegetation types had been cleared through 2013. We estimate current carbon stocks and cumulative gross carbon loss from clearing of premodern vegetation in Brazil's 'Legal Amazonia' and 'Amazonia biome' regions. Biomass of 'premodern' vegetation (prior to major increases in disturbance beginning in the 1970s) was estimated by matching vegetation classes mapped at a scale of 1 : 250,000 and 29 biomass means from 41 published studies for vegetation types classified as forest (2317 1-ha plots) and as either nonforest or contact zones (1830 plots and subplots of varied size). Total biomass (above and below-ground, dry weight) underwent a gross reduction of 18.3% in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C) and 16.7% in the Amazonia biome (11.2 Pg C) through 2013, excluding carbon loss from the effects of fragmentation, selective logging, fires, mortality induced by recent droughts and clearing of forest regrowth. In spite of the loss of carbon from clearing, large amounts of carbon were stored in stands of remaining vegetation in 2013, equivalent to 149 Mg C ha(-1) when weighted by the total area covered by each vegetation type in Legal Amazonia. Native vegetation in Legal Amazonia in 2013 originally contained 58.6 Pg C, while that in the Amazonia biome contained 56 Pg C. Emissions per unit area from clearing could potentially be larger in the future because previously cleared areas were mainly covered by vegetation with lower mean biomass than the remaining vegetation. Estimates of original biomass are essential for estimating losses to forest degradation. This study offers estimates of cumulative biomass loss, as well as estimates of premodern carbon stocks that have not been represented in recent estimates of deforestation impacts.

  6. DEFORESTATION AND LANDSLIDES IN YUNNAN, CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Wu, Jishan; Li, Tianchi

    1987-01-01

    Landslides historically have caused severe erosion problems in the Xiao River drainage region of northeastern Yunnan Province, China, that hence resulted in serious economic and social consequences. Owing to monsoonal storms of high rainfall intensity, the erosion potential is high in this mountainous, seismically active region. Landslides transported large quantities of materials into the ravines. During intense storms, high runoff from the deforested areas has mobilized this material into debris flows. Where these flows emerged onto flatter slopes in the lower parts of the watersheds, the channels were too small to hold them, so farmland and villages were inundated. Debris flows in this region during June-August 1985 killed 12 people, damaged roads and the main rail line to Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province, inundated farmland, and overflowed debris-retention structures. To mitigate these severe erosion problems, several different methods have been used.

  7. Deforestation alters rainfall: a myth or reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, M. F.; Mustafa, M. R.; Hashim, A. M.; Yusof, K. W.

    2016-06-01

    To cope with the issue of food safety and human shelter, natural landscape has gone through a number of alterations. In the coming future, the expansion of urban land and agricultural farms will likely disrupt the natural environment. Researchers have claimed that land use change may become the most serious issue of the current century. Thus, it is necessary to understand the consequences of land use change on the climatic variables, e.g., rainfall. This study investigated the impact of deforestation on local rainfall. An integrated methodology was adopted to achieve the objectives. Above ground biomass was considered as the indicator of forest areas. Time series data of a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor were obtained for the year of 2000, 2005, and 2010. Rainfall data were collected from the Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Malaysia. The MODIS time series data were classified and four major classes were developed based on the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) ranges. The results of the classification showed that water, and urban and agricultural lands have increased in their area by 2, 3, and 6%, respectively. On the other hand, the area of forest has decreased 10% collectively from 2000 to 2010. The results of NDVI and rainfall data were analysed by using a linear regression analysis. The results showed a significant relationship at a 90% confidence interval between rainfall and deforestation (t = 1.92, p = 0.06). The results of this study may provide information about the consequences of land use on the climate on the local scale.

  8. Leakage Implications for European Timber Markets from Reducing Deforestation in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Boman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest management strategies and policies such as REDD (reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation may have unintentional implications for forest sectors in countries not targeted by such policies. The success of a policy effort like REDD would result in a significant reduction in deforestation and forest degradation and an ensuing reduction in the supply of natural forest timber production within participating countries. This could in turn result in price increases, inducing a supply response outside project boundaries with possible implications for forest management as well as global carbon emissions. This paper reviews the literature to discern potential timber market implications for countries sourcing wood products from developing countries affected by REDD related conservation efforts. The literature reviewed shows varying degrees of market effects leakage—policy actions in one place creating incentives for third parties to increase timber harvesting elsewhere through the price mechanism—ranging from negligible to substantial. However, wood products in the studies reviewed are dealt with on quite an aggregated scale and are assumed to be more or less perfect substitutes for wood products outside conservation effort boundaries. The review suggests that a thorough mapping of the end-uses of tropical timber is needed to comprehensively analyze impacts on wood-product markets in regions such as Europe from conservation efforts in tropical developing countries. The types of tropical timber expected to be affected, in which applications they are used, which are the most likely substitutes and where they would be sourced, are issues that, along with empirical analysis of supply and demand price elasticities and degree of substitutability, should be investigated when assessing the overall effectiveness of REDD.

  9. Decadal changes and delayed avian species losses due to deforestation in the northern Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Shaw

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available How avifauna respond to the long-term loss and fragmentation of tropical forests is a critical issue in biodiversity management. We use data from over 30 years to gain insights into such changes in the northernmost Neotropical rainforest in the Sierra de Los Tuxtlas of southern Veracruz, Mexico. This region has been extensively deforested over the past half-century. The Estación de Biología Tropical Los Tuxtlas, of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM, protects a 640 ha tract of lowland forest. It became relatively isolated from other forested tracts between 1975 and 1985, but it retains a corridor of forest to more extensive forests at higher elevations on Volcán San Martín. Most deforestation in this area occurred during the 1970s and early 1980s. Forest birds were sampled on the station and surrounding areas using mist nets during eight non-breeding seasons from 1973 to 2004 (though in some seasons netting extended into the local breeding season for some species. Our data suggested extirpations or declines in 12 species of birds subject to capture in mist nets. Six of the eight species no longer present were captured in 1992–95, but not in 2003–2004. Presence/absence data from netting and observational data suggested that another four low-density species also disappeared since sampling began. This indicates a substantial time lag between the loss of habitat and the apparent extirpation of these species. Delayed species loss and the heterogeneous nature of the species affected will be important factors in tropical forest management and conservation.

  10. Decadal changes and delayed avian species losses due to deforestation in the northern Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David W; Escalante, Patricia; Rappole, John H; Ramos, Mario A; Oehlenschlager, Richard J; Warner, Dwain W; Winker, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    How avifauna respond to the long-term loss and fragmentation of tropical forests is a critical issue in biodiversity management. We use data from over 30 years to gain insights into such changes in the northernmost Neotropical rainforest in the Sierra de Los Tuxtlas of southern Veracruz, Mexico. This region has been extensively deforested over the past half-century. The Estación de Biología Tropical Los Tuxtlas, of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), protects a 640 ha tract of lowland forest. It became relatively isolated from other forested tracts between 1975 and 1985, but it retains a corridor of forest to more extensive forests at higher elevations on Volcán San Martín. Most deforestation in this area occurred during the 1970s and early 1980s. Forest birds were sampled on the station and surrounding areas using mist nets during eight non-breeding seasons from 1973 to 2004 (though in some seasons netting extended into the local breeding season for some species). Our data suggested extirpations or declines in 12 species of birds subject to capture in mist nets. Six of the eight species no longer present were captured in 1992-95, but not in 2003-2004. Presence/absence data from netting and observational data suggested that another four low-density species also disappeared since sampling began. This indicates a substantial time lag between the loss of habitat and the apparent extirpation of these species. Delayed species loss and the heterogeneous nature of the species affected will be important factors in tropical forest management and conservation.

  11. Inventorying and Monitoring of Tropical Dry Forests Tree Diversity in Jalisco, Mexico Using a Geographical Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efren Hernandez-Alvarez; Dieter R. Pelz; Carlos Rodriguez Franco

    2006-01-01

    Tropical dry forests in Mexico are an outstanding natural resource, due to the large surface area they cover. This ecosystem can be found from Baja California Norte to Chiapas on the eastern coast of the country. On the Gulf of Mexico side it grows from Tamaulipas to Yucatan. This is an ecosystem that is home to a wide diversity of plants, which include 114 tree...

  12. The questionable effectiveness of science spending by international conservation organizations in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, David

    2006-06-01

    The general context of conservation in the tropics--in the Amazon basin and elsewhere--is stagnant or declining funding and rapidly growing threat levels. For conservation programs this makes strategic deployment of limited conservation resources all the more important. International conservation organizations active in the tropics increasingly define themselves as science driven and expend considerable resources on science-based activities such as ecoregional analysis, field research, and monitoring of ecological variables. l argue that an overemphasis on science has generated a series of unintended but serious problems for conservation in the tropics. Spending on monitoring and ecoregional analysis has effectively starved protection and threat analysis of resources. A decoupling of biology from serious cost-benefit analysis has led to the privileging of small-scale and local analyses, rather than the systemic analyses essential for the strategic allocation of scarce conservation resources. Successful conservation in the tropics depends on the crossing of biogeography with sophisticated threat analysis to identify priority geographies for protection. This should be combined with much more systematic engagement with the principal drivers of tropical deforestation, especially agribusiness. Caution and a sense of proportion are required when balancing the financial demands of science and those of protection. I suggest that conservation organizations should cooperate far more in assembling and analyzing information on conservation spending and on threat levels and biogeography at the continental, national, and regional levels. Site selection should follow rather than precede this kind of strategic analysis, and sites should be considered elements of a network rather than stand-alone projects. More attention should be paid to market-driven conservation through techniques such as certification and responsible supply-chain management.

  13. Importance of bistatic SAR features from TanDEM-X for forest mapping and monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlund, M.; Poncet, von F.; Hoekman, D.H.; Kuntz, S.; Schmullius, C.

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation are one of the important sources for human induced carbon dioxide emissions and their rates are highest in tropical forests. For man-kind, it is of great importance to track land-use conversions like deforestation, e.g. for sustainable forest management and land

  14. Importance of bistatic SAR features from TanDEM-X for forest mapping and monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlund, M.; Poncet, von F.; Hoekman, D.H.; Kuntz, S.; Schmullius, C.

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation are one of the important sources for human induced carbon dioxide emissions and their rates are highest in tropical forests. For man-kind, it is of great importance to track land-use conversions like deforestation, e.g. for sustainable forest management and land

  15. Deforestation and Rice: Using Methods in Modeling and Remote Sensing to Project Patterns of Forest Change in Eastern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A. H.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Fischer, R.; Huth, A.; Shugart, H. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the species rich tropics, forest conservation is often eclipsed by anthropogenic disturbance, resulting in a heightened need for an accurate assessment of biomass and the gaining of predictive capability before these ecosystems disappear. The combination of multi-temporal remote sensing data, field data and forest growth modeling to quantify carbon stocks and flux is therefore of great importance. In this study, we utilize these methods to (1) improve forest biomass and carbon flux estimates for the study region in Eastern Madagascar, and (2) initialize an individual-based growth model that incorporates the anthropogenic factors causing deforestation to project ecosystem response to future environmental change. Recent studies have shown that there is a direct correlation between the international rice market and rates of deforestation in tropical countries such as Madagascar (see Minten et al., 2006). Further, although law protects the remaining forest areas, dictatorships and recent political unrest have lead to poor or non-existent enforcement of precious wood and forest protection over the past 35 years. Our approach combined multi-temporal remote sensing analysis and ecological modeling using a theoretical and mathematical approach to assess biomass change and to understand how tree growth and life history (growth response patterns) relate to past and present economic variability in Madagascar forests of the eastern Toamasina region. We measured rates of change of deforestation with respect to politics and the price of rice by classifying and comparing biomass using 30m Landsat during 5 political regime time periods (1985-1992, 1993-1996, 1997-2001, 2002-2008, 2009 to present). Forest biomass estimations were calibrated using forest inventory data collected over 3 growing seasons over the study region (130 small circular plots in primary forest). This information was then built into the previously parameterized (Armstrong et al., in prep and Fischer et al in

  16. Impacts of Amazon deforestation on regional weather and climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvigy, D.; Walko, R. L.; Avissar, R.

    2010-12-01

    Recent deforestation projections estimate that 40% of the Amazon rainforest will be deforested by 2050. Many modeling studies have indicated that deforestation will reduce average rainfall in the Amazon. However, very few studies have investigated the potential for deforestation to change the frequency and intensity of extreme climate and weather events. To fill this gap in our understanding, we use a variable-resolution GCM to investigate how precipitation and temperature extremes throughout South America respond to deforestation. The model’s grid mesh is set up to cover South America and nearby oceans at mesoscale (25 km) resolution, and then to gradually coarsen and cover the rest of the world at 200 km resolution. This approach differs from the two most common current approaches: (1) to use a GCM with too coarse of a resolution to evaluate regional climate extremes, or (2) to use a regional atmospheric model that requires lateral boundary conditions from a GCM or reanalysis. We find that deforestation induces large changes in winter (June-July-August) climate throughout much of South America. Extreme cold events become much more common along the eastern slopes of the Andes. The largest changes were in the western Amazon and, surprisingly, in Argentina, far from the actual deforested area. We also find shifts in precipitation extremes, especially in September-October-November. Such changes in temperature and precipitation extremes have important consequences for agriculture, natural ecosystems, and human society.

  17. The Perplex of Deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W Yalew

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation has been a complex phenomenon to study in sub-Saharan Africa. The average annual deforestation rate in the region is by far higher than the world average. What causes and drives deforestation in the region are debated to date. The present paper is motivated by this debate. It attempts to test whether the maintained hypotheses on the causes of deforestation can give answer to the problem in sub-Saharan Africa. It used average cross-national data of forty eight countries in the region. The data are retrieved from international sources. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients between two deforestation indicators and five often-cited causes of deforestation were computed. The role of public forest ownership, share of forest and agricultural products in total exports, and the year of forest laws enacted are also discussed. However, it finds no clear, strong, and systematic pattern to argue that population density, rural population, rural poverty, industrial logging for exports, economic growth, late enactment of forest laws, and public ownership of forests are underlying causes of deforestation in the region. The trends of forestland in Rwanda and Zimbabwe vividly present the finding. Therefore, future studies related to the topic in the region shall focus on sub-national panel data.

  18. Sensitivity of Regional Climate to Deforestation in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1994-01-01

    The deforestation results in several adverse effect on the natural environment. The focus of this paper is on the effects of deforestation on land-surface processes and regional climate of the Amazon basin. In general, the effect of deforestation on climate are likely to depend on the scale of the defrosted area. In this study, we are interested in the effects due to deforestation of areas with a scale of about 250 km. Hence, a meso-scale climate model is used in performing numerical experiments on the sensitivity of regional climate to deforestation of areas with that size. It is found that deforestation results in less net surface radiation, less evaporation, less rainfall, and warmer surface temperature. The magnitude of the of the change in temperature is of the order 0.5 C, the magnitudes of the changes in the other variables are of the order of IO%. In order to verify some of he results of the numerical experiments, the model simulations of net surface radiation are compared to recent observations of net radiation over cleared and undisturbed forest in the Amazon. The results of the model and the observations agree in the following conclusion: the difference in net surface radiation between cleared and undisturbed forest is, almost, equally partioned between net solar radiation and net long-wave radiation. This finding contributes to our understanding of the basic physics in the deforestation problem.

  19. Tropical nature reserves are losing their buffer zones, but leakage is not to blame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Gillian V; Coomes, David A

    2016-05-01

    Tropical forests provide important ecosystem services to humanity, yet are threatened by habitat loss resulting from deforestation and land-use change. Although reserves are considered the cornerstones of conservation efforts in the tropics, their efficacy remains equivocal. One question that remains unresolved is whether leakage - the unanticipated displacement of deforestation from inside reserves into the unrestricted zones just beyond a reserve's administrative boundary - is common around tropical forest reserves, or whether the zones are acting as buffers between the protected area and the outside world. To resolve this question, we used the Landsat-derived Global Forest Change dataset to estimate deforestation rates between 2000 and 2012 inside and outside of 60 nature reserves spread across the tropics. Deforestation rates inside reserves (within 5km of the administrative boundary) were generally lower than those immediately outside the reserves (i.e. in buffer zones 0-10km from the boundary), suggesting that reserves are effective at protecting forests. We hypothesised that leakage would result in greater deforestation rates in reserve buffer zones than in the broader reserve landscapes, but such a pattern was observed in only five African sites, suggesting that leakage does not often occur on the edge of established reserves. However, roughly 80% of reserves experienced deforestation rates that increased gradually from their interiors to the outer periphery of their buffer zones. Thus, while leakage may not be a pervasive phenomenon around tropical reserves worldwide, tropical reserves are often losing their buffer zones, resulting in increased isolation that could have ramifications for ecosystem services provisioning and tropical conservation strategies.

  20. Anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity: a network structure and ecosystem functioning perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Rebecca J.

    2010-01-01

    Huge areas of diverse tropical forest are lost or degraded every year with dramatic consequences for biodiversity. Deforestation and fragmentation, over-exploitation, invasive species and climate change are the main drivers of tropical forest biodiversity loss. Most studies investigating these threats have focused on changes in species richness or species diversity. However, if we are to understand the absolute and long-term effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forests, we should also...

  1. Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; hide

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

  2. Debt, Structural Adjustment and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Shandra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present cross-national models that examine the determinants of deforestation from 1990 to 2005 for a sample of sixty-two poor nations. We test dependency theory hypotheses that both debt and structural adjustment affect forests. We find substantial support for this theoretical perspective. The results indicate that both factors increase deforestation. We also find support for world polity theory that international non-governmental organization density decreases deforestation. We conclude with a brief discussion of the findings, policy implications, and possible directions for future research.

  3. Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; Kibry, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

  4. Effects of Accelerated Soil Erosion on Soil Nutrient Loss After Deforestation on the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Fen-Li

    2005-01-01

    Soil erosion and nutrient losses on newly-deforested lands in the Ziwuling Region on the Loess Plateau of China were monitored to quantitatively evaluate the effects of accelerated soil erosion, caused by deforestation, on organic matter,nitrogen and phosphorus losses. Eight natural runoff plots were established on the loessial hill slopes representing different erosion patterns of dominant erosion processes including sheet, rill and shallow gully (similar to ephemeral gully). Sediment samples were collected after each erosive rainfall event. Results showed that soil nutrients losses increased with an increase of erosion intensity. Linear relations between the losses of organic matter, total N, NH4-N, and available P and erosion intensity were found. Nutrient content per unit amount of eroded sediment decreased from the sheet to the shallow gully erosion zones, whereas total nutrient loss increased. Compared with topsoil, nutrients in eroded sediment were enriched,especially available P and NH4-N. The intensity of soil nutrient losses was also closely related to soil erosion intensity and pattern with the most severe soil erosion and nutrient loss occurring in the shallow gully channels on loessial hill slopes.These research findings will help to improve the understanding of the relation between accelerated erosion process after deforestation and soil quality degradation and to design better eco-environmental rehabilitation schemes for the Loess Plateau.

  5. Contradictory hydrological impacts of afforestation in the humid tropics evidenced by long-term field monitoring and simulation modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Guillaume; Ribolzi, Olivier; de Rouw, Anneke; Pierret, Alain; Latsachak, Keoudone; Silvera, Norbert; Pham Dinh, Rinh; Orange, Didier; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Soulileuth, Bounsamai; Robain, Henri; Taccoen, Adrien; Sengphaathith, Phouthamaly; Mouche, Emmanuel; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Tran Duc, Toan; Valentin, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The humid tropics are exposed to an unprecedented modernisation of agriculture involving rapid and mixed land-use changes with contrasted environmental impacts. Afforestation is often mentioned as an unambiguous solution for restoring ecosystem services and enhancing biodiversity. One consequence of afforestation is the alteration of streamflow variability which controls habitats, water resources, and flood risks. We demonstrate that afforestation by tree planting or by natural forest regeneration can induce opposite hydrological changes. An observatory including long-term field measurements of fine-scale land-use mosaics and of hydrometeorological variables has been operating in several headwater catchments in tropical southeast Asia since 2000. The GR2M water balance model, repeatedly calibrated over successive 1-year periods and used in simulation mode with the same year of rainfall input, allowed the hydrological effect of land-use change to be isolated from that of rainfall variability in two of these catchments in Laos and Vietnam. Visual inspection of hydrographs, correlation analyses, and trend detection tests allowed causality between land-use changes and changes in seasonal streamflow to be ascertained. In Laos, the combination of shifting cultivation system (alternation of rice and fallow) and the gradual increase of teak tree plantations replacing fallow led to intricate streamflow patterns: pluri-annual streamflow cycles induced by the shifting system, on top of a gradual streamflow increase over years caused by the spread of the plantations. In Vietnam, the abandonment of continuously cropped areas combined with patches of mix-trees plantations led to the natural re-growth of forest communities followed by a gradual drop in streamflow. Soil infiltrability controlled by surface crusting is the predominant process explaining why two modes of afforestation (natural regeneration vs. planting) led to opposite changes in streamflow regime. Given that

  6. Deforestation and benthic indicators: how much vegetation cover is needed to sustain healthy Andean streams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Iñiguez-Armijos

    Full Text Available Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS, we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%. Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments.

  7. Deforestation and benthic indicators: how much vegetation cover is needed to sustain healthy Andean streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos; Leiva, Adrián; Frede, Hans-Georg; Hampel, Henrietta; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices) and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS), we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%). Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments.

  8. Time series analysis of satellite data reveals continuous deforestation of New England since the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Pontus; Holden, Christopher E.; Bullock, Eric L.; Woodcock, Curtis E.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover and land change were monitored continuously between 1985 and 2011 at 30 m resolution across New England in the Northeastern United States in support of modeling the terrestrial carbon budget. It was found that the forest area has been decreasing throughout the study period in each state of the region since the 1980s. A total of 386 657 ± 98 137 ha (95% confidence interval) of forest has been converted to other land covers since 1985. Mainly driven by low density residential development, the deforestation accelerated in the mid-1990s until 2007 when it plateaued as a result of declining new residential construction and in turn, the financial crisis of 2007-08. The area of forest harvest, estimated at 226 519 ± 66 682 ha, was mapped separately and excluded from the deforestation estimate, while the area of forest expansion on non-forested lands was found to not be significantly different from zero. New England is often held as a principal example of a forest transition with historical widespread deforestation followed by recovery of forestlands as farming activities diminished, but the results of this study support the notion of a reversal of the forest transition as the region again is experiencing widespread deforestation. All available Landsat imagery acquired after 1985 for the study area were collected and used in the analysis. Areas of land cover and land change were estimated from a random sample of reference observations stratified by a twelve-class land change map encompassing the entire study area and period. The statistical analysis revealed that the net change in forest area and the associated modeled impact on the terrestrial carbon balance would have been considerably different if the results of the map were used without inferring the area of forest change by analysis of a reference sample.

  9. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-based paddy rice monitoring system: Development and application in key rice producing areas in Tropical Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyono, T. D.; Holecz, F.; Khan, N. I.; Barbieri, M.; Quicho, E.; Collivignarelli, F.; Maunahan, A.; Gatti, L.; Romuga, G. C.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable and regular rice information is essential part of many countries’ national accounting process but the existing system may not be sufficient to meet the information demand in the context of food security and policy. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery is highly suitable for detecting lowland paddy rice, especially in tropical region where pervasive cloud cover in the rainy seasons limits the use of optical imagery. This study uses multi-temporal X-band and C-band SAR imagery, automated image processing, rule-based classification and field observations to classify rice in multiple locations across Tropical Asia and assimilate the information into ORYZA Crop Growth Simulation model (CGSM) to generate high resolution yield maps. The resulting cultivated rice area maps had classification accuracies above 85% and yield estimates were within 81-93% agreement against district level reported yields. The study sites capture much of the diversity in water management, crop establishment and rice maturity durations and the study demonstrates the feasibility of rice detection, yield monitoring, and damage assessment in case of climate disaster at national and supra-national scales using multi-temporal SAR imagery combined with CGSM and automated methods.

  10. Temporal Variability and Annual Fluxes of Water, Sediment and Particulate Phosphorus from a Headwater River in the Tropical Andes: Results from a High-frequency Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemple, B. C.; Schloegel, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Mazar River Project, a high-frequency hydrological monitoring program, aims to generate ecohydrological information to inform watershed management in high-mountain areas of southern Ecuador. Rapid development of hydropower, accompanied by new and improved road networks, has resulted in swift changes in land-use and land cover in Ecuador's tropical Andes, all of which underscore the need for detailed information on flow and sediment production from these river systems. National and regional payment for the protection of ecosystem services (PES) programs seek to target critical areas, such as these, for watershed conservation, but are often informed by minimal information on sustainable flows and impacts of land use activities. As part of a program to inform conservation and sustainable water management in the region, we established a hydrological monitoring station in southern Ecuador on the Mazar River, a tributary of the Paute River Basin, situated on the eastern Andean cordillera. The station is equipped with sensors to continuously monitor stream stage and turbidity and an automated sampler for event-based collection of stream water samples, providing high frequency data that reduces the uncertainty of observations. Here, we report observations of continuous runoff and turbidity over the first year of observation, present relationships between turbidity and concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) and total particulate phosphorus (TP), and provide estimates of annual loads of TSS and TP. Runoff was highly variable over the monitoring period with flows ranging from less than 3 m3/s during baseflow to nearly 80 m3/s during the flood of record. During measured storm events, TSS exceeded 1000 mg/l with maximum measured concentrations exceeding 13 g/l during storm peaks. Turbidity was highly correlated with TSS, which was in turn highly correlated with TP, providing a robust data set for load estimation. We compare our results to other montane rivers in the

  11. Landscape hydrology. The hydrological legacy of deforestation on global wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C; Shulmeister, J; Larsen, J; Jacobsen, G E; Zawadzki, A

    2014-11-14

    Increased catchment erosion and nutrient loading are commonly recognized impacts of deforestation on global wetlands. In contrast, an increase in water availability in deforested catchments is well known in modern studies but is rarely considered when evaluating past human impacts. We used a Budyko water balance approach, a meta-analysis of global wetland response to deforestation, and paleoecological studies from Australasia to explore this issue. After complete deforestation, we demonstrated that water available to wetlands increases by up to 15% of annual precipitation. This can convert ephemeral swamps to permanent lakes or even create new wetlands. This effect is globally significant, with 9 to 12% of wetlands affected, including 20 to 40% of Ramsar wetlands, but is widely unrecognized because human impact studies rarely test for it. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Deforestation and malaria in Mâncio Lima County, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sarah H; Gangnon, Ronald; Silveira, Guilherme Abbad; Patz, Jonathan A

    2010-07-01

    Malaria is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the Amazon. We used malaria reports for health districts collected in 2006 by the Programa Nacional de Controle da Malaria to determine whether deforestation is associated with malaria incidence in the county (municipio) of Mancio Lima, Acre State, Brazil. Cumulative percent deforestation was calculated for the spatial catchment area of each health district by using 60 x 60-meter, resolution-classified imagery. Statistical associations were identified with univariate and multivariate general additive negative binomial models adjusted for spatial effects. Our cross-sectional study shows malaria incidence across health districts in 2006 is positively associated with greater changes in percentage of cumulative deforestation within respective health districts. After adjusting for access to care, health district size, and spatial trends, we show that a 4.2%, or 1 SD, change in deforestation from August 1997 through August 2001 is associated with a 48% increase of malaria incidence.

  13. Assessment of suitability of macrobenthic mollusc diversity to monitor water quality and shallow sediment quality in a tropical rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated wetland system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Dimuthu Nilmini Wijeyaratne

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Six sampling sites were selected to represent different land use types in the rehabilitated and non-rehabilitated areas of a recreational wetland in Sri Lanka to study the suitability of macrobenthic mollusc diversity to monitor spatial and temporal variation in physico-chemical parameters of water and shallow sediments. Individuals belonging to six families and eight species were recorded during the study. The significantly highest mean abundance (individuals of Bithynia tentaculata and Pila globosa were recorded in sites from the rehabilitated area and there was no significant temporal variation of mollusc abundance during the study.  The abundance and diversity of mollusc community showed significant spatial variations and this study identified that B. tentaculata and P. globosa can be used as possible bioindicators to detect changes in water and shallow sediment quality in tropical wetland ecosystems

  14. Mapping and Monitoring Forest Degradation in Indonesia Using Landsat time-series data sets from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margono, B. A.; Potapov, P. V.; Hansen, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical deforestation and forest degradation accounts for over 18% of CO2 emissions globally. Timely and accurate information on forest extent and change is required for monitoring such changes to tropical forest. Remote sensing is perhaps the only effective means for tropical forest exploitation monitoring. Indonesian forests account for 2.3% of global forest cover, but monitoring in Indonesia faces challenges due to (i) unavailability of cloud free days due to climatic conditions, (ii) rapid reestablishment of tree cover by timber plantations, palm estates and subsequent secondary re-growth, and (iii) uncertainties in fractional land cover types in uneven terrain. A hybrid approach is presented here where an Intact Forest Landscape methodology, based on GIS-based buffering of observable disturbances is coupled with a per pixel mapping of old growth forest stands. Forest cover loss from 1990 to 2010 is mapped independently and trends in intact and degraded forest are quantified. Results advance the monitoring of forest cover and the carbon cycle required for UNFCCC REDD objectives to mitigate climate change by reducing carbon emissions from tropical forest exploitation.

  15. Forest transition or just deforestation? Evidence from Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertsen, Catrin

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is emerging as one of the greatest global challenges in the twenty first century, and is the result of increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Deforestation is the third greatest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, and there is a growing consensus that Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) should be included in a post-Kyoto agreement. This thesis examines forest cover change in the Brazilian Am...

  16. Defining Solutions, Finding Problems: Deforestation, Gender, and REDD+ in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Westholm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+ is a policy instrument meant to mitigate climate change while also achieving poverty reduction in tropical countries. It has garnered critics for homogenising environmental and development governance and for ignoring how similar efforts have tended to exacerbate gender inequalities. Nonetheless, regarding such schemes as inevitable, some feminists argue for requirements that include women′s empowerment and participation. In this paper we move beyond discussions about safeguards and examine whether the very framing of REDD+ programs can provide openings for a transformation as argued for by its proponents. Following the REDD+ policy process in Burkina Faso, we come to two important insights: REDD+ is a solution in need of a problem. Assumptions about gender are at the heart of creating ′actionable knowledge′ that enabled REDD+ to be presented as a policy solution to the problems of deforestation, poverty and gender inequality. Second, despite its ′safeguards′, REDD+ appears to be perpetuating gendered divisions of labour, as formal environmental decision-making moves upwards; and responsibility and the burden of actual environmental labour shifts further down in particularly gendered ways. We explore how this is enabled by the development of policies whose stated aims are to tackle inequalities.

  17. Effects of Deforestation and Forest Degradation on Forest Carbon Stocks in Collaborative Forests, Nepal

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    Ram Asheshwar MANDAL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are some key drivers that favor deforestation and forest degradation. Consequently, levels of carbon stock are affected in different parts of same forest types. But the problem lies in exploring the extent of the effects on level of carbon stocking. This paper highlights the variations in levels of carbon stocks in three different collaborative forests of same forest type i.e. tropical sal (Shorea robusta forest in Mahottari district of the central Terai in Nepal. Three collaborative forests namely Gadhanta-Bardibas Collaborative Forest (CFM, Tuteshwarnath CFM and Banke- Maraha CFM were selected for research site. Interview and workshops were organized with the key informants that include staffs, members and representatives of CFMs to collect the socio-economic data and stratified random sampling was applied to collect the bio-physical data to calculate the carbon stocks. Analysis was carried out using statistical tools. It was found five major drivers namely grazing, fire, logging, growth of invasive species and encroachment. It was found highest carbon 269.36 ton per ha in Gadhanta- Bardibash CFM. The findings showed that the levels of carbon stocks in the three studied CFMs are different depending on how the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation influence over them.

  18. Protected Areas' Impacts on Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: Examining Conservation-Development Interactions to Inform Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Herrera, Diego; Sandoval, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are the leading forest conservation policy for species and ecoservices goals and they may feature in climate policy if countries with tropical forest rely on familiar tools. For Brazil's Legal Amazon, we estimate the average impact of protection upon deforestation and show how protected areas' forest impacts vary significantly with development pressure. We use matching, i.e., comparisons that are apples-to-apples in observed land characteristics, to address the fact that protected areas (PAs) tend to be located on lands facing less pressure. Correcting for that location bias lowers our estimates of PAs' forest impacts by roughly half. Further, it reveals significant variation in PA impacts along development-related dimensions: for example, the PAs that are closer to roads and the PAs closer to cities have higher impact. Planners have multiple conservation and development goals, and are constrained by cost, yet still conservation planning should reflect what our results imply about future impacts of PAs.

  19. Protected Areas’ Impacts on Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: Examining Conservation – Development Interactions to Inform Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Herrera, Diego; Sandoval, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are the leading forest conservation policy for species and ecoservices goals and they may feature in climate policy if countries with tropical forest rely on familiar tools. For Brazil's Legal Amazon, we estimate the average impact of protection upon deforestation and show how protected areas’ forest impacts vary significantly with development pressure. We use matching, i.e., comparisons that are apples-to-apples in observed land characteristics, to address the fact that protected areas (PAs) tend to be located on lands facing less pressure. Correcting for that location bias lowers our estimates of PAs’ forest impacts by roughly half. Further, it reveals significant variation in PA impacts along development-related dimensions: for example, the PAs that are closer to roads and the PAs closer to cities have higher impact. Planners have multiple conservation and development goals, and are constrained by cost, yet still conservation planning should reflect what our results imply about future impacts of PAs. PMID:26225922

  20. Detecting the effects of deforestation as a driver of change to terrestrial water partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livsey, John; Olin, Stefan; Chen, Deliang; Smith, Benjamin; Fang, Keyan; Uddling, Johan; Jaramillo, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic land use change is known to cause shifts to the partitioning of water between runoff, evapotranspiration (ET) and storage within catchments. Whilst deforestation is assumed to result in a decrease of ET, this has not been adequately examined across scales and between catchments of different regions and biomes. Further, recent research has presented differing effects on ET, with both increases and decreases to the fraction of rainfall returning to the atmosphere, resulting from deforestation. Using a hydroclimatic approach, here we attempt to assess the effects of deforestation on ET within boreal, temperate and tropical catchments of North and South America at meso-to-macro scales. Using remote sensing and model-derived quantifications of deforestation for 73 catchments experiencing varying degrees of forest loss, changes to the partitioning of precipitation between runoff and ET were identified for the period 1980-2010. Forty-two catchments experiencing a net forest loss greater than 5% of the total catchment area (loss catchments), and 31 catchments with a net loss smaller than 2% (control catchments), were selected. For each catchment, using the University of East Anglia - Climate Research Unit global data set, annual precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PET) were derived, and annual runoff (Q) was obtained from the Global Runoff Data Centre discharge data. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) was then estimated from the available water balance components (P and Q). We studied the movements of these basins within the Budyko space, and the respective climate (∆Ψc) and landscape (∆Ψl) components of ∆Ψ. We found that tropical loss catchments of South America experienced an area weighted mean ∆Ψ of 0.005, with counteracting effects of ∆Ψc and ∆Ψl (0.073 and -0.078 respectively). This contrasts with the results seen within the control catchments of South America, which had ∆Ψ, ∆Ψc and ∆Ψl of -0.038, -0.048, and 0

  1. MONITORING PHENOLOGICAL VARIABILITY ACROSS A TROPICAL SAVANNA ARIDITY GRADIENT WITH REMOTE SENSING ACROSS SEASONAL TO ANNUALAND EXTREME EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Huete

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropical savannas are key components of the global carbon and water cycles and understanding their functioning is critical to understanding ecosystem feedbacks to global climate. By observing broad scale vegetation responses to climatic variability, remote sensing offers powerful insights into the patterns and processes underlying savanna behaviour. However, savannas are highly complex, multi-layer and heterogenous ecosystems composed of C3 (herbaceous and C4 (woodland components with asynchronous phenological responses to environmental controls. There are concerns about optimizing the detection of savanna functioning as well as in understanding their environmental controls with remote-sensing data due to their coarse resolution. Furthermore, seasonalphenologic variations in satellite observations need to be sufficiently accurate to ensure confidence in interpreting vegetation responses to interannual climatic variation and to aid in constraining models of carbon and water fluxes. In this study, we analysed several years of high temporal frequency MODIS and TRMM satellite data sets of vegetation dynamics and rainfall, respectively, to seasonal and interannual responses of savanna multifunctional components to climate variability across a tropical savanna aridity gradient (1760 to 580 mm annual rainfall in northern Australia. We compared our results with a series of eddy covariance (EC tower flux data of gross primary production and analyzed a wide set of ecosystem processes including photosynthesis, net primary productivity, phenological metrics in timing of the growing season, and rain use efficiencies. We found MODIS satellite measurements to yield highly accurate spatial and temporal variability in ecosystem functioning and able to replicate interannual patterns and responses to rainfall observed with the EC tower data. Although these results appear promising for regional extensions of satelliteflux tower relationships at the landscape level

  2. Deforestation and Malaria on the Amazon Frontier: Larval Clustering of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) Determines Focal Distribution of Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Fábio S M; Honório, Nildimar A

    2015-11-01

    We performed bimonthly mosquito larval collections during 1 year, in an agricultural settlement in the Brazilian Amazon, as well as an analysis of malaria incidence in neighboring houses. Water collections located at forest fringes were more commonly positive for Anopheles darlingi larvae and Kulldorff spatial analysis pinpointed significant larval clusters at sites directly beneath forest fringes, which were called larval "hotspots." Remote sensing identified 43 "potential" hotspots. Sampling of these areas revealed an 85.7% positivity rate for A. darlingi larvae. Malaria was correlated with shorter distances to potential hotpots and settlers living within 400 m of potential hotspots had a 2.60 higher risk of malaria. Recently arrived settlers, usually located closer to the tip of the triangularly shaped deforestation imprints of side roads, may be more exposed to malaria due to their proximity to the forest fringe. As deforestation progresses, transmission decreases. However, forest remnants inside deforested areas conferred an increased risk of malaria. We propose a model for explaining frontier malaria in the Amazon: because of adaptation of A. darlingi to the forest fringe ecotone, humans are exposed to an increased transmission risk when in proximity to these areas, especially when small dams are created on naturally running water collections. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Generating carbon finance through avoided deforestation and its potential to create climatic, conservation and human development benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Johannes; Yasué, Maï

    2008-05-27

    Recent proposals to compensate developing countries for reducing emissions from deforestation (RED) under forthcoming climate change mitigation regimes are receiving increasing attention. Here we demonstrate that if RED credits were traded on international carbon markets, even moderate decreases in deforestation rates could generate billions of Euros annually for tropical forest conservation. We also discuss the main challenges for a RED mechanism that delivers real climatic benefits. These include providing sufficient incentives while only rewarding deforestation reductions beyond business-as-usual scenarios, addressing risks arising from forest degradation and international leakage, and ensuring permanence of emission reductions. Governance may become a formidable challenge for RED because some countries with the highest RED potentials score poorly on governance indices. In addition to climate mitigation, RED funds could help achieve substantial co-benefits for biodiversity conservation and human development. However, this will probably require targeted additional support because the highest biodiversity threats and human development needs may exist in countries that have limited income potentials from RED. In conclusion, how successfully a market-based RED mechanism can contribute to climate change mitigation, conservation and development will strongly depend on accompanying measures and carefully designed incentive structures involving governments, business, as well as the conservation and development communities.

  4. Deforestation risk due to commodity crop expansion in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Elsa M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Lambin, Eric F.

    2017-04-01

    Rapid integration of global agricultural markets and subsequent cropland displacement in recent decades increased large-scale tropical deforestation in South America and Southeast Asia. Growing land scarcity and more stringent land use regulations in these regions could incentivize the offshoring of export-oriented commodity crops to sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We assess the effects of domestic- and export-oriented agricultural expansion on deforestation in SSA in recent decades. Analyses were conducted at the global, regional and local scales. We found that commodity crops are expanding in SSA, increasing pressure on tropical forests. Four Congo Basin countries, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Côte d’Ivoire were most at risk in terms of exposure, vulnerability and pressures from agricultural expansion. These countries averaged the highest percent forest cover (58% ± 17.93) and lowest proportions of potentially available cropland outside forest areas (1% ± 0.89). Foreign investment in these countries was concentrated in oil palm production (81%), with a median investment area of 41 582 thousand ha. Cocoa, the fastest expanding export-oriented crop across SSA, accounted for 57% of global expansion in 2000-2013 at a rate of 132 thousand ha yr-1. However, cocoa only amounted to 0.89% of foreign land investment. Commodity crop expansion in SSA appears largely driven by small- and medium-scale farmers rather than industrial plantations. Land-use changes associated with large-scale investments remain to be observed in many countries. Although domestic demand for commodity crops was associated with most agricultural expansion, we provide evidence of a growing influence of distant markets on land-use change in SSA.

  5. Defaunation affects carbon storage in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Pizo, Marco A; Magnago, Luiz Fernando S; Rocha, Mariana F; Lima, Renato A F; Peres, Carlos A; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-12-01

    Carbon storage is widely acknowledged as one of the most valuable forest ecosystem services. Deforestation, logging, fragmentation, fire, and climate change have significant effects on tropical carbon stocks; however, an elusive and yet undetected decrease in carbon storage may be due to defaunation of large seed dispersers. Many large tropical trees with sizeable contributions to carbon stock rely on large vertebrates for seed dispersal and regeneration, however many of these frugivores are threatened by hunting, illegal trade, and habitat loss. We used a large data set on tree species composition and abundance, seed, fruit, and carbon-related traits, and plant-animal interactions to estimate the loss of carbon storage capacity of tropical forests in defaunated scenarios. By simulating the local extinction of trees that depend on large frugivores in 31 Atlantic Forest communities, we found that defaunation has the potential to significantly erode carbon storage even when only a small proportion of large-seeded trees are extirpated. Although intergovernmental policies to reduce carbon emissions and reforestation programs have been mostly focused on deforestation, our results demonstrate that defaunation, and the loss of key ecological interactions, also poses a serious risk for the maintenance of tropical forest carbon storage.

  6. Tropical malabsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, B S; Venkataraman, S; Mukhopadhya, A

    2006-01-01

    Malabsorption is an important clinical problem both in visitors to the tropics and in native residents of tropical countries. Infections of the small intestine are the most important cause of tropical malabsorption. Protozoal infections cause malabsorption in immunocompetent hosts, but do so more commonly in the setting of immune deficiency. Helminth infections occasionally cause malabsorption or protein‐losing enteropathy. Intestinal tuberculosis, chronic pancreatitis and small‐bowel bacterial overgrowth are important causes of tropical malabsorption. In recent years, inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease have become major causes of malabsorption in the tropics. Sporadic tropical sprue is still an important cause of malabsorption in adults and in children in South Asia. Investigations to exclude specific infective, immunological or inflammatory causes are important before considering tropical sprue as a diagnosis. This article briefly reviews the management of tropical sprue and presents an algorithm for its investigation and management. PMID:17148698

  7. Piomiosite tropical Tropical pyomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Ghiotti de Siqueira

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A piomiosite tropical, apesar de ser uma patologia reconhecida em nosso meio há mais de cem anos, ainda é pouco divulgada no Brasil, e pode-se perder tempo e dinheiro em exames para afastar a possibilidade de tumores ou tratar sua incidência vem aumentando em regiões de clima temperado, devido à disseminação do Vírus da lmunodeticiência Humana e aos tratamentos imúnossupressivos. Apesar de realizado em instituições que muitas vezes não apresentam recursos diagnósticos de primeira linha, demonstramos que o tratamento pode ser adequado se houver experiência clínica e bom senso. São descritos quarenta casos de piomiosite tropical, atendidos consecutivamente por um mesmo cirurgião; a idade média dos pacientes foi de 16 anos e o sexo predominante o masculino. O diagnóstico foi clínico em 73% dos casos e o tratamento realizado foi drenagem por incisão direta sobre a massa, deixando dreno tubular, usado para irrigação do abscesso. O tempo médio de permanência do dreno no local foi de cinco dias, e a média de permanência hospitalar, sete dias. Dois casos (5% evoluíram para osteomielite e um caso foi a óbito. A evolução foi satisfatória em 93% dos pacientes.Tropical pyomyositis, although a recognized pathology for more than a century, is still poorly known in Brazil, and one could waste time and money on exams for negative diagnosis for tumors or inadequately treat a potentially fatal disease. Initially referred to as a tropical disease, its incidence is increasing in temperate regions due to the dissemination of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and immunosuppressive treatments. In spite of our Institution frequently lacking quality diagnostic resources, we managed adequate treatment by using clinical experience and good judgement. A total of 40 cases of tropical pyomyositis are described, all treated by the same surgeon, with a mean age of 16 years, predominantly male. Clinical diagnosis was realized in 73% of the cases

  8. The dynamical interactions of Amazon deforestation, intensification of cattle ranching and technology adoption: insights from a socio-ecological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Hansen, Finn; Heitzig, Jobst; Donges, Jonathan F.; Cardoso, Manoel F.; Kurths, Jürgen; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2017-04-01

    Deforestation in the tropics - with vast consequences for the ecosystem and climate - is mainly driven by subsequent land use, which is not only determined by environmental and economic constraints but also influenced by the use of different production technologies. Inefficient production technologies can lead to excessive use of land, especially in areas where land is easily available and accessible. Here, the adoption of new technologies could help to use already converted land more intensively and ease pressures on ecologically valuable areas. In this study, we take the Brazilian Amazon as a prominent example region to explore the interplay of land-use decisions with environmental and economic dynamics in the process of land-use intensification and frontier expansion. Expansion of pasture land for cattle ranching to satisfy increasing domestic and international demands is one of the important drivers for deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Pasture run-down and following land abandonment further drive the expansion of deforestation frontiers into pristine forests. Therefore, intensification of livestock production, especially better pasture management, could potentially reduce deforestation. However, a number of reasons including the large spatial extent of the region make the process of comparing the effectiveness of different management techniques, technologies and policies in the region difficult. Therefore, the effectiveness and possible outcomes of policies to foster intensification are highly debated in the literature. Some authors deny that intensification policies are a viable option to spare forests as long as they are not a scarce resource [1] while others insist that intensification has an effect if only supported by the right policies [2]. In this presentation, we introduce a concise agent-based model to study conditions under which intensification can reduce deforestation and explore the trade-offs between intensified and extensive land uses

  9. Photogrammetric discharge monitoring of small tropical mountain rivers: A case study at Rivière des Pluies, Réunion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, André; Augereau, Emmanuel; Delacourt, Christophe; Bonnier, Julien

    2016-06-01

    Reliable discharge measurements are indispensable for an effective management of natural water resources and floods. Limitations of classical current meter profiling and stage-discharge ratings have stimulated the development of more accurate and efficient gauging techniques such as nonintrusive photogrammetric techniques. Despite many successful applications of large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) for short-term measurements during flood events, there are still very few studies that address its use for long-term monitoring of small mountain rivers. To fill this gap, this study targets the development and testing of largely autonomous photogrammetric discharge measurement system with a special focus on the application to small mountain river with high discharge variability in the tropics. It proposes several enhancements concerning camera calibration, more efficient processing in image geometry, the automatic detection of the water level as well as the statistical calibration and estimation of the discharge from multiple profiles. A case study which comprises the analysis of several thousand videos spanning over 2.5 year is carried out to test the robustness and accuracy of different processing steps. Comparisons against classical current meter profiling show a mean absolute percentage error of 9.0% after the statistical calibration of the system. The study suggests that LSPIV can already be considered as a valuable tool for the monitoring of torrential flows, whereas further research is still needed to fully integrate nighttime observation and stereophotogrammetric capabilities.

  10. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural waste, and peat fires to total global fire emissions. Here we used a revised version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA biogeochemical model and improved satellite-derived estimates of area burned, fire activity, and plant productivity to calculate fire emissions for the 1997–2009 period on a 0.5° spatial resolution with a monthly time step. For November 2000 onwards, estimates were based on burned area, active fire detections, and plant productivity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor. For the partitioning we focused on the MODIS era. We used burned area estimates based on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR active fire data prior to MODIS (1997–2000 and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR derived estimates of plant productivity during the same period. Average global fire carbon emissions were 2.0 Pg yr−1 with significant interannual variability during 1997–2001 (2.8 Pg yr−1 in 1998 and 1.6 Pg yr−1 in 2001. Emissions during 2002–2007 were relatively constant (around 2.1 Pg yr−1 before declining in 2008 (1.7 Pg yr−1 and 2009 (1.5 Pg yr−1 partly due to lower deforestation fire emissions in South America and tropical Asia. During 2002–2007, emissions were highly variable from year-to-year in many regions, including in boreal Asia, South America, and Indonesia, but these regional differences cancelled out at a global level. During the MODIS era (2001–2009, most fire carbon emissions were from fires in grasslands and savannas (44

  11. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J.; Mu, M.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Jin, Y.; van Leeuwen, T. T.

    2010-12-01

    New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural waste, and peat fires to total global fire emissions. Here we used a revised version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) biogeochemical model and improved satellite-derived estimates of area burned, fire activity, and plant productivity to calculate fire emissions for the 1997-2009 period on a 0.5° spatial resolution with a monthly time step. For November 2000 onwards, estimates were based on burned area, active fire detections, and plant productivity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. For the partitioning we focused on the MODIS era. We used burned area estimates based on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) active fire data prior to MODIS (1997-2000) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) derived estimates of plant productivity during the same period. Average global fire carbon emissions were 2.0 Pg yr-1 with significant interannual variability during 1997-2001 (2.8 Pg/yr in 1998 and 1.6 Pg/yr in 2001). Emissions during 2002-2007 were relatively constant (around 2.1 Pg/yr) before declining in 2008 (1.7 Pg/yr) and 2009 (1.5 Pg/yr) partly due to lower deforestation fire emissions in South America and tropical Asia. During 2002-2007, emissions were highly variable from year-to-year in many regions, including in boreal Asia, South America, and Indonesia, but these regional differences cancelled out at a global level. During the MODIS era (2001-2009), most fire carbon emissions were from fires in grasslands and savannas (44%) with smaller contributions from tropical deforestation and degradation fires (20%), woodland fires

  12. Assessment of spatial and temporal dynamics of tropical forest cover:A case study in Malkangiri district of Orissa, India%热带森林覆被的时空动态评价——以印度Malkangiri district of Orissa为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHIRANJIBI Pattanaik; C. SUDHAKAR Reddy; P. MANIKYA Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forests have been recognized as having global conservation importance. However, they are being rapidly destroyed in many regions of the world. Regular monitoring of forests is necessary for an adaptive management approach and the successful implementation of ecosystem management. The present study analyses the temporal changes in forest ecosystem structure in tribal dominated Malkangiri district of Orissa, India, during 1973-2004 period based on digitized forest cover maps using geographic information system (GIS) and interpretation of satellite data. Three satellite images Landsat MSS (1973), Landsat TM (1990) and IRS P6 LISS Ⅲ (2004) were used to determine changes. Six land cover types were delineated which includes dense forest, open forest, scrub land, agriculture, barren land and water body. Different forest types were also demarcated within forest class for better understanding the degradation pattern in each forest types. The results showed that there was a net decrease of 475.7 km2 forest cover (rate of deforestation = 2.34) from 1973 to 1990 and 402.3 km2 (rate of deforestation = 2.27) from 1990 to 2004. Forest cover has changed over time depending on a few factors such as large-scale deforestation, shifting cultivation,dam and road construction, unregulated management actions, and social pressure. A significant increase of 1222.8 km2 agriculture area (1973-2004) clearly indicated the conversion of forest cover to agricultural land. These alterations had resulted in significant environmental consequences, including decline in forest cover, soil erosion, and loss of biodiversity. There is an urgent need for rational management of the remaining forest for it to be able to survive beyond next decades. Particular attention must be paid to tropical forests, which are rapidly being deforested.

  13. Agroforestry: a refuge for tropical biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Shonil A; Willis, Katherine J; Birks, H John B; Whittaker, Robert J

    2008-05-01

    As rates of deforestation continue to rise in many parts of the tropics, the international conservation community is faced with the challenge of finding approaches which can reduce deforestation and provide rural livelihoods in addition to conserving biodiversity. Much of modern-day conservation is motivated by a desire to conserve 'pristine nature' in protected areas, while there is growing recognition of the long-term human involvement in forest dynamics and of the importance of conservation outside protected areas. Agroforestry -- intentional management of shade trees with agricultural crops -- has the potential for providing habitats outside formally protected land, connecting nature reserves and alleviating resource-use pressure on conservation areas. Here we examine the role of agroforestry systems in maintaining species diversity and conclude that these systems can play an important role in biodiversity conservation in human-dominated landscapes.

  14. HYDROLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS CAUSED BY DEFORESTATION UNDERGROUND: PETROPOLIS, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Magalhães da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion in Petropolis region is due to massive deforestation for housing and other human activities. Deforestation is the main cause ecological imbalances, resulting in: flooding, decrease in porosity and desertification of soil. By AIA semi-qualitative technique analysis it studied possible losses and benefits of urban expansion in the locality, if changes were likely or not of occurrence and their level of impaction. It was observed that the probability of occurrence of damage was much higher than that of benefits. The result corroborates the literature, therefore, has been seen that vegetation plays an important role in water control of the town, and also in the physical and chemical soil. The probability of catastrophic consequences, due to deforestation, is extremely high, and even mid-sized consequences have capacity of environmental impacts that are likely to be irreversible. Deforestation intensifies the consequences of major frequent rainfall in the summer of the State of Rio de Janeiro, so the higher the deforestation, the greater the likelihood of recurrent and intense rainfall events resulting from large. Therefore, it is necessary to control urban sprawl in the region to reduce water environmental impact in the region. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.17327

  15. The future of forests and orangutans (Pongo abelii) in Sumatra: predicting impacts of oil palm plantations, road construction, and mechanisms for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaveau, David L A; Leader-Williams, Nigel [Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NR (United Kingdom); Wich, Serge [Great Apes Trust of Iowa, 4200 SE 44th Avenue, Des Moines, IA 50320 (United States); Epting, Justin; Juhn, Daniel [Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202 (United States); Kanninen, Markku, E-mail: dgaveau@yahoo.co.u, E-mail: swich@greatapetrust.or, E-mail: justep22@myfastmail.co, E-mail: d.juhn@conservation.or, E-mail: m.kanninen@cgiar.or, E-mail: n.leader-williams@kent.ac.u [Center for International Forestry Research, Jalan CIFOR, Situ Gede, Sidang Barang, Bogor, West Java (Indonesia)

    2009-09-15

    Payments for reduced carbon emissions from deforestation (RED) are now attracting attention as a way to halt tropical deforestation. Northern Sumatra comprises an area of 65 000 km{sup 2} that is both the site of Indonesia's first planned RED initiative, and the stronghold of 92% of remaining Sumatran orangutans. Under current plans, this RED initiative will be implemented in a defined geographic area, essentially a newly established, 7500 km{sup 2} protected area (PA) comprising mostly upland forest, where guards will be recruited to enforce forest protection. Meanwhile, new roads are currently under construction, while companies are converting lowland forests into oil palm plantations. This case study predicts the effectiveness of RED in reducing deforestation and conserving orangutans for two distinct scenarios: the current plan of implementing RED within the specific boundary of a new upland PA, and an alternative scenario of implementing RED across landscapes outside PAs. Our satellite-based spatially explicit deforestation model predicts that 1313 km{sup 2} of forest would be saved from deforestation by 2030, while forest cover present in 2006 would shrink by 22% (7913 km{sup 2}) across landscapes outside PAs if RED were only to be implemented in the upland PA. Meanwhile, orangutan habitat would reduce by 16% (1137 km{sup 2}), resulting in the conservative loss of 1384 orangutans, or 25% of the current total population with or without RED intervention. By contrast, an estimated 7824 km{sup 2} of forest could be saved from deforestation, with maximum benefit for orangutan conservation, if RED were to be implemented across all remaining forest landscapes outside PAs. Here, RED payments would compensate land users for their opportunity costs in not converting unprotected forests into oil palm, while the construction of new roads to service the marketing of oil palm would be halted. Our predictions suggest that Indonesia's first RED initiative in an

  16. The future of forests and orangutans (Pongo abelii) in Sumatra: predicting impacts of oil palm plantations, road construction, and mechanisms for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Wich, Serge; Epting, Justin; Juhn, Daniel; Kanninen, Markku; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2009-09-01

    Payments for reduced carbon emissions from deforestation (RED) are now attracting attention as a way to halt tropical deforestation. Northern Sumatra comprises an area of 65 000 km2 that is both the site of Indonesia's first planned RED initiative, and the stronghold of 92% of remaining Sumatran orangutans. Under current plans, this RED initiative will be implemented in a defined geographic area, essentially a newly established, 7500 km2 protected area (PA) comprising mostly upland forest, where guards will be recruited to enforce forest protection. Meanwhile, new roads are currently under construction, while companies are converting lowland forests into oil palm plantations. This case study predicts the effectiveness of RED in reducing deforestation and conserving orangutans for two distinct scenarios: the current plan of implementing RED within the specific boundary of a new upland PA, and an alternative scenario of implementing RED across landscapes outside PAs. Our satellite-based spatially explicit deforestation model predicts that 1313 km2 of forest would be saved from deforestation by 2030, while forest cover present in 2006 would shrink by 22% (7913 km2) across landscapes outside PAs if RED were only to be implemented in the upland PA. Meanwhile, orangutan habitat would reduce by 16% (1137 km2), resulting in the conservative loss of 1384 orangutans, or 25% of the current total population with or without RED intervention. By contrast, an estimated 7824 km2 of forest could be saved from deforestation, with maximum benefit for orangutan conservation, if RED were to be implemented across all remaining forest landscapes outside PAs. Here, RED payments would compensate land users for their opportunity costs in not converting unprotected forests into oil palm, while the construction of new roads to service the marketing of oil palm would be halted. Our predictions suggest that Indonesia's first RED initiative in an upland PA may not significantly reduce

  17. Incentives to reduce GHG emissions from deforestation. Lessons learned from Costa Rica and Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karousakis, K. [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France)

    2007-04-15

    similar to a PES. Since a number of different options to capture and market the carbon values of forests are possible, and because a future post-2012 climate change framework is still unclear, this paper takes a broad approach to analyze how an instrument for RED may be operationalised. The paper is organised as follows: Section 2 provides an overview of the role of forests in the context of climate change and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and discusses the available evidence on the potential costs and benefits of reducing emissions from deforestation. Section 3 presents the two case studies that have implemented national PES programmes to capture and market forest values, namely the PES programme to capture forest values in Costa Rica and the payments for environmental hydrological services of forests in Mexico. The section analyses the design characteristics of the programmes, including the legal frameworks; institutional structures; financing mechanisms; baselines and additionality; and monitoring and enforcement methodologies. Drawing on the insights from the case studies, as well as other experiences from the current climate change framework, section 4 explores possible options for an incentive to capture and market the carbon values of forests.

  18. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  19. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeney, J Marion; Christensen, Norman L; Pimm, Stuart L

    2009-01-01

    Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  20. What can two years of monitoring tell us about Venezuelan coral reefs? the Southern Tropical America Node of the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (STA-GCRMN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cróquer, Aldo; Debrot, Denise; Klein, Eduardo; Kurten, Martina; Rodríguez, Sebastian; Bastidas, Carolina

    2010-05-01

    In spite of their economic importance, coral reef communities of the world are rapidly decreasing, and an adequate management planification is needed. The benthic and fish communities of Dos Mosquises Sur and Madrizqui at Los Roques National Park, and Caiman and Cayo Norte at Morrocoy National Park, in Venezuela were monitored during 2003 and 2004. The CARICOMP method was used to describe the benthic community, and the AGRRA protocol was applied to the fish community assessment. The benthic cover of five broad living categories (i.e. corals, algae, sponge and octocorals) differed across the sites (Nested ANOVA, p Curtis), whereas Caiman differed greatly (57- 68%) from all other sites. The cover of hard coral, algae, sponges and octocorals was similar between 2003 and 2004 in all four sites. Similarly, the fish community structure of both parks did not change over time, and was dominated by herbivores (Pomacentridac, Scaridae and Acanthuridae). However, commercially important carnivores (e.g. Lutjanids and Serranids) were more abundant in Los Roques than in Morrocoy. Although it was expected that the benthic cover and fish community would reflect greater differences between Los Roques and Morrocoy, only the fish community appeared healthier in Los Roques, whereas Cayo Norte (Morrocoy), had a coral cover similar or higher than both sites of Los Roques. Thus, our results suggest that in Venezuela, oceanic reef sites are not necessarily 'healthier' (i.e. higher coral cover) than land-influenced coral communities. The addition of three new sites and the reincorporation of Caiman has improved and expanded the monitoring capabilities in Venezuela and it represents the first step towards the consolidation of a coral reef monitoring program for the country.

  1. Mobile devices for community-based REDD+ monitoring: a case study for Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M; Ribbe, Lars

    2012-12-20

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery.

  2. An integrated remote sensing and GIS approach for monitoring areas affected by selective logging: A case study in northern Mato Grosso, Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecchi, Rosana Cristina; Beuchle, René; Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Arai, Egidio; Simonetti, Dario; Achard, Frédéric

    2017-09-01

    Forest cover disturbances due to processes such as logging and forest fires are a widespread issue especially in the tropics, and have heavily affected forest biomass and functioning in the Brazilian Amazon in the past decades. Satellite remote sensing has played a key role for assessing logging activities in this region; however, there are still remaining challenges regarding the quantification and monitoring of these processes affecting forested lands. In this study, we propose a new method for monitoring areas affected by selective logging in one of the hotspots of Mato Grosso state in the Brazilian Amazon, based on a combination of object-based and pixel-based classification approaches applied on remote sensing data. Logging intensity and changes over time are assessed within grid cells of 300 m × 300 m spatial resolution. Our method encompassed three main steps: (1) mapping forest/non-forest areas through an object-based classification approach applied to a temporal series of Landsat images during the period 2000-2015, (2) mapping yearly logging activities from soil fraction images on the same Landsat data series, and (3) integrating information from previous steps within a regular grid-cell of 300 m × 300 m in order to monitor disturbance intensities over this 15-years period. The overall accuracy of the baseline forest/non-forest mask (year 2000) and of the undisturbed vs disturbed forest (for selected years) were 93% and 84% respectively. Our results indicate that annual forest disturbance rates, mainly due to logging activities, were higher than annual deforestation rates during the whole period of study. The deforested areas correspond to circa 25% of the areas affected by forest disturbances. Deforestation rates were highest from 2001 to 2005 and then decreased considerably after 2006. In contrast, the annual forest disturbance rates show high temporal variability with a slow decrease over the 15-year period, resulting in a significant increase of the

  3. Passive sampling approaches used for time-integrated environmental monitoring and Risk Assessment in the tropical Río Tapezco catchment in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Frederik; Wey, Hannah; Stamm, Christian; Ruepert, Clemens; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik

    2017-04-01

    Highest pesticide application rates and high surface runoff potentials are found in tropical countries. Global data indicate that among these countries, Costa Rica's agriculture is one of the most pesticide intensive worldwide. After use, pesticides can be transported from the fields into surface water through heavy raining events via wash-off, leaching, surface runoff and erosion processes, or direct as point source due to poor pesticide application practices and deteriorate the water quality and impair aquatic organisms. Even if the risk of pesticide pollution is well documented in Costa Rica, comprehensive information about the diffuse and direct pesticide entry routes, their environmental behavior, and the degree of water pollution is often lacking. Generally, only grab samples are taken and time integrated methods for environmental monitoring are seldom used so far. There is a need for more time integrated data at catchment scale. Current passive sampling techniques are low-costs options that, when combined with advanced analytical screening methods, allow for a broad assessment of pesticide pollution in streams. This will lead to a better systematic understanding of the environmental fate of pesticides and to describe their impacts to non-target organisms in tropical aquatic environments in the short- and long-term. We implemented such an approach in the tropical Río Tapezco catchment in the Zarcero canton, Costa Rica. The area covers 5112 ha, ranges between an altitude of 1100 and 2200 m above sea level and receives an average annual precipitation of 2000 - 2500 mm/yr. The catchment is intensively used for the horticultural production of vegetables, potatoes and herbs and it is specially characterized by its agricultural fields with steep slopes. The area is a hot spot of pesticide use with an average application rate of about 22 kg/ha of arable land and cropping cycle. For time-integrated monitoring, the rivers of the study area were sampled at five points

  4. Estimating the opportunity costs of reducing carbon dioxide emissions via avoided deforestation, using integrated assessment modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, K.P.; Stehfest, E.; Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Beltran, A.M.; Kram, T.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates show that, in recent years, deforestation and forest degradation accounted for about 17% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries) is suggested to provide substantial emission reduct

  5. Using Web Search Query Data to Monitor Dengue Epidemics: A New Model for Neglected Tropical Disease Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily H.; Sahai, Vikram; Conrad, Corrie; Brownstein, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Background A variety of obstacles including bureaucracy and lack of resources have interfered with timely detection and reporting of dengue cases in many endemic countries. Surveillance efforts have turned to modern data sources, such as Internet search queries, which have been shown to be effective for monitoring influenza-like illnesses. However, few have evaluated the utility of web search query data for other diseases, especially those of high morbidity and mortality or where a vaccine may not exist. In this study, we aimed to assess whether web search queries are a viable data source for the early detection and monitoring of dengue epidemics. Methodology/Principal Findings Bolivia, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Singapore were chosen for analysis based on available data and adequate search volume. For each country, a univariate linear model was then built by fitting a time series of the fraction of Google search query volume for specific dengue-related queries from that country against a time series of official dengue case counts for a time-frame within 2003–2010. The specific combination of queries used was chosen to maximize model fit. Spurious spikes in the data were also removed prior to model fitting. The final models, fit using a training subset of the data, were cross-validated against both the overall dataset and a holdout subset of the data. All models were found to fit the data quite well, with validation correlations ranging from 0.82 to 0.99. Conclusions/Significance Web search query data were found to be capable of tracking dengue activity in Bolivia, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Singapore. Whereas traditional dengue data from official sources are often not available until after some substantial delay, web search query data are available in near real-time. These data represent valuable complement to assist with traditional dengue surveillance. PMID:21647308

  6. Using web search query data to monitor dengue epidemics: a new model for neglected tropical disease surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily H Chan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A variety of obstacles including bureaucracy and lack of resources have interfered with timely detection and reporting of dengue cases in many endemic countries. Surveillance efforts have turned to modern data sources, such as Internet search queries, which have been shown to be effective for monitoring influenza-like illnesses. However, few have evaluated the utility of web search query data for other diseases, especially those of high morbidity and mortality or where a vaccine may not exist. In this study, we aimed to assess whether web search queries are a viable data source for the early detection and monitoring of dengue epidemics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bolivia, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Singapore were chosen for analysis based on available data and adequate search volume. For each country, a univariate linear model was then built by fitting a time series of the fraction of Google search query volume for specific dengue-related queries from that country against a time series of official dengue case counts for a time-frame within 2003-2010. The specific combination of queries used was chosen to maximize model fit. Spurious spikes in the data were also removed prior to model fitting. The final models, fit using a training subset of the data, were cross-validated against both the overall dataset and a holdout subset of the data. All models were found to fit the data quite well, with validation correlations ranging from 0.82 to 0.99. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Web search query data were found to be capable of tracking dengue activity in Bolivia, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Singapore. Whereas traditional dengue data from official sources are often not available until after some substantial delay, web search query data are available in near real-time. These data represent valuable complement to assist with traditional dengue surveillance.

  7. Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects of large-scale deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    G. Bala; Caldeira, K; Wickett, M.; Phillips, T. J.; Lobell, D.B.; Delire, C; Mirin, A.

    2007-01-01

    The prevention of deforestation and promotion of afforestation have often been cited as strategies to slow global warming. Deforestation releases CO2 to the atmosphere, which exerts a warming influence on Earth's climate. However, biophysical effects of deforestation, which include changes in land surface albedo, evapotranspiration, and cloud cover also affect climate. Here we present results from several large-scale deforestation experiments performed with a three-dimensional coupled global ...

  8. Should we include avoidance of deforestation in the international response to climate change?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlamadinger, B. [Joanneum Research, Graz (Austria); Ciccarese, L. [Italian Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services, Rome (Italy); Dutschke, M. [Hamburg Institute of International Economics, Hamburg (Germany); Fearnside, P.M. [Department of Ecology, National Institute for Amazonian Research INPA, Belem, Para (Brazil); Brown, S. [Winrock International, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Murdiyarso, D. [Center for International Forestry Research, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2005-07-01

    Global deforestation and forest degradation rates have a significant impact on the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimated that during the 1990's 16.1 million hectares per year were affected by deforestation, most of them in the tropics. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculated that, for the same period, the contribution of land-use changes to GHG accumulation into the atmosphere was 1.6{+-}0.8 Giga (1G=109) tonnes of carbon per year, a quantity that corresponds to 25% of the total annual global emissions of GHGs. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), in recognising climate change as a serious threat, urged counties to take up measures to enhance and conserve ecosystems such as forests that act as reservoirs and sinks of GHGs. The Kyoto Protocol (KP), adopted in 1997, complements the UNFCCC by providing an enforceable agreement with quantitative targets for reducing GHG emissions. For fulfilling their emission-limitation commitments under the KP, industrialized countries (listed in the KP's Annex I) can use land-based activities, such as reducing deforestation, establishing new forests (afforestation and reforestation) and other vegetation types, managing agricultural and forestlands in a way that the 'carbon sink' is maximized. Annex I countries may also claim credit for carbon sequestration in developing countries by afforestation and reforestation (AR) through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), one of the 'Kyoto Mechanisms' that allow countries to achieve reductions where it is economically efficient to do so. For the period 2008-2012, forestry activities under the CDM have been restricted to afforestation and reforestation on areas that were not forested in 1990. In addition, CDM projects must lead to emission reductions or net carbon uptake additional to what would have occurred without the CDM funding

  9. Impact of tropical land use change on soil organic carbon stocks - a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Don, Axel; Schumacher, Jens; Freibauer, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Land use changes are the second largest source of human induced greenhouse gas emission, mainly due to deforestation in the tropics and sub-tropics. CO2 emissions result from biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) losses and may be offset with afforestation programs. However, the effect of land use changes on SOC is poorly quantified due to insufficient data quality (only SOC concentrations and no SOC stocks, shallow sampling depth) and representativeness. In a global meta-...

  10. Toward a whole-landscape approach for sustainable land use in the tropics

    OpenAIRE

    DeFries, R.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing food production and mitigating climate change are two primary but seemingly contradictory objectives for tropical landscapes. This special feature examines synergies and trade-offs among these objectives. Four themes emerge from the papers: the important roles of both forest and agriculture sectors for climate mitigation in tropical countries; the minor contribution from deforestation-related agricultural expansion to overall food production at global and continental scales; the op...

  11. Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Chazdon, Robin L; Broadbent, Eben N.; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.; Bongers, Frans; Zambrano, Angélica María Almeyda; Aide, T. Mitchell; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M.; Boukili, Vanessa; Pedro H. S. Brancalion; Craven, Dylan; Jarcilene S Almeida-Cortez; Cabral, George A. L.; de Jong, Ben; Denslow, Julie S.

    2016-01-01

    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, i...

  12. The role of pasture and soybean in deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barona, Elizabeth; Ramankutty, Navin; Coomes, Oliver T [Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Hyman, Glenn, E-mail: navin.ramankutty@mcgill.ca [International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali (Colombia)

    2010-04-15

    The dynamics of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon are complex. A growing debate considers the extent to which deforestation is a result of the expansion of the Brazilian soy industry. Most recent analyses suggest that deforestation is driven by the expansion of cattle ranching, rather than soy. Soy seems to be replacing previously deforested land and/or land previously under pasture. In this study, we use municipality-level statistics on agricultural and deforested areas across the Legal Amazon from 2000 to 2006 to examine the spatial patterns and statistical relationships between deforestation and changes in pasture and soybean areas. Our results support previous studies that showed that deforestation is predominantly a result of pasture expansion. However, we also find support for the hypothesis that an increase of soy in Mato Grosso has displaced pasture further north, leading to deforestation elsewhere. Although not conclusive, our findings suggest that the debate surrounding the drivers of Amazon deforestation is not over, and that indirect causal links between soy and deforestation may exist that need further exploration. Future research should examine more closely how interlinkages between land area, prices, and policies influence the relationship between soy and deforestation, in order to make a conclusive case for 'displacement deforestation'.

  13. Measuring and modelling above-ground carbon and tree allometry along a tropical elevation gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshall, A.R.; Willcock, S.; Platts, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging international policy aimed at reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in developing countries, has resulted in numerous studies on above-ground live carbon (AGC) in tropical forests. However, few studies have addressed the relative importance of distur...

  14. Limited carbon and biodiversity co-benefits for tropical forest mammals and birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaudrot, L.; Kroetz, K.; Alvarez-Loayza, P.; Amaral, I.; Breuer, T.; Fletcher, C.D.; Jansen, P.A.; Kenfack, D.; Andelman, S.

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of tropical forest carbon stocks offers the opportunity to curb climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and simultaneously conserve biodiversity. However, there has been considerable debate about the extent to which carbon storage will provide benefits

  15. Limited carbon and biodiversity co-benefits for tropical forest mammals and birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaudrot, L.; Kroetz, K.; Alvarez-Loayza, P.; Amaral, I.; Breuer, T.; Fletcher, C.D.; Jansen, P.A.; Kenfack, D.; Andelman, S.

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of tropical forest carbon stocks offers the opportunity to curb climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and simultaneously conserve biodiversity. However, there has been considerable debate about the extent to which carbon storage will provide benefits

  16. A multi-criterion index for the evaluation of local tropical forest conditions in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Kampichler, C.; Jong, de B.H.J.; Hernandez, S.; Geissen, V.; Huerta, E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economical importance of tropical forests they are currently affected by human activities, mainly through deforestation and selective extraction. With the aim of making an opportune diagnosis of the condition of forests, we developed an ecological index based on qualitativ

  17. A geospatial data integration framework for mapping and monitoring tropical landscape diversity in Costa Rica's San Juan-La Selva Biological Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesnie, Steven E.

    Landcover change has substantially reduced the amount of tropical rain forest since the 1950s. Little is known about the extent of remaining forest types. A multivariate analysis of 144 forest plots across Costa Rica's San Juan - La Selva Biological Corridor resulted in eight floristically defined old-growth forest categories. Spectral separability was tested between categories using Landsat TM bands and vegetation indices for old-growth types, palm swamps, tree plantations and regrowth. Image filtering and NDVI increased spectral separability among categories by 30%. Separability tests resulted in seven well-discriminated forest categories. Factors driving forest beta-diversity are not well quantified for wet tropical environments. We examined the relationship between rain forest composition and environmental variation for a 3000 km2 area in northeastern Costa Rica. Mid- to upper-canopy tree species abundance and soil characteristics were measured from 127, 0.25-ha plots across Caribbean lowlands and foothills. Partial Mantel tests produced significant correlations between floristic distance and soil, terrain, and climate variables controlling the effects of geographical distance. Niche-factors showed a significant trend with forest composition more than dispersal limitation or disturbance related factors. Variables such as terrain features, climatic variation and Landsat TM bands associated with forest composition were assessed with two decision tree models. Thirty-two landcover types were compared for a 15-year time interval. Ten were floristic alliances from a cluster analysis of forest plots and wetland categories. A subset of 12 spectral and spatial predictor variables produced accuracies of 93%+/-7% and 83%+/-15% for QUEST and CRUISE classifiers, respectively. The QUEST classifier was accurate for habitat mapping and change detection important to biodiversity monitoring objectives. A 1996 Forestry Law initiated environmental service payments and prohibited

  18. Estimativa da taxa de desmatamento do município de bannach, pará - amazônia legal, utilizando imagens landsat5/tm Estimation of deforestation rate in bannach municipality, pará state - amazon, using images landsat5/tm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano Luna Arraes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Amazônia, maior floresta tropical do planeta, apresenta uma superfície de aproximadamente 6,4 milhões de quilômetros quadrados na América do Sul e ocupa 63% do território Brasileiro. Devido ao desmatamento, o monitoramento dessas áreas se faz necessário, principalmente pelo avanço das fronteiras agrícolas. Assim, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo estimar a taxa de desmatamento anual e diária para o Município de Bannach, Pará, Brasil. Foram adquiridas imagens do satélite Landsat 5, sensor TM (Thematic Mapper, para os anos de 1997 a 2009. Utilizou-se a classificação supervisionada por Maximum Likelihood. O índice de exatidão global apresentou resultados superiores a 90% e índices Kappa superiores a 0,83 para todos os anos de estudo. Ao longo da série temporal, observa-se um aumento do desmatamento de forma contínua, acarretado principalmente pela pecuária.The Amazon, the planet’s largest rain forest, has an area of approximately 6.4 million square kilometers in South America and occupies 63% of the Brazilian territory. Due to deforestation, the monitoring of these areas is needed, mainly by the expansion of management of the productive farming process. Thus, this study aims to estimate the annual and daily rate of deforestation for the Municipality of Bannach, Para State, Brazil. The Landsat images, sensor 5 TM (Thematic Mapper from 1997 to 2009 years were used. The supervised classification by Maximum Likelihood was made for analysis the deforestation rate. The index showed an overall accuracy results above 90% and the Kappa index above 0.83 for all years of study. Therefore, throughout the series, there is an increase in deforestation continuously with mainly land use by livestock.

  19. Climate change impact chains in tropical coastal areas

    OpenAIRE

    Pramova, Emilia; Chazarin, Florie; Locatelli, Bruno; Hoppe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Policy Brief. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Bonn, Germany; Tropical coasts are highly vulnerable to climatic pressures, the future impacts of which are projected to propagate through the natural and human components of coastal systems. One single event (e.g., intense storm) or gradual changes (e.g., upland deforestation or sea-level rise) can have multiple direct and indirect impacts in coral reefs, seagrass meadows, mangroves and human settlements and can com...

  20. The challenge of assessing social dimensions of avoided deforestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD +) has moved to the central stage of the climate change debate by being promoted as a significant, cheap, and quick win–win strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thereby mitigate climate change. In...

  1. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Dempewolf, J.; Trigg, S. N.; Randerson, J. T.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Giglio, L.; Murdiyarso, D.; Peters, W.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Dolman, A. J.; Defries, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire

  2. Mapping Deforestation and Forest Degradation Patterns in Western Himalaya, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mueen Qamer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan mountain forest ecosystem has been degrading since the British ruled the area in the 1850s. Local understanding of the patterns and processes of degradation is desperately required to devise management strategies to halt this degradation and provide long-term sustainability. This work comprises a satellite image based study in combination with national expert validation to generate sub-district level statistics for forest cover over the Western Himalaya, Pakistan, which accounts for approximately 67% of the total forest cover of the country. The time series of forest cover maps (1990, 2000, 2010 reveal extensive deforestation in the area. Indeed, approximately 170,684 ha of forest has been lost, which amounts to 0.38% per year clear cut or severely degraded during the last 20 years. A significant increase in the rate of deforestation is observed in the second half of the study period, where much of the loss occurs at the western borders along with Afghanistan. The current study is the first systematic and comprehensive effort to map changes to forest cover in Northern Pakistan. Deforestation hotspots identified at the sub-district level provide important insight into deforestation patterns, which may facilitate the development of appropriate forest conservation and management strategies in the country.

  3. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Dempewolf, J.; Trigg, S. N.; Randerson, J. T.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Giglio, L.; Murdiyarso, D.; Peters, W.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Dolman, A. J.; Defries, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire

  4. Evapotranspiration of deforested areas in central and southwestern Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randow, von R.C.S.; Randow, C.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Tomasella, J.; Kruijt, B.

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high rates of evapotranspiration of Amazonian forests, understanding the impacts of deforestation on water loss rates is important for assessing those impacts on a regional and global scale. This paper quantifies evapotranspiration rates in two different pasture sites in Amazonia and

  5. Ten years of limnological monitoring of a modified natural lake in the tropics: Cote Lake, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    It is located 650m above sea level along the boundary between the North Caribbean and Pacific slopes, near the Southern end of the volcanic Guanacaste mountain range. In the early 1980s the lake's main outlet was dammed and the outflow was diverted into Arenal Reservoir. Lake Cote was first studied in 1990-1991, and later in 2001, before it was again modified by raising its dam by one meter to use its outflow for hydroelectricity. From 2002 to 2010 it has been monitored twice a year for changes in its limnology. Here I present a summary of its basic characteristics and an analysis of their changes through time. The lake is discontinuous polymictic, and sometimes develops a thermocline at 6m depth that may last for several days as evidenced by the occasional development of an anoxic layer close to the bottom. Since its modification for hydropower production, the surface water temperature has attained higher values than before. Oxygen levels in the lake show periods of hypoxia to anoxia in the hypolimnion, that have become more frequent since modification. Despite its turbid water, the lake has low levels of nutrient concentrations and of chlorophyll a. The trend in these parameters in recent times is a reduction in chlorophyll a and an increase in water transparency, implying a reduction in primary productivity. These changes are discussed in relationship with anthropogenic factors such as the modification of the lake and its management, changes in landscape around the lake and global climate change.

  6. Monitoring the algal bloom event in Lake Okeechobee, Florida under Tropical Cyclone Fay impacts using MODIS/Terra images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daranpob, Ammarin; Chang, Ni-Bin; Jin, Kang-Ren; Yang, Y. Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    Lake Okeechobee, Florida is the largest freshwater lake in the southeastern U.S. It is a key component in the hydrologic system of South Florida providing water supply for agriculture, the environment, and urban areas. Excessive phosphorus loads, from the Okeechobee watershed over the last few decades have led to increased eutrophication of this lake. Much of the excess phosphorus has been sequestered into the sediments. Sediment water interactions, including diffusive fluxes and sediment resuspension are a source of available phosphorus for phytoplankton. As a consequence, nutrient-enriched lake water has led to phytoplankton blooms from time to time. These blooms are often quantified by measurement of chlorophyll-a concentrations. While the in-situ water quality monitoring is time-consuming, sporadic, and costly, multispectral remote sensing sensors onboard satellites can detect chlorophyll-a contained in most phytoplankton efficiently. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the use of MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance 1- Day images to capture the unique algal bloom event one week after the landfall of the hurricane Fay in mid-Sept. 2008. Use of the genetic programming model permits sound information retrieval for spatial mapping of chlorophyll-a concentrations, which help explain the mechanism as to why the algal bloom event occurred.

  7. Gender, population and environment in the context of deforestation: a Malaysian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyzer, N

    1995-01-01

    This article is a case study of the impact of environmental changes on livelihood strategies among the Penan hunter and gatherer communities in the Limbang District of Sarawak, Malaysia. Environmental changes include government timber concessions to companies logging in the tropical rainforest and government policy shifts on land tenure and shifting cultivation. Increased logging has led to deforestation and water quality degradation, which led to declining fish stocks. Logging occurred with a lack of implementation of protective forest policy and regulations. The government blamed shifting cultivation for deforestation. The government continues to pressure nomadic indigenous and largely illiterate people to settle, maintain herds, and cultivate cash crops. Shifting cultivation was outlawed. Livelihood systems in the study area varied in their vulnerability, and people varied in their social adjustment to change. Perceptions of change varied among the upstream and downstream communities and by gender. The Penan communities continue to depend upon increasingly scarce or degraded resources. Poor health and malnutrition are the outcome of a decline in their traditional systems of livelihood. Both men and women have been equally affected by the environmental changes. In upstream communities men have adapted by collecting and selling forest rattan. Women generate income by making baskets that are sold by men in the market. The demand for children has changed. Women desire more children as social insurance that some will adopt the indigenous life style rather than the modern one. The government cut off mobile family planning services due to the Penan protests against loggers. The mid-stream communities were less vulnerable to the environmental changes. For all communities, gender relations were an important factor in understanding community responses to a declining resource base.

  8. Photogrammetric discharge monitoring of small tropical mountain rivers - A case study at Rivière des Pluies, Réunion island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, André; Augereau, Emmanuel; Delacourt, Christophe; Bonnier, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Reliable discharge measurements are indispensable for an effective management of natural water resources and floods. Limitations of classical current meter profiling and stage-discharge ratings have stimulated the development of more accurate and efficient gauging techniques. While new discharge measurements technologies such as acoustic doppler current profilers and large-scale image particle velocimetry (LSPIV) have been developed and tested in numerous studies, the continuous monitoring of small mountain rivers and discharge dynamics during strong meteorological events remains challenging. More specifically LSPIV studies are often focused on short-term measurements during flood events and there are still very few studies that address its use for long-term monitoring of small mountain rivers. To fill this gap this study targets the development and testing of largely autonomous photogrammetric discharge measurement system with a special focus on the application to small mountain river with high discharge variability and a mobile riverbed in the tropics. It proposes several enhancements among previous LSPIV methods regarding camera calibration, more efficient processing in image geometry, the automatic detection of the water level as well as the statistical calibration and estimation of the discharge from multiple profiles. To account for changes in the bed topography the riverbed is surveyed repeatedly during the dry seasons using multi-view photogrammetry or terrestrial laser scanners. The presented case study comprises the analysis of several thousand videos spanning over two and a half year (2013-2015) to test the robustness and accuracy of different processing steps. An analysis of the obtained results suggests that the quality of the camera calibration reaches a sub-pixel accuracy. The median accuracy of the watermask detections is F1=0.82, whereas the precision is systematically higher than the recall. The resulting underestimation of the water surface area

  9. Assessment and monitoring of long-term forest cover changes in Odisha, India using remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C Sudhakar; Jha, C S; Dadhwal, V K

    2013-05-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation are important concerns in managing and conserving tropical forests and have global significance. In the Indian context, in the last one century, the forests have undergone significant changes due to several policies undertaken by government as well as increased population pressure. The present study has brought out spatiotemporal changes in forest cover and variation in forest type in the state of Odisha (Orissa), India, during the last 75 years period. The mapping for the period of 1924-1935, 1975, 1985, 1995 and 2010 indicates that the forest cover accounts for 81,785.6 km(2) (52.5 %), 56,661.1 km(2) (36.4 %), 51,642.3 km(2) (33.2 %), 49,773 km(2) (32 %) and 48,669.4 km(2) (31.3 %) of the study area, respectively. The study found the net forest cover decline as 40.5 % of the total forest and mean annual rate of deforestation as 0.69 % year(-1) during 1935 to 2010. There is a decline in annual rate of deforestation during 1995 to 2010 which was estimated as 0.15 %. Forest type-wise quantitative loss of forest cover reveals large scale deforestation of dry deciduous forests. The landscape analysis shows that the number of forest patches (per 1,000) are 2.463 in 1935, 10.390 in 1975, 11.899 in 1985, 12.193 in 1995 and 15.102 in 2010, which indicates high anthropogenic pressure on the forests. The mean patch size (km(2)) of forest decreased from 33.2 in 1935 to 5.5 in 1975 and reached to 3.2 by 2010. The study demonstrated that monitoring of long term forest changes, quantitative loss of forest types and landscape metrics provides critical inputs for management of forest resources.

  10. Geospatial characterization of deforestation, fragmentation and forest fires in Telangana state, India: conservation perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C; Vazeed Pasha, S; Jha, C S; Dadhwal, V K

    2015-07-01

    Conservation of biodiversity has been put to the highest priority throughout the world. The process of identifying threatened ecosystems will search for different drivers related to biodiversity loss. The present study aimed to generate spatial information on deforestation and ecological degradation indicators of fragmentation and forest fires using systematic conceptual approach in Telangana state, India. Identification of ecosystems facing increasing vulnerability can help to safeguard the extinctions of species and useful for conservation planning. The technological advancement of satellite remote sensing and Geographical Information System has increased greatly in assessment and monitoring of ecosystem-level changes. The areas of threat were identified by creating grid cells (5 × 5 km) in Geographical Information System (GIS). Deforestation was assessed using multi-source data of 1930, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013. The forest cover of 40,746 km(2), 29,299 km(2), 18,652 km(2), 18,368 km(2), 18,006 km(2), 17,556 km(2) and 17,520 km(2) was estimated during 1930, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013, respectively. Historical evaluation of deforestation revealed that major changes had occurred in forests of Telangana and identified 1095 extinct, 397 critically endangered, 523 endangered and 311 vulnerable ecosystem grid cells. The fragmentation analysis has identified 307 ecosystem grid cells under critically endangered status. Forest burnt area information was extracted using AWiFS data of 2005 to 2014. Spatial analysis indicates total fire-affected forest in Telangana as 58.9% in a decadal period. Conservation status has been recorded depending upon values of threat for each grid, which forms the basis for conservation priority hotspots. Of existing forest, 2.1% grids had severe ecosystem collapse and had been included under the category of conservation priority hotspot-I, followed by 27.2% in conservation priority hotspot-II and 51.5% in conservation

  11. Tropical Zoology

    OpenAIRE

    Messana, Giuseppe; Chelazzi, Lorenzo; Taiti, Stefano; Paoli, Pasquino

    2008-01-01

    Tropical Zoology is an international journal publishing original papers in the fields of experimental and descriptive zoology concerning tropical areas, with particular attention to the Afrotropical Region. Review papers are welcome. A book review is included. As a rule, the yearly volume comprises two issues.

  12. Tropical Zoology

    OpenAIRE

    Messana, Giuseppe; Chelazzi, Lorenzo; Taiti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Tropical Zoology is an international journal publishing original papers in the fields of experimental and descriptive zoology concerning tropical areas, with particular attention to the Afrotropical Region. Review papers are welcome. A book review is included. As a rule, the yearly volume comprises two issues.

  13. Estimating rainforest biomass stocks and carbon loss from deforestation and degradation in Papua New Guinea 1972-2002: Best estimates, uncertainties and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jane; Shearman, Phil; Ash, Julian; Kirkpatrick, J B

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation is being considered a cost-effective way of mitigating the impacts of global warming. If such reductions are to be implemented, accurate and repeatable measurements of forest cover change and biomass will be required. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), which has one of the world's largest remaining areas of tropical forest, we used the best available data to estimate rainforest carbon stocks, and emissions from deforestation and degradation. We collated all available PNG field measurements which could be used to estimate carbon stocks in logged and unlogged forest. We extrapolated these plot-level estimates across the forested landscape using high-resolution forest mapping. We found the best estimate of forest carbon stocks contained in logged and unlogged forest in 2002 to be 4770 Mt (+/-13%). Our best estimate of gross forest carbon released through deforestation and degradation between 1972 and 2002 was 1178 Mt (+/-18%). By applying a long-term forest change model, we estimated that the carbon loss resulting from deforestation and degradation in 2001 was 53 Mt (+/-18%), rising from 24 Mt (+/-15%) in 1972. Forty-one percent of 2001 emissions resulted from logging, rising from 21% in 1972. Reducing emissions from logging is therefore a priority for PNG. The large uncertainty in our estimates of carbon stocks and fluxes is primarily due to the dearth of field measurements in both logged and unlogged forest, and the lack of PNG logging damage studies. Research priorities for PNG to increase the accuracy of forest carbon stock assessments are the collection of field measurements in unlogged forest and more spatially explicit logging damage studies.

  14. Scientists as citizens and knowers in the detection of deforestation in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Marko; Rajão, Raoni

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how scientists deal with tensions emerging from their role as providers of objective knowledge and as citizens concerned with how their research influences policy and politics in Brazil. This is accomplished through an ethnographic account of scientists using remote sensing technology, of their knowledge-making activities and of the broader socio-political controversies that permeate the detection of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest. Strategies for mitigating uncertainty are central aspects of the knowledge practices analyzed, bringing controversies 'external' to the laboratory 'into' the lab, making these boundaries conceptually problematic. In particular, the anticipation of alternative interpretations of rainforest cover is a crucial way that scientists bring the world into the lab, helping to shed light on how scientists, usually seen and analyzed as isolated, are in fact often in constant dialogue with the broader political controversies related to their work. These insights help question the idea that the monitoring of deforestation through remote sensing is a form of secluded research, drawing a more complex picture of the dual role of scientists as knowledge producers and concerned citizens.

  15. Influence of deforestation, logging, and fire on malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah B Hahn

    Full Text Available Malaria is a significant public health threat in the Brazilian Amazon. Previous research has shown that deforestation creates breeding sites for the main malaria vector in Brazil, Anopheles darlingi, but the influence of selective logging, forest fires, and road construction on malaria risk has not been assessed. To understand these impacts, we constructed a negative binomial model of malaria counts at the municipality level controlling for human population and social and environmental risk factors. Both paved and unpaved roadways and fire zones in a municipality increased malaria risk. Within the timber production states where 90% of deforestation has occurred, compared with areas without selective logging, municipalities where 0-7% of the remaining forests were selectively logged had the highest malaria risk (1.72, 95% CI 1.18-2.51, and areas with higher rates of selective logging had the lowest risk (0.39, 95% CI 0.23-0.67. We show that roads, forest fires, and selective logging are previously unrecognized risk factors for malaria in the Brazilian Amazon and highlight the need for regulation and monitoring of sub-canopy forest disturbance.

  16. Influence of deforestation, logging, and fire on malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah B; Gangnon, Ronald E; Barcellos, Christovam; Asner, Gregory P; Patz, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a significant public health threat in the Brazilian Amazon. Previous research has shown that deforestation creates breeding sites for the main malaria vector in Brazil, Anopheles darlingi, but the influence of selective logging, forest fires, and road construction on malaria risk has not been assessed. To understand these impacts, we constructed a negative binomial model of malaria counts at the municipality level controlling for human population and social and environmental risk factors. Both paved and unpaved roadways and fire zones in a municipality increased malaria risk. Within the timber production states where 90% of deforestation has occurred, compared with areas without selective logging, municipalities where 0-7% of the remaining forests were selectively logged had the highest malaria risk (1.72, 95% CI 1.18-2.51), and areas with higher rates of selective logging had the lowest risk (0.39, 95% CI 0.23-0.67). We show that roads, forest fires, and selective logging are previously unrecognized risk factors for malaria in the Brazilian Amazon and highlight the need for regulation and monitoring of sub-canopy forest disturbance.

  17. Influence of Deforestation, Logging, and Fire on Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah B.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Barcellos, Christovam; Asner, Gregory P.; Patz, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a significant public health threat in the Brazilian Amazon. Previous research has shown that deforestation creates breeding sites for the main malaria vector in Brazil, Anopheles darlingi, but the influence of selective logging, forest fires, and road construction on malaria risk has not been assessed. To understand these impacts, we constructed a negative binomial model of malaria counts at the municipality level controlling for human population and social and environmental risk factors. Both paved and unpaved roadways and fire zones in a municipality increased malaria risk. Within the timber production states where 90% of deforestation has occurred, compared with areas without selective logging, municipalities where 0–7% of the remaining forests were selectively logged had the highest malaria risk (1.72, 95% CI 1.18–2.51), and areas with higher rates of selective logging had the lowest risk (0.39, 95% CI 0.23–0.67). We show that roads, forest fires, and selective logging are previously unrecognized risk factors for malaria in the Brazilian Amazon and highlight the need for regulation and monitoring of sub-canopy forest disturbance. PMID:24404206

  18. The use of tropical bromeliads (Tillandsia spp. for monitoring atmospheric pollution in the town of Florence, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Brighigna

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experiment with two species of epiphytic angiosperms (Tillandsia caput-medusae and T. bulbosa for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the air of Florence, Italy, are presented. PAHs are compounds known to be dangerous because of their carcinogenic potential, and among cormophytes, tillands (monocotyledons equipped with peculiar, specialised, epidermal trichomes are considered promising for air pollution biomonitoring. PAHs data were obtained using GC/MS analysis of plant extracts. Analytical data indicated an increasing trend in time of PAHs bioaccumulation. This result was compared with instrumentally recorded parameters such as meteorological (rain and environmental ones (PM10, indicating that trichome-operated physical capture of aerial particles was prominent in PAHs bioaccumulation on tillands. SEM (scanning electron microscope observations confirmed the role of the trichomes. This work indicates that tillands are particularly useful, low-cost, biomonitoring organisms inside their area of distribution (all Latin American countries and southern USA where these plants are easily available, but also wherever the climate allows them to surviveSe presentan los resultados de un experimento con dos especies de angiospermas epífitas (Tillandsia caput-medusae y T. bulbosa para monitorear hidrocarbonos aromáticos policíclicos (PAHs en el aire de Florencia, Italia. Los PAHs son compuestos que se sabe son peligrosos por su potencial carcinogénico, y, entre las cormófitas, las tilandsias (monocotiledóneas equipadas con tricomas epidérmicos, especializados y peculiares son consideradas promisorias para el biomonitoreo de la contaminación del aire. Se obtuvieron datos de PAHs usando el análisis de GC/MS de extractos de plantas. Los datos analíticos indicaron una tendencia creciente de la bioacumulación de PAH’s en el tiempo. Este resultado se comparó con los parámetros registrados instrumentalmente como

  19. How Effective is Property Right to Deter Deforestation in Indonesia 2001-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhedi Priyo Santoso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The rate of deforestation in Indonesia is higher than the world average. The lack of propertyrights could potentially result in overexploitation on forest resources. This paper argues thatthe presence of assigned property rights (natural forest concession would prevent furtherdeforestation in Indonesia. Using panel data estimation, the main result is that natural forestconcession is negatively significant in influencing deforestation in Indonesia. This effect isexplained by relatively high of the elasticity of deforestation rates with respect to area of assignednatural forest concession accounted for 0.33. This elasticity outweighs the positivesignificant effect of logs production in worsening deforestation in Indonesia.Keywords: deforestation, property right, natural forest concession, panel data

  20. Reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD: a climate change mitigation strategy on a critical track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plugge Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following recent discussions, there is hope that a mechanism for reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD will be agreed by the Parties of the UNFCCC at their 15th meeting in Copenhagen in 2009 as an eligible action to prevent climate changes and global warming in post-2012 commitment periods. Countries introducing a REDD-regime in order to generate benefits need to implement sound monitoring and reporting systems and specify the associated uncertainties. The principle of conservativeness addresses the problem of estimation errors and requests the reporting of reliable minimum estimates (RME. Here the potential to generate benefits from applying a REDD-regime is proposed with reference to sampling and non-sampling errors that influence the reliability of estimated activity data and emission factors. Results A framework for calculating carbon benefits by including assessment errors is developed. Theoretical, sample based considerations as well as a simulation study for five selected countries with low to high deforestation and degradation rates show that even small assessment errors (5% and less may outweigh successful efforts to reduce deforestation and degradation. Conclusion The generation of benefits from REDD is possible only in situations where assessment errors are carefully controlled.

  1. Deforestation planning for cattle grazing in Amazon Basin using LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. P.; Demoraisnovo, E. M. L.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This research did not show the total potential of the LANDSAT system, but tried to open up new research aspects for the utilization of LANDSAT data in natural resource control. Results obtained through this research showed that LANDSAT data can be used to develop monitoring programs in the tropical forest areas of Brazil.

  2. Juvenile resilience and adult longevity explain residual populations of the Andean wax palm Ceroxylon quindiuense after deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanín, María José; Anthelme, Fabien; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Galeano, Gloria; Bernal, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Wax palms are an important element of the cloud forests in the tropical Andes. Despite heavy deforestation, the density of adults seems to be similar in deforested pastures as in forests. We aimed to infer the mechanisms responsible for this apparent resilience in pastures and we tested two hypotheses to explain it: 1) adult palms survived in pastures because they were spared from logging, and 2) adults occurred in pastures through the resilience of large juvenile rosettes, which survived through subterranean meristems and later developed into adults. For this purpose, we characterized the demographic structure of C. quindiuense in a total of 122 plots of 400 m(2) in forests and pastures at two sites with contrasted land use histories in Colombia and Peru. Additionally, we implemented growth models that allowed us to estimate the age of individuals at four sites. These data were combined with information collected from local land managers in order to complete our knowledge on the land use history at each site. At two sites, the presence of old individuals up to 169 years and a wide age range evidenced that, at least, a portion of current adults in pastures were spared from logging at the time of deforestation. However, at the two other sites, the absence of older adults in pastures and the narrow age range of the populations indicated that individuals came exclusively from rosette resilience. These interpretations were consistent with the land use history of sites. In consequence, the combination of the two hypotheses (spared individuals and rosette resilience) explained patterns of C. quindiuense in pastures on a regional scale. Regeneration through subterranean meristems in palms is an important, yet overlooked mechanism of resilience, which occurs in a number of palm species and deserves being integrated in the conceptual framework of disturbance ecology.

  3. Juvenile resilience and adult longevity explain residual populations of the Andean wax palm Ceroxylon quindiuense after deforestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Sanín

    Full Text Available Wax palms are an important element of the cloud forests in the tropical Andes. Despite heavy deforestation, the density of adults seems to be similar in deforested pastures as in forests. We aimed to infer the mechanisms responsible for this apparent resilience in pastures and we tested two hypotheses to explain it: 1 adult palms survived in pastures because they were spared from logging, and 2 adults occurred in pastures through the resilience of large juvenile rosettes, which survived through subterranean meristems and later developed into adults. For this purpose, we characterized the demographic structure of C. quindiuense in a total of 122 plots of 400 m(2 in forests and pastures at two sites with contrasted land use histories in Colombia and Peru. Additionally, we implemented growth models that allowed us to estimate the age of individuals at four sites. These data were combined with information collected from local land managers in order to complete our knowledge on the land use history at each site. At two sites, the presence of old individuals up to 169 years and a wide age range evidenced that, at least, a portion of current adults in pastures were spared from logging at the time of deforestation. However, at the two other sites, the absence of older adults in pastures and the narrow age range of the populations indicated that individuals came exclusively from rosette resilience. These interpretations were consistent with the land use history of sites. In consequence, the combination of the two hypotheses (spared individuals and rosette resilience explained patterns of C. quindiuense in pastures on a regional scale. Regeneration through subterranean meristems in palms is an important, yet overlooked mechanism of resilience, which occurs in a number of palm species and deserves being integrated in the conceptual framework of disturbance ecology.

  4. Monitoring Strategies for REDD+: Integrating Field, Airborne, and Satellite Observations of Amazon Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Keller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale tropical forest monitoring efforts in support of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation plus enhancing forest carbon stocks) confront a range of challenges. REDD+ activities typically have short reporting time scales, diverse data needs, and low tolerance for uncertainties. Meeting these challenges will require innovative use of remote sensing data, including integrating data at different spatial and temporal resolutions. The global scientific community is engaged in developing, evaluating, and applying new methods for regional to global scale forest monitoring. Pilot REDD+ activities are underway across the tropics with support from a range of national and international groups, including SilvaCarbon, an interagency effort to coordinate US expertise on forest monitoring and resource management. Early actions on REDD+ have exposed some of the inherent tradeoffs that arise from the use of incomplete or inaccurate data to quantify forest area changes and related carbon emissions. Here, we summarize recent advances in forest monitoring to identify and target the main sources of uncertainty in estimates of forest area changes, aboveground carbon stocks, and Amazon forest carbon emissions.

  5. Thermodynamic contributions of deforestation to global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, A.

    2009-07-01

    This paper examines a portion of the thermodynamics of global warming. The calculations use the endothermic photosynthesis reaction and yearly measures of CO{sub 2} uptake to determine the amount of energy that is absorbed by forest cover each year. The energy absorption value of forest coverage determines the yearly cost of deforestation. The calculations reveal that 3.92 * 10{sup 15} kJ less solar energy is absorbed by global forest coverage because of deforestation each year. The energy is enough to warm the atmosphere by 0.00008 °C / year. By comparison the same amount of energy represents 0.001 % of the atmospheric energy gains between 1995 and 2003. The results of this paper raise questions about the nature of global warming and the possibility that thermodynamic contributions to global climate change are significant. (author)

  6. Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M; Curran, Lisa M; Ratnasari, Dessy; Pittman, Alice M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Asner, Gregory P; Trigg, Simon N; Gaveau, David A; Lawrence, Deborah; Rodrigues, Hermann O

    2012-05-08

    Industrial agricultural plantations are a rapidly increasing yet largely unmeasured source of tropical land cover change. Here, we evaluate impacts of oil palm plantation development on land cover, carbon flux, and agrarian community lands in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. With a spatially explicit land change/carbon bookkeeping model, parameterized using high-resolution satellite time series and informed by socioeconomic surveys, we assess previous and project future plantation expansion under five scenarios. Although fire was the primary proximate cause of 1989-2008 deforestation (93%) and net carbon emissions (69%), by 2007-2008, oil palm directly caused 27% of total and 40% of peatland deforestation. Plantation land sources exhibited distinctive temporal dynamics, comprising 81% forests on mineral soils (1994-2001), shifting to 69% peatlands (2008-2011). Plantation leases reveal vast development potential. In 2008, leases spanned ∼65% of the region, including 62% on peatlands and 59% of community-managed lands, yet oil palm, generating 26% of net carbon emissions. Intact forest cover declines to 4%, and the proportion of emissions sourced from peatlands increases 38%. Prohibiting intact and logged forest and peatland conversion to oil palm reduces emissions only 4% below BAU, because of continued uncontrolled fire. Protecting logged forests achieves greater carbon emissions reductions (21%) than protecting intact forests alone (9%) and is critical for mitigating carbon emissions. Extensive allocated leases constrain land management options, requiring trade-offs among oil palm production, carbon emissions mitigation, and maintaining community landholdings.

  7. Isotopic studies in Pacific Panama mangrove estuaries reveal lack of effect of watershed deforestation on food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Inés G; Valiela, Ivan; Martinetto, Paulina; Monteiro Pierce, Rita; Fox, Sophia E

    2015-02-01

    Stable isotopic N, C, and S in food webs of 8 mangrove estuaries on the Pacific coast of Panama were measured to 1) determine whether the degree of deforestation of tropical forests on the contributing watersheds was detectable within the estuarine food web, and 2) define external sources of the food webs within the mangrove estuaries. Even though terrestrial rain forest cover on the contributing watersheds differed between 23 and 92%, the effect of deforestation was not detectable on stable isotopic values in food webs present at the mouth of the receiving estuaries. We used stable isotopic measures to identify producers or organic sources that supported the estuarine food web. N isotopic values of consumers spanned a broad range, from about 2.7 to 12.3‰. Mean δ(15)N of primary producers and organic matter varied from 3.3 for macroalgae to 4.7‰ for suspended particulate matter and large particulate matter. The δ(13)C consumer data varied between -26 and -9‰, but isotopic values of the major apparent producers or organic matter sampled could not account for this range variability. The structure of the food web was clarified when we added literature isotopic values of microphytobenthos and coralline algae, suggesting that these, or other producers with similar isotopic signature, may be part of the food webs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia

    OpenAIRE

    van der Werf, G. R.; Dempewolf, J.; Trigg, S.N.; Randerson, J. T.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; De Giglio, L.; D. Murdiyarso; W. Peters; Morton, D. C.; COLLATZ, G.J.; DOLMAN, A.J.; DeFries, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire emissions from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea during 2000–2006. We found that average fire emissions from this region [128 ± 51 (1σ) Tg carbon (C) year−1, T = 1012] were comparable to fo...

  9. Commodity production in Brazil: Combining zero deforestation and zero illegality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A. Azevedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article documents the degree of noncompliance of soy producers in the Amazon portion of Mato Grosso with Brazil’s Forest Code and addresses the importance of market demands in shifting agricultural production and land occupation towards zero deforestation. By using a sample composed of the boundaries of 9,113 properties (72.5% of soy in the region we assessed: a compliance with Forest Code legal reserve requirements (a percentage of the property must have its original vegetation kept undisturbed; and compared it to b compliance with the zero deforestation criterion of the soy moratorium. We found that 82% of the sampled properties have not deforested since 2008, thus complying with the soy moratorium. However, approximately 65% out of these 82% are noncompliant with Forest Code legal reserve requirements. This situation is even worse in the Cerrado portion of Mato Grosso. Even though the soy moratorium criterion is only applicable to the Amazon biome, the Forest Code is applicable nationwide. Despite legal reserve requirements being much lower (35% of the property in the Cerrado, as opposed to 80% in the Amazon, almost 70% of sampled properties were noncompliant with the Forest Code. From this analysis we concluded that while there was a role for consumer-driven market demand for zero deforestation soy production, there is still a need (and opportunity to implement purchasing and financing criteria to promote compliance with Forest Code requirements in regards to legal reserve deficits. We believe that if this succeeds, it will drive a process of restoration and compensation of Forest Code deficits, strengthening public policy as well as reducing economic distortions between those who have and have not complied with Forest Code requirements.

  10. Climate change, deforestation, and the fate of the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Roberts, J Timmons; Betts, Richard A; Killeen, Timothy J; Li, Wenhong; Nobre, Carlos A

    2008-01-11

    The forest biome of Amazonia is one of Earth's greatest biological treasures and a major component of the Earth system. This century, it faces the dual threats of deforestation and stress from climate change. Here, we summarize some of the latest findings and thinking on these threats, explore the consequences for the forest ecosystem and its human residents, and outline options for the future of Amazonia. We also discuss the implications of new proposals to finance preservation of Amazonian forests.

  11. Tropical forests and the changing earth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon L

    2006-01-29

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of the rate of climate change. Recent research on deforestation rates and ecological changes within intact forests, both areas of recent research and debate, are reviewed, and the implications for biodiversity (species loss) and climate change (via the global carbon cycle) addressed. Recent impacts have most likely been: (i) a large source of carbon to the atmosphere, and major loss of species, from deforestation and (ii) a large carbon sink within remaining intact forest, accompanied by accelerating forest dynamism and widespread biodiversity changes. Finally, I look to the future, suggesting that the current carbon sink in intact forests is unlikely to continue, and that the tropical forest biome may even become a large net source of carbon, via one or more of four plausible routes: changing photosynthesis and respiration rates, biodiversity changes in intact forest, widespread forest collapse via drought, and widespread forest collapse via fire. Each of these scenarios risks potentially dangerous positive feedbacks with the climate system that could dramatically accelerate and intensify climate change. Given that continued land-use change alone is already thought to be causing the sixth mass extinction event in Earth's history, should such feedbacks occur, the resulting biodiversity and societal consequences would be even more severe.

  12. PAD TECHNIQUE ON DEFORESTATION SITUATION ON PETROPOLIS’ METROPOLITAN AREA - RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Santos de Alencar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rising and intensification of production’s activities, as industries, the deforestation taxes show to be on an alarming level. It is wide spread known the consequences that deforestation might cause in metropolitan areas. In order to evalue the consequences of this growing phenomenon, is possible to use a role of ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. One of them is the Preliminary Analysis of Danger (PAD, which is based on qualitative and statistics analysis and might be used in association with other ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. It’s goal is to analyze dangers in potential, it’s causes and consequences, in which is also done an associated risk analysis, which the last is the association between the classifications of frequency and severity, and, in the end, it gives suggestions of measures to avoid these dangers (undesired events. In this study, six dangers have been identified, in which none of them present despicable or low risk (0%, 16% present medium or high risk and 66% present critic risk. These datas point out that the deforestation situation might cause dangers with great consequences to Petropolis’ metropolitan area, just as floodings and earth slidings, which higthlights the urgency of management of the area. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.20003

  13. REDD+: Quick Assessment of Deforestation Risk Based on Available Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Di Lallo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the future dynamics of deforestation is essential to creating the basis for the effective implementation of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation initiatives. Such evaluation is often a challenging task, especially for countries that have to cope with a critical lack of data and capacities, higher uncertainties, and competing interests. We present a new modeling approach that makes use of available and easily accessible data sources to predict the spatial location of future deforestation. This approach is based on the Random Forest algorithm, which is a machine learning technique that enables evidence-based, data-driven decisions and is therefore often used in decision-making processes. Our objective is to provide a straightforward modeling approach that, without requiring cost-intensive assessments, can be applied in the early stages of REDD+, for a stepwise implementation approach of REDD+ projects in regions with limited availability of data, capital, technical infrastructure, or human capacities. The presented model focuses on building business-as-usual scenarios to identify and rank potentially suitable areas for REDD+ interventions. For validation purposes we applied the model to data from Nicaragua.

  14. Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huirong Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony.

  15. Sustainable deforestation evaluation model and system dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huirong; Lim, C W; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony.

  16. An agenda for assessing and improving conservation impacts of sustainability standards in tropical agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, Jeffrey C; Arbuthnot, Margaret; Blackman, Allen; Brooks, Sharon E; Giovannucci, Daniele; Gross, Lee; Kennedy, Elizabeth T; Komives, Kristin; Lambin, Eric F; Lee, Audrey; Meyer, Daniel; Newton, Peter; Phalan, Ben; Schroth, Götz; Semroc, Bambi; Van Rikxoort, Henk; Zrust, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Sustainability standards and certification serve to differentiate and provide market recognition to goods produced in accordance with social and environmental good practices, typically including practices to protect biodiversity. Such standards have seen rapid growth, including in tropical agricultural commodities such as cocoa, coffee, palm oil, soybeans, and tea. Given the role of sustainability standards in influencing land use in hotspots of biodiversity, deforestation, and agricultural intensification, much could be gained from efforts to evaluate and increase the conservation payoff of these schemes. To this end, we devised a systematic approach for monitoring and evaluating the conservation impacts of agricultural sustainability standards and for using the resulting evidence to improve the effectiveness of such standards over time. The approach is oriented around a set of hypotheses and corresponding research questions about how sustainability standards are predicted to deliver conservation benefits. These questions are addressed through data from multiple sources, including basic common information from certification audits; field monitoring of environmental outcomes at a sample of certified sites; and rigorous impact assessment research based on experimental or quasi-experimental methods. Integration of these sources can generate time-series data that are comparable across sites and regions and provide detailed portraits of the effects of sustainability standards. To implement this approach, we propose new collaborations between the conservation research community and the sustainability standards community to develop common indicators and monitoring protocols, foster data sharing and synthesis, and link research and practice more effectively. As the role of sustainability standards in tropical land-use governance continues to evolve, robust evidence on the factors contributing to effectiveness can help to ensure that such standards are designed and

  17. Changes in determinants of deforestation and forest degradation in Popa Mountain Park, Central Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htun, Naing Zaw; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yoshida, Shigejiro

    2013-02-01

    Implementing effective conservation requires an understanding of factors affecting deforestation and forest degradation. Previous studies have investigated factors affecting deforestation, while few studies have examined the determinants of both of deforestation and forest degradation for more than one period. To address this gap, this study examined factors influencing deforestation and forest degradation during 1989-2000 and 2000-2005 in the Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. We applied multinomial logistic regression (MNL) using land cover maps derived from Landsat images as the dependent variables as well as spatial and biophysical factors as the independent variables. The MNL models revealed influences of the determinants on deforestation and forest degradation changes over time. For example, during 1989-2000, deforestation from closed forest was positively correlated to the distance from the park boundary and was negatively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope, western aspect and elevation. On the other hand, during 2000-2005, deforestation of closed forest was positively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope and western aspect, and negatively correlated with distance from the park boundary and elevation. Similar scenarios were observed for the deforestation of open forest and forest degradation of closed forest. The study also found most of the determinants influenced deforestation and forest degradation differently. The changes in determinants of deforestation and forest degradation over time might be attributable to the general decrease in resource availability and to the effect of conservation measures conducted by the park.

  18. Carbon pool and biomass dynamics associated with deforestation, land use, and agricultural abandonment in the neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, J Boone; Hughes, R Flint; Heider, Chris

    2009-07-01

    Current rates of deforestation and the resulting C emissions in the tropics exceed those of secondary forest regrowth and C sequestration. Changing land-use strategies that would maintain standing forests may be among the least expensive of climate change mitigation options. Further, secondary tropical forests have been suggested to have great value for their potential to sequester atmospheric C. These options require an understanding of and capability to quantify C dynamics at landscape scales. Because of the diversity of physical and biotic features of tropical forests as well as approaches and intensities of land uses within the neotropics, there are tremendous differences in the capacity of different landscapes to store and sequester C. Major gaps in our current knowledge include quantification of C pools, rates and patterns of biomass loss following land-cover change, and quantification of the C storage potential of secondary forests following abandonment. In this paper we present a synthesis and further analyses from recent studies that describe C pools, patterns of C decline associated with land use, and rates of C accumulation following secondary-forest establishment--all information necessary for climate-change mitigation options. Ecosystem C pools of Neotropical primary forests minimally range from approximately 141 to 571 Mg/ha, demonstrating tremendous differences in the capacity of different forests to store C. Most of the losses in C and nutrient pools associated with conversion occur when fires are set to remove the slashed forest to prepare sites for crop or pasture establishment. Fires burning slashed primary forests have been found to result in C losses of 62-80% of prefire aboveground pools in dry (deciduous) forest landscapes and 29-57% in wet (evergreen) forest landscapes. Carbon emissions equivalent to the aboveground primary-forest pool arise from repeated fires occurring in the first 4 to 10 years following conversion. Feedbacks of climate

  19. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  20. Carbon emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Genovese

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000–2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; g C m−2 for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006 were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazônia project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C yr−1 (1 Pg=1015 g and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C yr−1 from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C yr−1 in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may

  1. Land use changes and GHG emissions from tropical forest conversion by oil palm plantations in Riau Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Fatwa; Hino, Masateru

    2013-01-01

    Increasing prices and demand for biofuel and cooking oil from importer countries have caused a remarkable expansion of oil palm plantations in Indonesia. In this paper, we attempt to monitor the expansion of oil palm plantations on peat land and in tropical forests. We measure the GHG emissions from the land conversion activities at provincial scale. Using Landsat images from three different periods (1990s, 2000s and 2012), we classified LULC of the Riau Province, which is the largest oil palm producing region in Indonesia. A hybrid method of integration, generated by combining automatic processing and manual analysis, yields the best results. We found that the tropical rainforest cover decreased from ∼63% in the 1990s to ∼37% in the 2000s. By 2012, the remaining tropical rainforest cover was only ∼22%. From the 1990s to the 2000s, conversion of forests and peat lands was the primary source of emissions, total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated at ∼26.6 million tCO2.y(-1), with 40.62% and 59.38% of the emissions from conversion of peat lands and forests, respectively. Between 2000 and 2012, the total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere was estimated at ∼5.2 million tCO2. y(-1), with 69.94% and 27.62% of the emissions from converted peat lands and converted forests, respectively. The resul