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Sample records for monitoring task group

  1. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, John P., E-mail: john.gibbons@marybird.com [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States); Antolak, John A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Followill, David S. [Department of Radiation Physics, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Klein, Eric E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Lam, Kwok L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Roback, Donald M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Centers of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States); Reid, Mark [Department of Medical Physics, Fletcher-Allen Health Care, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Khan, Faiz M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D{sub 0}{sup ′}, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D{sub 0}{sup ′} = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D{sub 0}{sup ′} ≤ 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of d{sub m}, with D{sub 0}{sup ′} = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

  2. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John P; Antolak, John A; Followill, David S; Huq, M Saiful; Klein, Eric E; Lam, Kwok L; Palta, Jatinder R; Roback, Donald M; Reid, Mark; Khan, Faiz M

    2014-03-01

    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D'0, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D'0 = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D'0 ≤ 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of dm, with D'0 = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

  3. Verification of monitor unit calculations for non-IMRT clinical radiotherapy: report of AAPM Task Group 114.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robin L; Heaton, Robert; Fraser, Martin W; Goddu, S Murty; Kirby, Thomas H; Lam, Kwok Leung; Molineu, Andrea; Zhu, Timothy C

    2011-01-01

    The requirement of an independent verification of the monitor units (MU) or time calculated to deliver the prescribed dose to a patient has been a mainstay of radiation oncology quality assurance. The need for and value of such a verification was obvious when calculations were performed by hand using look-up tables, and the verification was achieved by a second person independently repeating the calculation. However, in a modern clinic using CT/MR/PET simulation, computerized 3D treatment planning, heterogeneity corrections, and complex calculation algorithms such as convolution/superposition and Monte Carlo, the purpose of and methodology for the MU verification have come into question. In addition, since the verification is often performed using a simpler geometrical model and calculation algorithm than the primary calculation, exact or almost exact agreement between the two can no longer be expected. Guidelines are needed to help the physicist set clinically reasonable action levels for agreement. This report addresses the following charges of the task group: (1) To re-evaluate the purpose and methods of the "independent second check" for monitor unit calculations for non-IMRT radiation treatment in light of the complexities of modern-day treatment planning. (2) To present recommendations on how to perform verification of monitor unit calculations in a modern clinic. (3) To provide recommendations on establishing action levels for agreement between primary calculations and verification, and to provide guidance in addressing discrepancies outside the action levels. These recommendations are to be used as guidelines only and shall not be interpreted as requirements.

  4. Clinical implementation of an electron monitor unit dosimetry system based on task group 71 report and a commercial calculation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many clinics still use monitor unit (MU calculations for electron treatment planning and/or quality assurance (QA. This work (1 investigates the clinical implementation of a dosimetry system including a modified American Association of Physicists in Medicine-task group-71 (TG-71-based electron MU calculation protocol (modified TG-71 electron [mTG-71E] and an independent commercial calculation program and (2 provides the practice recommendations for clinical usage. Following the recently published TG-71 guidance, an organized mTG-71E databook was developed to facilitate data access and subsequent MU computation according to our clinical need. A recently released commercial secondary calculation program - Mobius3D (version 1.5.1 Electron Quick Calc (EQC (Mobius Medical System, LP, Houston, TX, USA, with inherent pencil beam algorithm and independent beam data, was used to corroborate the calculation results. For various setups, the calculation consistency and accuracy of mTG-71E and EQC were validated by their cross-comparison and the ion chamber measurements in a solid water phantom. Our results show good agreement between mTG-71E and EQC calculations, with average 2% difference. Both mTG-71E and EQC calculations match with measurements within 3%. In general, these differences increase with decreased cutout size, increased extended source to surface distance, and lower energy. It is feasible to use TG71 and Mobius3D clinically as primary and secondary electron MU calculations or vice versa. We recommend a practice that only requires patient-specific measurements in rare cases when mTG-71E and EQC calculations differ by 5% or more.

  5. Inductive System Monitors Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software developed at Ames Research Center uses artificial intelligence and data mining techniques to build system-monitoring knowledge bases from archived or simulated sensor data. This information is then used to detect unusual or anomalous behavior that may indicate an impending system failure. Currently helping analyze data from systems that help fly and maintain the space shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS), the IMS has also been employed by data classes are then used to build a monitoring knowledge base. In real time, IMS performs monitoring functions: determining and displaying the degree of deviation from nominal performance. IMS trend analyses can detect conditions that may indicate a failure or required system maintenance. The development of IMS was motivated by the difficulty of producing detailed diagnostic models of some system components due to complexity or unavailability of design information. Successful applications have ranged from real-time monitoring of aircraft engine and control systems to anomaly detection in space shuttle and ISS data. IMS was used on shuttle missions STS-121, STS-115, and STS-116 to search the Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLEIDS) data for signs of possible damaging impacts during launch. It independently verified findings of the WLEIDS Mission Evaluation Room (MER) analysts and indicated additional points of interest that were subsequently investigated by the MER team. In support of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, IMS is being deployed as an anomaly detection tool on ISS mission control consoles in the Johnson Space Center Mission Operations Directorate. IMS has been trained to detect faults in the ISS Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) systems. In laboratory tests, it has already detected several minor anomalies in real-time CMG data. When tested on archived data, IMS was able to detect precursors of the CMG1 failure nearly 15 hours in advance of

  6. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Todorov

    Full Text Available Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  7. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  8. Use of Group Tasks in Teaching English

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti Rathore

    2012-01-01

    In the modern education system, there have been revolutionary changes in education. Technology has changed the overall outlook of schooling. Now teacher is acting as resource person rather than a traditional classroom teacher with chalk and blackboard. Ne Key words: Group task, teaching method, English teaching

  9. Gender, Group Composition, and Task Type in Small Task Groups Using Computer-Mediated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savicki, Victor; And Others

    1996-01-01

    To investigate gender effects on computer-mediated communication, undergraduate psychology students were put in small groups (males, females, or mixed) and were assigned feminine content (decision making) and masculine content (intellective) task types. Groups of females, regardless of task, sent more words per e-mail message, were more satisfied…

  10. Grouping of Tasks for Cooperative Product Development

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    Takeshi Murayama

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A lot of members from various disciplines are involved in the development of complex products, and this brings about large-scale, complicated cooperation among them. Such cooperation causes the following problems: • the time consumption for achieving a consensus among them increases; and • the management of product development becomes difficult. In order to develop the products efficiently, this paper proposes a method for dividing the product development activity into several work groups on an appropriate scale, in each of which some of the members can cooperate with each other without the problems mentioned above. In this method, the product development activity is represented by a directed graph, each of which nodes expresses a task and each of which arcs expresses the flow of data/information between the tasks. ISM (Interpretive Structural Modeling identifies strongly connected sub-graphs, in each of which the members should cooperate with each other. However, if a strongly connected sub-graph is large, the problems mentioned above still exist. In this case, we use Bottleneck Method to divide the sub-graph into several smaller sub-graphs, each of which corresponds to a work group. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by showing an example of constructing the work groups.

  11. Crab: A Dashboard System for Monitoring Archiving Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G.; Jenness, T.; Agarwal, A.

    2013-10-01

    In order to make the large number of cron jobs required to perform data archiving tasks at the Joint Astronomy Centre more manageable, we have designed and implemented a dashboard system for monitoring their progress. The status of all of the tasks can be monitored on the dashboard's web interface, and via consolidated notification emails.

  12. Influences of Task Type on Interaction under Group Work Setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓萍

    2005-01-01

    Interaction between learners under group work setting is considered to be signifieantly influenced by task types. The present empirical study was designed to explore interaction characteristics under convergent tasks and divergent tasks from three aspects: language production, meaning negotiation and attention to form while performing different types of tasks. The results reveal that there was significant statistical difference in the total language production between two types of tasks. In terms of the occurrence of meaning negotiation and the extent to which students paid attention to language form, there were no significant difference between the two task types.

  13. Life Cycles of Ad Hoc Task Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    solving development raises some final questions. If groups are normally preoccupied with different issues at different times, if their capabilities change...context, and group across the group’s life cycle? If such modifications normally occur, there could be substantial implications, both for our theoretical...This, and Diane’s impatient question "What are we accomplishing then?" suggest the Iroup’s need to stop trying to coax the attractive first solucion

  14. Group Motivation and Group Task Performance: The Expectancy-Valence Theory Approach.

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    Nakanishi, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    Investigated effects of group motivation on group task performance. Created two levels of valence, expectancy and instrumentality. Valence variable reflected on group productivity on unstructured and task persistence measures. Expectancy variable's effect was on task persistence measure. Instrumentality affected group productivity on structured…

  15. Sex Differences in Group Interaction and Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; And Others

    Research on gender differences in group performance suggests that males excel at brainstorming while females excel at human relations and integration. To investigate the relations among gender, interaction style, and task performance, 264 college students (130 female, 134 male) worked in three person same sex groups on a production task which…

  16. OTVE turbopump condition monitoring, task E.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Paul T.; Collins, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent work has been carried out on development of isotope wear analysis and optical and eddy current technologies to provide bearing wear measurements and real time monitoring of shaft speed, shaft axial displacement and shaft orbit of the Orbit Transfer Vehicle hydrostatic bearing tester. Results show shaft axial displacement can be optically measured (at the same time as shaft orbital motion and speed) to within 0.3 mils by two fiberoptic deflectometers. Evaluation of eddy current probes showed that, in addition to measuring shaft orbital motion, they can be used to measure shaft speed without having to machine grooves on the shaft surface as is the usual practice for turbomachinery. The interim results of this condition monitoring effort are presented.

  17. Dynamic Task Performance, Cohesion, and Communications in Human Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Luis Felipe; Passino, Kevin M

    2016-10-01

    In the study of the behavior of human groups, it has been observed that there is a strong interaction between the cohesiveness of the group, its performance when the group has to solve a task, and the patterns of communication between the members of the group. Developing mathematical and computational tools for the analysis and design of task-solving groups that are not only cohesive but also perform well is of importance in social sciences, organizational management, and engineering. In this paper, we model a human group as a dynamical system whose behavior is driven by a task optimization process and the interaction between subsystems that represent the members of the group interconnected according to a given communication network. These interactions are described as attractions and repulsions among members. We show that the dynamics characterized by the proposed mathematical model are qualitatively consistent with those observed in real-human groups, where the key aspect is that the attraction patterns in the group and the commitment to solve the task are not static but change over time. Through a theoretical analysis of the system we provide conditions on the parameters that allow the group to have cohesive behaviors, and Monte Carlo simulations are used to study group dynamics for different sets of parameters, communication topologies, and tasks to solve.

  18. Innovation in Accounting Tasks: Empirical Study in Two Professional Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Cristina da Silva Vicente

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge on innovation in accounting tasks, from the point of view of two professional groups. Its goals are: evaluating the importance given by the professionals to accounting tasks; identifying whether there is convergence between the two professional groups, regarding the importance of the tasks; examining whether there is an association between the professionals’ individual characteristics and the importance they attach to the tasks. Two professional groups were surveyed: 105 financial officers of the top 500 Portuguese companies; and 412 Chartered Accountants. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that the respondents attach more importance to the traditional tasks, linked to the concept of a monetary-oriented accountant, and less importance to the more innovative tasks, related to business strategy; there is no convergence between the two professional groups in terms of the importance of the accountants’ participation in the strategic tasks. Regarding the association between individual characteristics and the level of importance assigned to the accounting tasks, we found an influence of the following characteristics: gender; academic degree of the professionals; and the institution where that degree was obtained.

  19. Group cohesion, task performance, and the experimenter expectancy effect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    1978-01-01

    Studied the effects of cohesion on task fulfillment and explored the influence of task fulfillment on the initial level of cohesion. Within 4-person groups of undergraduates, cohesion was manipulated successfully by a triple procedure. The level of cohesion was ascertained directly after the inducti

  20. Group Activities in Task-based Communicative Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓一琳; 王宇澄

    2005-01-01

    In a task-based communicative classroom, group activities are effective ways to devdop students' 4 basic language skills. However, not all group activities can reach the expected results. English teachers should pay attention to some aspects in organizing a classroom group activity.

  1. Monitoring User-System Performance in Interactive Retrieval Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boldareva, L.; de Vries, A.P.; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    Monitoring user-system performance in interactive search is a challenging task. Traditional measures of retrieval evaluation, based on recall and precision, are not of any use in real time, for they require a priori knowledge of relevant documents. This paper shows how a Shannon entropy-based

  2. Monitoring user-system performance in interactive retrieval tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Boldareva; A.P. de Vries (Arjen); D. Hiemstra

    2004-01-01

    textabstractMonitoring user-system performance in interactive search is a challenging task. Traditional measures of retrieval evaluation, based on recall and precision, are not of any use in real time, for they require a priori knowledge of relevant documents. This paper shows how a Shannon

  3. Monitoring user-system performance in interactive retrieval tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boldareva, L.; Vries, A.P. de; Hiemstra, D.

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring user-system performance in interactive search is a challenging task. Traditional measures of retrieval evaluation, based on recall and precision, are not of any use in real time, for they require a priori knowledge of relevant documents. This paper shows how a Shannon entropy-based measur

  4. Monitoring supports performance in a dual-task paradigm involving a risky decision-making task and a working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eGathmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Performing two cognitively demanding tasks at the same time is known to decrease performance. The current study investigates the underlying executive functions of a dual-tasking situation involving the simultaneous performance of decision making under explicit risk and a working memory task. It is suggested that making a decision and performing a working memory task at the same time should particularly require monitoring - an executive control process supervising behavior and the state of processing on two tasks. To test the role of a supervisory/monitoring function in such a dual-tasking situation we investigated 122 participants with the Game of Dice Task plus 2-back task (GDT plus 2-back task. This dual task requires participants to make decisions under risk and to perform a 2-back working memory task at the same time. Furthermore, a task measuring a set of several executive functions gathered in the term concept formation (Modified Card Sorting Test, MCST and the newly developed Balanced Switching Task (BST, measuring monitoring in particular, were used. The results demonstrate that concept formation and monitoring are involved in the simultaneous performance of decision making under risk and a working memory task. In particular, the mediation analysis revealed that BST performance partially mediates the influence of MCST performance on the GDT plus 2-back task. These findings suggest that monitoring is one important subfunction for superior performance in a dual-tasking situation including decision making under risk and a working memory task.

  5. The Emergence of Individual and Collective Leadership in Task Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna

    2015-01-01

    leader emergence in task groups as influenced by individual traits, states, and behaviors. However, current approaches to leadership in groups rely on functional achievement explanations of how collective leadership emerges, influenced by positive states and behaviors. Attention to ascription...... reviews research on individual leader emergence, structured around two identified theoretical mechanisms—one of leadership achievement (i.e., based on functional behaviors) and another of leadership ascription (i.e., based on nominal characteristics). These approaches compete to elucidate individual...

  6. Minimal Groups Increase Young Children's Motivation and Learning on Group-Relevant Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments ("N" = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the…

  7. Task group to develop list of environmental standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new task group designed to develop a list of existing and potential standards that are applicable to environmental contamination problems in soil, rock, and groundwater has been established by the American Society for Testing a n d Materials (ASTM) Subcommittee on Geotechnics of Waste Management. The list currently includes over 60 existing and draft ASTM standards from ASTM committees in the areas of site characterization, construction evaluation, and geosynthetics.

  8. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David B.Smith; Shaun Reeder; Alecos Demetriades

    2012-01-01

    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines,operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences(IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry(IAGC),has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth's surface or near-surface environment.The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified.In order to accomplish this long-term goal,the activities of the Task Group include:(1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies;(2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses;(3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community;(4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database;(5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization;(6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects;and(7) preparing,ultimately,a global geochemical database.This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  9. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Wang, Xueqiu; Reeder, Shaun; Demetriades, Alecos

    2012-01-01

    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines, operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry (IAGC), has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth’s surface or near-surface environment. The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified. In order to accomplish this long-term goal, the activities of the Task Group include: (1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies; (2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses; (3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community; (4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database; (5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization; (6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects; and (7) preparing, ultimately, a global geochemical database. This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  10. Quality assurance for nonradiographic radiotherapy localization and positioning systems: report of Task Group 147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Twyla; Lehmann, Joerg; Bencomo, Jose A; Jani, Shirish K; Santanam, Lakshmi; Sethi, Anil; Solberg, Timothy D; Tome, Wolfgang A; Waldron, Timothy J

    2012-04-01

    New technologies continue to be developed to improve the practice of radiation therapy. As several of these technologies have been implemented clinically, the Therapy Committee and the Quality Assurance and Outcomes Improvement Subcommittee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine commissioned Task Group 147 to review the current nonradiographic technologies used for localization and tracking in radiotherapy. The specific charge of this task group was to make recommendations about the use of nonradiographic methods of localization, specifically; radiofrequency, infrared, laser, and video based patient localization and monitoring systems. The charge of this task group was to review the current use of these technologies and to write quality assurance guidelines for the use of these technologies in the clinical setting. Recommendations include testing of equipment for initial installation as well as ongoing quality assurance. As the equipment included in this task group continues to evolve, both in the type and sophistication of technology and in level of integration with treatment devices, some of the details of how one would conduct such testing will also continue to evolve. This task group, therefore, is focused on providing recommendations on the use of this equipment rather than on the equipment itself, and should be adaptable to each user's situation in helping develop a comprehensive quality assurance program.

  11. Uncertainty Monitoring by Young Children in a Computerized Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Beran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult humans show sophisticated metacognitive abilities, including the ability to monitor uncertainty. Unfortunately, most measures of uncertainty monitoring are limited to use with adults due to their general complexity and dependence on explicit verbalization. However, recent research with nonhuman animals has successfully developed measures of uncertainty monitoring that are simple and do not require explicit verbalization. The purpose of this study was to investigate metacognition in young children using uncertainty monitoring tests developed for nonhumans. Children judged whether stimuli were more pink or blue—stimuli nearest the pink-blue midpoint were the most uncertain and the most difficult to classify. Children also had an option to acknowledge difficulty and gain the necessary information for correct classification. As predicted, children most often asked for help on the most difficult stimuli. This result confirms that some metacognitive abilities appear early in cognitive development. The tasks of animal metacognition research clearly have substantial utility for exploring the early developmental roots of human metacognition.

  12. Sonar sound groups and increased terminal buzz duration reflect task complexity in hunting bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulgard, Katrine; Ratcliffe, John M

    2016-02-09

    More difficult tasks are generally regarded as such because they demand greater attention. Echolocators provide rare insight into this relationship because biosonar signals can be monitored. Here we show that bats produce longer terminal buzzes and more sonar sound groups during their approach to prey under presumably more difficult conditions. Specifically, we found Daubenton's bats, Myotis daubentonii, produced longer buzzes when aerial-hawking versus water-trawling prey, but that bats taking revolving air- and water-borne prey produced more sonar sound groups than did the bats when taking stationary prey. Buzz duration and sonar sound groups have been suggested to be independent means by which bats attend to would-be targets and other objects of interest. We suggest that for attacking bats both should be considered as indicators of task difficulty and that the buzz is, essentially, an extended sonar sound group.

  13. Minimal groups increase young children's motivation and learning on group-relevant tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments (N = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the "puzzles child" or children in a control condition. Experiment 2 showed that this boost in motivation occurred only when the group was associated with the task. In Experiment 3, children assigned to a minimal group associated with word learning learned more words than children assigned an analogous individual identity. The studies demonstrate that fostering shared motivations may be a powerful means by which to shape young children's academic outcomes.

  14. Introduction to the IWA task group on biofilm modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, D R; Morgenroth, E

    2004-01-01

    An International Water Association (IWA) Task Group on Biofilm Modeling was created with the purpose of comparatively evaluating different biofilm modeling approaches. The task group developed three benchmark problems for this comparison, and used a diversity of modeling techniques that included analytical, pseudo-analytical, and numerical solutions to the biofilm problems. Models in one, two, and three dimensional domains were also compared. The first benchmark problem (BM1) described a monospecies biofilm growing in a completely mixed reactor environment and had the purpose of comparing the ability of the models to predict substrate fluxes and concentrations for a biofilm system of fixed total biomass and fixed biomass density. The second problem (BM2) represented a situation in which substrate mass transport by convection was influenced by the hydrodynamic conditions of the liquid in contact with the biofilm. The third problem (BM3) was designed to compare the ability of the models to simulate multispecies and multisubstrate biofilms. These three benchmark problems allowed identification of the specific advantages and disadvantages of each modeling approach. A detailed presentation of the comparative analyses for each problem is provided elsewhere in these proceedings.

  15. Sonar sound groups and increased terminal buzz duration reflect task complexity in hunting bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgard, K.; Ratcliffe, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    More difficult tasks are generally regarded as such because they demand greater attention. Echolocators provide rare insight into this relationship because biosonar signals can be monitored. Here we show that bats produce longer terminal buzzes and more sonar sound groups during their approach...... to prey under presumably more difficult conditions. Specifically, we found Daubenton's bats, Myotis daubentonii, produced longer buzzes when aerial-hawking versus water-trawling prey, but that bats taking revolving air- and water-borne prey produced more sonar sound groups than did the bats when taking...... stationary prey. Buzz duration and sonar sound groups have been suggested to be independent means by which bats attend to would-be targets and other objects of interest. We suggest that for attacking bats both should be considered as indicators of task difficulty and that the buzz is, essentially...

  16. A Demands-Resources Model of Work Pressure in IT Student Task Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E. Vance; Sheetz, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an initial test of the group task demands-resources (GTD-R) model of group task performance among IT students. We theorize that demands and resources in group work influence formation of perceived group work pressure (GWP) and that heightened levels of GWP inhibit group task performance. A prior study identified 11 factors…

  17. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

  18. Characteristics of work groups and their relationship with social and task cohesion in student teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, William R; Tashchian, Armen

    2004-08-01

    Results of an exploratory study of relationships between work-group characteristics and the social and task cohesion of 18 business students engaged in team class projects. Regression analysis of scores on workload sharing, team spirit, task flexibility, and team cohesiveness for scales of the Work Group Characteristics Inventory indicated sharing of the workload was significantly associated with both task and social cohesion; team spirit with task cohesion but not social cohesion; and task flexibility with social cohesion but not task cohesion.

  19. Effects of Training on Computer-Mediated Communication in Single or Mixed Gender Small Task Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savicki, Victor; Kelley, Merle; Ammon, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Investigates group gender composition and communication styles in small task groups involved in computer-mediated communication. Describes a study that tried to train small task groups in the use of one communication style and suggests further research in the area of communication training for online task groups. (Author/LRW)

  20. Short-term memory predictions across the lifespan: monitoring span before and after conducting a task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Julie Marilyne; Moulin, Chris John Anthony; Souchay, Céline

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to explore metamemory in short-term memory across the lifespan. Five age groups participated in this study: 3 groups of children (4-13 years old), and younger and older adults. We used a three-phase task: prediction-span-postdiction. For prediction and postdiction phases, participants reported with a Yes/No response if they could recall in order a series of images. For the span task, they had to actually recall such series. From 4 years old, children have some ability to monitor their short-term memory and are able to adjust their prediction after experiencing the task. However, accuracy still improves significantly until adolescence. Although the older adults had a lower span, they were as accurate as young adults in their evaluation, suggesting that metamemory is unimpaired for short-term memory tasks in older adults. •We investigate metamemory for short-term memory tasks across the lifespan. •We find younger children cannot accurately predict their span length. •Older adults are accurate in predicting their span length. •People's metamemory accuracy was related to their short-term memory span.

  1. Differential contributions of worry, anxiety, and obsessive compulsive symptoms to ERN amplitudes in response monitoring and reinforcement learning tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Vazquez, Laura; Allen, John J B

    2014-08-01

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts (i.e. obsessions) and future-oriented worrisome cognitions that are associated with behavioral ritualistic compensations (i.e. compulsions) and anxious arousal. Research has found an enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) among those with OCD in choice response tasks such as the flankers task, but not in probabilistic learning tasks. To date, research has not directly investigated whether the ERN effect observed in individuals with OCD is specific to the central features of OCD (obsessions and compulsions), or is related more closely to the worry or anxiety observed in this disorder. This study compared groups with relatively pure symptom profiles on OC, worry, and anxiety symptoms (e.g. high on OC, low on worry and anxiety) relative to a "typical" OC presentation group (e.g. high OC, mild to high worry and anxiety) and a non-anxious non-worry Control group, in both flankers and probabilistic learning tasks. For the flankers task, only the Worry group had a significantly enhanced ERN relative to controls. For the probabilistic learning task, the OC typical group had significantly enhanced ERN amplitude on suboptimal choices relative to controls. Across tasks, the experimental groups had significantly enhanced activity on error/suboptimal choices relative to the OC specific group. The results highlight the role of worry across both tasks, and to a lesser extent anxiety and OC symptoms, in performance-monitoring processes.

  2. TU-EF-210-04: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, K. [National Cancer Institute (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare.

  3. TU-AB-BRD-00: Task Group 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Current quality assurance and quality management guidelines provided by various professional organizations are prescriptive in nature, focusing principally on performance characteristics of planning and delivery devices. However, published analyses of events in radiation therapy show that most events are often caused by flaws in clinical processes rather than by device failures. This suggests the need for the development of a quality management program that is based on integrated approaches to process and equipment quality assurance. Industrial engineers have developed various risk assessment tools that are used to identify and eliminate potential failures from a system or a process before a failure impacts a customer. These tools include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis, fault tree analysis. Task Group 100 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine has developed these tools and used them to formulate an example risk-based quality management program for intensity-modulated radiotherapy. This is a prospective risk assessment approach that analyzes potential error pathways inherent in a clinical process and then ranks them according to relative risk, typically before implementation, followed by the design of a new process or modification of the existing process. Appropriate controls are then put in place to ensure that failures are less likely to occur and, if they do, they will more likely be detected before they propagate through the process, compromising treatment outcome and causing harm to the patient. Such a prospective approach forms the basis of the work of Task Group 100 that has recently been approved by the AAPM. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and practical examples of how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based quality management program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process Learn how to

  4. Monitoring inter-group encounters in wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; Rich Cronn; Neal A. Christensen

    1998-01-01

    Many managers face the challenge of monitoring rates of visitor encounters in wilderness. This study (1) provides estimates of encounter rates through use of several monitoring methods, (2) determines the relationship between the various measures of encounter rates, and (3) determines the relationship between various indirect predictors of encounter rates and actual...

  5. 75 FR 34439 - Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification... Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification will meet in closed session on...

  6. 75 FR 43943 - Defense Science Board; Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Science Board; Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification... Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Treaty Monitoring and Verification will meet in closed...

  7. Reward contingencies and the recalibration of task monitoring and reward systems: a high-density electrical mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morie, K P; De Sanctis, P; Foxe, J J

    2014-07-25

    Task execution almost always occurs in the context of reward-seeking or punishment-avoiding behavior. As such, ongoing task-monitoring systems are influenced by reward anticipation systems. In turn, when a task has been executed either successfully or unsuccessfully, future iterations of that task will be re-titrated on the basis of the task outcome. Here, we examined the neural underpinnings of the task-monitoring and reward-evaluation systems to better understand how they govern reward-seeking behavior. Twenty-three healthy adult participants performed a task where they accrued points that equated to real world value (gift cards) by responding as rapidly as possible within an allotted timeframe, while success rate was titrated online by changing the duration of the timeframe dependent on participant performance. Informative cues initiated each trial, indicating the probability of potential reward or loss (four levels from very low to very high). We manipulated feedback by first informing participants of task success/failure, after which a second feedback signal indicated actual magnitude of reward/loss. High-density electroencephalography (EEG) recordings allowed for examination of event-related potentials (ERPs) to the informative cues and in turn, to both feedback signals. Distinct ERP components associated with reward cues, task-preparatory and task-monitoring processes, and reward feedback processes were identified. Unsurprisingly, participants displayed increased ERP amplitudes associated with task-preparatory processes following cues that predicted higher chances of reward. They also rapidly updated reward and loss prediction information dependent on task performance after the first feedback signal. Finally, upon reward receipt, initial reward probability was no longer taken into account. Rather, ERP measures suggested that only the magnitude of actual reward or loss was now processed. Reward and task-monitoring processes are clearly dissociable, but

  8. A Task Group Practitioner's Response to Waldo and Bauman's Article on Regrouping the Categorization of Group Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Linda P.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that Waldo and Bauman's Goals and Process (GAP) matrix does not include task/work groups. Claims that it is not in the best interest of group work to undo or rework the Association for Specialists in Group Work's four core groups as a model. States that the field of group work needs a commonly shared framework/categorization from which to…

  9. Promoting oral interaction in large groups through task-based learning

    OpenAIRE

    Forero Rocha, Yolima

    2009-01-01

    This research project attempts to show the way a group of five teachers used task-based learning with a group of 50 seventh graders to improve oral interaction. The students belonged to Isabel II School. They took an active part in the implementation of tasks and were asked to answer two questionnaires. Some English classes were observed and recorded; finally, an evaluation was taken by students to test their improvement. Key words: Task-based learning, oral interaction, large groups, hig...

  10. Monitoring as an information management task in hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentz, Bernhard

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity of information systems requires a systematic monitoring of the information system’s architecture, components, and operation within the strategic, tactical, and operational information management. While there exists a broad methodical assistance for information system’s planning and directing, the monitoring aspect suffers from lacking awareness of the problem on the part of the information manager and missing knowledge about appropriate methods. The paper emphasizes the need for systematic monitoring and gives an overview of the most important methods and tools to support systematic monitoring of the HIS and its components. The overview is presented according to the levels of information management. Basis were best practice approaches like ITIL and COBIT, economic science’s approaches like the Balanced Scorecard as well as appropriate information management’s literature.

  11. Comparing Pair and Small Group Interactions on Oral Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasito,; Storch, Neomy

    2013-01-01

    Although pair and small group activities are commonly used in second language (L2) classrooms, there are very few studies which can inform teachers about whether it is best to have students work in pairs or in small groups. In this study, conducted in a junior high school in Indonesia with learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL), we…

  12. Comparing Pair and Small Group Interactions on Oral Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasito,; Storch, Neomy

    2013-01-01

    Although pair and small group activities are commonly used in second language (L2) classrooms, there are very few studies which can inform teachers about whether it is best to have students work in pairs or in small groups. In this study, conducted in a junior high school in Indonesia with learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL), we…

  13. 76 FR 21073 - NASA Advisory Council; Task Group of the Science Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Task Group of the Science Committee; Meeting AGENCY... Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Task Group of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) Science Committee... meeting will take place telephonically and by WebEx. Any interested person may call the USA toll...

  14. 76 FR 26771 - NASA Advisory Council; Task Group of the Science Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Task Group of the Science Committee; Meeting AGENCY... Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Task Group of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) Science Committee... meeting will take place telephonically and by WebEx. Any interested person may call the USA toll...

  15. The Role of Communication in Group Decision-Making Efficacy: A Task-Contingency Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Randy Y.

    1990-01-01

    Argues importance of communication for group decision-making performance and its impact on such performance are function of three task characteristics: structure, information requirement, and evaluation demand. Identifies task circumstances in which group communication can be expected to play role in determining decision-making performance, as…

  16. Quantitative comparison of operative skill using 2- and 3-dimensional monitors during laparoscopic phantom tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Masayasu; Kanaji, Shingo; Otake, Yoshito; Harada, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masashi; Oshikiri, Taro; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yuki; Hiasa, Yuta; Sato, Yoshinobu; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2017-05-01

    The recent development of stereoscopic images using 3-dimensional monitors is expected to improve techniques for laparoscopic operation. Several studies have reported technical advantages in using 3-dimensional monitors with regard to operative accuracy and working speed, but there are few reports that analyze forceps motions by 3-dimensional optical tracking systems during standardized laparoscopic phantom tasks. We attempted to develop a 3-dimensional motion analysis system for assessing laparoscopic tasks and to clarify the efficacy of using stereoscopic images from a 3-dimensional monitor to track forceps movement during laparoscopy. Twenty surgeons performed 3 tasks (Task 1: a simple operation by the dominant hand, Task 2: a simple operation using both hands, Task 3: a complicated operation using both hands) under 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional systems. We tracked and recorded the motion of forceps tips with an optical marker captured by a 3-dimensional position tracker. We analyzed factors such as forceps path lengths, operation times, and technical errors for each task and compared the results of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional monitors. Mean operation times and technical errors were improved significantly for all tasks performed under the 3-dimensional system compared with the 2-dimensional system; in addition, mean path lengths for the forceps tips were shorter for all tasks performed under the 3-dimensional system. We found that stereoscopic images using a 3-dimensional monitor improved operative techniques with regard to increased accuracy and shorter path lengths for forceps movement, which resulted in a shorter operation time for basic phantom laparoscopic tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Report of the task group on fermentation technology.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrews, RJ

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available An ad hoc meeting held in Bloemfontein on 29th November, 1976, identified a need for greater contact between South African research groups involved in fermentation technology. The meeting also suggested that the stimulation of research and training...

  18. Dashboard Task Monitor for managing ATLAS user analysis on the Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Sargsyan, L; The ATLAS collaboration; Jha, M; Karavakis, E; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Saiz, P; Schovancova, J; Tuckett, D

    2013-01-01

    The organization of the distributed user analysis on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) infrastructure is one of the most challenging tasks among the computing activities at the Large Hadron Collider. The Experiment Dashboard offers a solution that not only monitors but also manages (kill, resubmit) user tasks and jobs via a web interface. The ATLAS Dashboard Task Monitor provides analysis users with a tool that is operating system and GRID environment independent. This contribution describes the functionality of the application and its implementation details, in particular authentication, authorization and audit of the management operations.

  19. Dashboard Task Monitor for managing ATLAS user analysis on the Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Sargsyan, L; Jha, M; Karavakis, E; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Saiz, P; Schovancova, J; Tuckett, D

    2014-01-01

    The organization of the distributed user analysis on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) infrastructure is one of the most challenging tasks among the computing activities at the Large Hadron Collider. The Experiment Dashboard offers a solution that not only monitors but also manages (kill, resubmit) user tasks and jobs via a web interface. The ATLAS Dashboard Task Monitor provides analysis users with a tool that is independent of the operating system and GRID environment . This contribution describes the functionality of the application and its implementation details, in particular authentication, authorization and audit of the management operations.

  20. Dashboard Task Monitor for Managing ATLAS User Analysis on the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, L.; Andreeva, J.; Jha, M.; Karavakis, E.; Kokoszkiewicz, L.; Saiz, P.; Schovancova, J.; Tuckett, D.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The organization of the distributed user analysis on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) infrastructure is one of the most challenging tasks among the computing activities at the Large Hadron Collider. The Experiment Dashboard offers a solution that not only monitors but also manages (kill, resubmit) user tasks and jobs via a web interface. The ATLAS Dashboard Task Monitor provides analysis users with a tool that is independent of the operating system and Grid environment. This contribution describes the functionality of the application and its implementation details, in particular authentication, authorization and audit of the management operations.

  1. Differential Effects of Reinforcement on the Self-Monitoring of On-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Tiffany L.; Haut, Jillian M.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the differential effects of reinforcement on a self-monitoring intervention were evaluated. Three students nominated by their teachers for having a marked difficultly maintaining on-task behaviors participated in the study. Using an alternating treatments single-case design to assess self-monitoring with and without…

  2. San Joaquin River Up-Stream DO TMDL Project Task 4: MonitoringStudy Interim Task Report #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William; Borglin, Sharon; Dahlgren, Randy; Hanlon,Jeremy; Graham, Justin; Burks, Remie; Hutchinson, Kathleen

    2007-03-30

    Lander Avenue.This data is specifically being collected to provide data for the Task 6Modeling effort. Task 4 provides input and calibration data for flow andWQ modeling associated with the low DO problems in the SJR watershed,including modeling on the linkage among nutrients, algae, and low DO.Task 4 is providing a higher volume of high quality and coherent data tothe modeling team than was available in the past for the upstream SJR.The monitoring and research activities under Task 4 are integrated withthe Modeling effort (Task 6) and are not designed to be a stand aloneprogram. Although, the majority of analysis of the Task 4 data isoccurring as part of the Task 6 Modeling program, analysis of Task 4 dataindependently of the modeling effort is also an important component ofthe DO TMDL Project effort. In this report, we present the results ofmonitoring and research conducted under Task 4. The major purposes ofthis report are to 1) document activities undertaken as part of theDOTMDL Project; 2) organize electronic data for delivery to Stateagencies, stakeholders and principal investigators (cooperators) on theDO TMDL Project; 3) provide a summary analysis of the data for referenceand to assist stakeholders in planning watershed activities inresponse tothe DO TMDL requirements; and 5) provide a preliminary scientificinterpretation independently of the Task 6 Modeling effort. Due to theextensive scope of theTask 4 portion of the DO TMDL Project, the Task 4March 2007 Interim Report is divided into a numbers of chapters andassociated appendixes designed to be able to stand1-3 independently ofeach other. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of Task4 data collection and to explain the structure of the overallreport.

  3. Performance monitoring and analysis of task-based OpenMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Hu, Kai; Wu, Kai; Zhao, Zhenlong

    2013-01-01

    OpenMP, a typical shared memory programming paradigm, has been extensively applied in high performance computing community due to the popularity of multicore architectures in recent years. The most significant feature of the OpenMP 3.0 specification is the introduction of the task constructs to express parallelism at a much finer level of detail. This feature, however, has posed new challenges for performance monitoring and analysis. In particular, task creation is separated from its execution, causing the traditional monitoring methods to be ineffective. This paper presents a mechanism to monitor task-based OpenMP programs with interposition and proposes two demonstration graphs for performance analysis as well. The results of two experiments are discussed to evaluate the overhead of monitoring mechanism and to verify the effects of demonstration graphs using the BOTS benchmarks.

  4. Performance monitoring and analysis of task-based OpenMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ding

    Full Text Available OpenMP, a typical shared memory programming paradigm, has been extensively applied in high performance computing community due to the popularity of multicore architectures in recent years. The most significant feature of the OpenMP 3.0 specification is the introduction of the task constructs to express parallelism at a much finer level of detail. This feature, however, has posed new challenges for performance monitoring and analysis. In particular, task creation is separated from its execution, causing the traditional monitoring methods to be ineffective. This paper presents a mechanism to monitor task-based OpenMP programs with interposition and proposes two demonstration graphs for performance analysis as well. The results of two experiments are discussed to evaluate the overhead of monitoring mechanism and to verify the effects of demonstration graphs using the BOTS benchmarks.

  5. Detection of Electronic Anklet Wearers’ Groupings throughout Telematics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Lima Machado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankle bracelets (anklets imposed by law to track convicted individuals are being used in many countries as an alternative to overloaded prisons. There are many different systems for monitoring individuals wearing such devices, and these electronic anklet monitoring systems commonly detect violations of circulation areas permitted to holders. In spite of being able to monitor individual localization, such systems do not identify grouping activities of the monitored individuals, although this kind of event could represent a real risk of further offenses planned by those individuals. In order to address such a problem and to help monitoring systems to be able to have a proactive approach, this paper proposes sensor data fusion algorithms that are able to identify such groups based on data provided by anklet positioning devices. The results from the proposed algorithms can be applied to support risk assessment in the context of monitoring systems. The processing is performed using geographic points collected by a monitoring center, and as result, it produces a history of groups with their members, timestamps, locations and frequency of meetings. The proposed algorithms are validated in various serial and parallel computing scenarios, and the correspondent results are presented and discussed. The information produced by the proposed algorithms yields to a better characterization of the monitored individuals and can be adapted to support decision-making systems used by authorities that are responsible for planning decisions regarding actions affecting public security.

  6. Effects of working memory capacity on metacognitive monitoring: A study of group differences using a listening span test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie eKomori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an executive function of working memory that serves to update novel information, focusing attention on task-relevant targets, and eliminating task-irrelevant noise. The present research used a verbal working memory task to examine how working memory capacity limits affect monitoring. Participants performed a Japanese listening span test that included maintenance of target words and listening comprehension. On each trial, participants responded to the target word and then immediately estimated confidence in recall performance for that word (metacognitive judgment. The results confirmed significant differences in monitoring accuracy between high and low capacity groups in a multi-task situation. That is, confidence judgments were superior in high versus low capacity participants in terms of absolute accuracy and discrimination. The present research further investigated how memory load and interference affect underestimation of successful recall. The results indicated that the level of memory load that reduced word recall performance and led to an underconfidence bias varied according to participants’ memory capacity. In addition, irreverent information associated with incorrect true/ false decisions (secondary task and word recall within the current trial impaired monitoring accuracy in both participant groups. These findings suggest that inference from unsuccessful decisions only influences low, but not high, capacity participants. Therefore, monitoring accuracy, which requires high working memory capacity, improves metacognitive abilities by inhibiting task-irrelevant noise and focusing attention on detecting task-relevant targets or useful retrieval cues, which could improve actual cognitive performance.

  7. Perceptual grouping by similarity of surface roughness in haptics: the influence of task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aarsen, V; Overvliet, K E

    2016-08-01

    We investigated grouping by similarity of surface roughness in the context of task difficulty. We hypothesized that grouping yields a larger benefit at higher levels of task complexity, because efficient processing is more helpful when more cognitive resources are needed to execute a task. Participants searched for a patch of a different roughness as compared to the distractors in two strips of similar or dissimilar roughness values. We reasoned that if the distractors could be grouped based on similar roughness values, exploration time would be shorter and fewer errors would occur. To manipulate task complexity, we varied task difficulty (high target saliency equalling low task difficulty), and we varied the fingers used to explore the display (two fingers of one hand being more cognitive demanding than two fingers of opposite hands). We found much better performance in the easy condition as compared to the difficult condition (in both error rates and mean search slopes). Moreover, we found a larger effect for the similarity manipulation in the difficult condition as compared to the easy condition. Within the difficult condition, we found a larger effect for the one-hand condition as compared to the two-hand condition. These results show that haptic search is accelerated by the use of grouping by similarity of surface roughness, especially when the task is relatively complex. We conclude that the effect of perceptual grouping is more prominent when more cognitive resources are needed to perform a task.

  8. Effects of Gender and Communication Content on Leadership Emergence in Small Task-Oriented Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Katherine W.

    A study examined the role played by gender and communication content in the leadership emergence process in small, task-oriented groups. Six hours of transcribed group interaction from a sample of the group deliberations of 6 mixed-sex groups of college students (n=27) engaged in a 4-month-long decision-making project served as the database for…

  9. The pernicious effects of unstable work group membership : How work group changes undermine unique task contributions and newcomer acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Floor; Ellemers, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    This research demonstrates that group membership instability tends to raise self-related concerns that make it less likely that people value and accept constructive task contributions offered by newcomers. In Study 1 (N = 88), unstable group membership heightened self-related concerns. Participants

  10. Persistent Robotic Tasks: Monitoring and Sweeping in Changing Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Stephen L; Rus, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    We present controllers that enable mobile robots to persistently monitor or sweep a changing environment. The changing environment is modeled as a field which grows in locations that are not within range of a robot, and decreases in locations that are within range of a robot. We assume that the robots travel on given closed paths. The speed of each robot along its path is controlled to prevent the field from growing unbounded at any location. We consider the space of speed controllers that can be parametrized by a finite set of basis functions. For a single robot, we develop a linear program that is guaranteed to compute a speed controller in this space to keep the field bounded, if such a controller exists. Another linear program is then derived whose solution is the speed controller that minimizes the maximum field value over the environment. We extend our linear program formulation to develop a multi-robot controller that keeps the field bounded. The multi-robot controller has the unique feature that it do...

  11. Task Force Report: Assessment of Nuclear Monitoring and Verification Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    o Make  explicit  the  requirements  for,  and  improvements  needed  in,  HUMINT,  SIGINT, cyber,  OSINT , etc., to support monitoring and...environments.                                                             23 The potential for  OSINT  (open source intelligence) as a focusing step is...various  intelligence  collection  capabilities  (HUMINT,  IMINT,  MASINT,  OSINT ,  SIGINT, etc.) have historically played a  strong  role  in  the

  12. Individual and group-based learning from complex cognitive tasks: Effects on retention and transfer efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Kirschner, F., Paas, F., & Kirschner, P. (2009). Individual and group-based learning from complex cognitive tasks: Effects on retention and transfer efficiency. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 306-314.

  13. Test-Retest Reliability in fMRI of Language: Group and Task Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E. Elinor; Small, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how the test-retest reliability is modulated by different groups of participants and experimental tasks. A group of 12 healthy participants and a group of nine stroke patients performed the same language imaging experiment twice, test and retest, on different days. The experiment consists of four conditions, one audio condition…

  14. Positioning during Group Work on a Novel Task in Algebra II

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Anna F.; González, Gloriana

    2015-01-01

    Given the prominence of group work in mathematics education policy and curricular materials, it is important to understand how students make sense of mathematics during group work. We applied techniques from Systemic Functional Linguistics to examine how students positioned themselves during group work on a novel task in Algebra II classes. We…

  15. Design and test of a situation-augmented display for an unmanned aerial vehicle monitoring task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jen-Li; Horng, Ruey-Yun; Chao, Chin-Jung

    2013-08-01

    In this study, a situation-augmented display for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) monitoring was designed, and its effects on operator performance and mental workload were examined. The display design was augmented with the knowledge that there is an invariant flight trajectory (formed by the relationship between altitude and velocity) for every flight, from takeoff to landing. 56 participants were randomly assigned to the situation-augmented display or a conventional display condition to work on 4 (number of abnormalities) x 2 (noise level) UAV monitoring tasks three times. Results showed that the effects of situation-augmented display on flight completion time and time to detect abnormalities were robust under various workload conditions, but error rate and perceived mental workload were unaffected by the display type. Results suggest that the UAV monitoring task is extremely difficult, and that display devices providing high-level situation-awareness may improve operator monitoring performance.

  16. The balanced mind: the variability of task-unrelated thoughts predicts error-monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah eAllen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-generated thoughts unrelated to ongoing activities, also known as ‘mind-wandering’, make up a substantial portion of our daily lives. Reports of such task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs predict both poor performance on demanding cognitive tasks and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD activity in the default mode network (DMN. However, recent findings suggest that TUTs and the DMN can also facilitate metacognitive abilities and related behaviors. To further understand these relationships, we examined the influence of subjective intensity, ruminative quality, and variability of mind-wandering on response inhibition and monitoring, using the Error Awareness Task (EAT. We expected to replicate links between TUT and reduced inhibition, and explored whether variance in TUT would predict improved error monitoring, reflecting a capacity to balance between internal and external cognition. By analyzing BOLD responses to subjective probes and the EAT, we dissociated contributions of the DMN, executive, and salience networks to task performance. While both response inhibition and online TUT ratings modulated BOLD activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC of the DMN, the former recruited a more dorsal area implying functional segregation. We further found that individual differences in mean TUTs strongly predicted EAT stop accuracy, while TUT variability specifically predicted levels of error awareness. Interestingly, we also observed co-activation of salience and default mode regions during error awareness, supporting a link between monitoring and TUTs. Altogether our results suggest that although TUT is detrimental to task performance, fluctuations in attention between self-generated and external task-related thought is a characteristic of individuals with greater metacognitive monitoring capacity. Achieving a balance between internal and externally oriented thought may thus allow individuals to optimize their task performance.

  17. The balanced mind: the variability of task-unrelated thoughts predicts error monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Micah; Smallwood, Jonathan; Christensen, Joanna; Gramm, Daniel; Rasmussen, Beinta; Jensen, Christian Gaden; Roepstorff, Andreas; Lutz, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Self-generated thoughts unrelated to ongoing activities, also known as "mind-wandering," make up a substantial portion of our daily lives. Reports of such task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) predict both poor performance on demanding cognitive tasks and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the default mode network (DMN). However, recent findings suggest that TUTs and the DMN can also facilitate metacognitive abilities and related behaviors. To further understand these relationships, we examined the influence of subjective intensity, ruminative quality, and variability of mind-wandering on response inhibition and monitoring, using the Error Awareness Task (EAT). We expected to replicate links between TUT and reduced inhibition, and explored whether variance in TUT would predict improved error monitoring, reflecting a capacity to balance between internal and external cognition. By analyzing BOLD responses to subjective probes and the EAT, we dissociated contributions of the DMN, executive, and salience networks to task performance. While both response inhibition and online TUT ratings modulated BOLD activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the DMN, the former recruited a more dorsal area implying functional segregation. We further found that individual differences in mean TUTs strongly predicted EAT stop accuracy, while TUT variability specifically predicted levels of error awareness. Interestingly, we also observed co-activation of salience and default mode regions during error awareness, supporting a link between monitoring and TUTs. Altogether our results suggest that although TUT is detrimental to task performance, fluctuations in attention between self-generated and external task-related thought is a characteristic of individuals with greater metacognitive monitoring capacity. Achieving a balance between internally and externally oriented thought may thus aid individuals in optimizing their task performance.

  18. The balanced mind: the variability of task-unrelated thoughts predicts error monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Micah; Smallwood, Jonathan; Christensen, Joanna; Gramm, Daniel; Rasmussen, Beinta; Jensen, Christian Gaden; Roepstorff, Andreas; Lutz, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Self-generated thoughts unrelated to ongoing activities, also known as “mind-wandering,” make up a substantial portion of our daily lives. Reports of such task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) predict both poor performance on demanding cognitive tasks and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the default mode network (DMN). However, recent findings suggest that TUTs and the DMN can also facilitate metacognitive abilities and related behaviors. To further understand these relationships, we examined the influence of subjective intensity, ruminative quality, and variability of mind-wandering on response inhibition and monitoring, using the Error Awareness Task (EAT). We expected to replicate links between TUT and reduced inhibition, and explored whether variance in TUT would predict improved error monitoring, reflecting a capacity to balance between internal and external cognition. By analyzing BOLD responses to subjective probes and the EAT, we dissociated contributions of the DMN, executive, and salience networks to task performance. While both response inhibition and online TUT ratings modulated BOLD activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the DMN, the former recruited a more dorsal area implying functional segregation. We further found that individual differences in mean TUTs strongly predicted EAT stop accuracy, while TUT variability specifically predicted levels of error awareness. Interestingly, we also observed co-activation of salience and default mode regions during error awareness, supporting a link between monitoring and TUTs. Altogether our results suggest that although TUT is detrimental to task performance, fluctuations in attention between self-generated and external task-related thought is a characteristic of individuals with greater metacognitive monitoring capacity. Achieving a balance between internally and externally oriented thought may thus aid individuals in optimizing their task performance. PMID:24223545

  19. The Effects of Dual Task on Healthy Adults Balance Index in Age and Gender groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Abedi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Falls are the leading cause of accidental death among older adults. Recent studies have demonstrated that an impaired ability to maintain balance while simultaneously performing cognitive tasks is associated with increased rates of adverse outcomes, such as falls in elderly people. Because interventions designed to improve dual-task balance performance have the potential to reduce falling rate and functional decline, they are a critical health care need.Material & Methods: 60 healthy adults in four equal groups (mean age in: young men=22.1±1.9, old men =68.3±4.1, young women =22.6±1.8, old women =66.9±2.6 participated in this study. All subjects experienced four test conditions including: single- task with eyes open (O1, single- task with eyes closed (C1, dual-task with eyes open (O2 and dual-task with eyes closed (C2. Postural task in this study included standing on 8 instability level of biodex balance SD machine plate and cognitive task was backward counting by three.Results: balance index mean in older group was significantly higher in comparison with young group in all test conditions (O1 P=.000, C1 P=.003, O2 P=.000, C2 P=.000. There are not any significant differences between gender groups balance index mean, in test conditions. In Young women group O2 overall (OL, antroposterior (AP and mediolateral (ML balance indexes means were significantly higher than corresponding amounts in C2 (OL P=.014, AP P=.030, ML P=.017. In old women group C2 ML balance index mean was significantly higher than O2 ML balance index mean (P=.034. There are not significant differences between single- and dual-task conditions in other within group comparisons.Conclusion: In young men, young women and old women balance index means are different between single and dual eyes closed condition. Older adults balance index in single- and dual-task conditions is higher than young adults balance index. There is not any difference between men and

  20. Students' Progression in Monitoring Anomalous Results Obtained in Inquiry-Based Laboratory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crujeiras-Pérez, Beatriz; Jiménez-Aleixandre, Maria Pilar

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines students' engagement in monitoring anomalous results across a 2-year longitudinal study with 9th and 10th graders (14-15 and 15-16 years of age). The context is a set of five inquiry-based laboratory tasks, requiring students to plan and carry out investigations. The study seeks to examine students' interpretation of data, in particular anomalous results generated by them during the process of solving the tasks, and their ability to monitor them. Data collected include video and audio recordings as well as students' written products. For the analysis, two rubrics were developed drawing on Chinn and Brewer (Cognition and Instruction, 19, 323-393, 2001) and Hmelo-Silver et al. (Science Education, 86, 219-243, 2002). The findings point to a pattern of progress in students' responses across the 2 years: (a) responses revealing a low capacity of monitoring due to not recognizing the data as anomalous or recognizing it as anomalous but being unable to explain their causes are more frequent in the first tasks and (b) responses revealing an improved capacity of monitoring are more frequent in the last tasks. The factors influencing students' regulation of their performances, as the requirement of planning, and specific scaffolding based on activity theory are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of a strapless heart rate monitor during simulated flight tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Fu, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Pilots are under high task demands during flight. Monitoring pilot's physiological status is very important in the evaluation of pilot's workload and flight safety. Recently, physiological status monitor (PSM) has been embedded into a watch that can be used without a conventional chest strap. This makes it possible to unobtrusively monitor, log and transmit pilot's physiological measurements such as heart rate (HR) during flight tasks. The purpose of this study is to validate HR recorded by a strapless heart rate watch against criterion ECG-derived HR. Ten commercial pilots (mean ± SD : age: 39.1 ± 7.8 years; total flight hours 7173.2 ± 5270.9 hr) performed three routinely trained flight tasks in a full flight simulator: wind shear go-around (WG), takeoff and climb (TC), and hydraulic failure (HF). For all tasks combined (overall) and for each task, differences between the heart rate watch measurements and the criterion data were small (mean difference [95% CI]: overall: -0.71 beats/min [-0.85, -0.57]; WG: -0.90 beats/min [-1.15, -0.65]; TC: -0.69 beats/min [-0.98, -0.40]; HF: -0.61 beats/min [-0.80, -0.42]). There were high correlations between the heart rate watch measurements and the ECG-derived HR for all tasks (r ≥ 0.97, SEE simulated flight tasks and could be a useful tool for pilot workload evaluation.

  2. Vocal turn-taking patterns in groups of children performing collaborative tasks: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Jaebok; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Charisi, Vasiliki; Zaga, Cristina; Lohse, M.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Evers, Vanessa

    Since children (5-9 years old) are still developing their emotional and social skills, their social interactional behaviors in small groups might differ from adults' interactional behaviors. In order to develop a robot that is able to support children performing collaborative tasks in small groups,

  3. A review of the work of the Task Group on Behind Armour Blunt Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, I.B.; Knudsen, P.J.T.; Sarron, J.C.; Bree, J.L.M.J. van; Gotts, P.; Waclawik, S.

    2002-01-01

    Over the past four years several countries and national laboratories have collaborated within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s Research and Technology Organization as a Task Group. The purpose was to continue the research of an earlier NATO sponsored group and so explain the pathophysiology

  4. The monitoring and control of task sequences in human and non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Desrochers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to plan and execute a series of tasks leading to a desired goal requires remarkable coordination between sensory, motor, and decision-related systems. Prefrontal cortex is thought to play a central role in this coordination, especially when actions must be assembled extemporaneously and cannot be programmed as a rote series of movements. A central component of this flexible behavior is the moment-by-moment allocation of working memory and attention. The ubiquity of sequence planning in our everyday lives belies the neural complexity that supports this capacity, and little is known about how frontal cortical regions orchestrate the monitoring and control of sequential behaviors. For example, it remains unclear if and how sensory cortical areas, which provide essential driving inputs for behavior, are modulated by the frontal cortex during these tasks. Here we review what is known about moment-to-moment monitoring as it relates to visually guided, rule-driven behaviors that change over time. We highlight recent human work that shows how the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC participates in monitoring during task sequences. Neurophysiological data from monkeys suggests that monitoring may be accomplished by neurons that respond to items within the sequence and may in turn influence the tuning properties of neurons in posterior sensory areas. Understanding the interplay between proceduralized or habitual acts and supervised control of sequences is key to our understanding of sequential task execution. A crucial bridge will be the use of experimental protocols that allow for the examination of the functional homology between monkeys and humans. We illustrate how task sequences may be parceled into components and examined experimentally, thereby opening future avenues of investigation into the neural basis of sequential monitoring and control.

  5. Task 1. Monitoring real time materials degradation. NRC extended In-situ and real-time Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtiari, Sasan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The overall objective of this project was to perform a scoping study to identify, in concert with the nuclear industry, those sensors and techniques that have the most promising commercial viability and fill a critical inspection or monitoring need. Candidates to be considered include sensors to monitor real-time material degradation, characterize residual stress, monitor and inspect component fabrication, assess radionuclide and associated chemical species concentrations in ground water and soil, characterize fuel properties, and monitor severe accident conditions. Under Task 1—Monitoring Real-Time Materials Degradation—scoping studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of potential inspection and monitoring technologies (i.e., a combination of sensors, advanced signal processing techniques, and data analysis methods) that could be utilized in LWR and/or advanced reactor applications for continuous monitoring of degradation in-situ. The goal was to identify those techniques that appear to be the most promising, i.e., those that are closest to being both technically and commercially viable and that the nuclear industry is most likely to pursue. Current limitations and associated issues that must be overcome before commercial application of certain techniques have also been addressed.

  6. TASKRADAR: TASK VISUALISATION AND MONITORING WITHIN AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT LIFECYCLE USING SEMANTIC TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selver Softic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Project management within the automotive production in specific departments is still done separately and does not interact with engineering process. Our work aims on providing flexible data insights on collaboration tasks within such environments. We apply semantic technologies RDF, OWL and SPARQL with a specific domain related ontology PROTARES (PROject TAsks RESources to interlink, describe and query domain knowledge. As proof of concept we are introducing an experimental visualisation interface called TaskRadar. Our application resides on domain ontology and allows knowledge based browsing and visualisation of tasks in development process. With this example we want to show, how semantically driven customized views can support monitoring and reflection as well as decision-making within the early phases of the automotive product lifecycle.

  7. Hierarchical Clustering Multi-Task Learning for Joint Human Action Grouping and Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-An; Su, Yu-Ting; Nie, Wei-Zhi; Kankanhalli, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical clustering multi-task learning (HC-MTL) method for joint human action grouping and recognition. Specifically, we formulate the objective function into the group-wise least square loss regularized by low rank and sparsity with respect to two latent variables, model parameters and grouping information, for joint optimization. To handle this non-convex optimization, we decompose it into two sub-tasks, multi-task learning and task relatedness discovery. First, we convert this non-convex objective function into the convex formulation by fixing the latent grouping information. This new objective function focuses on multi-task learning by strengthening the shared-action relationship and action-specific feature learning. Second, we leverage the learned model parameters for the task relatedness measure and clustering. In this way, HC-MTL can attain both optimal action models and group discovery by alternating iteratively. The proposed method is validated on three kinds of challenging datasets, including six realistic action datasets (Hollywood2, YouTube, UCF Sports, UCF50, HMDB51 & UCF101), two constrained datasets (KTH & TJU), and two multi-view datasets (MV-TJU & IXMAS). The extensive experimental results show that: 1) HC-MTL can produce competing performances to the state of the arts for action recognition and grouping; 2) HC-MTL can overcome the difficulty in heuristic action grouping simply based on human knowledge; 3) HC-MTL can avoid the possible inconsistency between the subjective action grouping depending on human knowledge and objective action grouping based on the feature subspace distributions of multiple actions. Comparison with the popular clustered multi-task learning further reveals that the discovered latent relatedness by HC-MTL aids inducing the group-wise multi-task learning and boosts the performance. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first work that breaks the assumption that all actions are either

  8. Performance Monitoring and Response Inhibition in a Saccadic Countermanding Task in High and Low proficient bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika eSingh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared Hindi-English bilinguals differing in their L2 fluency on a saccadic countermanding task which taps inhibitory control as well as monitoring. We particularly explored whether response inhibition and performance monitoring within the oculomotor domain are affected by language proficiency in bilinguals. There were two different oculomotor redirect tasks: Visually Guided Redirect (VGR task (Experiment1 and Memory Guided Redirect (MGR task (Experiment 2. In this task typically a target is presented to which subject must make saccade (No step trials, unless a new target appears on the other location after some delay from the first target onset (Step trials. On such trials participants are required to inhibit and cancel the saccade to the first instead program a saccade to the new target. Using trial switch reaction time (TSRT, which is the time taken to inhibit the initiated saccade to the first target, as a measure of response inhibition, and post-stop slowing as a measure of performance monitoring, we observed two important results. It was found that high proficiency bilinguals showed more post-stop slowing on the no-step trials as compared to the low proficiency bilinguals for both VGR and MGR. Secondly, high and low proficiency bilingual exhibited comparable TSRT in both VGR and MGR, showing no altering effect of language proficiency on the response inhibition in bilinguals. These results suggest that bilingualism impacts performance monitoring which is modulated by language proficiency if not the inhibitory control system. Higher fluency may lead to superior cognitive flexibility, and ability to adjust behaviour that facilitates attainment of cognitive goal. These findings are in consonance with other current studies that suggest a top-down effect of bilingualism on action control systems.

  9. Condition Monitoring of Cables Task 3 Report: Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaran, M.; Lofaro, R.; na

    2009-11-30

    For more than 20 years the NRC has sponsored research studying electric cable aging degradation, condition monitoring, and environmental qualification testing practices for electric cables used in nuclear power plants. This report summarizes several of the most effective and commonly used condition monitoring techniques available to detect damage and measure the extent of degradation in electric cable insulation. The technical basis for each technique is summarized, along with its application, trendability of test data, ease of performing the technique, advantages and limitations, and the usefulness of the test results to characterize and assess the condition of electric cables.

  10. A Comparison of Self-Monitoring with and without Reinforcement to Improve On-Task Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; Dacus, Sharon; Bankhead, Jenna; Haupert, Megan; Fuentes, Lisa; Zoch, Tamara; Kang, Soyeon; Attai, Shanna; Lang, Russell

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the effects of a self-monitoring and self-monitoring plus reinforcement intervention on classroom behavior. A typically-developing high school student demonstrating difficulty staying on-task during classroom instruction was observed in three classroom settings associated with high levels of off-task behavior. During…

  11. Gender and Group Composition in Small Task Groups Using Computer-Mediated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savicki, Victor; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Gender and group composition variables in a computer-mediated communication context are examined. Subjects were 36 undergraduate male and female psychology students. Findings are analyzed in terms of choice of language; participation; satisfaction; and interpersonal conflict. Ten tables present study results. (Author/AEF)

  12. Dosimetric effects caused by couch tops and immobilization devices: report of AAPM Task Group 176.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olch, Arthur J; Gerig, Lee; Li, Heng; Mihaylov, Ivaylo; Morgan, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The dosimetric impact from devices external to the patient is a complex combination of increased skin dose, reduced tumor dose, and altered dose distribution. Although small monitor unit or dose corrections are routinely made for blocking trays, ion chamber correction factors, e.g., accounting for temperature and pressure, or tissue inhomogeneities, the dose perturbation of the treatment couch top or immobilization devices is often overlooked. These devices also increase skin dose, an effect which is also often ignored or underestimated. These concerns have grown recently due to the increased use of monolithic carbon fiber couch tops which are optimal for imaging for patient position verification but cause attenuation and increased skin dose compared to the "tennis racket" style couch top they often replace. Also, arc delivery techniques have replaced stationary gantry techniques which cause a greater fraction of the dose to be delivered from posterior angles. A host of immobilization devices are available and used to increase patient positioning reproducibility, and these also have attenuation and skin dose implications which are often ignored. This report of Task Group 176 serves to present a survey of published data that illustrates the magnitude of the dosimetric effects of a wide range of devices external to the patient. The report also provides methods for modeling couch tops in treatment planning systems so the physicist can accurately compute the dosimetric effects for indexed patient treatments. Both photon and proton beams are considered. A discussion on avoidance of high density structures during beam planning is also provided. An important aspect of this report are the recommendations the authors make to clinical physicists, treatment planning system vendors, and device vendors on how to make measurements of surface dose and attenuation and how to report these values. For the vendors, an appeal is made to work together to provide accurate couch top

  13. Dosimetric effects caused by couch tops and immobilization devices: Report of AAPM Task Group 176

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, Arthur J., E-mail: aolch@chla.usc.edu [Radiation Oncology Department, University of Southern California and Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90027 (United States); Gerig, Lee [Department of Physics, Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada and Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Li, Heng [Department of Radiation Physics, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Mihaylov, Ivaylo [Department of Radiation Oncology Department, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33136 (United States); Morgan, Andrew [The Beacon Centre, Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton TA1 5DA (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    The dosimetric impact from devices external to the patient is a complex combination of increased skin dose, reduced tumor dose, and altered dose distribution. Although small monitor unit or dose corrections are routinely made for blocking trays, ion chamber correction factors, e.g., accounting for temperature and pressure, or tissue inhomogeneities, the dose perturbation of the treatment couch top or immobilization devices is often overlooked. These devices also increase skin dose, an effect which is also often ignored or underestimated. These concerns have grown recently due to the increased use of monolithic carbon fiber couch tops which are optimal for imaging for patient position verification but cause attenuation and increased skin dose compared to the “tennis racket” style couch top they often replace. Also, arc delivery techniques have replaced stationary gantry techniques which cause a greater fraction of the dose to be delivered from posterior angles. A host of immobilization devices are available and used to increase patient positioning reproducibility, and these also have attenuation and skin dose implications which are often ignored. This report of Task Group 176 serves to present a survey of published data that illustrates the magnitude of the dosimetric effects of a wide range of devices external to the patient. The report also provides methods for modeling couch tops in treatment planning systems so the physicist can accurately compute the dosimetric effects for indexed patient treatments. Both photon and proton beams are considered. A discussion on avoidance of high density structures during beam planning is also provided. An important aspect of this report are the recommendations the authors make to clinical physicists, treatment planning system vendors, and device vendors on how to make measurements of surface dose and attenuation and how to report these values. For the vendors, an appeal is made to work together to provide accurate couch top

  14. Interactional Concerns in Implementing Group Tasks: Addressing Silence, Dominance, and Off-Task Talk in an Academic Writing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bal Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the teacher role in mediating the task and the learner in an advanced academic writing class. Having identified three verbal (non-)participation patterns of students in collaborative tasks (silence, dominance, and off-task talk), I examine how these interactional concerns are understood and addressed by English as a second…

  15. Interactional Concerns in Implementing Group Tasks: Addressing Silence, Dominance, and Off-Task Talk in an Academic Writing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bal Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the teacher role in mediating the task and the learner in an advanced academic writing class. Having identified three verbal (non-)participation patterns of students in collaborative tasks (silence, dominance, and off-task talk), I examine how these interactional concerns are understood and addressed by English as a second…

  16. IEA SHC Task 42/ECES Annex 29–Working Group B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Helden, Wim; Yamaha, Motoi; Rathgeber, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The IEA joint Task 42 / Annex 29 is aimed at developing compact thermal energy storage materials and systems. In Working Group B, experts are working on the development of compact thermal energy storage applications, in the areas cooling, domestic heating and hot water and industry. The majority ...

  17. Task Groups in the School Setting: Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Velsor, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Through social and emotional learning (SEL), individuals develop skill in negotiating relationships successfully and expressing emotions appropriately. The socially and emotionally intelligent child reaps benefits in school and later life. Counselors are best qualified to promote children's SEL and the task group in the classroom provides an…

  18. QA for helical tomotherapy: report of the AAPM Task Group 148.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, Katja M; Papanikolaou, Niko; Balog, John; Crilly, Richard; Followill, David; Goddu, S Murty; Grant, Walter; Olivera, Gustavo; Ramsey, Chester R; Shi, Chengyu

    2010-09-01

    Helical tomotherapy is a relatively new modality with integrated treatment planning and delivery hardware for radiation therapy treatments. In view of the uniqueness of the hardware design of the helical tomotherapy unit and its implications in routine quality assurance, the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine commissioned Task Group 148 to review this modality and make recommendations for quality assurance related methodologies. The specific objectives of this Task Group are: (a) To discuss quality assurance techniques, frequencies, and tolerances and (b) discuss dosimetric verification techniques applicable to this unit. This report summarizes the findings of the Task Group and aims to provide the practicing clinical medical physicist with the insight into the technology that is necessary to establish an independent and comprehensive quality assurance program for a helical tomotherapy unit. The emphasis of the report is to describe the rationale for the proposed QA program and to provide example tests that can be performed, drawing from the collective experience of the task group members and the published literature. It is expected that as technology continues to evolve, so will the test procedures that may be used in the future to perform comprehensive quality assurance for helical tomotherapy units.

  19. An Agent-Based Model of Status Construction in Task Focused Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grow, André; Flache, Andreas; Wittek, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Status beliefs link social distinctions, such as gender and race, to assumptions about competence and social worth. Recent modeling work in status construction theory suggests that interactions in small, task focused groups can lead to the spontaneous emergence and diffusion of such beliefs in large

  20. Attention to Form in Collaborative Writing Tasks: Comparing Pair and Small Group Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobao, Ana Fernández

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the opportunities that a collaborative writing task completed in pairs and in small groups offers for attention to form. Previous research suggests that collaborative writing activities encourage learners to focus their attention on language and to collaborate in the resolution of their language-related problems in ways that…

  1. National facilities study. Volume 2: Task group on aeronautical research and development facilities report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Task Group on Aeronautics R&D Facilities examined the status and requirements for aeronautics facilities against the competitive need. Emphasis was placed on ground-based facilities for subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics, and propulsion. Subsonic and transonic wind tunnels were judged to be most critical and of highest priority. Results of the study are presented.

  2. A Consensus-Based Grouping Algorithm for Multi-agent Cooperative Task Allocation with Complex Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Simon; Meng, Qinggang; Hinde, Chris; Huang, Tingwen

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at consensus algorithms for agent cooperation with unmanned aerial vehicles. The foundation is the consensus-based bundle algorithm, which is extended to allow multi-agent tasks requiring agents to cooperate in completing individual tasks. Inspiration is taken from the cognitive behaviours of eusocial animals for cooperation and improved assignments. Using the behaviours observed in bees and ants inspires decentralised algorithms for groups of agents to adapt to changing task demand. Further extensions are provided to improve task complexity handling by the agents with added equipment requirements and task dependencies. We address the problems of handling these challenges and improve the efficiency of the algorithm for these requirements, whilst decreasing the communication cost with a new data structure. The proposed algorithm converges to a conflict-free, feasible solution of which previous algorithms are unable to account for. Furthermore, the algorithm takes into account heterogeneous agents, deadlocking and a method to store assignments for a dynamical environment. Simulation results demonstrate reduced data usage and communication time to come to a consensus on multi-agent tasks.

  3. Communication Effects on Small Group Decision-Making: Homogeneity and Task as Moderators of the Communication-Performance Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Abran J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates circumstances under which communication variables contribute significantly to the constitution of group decisions. Postulates two variables, homogeneity of task-relevant information possessed by group members and task demonstrability, to moderate the impact of communication and group member ability on quality of group outcomes.…

  4. Role of Gestalt grouping in selective attention: evidence from the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Martijn J M; Roelofs, Ardi

    2007-11-01

    Selective attention has been intensively studied using the Stroop task. Evidence suggests that Stroop interference in a color-naming task arises partly because of visual attention sharing between color and word: Removing the target color after 150 msec reduces interference (Neumann, 1986). Moreover, removing both the color and the word simultaneously reduces interference less than does removing the color only (La Heij, van der Heijden, & Plooij, 2001). These findings could also be attributed to Gestalt grouping principles, such as common fate. We report three experiments in which the role of Gestalt grouping was further investigated. Experiment I replicated the reduced interference, using words and color patches. In Experiment 2, the color patch was not removed but only repositioned (Gestalt grouping in selective attention.

  5. National facilities study. Volume 5: Space research and development facilities task group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    With the beginnings of the U.S. space program, there was a pressing need to develop facilities that could support the technology research and development, testing, and operations of evolving space systems. Redundancy in facilities that was once and advantage in providing flexibility and schedule accommodation is instead fast becoming a burden on scarce resources. As a result, there is a clear perception in many sectors that the U.S. has many space R&D facilities that are under-utilized and which are no longer cost-effective to maintain. At the same time, it is clear that the U.S. continues to possess many space R&D facilities which are the best -- or among the best -- in the world. In order to remain world class in key areas, careful assessment of current capabilities and planning for new facilities is needed. The National Facility Study (NFS) was initiated in 1992 to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for future aerospace facilities that meets current and projected government and commercial needs. In order to assess the nation's capability to support space research and development (R&D), a Space R&D Task Group was formed. The Task Group was co-chaired by NASA and DOD. The Task Group formed four major, technologically- and functionally- oriented working groups: Human and Machine Operations; Information and Communications; Propulsion and Power; and Materials, Structures, and Flight Dynamics. In addition to these groups, three supporting working groups were formed: Systems Engineering and Requirements; Strategy and Policy; and Costing Analysis. The Space R&D Task Group examined several hundred facilities against the template of a baseline mission and requirements model (developed in common with the Space Operations Task Group) and a set of excursions from the baseline. The model and excursions are described in Volume 3 of the NFS final report. In addition, as a part of the effort, the group examined key strategic issues associated with space R

  6. Infinite Shift-invariant Grouped Multi-task Learning for Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yuyang; Protopapas, Pavlos

    2012-01-01

    Multi-task learning leverages shared information among data sets to improve the learning performance of individual tasks. The paper applies this framework for data where each task is a phase-shifted periodic time series. In particular, we develop a novel Bayesian nonparametric model capturing a mixture of Gaussian processes where each task is a sum of a group-specific function and a component capturing individual variation, in addition to each task being phase shifted. We develop an efficient \\textsc{em} algorithm to learn the parameters of the model. As a special case we obtain the Gaussian mixture model and \\textsc{em} algorithm for phased-shifted periodic time series. Furthermore, we extend the proposed model by using a Dirichlet Process prior and thereby leading to an infinite mixture model that is capable of doing automatic model selection. A Variational Bayesian approach is developed for inference in this model. Experiments in regression, classification and class discovery demonstrate the performance of...

  7. Cortisol responses to a group public speaking task for adolescents: variations by age, gender, and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development.

  8. The report of Task Group 100 of the AAPM: Application of risk analysis methods to radiation therapy quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, M Saiful; Fraass, Benedick A; Dunscombe, Peter B; Gibbons, John P; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Mundt, Arno J; Mutic, Sasa; Palta, Jatinder R; Rath, Frank; Thomadsen, Bruce R; Williamson, Jeffrey F; Yorke, Ellen D

    2016-07-01

    The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery challenges traditional prescriptive quality management (QM) methods, such as many of those included in guidelines published by organizations such as the AAPM, ASTRO, ACR, ESTRO, and IAEA. These prescriptive guidelines have traditionally focused on monitoring all aspects of the functional performance of radiotherapy (RT) equipment by comparing parameters against tolerances set at strict but achievable values. Many errors that occur in radiation oncology are not due to failures in devices and software; rather they are failures in workflow and process. A systematic understanding of the likelihood and clinical impact of possible failures throughout a course of radiotherapy is needed to direct limit QM resources efficiently to produce maximum safety and quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and has developed a framework for designing QM activities, based on estimates of the probability of identified failures and their clinical outcome through the RT planning and delivery process. The Task Group has chosen a specific radiotherapy process required for "intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)" as a case study. The goal of this work is to apply modern risk-based analysis techniques to this complex RT process in order to demonstrate to the RT community that such techniques may help identify more effective and efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of our treatment processes. The task group generated by consensus an example quality management program strategy for the IMRT process performed at the institution of one of the authors. This report describes the methodology and nomenclature developed, presents the process maps, FMEAs, fault trees, and QM programs developed, and makes suggestions on how this information could be used in the clinic. The development and implementation of risk-assessment techniques will make radiation therapy

  9. Report of the Task Group on Electrical Safety of Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-01-01

    The Task Group on Electrical Safety at DOE Facilities (Task Group), which was formally established on October 27, 1992. The Task Group reviewed the electrical safety-related occurrence history of, and conducted field visits to, seven DOE sites chosen to represent a cross section of the Department`s electrical safety activities. The purpose of the field visits was to review, firsthand, electrical safety programs and practices and to gain greater insight to the root causes and corrective actions taken for recently reported incidents. The electrical safety environment of the DOE complex is extremely varied, ranging from common office and industrial electrical systems to large high-voltage power distribution systems (commercial transmission line systems). It includes high-voltage/high-power systems associated with research programs such as linear accelerators and experimental fusion confinement systems. Age, condition, and magnitude of the facilities also varies, with facilities dating from the Manhattan Project, during World War II, to the most modem complexes. The complex is populated by Federal (DOE and other agencies) and contractor employees engaged in a wide variety of occupations and activities in office, research and development, and industrial settings. The sites visited included all of these variations and are considered by the Task Group to offer a valid representation of the Department`s electrical safety issues. The sites visited were Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford Reservation (Hanford), and the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA) located at Grand Junction, Colorado.

  10. The impact of cognitive control on children's goal monitoring in a time-based prospective memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, Caitlin E V; Voigt, Babett; Ballhausen, Nicola; Schnitzspahn, Katharina; Ellis, Judi; Kliegel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether developmental changes in cognitive control may underlie improvements of time-based prospective memory. Five-, 7-, 9-, and 11-year-olds (N = 166) completed a driving simulation task (ongoing task) in which they had to refuel their vehicle at specific points in time (PM task). The availability of cognitive control resources was experimentally manipulated by imposing a secondary task that required divided attention. Children completed the driving simulation task both in a full-attention condition and a divided-attention condition where they had to carry out a secondary task. Results revealed that older children performed better than younger children on the ongoing task and PM task. Children performed worse on the ongoing and PM tasks in the divided-attention condition compared to the full-attention condition. With respect to time monitoring in the final interval prior to the PM target, divided attention interacted with age such that older children's time monitoring was more negatively affected by the secondary task compared to younger children. Results are discussed in terms of developmental shifts from reactive to proactive monitoring strategies.

  11. The respiratory tract deposition model proposed by the ICRP Task Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, A.C.; Briant, J.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Stahlhofen, W.; Rudolf, G. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung); Egan, M.J.; Nixon, W. (AEA Safety and Reliability, Culcheth (UK)); Gehr, P. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Anatomisches Inst.)

    1990-11-01

    The Task Group has developed a new model of the deposition of inhaled aerosols in each anatomical region of the respiratory tract. The model is used to evaluate the fraction of airborne activity that is deposited in respiratory regions having distinct retention characteristics and clearance pathways: the anterior nares, the extrathoracic airways of the naso- and oropharynx and larynx, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the alveolated airways of the lung. Drawn from experimental data on total and regional deposition in human subjects, the model is based on extrapolation of these data by means of a detailed theoretical model of aerosol transport and deposition within the lung. The Task Group model applies to all practical conditions, and for aerosol particles and vapors from atomic size up to very coarse aerosols with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 100 {mu}m. The model is designed to predict regional deposition in different subjects, including adults of either sex, children of various ages, and infants, and also to account for anatomical differences among Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects. The Task Group model represents aerosol inhalability and regional deposition in different subjects by algebraic expressions of aerosol size, breathing rates, standard lung volumes, and scaling factors for airway dimensions. 35 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. The effects of group monitoring on fatigue-related einstellung during mathematical problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Fatigue resulting from sleep deficit can lead to decreased performance in a variety of cognitive domains and can result in potentially serious accidents. The present study aimed to test whether fatigue leads to increased Einstellung (low levels of cognitive flexibility) in a series of mathematical problem-solving tasks. Many situations involving fatigue and problem solving also involve people working in teams. However, little research has considered the role of social processes in managing the effects of fatigue. Research into the group monitoring hypothesis suggests that membership in a team can offset the effects of impairing factors such as fatigue upon performance. Thus, the present study also aimed to test whether group membership exacerbates or ameliorates the negative effects of fatigue. During the course of a weekend military training exercise, participants (N = 171) attempted to solve a series of problems either alone or in a team, and while either reasonably alert (nonfatigued) or fatigued through sleep deficit. Fatigued problem solvers working alone showed increased Einstellung. In contrast, and in line with the group monitoring hypothesis, teams of fatigued problem solvers did not experience increased Einstellung. The present study also showed that teams with a group member who was relatively less fatigued experienced less Einstellung than other groups. These effects persisted even once participants were cued toward more direct strategies. These findings highlight the risk of Einstellung when fatigued and also the importance of team membership with reference to problem solving in an occupational context.

  13. Effects of jet engine noise and performance feedback on perceived workload in a monitoring task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A B; Warm, J S; Dember, W N; Hancock, P A

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to intermittent jet aircraft noise (70 dBA or 95 dBA maximum intensity) and knowledge of results concerning signal detections (hit-KR) on performance efficiency and perceived workload in a 40-min visual vigilance task. The noise featured a Doppler-like quality in which planes seemed to approach from the monitor's left and recede to the right. Perceptual sensitivity (d') was poorer in the context of noise than in quiet but only in the presence of hit-KR. The lack of noise-related performance differences in the absence of hit-KR most likely reflected a "floor effect" rather than some special relation between noise and feedback. When compared to subjects performing in quiet, those who operated in noise were less able to profit from hit-KR, a result that may reflect the effects of noise on information processing. In addition to its negative effects on signal detectability, noise elevated the perceived workload, as measured by the NASA-TLX. This effect was robust; it was independent of the presence of hit-KR, even though hit-KR generally lowered the overall level of perceived workload. The results provide the initial experimental demonstration that perceived workload is a sensitive measure of the effects of aircraft noise in monitoring tasks.

  14. Seminar Cum Meeting Report: Codata Task Group for Exchangeable Material Data Representation to Support Research and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ashino

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available On March 4-5, 2008, the CODATA Task Group for Exchangeable Material Data Representation to Support Research and Education held a two day seminar cum meeting at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, New Delhi, India, with NPL materials researchers and task group members representing material activities and databases from seven countries: European Union (The Czech Republic, France, and the Netherlands, India, Korea, Japan, and the United States. The NPL seminar included presentations about the researchers' work. The Task Group meeting included presentations about current data related activities of the members. Joint discussions between NPL researchers and CODATA task group members began an exchange of viewpoints among materials data producers, users, and databases developers. The seminar cum meeting included plans to continue and expand Task Group activities at the 2008 CODATA 21st Meeting in Kyiv, Ukraine.

  15. NASA Engineering Safety Center NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group 2007 Proactive Task Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) chartered the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group to bring forth and address critical battery-related performance/manufacturing issues for NASA and the aerospace community. A suite of tasks identifying and addressing issues related to Ni-H2 and Li-ion battery chemistries was submitted and selected for implementation. The current NESC funded are: (1) Wet Life of Ni-H2 Batteries (2) Binding Procurement (3) NASA Lithium-Ion Battery Guidelines (3a) Li-Ion Performance Assessment (3b) Li-Ion Guidelines Document (3b-i) Assessment of Applicability of Pouch Cells for Aerospace Missions (3b-ii) High Voltage Risk Assessment (3b-iii) Safe Charge Rates for Li-Ion Cells (4) Availability of Source Material for Li-Ion Cells (5) NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop This presentation provides a brief overview of the tasks in the 2007 plan and serves as an introduction to more detailed discussions on each of the specific tasks.

  16. The impacts of hypnotic susceptibility on chaotic dynamics of EEG signals during standard tasks of Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yargholi, Elahe'; Nasrabadi, Ali Motie

    2013-05-01

    Chaotic features of hypnotic EEG (electroencephalograph), recorded during standard tasks of Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of hypnotic susceptibility (WSGS), were used to investigate the underlying dynamic of tasks and analyse the effect of hypnotic depth and concentration on EEG signals. Results demonstrate: (1) More efficiency of Higuchi dimension in comparison with Correlation dimension to distinguish subjects from different hypnotizable groups, (2) Channels with significantly different chaotic features among people from various hypnotizability levels in tasks, (3) High level of consistency among discriminating channels of tasks with function of brain's lobes, (4) Most affectability of medium hypnotizable subjects and (5) Rise in fractal dimensions due to increase in hypnosis depth.

  17. Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation Phase 1 Seep Task data report: Contaminant source area assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Seep Task efforts during 1993 and 1994 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented here follow results form the first year of sampling, 1992, which are contained in the Phase 1 RI report for WAG 2 (DOE 1995a). The WAG 2 Seep Task efforts focused on contaminants in seeps, tributaries, and main streams within the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. This report is designed primarily as a reference for contaminants and a resource for guiding remedial decisions. Additional in-depth assessments of the Seep Task data may provide clearer understandings of contaminant transport from the different source areas in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 consists of WOC and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, and the associated flood plains and subsurface environment. The WOC watershed encompasses ORNL and associated WAGs. WAG 2 acts as an integrator for contaminant releases from the contaminated sites at ORNL and as the conduit transporting contaminants to the Clinch River. The main objectives of the Seep Task were to identify and characterize seeps, tributaries and source areas that are responsible for the contaminant releases to the main streams in WAG 2 and to quantify their input to the total contaminant release from the watershed at White Oak Dam (WOD). Efforts focused on {sup 90}Sr, {sup 3}H, and {sup 137}Cs because these contaminants pose the greatest potential human health risk from water ingestion at WOD. Bimonthly sampling was conducted throughout the WOC watershed beginning in March 1993 and ending in August 1994. Samples were also collected for metals, anions, alkalinity, organics, and other radionuclides.

  18. Mindfulness Training Improves Attentional Task Performance in Incarcerated Youth: A Group Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle R Leonard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.

  19. Promoting Oral Interaction in Large Groups through Task-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolima Forero Rocha

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This research project attempts to show the way a group of five teachers used task-based learning with a group of 50 seventh graders to improve oral interaction. The students belonged to Isabel II School. They took an active part in the implementation of tasks and were asked to answer two questionnaires. Some English classes were observed and recorded; finally, an evaluation was taken by students to test their improvement.Este proyecto de investigación trata de mostrar la forma como un grupo de cinco profesoras usaron el método de aprendizaje basado en tareas con un grupo de 50 estudiantes del grado séptimo, con el fin de mejorar la interacción oral. Los estudiantes pertenecían al Colegio Isabel II y fueron parte activa en la implementación de las tareas. Respondieron dos cuestionarios, se les observó y se grabaron en video algunas clases; finalmente, se hizo una evaluación para poner a prueba el avance de los estudiantes.

  20. Friendship group identification, multidimensional self-concept, and experience of developmental tasks in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Mark; MacKenzie, Liam; Hewitt, Lisa A

    2006-08-01

    This study applied a social identity perspective to the study of adolescent self-concept and social development. British adolescents aged 14-15 years (N=114) completed a questionnaire which asked them to: (i) rate their degree of identification with a school-based friendship group; (ii) complete a measure of multi-dimensional self-concept; and (iii) report their experiences of a variety of personal, relational and socio-institutional (e.g., achieving economic independence) developmental tasks. Compared to low identifiers, participants who were highly identified with a friendship group reported highest levels of self-esteem; and these differences were most marked in non-academic domains of self. High identifiers also displayed higher levels of general self-esteem and reported more positive experiences of personal and relational developmental tasks. The discussion focuses on the potential benefits to understanding of social developmental processes that can be derived from a consideration of adolescents' subjective appraisals of their peer relations.

  1. Using Group Learning Activities in the Task-based Composition Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anita M. Copeland Kess; Joseph F. Kess

    2001-01-01

    @@ Research in general education has pointed to the effectiveness of task-based language teaching (TBLT). Task-based syllabi focus on tasks which require students to use the language for communication, but more specifically, on tasks which will be used outside of the classroom.

  2. The birth of NASA the work of the Space Task Group, America's first true space pioneers

    CERN Document Server

    von Ehrenfried, Dutch

    2016-01-01

    This is the story of the work of the original NASA space pioneers; men and women who were suddenly organized in 1958 from the then National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) into the Space Task Group. A relatively small group, they developed the initial mission concept plans and procedures for the U. S. space program. Then they boldly built hardware and facilities to accomplish those missions. The group existed only three years before they were transferred to the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, in 1962, but their organization left a large mark on what would follow. Von Ehrenfried's personal experience with the STG at Langley uniquely positions him to describe the way the group was structured and how it reacted to the new demands of a post-Sputnik era. He artfully analyzes how the growing space program was managed and what techniques enabled it to develop so quickly from an operations perspective. The result is a fascinating window into history, amply backed up by first person documentation ...

  3. When sad groups expect to meet again : Interactive affective sharing and future interaction expectation as determinants of work groups' analytical and creative task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klep, Annefloor H. M.; Wisse, Barbara; van der Flier, Henk

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the moderating role of future interaction expectation in the relationship between affective sharing and work groups' task performance. We argue that group affect, a group defining characteristic, becomes more salient to its members when it is interactively shared, and that

  4. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A Kyle; Heintz, Philip; Geiser, William; Goldman, Lee; Jerjian, Khachig; Martin, Melissa; Peck, Donald; Pfeiffer, Douglas; Ranger, Nicole; Yorkston, John

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  5. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. Kyle, E-mail: kyle.jones@mdanderson.org; Geiser, William [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Heintz, Philip [Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87104 (United States); Goldman, Lee [Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut 06102 (United States); Jerjian, Khachig [Hoag Memorial Hospital, Newport Beach, California 92658 (United States); Martin, Melissa [Therapy Physics, Inc., Gardena, California 90248 (United States); Peck, Donald [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Pfeiffer, Douglas [Boulder Community Foothills Hospital, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Ranger, Nicole [Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, Illinois 60425 (United States); Yorkston, John [Carestream Health, Inc., Rochester, New York 14615 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  6. An Agent-Based Simulation for Investigating the Impact of Stereotypes on Task-Oriented Group Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Mahsa; Sukthankar, Gita

    In this paper, we introduce an agent-based simulation for investigating the impact of social factors on the formation and evolution of task-oriented groups. Task-oriented groups are created explicitly to perform a task, and all members derive benefits from task completion. However, even in cases when all group members act in a way that is locally optimal for task completion, social forces that have mild effects on choice of associates can have a measurable impact on task completion performance. In this paper, we show how our simulation can be used to model the impact of stereotypes on group formation. In our simulation, stereotypes are based on observable features, learned from prior experience, and only affect an agent's link formation preferences. Even without assuming stereotypes affect the agents' willingness or ability to complete tasks, the long-term modifications that stereotypes have on the agents' social network impair the agents' ability to form groups with sufficient diversity of skills, as compared to agents who form links randomly. An interesting finding is that this effect holds even in cases where stereotype preference and skill existence are completely uncorrelated.

  7. SU-E-P-22: AAPM Task Group 263 Tackling Standardization of Nomenclature for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuszak, M; Feng, M [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Moran, J [Univ Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Xiao, Y [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mayo, C; Miller, R [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Bosch, W [Washington Univ, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Popple, R [Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Marks, L [UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Wu, Q [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Molineu, A; Martel, M [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yock, T [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); McNutt, T [Johns Hopkins University, Severna Park, MD (United States); Brown, N [Baptist Medical Center, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Purdie, T [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Yorke, E [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Santanam, L [Washington University School of Medicine, St.louis, MO (United States); Gabriel, P [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Michalski, J [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); and others

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: There is growing recognition of need for increased clarity and consistency in the nomenclatures used for body and organ structures, DVH metrics, toxicity, dose and volume units, etc. Standardization has multiple benefits; e.g. facilitating data collection for clinical trials, enabling the pooling of data between institutions, making transfers (i.e. hand-offs) between centers safer, and enabling vendors to define “default” settings. Towards this goal, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed a task group (TG263) in July of 2014, operating under the Work Group on Clinical Trials to develop consensus statements. Guiding principles derived from the investigation and example nomenclatures will be presented for public feedback. Methods: We formed a multi-institutional and multi-vendor collaborative group of 39 physicists, physicians and others involved in clinical use and electronic transfer of information. Members include individuals from IROC, NRG, IHE-RO, DICOM WG-7, ASTRO and EORTC groups with overlapping interests to maximize the quality of the consensus and increase the likelihood of adoption. Surveys of group and NRG members were used to define current nomenclatures and requirements. Technical requirements of vendor systems and the proposed DICOM standards were examined. Results: There is a marked degree of inter and intra institutional variation in current approaches, resulting from inter-vendor differences in capabilities, clinic specific conceptualizations and inconsistencies. Using a consensus approach, the group defined optimal formats for the naming of targets and normal structures. A formal objective assessment of 13 existing clinically-used software packages show that all had capabilities to accommodate these recommended nomenclatures. Conclusions: A multi-stakeholder effort is making significant steps forward in developing a standard nomenclature that will work across platforms. Our current working list includes > 550

  8. The work of the ICRP dose calculational task group: Issues in implementation of the ICRP dosimetric methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has had efforts underway to provide the radiation protection community with age-dependent dose coefficients, i.e.g, the dose per unit intake. The Task Group on Dose Calculations, chaired by the author, is responsible for the computation of these coefficients. The Task Group, formed in 1974 to produce ICRP Publication 30, is now international in its membership and its work load has been distributed among the institutions represented on the task group. This paper discusses: (1) recent advances in biokinetic modeling; (2) the recent changes in the dosimetric methodology; (3) the novel computational problems with some of the ICRP quantities; and (4) quality assurance issues which the Task Group has encountered. Potential future developments of the dosimetric framework which might strengthen the relationships with the emerging understanding of radiation risk will also be discussed.

  9. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan at waste area grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document is the Groundwater Level Monitoring Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Note that this document is referred to as a SAP even though no sampling and analysis will be conducted. The term SAP is used for consistency. The procedures described herein are part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for WAG 6, which also includes monitoring tasks for seeps and springs, groundwater quality, surface water, and meteorological parameters. Separate SAPs are being issued concurrently to describe each of these monitoring programs. This SAP has been written for the use of the field personnel responsible for implementation of the EMP, with the intent that the field personnel will be able to take these documents to the field and quickly find the appropriate steps required to complete a specific task. In many cases, Field Operations Procedures (FOPs) will define the steps required for an activity. The FOPs for the EMP are referenced and briefly described in the relevant sections of the SAPs, and are contained within the FOP Manual. Both these documents (the SAP and the FOP Manual) will be available to personnel in the field.

  10. [Social participation processes, task-oriented participation and learning as antecedents of group cohesion. A longitudinal perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo Lahiguera, Carmen; Zornoza Abad, Ana; Peiró Silla, José M

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effect of changes in social participation and task- and learning-oriented processes on the development of cohesion (social and task-focused) in new groups. Cohesion has been considered one of the most important constructs in small groups, and its influence on team performance and efficacy has been highlighted. However, there are few papers that analyze the processes and the variables that precede the construct and that affect its evolution. Results of the longitudinal study show the importance of changes in participation processes on the development of task cohesion and social cohesion.

  11. Picture Novelty Influences Response Selection and Inhibition: The Role of the In-Group Bias and Task-Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Mahmud, Waich; Alam, Musrura Mefta; Kabir, Nadia; Al-Amin, Md. Mamun

    2016-01-01

    The human visual system prioritizes processing of novel information, leading to faster detection of novel stimuli. Novelty facilitates conflict resolution through the enhanced early perceptual processing. However, the role of novel information processing during the conflict-related response selection and inhibition remains unclear. Here, we used a face-gender classification version of the Simon task and manipulated task-difficulty and novelty of task-relevant information. The novel quality of stimuli was made task-irrelevant, and an in-group bias was tightly controlled by manipulation of a gender of picture stimuli. We found that the in-group bias modulated the role of novelty in executive control. Novel opposite-sex stimuli facilitated response inhibition only when the task was not demanding. By contrast, novelty enhanced response selection irrespective of the in-group factor when task-difficulty was increased. These findings support the in-group bias mechanism of visual processing, in cases when attentional resources are not limited by a demanding task. The results are further discussed along the lines of the attentional load theory and neural mechanisms of response-inhibition and locomotor activity. In conclusion, our data showed that processing of novel information may enhance executive control through facilitated response selection and inhibition. PMID:27788213

  12. Examining the Impact of Novel Pre-activity Tasks on Macroskills: The Case of Group Discussion on Writing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main concern of most researchers in the field of second and foreign language teaching is lessening the problems and eliminating the hinders on the way of learning a language. Writing is considered as one of the most challenging and complicated tasks for learners to perform particularly when they have to write in a second or foreign language. Numerous studies were done on the importance of the pre-writing stage and activities which are directly and indirectly related to the theme of the writing. Accordingly, the main aim of this study was to examine the effects of group discussion as a pre- activity task on writing ability. To this aim, 27 Iranian EFL learners, who were at the same level –intermediate- studying at Shokuh and Safir Institutes, Birjand, Iran were chosen randomly. Two groups- one control and one experimental group- were studied. In control group the conventional method was used in teaching writing, while in experimental group, group discussion pre-activity task was administered. After 16 sessions, the obtained data of the pretests and posttests was analyzed by SPSS software. According to the results, researcher strongly concluded that group discussion has no significant effect on writing ability of Iranian intermediate learners. This study can help teachers and syllabus designers in choosing and applying an effective pre-activity task. Keywords: writing ability, pre-activity task, group discussion, EFL learners

  13. Analysis and asynchronous detection of gradually unfolding errors during monitoring tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omedes, Jason; Iturrate, Iñaki; Minguez, Javier; Montesano, Luis

    2015-10-01

    Human studies on cognitive control processes rely on tasks involving sudden-onset stimuli, which allow the analysis of these neural imprints to be time-locked and relative to the stimuli onset. Human perceptual decisions, however, comprise continuous processes where evidence accumulates until reaching a boundary. Surpassing the boundary leads to a decision where measured brain responses are associated to an internal, unknown onset. The lack of this onset for gradual stimuli hinders both the analyses of brain activity and the training of detectors. This paper studies electroencephalographic (EEG)-measurable signatures of human processing for sudden and gradual cognitive processes represented as a trajectory mismatch under a monitoring task. Time-locked potentials and brain-source analysis of the EEG of sudden mismatches revealed the typical components of event-related potentials and the involvement of brain structures related to cognitive control processing. For gradual mismatch events, time-locked analyses did not show any discernible EEG scalp pattern, despite related brain areas being, to a lesser extent, activated. However, and thanks to the use of non-linear pattern recognition algorithms, it is possible to train an asynchronous detector on sudden events and use it to detect gradual mismatches, as well as obtaining an estimate of their unknown onset. Post-hoc time-locked scalp and brain-source analyses revealed that the EEG patterns of detected gradual mismatches originated in brain areas related to cognitive control processing. This indicates that gradual events induce latency in the evaluation process but that similar brain mechanisms are present in sudden and gradual mismatch events. Furthermore, the proposed asynchronous detection model widens the scope of applications of brain-machine interfaces to other gradual processes.

  14. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuteritz, Jan-Paul; Navarro, José; Berger, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development) and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty). Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D) organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and team effectiveness. In 54 of these teams, the leaders answered a web-based survey on team effectiveness. We tested the model with the data from team members, using structural equations modeling. Group development and a task uncertainty measurement that refers to unstable demands from outside the team partially mediate the effect of transformational leadership on team effectiveness in R&D organizations (p transformational leaders reduce unclarity of goals (p transformational leadership and team processes on team effectiveness considering the task characteristics uncertainty and interdependence.

  15. How Knowledge Worker Teams Deal Effectively with Task Uncertainty: The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Group Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Paul Leuteritz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to clarify how leadership is able to improve team effectiveness, by means of its influence on group processes (i.e., increasing group development and on the group task (i.e., decreasing task uncertainty. Four hundred and eight members of 107 teams in a German research and development (R&D organization completed a web-based survey; they provided measures of transformational leadership, group development, 2 aspects of task uncertainty, task interdependence, and team effectiveness. In 54 of these teams, the leaders answered a web-based survey on team effectiveness. We tested the model with the data from team members, using structural equations modeling. Group development and a task uncertainty measurement that refers to unstable demands from outside the team partially mediate the effect of transformational leadership on team effectiveness in R&D organizations (p < 0.05. Although transformational leaders reduce unclarity of goals (p < 0.05, this seems not to contribute to team effectiveness. The data provided by the leaders was used to assess common source bias, which did not affect the interpretability of the results. Limitations include cross-sectional data and a lower than expected variance of task uncertainty across different job types. This paper contributes to understanding how knowledge worker teams deal effectively with task uncertainty and confirms the importance of group development in this context. This is the first study to examine the effects of transformational leadership and team processes on team effectiveness considering the task characteristics uncertainty and interdependence.

  16. Recommendations for clinical electron beam dosimetry: supplement to the recommendations of Task Group 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Bruce J; Antolak, John A; Deibel, F Christopher; Followill, David S; Herman, Michael G; Higgins, Patrick D; Huq, M Saiful; Mihailidis, Dimitris N; Yorke, Ellen D; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Khan, Faiz M

    2009-07-01

    The goal of Task Group 25 (TG-25) of the Radiation Therapy Committee of the American Association of.Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) was to provide a methodology and set of procedures for a medical physicist performing clinical electron beam dosimetry in the nominal energy range of 5-25 MeV. Specifically, the task group recommended procedures for acquiring basic information required for acceptance testing and treatment planning of new accelerators with therapeutic electron beams. Since the publication of the TG-25 report, significant advances have taken place in the field of electron beam dosimetry, the most significant being that primary standards laboratories around the world have shifted from calibration standards based on exposure or air kerma to standards based on absorbed dose to water. The AAPM has published a new calibration protocol, TG-51, for the calibration of high-energy photon and electron beams. The formalism and dosimetry procedures recommended in this protocol are based on the absorbed dose to water calibration coefficient of an ionization chamber at 60Co energy, N60Co(D,w), together with the theoretical beam quality conversion coefficient k(Q) for the determination of absorbed dose to water in high-energy photon and electron beams. Task Group 70 was charged to reassess and update the recommendations in TG-25 to bring them into alignment with report TG-51 and to recommend new methodologies and procedures that would allow the practicing medical physicist to initiate and continue a high quality program in clinical electron beam dosimetry. This TG-70 report is a supplement to the TG-25 report and enhances the TG-25 report by including new topics and topics that were not covered in depth in the TG-25 report. These topics include procedures for obtaining data to commission a treatment planning computer, determining dose in irregularly shaped electron fields, and commissioning of sophisticated special procedures using high-energy electron beams. The use of

  17. When sad groups expect to meet again: interactive affective sharing and future interaction expectation as determinants of work groups' analytical and creative task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klep, Annefloor H M; Wisse, Barbara; van der Flier, Henk

    2013-12-01

    The present study examines the moderating role of future interaction expectation in the relationship between affective sharing and work groups' task performance. We argue that group affect, a group defining characteristic, becomes more salient to its members when it is interactively shared, and that the anticipation of future interaction may strengthen the effects of group defining characteristics on subsequent group member behaviour. As a consequence, interactive sharing (vs. non-interactive sharing) of negative affect is more likely to influence work group outcomes when group members expect to meet again. Results from a laboratory experiment with 66 three-person work groups indeed show that interactively shared (vs. non-interactively shared) negative affect facilitated work groups' analytical task performance, whereas it inhibited performance on a creative fluency task when groups have expectations of future interaction and not when they do not have such expectations. The discussion focuses on how these results add to theory on group affect and contribute to insights in the effects of future interaction expectation.

  18. Monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure. Tasks, technical aspects, implementation; Ueberwachung radioaktiver Kontamination und Strahlenexposition. Aufgaben, Techniken, Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, A.

    2005-07-01

    Monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Germany started in the early Fifties with measurements of radioactive fallout, i.e. mainly airborne particles and precipitation. Since then, scientists of laboratories, universities, research institutions and authorities have become aware of the danger of increasing environmental radioactivity. The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) was commissioned by law with monitoring of radioactivity in atmosphere and precipitation on a large-scale basis as part of general preventive health protection. This brochure informs on the tasks, techniques and implementation of monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure. (orig.)

  19. Monitoring transcranial direct current stimulation induced changes in cortical excitability during the serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Chaieb, Leila; Stilling, Roman; Rothkegel, Holger; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2016-03-11

    The measurement of the motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a common method to observe changes in motor cortical excitability. The level of cortical excitability has been shown to change during motor learning. Conversely, motor learning can be improved by using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In the present study, we aimed to monitor cortical excitability changes during an implicit motor learning paradigm, a version of the serial reaction time task (SRTT). Responses from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and forearm flexor (FLEX) muscles were recorded before, during and after the performance of the SRTT. Online measurements were combined with anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS for the duration of the SRTT. Negative correlations between the amplitude of online FDI MEPs and SRTT reaction times (RTs) were observed across the learning blocks in the cathodal condition (higher average MEP amplitudes associated with lower RTs) but no significant differences in the anodal and sham conditions. tDCS did not have an impact on SRTT performance, as would be predicted based on previous studies. The offline before-after SRTT MEP amplitudes showed an increase after anodal and a tendency to decrease after cathodal stimulation, but these changes were not significant. The combination of different interventions during tDCS might result in reduced efficacy of the stimulation that in future studies need further attention.

  20. Neuronal processes involved in subjective feeling emergence: oscillatory activity during an emotional monitoring task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Glauser, Elise S; Scherer, Klaus R

    2008-06-01

    Subjective feeling, defined as the conscious experience of emotion and measured by self-report, is generally used as a manipulation check in studying emotional processes, rather than being the primary focus of research. In this paper, we report a first investigation into the processes involved in the emergence of a subjective feeling. We hypothesized that the oscillatory brain activity presumed to underlie the emergence of a subjective feeling can be measured by electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency band activity, similar to what has been shown in the literature for the conscious representation of objects. Emotional reactions were induced in participants using static visual stimuli. Episodes for which participants reported a subjective feeling were compared to those that did not lead to a conscious emotional experience, in order to identify potential differences between these two kinds of reactions at the oscillatory level. Discrete wavelet transforms of the EEG signal in gamma (31-63 Hz) and beta (15-31 Hz) bands showed significant differences between these two types of reactions. In addition, whereas beta band activities were widely distributed, differences in gamma band activity were predominantly observed in the frontal and prefrontal regions. The results are interpreted and discussed in terms of the complexity of the processes required to perform the affective monitoring task. It is suggested that future work on coherent mental representation of multimodal reaction patterns leading to the emergence of conscious emotional experience should include modifications in the time window examined and an extension of the frequency range to be considered.

  1. Towards mainstreaming of biodiversity data publishing: recommendations of the GBIF Data Publishing Framework Task Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Tom

    2011-12-01

    'data publishing framework' that can address sociocultural, technical-infrastructural, policy, political and legal constraints, as well as addressing issues of sustainability and financial support. To address these aspects of a data publishing framework - a systematic, standard approach to the formal definition and public disclosure of data - in the context of biodiversity data, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, the single inter-governmental body most clearly mandated to undertake such an effort convened a Data Publishing Framework Task Group. We conceive this data publishing framework as an environment conducive to ensure free and open access to world's biodiversity data. Here, we present the recommendations of that Task Group, which are intended to encourage free and open access to the worlds' biodiversity data.

  2. Towards mainstreaming of biodiversity data publishing: recommendations of the GBIF Data Publishing Framework Task Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    can address sociocultural, technical-infrastructural, policy, political and legal constraints, as well as addressing issues of sustainability and financial support. To address these aspects of a data publishing framework - a systematic, standard approach to the formal definition and public disclosure of data - in the context of biodiversity data, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, the single inter-governmental body most clearly mandated to undertake such an effort) convened a Data Publishing Framework Task Group. We conceive this data publishing framework as an environment conducive to ensure free and open access to world's biodiversity data. Here, we present the recommendations of that Task Group, which are intended to encourage free and open access to the worlds' biodiversity data. PMID:22373150

  3. A quasi-physical algorithm for solving the problem of a radar group monitoring an object group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玉才; 黄文奇; 周旋

    1996-01-01

    The basic problem of a radar group monitoring an object group that has all along been a problem of concern in the international circles of military science has been solved for the first time.A mathematical model for solving the 3-D monitoring problem has been developed based on the quasi-physical concept and a practical fast algorithm has been found.A high-efficiency tracking and monitoring system can be designed for use by radar troops and the administrative and commercial departments concerned using this algorithm.

  4. Second language proficiency modulates conflict-monitoring in an oculomotor Stroop task: evidence from Hindi-English bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika eSingh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have confirmed the presence of a bilingual advantage which is manifested as enhanced cognitive and attention control. However, very few studies have investigated the role of second language proficiency on the modulation of conflict-monitoring in bilinguals. We investigated this by comparing high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on a modified saccadic arrow Stroop task under different monitoring conditions, and tested the predictions of the bilingual executive control advantage proposal. The task of the participants was to make an eye movement towards the colour patch in the same colour as the central arrow, ignoring the patch to which the arrow was pointing. High-proficient bilinguals had overall faster saccade latency on all types of trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals. The overall saccadic latency for high proficiency bilinguals was similarly affected by the different types of monitoring conditions, whereas conflict resolution advantage was found only for high monitoring demanding condition. The results support a conflict-monitoring account in a novel oculomotor task and also suggest that language proficiency could modulate executive control in bilinguals.

  5. Second language proficiency modulates conflict-monitoring in an oculomotor Stroop task: evidence from Hindi-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh K

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have confirmed the presence of a bilingual advantage which is manifested as enhanced cognitive and attention control. However, very few studies have investigated the role of second language proficiency on the modulation of conflict-monitoring in bilinguals. We investigated this by comparing high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on a modified saccadic arrow Stroop task under different monitoring conditions, and tested the predictions of the bilingual executive control advantage proposal. The task of the participants was to make an eye movement toward the color patch in the same color as the central arrow, ignoring the patch to which the arrow was pointing. High-proficient bilinguals had overall faster saccade latency on all types of trials as compared to the low proficient bilinguals. The overall saccadic latency for high proficiency bilinguals was similarly affected by the different types of monitoring conditions, whereas conflict resolution advantage was found only for high monitoring demanding condition. The results support a conflict-monitoring account in a novel oculomotor task and also suggest that language proficiency could modulate executive control in bilinguals.

  6. Using a Random Dependent Group Contingency to Increase On-Task Behaviors of High School Students with High Incidence Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Brenda D.; Campbell-Whatley, Gloria D.; Lo, Ya-yu

    2009-01-01

    Group contingencies have the advantages of encouraging individual students to collectively feel responsible for appropriate and inappropriate classroom behaviors and have shown effectiveness in improving students' behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a random dependent group contingency on the on-task behaviors of…

  7. Analysis of Heart Rate Variability in Chinese PLA Navy Global Visiting Task Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-sheng; CHU Li-yun; GONG Ting

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the heart rate variability in Chinese PLA navy global visiting task group. Methods:We analyzed the heart rate variability in Holter in 77 men and 4 women for 5-15 days before voyage, and 65-75 and 115-125 days after voyage, and 29 men and 3 women for 5-15 days after having finished voyage. Results:NN50 and VLF were lower in 77 men and 4 women for 65-75 days after voyage than that was 5-15 days before voyage (P<0.01). SDANN was lower in 77 men and 4 women for 115-125 days after voyage than that was 65-75 days after voyage (P<0.01). SDNN, SDANN, SDNN index, RMSSD, NN50, PNN50,Triangular index, VLF, HLF, VAI and VLI were lower in 77 men and 4 women for 65-75 days after voyage than that was 5-15 days before voyage (P<0.01).Conclusion: These findings suggest that voyage may reduce heart rate variability for a long time.

  8. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008.

  9. Radiation dosimetry in digital breast tomosynthesis: Report of AAPM Tomosynthesis Subcommittee Task Group 223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis, E-mail: isechop@emory.edu [Departments of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Hematology and Medical Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, 1701 Uppergate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Sabol, John M. [GE Healthcare, Global Diagnostic X-Ray, Mailstop W-701, 3000 North Grandview Boulevard, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States); Berglund, Johan [Research and Development, Philips Women' s Healthcare, Solna (Sweden); Bolch, Wesley E. [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Brateman, Libby [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Goodsitt, Mitchell [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Flynn, Michael [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Health System, Radiology Research 2F, 1 Ford Place, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Geiser, William [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Kyle Jones, A. [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y.; Paul Segars, W. [Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Maidment, Andrew D. A. [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4206 (United States); Nishino, Kazuyoshi [R and D X-ray Products Group, Shimadzu Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Nosratieh, Anita [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, California 95817 (United States); and others

    2014-09-15

    The radiation dose involved in any medical imaging modality that uses ionizing radiation needs to be well understood by the medical physics and clinical community. This is especially true of screening modalities. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Therefore, it is important that the medical physics community have the required information to be able to understand, estimate, and communicate the radiation dose levels involved in breast tomosynthesis imaging. For this purpose, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 223 on Dosimetry in Tomosynthesis Imaging has prepared this report that discusses dosimetry in breast imaging in general, and describes a methodology and provides the data necessary to estimate mean breast glandular dose from a tomosynthesis acquisition. In an effort to maximize familiarity with the procedures and data provided in this Report, the methodology to perform the dose estimation in DBT is based as much as possible on that used in mammography dose estimation.

  10. Radiation dosimetry in digital breast tomosynthesis: report of AAPM Tomosynthesis Subcommittee Task Group 223.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Sabol, John M; Berglund, Johan; Bolch, Wesley E; Brateman, Libby; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Flynn, Michael; Geiser, William; Goodsitt, Mitchell; Jones, A Kyle; Lo, Joseph Y; Maidment, Andrew D A; Nishino, Kazuyoshi; Nosratieh, Anita; Ren, Baorui; Segars, W Paul; Von Tiedemann, Miriam

    2014-09-01

    The radiation dose involved in any medical imaging modality that uses ionizing radiation needs to be well understood by the medical physics and clinical community. This is especially true of screening modalities. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Therefore, it is important that the medical physics community have the required information to be able to understand, estimate, and communicate the radiation dose levels involved in breast tomosynthesis imaging. For this purpose, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 223 on Dosimetry in Tomosynthesis Imaging has prepared this report that discusses dosimetry in breast imaging in general, and describes a methodology and provides the data necessary to estimate mean breast glandular dose from a tomosynthesis acquisition. In an effort to maximize familiarity with the procedures and data provided in this Report, the methodology to perform the dose estimation in DBT is based as much as possible on that used in mammography dose estimation.

  11. Collaborative Writing Tasks in the L2 Classroom: Comparing Group, Pair, and Individual Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobao, Ana Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the benefits of collaborative writing tasks. Previous research from the perspective of the sociocultural theory of mind suggests that writing tasks completed in pairs offer learners an opportunity to collaborate in the solution of their language-related problems, co-construct new language knowledge, and produce…

  12. Role of Gestalt grouping in selective attention: Evidence from the Stroop task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.J.M.; Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Selective attention has been intensively studied using the Stroop task. Evidence suggests that Stroop interference in a color-naming task arises partly because of visual attention sharing between color and word: Removing the target color after 150 msec reduces interference (Neumann, 1986). Moreover,

  13. Feel Like You Belong: On the Bidirectional Link Between Emotional Fit and Group Identification in Task Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen eDelvaux

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Three studies investigated the association between members’ group identification and the emotional fit with their group. In the first study, a cross-sectional study in a large organization, we replicated earlier research by showing that group identification and emotional fit are positively associated, using a broader range of emotions and using profile correlations to measure group members’ emotional fit. In addition, in two longitudinal studies, where groups of students were followed at several time points during their collaboration on a project, we tested the directionality of the relationship between group identification and emotional fit. The results showed a bidirectional, positive link between group identification and emotional fit, such that group identification and emotional fit either mutually reinforce or mutually dampen each other over time. We discuss how these findings increase insights in group functioning and how they may be used to change group processes for better or worse.

  14. Activities of the task group 8 on thin film PV module reliability (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2016-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems are being used increasingly to provide renewable energy to schools, residences, small businesses and utilities. At this time, the home owners and small businesses have considerable difficulty in detecting module and/or system degradation and especially enforcing warranty. It needs to be noted that IEC 61215-1 (test req.), -2 (test proc.) and -1-1 (c-Si) are forecasted to be circulated end of Feb 2016 and only editorial changes would be possible. 61215 series does include thin film technologies and would be replacing 61646. Moreover, IEC 61215-1, section 7.2 power output and electric circuitry does contain significant changes to acceptance criteria regarding rated label values, particularly rated power. Even though it is believed that consensus could be achieved within IEC TC82 WG2, some of the smaller players that do not participate actively in IEC TC82 - may not be surprised and must be informed. The other tech specific parts 61215-1-2 (CdTe), -1-3 (a-Si, µc-Si) and -1-4 (CIS, CIGS) are out for comments. The IEC closing date was January 29, 2016. The additions alternative damp heat (DH) test proposed Solar Frontier is being reviewed. In the past, only 600 V systems were permitted in the grid-connected residential and commercial systems in the US. The US commercial systems can now use higher voltage (1,000-1500V) in order to reduce BOS component costs. It is believed that there would not be any problems. The Task Group 8 is collecting data on higher voltage systems.

  15. Supplement to the 2004 update of the AAPM Task Group No. 43 Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Mark J; Butler, Wayne M; DeWerd, Larry A; Huq, M Saiful; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Meigooni, Ali S; Melhus, Christopher S; Mitch, Michael G; Nath, Ravinder; Williamson, Jeffrey F

    2007-06-01

    Since publication of the 2004 update to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 Report (TG-43U1), several new low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy sources have become available. Many of these sources have satisfied the AAPM prerequisites for routine clinical use as of January 10, 2005, and are posted on the Joint AAPM/RPC Brachytherapy Seed Registry. Consequently, the AAPM has prepared this supplement to the 2004 AAPM TG-43 update. This paper presents the AAPM-approved consensus datasets for these sources, and includes the following 125I sources: Amersham model 6733, Draximage model LS-1, Implant Sciences model 3500, IBt model 1251L, IsoAid model IAI-125A, Mentor model SL-125/ SH-125, and SourceTech Medical model STM1251. The Best Medical model 2335 103Pd source is also included. While the methodology used to determine these data sets is identical to that published in the AAPM TG-43U1 report, additional information and discussion are presented here on some questions that arose since the publication of the TG-43U1 report. Specifically, details of interpolation and extrapolation methods are described further, new methodologies are recommended, and example calculations are provided. Despite these changes, additions, and clarifications, the overall methodology, the procedures for developing consensus data sets, and the dose calculation formalism largely remain the same as in the TG-43U1 report. Thus, the AAPM recommends that the consensus data sets and resultant source-specific dose-rate distributions included in this supplement be adopted by all end users for clinical treatment planning of low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy sources. Adoption of these recommendations may result in changes to patient dose calculations, and these changes should be carefully evaluated and reviewed with the radiation oncologist prior to implementation of the current protocol.

  16. The strategy for improving water-quality monitoring in the United States; final report of the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality; technical appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) prepared this report in collaboration with representatives of all levels of government and the private sector. The report recommends a strategy for nationwide water-quality monitoring and technical monitoring improvements to support sound water-quality decisionmaking. The strategy is intended to achieve a better return on public and private investments in monitoring, environmental protection, and natural resources management. It is also designed to expand the base of information useful to a variety of users at multiple geographic scales. Institutional and technical changes are needed to improve water-quality monitoring and to meet the full range of monitoring requirements. Monitoring must be incorporated as a critical element of program planning, implementation, and evaluation. The strategy includes recommendations in many key elements, such as the development of goal-oriented monitoring and indicators, institutional collaboration, and methods comparability. Initial actions have been taken to implement the strategy. Several Federal agencies have jointly purchased and shared remotely sensed land-cover information needed for water assessment. Major agency data systems are using common data-element names and reference tables that will ensure easy sharing of data. A number of States have held meetings with collectors of water information to initiate statewide monitoring strategies. New monitoring guidance has been developed for Federal water-quality grants to States. Many State offices have changed monitoring programs to place emphasis on priority watersheds and to improve assessment of water quality. As the competition increases for adequate supplies of clean water, concerns about public health and the environment escalate, and more demands are placed on the water information infrastructure. To meet these demands, the collaborative approach has already produced benefits, which will continue to grow as

  17. Beaked Whale Group Deep Dive Behavior from Passive Acoustic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Beaked Whale Group Deep Dive Behavior from Passive...Research Organisation P.O. Box AB-20714 Marsh Harbour Abaco, Bahamas phone: (242) 366-4155 fax: (242) 366-4155 email: dclaridge...N000141512649 LONG-TERM GOALS While a significant body of knowledge regarding individual beaked whale behavior at depth has been established in the

  18. Beaked Whale Group Deep Dive Behavior from Passive Acoustic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Beaked Whale Group Deep Dive Behavior from Passive...described explicitly, beaked whales are one of the cetacean taxa more sensitive to use of Navy sonar (Moretti et al., 2014; Tyack et al., 2011). Despite...their vulnerability, Blainville’s beaked whale , Mesoplodon densirostris (Md), are routinely detected year-round on the AUTEC range, coincident with

  19. Factors Influencing Iranian Untrained EFL Raters' Rating Group Oral Discussion Tasks: A Mixed Methods Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasimeh Nouhi Jadesi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a mixed methods design, the present study attempted to identify the factors influencing Iranian untrained EFL raters in rating group oral discussion tasks. To fulfil this aim, 16 language learners of varying proficiency levels were selected and randomly assigned to groups of four and performed a group discussion task. Thirty two untrained raters were also selected based on their volunteer participations. They listened to the audio files of the group discussions and assigned a score of one to six to each language learners based on their own judgments. They also provided comments on each language learners’ performance pointing to why they assigned such scores. The researchers had an interview with the raters after the rating session as well. The quantitative phase investigated whether linguistic features of accuracy, fluency, complexity and amount of talk were attended to by the raters in terms of having any relationship to the scores the raters assigned. Speech rate as an index of fluency and amount of talk turned out to be significantly correlated with the scores. Of more importance was the qualitative phase with the aim of identifying other factors that may account for the scores. The comments provided by the raters on each score and the interviews were codified based on Content Analysis (CA approach. It was found that the raters attend not only to the linguistic features in rating oral group discussions, but they are also sensitive to the interactional features like the roles the participants take in groups tasks and the overall interaction patterns of the groups. The findings of this study may shed light on group oral assessment in terms of training the raters rating group oral tests and developing rating scales specific for group oral assessment. Persian Abstract:پژوهش حاضر، با بهره گیری از روش تحقیق ترکیبی به بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر ارزیابان آموزش ندیده

  20. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 1.0: Networked Monitoring and Control of Small Interconnected Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    edu, Janet. twomey@wichita. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

    2010-04-30

    This report presents accomplishments, results, and future work for one task of five in the Wichita State University Sustainable Energy Solutions Project: To develop a scale model laboratory distribution system for research into questions that arise from networked control and monitoring of low-wind energy systems connected to the AC distribution system. The lab models developed under this task are located in the Electric Power Quality Lab in the Engineering Research Building on the Wichita State University campus. The lab system consists of four parts: 1. A doubly-fed induction generator 2. A wind turbine emulator 3. A solar photovoltaic emulator, with battery energy storage 4. Distribution transformers, lines, and other components, and wireless and wired communications and control These lab elements will be interconnected and will function together to form a complete testbed for distributed resource monitoring and control strategies and smart grid applications testing. Development of the lab system will continue beyond this project.

  1. Summary report for MEGAPIE R+D Task Group X9: Neutronic and nuclear assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanini, L

    2005-12-15

    The comprehensive work performed by the R+D task group X9 since the beginning of the MEGAPIE initiative is described in this summary report. The list of topics covered by this group is large and covers many of the essential aspects of an innovative system such as the MEGAPIE target. The X9 group worked on the neutronic and nuclear related aspects of the target design, as summarized in the following. The main tool in the neutronic design of a spallation neutron target is a reliable particle transport code, and nowadays the Monte Carlo technique is widely adopted in this field. There are several codes which are more or less extensively used in the nuclear physics community; at the beginning of the project a benchmark exercise was performed among several institutes using different Monte Carlo codes. The aim of the benchmark was to perform a code intercomparison by looking at the different predictions of several important quantities, as described later in the report. The benchmark results were first compiled in two separate reports. The results are critically discussed here. Based on the obtained results, and considering also other factors such as the code maintenance, the codes FLUKA and MCNPX were indicated as the most recommended ones to be used in the continuation of the X9 work. Proton and neutron fluxes in the MEGAPIE target were calculated. Detailed models of he MEGAPIE target and of the surrounding SINQ facility were developed, as well as of the present solid SINQ target. A comparison between the neutron flux with MEGAPIE and the SINQ solid target showed that the MEGAPIE target sill deliver 40% to 50% more thermal neutrons to the instruments served by SINQ as compared to the SINQ Mark 3 target. Calculations of the beam power deposition distributions are essential as input for the thermohydraulics CFD analysis of the lower target. Power deposition was calculated with FLUKA and MCNPX. The results from the two codes agree within 5%. Approximately 85% of the beam

  2. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  3. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  4. Understanding the functions and operations of data monitoring committees: Survey and focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calis, Karim A; Archdeacon, Patrick; Bain, Raymond P; Forrest, Annemarie; Perlmutter, Jane; DeMets, David L

    2017-02-01

    The use of data monitoring committees in the conduct of clinical trials has increased and evolved, but there is a lack of published information on when data monitoring committees are needed and utilized, the acceptable range of data monitoring committee practices, and appropriate qualifications of data monitoring committee members. To gain a better understanding of data monitoring committee operations and areas for improvement, the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative conducted a survey and set of focus groups. A total of 143 respondents completed the online survey: 76 data monitoring committee members, 52 sponsors involved with organization of data monitoring committees, and 15 statistical data analysis center representatives. There were 42 focus group participants, including data monitoring committee members; patients and/or patient advocate data monitoring committee members; institutional review board and US Food and Drug Administration representatives; industry, government, and non-profit sponsors; and statistical data analysis center representatives. Participants indicated that the primary responsibility of a data monitoring committee is to be an independent advisory body representing the interests of trial participants by assessing the risk and benefit ratio in ongoing trials. They noted that data monitoring committees must have access to unmasked data in order to perform this role. No clear consensus emerged regarding specific criteria for requiring a data monitoring committee for a given trial, and some participants felt data monitoring committees may be overused. Respondents offered suggestions for the data monitoring committee charter and communications with sponsors, institutional review boards, and regulators. Overall, data monitoring committee members reported that they are able to function independently and their recommendations are almost always accepted by the sponsor. Participants indicated that there are no standards or guidelines pertaining

  5. Fairness, Teachers' Non-Task Behavior and Alumni Satisfaction: The Influence of Group Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lara, Pablo Zoghbi Manrique

    2008-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between interactional justice, as a type of organizational justice that reflects the teachers' perceived fairness of supervisor treatment, and their non-task behavior in terms of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and deviant workplace behavior (DWB).…

  6. Evolution of public cooperation in a monitored society with implicated punishment and within-group enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-11-24

    Monitoring with implicated punishment is common in human societies to avert freeriding on common goods. But is it effective in promoting public cooperation? We show that the introduction of monitoring and implicated punishment is indeed effective, as it transforms the public goods game to a coordination game, thus rendering cooperation viable in infinite and finite well-mixed populations. We also show that the addition of within-group enforcement further promotes the evolution of public cooperation. However, although the group size in this context has nonlinear effects on collective action, an intermediate group size is least conductive to cooperative behaviour. This contradicts recent field observations, where an intermediate group size was declared optimal with the conjecture that group-size effects and within-group enforcement are responsible. Our theoretical research thus clarifies key aspects of monitoring with implicated punishment in human societies, and additionally, it reveals fundamental group-size effects that facilitate prosocial collective action.

  7. Evolution of public cooperation in a monitored society with implicated punishment and within-group enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring with implicated punishment is common in human societies to avert freeriding on common goods. But is it effective in promoting public cooperation? We show that the introduction of monitoring and implicated punishment is indeed effective, as it transforms the public goods game to a coordination game, thus rendering cooperation viable in infinite and finite well-mixed populations. We also show that the addition of within-group enforcement further promotes the evolution of public cooperation. However, although the group size in this context has nonlinear effects on collective action, an intermediate group size is least conductive to cooperative behaviour. This contradicts recent field observations, where an intermediate group size was declared optimal with the conjecture that group-size effects and within-group enforcement are responsible. Our theoretical research thus clarifies key aspects of monitoring with implicated punishment in human societies, and additionally, it reveals fundamental group-size effects that facilitate prosocial collective action.

  8. Effects of number of animals monitored on representations of cattle group movement characteristics and spatial occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Green, Angela R; Rodríguez, Luis F; Ramirez, Brett C; Shike, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    The number of animals required to represent the collective characteristics of a group remains a concern in animal movement monitoring with GPS. Monitoring a subset of animals from a group instead of all animals can reduce costs and labor; however, incomplete data may cause information losses and inaccuracy in subsequent data analyses. In cattle studies, little work has been conducted to determine the number of cattle within a group needed to be instrumented considering subsequent analyses. Two different groups of cattle (a mixed group of 24 beef cows and heifers, and another group of 8 beef cows) were monitored with GPS collars at 4 min intervals on intensively managed pastures and corn residue fields in 2011. The effects of subset group size on cattle movement characterization and spatial occupancy analysis were evaluated by comparing the results between subset groups and the entire group for a variety of summarization parameters. As expected, more animals yield better results for all parameters. Results show the average group travel speed and daily travel distances are overestimated as subset group size decreases, while the average group radius is underestimated. Accuracy of group centroid locations and group radii are improved linearly as subset group size increases. A kernel density estimation was performed to quantify the spatial occupancy by cattle via GPS location data. Results show animals among the group had high similarity of spatial occupancy. Decisions regarding choosing an appropriate subset group size for monitoring depend on the specific use of data for subsequent analysis: a small subset group may be adequate for identifying areas visited by cattle; larger subset group size (e.g. subset group containing more than 75% of animals) is recommended to achieve better accuracy of group movement characteristics and spatial occupancy for the use of correlating cattle locations with other environmental factors.

  9. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programs : Evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N; Lensink, R; Mehrteab, HT

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of monitoring and social ties on moral hazard behavior within group lending programs. Our study is based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We separately analyze the impact of group leaders and other grou

  10. Design considerations for remotely operated welding in space: Task definition and visual weld monitoring experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynerson, Charles M.

    1993-05-01

    This thesis explores the concept of welding in a space environment with the use of automation. Since the amount of time astronauts can work outside a spacecraft is limited, future construction and repair tasks will likely be assisted by automation. It is also likely that remote space welding will be needed for the construction of large-scale space structures in earth orbit as well as for lunar and Martian ground-based structures. Due to the complex nature of the tasks to be accomplished, the equipment will probably not be fully autonomous but instead supervised by a human operator. The welding fabrication problem in space is examined in a broad sense including some of the considerations for designing a human supervisory remote welding system. The history of space welding processes is examined, as well as current research in the field. A task definition and functional analysis is provided to assist future designers in outlining typical operational sequences for such a remote welding system. Such analysis is important when deciding whether the human operator should perform certain tasks or if the operator should supervise the automated system while it performs the tasks.

  11. Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document presents the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Based on the results of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and on subsequent discussions with regulators, a decision was made to defer implementing source control remedial measures at the WAG. The alternative selected to address the risks associated with WAG 6 involves maintenance of site access controls prevent public exposure to on-site contaminants, continued monitoring of contaminant releases determine if source control measures are required, and development of technologies that could support the final remediation of WAG 6. Although active source control measures are not being implemented at WAG 6, environmental monitoring is necessary to ensure that any potential changes in contaminant release from the WAG are identified early enough to take appropriate action. Two types of environmental monitoring will be conducted: baseline monitoring and annual routine monitoring. The baseline monitoring will be conducted to establish the baseline contaminant release conditions at the WAG, confirm the site-related chemicals of concern (COCs), and gather data to confirm the site hydrologic model. The baseline monitoring is expected to begin in 1994 and last for 12--18 months. The annual routine monitoring will consist of continued sampling and analyses of COCs to determine off-WAG contaminant flux and risk, identify mills in releases, and confirm the primary contributors to risk. The annual routine monitoring will continue for {approximately} 4 years after completion of the baseline monitoring.

  12. NRC Job Code V6060: Extended in-situ and real time monitoring. Task 4: Detection and monitoring of leaks at nuclear power plants external to structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S. H. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-08-01

    In support of Task 4 of the NRC study on compliance with 10 CFR part 20.1406, minimization of contamination, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a one-year scoping study, in concert with a parallel study performed by NRC/NRR staff, on monitoring for leaks at nuclear power plants (NPPs) external to structures. The objective of this task-4 study is to identify and assess those sensors and monitoring techniques for early detection of abnormal radioactive releases from the engineered facility structures, systems and components (SSCs) to the surrounding underground environment in existing NPPs and planned new reactors. As such, methods of interest include: (1) detection of anomalous water content of soils surrounding SSCs, (2) radionuclides contained in the leaking water, and (3) secondary signals such as temperature. ANL work scope includes mainly to (1) identify, in concert with the nuclear industry, the sensors and techniques that have most promise to detect radionuclides and/or associated chemical releases from SSCs of existing NPPs and (2) review and provide comments on the results of the NRC/NRR staff scoping study to identify candidate technologies. This report constitutes the ANL deliverable of the task-4 study. It covers a survey of sensor technologies and leak detection methods currently applied to leak monitoring at NPPs. The survey also provides a technology evaluation that identifies their strength and deficiency based on their detection speed, sensitivity, range and reliability. Emerging advanced technologies that are potentially capable of locating releases, identifying the radionuclides, and estimating their concentrations and distributions are also included in the report along with suggestions of required further research and development.

  13. Research on Key Techniques of Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosing Systems of Machine Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-kai; LIAO Ming-fu; WANG Si-ji

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the condition monitoring and fault diagnosing system of a group of rotating machinery. The data management is performed by means of double redundant data bases stored simultaneously in both the analyzing server and monitoring client. In this way, high reliability of the storage of data is guaranteed. Condensation of trend data releases much space resource of the hard disk. Diagnosing strategies orientated to different typical faults of rotating machinery are developed and incorporated into the system. Experimental verification shows that the system is suitable and effective for condition monitoring and fault diagnosing for a rotating machine group.

  14. Measuring Group Work Dynamics and Its Relation with L2 Learners' Task Motivation and Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupore, Glen

    2016-01-01

    While learners of a second language (L2) are increasingly interacting in small groups as part of a communicative methodological paradigm, very few studies have investigated the social dynamics that occur in such groups. The aim of this study is to introduce a group work dynamic measuring instrument and to investigate the relationship between group…

  15. Monitoring of learning at the category level when learning a natural concept: will task experience improve its resolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Sarah K; Dunlosky, John

    2015-02-01

    Researchers have recently begun to investigate people's ability to monitor their learning of natural categories. For concept learning tasks, a learner seeks to accurately monitor learning at the category level - i.e., to accurately judge whether exemplars will be correctly classified into the appropriate category on an upcoming test. Our interest was in whether monitoring resolution at the category level would improve as participants gain task experience across multiple study-test blocks, as well as within each block. In four experiments, exemplar birds (e.g., American Goldfinch, Cassin's Finch) paired with each family name (e.g., Finch) were studied, and participants made a judgment of learning (JOL) for each exemplar. Of most interest, before and after studying the exemplars, participants made category learning judgments (CLJs), which involved predicting the likelihood of correctly classifying novel birds into each family. Tests included exemplars that had been studied or exemplars that had not been studied (novel). This procedure was repeated for either one or two additional blocks. The relative accuracy of CLJs did not improve across blocks even when explicit feedback was provided, whereas item-by-item JOL accuracy improved across blocks. Category level resolution did improve from pre-study to post-study on an initial block, but it did not consistently increase within later blocks. The stable accuracy of CLJs across blocks poses a theoretical and empirical challenge for identifying techniques to improve people's ability to judge their learning of natural categories.

  16. Self-monitoring during spelling practice: effects on spelling accuracy and on-task behavior of three students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Lisa A; Arroyo, Jenna; Ginnane, Shaunna; Wilczynski, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    We used a multiple baseline across subjects design to investigate the effects of self-monitoring on the on-task behavior and spelling accuracy of three fifth-grade students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during an independent spelling practice period in the general education environment. We also compared their on-task levels to that of peers without disabilities in the same classroom context before and after the self-monitoring intervention. Our results showed that time on-task and spelling accuracy increased for the students diagnosed with ADHD during independent spelling practice after the teacher taught them how to self-monitor. These same students' on-task behavior also increased to levels comparable to that of their peers. Suggestions for educators interested in teaching their students self-monitoring strategies are included following a discussion of the results of the analysis.

  17. Accuracy and calibration of integrated radiation output indicators in diagnostic radiology: A report of the AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 190.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Jan P; Schueler, Beth A; Balter, Stephen; Strauss, Keith J; Wunderle, Kevin A; LaFrance, M Terry; Kim, Don-Soo; Behrman, Richard H; Shepard, S Jeff; Bercha, Ishtiaq H

    2015-12-01

    Due to the proliferation of disciplines employing fluoroscopy as their primary imaging tool and the prolonged extensive use of fluoroscopy in interventional and cardiovascular angiography procedures, "dose-area-product" (DAP) meters were installed to monitor and record the radiation dose delivered to patients. In some cases, the radiation dose or the output value is calculated, rather than measured, using the pertinent radiological parameters and geometrical information. The AAPM Task Group 190 (TG-190) was established to evaluate the accuracy of the DAP meter in 2008. Since then, the term "DAP-meter" has been revised to air kerma-area product (KAP) meter. The charge of TG 190 (Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators in Diagnostic Radiology) has also been realigned to investigate the "Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators" which is reflected in the title of the task group, to include situations where the KAP may be acquired with or without the presence of a physical "meter." To accomplish this goal, validation test protocols were developed to compare the displayed radiation output value to an external measurement. These test protocols were applied to a number of clinical systems to collect information on the accuracy of dose display values in the field.

  18. Accuracy and calibration of integrated radiation output indicators in diagnostic radiology: A report of the AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 190

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Pei-Jan P., E-mail: Pei-Jan.Lin@vcuhealth.org [Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Schueler, Beth A. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Balter, Stephen [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Strauss, Keith J. [Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229 (United States); Wunderle, Kevin A. [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195 (United States); LaFrance, M. Terry [Baystate Health Systems, Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts 01199 (United States); Kim, Don-Soo [Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Behrman, Richard H. [Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 (United States); Shepard, S. Jeff [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77096 (United States); Bercha, Ishtiaq H. [Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Due to the proliferation of disciplines employing fluoroscopy as their primary imaging tool and the prolonged extensive use of fluoroscopy in interventional and cardiovascular angiography procedures, “dose-area-product” (DAP) meters were installed to monitor and record the radiation dose delivered to patients. In some cases, the radiation dose or the output value is calculated, rather than measured, using the pertinent radiological parameters and geometrical information. The AAPM Task Group 190 (TG-190) was established to evaluate the accuracy of the DAP meter in 2008. Since then, the term “DAP-meter” has been revised to air kerma-area product (KAP) meter. The charge of TG 190 (Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators in Diagnostic Radiology) has also been realigned to investigate the “Accuracy and Calibration of Integrated Radiation Output Indicators” which is reflected in the title of the task group, to include situations where the KAP may be acquired with or without the presence of a physical “meter.” To accomplish this goal, validation test protocols were developed to compare the displayed radiation output value to an external measurement. These test protocols were applied to a number of clinical systems to collect information on the accuracy of dose display values in the field.

  19. Application of Multi-task Sparse Group Lasso Feature Extraction and Support Vector Machine Regression in the Stellar Atmospheric Parametrization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, W.; Li, X. R.

    2016-07-01

    The multi-task learning puts the multiple tasks together to analyse and calculate for discovering the correlation between them, which can improve the accuracy of analysis results. This kind of methods have been widely studied in machine learning, pattern recognition, computer vision, and other related fields. This paper investigates the application of multi-task learning in estimating the effective temperature (T_{eff}), surface gravity (lg g), and chemical abundance ([Fe/H]). Firstly, the spectral characteristics of the three atmospheric physical parameters are extracted by using the multi-task Sparse Group Lasso algorithm, and then the support vector machine is used to estimate the atmospheric physical parameters. The proposed scheme is evaluated on both Sloan stellar spectra and theoretical spectra computed from Kurucz's New Opacity Distribution Function (NEWODF) model. The mean absolute errors (MAEs) on the Sloan spectra are: 0.0064 for lg (T_{eff}/K), 0.1622 for lg (g/(cm\\cdot s^{-2})), and 0.1221 dex for [Fe/H]; The MAEs on synthetic spectra are 0.0006 for lg (T_{eff}/K), 0.0098 for lg (g/(cm\\cdot s^{-2})), and 0.0082 dex for [Fe/H]. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme is excellent for atmospheric parameter estimation.

  20. Automated Cognitive Health Assessment Using Smart Home Monitoring of Complex Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Prafulla N; Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-11-01

    One of the many services that intelligent systems can provide is the automated assessment of resident well-being. We hypothesize that the functional health of individuals, or ability of individuals to perform activities independently without assistance, can be estimated by tracking their activities using smart home technologies. In this paper, we introduce a machine learning-based method for assessing activity quality in smart homes. To validate our approach we quantify activity quality for 179 volunteer participants who performed a complex, interweaved set of activities in our smart home apartment. We observed a statistically significant correlation (r=0.79) between automated assessment of task quality and direct observation scores. Using machine learning techniques to predict the cognitive health of the participants based on task quality is accomplished with an AUC value of 0.64. We believe that this capability is an important step in understanding everyday functional health of individuals in their home environments.

  1. Effects of Self-Monitoring and Contingent Reinforcement on On-Task Behavior and Academic Productivity of Learning-Disabled Students: A Social Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated social validity of behavior change produced by self-monitoring and contingent reinforcement upon on-task behavior and academic productivity of six learning-disabled elementary school students using single-case, multiple-treatment design. On-task behavior and academic productivity improved under both interventions, with improvements…

  2. Getting behind the Scenes of Fleetwood Mac's "Rumours": Using a Documentary on the Making of a Music Album to Learn about Task Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Debra R.; Holbrook, Robert L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present an efficient and easy-to-implement experiential exercise that reinforces for students key concepts about task groups (i.e., group cohesiveness, conflict within groups, group effectiveness, group norms, and group roles). The exercise, which uses a documentary about the making of Fleetwood Mac's "Rumours" album to demonstrate the…

  3. Group-level spatio-temporal pattern recovery in MEG decoding using multi-task joint feature learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Seyed Mostafa; Pedregosa, Fabian; Blumenthal, Anna; Passerini, Andrea

    2017-06-15

    The use of machine learning models to discriminate between patterns of neural activity has become in recent years a standard analysis approach in neuroimaging studies. Whenever these models are linear, the estimated parameters can be visualized in the form of brain maps which can aid in understanding how brain activity in space and time underlies a cognitive function. However, the recovered brain maps often suffer from lack of interpretability, especially in group analysis of multi-subject data. To facilitate the application of brain decoding in group-level analysis, we present an application of multi-task joint feature learning for group-level multivariate pattern recovery in single-trial magnetoencephalography (MEG) decoding. The proposed method allows for recovering sparse yet consistent patterns across different subjects, and therefore enhances the interpretability of the decoding model. Our experimental results demonstrate that the mutli-task joint feature learning framework is capable of recovering more meaningful patterns of varying spatio-temporally distributed brain activity across individuals while still maintaining excellent generalization performance. We compare the performance of the multi-task joint feature learning in terms of generalization, reproducibility, and quality of pattern recovery against traditional single-subject and pooling approaches on both simulated and real MEG datasets. These results can facilitate the usage of brain decoding for the characterization of fine-level distinctive patterns in group-level inference. Considering the importance of group-level analysis, the proposed approach can provide a methodological shift towards more interpretable brain decoding models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. THE TASK OF CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS ON THE BASIS OF MONITORING RESOURCE STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy M. Chinyuchin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to basic statements according to scientific researches carried out in the area of airworthiness maintenance and aimed at creation of monitoring system of the aircraft equipment resource condition for the purpose of its resource and service life parameters control.The term monitoring is used here as consecutive process of obtaining, processing and analyzing the information on resources and aircraft equipment service life (planes, helicopters, aircraft engines and their accessories with the further use of this information for the problems solution of its own air fleet structure management, its updating and forecasting indica- tors of its operation processes efficiency.The most important and complex components of monitoring system and aircraft equipment resource condition, in particular are noted: the personified approach to the definition of aircraft equipment rational resources and service life; models of forecasting and aircraft resources processing management; decision-making models on increase of long life air- craft parameters taking into account maintenance cost; justification of expediency of aeronautical products retrofit by way of increasing their resource characteristics; definition methods of resource products necessary quantity by using of statisti- cal model; assessment methods of aviation components authenticity value; models of technical and economic efficiency of works on increase in individual resources of removable parts.Certain components of monitoring system are considered in more detail with the references indication.

  5. Separation of Scaptotrigona postica workers into defined task groups by the chemical profile on their epicuticle wax layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiani, Silvana B; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2014-04-01

    During evolution, the cuticle surface of insects acquired functions in communication, such as inter- and intra-specific recognition, identification of gender, physiological state, and fertility. In eusocial bees, the information in the cuticular surface is important not only to discriminate nestmates from non-nestmates but also to identify an individual's class, life phase or task. A comparative study of the cuticular surface chemical profile of workers of Scaptotrigona postica in different phases of life, i.e., newly emerged workers (NE), brood comb area workers (CA), and forager workers (FO) was undertaken by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to verify how workers are grouped according to their chemical profile and to determine which compounds are responsible for separating them into groups. The cuticle surface of workers contains mainly hydrocarbons and a small amount of oxygenated compounds. Multivariate statistical analysis showed qualitative and quantitative variation in relation to the life phases/tasks performed, and all groups were distinct. The most abundant compound found in NE and CA was n-heptacosane, while in FO, it was (Z)-9-heptacosene. The compounds that differentiate NE from other groups are n-tricosane and n-hexacosane. A (Z)-X-octacosene and n-nonacosane are the chemicals that distinguish CA from NE and FO, while 11- and 13-methylpentacosane, (Z)-X-hexacosene, and (Z)-9-heptacosene characterize FO as distinct from NE and CA. The probable function of alkenes is nestmate recognition, mainly in FO. The results show that the cuticle surfaces of workers are characteristic of the phase of life/task performed by workers, allowing intra-colonial recognition.

  6. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: report of a FDI task group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frencken, Jo E; Peters, Mathilde C; Manton, David J; Leal, Soraya C; Gordan, Valeria V; Eden, Ece

    2012-10-01

    This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the 'surgical' care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI's policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing.

  7. Solvent Extraction of Yttrium by Task-specific Ionic Liquids Bearing Carboxylic Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 刘郁; 徐爱梅; 杨华玲; 崔红敏; 陈继

    2012-01-01

    A new kind of hydrophobic ionic liquids [1-alkyl-3-(1-carboxylpropyl)im][PF6] has been synthesized, and their extraction.properties for Y(III) in the nitric acid medium was also investigated. The effects of extractant concentration, equilibrium pH of aqueous phase, salt concentration, temperature etc. were discussed. The results show that this kind of Task-Specific Ionic Liquid (TSIL) needs to be saponified before being used for the Y(III) extraction, and the extraction is-acid dependent,-and the extraction efficiency increases with the aqueous phase acldity decreasing. Furthermore, the loaded organic phase is easy to be stripped; more than 95% Y(III) could be stripped from the loaded organic phase when the stripping acidity is higher than 0.07 mol-L-1. The slope analysis technique is used to investigate the extraction mechanism, and a possible cation-exchange extraction mechanism is proposed in the oresent extraction system.

  8. The Effects of Group Relaxation Training/Large Muscle Exercise, and Parental Involvement on Attention to Task, Impulsivity, and Locus of Control among Hyperactive Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sally S.; Omizo, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    The study examined the effects of group relaxation training/large muscle exercise and parental involvement on attention to task, impulsivity, and locus of control among 34 hyperactive boys. Following treatment both experimental groups recorded significantly higher attention to task, lower impulsivity, and lower locus of control scores. (Author/CL)

  9. Facilitating Group Analysis of Two Case Studies Utilising Peer Tutoring: Comparison of Tasks and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Lin Siew

    2016-01-01

    Peer-tutoring sessions of two groups of advanced diploma in financial accounting students with mixed proficiency were analysed thoroughly in this study. Numerous studies in peer tutoring have produced favourable results to both tutors and tutees due to the scaffolding process which promotes effective learning. However, there is a lack of studies…

  10. Group Tasks, Activities, Dynamics, and Interactions in Collaborative Robotics Projects with Elementary and Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Timothy T.; Boecking, Melanie; Stone, Jennifer; Tiger, Erin Price; Gomez, Alvaro; Guillen, Adrienne; Arreguin, Analisa

    2014-01-01

    Robotics provide the opportunity for students to bring their individual interests, perspectives and areas of expertise together in order to work collaboratively on real-world science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) problems. This paper examines the nature of collaboration that manifests in groups of elementary and middle school…

  11. Quality assurance of U.S.-guided external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: report of AAPM Task Group 154.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Janelle A; Chan, Gordon; Markovic, Alexander; McNeeley, Shawn; Pfeiffer, Doug; Salter, Bill; Tome, Wolfgang A

    2011-02-01

    Task Group 154 (TG154) of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) was created to produce a guidance document for clinical medical physicists describing recommended quality assurance (QA) procedures for ultrasound (U.S.)-guided external beam radiotherapy localization. This report describes the relevant literature, state of the art, and briefly summarizes U.S. imaging physics. Simulation, treatment planning and treatment delivery considerations are presented in order to improve consistency and accuracy. User training is emphasized in the report and recommendations regarding peer review are included. A set of thorough, yet practical, QA procedures, frequencies, and tolerances are recommended. These encompass recommendations to ensure both spatial accuracy and image quality.

  12. On-line core monitoring system based on buckling corrected modified one group model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Fernando S., E-mail: freire@eletronuclear.gov.br [ELETROBRAS Eletronuclear Gerencia de Combustivel Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear power reactors require core monitoring during plant operation. To provide safe, clean and reliable core continuously evaluate core conditions. Currently, the reactor core monitoring process is carried out by nuclear code systems that together with data from plant instrumentation, such as, thermocouples, ex-core detectors and fixed or moveable In-core detectors, can easily predict and monitor a variety of plant conditions. Typically, the standard nodal methods can be found on the heart of such nuclear monitoring code systems. However, standard nodal methods require large computer running times when compared with standards course-mesh finite difference schemes. Unfortunately, classic finite-difference models require a fine mesh reactor core representation. To override this unlikely model characteristic we can usually use the classic modified one group model to take some account for the main core neutronic behavior. In this model a course-mesh core representation can be easily evaluated with a crude treatment of thermal neutrons leakage. In this work, an improvement made on classic modified one group model based on a buckling thermal correction was used to obtain a fast, accurate and reliable core monitoring system methodology for future applications, providing a powerful tool for core monitoring process. (author)

  13. The CSNI/PWG-1 international task group on ECCS reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandervag, O.; Riekert, T.; Serkiz, A.; Hyvarinen, J.

    1996-03-01

    A steam line loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) occurred when a safety relief valve inadvertently opened in the Barseback-2 nuclear power plant. The steam jet stripped fibrous insulation from adjacent pipework. Part of that insulation debris was transported to the wetwell pool and clogged the intake strainers for the drywell spray system after about one hour. Although the incident in itself was not very serious, it revealed a weakness in the defense-in-depth concept which under other circumstances could have led to failure of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) to provide water to the core. Before the Barseback-2 LOCA, international regulators of nuclear power plants and the nuclear power plant industry had considered safety questions related to strainer clogging as resolved. Many European countries had followed the guidance for strainers in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) contained in United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Regulatory Guide 1.82, Water Sources for Long Term Recirculation Cooling Following a Loss-of-Coolant Accident, 1974. However, data obtained from European experimental programs carried out in the late seventies to determine the performance of strainers indicated that this guide was not adequate. In addition, Swedish plant owners had used this guidance to judge performance of emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) in their plants. Analyses at that time had indicated that strainer clogging, if occurring at all, would at least not occur during the first ten hours after a LOCA. Since operation of the ECCS would be needed for a long time, backflushing capabilities and monitors of pressure drop across the strainers were installed in older Swedish BWR plants with small strainer areas. These actions were judged to be adequate compliance with the revised USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.82, Rev. 1, issued in 1985. Safety questions related to strainer clogging were considered to have been resolved until the incident happened in Barseback-2.

  14. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, Mike; /Fermilab; Kim, Ki-Yong; /Maryland U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  15. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Church, Mike; 10.1063/1.3520295

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  16. Range Commanders Council Meteorology Group 88th Meeting: NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Task Report, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    2004-01-01

    Supported Return-to-Flight activities by providing surface climate data from Kennedy Space Center used primarily for ice and dew formation studies, and upper air wind analysis primarily used for ascent loads analyses. The MSFC Environments Group's Terrestrial and Planetary Environments Team documented Space Shuttle day-of-launch support activities by publishing a document in support of SSP Return-to-Flight activities entitled "Space Shuttle Program Flight Operations Support". The team also formalized the Shuttle Natural Environments Technical Panel and chaired the first special session of the SSP Natural Environments Panel meeting at KSC, November 4-7,2003.58 participants from NASA, DOD and other government agencies from across the country attended the meeting.

  17. The importance of monitoring for developing intra-group trust in Ethiopian female workgroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayissa, F.W.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Ruben, R.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relation between intra-group trust and monitoring in a patriarchal society, and how this relation affects workgroup performance. Data were collected from 352 women who were members of 72 female workgroups in Addis Ababa by means of field experiments and a survey. The data are analyzed

  18. Adapting the Crossmodal Congruency Task for Measuring the Limits of Visual-Tactile Interactions Within and Between Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Daniel; Couth, Samuel; Gowen, Emma; Warren, Paul A; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The crossmodal congruency task (CCT) is a commonly used paradigm for measuring visual-tactile interactions and how these may be influenced by discrepancies in space and time between the tactile target and visual distractors. The majority of studies which have used this paradigm have neither measured, nor attempted to control, individual variability in unisensory (tactile) performance. We have developed a version of the CCT in which unisensory baseline performance is constrained to enable comparisons within and between participant groups. Participants were instructed to discriminate between single and double tactile pulses presented to their dominant hand, at their own approximate threshold level. In Experiment 1, visual distractors were presented at -30 ms, 100 ms, 200 ms and 400 ms stimulus onset asynchronies. In Experiment 2, ipsilateral visual distractors were presented 0 cm, 21 cm, and 42 cm vertically from the target hand, and 42 cm in a symmetrical, contralateral position. Distractors presented -30 ms and 0 cm from the target produced a significantly larger congruency effect than at other time points and spatial locations. Thus, the typical limits of visual-tactile interactions were replicated using a version of the task in which baseline performance can be constrained. The usefulness of this approach is supported by the observation that tactile thresholds correlated with self-reported autistic traits in this non-clinical sample. We discuss the suitability of this adapted version of the CCT for measuring visual-tactile interactions in populations where unisensory tactile ability may differ within and between groups.

  19. Two Paths from the Same Place: Task Driven and Human Centered Evolution of a Group Information Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Daniel M.; Trimble, Jay; Wales, Roxana; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This is the tale of two different implementations of a collaborative information tool, that started from the same design source. The Blueboard, developed at IBM Research, is a tool for groups to use in exchanging information in a lightweight, informal collaborative way. It began as a large display surface for walk-by use in a corporate setting and has evolved in response to task demands and user needs. At NASA, the MERBoard is being designed to support surface operations for the upcoming Mars Exploration Rover Missions. The MERBoard is a tool that was inspired by the Blueboard design, extending this design to support the collaboration requirements for viewing, annotating, linking and distributing information for the science and engineering teams that will operate two rovers on the surface of Mars. The ways in which each group transformed the system reflects not only technical requirements, but also the needs of users in each setting and embedding of the system within the larger socio-technical environment. Lessons about how task requirements, information flow requirements and work practice drive the evolution of a system are illustrated.

  20. Summary report for MEGAPIE R+D Task Group X4: Fluid dynamics and structure mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B. L

    2006-03-15

    The document chronicles, and draws summary conclusions from, the activities of the X4 R+D Support Group from the start of the project on January 1, 2000 to the time of the Technical Review Meeting in Mol: 27-29 June, 2005. The objectives to be accomplished were set out in a Baseline document. These were: to define the lower target flow configuration, within the geometric constraints imposed by the physical boundary conditions (geometrical confinement, lead- bismuth eutectic (LBE) inventory, pump capacities, target heat exchanger (THX) power, etc.); to identify, and evaluate, optimum target window design to minimise thermal loads and pressure drops, and to avoid hot-spots and flow instabilities; to demonstrate reliable cooling of the lower target enclosure (LTE); to demonstrate the structural integrity of the lower section of the Iiquid-metal container LMC) and its internal components, and that of the LTE; to provide best-estimate safety margins on target coolability and structural integrity under operational flow conditions; to investigate, quantify, and make recommendations regarding, abnormal target operation including possible accident scenarios). The time-scale set for MEGAPIE was always such that much of the design work needed to be carried out at the same time as the R+D support. Often, the target design was changing faster than the time required to perform the detailed computer simulations. As a consequence, many of the simulations reported or referenced in this document do not refer to the very latest target design, and in many respects the results and conclusions must be regarded as generic in nature. Nonetheless, very valuable work has been carried out by the various organisations, and better understanding of the expected temperature distributions and stress levels in the operating MEGAPIE target has been gained, and direct feed-back to the design team on various aspects of the design details has taken place as a consequence of this work. As the design

  1. Extrapolating Accelerated UV Weathering Data: Perspective From PVQAT Task Group 5 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Annigoni, E.; Ballion, A.; Bokria, J.; Bruckman, L.; Burns, D.; Elliott, L.; French, R.; Fowler, S.; Gu, X.; Honeker, C.; Khonkar, H.; Kohl, M.; Krommenhoek, P.; Peret-Aebi, L.; Phillips, N.; Scott, K.; Sculati-Meillaud, F.; Shioda, T.

    2015-02-01

    Taskgroup 5 (TG5) is concerned with a accelerated aging standard incorporating factors including ultraviolet radiation, temperature, and moisture. Separate experiments are being conducted in support of a test standard via the regional sub-groups in Asia, Europe, and the United States. The authors will describe the objectives and timeline for the TG5 interlaboratory study being directed out of the USA. Qualitative preliminary data from the experiment is presented. To date, the encapsulation transmittance experiment has: replicated behaviors of fielded materials (including specimen location- and formulation additive-specific discoloration); demonstrated coupling between UV aging and temperature; demonstrated that degradation in EVA results from UV- aging; and obtained good qualitative comparison between Xe and UVA-340 sources for EVA. To date, the encapsulation adhesion experiment (using the compressive shear test to quantify strength of attachment) has demonstrated that attachment strength can decrease drastically (>50%) with age; however, early results suggest significant factor (UV, T, RH) dependence. Much remains to be learned about adhesion.

  2. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Human health risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purucker, S.T.; Douthat, D.M.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow- up information to the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that could cause potential human health risk and ecological risk within WAG2 at ORNL. The purpose of this report is to present a summary of the human health risk assessment results based on the data collected for the WAG 2 Phase 1 RI. Estimates of risk are provided based on measured concentrations in the surface water, floodplain soil, and sediment of White Oak Creek, Melton Branch, and their tributaries. The human health risk assessment methodology used in this risk assessment is based on Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). First, the data for the different media are elevated to determine usability for risk assessment. Second, through the process of selecting chemicals of potential concern (COPCs), contaminants to be considered in the risk assessment are identified for each assessment of exposure potential is performed, and exposure pathways are identified. Subsequently, exposure is estimated quantitatively, and the toxicity of each of the COPCs is determined. The results of these analyses are combined and summarized in a risk characterization.

  3. Can verbal instruction enhance the recall of an everyday task and promote error-monitoring in people with dementia of the Alzheimer-type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouch, Sara; Rusted, Jennifer M

    2017-03-01

    People with dementia of the Alzheimer-type (DAT) have difficulties with performing everyday tasks, and error awareness is poor. Here we investigate whether recall of actions and error monitoring in everyday task performance improved when they instructed another person on how to make tea. In this situation, both visual and motor cues are present, and attention is sustained by the requirement to keep instructing. The data were drawn from a longitudinal study recording performance in four participants with DAT, filmed regularly for five years in their own homes, completing three tea-making conditions: performed-recall (they made tea themselves); instructed-recall (they instructed the experimenter on how to make tea); and verbal-recall (they described how to make tea). Accomplishment scores (percentage of task they correctly recalled), errors and error-monitoring were coded. Task accomplishment was comparable in the performed-recall and instructed-recall conditions, but both were significantly better than task accomplishment in the verbal-recall condition. Third person instruction did not improve error-monitoring. This study has implications for everyday task rehabilitation for people with DAT.

  4. Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) sensitivity differentiates EEG theta responses during goal conflict in a continuous monitoring task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Roger A; Mills, Matthew; Marshman, Paul; Corr, Philip J

    2012-08-01

    Previous research has revealed that EEG theta oscillations are affected during goal conflict processing. This is consistent with the behavioural inhibition system (BIS) theory of anxiety (Gray & McNaughton, 2000). However, studies have not attempted to relate these BIS-related theta effects to BIS personality measures. Confirmation of such an association would provide further support for BIS theory, especially as it relates to trait differences. EEG was measured (32 electrodes) from extreme groups (low/high trait BIS) engaged in a target detection task. Goal conflicts were introduced throughout the task. Results show that the two groups did not differ in behavioural performance. The major EEG result was that a stepwise discriminant analysis indicated discrimination by 6 variables derived from coherence and power, with 5 of the 6 in the theta range as predicted by BIS theory and one in the beta range. Also, across the whole sample, EEG theta coherence increased at a variety of regions during primary goal conflict and showed a general increase during response execution; EEG theta power, in contrast, was primarily reactive to response execution. This is the first study to reveal a three-way relationship between the induction of goal conflict, the induction of theta power and coherence, and differentiation by psychometrically-defined low/high BIS status.

  5. Fuel Hedging Task Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    scandals such as Enron are possible. • Government is already “self-hedged”: – OMB considers the federal government to be “self-hedged” on...this approach should involve none of the potential political embarrassment associated with comparisons to Enron and payment of hedging fees to

  6. Holter monitoring for syncope: diagnostic yield in different patient groups and impact on device implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, M; Schaer, B; Moulay, N; Sticherling, C; Osswald, S

    2007-12-01

    Holter monitoring is routinely used in patients referred for the evaluation of syncope, but its diagnostic value in different patient groups is unclear, as is its impact on device implantation (pacemaker or cardioverter-defibrillator). To determine the diagnostic yield of Holter monitoring in the routine evaluation of syncope, and its impact on subsequent device implantation. Retrospective record review. We reviewed all Holter studies in patients referred with syncope between 2000 and 2005. Strict criteria were applied to determine whether a study was diagnostic. The diagnostic value of Holter monitoring (overall and in five subgroups: age, gender, structural heart disease, ejection fraction, medication) and its impact on the implantation of devices, were determined. Of 4877 Holter studies, 826 were performed in patients with syncope (age 72 +/- 15 years): 71 (8.6%) were considered to explain the syncope. Structural heart disease, ejection fraction and age were significant predictors of a diagnostic study (all p Holter did not explain their syncope, after mean 7 months, whereas 45 patients (5.4%) received a pacemaker based on the Holter results (p = 0.32). The overall diagnostic yield of Holter monitoring in the evaluation of syncope was 8.6%, with dramatic differences between subgroups. Our data suggest that the impact of Holter monitoring on device implantation is generally overestimated.

  7. SU-E-T-273: Do Task Group External Beam QA Recommendations Guarantee Accurate Treatment Plan Dose Delivery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, A; Liao, Y; Redler, G; Zhen, H [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM task groups 40/142 have provided an invaluable set of goals for physicists designing QA programs, attempting to standardize what would otherwise likely be a highly variable phenomenon across institutions. However, with the complexity of modalities such as VMAT, we hypothesize that following these guidelines to the letter might still allow unacceptable dose discrepancies. To explore this hypothesis we simulated machines bordering on QA acceptability, and calculated the effect on patient plans. Methods: Two errant machines were simulated in Aria/Eclipse, each just within task group criteria for output, percent depth dose, beam profile, gantry and collimator rotations, and jaw and MLC positions. One machine minimized dose to the PTV (machine A) and the other maximized dose to the OARs (machine B). Clinical treatment plans (3-phase prostate, n=3; hypofractionated lung, n=1) were calculated on these machines and the dose distributions compared. A prostate case was examined for contribution of error sources and evaluated using delivery QA data. Results: The prostate plans showed mean decreases in target D95 of 9.9% of prescription dose on machine A. On machine B, The rectal and bladder V70Gy each increased by 7.1 percentage points, while their V45Gy increased by 16.2% and 15.0% respectively. In the lung plan, the target D95 decreased by 12.8% and the bronchial tree Dmax increased by 21% of prescription dose, on machines A and B. One prostate plan showed target dose errors of 3.8% from MLC changes, 2% from output, ∼3% from energy and ∼0.5% from other factors. This plan achieved an 88.4% gamma passing rate using 3%/3mm using ArcCHECK. Conclusion: In the unlikely event that a machine exhibits all maximum errors allowed by TG 40/142, unacceptably large changes in dose delivered are possible especially in highly modulated VMAT plans, despite the machine passing routine QA.

  8. Image monitoring on the behavior study of three genetic groups of confined goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Maria da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of three genetic groups of confined goats by image monitoring using nine unneutered goats of the Azul, Graúna and Moxotó genotypes. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement (genetic groups × periods - morning, afternoon and night, with three replications. Animals were monitored by video cameras placed at the ceiling of each stall for 10 days. There were interaction factors in the frequency of behavioral categories: interaction with the trough, self-cleaning, standing bipedally, social interaction, and other activities. Azul, Graúna and Moxotó native goats kept in the same environment under the same system of containment and feeding show different frequencies and durations in their behaviors, which are influenced by the period of the day.

  9. Complementarities among Authority, Accountability, and Monitoring: Evidence from Japanese Business Groups

    OpenAIRE

    ITOH, Hideshi; Kikutani, Tatsuya; Hayashida, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an empirical test of complementarities among delegated authority, accountability, and monitoring, using unique survey data collected from group affiliated companies in Japan. The survey provides information about how various decisions are made within business groups, each of which consists of a large core parent firm and its network of affiliated firms such as subsidiaries and related companies. We find some evidence that delegated authority and accountability are complement...

  10. Best management practices plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan has been developed as part of the environmental monitoring program at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. The BMP Plan describes the requirements for personnel training, spill prevention and control, environmental compliance, and sediment/erosion control as they relate to environmental monitoring activities and installation of Monitoring Station 4 at WAG 6.

  11. Customized maximal-overlap multiwavelet denoising with data-driven group threshold for condition monitoring of rolling mill drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinglong; Wan, Zhiguo; Pan, Jun; Zi, Yanyang; Wang, Yu; Chen, Binqiang; Sun, Hailiang; Yuan, Jing; He, Zhengjia

    2016-02-01

    Fault identification timely of rolling mill drivetrain is significant for guaranteeing product quality and realizing long-term safe operation. So, condition monitoring system of rolling mill drivetrain is designed and developed. However, because compound fault and weak fault feature information is usually sub-merged in heavy background noise, this task still faces challenge. This paper provides a possibility for fault identification of rolling mills drivetrain by proposing customized maximal-overlap multiwavelet denoising method. The effectiveness of wavelet denoising method mainly relies on the appropriate selections of wavelet base, transform strategy and threshold rule. First, in order to realize exact matching and accurate detection of fault feature, customized multiwavelet basis function is constructed via symmetric lifting scheme and then vibration signal is processed by maximal-overlap multiwavelet transform. Next, based on spatial dependency of multiwavelet transform coefficients, spatial neighboring coefficient data-driven group threshold shrinkage strategy is developed for denoising process by choosing the optimal group length and threshold via the minimum of Stein's Unbiased Risk Estimate. The effectiveness of proposed method is first demonstrated through compound fault identification of reduction gearbox on rolling mill. Then it is applied for weak fault identification of dedusting fan bearing on rolling mill and the results support its feasibility.

  12. AAPM and GEC-ESTRO guidelines for image-guided robotic brachytherapy: Report of Task Group 192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podder, Tarun K., E-mail: tarun.podder@uhhospitals.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44122 (United States); Beaulieu, Luc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Univ de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Caldwell, Barrett [Schools of Industrial Engineering and Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Cormack, Robert A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Crass, Jostin B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Dicker, Adam P.; Yu, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States); Fenster, Aaron [Department of Imaging Research, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Fichtinger, Gabor [School of Computer Science, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Meltsner, Michael A. [Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, Wisconsin 53711 (United States); Moerland, Marinus A. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 3508 GA (Netherlands); Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Salcudean, Tim [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Song, Danny Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Thomadsen, Bruce R. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In the last decade, there have been significant developments into integration of robots and automation tools with brachytherapy delivery systems. These systems aim to improve the current paradigm by executing higher precision and accuracy in seed placement, improving calculation of optimal seed locations, minimizing surgical trauma, and reducing radiation exposure to medical staff. Most of the applications of this technology have been in the implantation of seeds in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Nevertheless, the techniques apply to any clinical site where interstitial brachytherapy is appropriate. In consideration of the rapid developments in this area, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) commissioned Task Group 192 to review the state-of-the-art in the field of robotic interstitial brachytherapy. This is a joint Task Group with the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO). All developed and reported robotic brachytherapy systems were reviewed. Commissioning and quality assurance procedures for the safe and consistent use of these systems are also provided. Manual seed placement techniques with a rigid template have an estimated in vivo accuracy of 3–6 mm. In addition to the placement accuracy, factors such as tissue deformation, needle deviation, and edema may result in a delivered dose distribution that differs from the preimplant or intraoperative plan. However, real-time needle tracking and seed identification for dynamic updating of dosimetry may improve the quality of seed implantation. The AAPM and GEC-ESTRO recommend that robotic systems should demonstrate a spatial accuracy of seed placement ≤1.0 mm in a phantom. This recommendation is based on the current performance of existing robotic brachytherapy systems and propagation of uncertainties. During clinical commissioning, tests should be conducted to ensure that this level of accuracy is achieved. These tests

  13. AAPM and GEC-ESTRO guidelines for image-guided robotic brachytherapy: report of Task Group 192.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Tarun K; Beaulieu, Luc; Caldwell, Barrett; Cormack, Robert A; Crass, Jostin B; Dicker, Adam P; Fenster, Aaron; Fichtinger, Gabor; Meltsner, Michael A; Moerland, Marinus A; Nath, Ravinder; Rivard, Mark J; Salcudean, Tim; Song, Danny Y; Thomadsen, Bruce R; Yu, Yan

    2014-10-01

    In the last decade, there have been significant developments into integration of robots and automation tools with brachytherapy delivery systems. These systems aim to improve the current paradigm by executing higher precision and accuracy in seed placement, improving calculation of optimal seed locations, minimizing surgical trauma, and reducing radiation exposure to medical staff. Most of the applications of this technology have been in the implantation of seeds in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Nevertheless, the techniques apply to any clinical site where interstitial brachytherapy is appropriate. In consideration of the rapid developments in this area, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) commissioned Task Group 192 to review the state-of-the-art in the field of robotic interstitial brachytherapy. This is a joint Task Group with the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (GEC-ESTRO). All developed and reported robotic brachytherapy systems were reviewed. Commissioning and quality assurance procedures for the safe and consistent use of these systems are also provided. Manual seed placement techniques with a rigid template have an estimated in vivo accuracy of 3-6 mm. In addition to the placement accuracy, factors such as tissue deformation, needle deviation, and edema may result in a delivered dose distribution that differs from the preimplant or intraoperative plan. However, real-time needle tracking and seed identification for dynamic updating of dosimetry may improve the quality of seed implantation. The AAPM and GEC-ESTRO recommend that robotic systems should demonstrate a spatial accuracy of seed placement ≤1.0 mm in a phantom. This recommendation is based on the current performance of existing robotic brachytherapy systems and propagation of uncertainties. During clinical commissioning, tests should be conducted to ensure that this level of accuracy is achieved. These tests should

  14. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater level monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Groundwater level monitoring will be conducted at 129 sites within the WAG. All of the sites will be manually monitored on a semiannual basis. Forty-five of the 128 wells, plus one site in White Oak Lake, will also be equipped with automatic water level monitoring equipment. The 46 sites are divided into three groups. One group will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level, conductivity, and temperature. The other two groups will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level only. The equipment will be rotated between the two groups. The data collected from the water level monitoring will be used to support determination of the contaminant flux at WAG 6.

  15. Continuous glucose monitoring system and new era of early diagnosis of diabetes in high risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM systems are an emerging technology that allows frequent glucose measurements to monitor glucose trends in real time. Their use as a diagnostic tool is still developing and appears to be promising. Combining intermittent glucose self-monitoring (SGM and CGM combines the benefits of both. Significant improvement in the treatment modalities that may prevent the progress of prediabetes to diabetes have been achieved recently and dictates screening of high risk patients for early diagnosis and management of glycemic abnormalities. The use of CGMS in the diagnosis of early dysglycemia (prediabetes especially in high risk patients appears to be an attractive approach. In this review we searched the literature to investigate the value of using CGMS as a diagnostic tool compared to other known tools, namely oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C in high risk groups. Those categories of patients include adolescents and adults with obesity especially those with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO, gestational diabetes, cystic fibrosis, thalassemia major, acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and after renal transplantation. It appears that the ability of the CGMS for frequently monitoring (every 5 min glucose changes during real-life settings for 3 to 5 days stretches the chance to detect more glycemic abnormalities during basal and postprandial conditions compared to other short-timed methods.

  16. The Behavior Engineering Model at Work on a Small Scale: Using Task Clarification, Self-Monitoring, and Public Posting To Improve Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, John; Olson, Ryan; Wellisley, Julie Ann

    2001-01-01

    Explains Gilbert's Behavior Engineering Model that can enable the success of novice performance engineers by prompting appropriate front-end analysis and describes a performance improvement project conducted in the customer service department at an insurance agency. Discusses task clarification, employee self-monitoring, and public posting of…

  17. Distributed Multi-Level Supervision to Effectively Monitor the Operations of a Fleet of Autonomous Vehicles in Agricultural Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa-Muñoz, Jesús; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo; Ribeiro, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a supervisor system for monitoring the operation of automated agricultural vehicles. The system analyses all of the information provided by the sensors and subsystems on the vehicles in real time and notifies the user when a failure or potentially dangerous situation is detected. In some situations, it is even able to execute a neutralising protocol to remedy the failure. The system is based on a distributed and multi-level architecture that divides the supervision into different subsystems, allowing for better management of the detection and repair of failures. The proposed supervision system was developed to perform well in several scenarios, such as spraying canopy treatments against insects and diseases and selective weed treatments, by either spraying herbicide or burning pests with a mechanical-thermal actuator. Results are presented for selective weed treatment by the spraying of herbicide. The system successfully supervised the task; it detected failures such as service disruptions, incorrect working speeds, incorrect implement states, and potential collisions. Moreover, the system was able to prevent collisions between vehicles by taking action to avoid intersecting trajectories. The results show that the proposed system is a highly useful tool for managing fleets of autonomous vehicles. In particular, it can be used to manage agricultural vehicles during treatment operations. PMID:25751079

  18. Distributed Multi-Level Supervision to Effectively Monitor the Operations of a Fleet of Autonomous Vehicles in Agricultural Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Conesa-Muñoz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a supervisor system for monitoring the operation of automated agricultural vehicles. The system analyses all of the information provided by the sensors and subsystems on the vehicles in real time and notifies the user when a failure or potentially dangerous situation is detected. In some situations, it is even able to execute a neutralising protocol to remedy the failure. The system is based on a distributed and multi-level architecture that divides the supervision into different subsystems, allowing for better management of the detection and repair of failures. The proposed supervision system was developed to perform well in several scenarios, such as spraying canopy treatments against insects and diseases and selective weed treatments, by either spraying herbicide or burning pests with a mechanical-thermal actuator. Results are presented for selective weed treatment by the spraying of herbicide. The system successfully supervised the task; it detected failures such as service disruptions, incorrect working speeds, incorrect implement states, and potential collisions. Moreover, the system was able to prevent collisions between vehicles by taking action to avoid intersecting trajectories. The results show that the proposed system is a highly useful tool for managing fleets of autonomous vehicles. In particular, it can be used to manage agricultural vehicles during treatment operations.

  19. Status Report on Activities of the Systems Assessment Task Force, OECD-NEA Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon Michelle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development /Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) Nuclear Science Committee approved the formation of an Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) for LWRs (EGATFL) in 2014. Chaired by Kemal Pasamehmetoglu, INL Associate Laboratory Director for Nuclear Science and Technology, the mandate for the EGATFL defines work under three task forces: (1) Systems Assessment, (2) Cladding and Core Materials, and (3) Fuel Concepts. Scope for the Systems Assessment task force (TF1) includes definition of evaluation metrics for ATF, technology readiness level definition, definition of illustrative scenarios for ATF evaluation, and identification of fuel performance and system codes applicable to ATF evaluation. The Cladding and Core Materials (TF2) and Fuel Concepts (TF3) task forces will identify gaps and needs for modeling and experimental demonstration; define key properties of interest; identify the data necessary to perform concept evaluation under normal conditions and illustrative scenarios; identify available infrastructure (internationally) to support experimental needs; and make recommendations on priorities. Where possible, considering proprietary and other export restrictions (e.g., International Traffic in Arms Regulations), the Expert Group will facilitate the sharing of data and lessons learned across the international group membership. The Systems Assessment task force is chaired by Shannon Bragg-Sitton (Idaho National Laboratory [INL], U.S.), the Cladding Task Force is chaired by Marie Moatti (Electricite de France [EdF], France), and the Fuels Task Force is chaired by a Masaki Kurata (Japan Atomic Energy Agency [JAEA], Japan). The original Expert Group mandate was established for June 2014 to June 2016. In April 2016 the Expert Group voted to extend the mandate one additional year to June 2017 in order to complete the task force deliverables; this request was subsequently approved by the Nuclear Science Committee. This

  20. Three-dimensional, task-specific robot therapy of the arm after stroke: a multicentre, parallel-group randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamroth-Marganska, Verena; Blanco, Javier; Campen, Katrin; Curt, Armin; Dietz, Volker; Ettlin, Thierry; Felder, Morena; Fellinghauer, Bernd; Guidali, Marco; Kollmar, Anja; Luft, Andreas; Nef, Tobias; Schuster-Amft, Corina; Stahel, Werner; Riener, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Arm hemiparesis secondary to stroke is common and disabling. We aimed to assess whether robotic training of an affected arm with ARMin--an exoskeleton robot that allows task-specific training in three dimensions-reduces motor impairment more effectively than does conventional therapy. In a prospective, multicentre, parallel-group randomised trial, we enrolled patients who had had motor impairment for more than 6 months and moderate-to-severe arm paresis after a cerebrovascular accident who met our eligibility criteria from four centres in Switzerland. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive robotic or conventional therapy using a centre-stratified randomisation procedure. For both groups, therapy was given for at least 45 min three times a week for 8 weeks (total 24 sessions). The primary outcome was change in score on the arm (upper extremity) section of the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA-UE). Assessors tested patients immediately before therapy, after 4 weeks of therapy, at the end of therapy, and 16 weeks and 34 weeks after start of therapy. Assessors were masked to treatment allocation, but patients, therapists, and data analysts were unmasked. Analyses were by modified intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00719433. Between May 4, 2009, and Sept 3, 2012, 143 individuals were tested for eligibility, of whom 77 were eligible and agreed to participate. 38 patients assigned to robotic therapy and 35 assigned to conventional therapy were included in analyses. Patients assigned to robotic therapy had significantly greater improvements in motor function in the affected arm over the course of the study as measured by FMA-UE than did those assigned to conventional therapy (F=4.1, p=0.041; mean difference in score 0.78 points, 95% CI 0.03-1.53). No serious adverse events related to the study occurred. Neurorehabilitation therapy including task-oriented training with an exoskeleton robot can enhance improvement of

  1. Activities of the US-Japan Safety Monitor Joint Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard L. Savercool; Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    This paper documents the activities of the US-Japan exchange in the area of personnel safety at magnetic and laser fusion experiments. A near-miss event with a visiting scientist to the US in 1992 was the impetus for forming the Joint Working Group on Fusion Safety. This exchnge has been under way for over ten years and has provided many safety insights for both US and Japanese facility personnel at national institutes and at universities. The background and activities of the Joint Working Group are described, including the facilities that have been visited for safety walkthroughs, the participants from both countries, and the main safety issues examined during visits. Based on these visits, some operational safety ideas to enhance experiment safety are given. The near-term future plans of the Safety Monitor Joint Working group are also discussed.

  2. Features of Solving Retrospective (Successive Tasks of the Monitoring Subsystem in Systems for Strategic Control of the Regional Structure and Territorial Organization in the Agri-Food Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Serhii A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The given article highlights features of solving retrospective (successive tasks of monitoring production and economic activity of the territorial-production system through a profound using of scientific principles in the developed and introduced enlarged block diagram of the control system for a functionally advanced solution of the task of monitoring labour force turnover at the entity in the agri-food sphere. Solving the task of monitoring the labour force turnover in the territorial-production system by means of electronic digital machines allows: to reduce the complexity of calculations performed by employees of Human Resources Department and make time for other research and control functions; to accelerate submission of necessary accounting and economic as well as analytical information on the labour force turnover at the entity in the agri-food sphere to consumers; increase the quality of accounting and economic as well as analytical information by eliminating errors, which occur at manual calculation; to build a real scientific basis for developing measures of technical, organizational and socio-economic nature aimed at reducing the labour force turnover. The given list of issues solved at development of the monitoring subsystem in strategic control systems of the regional structure and territorial organization of the agri-food sphere is not complete, the use of industrial methods for creating a monitoring subsystem, training specialists and a number of other issues, which are no less important, should be mentioned as well.

  3. Monitoring change in the abundance and distribution of insects using butterflies and other indicator groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J A

    2005-02-28

    Conservative estimates suggest that 50-90% of the existing insect species on Earth have still to be discovered, yet the named insects alone comprise more than half of all known species of organism. With such poor baseline knowledge, monitoring change in insect diversity poses a formidable challenge to scientists and most attempts to generalize involve large extrapolations from a few well-studied taxa. Butterflies are often the only group for which accurate measures of change can be obtained. Four schemes, used successfully to assess change in British butterflies, that are increasingly being applied across the world are described: Red Data Books (RDB) list the best judgements of experts of the conservation status of species in their field of expertise; mapping schemes plot the changing distributions of species at scales of 1-100 km2; transect monitoring schemes generate time series of changes in abundance in sample populations of species on fixed sites across the UK; and occasional surveys measure the number, boundaries and size of all populations of a (usually RDB) species at intervals of 10-30 years. All schemes describe consistent patterns of change, but if they are to be more generally useful, it is important to understand how well butterflies are representative of other taxa. Comparisons with similarly measured changes in native bird and plant species suggest that butterflies have declined more rapidly that these other groups in Britain; it should soon be possible to test whether this pattern exists elsewhere. It is also demonstrated that extinction rates in British butterflies are similar to those in a range of other insect groups over 100 years once recording bias is accounted for, although probably lower than in aquatic or parasitic taxa. It is concluded that butterflies represent adequate indicators of change for many terrestrial insect groups, but recommended that similar schemes be extended to other popular groups, especially dragonflies, bumblebees

  4. Respiration monitoring by Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) Technique in a group of healthy males. Calibration equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balleza, M.; Vargas, M.; Kashina, S.; Huerta, M. R.; Delgadillo, I.; Moreno, G.

    2017-01-01

    Several research groups have proposed the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in order to analyse lung ventilation. With the use of 16 electrodes, the EIT is capable to obtain a set of transversal section images of thorax. In previous works, we have obtained an alternating signal in terms of impedance corresponding to respiration from EIT images. Then, in order to transform those impedance changes into a measurable volume signal a set of calibration equations has been obtained. However, EIT technique is still expensive to attend outpatients in basics hospitals. For that reason, we propose the use of electrical bioimpedance (EBI) technique to monitor respiration behaviour. The aim of this study was to obtain a set of calibration equations to transform EBI impedance changes determined at 4 different frequencies into a measurable volume signal. In this study a group of 8 healthy males was assessed. From obtained results, a high mathematical adjustment in the group calibrations equations was evidenced. Then, the volume determinations obtained by EBI were compared with those obtained by our gold standard. Therefore, despite EBI does not provide a complete information about impedance vectors of lung compared with EIT, it is possible to monitor the respiration.

  5. Commissioning specialist diabetes services for adults with diabetes: summary of a Diabetes UK Task and Finish group report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, N; Turner, B; Vora, J

    2011-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes, the drive to develop community services for diabetes and the Quality and Outcomes Framework for diabetes have led to improvements in the management of diabetes in primary care settings, with services traditionally provided only in specialist care now provided for many patients with diabetes by non-specialists. Consequently, there is a need to redefine roles, responsibilities and components of a specialist diabetes service to provide for the needs of patients in the National Health Service (NHS) today. The delivery of diabetes care is complex and touches on almost every aspect of the health service. It is the responsibility of those working within commissioning and specialist provider roles to work together with people with diabetes to develop, organize and deliver a full range of integrated diabetes care services. The local delivery model agreed within the local diabetes network, comprising specialist teams, primary care teams, commissioners and people with diabetes, should determine how the diabetes specialist services are organizsed. It should identify the roles and responsibilities of provider organizations to ensure that the right person provides the right care, at the right time, and in the right place. We summarize a report entitled 'Commissioning Diabetes Specialist Services for Adults with Diabetes', which has been produced, as a 'Task and Finish' group activity within Diabetes UK, to assist managers, commissioners and healthcare professionals to provide advice on the structure, roles and components of specialist diabetes services for adults. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  6. Reexamining the validity and reliability of the clinical version of the Iowa gambling task: Evidence from a normal subject group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung eLin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Over past decade, the Iowa gambling task (IGT has been utilized to test various decision deficits induced by neurological damage or psychiatric disorders. The IGT has recently been standardized for identifying 13 different neuropsychological disorders. Neuropsychological patients choose bad decks frequently, and normal subjects prefer good EV decks. However, the IGT has several validity and reliability problems. Some research groups have pointed out that the validity of IGT is influenced by the personality and emotional state of subjects. Additionally, several other studies have proposed that the prominent deck B phenomenon (PDB phenomenon – that is, normal subjects preferring bad deck B – may be the most serious problem confronting IGT validity. Specifically, deck B offers a high frequency of gains but negative EV. In the standard IGT administration, choice behavior can be understood with reference to gain-loss frequency (GLF rather than inferred future consequences (EV, the basic assumption of IGT. Furthermore, using two different criteria (basic assumption vs. professional norm results in significantly different classification results. Therefore, we recruited 72 normal subjects to test the validity and reliability of IGT. Each subject performed three runs of the computer-based clinical IGT version. The PDB phenomenon has been observed to a significant degree in the first and second stages of the clinical IGT version. Obviously, validity, reliability and the practice effect were unstable between two given stages. The present form of the clinical IGT version has only one stage, so its use should be reconsidered for examining normal decision makers; results from patient groups must also be interpreted with great care. GLF could be the main factor to be considered in establishing the constructional validity and reliability of the clinical IGT version.

  7. Monte Carlo reference data sets for imaging research: Executive summary of the report of AAPM Research Committee Task Group 195.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Ali, Elsayed S M; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo; Boone, John M; Kyprianou, Iacovos S; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McMillan, Kyle L; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Rogers, D W O; Samei, Ehsan; Turner, Adam C

    2015-10-01

    The use of Monte Carlo simulations in diagnostic medical imaging research is widespread due to its flexibility and ability to estimate quantities that are challenging to measure empirically. However, any new Monte Carlo simulation code needs to be validated before it can be used reliably. The type and degree of validation required depends on the goals of the research project, but, typically, such validation involves either comparison of simulation results to physical measurements or to previously published results obtained with established Monte Carlo codes. The former is complicated due to nuances of experimental conditions and uncertainty, while the latter is challenging due to typical graphical presentation and lack of simulation details in previous publications. In addition, entering the field of Monte Carlo simulations in general involves a steep learning curve. It is not a simple task to learn how to program and interpret a Monte Carlo simulation, even when using one of the publicly available code packages. This Task Group report provides a common reference for benchmarking Monte Carlo simulations across a range of Monte Carlo codes and simulation scenarios. In the report, all simulation conditions are provided for six different Monte Carlo simulation cases that involve common x-ray based imaging research areas. The results obtained for the six cases using four publicly available Monte Carlo software packages are included in tabular form. In addition to a full description of all simulation conditions and results, a discussion and comparison of results among the Monte Carlo packages and the lessons learned during the compilation of these results are included. This abridged version of the report includes only an introductory description of the six cases and a brief example of the results of one of the cases. This work provides an investigator the necessary information to benchmark his/her Monte Carlo simulation software against the reference cases included here

  8. Innovative characteristics of the new dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract studied by the ICRP appointed Task Group of Committee 2

    CERN Document Server

    Melandri, C; Tarroni, G

    1991-01-01

    In 1984, the ICRP appointed a Task Group of Committee 2 to review and revise, as necessary, the current lung dosimetric model. On the basis of the knowledge acquired during the past 20 years, the Task Group's approach has been to review, in depth, the morphology and physiology of the human respiratory tract, inspirability of aerosols and regional deposition of inhaled particles as functions of aerosol size and breathing parameters, clearance of deposited materials, nature and specific sites of damage to the respiratory system caused by inhaled radioactive substances. In the proposed model, clearance from the three regions of the respiratory tract (extrathoracic ET, fast-clearing thoracic T sub f and slow-clearing thoracic T sub s , comprising lymph nodes) is described in terms of competition between the mechanical processes moving particles, which do not depend on the substances, and those of absorption into the blood, determined solely by the material. A Task Group report will also include models for calcula...

  9. Automated recording of individual performance and hand preference during joystick-task acquisition in group-living bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, M W; Rosenblum, L A

    1994-12-01

    A microchip that provided a unique identification number was injected into each forearm of all 8 members of a bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) social group. The group was then given computer-controlled joystick tasks of increasing difficulty. The identification number of the arm used on each trial was input into the computer and used to determine individual performance and hand preference in more than 23,000 trials. Three subjects reversed hand preference as task difficulty was increased over time. All subjects exhibited nearly exclusive use of a single hand on the most difficult task; 6 used the right hand, and 2 used the left. Daily patterns of joystick activity for the group members differed somewhat from that of our individually housed monkeys.

  10. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  11. A group-based tasks allocation algorithm for the optimization of long leave opportunities in academic departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyono Obono, S. D.; Basak, Sujit Kumar

    2011-12-01

    The general formulation of the assignment problem consists in the optimal allocation of a given set of tasks to a workforce. This problem is covered by existing literature for different domains such as distributed databases, distributed systems, transportation, packets radio networks, IT outsourcing, and teaching allocation. This paper presents a new version of the assignment problem for the allocation of academic tasks to staff members in departments with long leave opportunities. It presents the description of a workload allocation scheme and its algorithm, for the allocation of an equitable number of tasks in academic departments where long leaves are necessary.

  12. Age and gender diversity as determinants of performance and health in a public organization: the role of task complexity and group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegge, Jürgen; Roth, Carla; Neubach, Barbara; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut; Kanfer, Ruth

    2008-11-01

    The influence of age and gender composition on group performance and self-reported health disorders was examined with data from 4,538 federal tax employees working in 222 natural work unit groups. As hypothesized, age diversity correlated positively with performance only in groups solving complex decision-making tasks, and this finding was replicated when analyzing performance data collected 1 year later. Age diversity was also positively correlated with health disorders--but only in groups working on routine decision-making tasks. Gender composition also had a significant effect on group performance, such that groups with a high proportion of female employees performed worse and reported more health disorders than did gender-diverse teams. As expected, effects of gender composition were most pronounced in large groups. Effects of age diversity were found when controlling for gender diversity and vice versa. Thus, age and gender diversity seem to play a unique role in performance and well-being. The moderating role of task complexity for both effects of age diversity and the moderating role of group size for both effects of gender diversity further suggest that the impact of these 2 variables depends on different group processes (e.g., knowledge exchange, variation in gender salience).

  13. Report of ICRP Task Group 80: 'radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W

    2012-01-01

    The report of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Task Group 80 entitled 'Radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste' updates and consolidates previous ICRP recommendations related to solid waste disposal (ICRP Publications 46, 77, and 81). The recommendations given in this report apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the 2007 system of radiological protection, described in ICRP Publication 103, can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report is written as a self-standing document. It describes the different stages in the lifetime of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that influences application of the protection system over the different phases in the lifetime of a disposal facility is the level of oversight that is present. The level of oversight affects the capability to reduce or avoid exposures. Three main time frames have to be considered for the purpose of radiological protection: time of direct oversight when the disposal facility is being implemented and active oversight is taking place; time of indirect oversight when the disposal facility is sealed and indirect oversight is being exercised to provide additional assurance on behalf of the population; and time of no oversight when oversight is no longer exercised because memory is lost. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Dosimetric evaluation of a commercial 3D treatment planning system using the AAPM Task Group 23 test package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova Borca, Valeria; Pasquino, Massimo; Bresciani, Sara; Catuzzo, Paola; Ozzello, Franca; Tofani, Santi

    2005-03-01

    The accuracy of the dose calculation algorithm is one of the most critical steps in assessing the radiotherapy treatment to achieve the 5% accuracy in dose delivery, which represents the suggested limit to increase the complication-free local control of tumor. We have used the AAPM Task Group 23 (TG-23) test package for clinical photon external beam therapy to evaluate the accuracy of the new version of the PLATO TPS algorithm. The comparison between tabulated values and calculated ones has been performed for 266 and 297 dose values for the 4 and 18 MV photon beams, respectively. Dose deviations less than 2% were found in the 98.5%- and 90.6% analyzed dose points for the two considered energies, respectively. Larger deviations were obtained for both energies, in large dose gradients, such as the build-up region or near the field edges and blocks. As far as the radiological field width is concerned, 64 points were analyzed for both the energies: 53 points (83%) and 64 points (100%) were within +/-2 millimeters for the 4 and 18 MV photon beams, respectively. The results show the good accuracy of the algorithm either in simple geometry beam conditions or in complex ones, in homogeneous medium, and in the presence of inhomogeneities, for low and high energy beams. Our results fit well the data reported by several authors related to the calculation accuracy of different treatment planning systems (TPSs) (within a mean value of 0.7% and 1.2% for 4 and 18 MV respectively). The TG-23 test package can be considered a powerful instrument to evaluate dose calculation accuracy, and as such may play an important role in a quality assurance program related to the commissioning of a new TPS.

  15. Development of the approaches to the classification and groups of the tasks fulfilling by the internal auditors

    OpenAIRE

    Шалімова, Наталія Станіславівна; Андрощук, Ірина Іванівна

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is critical rethinking and revision of types of tasks that can be performed within internal audit, given the development of internationally recognized professional organizations in this area, including the Institute of Internal Auditors.It is proved a necessity of classification of tasks performed within internal audit based on international standards of professional practice of internal auditing, developed by the Institute of Internal Auditors, using requirements of In...

  16. Surveillance Plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This Surveillance Plan has been developed as part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental monitoring will be conducted in two phases: the baseline monitoring phase and the routine annual monitoring phase. The baseline monitoring phase will be conducted to establish the baseline contaminant release conditions at the Waste Area Grouping (WAG), to confirm the site-related chemicals of concern (COC), and to gather data to confirm the site hydrologic model The baseline monitoring phase is expected to begin in 1994 and continue for 12--18 months. The routine annual monitoring phase will consist of continued sampling and analyses of COC to determine off-WAG contaminant flux, to identify trends in releases, and to confirm the COC The routine annual monitoring phase will continue for {approximately}4 years after completion of the baseline monitoring phase. This Surveillance Plan presents the technical and quality assurance surveillance activities for the various WAG 6 environmental monitoring and data evaluation plans and implementing procedures.

  17. Status Report on Activities of the Systems Assessment Task Force, OECD-NEA Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon Michelle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development /Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) Nuclear Science Committee approved the formation of an Expert Group on Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) for LWRs (EGATFL) in 2014. Chaired by Kemal Pasamehmetoglu, INL Associate Laboratory Director for Nuclear Science and Technology, the mandate for the EGATFL defines work under three task forces: (1) Systems Assessment, (2) Cladding and Core Materials, and (3) Fuel Concepts. Scope for the Systems Assessment task force includes definition of evaluation metrics for ATF, technology readiness level definition, definition of illustrative scenarios for ATF evaluation, parametric studies, and selection of system codes. The Cladding and Core Materials and Fuel Concepts task forces will identify gaps and needs for modeling and experimental demonstration; define key properties of interest; identify the data necessary to perform concept evaluation under normal conditions and illustrative scenarios; identify available infrastructure (internationally) to support experimental needs; and make recommendations on priorities. Where possible, considering proprietary and other export restrictions (e.g., International Traffic in Arms Regulations), the Expert Group will facilitate the sharing of data and lessons learned across the international group membership. The Systems Assessment Task Force is chaired by Shannon Bragg-Sitton (INL), while the Cladding Task Force will be chaired by a representative from France (Marie Moatti, Electricite de France [EdF]) and the Fuels Task Force will be chaired by a representative from Japan (Masaki Kurata, Japan Atomic Energy Agency [JAEA]). This report provides an overview of the Systems Assessment Task Force charter and status of work accomplishment.

  18. Monitoring for social learning : insights from Brazilian NGOs and Dutch farmer study groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, I.; Proost, J.

    2002-01-01

    The process of monitoring can help to trigger learning. As collective monitoring is constructed as part of a social partnership, the generalised and superficial statements on how monitoring is to be implemented that prevail will not suffice for the diversity of contexts in which joint monitoring is

  19. Evaluation of beta spectrometry for environmental monitoring of undeclared nuclear activities. Report on task FIN A846 on the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, R.; Lipponen, M. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Jaakkola, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Radiochemistry

    1996-03-01

    The IAEA (the Agency) is considering environmental monitoring as a possible method to detect the presence of undeclared nuclear activities in a country covered by a comprehensive safeguards agreement. The Finnish support program (FINSP), implemented by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), is supporting the Agency in this new programme. This Agency Task FIN A 846, addresses the possibility of using beta-emitting nuclides as indicators for covert nuclear fuel reprocessing activities. (90 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.).

  20. Collaboration or Confrontation? An Investigation into the Role of Prior Experiences in the Completion of Collaborative Group Tasks by Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Hazel; Templeton, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes research which investigated how a group of 23 postgraduate student teachers from a wide variety of international backgrounds with a broad range of previous experience perceived the significance of their own and others' prior experience in accomplishing directed collaborative tasks, related to their coursework, in…

  1. Examining the Impact of Novel Pre-Activity Tasks on Macroskills: The Case of Group Discussion on Writing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshsima, Hooshang; Zare-Behtash, Esmail; Khosravani, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of most researchers in the field of second and foreign language teaching is lessening the problems and eliminating the hinders on the way of learning a language. Writing is considered as one of the most challenging and complicated tasks for learners to perform particularly when they have to write in a second or foreign language.…

  2. Group Contingencies, Randomization of Reinforcers, and Criteria for Reinforcement, Self-Monitoring, and Peer Feedback on Reducing Inappropriate Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Brenda Anne; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has demonstrated the effectiveness of interdependent and unknown dependent group contingencies on reducing inappropriate classroom behavior. Several investigators have focused on the addition of self-monitoring and peer feedback to these interdependent and unknown dependent group contingencies in order to further improve…

  3. Classification and evaluation strategies of auto-segmentation approaches for PET: Report of AAPM task group No. 211.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Lee, John A; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Naqa, Issam El; Caldwell, Curtis; De Bernardi, Elisabetta; Lu, Wei; Das, Shiva; Geets, Xavier; Gregoire, Vincent; Jeraj, Robert; MacManus, Michael P; Mawlawi, Osama R; Nestle, Ursula; Pugachev, Andrei B; Schöder, Heiko; Shepherd, Tony; Spezi, Emiliano; Visvikis, Dimitris; Zaidi, Habib; Kirov, Assen S

    2017-06-01

    on advanced image analysis paradigms provide generally more accurate segmentation than approaches based on PET activity thresholds, particularly for realistic configurations. However, this may not be the case for simple shape lesions in situations with a narrower range of parameters, where simpler methods may also perform well. Recent algorithms which employ some type of consensus or automatic selection between several PET-AS methods have potential to overcome the limitations of the individual methods when appropriately trained. In either case, accuracy evaluation is required for each different PET scanner and scanning and image reconstruction protocol. For the simpler, less robust approaches, adaptation to scanning conditions, tumor type, and tumor location by optimization of parameters is necessary. The results from the method evaluation stage can be used to estimate the contouring uncertainty. All PET-AS contours should be critically verified by a physician. A standard test, i.e., a benchmark dedicated to evaluating both existing and future PET-AS algorithms needs to be designed, to aid clinicians in evaluating and selecting PET-AS algorithms and to establish performance limits for their acceptance for clinical use. The initial steps toward designing and building such a standard are undertaken by the task group members. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Daylighting monitoring protocols and procedures for buildings. A report of Task 21/Annex 29. Daylight in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atif, M.R. [National Research Council, Inst. for Research in Construction, Indoor Environment Research Program (Denmark); Love, J.A. [Univ. of Calgary, Faculty of Environmental Design (Canada); Littlefair, P. [Building Research Establishment, Lighting and Applied Vision Section (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    This official IEA report is a deliverable of IEA SHC Task 21/IEA BCS Annex 29: Daylight in Buildings. The Task focuses on daylighting systems and strategies which can be applied in new and existing buildings with a high potential electricity saving potential such as offices, schools, commercial, and institutional buildings. The daylighting performance of these strategies and systems is tested in laboratory facilities, through modeling, and in real case study buildings. This paper provides methods and procedures to evaluate the daylighting performance of real buildings. Annex 29 case studies located in Europe, North America, and Australia. It is a deliverable of Subtask D research projects. The main objective of Subtask D, as stated in the Implementing Agreement of Task 21/Annex 29, is `to demonstrate the viability of daylighting buildings in various world climatic zones as a means of achieving significant improvements in building energy efficiency while maintaining a satisfactory visual and thermal environment for occupants`. (au)

  5. Corrosion and erosion monitoring in plates and pipes using constant group velocity Lamb wave inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Peter B; Simonetti, Francesco; Instanes, Geir

    2014-09-01

    Recent improvements in tomographic reconstruction techniques generated a renewed interest in short-range ultrasonic guided wave inspection for real-time monitoring of internal corrosion and erosion in pipes and other plate-like structures. Emerging evidence suggests that in most cases the fundamental asymmetric A0 mode holds a distinct advantage over the earlier market leader fundamental symmetric S0 mode. Most existing A0 mode inspections operate at relatively low inspection frequencies where the mode is highly dispersive therefore very sensitive to variations in wall thickness. This paper examines the potential advantages of increasing the inspection frequency to the so-called constant group velocity (CGV) point where the group velocity remains essentially constant over a wide range of wall thickness variation, but the phase velocity is still dispersive enough to allow accurate wall thickness assessment from phase angle measurements. This paper shows that in the CGV region the crucial issue of temperature correction becomes especially simple, which is particularly beneficial when higher-order helical modes are also exploited for tomography. One disadvantage of working at such relatively high inspection frequency is that, as the slower A0 mode becomes faster and less dispersive, the competing faster S0 mode becomes slower and more dispersive. At higher inspection frequencies these modes cannot be separated any longer based on their vibration polarization only, which is mostly tangential for the S0 mode while mostly normal for the A0 at low frequencies, as the two modes become more similar as the frequency increases. Therefore, we propose a novel method for suppressing the unwanted S0 mode based on the Poisson effect of the material by optimizing the angle of inclination of the equivalent transduction force of the Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) used for generation and detection purposes.

  6. Report of AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group 74: in-air output ratio, Sc, for megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Timothy C; Ahnesjö, Anders; Lam, Kwok Leung; Li, X Allen; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Palta, Jatinder R; Sharpe, Michael B; Thomadsen, Bruce; Tailor, Ramesh C

    2009-11-01

    The concept of in-air output ratio (Sc) was introduced to characterize how the incident photon fluence per monitor unit (or unit time for a Co-60 unit) varies with collimator settings. However, there has been much confusion regarding the measurement technique to be used that has prevented the accurate and consistent determination of Sc. The main thrust of the report is to devise a theoretical and measurement formalism that ensures interinstitutional consistency of Sc. The in-air output ratio, Sc, is defined as the ratio of primary collision water kerma in free-space, Kp, per monitor unit between an arbitrary collimator setting and the reference collimator setting at the same location. Miniphantoms with sufficient lateral and longitudinal thicknesses to eliminate electron contamination and maintain transient electron equilibrium are recommended for the measurement of Sc. The authors present a correction formalism to extrapolate the correct Sc from the measured values using high-Z miniphantom. Miniphantoms made of high-Z material are used to measure Sc for small fields (e.g., IMRT or stereotactic radiosurgery). This report presents a review of the components of Sc, including headscatter, source-obscuring, and monitor-backscattering effects. A review of calculation methods (Monte Carlo and empirical) used to calculate Sc for arbitrary shaped fields is presented. The authors discussed the use of Sc in photon dose calculation algorithms, in particular, monitor unit calculation. Finally, a summary of Sc data (from RPC and other institutions) is included for QA purposes.

  7. Assessment of slow-breathing relaxation technique in acute stressful tasks using a multipurpose non-invasive beat-by-beat cardiovascular monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogawa, Masamichi; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Ikarashi, Akira; Tanaka, Shinobu; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2007-01-01

    Recently, several studies revealed that daily slow-breathing exercise lowered blood pressure and increased baroreflex sensitivity. With this interesting finding, we have been contemplating to design a compact breath-controllable device for relaxation to stress reaction during daily living for home as well as ambulatory use, as a final goal, towards reduction of cognitive hemodynamic disorders, hypertension, and acute stress-induced hemodynamic disorders. The present study thereby describes, as a first step, to design a prototype system combining a compact multipurpose non-invasive beat-by-beat cardiovascular monitor developed previously with a wrist-type vibrator to make a respiration rhythm, and to assess an effect of slow-breathing relaxation on the cardiovascular hemodynamics in response to acute stressful conditions. The cardiovascular hemodynamic monitor can measure beat-by-beat systolic (SBP), mean (MBP) and diastolic (DBP) pressure in a finger based on the volume-compensation method, cardiac output (CO) by the electrical admittance method and the other hemodynamic-related parameters (e.g., total peripheral resistance (TPR=MBP/CO), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, pulse wave velocity, etc.). The wrist-type vibrator can give various breathing rhythms quietly to a subject using a small vibration motor. The stressful tasks loaded to healthy volunteers (3 males, 23-34 yrs.) in the experiments were cold pressor and arithmetic ones as a representative of daily passive and active coping tasks, respectively, under conditions with (respiratory rate of 6 1/min) and without breath control.. The results showed that the slow-breathing technique could have a significant effect on improvement of the hemodynamic changes following the acute stressful tasks, especially in the passive coping task.

  8. GPS positioning and desktop mapping. Applications to environmental monitoring. Report on task JNT B898 on the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kansanaho, A.; Ilander, T.; Toivonen, H.

    1995-10-01

    Satellite navigation has been used for in-field applications by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety since 1993. Because of this experience, training in the use of GPS positioning and desktop mapping was chosen as a task under the Finnish Support programme to IAEA safeguards. A lecture and a field experiment was held in the training course on environmental monitoring at the IAEA headquarters in June 1995. Real-time mapping of the co-ordinates and storing information on sampling sites and procedures can make safeguards implementation more efficient and effective. Further software development are needed for these purposes. (author) (6 figs.).

  9. Improving multi-tasking ability through action videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, Dan; Conger, Mark; Liao, Janet; Caldwell, J Lynn; Vu, Kim-Phuong L

    2013-03-01

    The present study examined whether action videogames can improve multi-tasking in high workload environments. Two groups with no action videogame experience were pre-tested using the Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MATB). It consists of two primary tasks; tracking and fuel management, and two secondary tasks; systems monitoring and communication. One group served as a control group, while a second played action videogames a minimum of 5 h a week for 10 weeks. Both groups returned for a post-assessment on the MATB. We found the videogame treatment enhanced performance on secondary tasks, without interfering with the primary tasks. Our results demonstrate action videogames can increase people's ability to take on additional tasks by increasing attentional capacity.

  10. ToTCompute: A Novel EEG-Based TimeOnTask Threshold Computation Mechanism for Engagement Modelling and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergulescu, Ioana; Muntean, Cristina Hava

    2016-01-01

    Engagement influences participation, progression and retention in game-based e-learning (GBeL). Therefore, GBeL systems should engage the players in order to support them to maximize their learning outcomes, and provide the players with adequate feedback to maintain their motivation. Innovative engagement monitoring solutions based on players'…

  11. PBL on Line: A Proposal for the Organization, Part-Time Monitoring and Assessment of PBL Group Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Enric; Gil, Debora; Gurguí, Antoni; Hernández-Sabaté, Aura; Rocarías, Jaume; Poveda, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the organisation of PBL (Project Based Learning) for a subject included in the IT engineering degree course. It is the result of 10 years of experience of the implantation and continuous improvement of the PBL class structure. The latest innovations include the experience of part-time monitoring with PBL groups using the Open…

  12. Validation of limited sampling models (LSM) for estimating AUC in therapeutic drug monitoring - is a separate validation group required?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proost, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Limited sampling models (LSM) for estimating AUC in therapeutic drug monitoring are usually validated in a separate group of patients, according to published guidelines. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validation of LSM by comparing independent validation with cross-validation us

  13. Resting-state BOLD networks versus task-associated functional MRI for distinguishing Alzheimer's disease risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Adam S; Sherzai, Ayesha; Taylor, Curtis; Langbaum, Jessica B S; Chen, Kewei; Buxton, Richard B

    2009-10-01

    To assess the ability of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to distinguish known risk factors for AD, we evaluated 17 cognitively normal individuals with a family history of AD and at least one copy of the apolipoprotein e4 allele compared to 12 individuals who were not carriers of the APOE4 gene and did not have a family history of AD. Blood oxygen level dependent fMRI was performed evaluating encoding-associated signal and resting-state default mode network signal differences between the two risk groups. Neurocognitive testing revealed that the high risk group performed worse on category fluency testing, but the groups were equivalent on all other cognitive measures. During encoding of novel face-name pairs, there were no regions of encoding-associated BOLD activations that were different in the high risk group. Encoding-associated deactivations were greater in magnitude in the low risk group in the medial and right lateral parietal cortex, similar to findings in AD studies. The resting-state DMN analysis demonstrated nine regions in the prefrontal, orbital frontal, temporal and parietal lobes that distinguished the two risk groups. Resting-state DMN analysis could distinguish risk groups with an effect size of 3.35, compared to an effect size of 1.39 using encoding-associated fMRI techniques. Imaging of the resting state avoids performance related variability seen in activation fMRI, is less complicated to acquire and standardize, does not require radio-isotopes, and may be more effective at identifying functional pathology associated with AD risk compared to non-resting fMRI techniques.

  14. Dose calculation formalisms and consensus dosimetry parameters for intravascular brachytherapy dosimetry: recommendations of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 149.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Schaart, Dennis R; Soares, Christopher G; Nath, Ravinder

    2007-11-01

    Since the publication of AAPM Task Group 60 report in 1999, a considerable amount of dosimetry data for the three coronary brachytherapy systems in use in the United States has been reported. A subgroup, Task Group 149, of the AAPM working group on Special Brachytherapy Modalities (Bruce Thomadsen, Chair) was charged to develop recommendations for dose calculation formalisms and the related consensus dosimetry parameters. The recommendations of this group are presented here. For the Cordis 192Ir and Novoste 90Sr/90Y systems, the original TG-43 formalism in spherical coordinates should be used along with the consensus values of the dose rate constant, geometry function, radial dose function, and anisotropy function for the single seeds. Contributions from the single seeds should be added linearly for the calculation of dose distributions from a source train. For the Guidant 32P wire system, the modified TG-43 formalism in cylindrical coordinates along with the recommended data for the 20 and 27 mm wires should be used. Data tables for the 6, 10, 14, 18, and 22 seed trains of the Cordis system, 30, 40, and 60 mm seed trains of the Novoste system, and the 20 and 27 mm wires of the Guidant system are presented along with our rationale and methodology for selecting the consensus data. Briefly, all available datasets were compared with each other and the consensus dataset was either an average of available data or the one obtained from the most densely populated study; in most cases this was a Monte Carlo calculation.

  15. A metaanalysis of perceptual organization in schizophrenia, schizotypy, and other high-risk groups based on variants of the Embedded Figures Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Rebecca Panton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research on perceptual organization in schizophrenia frequently employs shapes with regularly sampled contours (fragmented stimuli, in noise fields composed of similar elements, to elicit visual abnormalities. However, perceptual organization is multi-factorial and, in earlier studies, continuous contours have also been employed in tasks assessing the ability to extract shapes from a background. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using closed-contour stimuli, including the Embedded Figures Test (EFT and related tasks, both in people with schizophrenia and in healthy schizotypes and relatives, considered at increased risk for psychosis. Eleven studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis, including six that used a between-groups study design (i.e. perceptual organization abilities of schizophrenia/high-risk groups were compared to healthy or clinical controls, and five that treated schizophrenia symptoms or schizotypy traits and indices of perceptual organization as continuous variables. Effect sizes and heterogeneity statistics were calculated, and the risk of publication bias was explored. A significant, moderate effect for EFT performance was found with studies that compared performance of schizophrenia/high-risk groups to a healthy or patient comparison group (d = -.523, p<.001. However, significant heterogeneity was also found amongst the schizotypy, but not schizophrenia studies, as well as studies using accuracy, but not reaction time as a measure of performance. A non-significant correlation was found for the studies that examined schizophrenia symptoms or schizotypy traits as continuous variables (r = .012, p = .825. These results suggest that deficits in perceptual organization of non-fragmented stimuli are found when differences between schizophrenia/high-risk groups and comparison groups are maximized. These findings should motivate further investigation of perceptual

  16. Using Different Methods to Access the Difficult Task of Delimiting Species in a Complex Neotropical Hyperdiverse Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Silva, Guilherme J.; Rodriguez, Mónica S.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The genus Rineloricaria is a Neotropical freshwater fish group with a long and problematic taxonomic history, attributed to the large number of species and the pronounced similarity among them. In the present work, taxonomic information and different molecular approaches were used to identify species boundaries and characterize independent evolutionary units. We analyzed 228 samples assembled in 53 distinct morphospecies. A general mixed yule-coalescent (GMYC) analysis indicated the existence of 70 entities, while BOLD system analyses showed the existence of 56 distinct BINs. When we used a new proposed integrative taxonomy approach, mixing the results obtained by each analysis, we identified 73 OTUs. We suggest that Rineloricaria probably has some complexity in the known species and several species not formally described yet. Our data suggested that other hyperdiverse fish groups with wide distributions can be further split into many new evolutionary taxonomic units. PMID:26332320

  17. Report on the joint meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.L. (ed.)

    1985-10-01

    This report of the Joint Meeting of the Division of Development and Technology Plasma/Wall Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Task Groups contains contributing papers in the following areas: Plasma/Materials Interaction Program and Technical Assessment, High Heat Flux Materials and Components Program and Technical Assessment, Pumped Limiters, Ignition Devices, Program Planning Activities, Compact High Power Density Reactor Requirements, Steady State Tokamaks, and Tritium Plasma Experiments. All these areas involve the consideration of High Heat Flux on Materials and the Interaction of the Plasma with the First Wall. Many of the Test Facilities are described as well. (LSP)

  18. Does the mask govern the mind?: effects of arbitrary gender representation on quantitative task performance in avatar-represented virtual groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn; Nass, Clifford I; Bailenson, Jeremy N

    2014-04-01

    Virtual environments employing avatars for self-representation-including the opportunity to represent or misrepresent social categories-raise interesting and intriguing questions as to how one's avatar-based social category shapes social identity dynamics, particularly when stereotypes prevalent in the offline world apply to the social categories visually represented by avatars. The present experiment investigated how social category representation via avatars (i.e., graphical representations of people in computer-mediated environments) affects stereotype-relevant task performance. In particular, building on and extending the Proteus effect model, we explored whether and how stereotype lift (i.e., a performance boost caused by the awareness of a domain-specific negative stereotype associated with outgroup members) occurred in virtual group settings in which avatar-based gender representation was arbitrary. Female and male participants (N=120) were randomly assigned either a female avatar or a male avatar through a process masked as a random drawing. They were then placed in a numerical minority status with respect to virtual gender-as the only virtual female (male) in a computer-mediated triad with two opposite-gendered avatars-and performed a mental arithmetic task either competitively or cooperatively. The data revealed that participants who were arbitrarily represented by a male avatar and competed against two ostensible female avatars showed strongest performance compared to others on the arithmetic task. This pattern occurred regardless of participants' actual gender, pointing to a virtual stereotype lift effect. Additional mediation tests showed that task motivation partially mediated the effect. Theoretical and practical implications for social identity dynamics in avatar-based virtual environments are discussed.

  19. Quality assurance in radiotherapy: the importance of medical physics staffing levels. Recommendations from an ESTRO/EFOMP joint task group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belletti, S; Dutreix, A; Garavaglia, G; Gfirtner, H; Haywood, J; Jessen, K A; Lamm, I L; Mijnheer, B; Noël, A; Nüsslin, F; Rosenow, U; Schneider, P; Seelentag, W; Sheriff, S; Svensson, H; Thwaites, D

    1996-10-01

    The safe application of ionising radiation for diagnosis and therapy requires a high level of knowledge of the underlying processes and of quality assurance. Sophisticated modern equipment can be used effectively for complicated diagnostic and therapeutic techniques only with adequate physics support. In the light of recent analyses and recommendations by national and international societies a joint working group of representatives from ESTRO (European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology) and from EFOMP (European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics) was set up to assess the necessary staffing levels for physics support to radiotherapy. The method used to assess the staffing levels, the resulting recommendations and examples of their practical application are described.

  20. Group task-specific circuit training for patients discharged home after stroke may be as effective as individualised physiotherapy in improving mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Does task oriented circuit training improve mobility in patients with stroke compared with individualised physiotherapy? Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation and blinded outcome assessment. Nine outpatient rehabilitation centres in the Netherlands. Patients with a stroke who had been discharged home and who could walk 10 m without assistance were included. Cognitive deficits and inability to communicate were key exclusion criteria. Randomisation of 250 participants allocated 126 to task oriented circuit training and 124 to individualised physiotherapy. The task oriented circuit training group trained for 90 min twice-weekly for 12 weeks supervised by physiotherapists and sports trainers as they completed 8 mobility-related stations in groups of 2 to 8 participants. Individualised outpatient physiotherapy was designed to improve balance, physical conditioning, and walking. The primary outcome was the mobility domain of the stroke impact scale measured at 12 weeks and 24 weeks. The domain includes 9 questions about a patient's perceived mobility competence and is scored from 0 to 100 with higher scores indicating better mobility. Secondary outcome measures included other domains of the stroke impact scale, the Nottingham extended ADL scale, the falls efficacy scale, the hospital anxiety and depression scale, comfortable walking speed, 6-minute walk distance, and a stairs test. 242 participants completed the study. There were no differences in the mobility domain of the stroke impact scale between the groups at 12 weeks (mean difference (MD) -0.05 units, 95% CI -1.4 to 1.3 units) or 24 weeks (MD -0.6, 95% CI -1.8 to 0.5). Comfortable walking speed (MD 0.09 m/s, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.13), 6-minute walk distance (MD 20 m, 95% CI 35.3 to 34.7), and stairs test (MD -1.6s, 95% CI -2.9 to -0.3) improved a little more in the circuit training group than the control group at 12 weeks. The memory and thinking domain of the stroke impact scale (MD -1.6 units, 95% CI

  1. The IUGS Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism - promoting professional skills professionalism in the teaching, research and application of geoscience for the protection and education of the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez-Fuentes, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    A new IUGS Task Group entitled the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism was formed in 2012 and launched at a symposium at the 341GC in Brisbane on strengthening communication between fundamental and applied geosciences and between geoscientists and public. The Task Group aims to ensure that the international geoscience community is engaged in a transformation of its profession so as to embed the need for a professional skills base alongside technical and scientific skills and expertise, within a sound ethical framework in all arenas of geoscience practice. This needs to be established during training and education and reinforced as CPD throughout a career in geoscience as part of ensuring public safety and effective communication of geoscience concepts to the public. The specific objective of the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism that is relevant to this poster session is: • To facilitate a more 'joined up' geoscience community fostering better appreciation by academics and teachers of the professional skills that geoscientists need in the workplace, and facilitate better communication between academic and applied communities leading to more effective application of research findings and technology to applied practitioners and development of research programmes that truly address urgent issues. Other Task Group objectives are: • To provide a specific international forum for discussion of matters of common concern and interest among geoscientists and geoscientific organizations involved in professional affairs, at the local, national and international level; • To act as a resource to IUGS on professional affairs in the geosciences as they may influence and impact "Earth Science for the Global Community" in general - both now and in the future; • To offer and provide leadership and knowledge transfer services to countries and geoscientist communities around the world seeking to introduce systems of professional governance and self

  2. MRS Action Plan Task B report: Analyses of alternative designs and operating approaches for a Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, W.D.; Jowdy, A.K.; Keehn, C.H.; Gale, R.M.; Smith, R.I.

    1988-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act (NWPAA) instituted a number of changes in the DOE commercial nuclear waste management system. After passage of the Act, the DOE initiated a number of systems studies to reevaluate the role of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) within the federal waste management system. This report summarizes the results of a study to determine the schedules and costs of developing those MRS facilities needed under a number of scenarios, with differing functions allocated to the MRS and/or different spent fuel acceptance schedules. Nine cases were defined for the system study, seven of which included an MRS Facility. The study cases or scenarios evaluated varied relative to the specific functions to be performed at the MRS. The scenarios ranged in magnitude from storage and shipment of bare, intact spent fuel to consolidating the spent fuel into repository emplacement containers prior to storage and shipment. Each scenario required specific modifications to be made to the design developed for the MRS proposal to Congress (the Conceptual Design Report). 41 figs., 326 tabs.

  3. Marine Animal Alert System -- Task 2.1.5.3: Development of Monitoring Technologies -- FY 2011 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Myers, Joshua R.; Matzner, Shari; Copping, Andrea E.

    2011-09-30

    The Marine Animal Alert System (MAAS) in development by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is focused on providing elements of compliance monitoring to support deployment of marine hydrokinetic energy devices. An initial focus is prototype tidal turbines to be deployed in Puget Sound in Washington State. The MAAS will help manage the risk of injury or mortality to marine animals from blade strike or contact with tidal turbines. In particular, development has focused on detection, classification, and localization of listed Southern Resident killer whales within 200 m of prototype turbines using both active and passive acoustic approaches. At the close of FY 2011, a passive acoustic system consisting of a pair of four-element star arrays and parallel processing of eight channels of acoustic receptions has been designed and built. Field tests of the prototype system are scheduled for the fourth quarter of calendar year 2011. Field deployment and testing of the passive acoustic prototype is scheduled for the first quarter of FY 2012. The design of an active acoustic system that could be built using commercially available off-the-shelf components from active acoustic system vendors is also in the final stages of design and specification.

  4. A Data Acquisition and Monitoring System for the Detector Development Group at FZJ/ZEA-2

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The central institute of electronics (ZEA-2) in the Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) has developed the novel readout electronics JUDIDT to cope with high-rate data acquisition of the KWS-1 and KWS-2 detectors in the experimental Hall at the Forschungsreacktor Muenchen FRM-II in Garching, Muenchen. This electronics has been then modified and used also for the data-acquisition of a prototype for an ANGER Camera proposed for the planned European Spallation Source. To commission the electronics, software for the data acquisition and the data monitoring has been developed. In this report the software is described.

  5. Report of study group 4.2 ''emissions monitoring''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivoshein, B.

    2000-07-01

    SG-4.2 report represents an analysis of causes and gives a quantitative evaluation of gas losses in transmission. The document contains some results of monitoring of emissions in situ operating facilities. The topics discussed are as follows: - questions of standardization of emissions in different countries; - methods and technical means of localization and evaluation of gas leaks; - principles of organization of the system of gas leakage control. The report offers recommendations, based on the experience of different countries, of reducing leaks in transmission and pollutant emissions from GT-units. (author)

  6. Monitoring of hydroxyl groups in wood during heat treatment using NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Katsuya; Inagaki, Tetsuya; Tsuchikawa, Satoru

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the evaluation of thermally treated wood by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. In the NIR second derivative spectrum, the absorption band at 6913 cm(-1) appeared with the procession of heat treatment, which conclusively assigned to the phenolic hydroxyl groups due to the lignin in comparison with the spectrum of acetylated spruce wood. As a result of the changes in the ratio of the areal integral calculated from spectral separation in the region of hydroxyl groups (7200-6100 cm(-1)) by the Gauss-Newton method, it was clear that the degradation of hydroxyl group in the cellulose started predominantly from the amorphous region and followed to semicrystalline and crystalline region. There was an obvious correlation between the weight decrement of wood and the decrement of hydroxyl groups in the cellulose by heat treatment.

  7. Annual INTEC Groundwater Monitoring Report for Group 5 - Snake River Plain Aquifer (2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddy, M.S.

    2002-02-28

    This report describes the monitoring activities conducted and presents the results of groundwater sampling and water-level measurements from October 2000 to September 2001. Groundwater samples were initially collected from 41 wells from the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the Central Facilities Area and analyzed for iodine- 129, strontium-90, tritium, gross alpha, gross beta, technetium-99, uranium isotopes, plutonium isotopes, neptunium-237, gamma spectrometry, and mercury. Samples from 41 wells were collected in April and May 2001. Additional sampling was conducted in August 2001 and included in two CFA production wells, the CFA point of compliance for the production wells, one well was previously sampled and five additional monitoring wells. Water-level measurements were taken from in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Central Facilities Area, and the area south of Central Facilities Area to evaluate groundwater flow directions. Water-level measurements indicated groundwater flow to the south-southwest from the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center.

  8. Tarefa N-back auditiva: desempenho entre diferentes grupos etários Auditory N-back task: different age groups performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana De Nardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Um dos instrumentos mais utilizados internacionalmente para avaliação da Memória de Trabalho (MT é a Tarefa N-back Auditiva. Recursos para avaliação desse sistema são escassos no Brasil. O presente estudo objetiva observar o desempenho da Tarefa N-back Auditiva em indivíduos de diferentes faixas etárias: 27 crianças, 22 pré-adolescentes, 26 adultos e 27 idosos. Os resultados mostram que o grupo etário influencia no desempenho da Tarefa N-back Auditiva. A acurácia foi aumentando na transição da infância para a pré-adolescência e seguiu em crescimento até a adultez. Observou-se um declínio no desempenho de idosos. Os dados da Tarefa N-back Auditiva corrobora a trajetória desenvolvimental, sugerindo que essa tarefa possa ser utilizada no contexto experimental. Pesquisas de normatização contribuirão para melhor compreensão dessa tarefa.One of the most internationally used instruments for evaluation of Working Memory (WM is the Auditory N-Back Task. In Brazil, resources to evaluate this system are scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of different age subjects in auditory n-back tasks. We divided the 102 subjects in four groups: 27 children, 22 adolescents, 26 young adults and 27 older adults. The results demonstrate an age-related difference in the n-back task performance. The accuracy increased in the transition from childhood to adolescence and kept growing from adolescence to adulthood. We also found a decrease in the performance of aged subjects. The Auditory N-Back Task results are in agreement with WM development trajectory, and so, it demonstrates to be an adjusted instrument to evaluate this system in experimental setting.

  9. Design and application of group-specific oligonucleotide probes for detecting and monitoring mouse clostridia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Momose, Yoshika; Park, Sang-Hee; Niwa, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Teruko; Maruyama, Aya; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Itoh, Kikuji

    2011-01-01

    Clostridia dominate the rodent intestinal bacterial community and play an important role in physiological functions of the host. However, their ecology and diversity are still unclear. In our previous report, we showed that phylogenetically novel groups of clostridia inhabit the mouse intestine and

  10. An implantable intracardiac accelerometer for monitoring myocardial contractility. The Multicenter PEA Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickards, A F; Bombardini, T; Corbucci, G; Plicchi, G

    1996-12-01

    As the myocardium contracts isometrically, it generates vibrations that are transmitted throughout the heart. These vibrations can be measured with an implantable microaccelerometer located inside the tip of an otherwise conventional unipolar pacing lead. These vibrations are, in their audible component, responsible for the first heart sound. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in man, the clinical feasibility and reliability of intracavity sampling of Peak Endocardial Acceleration (PEA) of the first heart sound vibrations using an implantable tip mounted accelerometer. We used a unidirectional accelerometer located inside the stimulating tip of a standard unipolar pacing lead: the sensor has a frequency response of DC to 1 kHz and a sensitivity of 5 mV/G (G = 9.81 m/s-2). The lead was connected to an external signal amplifier with a frequency range of 0.05-1,000 Hz and to a peak-to-peak detector synchronized with the endocardial R wave scanning the isovolumetric contraction phase. Following standard electrophysiological studies, sensor equipped leads were temporarily inserted in the RV of 15 patients (68 +/- 15 years), with normal regional and global ventricular function, to record PEA at rest, during AAI pacing, during VVI pacing, and during dobutamine infusion (up to 20 micrograms/kg per min). PEA at baseline was 1.1 G +/- 0.5 (heart rate = 75 +/- 14 beats/min) and increased to 1.3 G +/- 0.9 (P = NS vs baseline) during AAI pacing (heart rate = 140 beats/min) and to 1.4 G +/- 0.5 (P = NS vs baseline) during VVI pacing (heart rate = 140 beats/min). Dobutamine infusion increased PEA to 3.7 G +/- 1.1 (P < 0.001 vs baseline), with a heart rate of 121 +/- 13 beats/min. In a subset of three patients, simultaneous hemodynamic RV monitoring was performed to obtain RV dP/dtmax, whose changes during dobutamine and pacing were linearly related to changes in PEA (r = 0.9; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the PEA recording can be consistently and safely obtained with an

  11. Potential hazard due to induced radioactivity secondary to radiotherapy: the report of task group 136 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomadsen, Bruce; Nath, Ravinder; Bateman, Fred B; Farr, Jonathan; Glisson, Cal; Islam, Mohammad K; LaFrance, Terry; Moore, Mary E; George Xu, X; Yudelev, Mark

    2014-11-01

    followed only if these actions are considered reasonable and practical in the individual clinics. Therapists working with proton beam and neutron beam units handle treatment devices that do become radioactive, and they should wear extremity monitors and make handling apertures and boluses their last task upon entering the room following treatment. Personnel doses from neutron-beam units can approach regulatory limits depending on the number of patients and beams, and strategies to reduce doses should be followed.

  12. The LSC Glitch Group : Monitoring Noise Transients during the fifth LIGO Science Run

    CERN Document Server

    Blackburn, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Chatterji, S; Christensen, N; Dalrymple, J; Desai, S; Di Credico, A; Ely, G; Garofoli, J; Goggin, L; González, G; Gouaty, R; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A; Hoak, D; Isogai, T; Katsavounidis, E; Kissel, J; Klimenko, S; Mercer, R A; Mohapatra, S; Mukherjee, S; Raab, F; Riles, K; Saulson, P; Schofield, R; Shawhan, P; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Stone, R; Vorvick, C; Zanolin, M; Zotov, N; Zweizig, J

    2008-01-01

    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) glitch group is part of the LIGO detector characterization effort. It consists of data analysts and detector experts who, during and after science runs, collaborate for a better understanding of noise transients in the detectors and provide a link between the commissioning teams and the astrophysical analysis. Goals of the glitch group during the fifth LIGO science run (S5) included (1) offline assessment of the detector data quality, with focus on noise transients, (2) veto recommendations for astrophysical analysis and (3) feedback to the commissioning team on anomalies seen in gravitational wave and auxiliary data channels. These goals were achieved through off-site data analysis shifts, where loud transients found by gravitational wave search algorithms were examined with customized event visualization tools. Other activities included the study of auto-correlation of triggers from burst searches, stationarity of the detector noise and veto studies. This article shal...

  13. Stratification and monitoring of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk: recommendations from an expert group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, C; Craner, M; Guadagno, J; Kapoor, R; Mazibrada, G; Molyneux, P; Nicholas, R; Palace, J; Pearson, O R; Rog, D; Young, C A

    2016-02-01

    The use of natalizumab for highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is influenced by the occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Through measurement of the anti-JCV antibody index, and in combination with the presence or absence of other known risk factors, it may be possible to stratify patients with MS according to their risk of developing PML during treatment with natalizumab and detect early suspected PML using MRI including a diffusion-weighted imaging sequence. This paper describes a practical consensus guideline for treating neurologists, based on current evidence, for the introduction into routine clinical practice of anti-JCV antibody index testing of immunosuppressant-naïve patients with MS, either currently being treated with, or initiating, natalizumab, based on their anti-JCV antibody status. Recommendations for the frequency and type of MRI screening in patients with varying index-associated PML risks are also discussed. This consensus paper presents a simple and pragmatic algorithm to support the introduction of anti-JCV antibody index testing and MRI monitoring into standard PML safety protocols, in order to allow some JCV positive patients who wish to begin or continue natalizumab treatment to be managed with a more individualised analysis of their PML risk.

  14. Real-time ultrawide-band group delay profile monitoring through low-noise incoherent temporal interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongwoo; Malacarne, Antonio; Azaña, José

    2011-02-28

    A simple, highly accurate measurement technique for real-time monitoring of the group delay (GD) profiles of photonic dispersive devices over ultra-broad spectral bandwidths (e.g. an entire communication wavelength band) is demonstrated. The technique is based on time-domain self-interference of an incoherent light pulse after linear propagation through the device under test, providing a measurement wavelength range as wide as the source spectral bandwidth. Significant enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the self-interference signal has been observed by use of a relatively low-noise incoherent light source as compared with the theoretical estimate for a white-noise light source. This fact combined with the use of balanced photo-detection has allowed us to significantly reduce the number of profiles that need to be averaged to reach a targeted GD measurement accuracy, thus achieving reconstruction of the device GD profile in real time. We report highly-accurate monitoring of (i) the group-delay ripple (GDR) profile of a 10-m long chirped fiber Bragg grating over the full C band (~42 nm), and (ii) the group velocity dispersion (GVD) and dispersion slope (DS) profiles of a ~2-km long dispersion compensating fiber module over an ~72-nm wavelength range, both captured at a 15 frames/s video rate update, with demonstrated standard deviations in the captured GD profiles as low as ~1.6 ps.

  15. Implementation and Impact of an Automated Group Monitoring and Feedback System to Promote Hand Hygiene Among Health Care Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Laurie J.; Riley, Linda; Saiman, Lisa; Cohen, Bevin; Alper, Paul; Larson, Elaine L.

    2015-01-01

    Article-at-a-Glance Background Despite substantial evidence to support the effectiveness of hand hygiene for preventing health care–associated infections, hand hygiene practice is often inadequate. Hand hygiene product dispensers that can electronically capture hand hygiene events have the potential to improve hand hygiene performance. A study on an automated group monitoring and feedback system was implemented from January 2012 through March 2013 at a 140-bed community hospital. Methods An electronic system that monitors the use of sanitizer and soap but does not identify individual health care personnel was used to calculate hand hygiene events per patient-hour for each of eight inpatient units and hand hygiene events per patient-visit for the six outpatient units. Hand hygiene was monitored but feedback was not provided during a six-month baseline period and three-month rollout period. During the rollout, focus groups were conducted to determine preferences for feedback frequency and format. During the six-month intervention period, graphical reports were e-mailed monthly to all managers and administrators, and focus groups were repeated. Results After the feedback began, hand hygiene increased on average by 0.17 events/patient-hour in inpatient units (interquartile range = 0.14, p = .008). In outpatient units, hand hygiene performance did not change significantly. A variety of challenges were encountered, including obtaining accurate census and staffing data, engendering confidence in the system, disseminating information in the reports, and using the data to drive improvement. Conclusions Feedback via an automated system was associated with improved hand hygiene performance in the short term. PMID:25252389

  16. Low-frequency group exercise improved the motor functions of community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area when combined with home exercise with self-monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Yoshito; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined whether low-frequency group exercise improved the motor functions of community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area when combined with home exercise with self-monitoring. [Subjects] The subjects were community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area of Japan. [Methods] One group (n = 50) performed group exercise combined with home exercise with self-monitoring. Another group (n = 37) performed group exercise only. Low-frequency group exercise (warm-up, exercises for motor functions, and cool-down) was performed in seven 40 to 70-minute sessions over 9 weeks by both groups. Five items of motor functions were assessed before and after the intervention. [Results] Significant interactions were observed between groups and assessment times for all motor functions. Improvements in motor functions were significantly greater in the group that performed group exercise combined with home exercise with self-monitoring than in the group that performed group exercise only. Post-hoc comparisons revealed significant differences in 3 items of motor functions. No significant improvements were observed in motor functions in the group that performed group exercise only. [Conclusions] Group exercise combined with home exercise with self-monitoring improved motor functions in the setting of low-frequency group exercise for community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area. PMID:27065520

  17. Mission Operations and Information Management Area Spacecraft Monitoring and Control Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokerson, Donald C. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Working group goals for this year are: Goal 1. Due to many review comments the green books will be updated and available for re-review by CCSDS. Submission of green books to CCSDS for approval. Goal 2.Initial set of 4 new drafts of the red books as following: SM&C protocol: update with received comments. SM&C common services: update with received comments and expand the service specification. SM&C core services: update with received comments and expand the service the information model. SM&C time services: (target objective): produce initial draft following template of core services.

  18. PBL On Line: A proposal for the organization, part-time monitoring and assessment of PBL group activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Marti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the organisation of PBL (Project Based Learning for a subject included in the IT engineering degree course. It is the result of 10 years of experience of the implantation and continuous improvement of the PBL class structure. The latest innovations include the experience of part-time monitoring with PBL groups using the OpenMeetings tool in Moodle 2.0, the adoption of activities that improve learning and interdependence such as the jigsaw classroom, the clear definition of deliverables that students should present along the semester and the assessment criteria, both on groups and individuals. As a result of this experience, we present PBL student enrolment indexes, student assessment surveys and lecturers’ opinions. We conclude with some topics for discussion about the PBL methodology.

  19. Movement-related cortical activation with voluntary pinch task: simultaneous monitoring of near-infrared spectroscopy signals and movement-related cortical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yosuke; Fukuda, Masafumi; Oishi, Makoto; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2012-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate hemodynamic and electrophysiological motor cortex responses to voluntary finger pinching in humans, with simultaneous recording of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals and movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP). Six healthy, right-handed subjects performed 100 trials of voluntary right-thumb index-finger pinching with about a 10-second interval at their own pace. Throughout the session, 48 regions over the bilateral motor cortex were assessed by NIRS, while MRCP and electromyogram (EMG) were simultaneously monitored. MRCP started 1536+/-58 ms before EMG onset and peaked 127+/-24 ms after EMG onset. NIRS data showed bilateral prefrontal cortex at 0.5+/-0.1 s before EMG onset and bilateral dorsal premotor cortex activations at 0.6+/-0.1 s before EMG onset. The hand area of the sensorimotor cortex was activated left-dominantly, seen obviously peaked at 3.7+/-0.2 s after EMG onset. The comparison between MRCP and NIRS results raised the possibility that the vascular response to neural activity occurs within 4 s with a voluntary pinch task. These results indicate that our technique allows detailed study of the motor control. Our method is a promising strategy for event-related motor control and neurovascular coupling studies.

  20. Monitoring survey of pulsating giant stars in the Local Group galaxies: survey description, science goals, target selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, E.; Javadi, A.; van Loon, J. Th; Khosroshahi, H.; Abedi, A.; Bamber, J.; Hashemi, S. A.; Nikzat, F.; Molaei Nezhad, A.

    2017-06-01

    The population of nearby dwarf galaxies in the Local Group constitutes a complete galactic environment, perfect suited for studying the connection between stellar populations and galaxy evolution. In this study, we are conducting an optical monitoring survey of the majority of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, with the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), to identify long period variable stars (LPVs). These stars are at the end points of their evolution and therefore their luminosity can be directly translated into their birth masses; this enables us to reconstruct the star formation history. By the end of the monitoring survey, we will have performed observations over ten epochs, spaced approximately three months apart, and identified long-period, dust-producing AGB stars; five epochs of data have been obtained already. LPVs are also the main source of dust; in combination with Spitzer Space Telescope images at mid-IR wavelengths we will quantify the mass loss, and provide a detailed map of the mass feedback into the interstellar medium. We will also use the amplitudes in different optical passbands to determine the radius variations of the stars, and relate this to their mass loss.

  1. Moral Impression Management : Evaluation by an In-Group Member During a Moral IAT Affects Perceptual Attention and Conflict and Response Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nunspeet, Félice; Derks, Belle; Ellemers, Naomi; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Previous research revealed that emphasizing morality increases motivational processes that improve people’s task performance. Here we examined whether this emphasis differentially affects people’s performance in the presence of an in-group compared to an out-group member. Ostensibly while being eval

  2. Defining a roadmap for harmonizing quality indicators in Laboratory Medicine: a consensus statement on behalf of the IFCC Working Group "Laboratory Error and Patient Safety" and EFLM Task and Finish Group "Performance specifications for the extra-analytical phases".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacovelli, Laura; Panteghini, Mauro; Lippi, Giuseppe; Sumarac, Zorica; Cadamuro, Janne; Galoro, César Alex De Olivera; Pino Castro, Isabel Garcia Del; Shcolnik, Wilson; Plebani, Mario

    2017-08-28

    The improving quality of laboratory testing requires a deep understanding of the many vulnerable steps involved in the total examination process (TEP), along with the identification of a hierarchy of risks and challenges that need to be addressed. From this perspective, the Working Group "Laboratory Errors and Patient Safety" (WG-LEPS) of International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) is focusing its activity on implementation of an efficient tool for obtaining meaningful information on the risk of errors developing throughout the TEP, and for establishing reliable information about error frequencies and their distribution. More recently, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) has created the Task and Finish Group "Performance specifications for the extra-analytical phases" (TFG-PSEP) for defining performance specifications for extra-analytical phases. Both the IFCC and EFLM groups are working to provide laboratories with a system to evaluate their performances and recognize the critical aspects where improvement actions are needed. A Consensus Conference was organized in Padova, Italy, in 2016 in order to bring together all the experts and interested parties to achieve a consensus for effective harmonization of quality indicators (QIs). A general agreement was achieved and the main outcomes have been the release of a new version of model of quality indicators (MQI), the approval of a criterion for establishing performance specifications and the definition of the type of information that should be provided within the report to the clinical laboratories participating to the QIs project.

  3. The human health programme under AMAP. AMAP Human Health Group. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J C

    1998-10-01

    The human health programme of the first phase of AMAP was planned at an international meeting held in Nuuk, Greenland, October 1992. As the most vulnerable period to adverse effects of contaminants is during fetal development, it was decided to concentrate on analyses of umbilical cord blood and maternal blood. The programme was designed as a core programme in which 150 sample pairs should be collected in each of the 8 arctic countries and analyzed for persistant organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals (mercury, lead and cadmium). As some essential elements such as copper, zinc and selenium interfere with heavy metal toxicity these elements should also be analyzed. Additional analyses such as nickel and arsenic in urine, mercury in hair, and POPs in breast milk could be incorporated regionally according to specific local conditions. Radionucleides were not a major focus in the human programme as this issue was be dealt with by AMAP's radiation group. Implementation of the programme was a problem in most of the countries due to lack of funding. However, an offer from Canada to analyze all contaminants in 50 samples from each country enabled the first comparative circumpolar study of human exposure to contaminants to be completed. The study confirmed that in general the most important source of exposure to both POPs and mercury is food of marine origin and that Greenlanders and Inuit from the Canadian Arctic, due to their traditional lifestyle, are among the most highly exposed populations in the Arctic. This is not a result of local pollution in Greenland and Canada, but is due to long range transport of persistent contaminants through the atmosphere and their biomagnification in the marine food chain. For these reasons the most important recommendation of the first AMAP assessment is that priority should be given to the expeditious completion of negotiations to establish protocols for the control of POPs and heavy metals under the Convention on Long Range

  4. Ionosphere monitoring and forecast activities within the IAG working group "Ionosphere Prediction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mainul; Garcia-Rigo, Alberto; Erdogan, Eren; Cueto Santamaría, Marta; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens; Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel; Schmidt, Michael; Wilken, Volker

    2017-04-01

    Ionospheric disturbances can affect technologies in space and on Earth disrupting satellite and airline operations, communications networks, navigation systems. As the world becomes ever more dependent on these technologies, ionospheric disturbances as part of space weather pose an increasing risk to the economic vitality and national security. Therefore, having the knowledge of ionospheric state in advance during space weather events is becoming more and more important. To promote scientific cooperation we recently formed a Working Group (WG) called "Ionosphere Predictions" within the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) under Sub-Commission 4.3 "Atmosphere Remote Sensing" of the Commission 4 "Positioning and Applications". The general objective of the WG is to promote the development of ionosphere prediction algorithm/models based on the dependence of ionospheric characteristics on solar and magnetic conditions combining data from different sensors to improve the spatial and temporal resolution and sensitivity taking advantage of different sounding geometries and latency. Our presented work enables the possibility to compare total electron content (TEC) prediction approaches/results from different centers contributing to this WG such as German Aerospace Center (DLR), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Technische Universität München (TUM) and GMV. DLR developed a model-assisted TEC forecast algorithm taking benefit from actual trends of the TEC behavior at each grid point. Since during perturbations, characterized by large TEC fluctuations or ionization fronts, this approach may fail, the trend information is merged with the current background model which provides a stable climatological TEC behavior. The presented solution is a first step to regularly provide forecasted TEC services via SWACI/IMPC by DLR. UPC forecast model is based on applying linear regression to a temporal window of TEC maps in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain

  5. Radiation Protection in Brachytherapy. Report of the SEFM Task Group on Brachytherapy; Proteccion radiologica en Braquiterapia. Informe del grupo de trabajo de Braquiterapia de la SEFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Calatayud, J.; Corredoira Silva, E.; Crispin Contreras, V.; Eudaldo Puell, T.; Frutos Baraja, J. de; Pino Sorroche, F.; Pujades Claumarchirant, M. C.; Richart Sancho, J.

    2015-07-01

    This document presents the report of the Brachytherapy Task Group of the Spanish Society of Medical Physics. It is dedicated to the radiation protection aspects involved in brachytherapy. The aim of this work is to include the more relevant aspects related to radiation protection issues that appear in clinical practice, and for the current equipment in Spain. Basically this report focuses on the typical contents associated with high dose rate brachytherapy with {sup 1}92Ir and {sup 6}0Co sources, and permanent seed implants with {sup 1}25I, {sup 1}03Pd and {sup 1}31Cs, which are the most current and widespread modalities. Ophthalmic brachytherapy (COMS with {sup 1}25I, {sup 1}06Ru, {sup 9}0Sr) is also included due to its availability in a significant number of spanish hospitals. The purpose of this report is to assist to the medical physicist community in establishing a radiation protection program for brachytherapy procedures, trying to solve some ambiguities in the application of legal requirements and recommendations in clinical practice. (Author)

  6. Results of the second Round Robin on opening-load measurement conducted by ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on crack closure measurement and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    A second experimental Round Robin on the measurement of the crack opening load in fatigue crack growth tests has been completed by the ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis. Fourteen laboratories participated in the testing of aluminum alloy compact tension specimens. Opening-load measurements were made at three crack lengths during constant Delta K, constant stress ratio tests by most of the participants. Four participants made opening-load measurements during threshold tests. All opening-load measurements were based on the analysis of specimens compliance behavior, where the displacement/strain was measured either at the crack mouth or the mid-height back face location. The Round Robin data were analyzed for opening load using two non-subjective analysis methods: the compliance offset and the correlation coefficient methods. The scatter in the opening load results was significantly reduced when some of the results were excluded from the analysis population based on an accept/reject criterion for raw data quality. The compliance offset and correlation coefficient opening load analysis methods produced similar results for data populations that had been screened to eliminate poor quality data.

  7. The EMCDDA/Pompidou Group treatment demand indicator protocol: a European core item set for treatment monitoring and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R; Donmall, M; Hartnoll, R; Kokkevi, A; Ouwehand, A W; Stauffacher, M; Vicente, J

    1999-12-01

    Over the last decades inside and outside of Europe, treatment-based data have been used in epidemiological research on drugs and drug abuse. They offer information on hidden populations and allow to follow socially stigmatised behaviour. As this type of research can be done on rather low budgets, there are long-term projects run in many countries. Experts from the national systems in several EU member states have been working together to develop a common standard on the basis of the Pompidou Group (PG) Definitive Protocol. The items and basic definitions of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)/PG Treatment Demand Indicator Protocol are described, which plays an important role in the process of harmonisation of data collection for the EMCDDA. Implementation strategies are described, and future steps are discussed.

  8. On the need of objective vigilance monitoring: Effects of sleep loss on target detection and task-negative activity using combined EEG/fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eCzisch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep loss affects attention by reducing levels of arousal and alertness. The neural mechanisms underlying the compensatory efforts of the brain to maintain attention and performance after sleep deprivation are not fully understood. Previous neuroimaging studies of sleep deprivation have not been able to exclude the effects of reduced arousal and vigilance when examining cerebral responses to cognitive challenges. Here, we used a simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI approach to study the effects of 36 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD. Specifically, we focused on changes in selective attention processes as induced by an active acoustic oddball task, with the ability to isolate runs with objective EEG signs of high or reduced vigilance. At high vigilance, task-related activity appears to be sustained by compensatory co-activation of insular regions, but task-negative activity in the right posterior node of the default mode network is altered following TSD. When EEG shows signs of reduced vigilance, task-positive activity was massively impaired, but task-negative activation was showing levels comparable with the control condition after a well-rested night. Our results suggest that loss of strict anti-correlation between task-positive and task-negative activation reflects the effects of TSD, while the actual state of vigilance and task performance either affects task-related or task-negative activity.

  9. Report of the Task Group 186 on model-based dose calculation methods in brachytherapy beyond the TG-43 formalism: Current status and recommendations for clinical implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l' Universite Laval, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada) and Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Carlsson Tedgren, Asa [Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Radiation Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Carrier, Jean-Francois [Departement de radio-oncologie, CRCHUM, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada) and Departement de physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); and others

    2012-10-15

    The charge of Task Group 186 (TG-186) is to provide guidance for early adopters of model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs) for brachytherapy (BT) dose calculations to ensure practice uniformity. Contrary to external beam radiotherapy, heterogeneity correction algorithms have only recently been made available to the BT community. Yet, BT dose calculation accuracy is highly dependent on scatter conditions and photoelectric effect cross-sections relative to water. In specific situations, differences between the current water-based BT dose calculation formalism (TG-43) and MBDCAs can lead to differences in calculated doses exceeding a factor of 10. MBDCAs raise three major issues that are not addressed by current guidance documents: (1) MBDCA calculated doses are sensitive to the dose specification medium, resulting in energy-dependent differences between dose calculated to water in a homogeneous water geometry (TG-43), dose calculated to the local medium in the heterogeneous medium, and the intermediate scenario of dose calculated to a small volume of water in the heterogeneous medium. (2) MBDCA doses are sensitive to voxel-by-voxel interaction cross sections. Neither conventional single-energy CT nor ICRU/ICRP tissue composition compilations provide useful guidance for the task of assigning interaction cross sections to each voxel. (3) Since each patient-source-applicator combination is unique, having reference data for each possible combination to benchmark MBDCAs is an impractical strategy. Hence, a new commissioning process is required. TG-186 addresses in detail the above issues through the literature review and provides explicit recommendations based on the current state of knowledge. TG-43-based dose prescription and dose calculation remain in effect, with MBDCA dose reporting performed in parallel when available. In using MBDCAs, it is recommended that the radiation transport should be performed in the heterogeneous medium and, at minimum, the dose to

  10. A comparison of the performance and compatibility of protocols used by seven monitoring groups to measure stream habitat in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett B. Roper; John M. Buffington; Stephen Bennett; Steven H. Lanigan; Eric Archer; Scott T. Downie; John Faustini; Tracy W. Hillman; Shannon Hubler; Kim Jones; Chris Jordan; Philip R. Kaufmann; Glenn Merritt; Chris Moyer; Allen Pleus

    2010-01-01

    To comply with legal mandates, meet local management objectives, or both, many federal, state, and tribal organizations have monitoring groups that assess stream habitat at different scales. This myriad of groups has difficulty sharing data and scaling up stream habitat assessments to regional or national levels because of differences in their goals and data collection...

  11. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins Pt. 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams...

  12. Task Group 7B: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Biological Aging: The Roles of Nature, Nurture and Chance in the Maintenance of Human Healthspan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich; Arya, Suresh; Grant, Christine; Miller, Linda; Ono, Santa Jeremy; Patil, Chris; Shay, Jerry; Topol, Eric; Torry, Michael; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Tse, Iris; Lin, Su-Ju; Miller, Richard

    2007-11-14

    The degree to which an individual organism maintains healthspan and lifespan is a function of complex interactions between genetic inheritance ('nature'), environment, including cultural inheritance (nurture) and stochastic events ('luck' or 'chance'). This task group will focus upon the role of chance because it is so poorly understood and because it appears to be of major importance in the determination of individual variations in healthspan and lifespan within species. The major factor determining variations in healthspan and lifespan between species is genetic inheritance. Broader aspects of cellular and molecular mechanisms of biological aging will also be considered, given their importance for understanding the cellular and molecular basis of successful aging. The task force will consider the cellular and molecular basis for nature, nurture and chance in healthspan and life span determination. On the basis of comparisons between identical and non-identical twins, geneticists have estimated that genes control no more than about a quarter of the inter-individual differences in lifespan (Herskind 1996). Twin studies of very old individuals, however, show substantially greater genetic contributions to Healthspan (McClearn 2004; Reed 2003). The environment clearly plays an important role in the length and the quality of life. Tobacco smoke, for example has the potential to impact upon multiple body systems in ways that appear to accelerate the rates at which those systems age (Bernhard 2007). To document the role of chance events on aging, one must rigorously control both the genetic composition of an organism and its environment. This has been done to a remarkable degree in a species of nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans (Vanfleteren 1998). The results confirm hundreds of previous studies with a wide range of species, especially those with inbred rodents housed under apparently identical but less well controlled environments. One

  13. Task Group 7B: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Biological Aging: The Roles of Nature, Nurture and Chance in the Maintenance of Human Healthspan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich; Arya, Suresh; Grant, Christine; Miller, Linda; Ono, Santa Jeremy; Patil, Chris; Shay, Jerry; Topol, Eric; Torry, Michael; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Tse, Iris; Lin, Su-Ju; Miller, Richard

    2007-11-14

    The degree to which an individual organism maintains healthspan and lifespan is a function of complex interactions between genetic inheritance ('nature'), environment, including cultural inheritance (nurture) and stochastic events ('luck' or 'chance'). This task group will focus upon the role of chance because it is so poorly understood and because it appears to be of major importance in the determination of individual variations in healthspan and lifespan within species. The major factor determining variations in healthspan and lifespan between species is genetic inheritance. Broader aspects of cellular and molecular mechanisms of biological aging will also be considered, given their importance for understanding the cellular and molecular basis of successful aging. The task force will consider the cellular and molecular basis for nature, nurture and chance in healthspan and life span determination. On the basis of comparisons between identical and non-identical twins, geneticists have estimated that genes control no more than about a quarter of the inter-individual differences in lifespan (Herskind 1996). Twin studies of very old individuals, however, show substantially greater genetic contributions to Healthspan (McClearn 2004; Reed 2003). The environment clearly plays an important role in the length and the quality of life. Tobacco smoke, for example has the potential to impact upon multiple body systems in ways that appear to accelerate the rates at which those systems age (Bernhard 2007). To document the role of chance events on aging, one must rigorously control both the genetic composition of an organism and its environment. This has been done to a remarkable degree in a species of nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans (Vanfleteren 1998). The results confirm hundreds of previous studies with a wide range of species, especially those with inbred rodents housed under apparently identical but less well controlled environments. One

  14. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Environmental Monitoring Program in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 is a hazardous and low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Extensive site investigations have revealed contaminated surface water, sediments, groundwater, and soils. Based on the results of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) conducted from 1989--1991 and on recent interactions with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), a decision was made to defer implementing source control remedial measures at the WAG. The information shows WAG 6 contributes < 2% of the total off-site contaminant risk released over White Oak Dam (WOD). The alternative selected to address hazards at WAG 6 involves maintenance of site access controls to prevent public exposure to on-site contaminants, continued monitoring of contaminant releases to determine if source control measures will be required in the future, and development of technologies to support final remediation of WAG 6. This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been developed as part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-1192&D1). Environmental monitoring will be conducted in two phases: the baseline monitoring phase and the routine annual monitoring phase. The baseline monitoring phase will be conducted to establish the baseline contaminant release conditions at the Waste Area Grouping (WAG), to confirm the site-related chemicals of concern (COC), and to gather data to confirm the site hydrologic model. The baseline monitoring phase is expected to begin in 1994 and continue for 12-18 months. The routine annual monitoring phase will consist of continued sampling and analyses of COC to determine off-WAG contaminant flux, to identify trends in releases, and to confirm the COC. The routine annual monitoring phase will continue for {approximately}4 years.

  15. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Waste Area Grouping at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimore, J.A.; Lee, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the drilling and installation of 18 groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 11. WAG 11 (White Wing Scrap Yard) is located on the west end of East Fork Ridge between White Wing Road and the Oak Ridge Turnpike. The scrap yard is approximately 25 acres in size. The wells at WAG 11 were drilled and developed between January 1990 and October 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The wells at WAG 11 were drilled with auger or air rotary rigs. Depending on the hydrogeologic conditions present at each proposed well location, one of four basic installation methods was utilized. Detailed procedures for well construction were specified by the Engineering Division to ensure that the wells would provide water samples representative of the aquifer. To ensure conformance with the specifications, Energy Systems Construction Engineering and ERCE provided continuous oversight of field activities. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at WAG 11. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents.

  16. Toward a standard for the evaluation of PET-Auto-Segmentation methods following the recommendations of AAPM task group No. 211: Requirements and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthon, Beatrice; Spezi, Emiliano; Galavis, Paulina; Shepherd, Tony; Apte, Aditya; Hatt, Mathieu; Fayad, Hadi; De Bernardi, Elisabetta; Soffientini, Chiara D; Ross Schmidtlein, C; El Naqa, Issam; Jeraj, Robert; Lu, Wei; Das, Shiva; Zaidi, Habib; Mawlawi, Osama R; Visvikis, Dimitris; Lee, John A; Kirov, Assen S

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to define the requirements and describe the design and implementation of a standard benchmark tool for evaluation and validation of PET-auto-segmentation (PET-AS) algorithms. This work follows the recommendations of Task Group 211 (TG211) appointed by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The recommendations published in the AAPM TG211 report were used to derive a set of required features and to guide the design and structure of a benchmarking software tool. These items included the selection of appropriate representative data and reference contours obtained from established approaches and the description of available metrics. The benchmark was designed in a way that it could be extendable by inclusion of bespoke segmentation methods, while maintaining its main purpose of being a standard testing platform for newly developed PET-AS methods. An example of implementation of the proposed framework, named PETASset, was built. In this work, a selection of PET-AS methods representing common approaches to PET image segmentation was evaluated within PETASset for the purpose of testing and demonstrating the capabilities of the software as a benchmark platform. A selection of clinical, physical, and simulated phantom data, including "best estimates" reference contours from macroscopic specimens, simulation template, and CT scans was built into the PETASset application database. Specific metrics such as Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC), Positive Predictive Value (PPV), and Sensitivity (S), were included to allow the user to compare the results of any given PET-AS algorithm to the reference contours. In addition, a tool to generate structured reports on the evaluation of the performance of PET-AS algorithms against the reference contours was built. The variation of the metric agreement values with the reference contours across the PET-AS methods evaluated for demonstration were between 0.51 and 0.83, 0.44 and 0.86, and 0.61 and 1

  17. Trends in monitoring residues of pharmacologically active group B substances in products of animal origin in Lithuania from 1999 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šerniene, L; Stimbirys, A; Daunoras, G

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring data of group B pharmacologically active substances in the Republic of Lithuania during the period 1999-2008 are presented. Peer review is based on data taken from residue-monitoring plans of the years 1999-2008 and the National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute reports on analyses performed in various foods. The data were analysed with the SPSS statistical package. Analysis of group B pharmacologically active substances residues monitoring results from the years 1999-2008 revealed that 25,030 samples were tested to detect 421 (1.68%) non-compliant samples in three groups of substances: antibacterials, anthelmintics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Most residues (88.3%) were found in milk, and were far less in beef, pork, sheep and goat meat.

  18. Manitoba Task Force on Francophone Schools Governance. Report = Groupe de travail manitobain sur la gestion des ecoles franco-manitobaines. Le rapport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    Findings of a task force on introduction of a school governance system for Manitoba's (Canada) francophone minority population are reported. The document outlines the background--i.e., the Canadian context--of this report, principles and procedures, the resulting recommended structure for governance, and suggestions for addressing such issues as…

  19. 工作记忆在监控作业情境意识保持中的作用%The Role of Working Memory in Situation Awareness of Visual Monitoring Tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅亚强; 许百华

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, research on human factors has focused on helping operators in the human-machine system better deal with various task situations. An important construct that continues this tradition is the situation awareness (SA). SA refers to how much the operator of the man-machine system is aware of its dynamic states. Working memory seems at first blush to be a critical component of SA. Typically, in the human-machine system of visual monito- ring, an operator has several tasks at hand, some of which are in an interrupted state while others are being carried out. Most of the time, such interruptions are not disruptive to SA and task performance. There is evidence that some individuals develop better SA than others. The difference among individuals is attributed to the difference in the underlying cognitive processes that constitute SA. This study aimed to reveal working memory involved in the maintenance of SA in simulating visual monitoring tasks and to disclose the relationship between working memory and SA difference among the subjects. Two alternative accounts were used to explain working memory in the process of developing SA: the long --term working memory theory (LTWM) and the template theory (TI'). This study tested those ideas by creating very demanding interruption conditions between encoding task information and recalling task information. The interruption task would hamper the maintenance of the pointer and other representations in shor - t-term working memory over the interruption. A task of conflict detection with the cockpit display of traffic information was simulated. Two experiments were performed to investi- gate the effect of interruption on SA in the conflict detection task. One trial of each experiment consisted of three tasks : a conflict detec- tion task, an interruption task (only under the experiment condition) and a recall task. The independent variables of the two experi- ments were the complexity of the interruption task and

  20. Dosimetry of (125)I and (103)Pd COMS eye plaques for intraocular tumors: report of Task Group 129 by the AAPM and ABS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu-Tsao, Sou-Tung; Astrahan, Melvin A; Finger, Paul T; Followill, David S; Meigooni, Ali S; Melhus, Christopher S; Mourtada, Firas; Napolitano, Mary E; Nath, Ravinder; Rivard, Mark J; Rogers, D W O; Thomson, Rowan M

    2012-10-01

    Dosimetry of eye plaques for ocular tumors presents unique challenges in brachytherapy. The challenges in accurate dosimetry are in part related to the steep dose gradient in the tumor and critical structures that are within millimeters of radioactive sources. In most clinical applications, calculations of dose distributions around eye plaques assume a homogenous water medium and full scatter conditions. Recent Monte Carlo (MC)-based eye-plaque dosimetry simulations have demonstrated that the perturbation effects of heterogeneous materials in eye plaques, including the gold-alloy backing and Silastic insert, can be calculated with reasonable accuracy. Even additional levels of complexity introduced through the use of gold foil "seed-guides" and custom-designed plaques can be calculated accurately using modern MC techniques. Simulations accounting for the aforementioned complexities indicate dose discrepancies exceeding a factor of ten to selected critical structures compared to conventional dose calculations. Task Group 129 was formed to review the literature; re-examine the current dosimetry calculation formalism; and make recommendations for eye-plaque dosimetry, including evaluation of brachytherapy source dosimetry parameters and heterogeneity correction factors. A literature review identified modern assessments of dose calculations for Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) design plaques, including MC analyses and an intercomparison of treatment planning systems (TPS) detailing differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous plaque calculations using the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) TG-43U1 brachytherapy dosimetry formalism and MC techniques. This review identified that a commonly used prescription dose of 85 Gy at 5 mm depth in homogeneous medium delivers about 75 Gy and 69 Gy at the same 5 mm depth for specific (125)I and (103)Pd sources, respectively, when accounting for COMS plaque heterogeneities. Thus, the adoption of

  1. Business Activity Monitoring: Real-Time Group Goals and Feedback Using an Overhead Scoreboard in a Distribution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.; Smith, Stuart M.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    Companies operating large industrial settings often find delivering timely and accurate feedback to employees to be one of the toughest challenges they face in implementing performance management programs. In this report, an overhead scoreboard at a retailer's distribution center informed teams of order selectors as to how many tasks were…

  2. Task A, High Energy Physics Program experiment and theory: Task B, High Energy Physics Program numerical simulation of quantum field theories. [Particle Physics Group, Physics Dept. , The Florida State Univ. , Tallahassee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The effort of the experimental group has been concentrated on the CERN ALEPH and FERMILAB D0 collider experiments and completion of two fixed target experiments. The BNL fixed target experiment 771 took the world's largest sample of D(1285) and E/iota(1420) events, using pion, kaon and antiproton beams. Observing the following resonances: 0[sup [minus plus

  3. Effect of Task-Centered Instructional Programs on Hypertensives' Ability to Achieve and Maintain Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Karen V.; Sullivan, Patricia L.

    This study sought to determine the effectiveness of systematically designed instructional programs in helping adult hypertensives to achieve and maintain dietary sodium intake. Sixty-six subjects were randomly allocated to one of three groups: task-centered instruction; task-centered instruction plus goal-setting and self-monitoring; or control.…

  4. Novice supervisors' tasks and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Mathiesen, Birgit Bork

    2012-01-01

    were confronted with complicated jobs, e.g., group, internal and interdisciplinary supervision, but were not prepared, i.e. trained, prior to these tasks. These findings imply that more training is needed for novice supervisors. Preferably, this training should be introduced before, or at least...... parallel to, the first supervisor tasks, preparing the novice supervisors for the often complicated tasks they are meeting....

  5. EFFECTS OF GROUP SIZE AND EXPECTANCY OF REWARD ON SOCIAL LOAFING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philip C Mefoh; Chinonso L Nwanosike

    2012-01-01

    There is a large body of evidence which have shown that monitoring personal effort on group projects reduces social loafing effects, but as the world gets more complex with several co-operative tasks...

  6. Standard of Care for Neuropsychological Monitoring in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology: Lessons From the Children's Oncology Group (COG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Karin S; Noll, Robert B; Annett, Robert D; Patel, Sunita K; Patenaude, Andrea F; Embry, Leanne

    2016-02-01

    As the mortality of pediatric cancers has decreased, focus on neuropsychological morbidities of treatment sequelae have increased. Neuropsychological evaluations are essential diagnostic tools that assess cognitive functioning and neurobiological integrity. These tests provide vital information to support ongoing medical care, documenting cognitive morbidity and response to interventions. We frame standards for neuropsychological monitoring of pediatric patients with CNS malignancy or who received cancer-directed therapies involving the CNS and discuss billing for these services in the United States in the context of clinical research. We describe a cost-effective, efficient model of neuropsychological monitoring that may increases access to neuropsychological care.

  7. Groundwater quality sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater quality sampling and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of energy and managed by martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). Groundwater sampling will be conducted by Energy Systems at 45 wells within WAG 6. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the groundwater quality monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating relative risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and also will fulfill Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim permit monitoring requirements. The sampling steps described in this plan are consistent with the steps that have previously been followed by Energy Systems when conducting RCRA sampling.

  8. Groundwater Quality Sampling and Analysis Plan for Environmental Monitoring Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater quality sampling and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). Groundwater sampling will be conducted by Energy Systems at 45 wells within WAG 6. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the groundwater quality monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating relative risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and also will fulfill Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim permit monitoring requirements. The sampling steps described in this plan are consistent with the steps that have previously been followed by Energy Systems when conducting RCRA sampling.

  9. Seeps and springs sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted at seeps and springs and at two french drain outlets in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-land-burial disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Initially, sampling will be conducted at as many as 15 locations within WAG 6 (as many as 13 seeps and 2 french drain outlets). After evaluating the results obtained and reviewing the observations made by field personnel during the first round of sampling, several seeps and springs will be chosen as permanent monitoring points, together with the two french drain outlets. Baseline sampling of these points will then be conducted quarterly for 1 year (i.e., four rounds of sampling after the initial round). The samples will be analyzed for various geochemical, organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. Permanent sampling points having suitable flow rates and conditions may be outfitted with automatic flow-monitoring equipment. The results of the sampling and flow-monitoring efforts will help to quantify flux moving across the ungauged perimeter of the site and will help to identify changes in releases from the contaminant sources.

  10. Seeps and springs sampling and analysis plant for the Environmental Monitoring Plan at Waste Area Grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted at seeps and springs and at two french drain outlets in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-land-burial disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Lockheed Martin Energy System, Inc. Initially, sampling will be conducted at as many as 15 locations within WAG 6 (as many as 13 seeps and 2 french drain outlets). After evaluating the results obtained and reviewing the observations made by field personnel during the first round of sampling, several seeps and springs will be chosen as permanent monitoring points, together with the two french drain outlets. Baseline sampling of these points will then be conducted quarterly for 1 year (i.e., four rounds of sampling after the initial round). The samples will be analyzed for various geochemical, organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. Permanent sampling points having suitable flow rates and conditions may be outfitted with automatic flow-monitoring equipment. The results of the sampling and flow-monitoring efforts will help to quantify flux moving across the ungauged perimeter of the site and will help to identify changes in releases from the contaminant sources.

  11. Surface water sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses surface water monitoring, sampling, and analysis activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Surface water monitoring will be conducted at nine sites within WAG 6. Activities to be conducted will include the installation, inspection, and maintenance of automatic flow-monitoring and sampling equipment and manual collection of various water and sediment samples. The samples will be analyzed for various organic, inorganic, and radiological parameters. The information derived from the surface water monitoring, sampling, and analysis will aid in evaluating risk associated with contaminants migrating off-WAG, and will be used in calculations to establish relationships between contaminant concentration (C) and flow (Q). The C-Q relationship will be used in calculating the cumulative risk associated with the off-WAG migration of contaminants.

  12. Annual Report on Environmental Monitoring Activities for FY 1995 (Baseline Year) at Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report describes baseline contaminant release conditions for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sampling approach and data analysis methods used to establish baseline conditions were presented in ``Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (EMP).`` As outlined in the EMP, the purpose of the baseline monitoring year at WAG 6 was to determine the annual contaminant releases from the site during fiscal year 1995 (FY95) against which any potential changes in releases over time could be compared. The baseline year data set provides a comprehensive understanding of release conditions from all major waste units in the WAG through each major contaminant transport pathway. Due to a mandate to reduce all monitoring work, WAG 6 monitoring was scaled back and reporting efforts on the baseline year results are being minimized. This report presents the quantified baseline year contaminant flux conditions for the site and briefly summarizes other findings. All baseline data cited in this report will reside in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information system (OREIS) database, and will be available for use in future years as the need arises to identify potential release changes.

  13. Pacific Island landbird monitoring report, Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, 2015-2016: Tract groups 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Seth; Camp, Rick; Sedgwick, Daniel; Squibb, Carine; Hart, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) was surveyed for landbirds and landbird habitat from February through April 2015 and February through April 2016. This information provides the second datum in the time-series of Pacific Island Network (PACN) monitoring for long term trends in landbird distribution, density, and abundance. Initial PACN surveys were conducted in 2010 and are repeated every five years. The entire survey area was comprised of eight tracts in forest, woodland, and shrub habitat, totaling

  14. Structural Stability Monitoring of a Physical Model Test on an Underground Cavern Group during Deep Excavations Using FBG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors are comprehensively recognized as a structural stability monitoring device for all kinds of geo-materials by either embedding into or bonding onto the structural entities. The physical model in geotechnical engineering, which could accurately simulate the construction processes and the effects on the stability of underground caverns on the basis of satisfying the similarity principles, is an actual physical entity. Using a physical model test of underground caverns in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station, FBG sensors were used to determine how to model the small displacements of some key monitoring points in the large-scale physical model during excavation. In the process of building the test specimen, it is most successful to embed FBG sensors in the physical model through making an opening and adding some quick-set silicon. The experimental results show that the FBG sensor has higher measuring accuracy than other conventional sensors like electrical resistance strain gages and extensometers. The experimental results are also in good agreement with the numerical simulation results. In conclusion, FBG sensors could effectively measure small displacements of monitoring points in the whole process of the physical model test. The experimental results reveal the deformation and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock mass and make some guidance for the in situ engineering construction.

  15. Group method of data handling and neral networks applied in monitoring and fault detection in sensors in nuclear power plants; Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) e Redes Neurais na Monitoracao e Deteccao de Falhas em sensores de centrais nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Elaine Inacio

    2011-07-01

    The increasing demand in the complexity, efficiency and reliability in modern industrial systems stimulated studies on control theory applied to the development of Monitoring and Fault Detection system. In this work a new Monitoring and Fault Detection methodology was developed using GMDH (Group Method of Data Handling) algorithm and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) which was applied to the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN. The Monitoring and Fault Detection system was developed in two parts: the first was dedicated to preprocess information, using GMDH algorithm; and the second part to the process information using ANNs. The GMDH algorithm was used in two different ways: firstly, the GMDH algorithm was used to generate a better database estimated, called matrix{sub z}, which was used to train the ANNs. After that, the GMDH was used to study the best set of variables to be used to train the ANNs, resulting in a best monitoring variable estimative. The methodology was developed and tested using five different models: one Theoretical Model and four Models using different sets of reactor variables. After an exhausting study dedicated to the sensors Monitoring, the Fault Detection in sensors was developed by simulating faults in the sensors database using values of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% in these sensors database. The results obtained using GMDH algorithm in the choice of the best input variables to the ANNs were better than that using only ANNs, thus making possible the use of these methods in the implementation of a new Monitoring and Fault Detection methodology applied in sensors. (author)

  16. Implementation status of self-assessment/peer-group discussion program: a bottom-up approach of monitoring/supervision in improving quality of health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, K K; Bhuju, G B; Karkee, S B; Prasad, R R; Shrestha, N; Shrestha, A D; Das, P L; Chataut, B D; Shrestha, A; Suvedi, B K

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring/supervision is an essential component for improving the quality of health services including rational use of medicines. A new bottom-up approach of monitoring/supervision consisting of self-assessment/ peer-group discussion was found to be effective in improving prescribing practices. The new strategy significantly improved the prescribing practices based on standard treatment guidelines. The government has implemented it as a Program in primary health care services of Nepal. This article aims to share the implementation status of the self-assessment/peer-group discussion Program for improving the prescribing practices of common health problems and availability of drugs in the district health system. Concurrent mixed research design was applied for data collection. The data were collected at different levels of health care system using in-depth interviews, participatory observations and documentary analysis. The Management Division, Department of Health Services implemented the Program in 2009-10 and the PHC Revitalization Division, DoHs is the implementation division since 2010-11. The Program comprised revision of participant's and trainer's manuals, training of trainers and prescribers, finalisation of health conditions and indicators, distribution of carbon copy prescription pads, and conduction of peer-group discussions.The Program was implemented in number of districts. The government made the policy decision to implement the Program for monitoring prescribing practices and the availability of free drugs in districts. However, it has covered only few districts and needs escalation to cover all 75 districts of the country.

  17. Regional systems development for geothermal energy resources: Pacific region (California and Hawaii). Task 2: Regional program monitoring and progress evaluation, topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-19

    All the objectives of the regional program monitoring and progress evaluation have been met through personal contacts and the review of data. They are as follows: to determine the existing status of power plant projects and future plans; to identify major problem areas for each project (technical, financial, regulatory) that are affecting progress; and to analyze the data and to develop recommendations directed toward resolving problems. The results have been presented in a tabular summary format that is accompanied by explanatory text covering 25 projects.

  18. Development of in-field monitoring techniques. Report on Task FIN A845 on the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.; Kansanaho, A.; Poellaenen, R. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland). Aerosol Lab.; Aarnio, P.; Ala-Heikkilae, J.; Nikkinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Nuclear Engineering Lab.

    1994-12-01

    Several in-field measuring techniques were identified for use in safeguards inspections. The radiation measurements play a major role in seeking environmetal signatures. A high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer, either in-situ or in sample analysis, gives unequivocal evidence of nuclear activities on the site of interest. Although portable spectrometers are commercially available, hardware development and software tailoring seem to be necessary before efficient mobile measurements can be initiated. To understand trends and pattern of contamination, the results of the measurements have be displayed on digital maps. GPS-integration is an essential requirement for the equipment in environmental monitoring. (orig.) (14 refs., 5 figs., 17 tabs.).

  19. Veno-occlusive disease nurse management: development of a dynamic monitoring tool by the GITMO nursing group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Stefano; Orlando, Laura; Gargiulo, Gianpaolo; Cecco, Valentina De; Banfi, Marina; Duranti, Lorenzo; Samarani, Emanuela; Netti, Maria Giovanna; Deiana, Marco; Galuppini, Vera; Pignatelli, Adriana Concetta; Ceresoli, Rosanna; Vedovetto, Alessio; Rostagno, Elena; Bambaci, Marilena; Dellaversana, Cristina; Luminari, Stefano; Bonifazi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a complication arising from the toxicity of conditioning regimens that have a significant impact on the survival of patients who undergo stem cell transplantation. There are several known risk factors for developing VOD and their assessment before the start of conditioning regimens could improve the quality of care. Equally important are early identification of signs and symptoms ascribable to VOD, rapid diagnosis, and timely adjustment of support therapy and treatment. Nurses have a fundamental role at the stages of assessment and monitoring for signs and symptoms; therefore, they should have documented skills and training. The literature defines nurses’ areas of competence in managing VOD, but in the actual clinical practice, this is not so clear. Moreover, there is an intrinsic difficulty in managing VOD due to its rapid and often dramatic evolution, together with a lack of care tools to guide nurses. Through a complex evidence-based process, the Gruppo Italiano per il Trapianto di Midollo Osseo (GITMO), cellule staminali emopoietiche e terapia cellulare nursing board has developed an operational flowchart and a dynamic monitoring tool applicable to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients, whether they develop this complication or not. PMID:27594906

  20. Veno-occlusive disease nurse management: development of a dynamic monitoring tool by the GITMO nursing group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Stefano; Orlando, Laura; Gargiulo, Gianpaolo; Cecco, Valentina De; Banfi, Marina; Duranti, Lorenzo; Samarani, Emanuela; Netti, Maria Giovanna; Deiana, Marco; Galuppini, Vera; Pignatelli, Adriana Concetta; Ceresoli, Rosanna; Vedovetto, Alessio; Rostagno, Elena; Bambaci, Marilena; Dellaversana, Cristina; Luminari, Stefano; Bonifazi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a complication arising from the toxicity of conditioning regimens that have a significant impact on the survival of patients who undergo stem cell transplantation. There are several known risk factors for developing VOD and their assessment before the start of conditioning regimens could improve the quality of care. Equally important are early identification of signs and symptoms ascribable to VOD, rapid diagnosis, and timely adjustment of support therapy and treatment. Nurses have a fundamental role at the stages of assessment and monitoring for signs and symptoms; therefore, they should have documented skills and training. The literature defines nurses' areas of competence in managing VOD, but in the actual clinical practice, this is not so clear. Moreover, there is an intrinsic difficulty in managing VOD due to its rapid and often dramatic evolution, together with a lack of care tools to guide nurses. Through a complex evidence-based process, the Gruppo Italiano per il Trapianto di Midollo Osseo (GITMO), cellule staminali emopoietiche e terapia cellulare nursing board has developed an operational flowchart and a dynamic monitoring tool applicable to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients, whether they develop this complication or not.

  1. 基于遗传算法的导弹编队攻击任务优化分配策略%Strategy of Task Optimization Allocation for Missile Group-attack Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白军; 刘新学; 郭峰; 高娟

    2011-01-01

    导弹编队攻击目标时,在确定打击目标和需求导弹数量后,如何把发射任务科学合理、高效地分配给相应的发射器,完成对目标的打击,在控制自身火力消耗最小的情况下实现作战效能最大是一个组合优化问题。针对导弹编队攻击任务分配问题,提出了基于遗传算法的优化分配策略。在理论上为常规导弹编队攻击目标时任务分配提供策略支持,对提高导弹部队任务分配决策能力和作战效能具有实际意义。%While missile group-assault target after determining the attack target and the number of needed missile,how to allocate the launch task to launcher in scientific,reasonable and efficient pattern so as to complete the attack for target is a combination optimization problem that makes operation effect be maximum under the condition of minimum in controlling itself force consumption.Aimed at the puzzle of task allocation in missile group-assault,the paper proposed the optimization strategy based on genetic algorithm.It can theoretically provide the strategy support for task allocation while missile group-assault target,and it is of actual significance to improve the efficiency of decision making and missile launching.for conventional missile troops.

  2. 基于Modbus的发电机组监控软件设计%Design of generator group' s monitoring software based on Modbus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩霞; 林志贵; 刘阳

    2012-01-01

    目前,发电机组多采用控制器作为监控设备,针对控制器在监控过程中操作繁琐、读取数据单一、屏幕显示不友好等问题,提出了一种通过操作上位机软件控制发电机组的策略.以Modbus作为通信协议,利用可视化开发环境Visual Basic 6.0作为开发工具,设计了发电机组监控软件.对监控要求、软件的整体设计方案、体系结构以及各部分功能的实现进行了详细阐述.结果表明,该软件能够实时、动态、准确地显示发电机组的各类参数,同时也可以向发电机组发出请求,从而控制发电机组.监控软件在节省成本、操控方法、界面显示、维修维护方面有很大优势,而且通过数据库可以实现随时读写和存储数据的功能.%At present, controller is used as monitoring equipment in most situations when monitoring generator group. Since operation of controller is complex, reading data is single and screen display is unfriendly, this paper put forward a kind of strategy using a monitoring software control generator group. Based on Modbus protocol and Visual Basic 6. 0, the aim of this paper is to design a monitoring software of generator group. The authors introduced monitoring requirements, the overall design schemes, software architecture, as well as the realization of each part' s function. The tests show that not only all kinds of parameters can be displayed in real-time, dynamically and precisely, but the generator can be controlled by sending request. The monitoring software has the advantage in less cost, control method, screen display and maintenance. In addition, it can read, write and store data in any time by database.

  3. Can it be better? Review of the Task Group ENINA of the Emission Registration; Kan het beter? Review van de taakgroep ENINA van de Emissieregistratie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkers, C.H.; Smekens, K.E.L. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-12-15

    This report presents the process and conclusions of a review process performed on the ENINA task force within the Dutch Emission Registration (ER). The review consisted of interviews with users of the emission data in the ER and of two sample checks of specific greenhouse gas emission calculation methods (for waste incineration and from other industrial gases). Since the interviews did not give any specific reason for further detailed investigation, the review was focussed on the process within ENINA itself. Although envisaged from the outline of the review, no clear points for improvement or simplification of the current process could be identified. However, some elements in the emission calculation process seemed redundant, like separate t-1 and t-2 emission estimates, determination of complementary emissions to the individual ones as well as total emission level estimates and a double checking of the data in the individual environmental reports. It became clear that for each of these points, valid reasons exist why they occur and hence there is no justification to reduce them. Technically the ENINA process proved to be sound and efficient, but on the communication - both internal as external - and documentation side improvements are certainly possible. For instance, reference documents or calculation factors are not always available and the used Protocols are not always up to date, complete or consistently reported. With small efforts, this could be brought on the same high level as with which the emission calculations take place. [Dutch] Dit rapport beschrijft de bevindingen van de review van de taakgroep ENINA van de Emissie-Registratie (ER). Deze review had tot doel om na te gaan of het proces van ENINA verbeterd vereenvoudigd of verbeterd kon worden. Tevens werd van twee werkvelden een sample check uitgevoerd waarbij werd gekeken of de berekende broeikasgasemissies konden worden nagerekend. Tijdens de analyse van het werkproces van de taakgroep ENINA zijn

  4. Proposal of Setting Up a Joint ESC / EAEE Working (Task Group on Updating of the Concept of Seismic Intensity and of the Seismic Intensity Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horea SANDI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The proposal presented subsequently was forwarded by the author, in August 2010, on the eve of the 14th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, to:- Prof. Atilla Ansal, Secretary General, EAEE;- Dr. Mariano García-Fernández, Secretary General, ESC.This proposal was to a high extent a follow up of the project “Quantification of seismic action on structures” (2005-2008, in which research groups of institutes of Romania (coordination, Russian Federation and Republic Moldova were involved. A summary outcome of the project referred to is represented by the volume [Sandi & al., 2010a]. A brief presentation of the volume referred to is given in its foreword, reproduced in Annex II. The correspondence related to the submission of the proposal is reproduced in Annex III. A paper on this subject, [Sandi & al., 2010b], presented at the 14th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, is also reproduced in this issue of the journal.

  5. Sustained attention ability in schizophrenia: Investigation of conflict monitoring mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, Marc; Doignon-Camus, Nadège; Marques-Carneiro, José Eduardo; Bonnefond, Anne

    2017-09-01

    The main goal of the current study was to assess, with a time-on-task approach, sustained attention ability in schizophrenia, and to investigate conflict monitoring underlying this ability. Behavioral and event-related potentials data (N2 and P3a amplitudes) were recorded in a long-lasting sustained attention Go/NoGo task (sustained attention to response task, SART), over a period of 30min, in 29 patients with schizophrenia and 29 pair-matched healthy subjects. Our results revealed spared sustained attention ability in patients throughout the task. Impairment of conflict detection (N2) in patients was particularly significant at the end of the task. Furthermore, both schizophrenia and healthy subjects exhibited a decline in conflict detection from the beginning to the middle of the task. Whereas controls' conflict detection recovered in the last part of the task, patients' did not, suggesting a deficit in recovery processes reflecting a lack of additional resources sustained attention Go/NoGo task. Conflict resolution (P3a) was preserved throughout the task in both groups. Conflict monitoring processes are increasingly impaired in schizophrenia during a long-lasting sustained attention Go/NoGo task. This impairment at the end of the task may rely on deficit in recovery processes, rather than a deficit in conflict detection per se in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 基于任务驱动和项目引领的小组协作Java教学模式研究%A Research on Java Teaching Pattern of Group Collaboration Based on Task Driven and Project Lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the problems existing in Java teaching,this paper presents the thought and analysis of the method of solving problems. It also puts forward Java teaching pattern of group collaboration based on task driven and project lead which is always in a proj⁃ect throughout the course,takes task driven as the main content and considers group collaboration as the main way. The application shows that this method can improve and fully stimulate students’learning initiative.%针对Java教学中存在的问题,对问题解决方法进行了思考和分析,提出一种基于任务驱动和项目引领的小组协作Java教学模式,以一个项目贯穿课程始终,以任务驱动为主要环节,以小组协作为主要方式。实施应用表明,该方法能提高并充分调动学生的学习主动性。

  7. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 2.0: Wind Turbine Reliability and Maintainability Enhancement through System-wide Structure Health Monitoring and Modifications to Rotating Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, Janet M. [Wichita State Univ., Wichita, KS (United States)

    2010-04-30

    An evaluation of nondestructive structural health monitoring methods was completed with over 132 documents, 37 specifically about wind turbines, summarized into a technology matrix. This matrix lists the technology, what can be monitored with this technology, and gives a short summary of the key aspects of the technology and its application. Passive and active acoustic emission equipment from Physical Acoustics Corp. and Acellent Technologies have been evaluated and selected for use in experimental state loading and fatigue tests of composite wind turbine blade materials. Acoustic Emission (AE) and Active Ultrasonic Testing (AUT), were applied to composite coupons with both simulated and actual damage. The results found that, while composites are more complicated in nature, compared to metallic structures, an artificial neural network analysis could still be used to determine damage. For the AE system, the failure mode could be determined (i.e. fiber breakage, delamination, etc.). The Acellent system has been evaluated to work well with composite materials. A test-rig for reliability testing of the rotating components was constructed. The research on the types of bearings used in the wind turbines indicated that in most of the designs, the main bearings utilized to support the shaft are cylindrical roller bearings. The accelerated degradation testing of a population of bearings was performed. Vibration and acoustic emission data was collected and analyzed in order to identify a representative degradation signal for each bearing to identify the initiation of the degradation process in the bearings. Afterwards, the RMS of the vibration signal from degradation initiation up to the end of the useful life of the bearing was selected to predict the remaining useful life of the bearing. This step included fitting Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models to the degradation signals and approximating the probability distribution function (PDF) of remaining useful life

  8. Overview on the dosimetric uncertainty analysis for photon-emitting brachytherapy sources, in the light of the AAPM Task Group No 138 and GEC-ESTRO report

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWerd, Larry A.; Venselaar, Jack L. M.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Meigooni, Ali S.; Stump, Kurt E.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; Rivard, Mark J.

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) published a report pertaining to uncertainties in brachytherapy single-source dosimetry preceding clinical use. The International Organization for Standardization's Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement and Technical Note 1297 by the National Institute of Standards and Technology are taken as reference standards for uncertainty formalism. Uncertainties involved in measurements or Monte Carlo methods to estimate brachytherapy dose distributions are provided with discussion of the components intrinsic to the overall dosimetric assessment. The uncertainty propagation from the primary calibration standard through transfer to the clinic for air-kerma strength is given with uncertainties in each of the brachytherapy dosimetry parameters of the AAPM TG-43 dose-calculation formalism. For low-energy and high-energy brachytherapy sources of low dose-rate and high dose-rate, a combined dosimetric uncertainty AAPM and GEC-ESTRO for their members, and may also be used as guidance to manufacturers and regulatory agencies in developing good manufacturing practices for conventional brachytherapy sources used in routine clinical treatments.

  9. Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

  10. DECOVALEX ll PROJECT. Technical Report Task 1C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, L.; Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Knight, L.J. [United Kingdom Nirex Ltd., Harwell (United Kingdom); Kautsky, F. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Tsang, C-F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Science Division

    1999-05-01

    The DECOVALEX II project is an international co-operative research project supported by eleven funding organizations from seven countries. The project studied four tasks: Task 1: numerical simulation of the RCF3 pump test at Sellafield, UK; Task 2: numerical simulation if the in situ T-H-M experiment at Kamaishi Mine, Japan; Task 3: monitoring of current development in rock fracture research; and Task 4: report on treatment of T-H-M processes in Performance Assessment works for nuclear waste repositories. The project started in 1995 and is scheduled to be finalised in June 1999. This report concerns the Task 1 of the DECOVALEX 11 project. Task 1 consists of three subtasks: i) Task 1 A - the blind numerical prediction to the hydraulic response of the rock mass of the in-situ RCF3 pump test in the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG) at Sellafield, UK; ii) Task 1B -calibration of the numerical models of Task 1A against measured results of the RCF3 pump test; iii) Task 1C - the numerical predictions of the hydro-mechanical effects of the BVG rock mass to the excavation of a shaft along the axis of the RCF3 borehole, without actual excavation of the shaft and associated experiments and measurements. The aim of the subtasks 1 (A+B) was to characterise the hydro-mechanical property field of the fractured rock mass at the RCF3 test site, which could then be used to predict the hydro-mechanical responses of the rock mass to the excavation of a shaft centred on the RCF3 borehole. Task 1C involves a numerical simulation of an assumed excavation of a single shaft on the line of the RCF3 borehole used for Task 1 (A+B). The subtask is basically a generic prediction, with realistic site geology and hydrogeology data but without feedback from an actual excavation of the shaft and associated measurements. A model calibration is not possible due to lack of measured results. On the other hand, some additional components were introduced into the subtask, such as studies of EDZ formation

  11. Measuring disability and monitoring the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: the work of the Washington Group on Disability Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madans, Jennifer H; Loeb, Mitchell E; Altman, Barbara M

    2011-05-31

    The Washington Group on Disability Statistics is a voluntary working group made up of representatives of over 100 National Statistical Offices and international, non-governmental and disability organizations that was organized under the aegis of the United Nations Statistical Division. The purpose of the Washington Group is to deal with the challenge of disability definition and measurement in a way that is culturally neutral and reasonably standardized among the UN member states. The work, which began in 2001, took on added importance with the passage and ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities since the Convention includes a provision for monitoring whether those with and without disabilities have equal opportunities to participate in society and this will require the identification of persons with disabilities in each nation. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) developed by the World Health Organization provided a framework for conceptualizing disability. Operationalizing an ICF-based approach to disability has required the development of new measurement tools for use in both censuses and surveys. To date, a short set of six disability-related questions suitable for use in national censuses has been developed and adopted by the Washington Group and incorporated by the United Nations in their Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses. A series of extended sets of questions is currently under development and some of the sets have been tested in several countries. The assistance of many National and International organizations has allowed for cognitive and field testing of the disability questionnaires in multiple languages and locations. This paper will describe the work of the Washington Group and explicate the applicability of its approach and the questions developed for monitoring the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

  12. Monitoring of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in adults undergoing sevoflurane anesthesia: a prospective cohort study of two age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettel, Nicolai; Patet, Camille; Rossi, Ariane; Burkhart, Christoph S; Czosnyka, Marek; Strebel, Stephan P; Steiner, Luzius A

    2016-06-01

    Autoregulation of blood flow is a key feature of the human cerebral vascular system to assure adequate oxygenation and metabolism of the brain under changing physiological conditions. The impact of advanced age and anesthesia on cerebral autoregulation remains unclear. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on cerebral autoregulation in two different age groups. This is a follow-up analysis of data acquired in a prospective observational cohort study. One hundred thirty-three patients aged 18-40 and ≥65 years scheduled for major noncardiac surgery under general anesthesia were included. Cerebral autoregulation indices, limits, and ranges were compared in young and elderly patient groups. Forty-nine patients (37 %) aged 18-40 years and 84 patients (63 %) aged ≥65 years were included in the study. Age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentrations of sevoflurane were 0.89 ± 0.07 in young and 0.99 ± 0.14 in older subjects (P blood pressure range of 13.8 ± 9.8 mmHg in young and 10.2 ± 8.6 mmHg in older patients (P = 0.079). The lower limit of autoregulation was 66 ± 12 mmHg and 73 ± 14 mmHg in young and older patients, respectively (P = 0.075). The association between sevoflurane concentrations and autoregulatory capacity was similar in both age groups. Our data suggests that the autoregulatory plateau is shortened in both young and older patients under sevoflurane anesthesia with approximately 1 MAC. Lower and upper limits of cerebral blood flow autoregulation, as well as the autoregulatory range, are not influenced by the age of anesthetized patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00512200).

  13. Guidelines by the AAPM and GEC-ESTRO on the use of innovative brachytherapy devices and applications: Report of Task Group 167.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Ravinder; Rivard, Mark J; DeWerd, Larry A; Dezarn, William A; Thompson Heaton, H; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Meigooni, Ali S; Ouhib, Zoubir; Rusch, Thomas W; Siebert, Frank-André; Venselaar, Jack L M

    2016-06-01

    Although a multicenter, Phase III, prospective, randomized trial is the gold standard for evidence-based medicine, it is rarely used in the evaluation of innovative devices because of many practical and ethical reasons. It is usually sufficient to compare the dose distributions and dose rates for determining the equivalence of the innovative treatment modality to an existing one. Thus, quantitative evaluation of the dosimetric characteristics of innovative radiotherapy devices or applications is a critical part in which physicists should be actively involved. The physicist's role, along with physician colleagues, in this process is highlighted for innovative brachytherapy devices and applications and includes evaluation of (1) dosimetric considerations for clinical implementation (including calibrations, dose calculations, and radiobiological aspects) to comply with existing societal dosimetric prerequisites for sources in routine clinical use, (2) risks and benefits from a regulatory and safety perspective, and (3) resource assessment and preparedness. Further, it is suggested that any developed calibration methods be traceable to a primary standards dosimetry laboratory (PSDL) such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the U.S. or to other PSDLs located elsewhere such as in Europe. Clinical users should follow standards as approved by their country's regulatory agencies that approved such a brachytherapy device. Integration of this system into the medical source calibration infrastructure of secondary standard dosimetry laboratories such as the Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratories in the U.S. is encouraged before a source is introduced into widespread routine clinical use. The American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) have developed guidelines for the safe and consistent application of brachytherapy using innovative devices and

  14. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field / R and D of a task adaptation type group architecture transfer robot system, TRIPTERS (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium energy bun`ya / task tekigogata gun kosei hanso robot system TRIPTERS no kaihatsu kenkyu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper stated the fiscal 1997 result of the development of a task adaptation type group architecture transfer robot system (TRIPTERS) which can cope with changes in carrying task rapidly and flexibly. R and D were conducted mainly of various functional modules, the operation management technology which enables group architecture, and the basic design of a standardized transfer robot. As to the positioning, studied were the construction of the basic hardware of laser position measuring device, and the application method. Concerning the cooperative carrying, conducted were securing of positioning accuracy of matters to be carried, high speed heavy transfer control, and design of dead reckoning system. Relating to the operation management, passable areas were divided into more than one zones, and the effective path reservation method was constructed so that one and the same zone is not occupied. As to the environmental recognition/obstacle avoidance, developed were actual hour/distance acquisition equipment, and autonomous cars running according to the directions of the color sign recognition system by stereo CCD camera. Also conducted were the development of methods to recognize the distance to obstacles and to discriminate areas, the development of mobile sensor, and the basic experiment on running of the demonstration machine. 44 refs., 153 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Tackling obesity in areas of high social deprivation: clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a task-based weight management group programme - a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobbie, Hayden; Hajek, Peter; Peerbux, Sarrah; Kahan, Brennan C; Eldridge, Sandra; Trépel, Dominic; Parrott, Steve; Griffiths, Chris; Snuggs, Sarah; Myers Smith, Katie

    2016-10-01

    An increasing number of people require help to manage their weight. The NHS recommends weight loss advice by general practitioners and/or a referral to a practice nurse. Although this is helpful for some, more effective approaches that can be disseminated economically on a large scale are needed. To assess whether or not a task-based weight management programme [Weight Action Programme (WAP)] has better long-term effects than a 'best practice' intervention provided in primary care by practice nurses. Randomised controlled trial with cost-effectiveness analysis. General practices in east London, UK. Three hundred and thirty adults with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 30 kg/m(2) or a BMI of ≥ 28 kg/m(2) plus comorbidities were recruited from local general practices and via media publicity. Those who had a BMI of > 45 kg/m(2), had lost > 5% of their body weight in the previous 6 months, were currently pregnant or taking psychiatric medications were excluded. Participants were randomised (2 : 1) to the WAP or nurse arms. The WAP intervention was delivered in eight weekly group sessions that combined dietary and physical activity, advice and self-monitoring in a group-oriented intervention. The initial course was followed by 10 monthly group maintenance sessions open to all participants in this study arm. The practice nurse intervention (best usual care) consisted of four one-to-one sessions delivered over 8 weeks, and included standard advice on diet and physical activity based on NHS 'Change4Life' materials and motivational support. The primary outcome measure was weight change at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures included change in BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure, and proportion of participants losing at least 5% and 10% of baseline body weight. Staff collecting measurements at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups were blinded to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle

  16. Robust Agent Teams via Socially-Attentive Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminka, G A; 10.1613/jair.682

    2011-01-01

    Agents in dynamic multi-agent environments must monitor their peers to execute individual and group plans. A key open question is how much monitoring of other agents' states is required to be effective: The Monitoring Selectivity Problem. We investigate this question in the context of detecting failures in teams of cooperating agents, via Socially-Attentive Monitoring, which focuses on monitoring for failures in the social relationships between the agents. We empirically and analytically explore a family of socially-attentive teamwork monitoring algorithms in two dynamic, complex, multi-agent domains, under varying conditions of task distribution and uncertainty. We show that a centralized scheme using a complex algorithm trades correctness for completeness and requires monitoring all teammates. In contrast, a simple distributed teamwork monitoring algorithm results in correct and complete detection of teamwork failures, despite relying on limited, uncertain knowledge, and monitoring only key agents in a team...

  17. Game Analysis of Relationships between Emotion Conflicts and Tasks Perform Conflicts in Project Group%项目团队中情感与履行任务冲突关系博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万涛

    2011-01-01

    针对项目团队中存在冲突影响团队有效构建与和谐发展的问题,在现有的项目团队冲突经济行为研究成果基础上引进非经济行为分析,利用博弈论构建任务履行冲突(经济行为)与情感冲突(非经济行为)的关系理论模型,实例研究表明,该理论研究符合实际运作,为构建和谐的项目团队提供了理论依据.%Conflicts in project group are important factors affecting the effective establishment and harmonious development of project group. Non - economic behavior conflicts were analysed based on the research achievement of economic behavior conflicts in the existing project group. The relationship theoretical models were set up using tasks perform conflicts ( economic behaviors) and emotion conflicts ( non - economic behaviors) by game theory. The case indicates that the result accords with the practical operation;consequently it gives a basis for theory to establish the harmonious project group.

  18. Unsolicited Reporting to Prescribers of Opioid Analgesics by a State Prescription Drug Monitoring Program: An Observational Study with Matched Comparison Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leonard D; Kreiner, Peter W; Panas, Lee

    2017-04-04

     State prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) can help detect individuals with multiple provider episodes (MPEs; also referred to as doctor/pharmacy shopping), an indicator of prescription drug abuse and/or diversion. Although unsolicited reporting by PDMPs to prescribers of opioid analgesics is thought to be an important practice in reducing MPEs and the potential harm associated with them, evidence of its effectiveness is mixed. This exploratory research evaluates the impact of unsolicited reports sent by Massachusetts' PDMP to the prescribers of persons with MPEs.  Individuals with MPEs were identified from PDMP records between January 2010 and July 2011 as individuals having Schedule II prescriptions (at least one prescription being an opioid) from four or more distinct prescribers and four or more distinct pharmacies within six months. Based on available MA-PDMP resources, an unsolicited report containing the patient's 12-month prescription history was sent to prescribers of a subset of patients who met the MPE threshold; a comparison group closely matched on demographics and baseline prescription history, whose prescribers were not sent a report, was generated using propensity score matching. The prescription history of each group was examined for 12 months before and after the intervention.  There were eighty-four patients (intervention group) whose prescribers received an unsolicited report and 504 matched patients (comparison group) whose prescribers were not sent a report. Regression analyses indicated significantly greater decreases in the number of Schedule II opioid prescriptions ( P  opioid analgesics from multiple providers.

  19. NATO Task Group on Information Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    examples taken from a course in Intelligence for OOTW given by WO1 Dave Steer, Defence Intelligence and Security Centre , Chicksands, UK. All names and...Crissy BARNEY was seen by the Enterprise Centre , GR 7101 3523. She was alone. • 6 May at 142011rs, Allan KAUGNOT and Sean KAUGNOT were seen by CCTV sat...Mk 15 Mor 14 Jul Shoot 7 May //X/X//Mk 15 Mor 5 May WEAPONS A llan K A U G N O T A lly M O R R IS R obert K O K S Jim M cC BA LE Brian BY R R IS D

  20. fNIRS-based investigation of the Stroop task after TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenger, Patrick; Krishnan, Kamini; Cloud, Matthew; Bosworth, Chris; Qualls, Devin; Marquez de la Plata, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate neural changes during a Stroop task among individuals with TBI using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Thirteen healthy controls and 14 patients with moderate to severe TBI were included in this study. Oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) was recorded every tenth of a second using a 52-channel fNIRS unit. Data were acquired using a block design during a Stroop task (i.e., Condition A = Dot Color Naming, Condition B = Incongruent Condition). Visual stimuli were presented on a computer monitor. Behaviorally, response accuracy was similar between groups for condition A, but the TBI group made more errors than the control group during condition B. During condition A, the patient group demonstrated significant increases in HbO within bilateral frontal regions compared to controls (p TBI group (p TBI group performed as accurately as controls on the simpler dot color naming condition of the Stroop task, neural activity was greater within the frontal lobes during this relatively simple task among the TBI group suggesting neural inefficiency. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of neural activity related to the interference effect was not different among patients, suggesting the neural demand for the simpler task was comparable to that of the more cognitive demanding task among the TBI sample. The results suggest that fNIRS can identify frontal lobe inefficiency in TBI commonly observed with fMRI.

  1. Functionality and operation of fluoroscopic automatic brightness control/automatic dose rate control logic in modern cardiovascular and interventional angiography systems: a report of Task Group 125 Radiography/Fluoroscopy Subcommittee, Imaging Physics Committee, Science Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Phillip; Lin, Pei-Jan Paul; Balter, Stephen; Fukuda, Atsushi; Goode, Allen; Hartwell, Gary; LaFrance, Terry; Nickoloff, Edward; Shepard, Jeff; Strauss, Keith

    2012-05-01

    Task Group 125 (TG 125) was charged with investigating the functionality of fluoroscopic automatic dose rate and image quality control logic in modern angiographic systems, paying specific attention to the spectral shaping filters and variations in the selected radiologic imaging parameters. The task group was also charged with describing the operational aspects of the imaging equipment for the purpose of assisting the clinical medical physicist with clinical set-up and performance evaluation. Although there are clear distinctions between the fluoroscopic operation of an angiographic system and its acquisition modes (digital cine, digital angiography, digital subtraction angiography, etc.), the scope of this work was limited to the fluoroscopic operation of the systems studied. The use of spectral shaping filters in cardiovascular and interventional angiography equipment has been shown to reduce patient dose. If the imaging control algorithm were programmed to work in conjunction with the selected spectral filter, and if the generator parameters were optimized for the selected filter, then image quality could also be improved. Although assessment of image quality was not included as part of this report, it was recognized that for fluoroscopic imaging the parameters that influence radiation output, differential absorption, and patient dose are also the same parameters that influence image quality. Therefore, this report will utilize the terminology "automatic dose rate and image quality" (ADRIQ) when describing the control logic in modern interventional angiographic systems and, where relevant, will describe the influence of controlled parameters on the subsequent image quality. A total of 22 angiography units were investigated by the task group and of these one each was chosen as representative of the equipment manufactured by GE Healthcare, Philips Medical Systems, Shimadzu Medical USA, and Siemens Medical Systems. All equipment, for which measurement data were

  2. Sex, Task, and Behavioral Flexibility Effects on Leadership Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall; Workman; Marchioro

    1998-04-01

    The effects of sex and behavioral flexibility on leader perceptions were examined in small groups performing under two task conditions. We predicted, based on theory and previous empirical research, that leadership perceptions would be higher for: (1) persons higher in three indicators of behavioral flexibility (self-monitoring, self-reported behavioral capabilities, and androgyny), (2) males in general, and (3) tasks that were sex-congruent. Results showed significant, strong support for behavioral flexibility and sex effects and weak support for the effects of sex-congruent tasks. Exploratory analyses showed that perceived target capabilities mediated the effects of sex and behavioral flexibility. The discussion is organized around a theoretical model which suggests that target behavior and sex-based cues leading to leader categorization are in part mediated by inferred target capabilities. These capabilities show parallels to leadership-relevant traits such as masculinity, dominance, extroversion, and adjustment, identified in early leadership research. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  3. Bioelectrical impedance for detecting and monitoring lymphedema in patients with breast cancer. Preliminary results of the florence nightingale breast study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan Iyigun, Zeynep; Selamoglu, Derya; Alco, Gul; Pilancı, Kezban Nur; Ordu, Cetin; Agacayak, Filiz; Elbüken, Filiz; Bozdogan, Atilla; Ilgun, Serkan; Guler Uysal, Fusun; Ozmen, Vahit

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bioimpedance spectroscopy for the follow-up of patients with lymphedema in Turkey and its benefits in the diagnosis of stage 0, 1, and 2 lymphedema in patients who are under treatment for breast cancer. Thirty-seven female patients with breast cancer who underwent surgical procedures in our Breast Health Centre were followed up for lymphedema using bioimpedance, and clinical measurements were taken for a minimum period of 1 year at 3-month intervals. Patients who had been monitored regularly between November, 2011, and September, 2013, were enrolled to the study. In total, 8 patients developed lymphedema with an overall rate of 21.6%. Among the 8 patients who developed lymphedema, 4 had Stage 2, 1 had Stage 1, and 3 had Stage 0 lymphedema. Stage 0 lymphedema could not be detected with clinical measurements. During the patients' 1-year follow-up period using measurements of bioimpedance, a statistically significant relationship was observed between the occurrence of lymphedema and the disease characteristics. including the number of the extracted and remaining lymph nodes and the region of radiotherapy (p=0.042, p=0.024, p=0.040). Bioimpedance analysis seems to be a practical and reliable method for the early diagnosis of lymphedema. It is believed that regular monitoring of patients in the high-risk group using bioimpedance analyses increases the ability to treat lymphedema.

  4. Improving reading comprehension by developing monitoring strategies / Desenvolvimento da compreensão leitora através do monitoramento da leitura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Göbel Coelho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines whether the development of monitoring strategies improves textual comprehension skills using an error detection methodology for checking it. Adolescents distributed into experimental and control groups were presented to the monitoring and cloze tasks of pre- and post-tests where tasks like verbal ability, attention and working memory were controlled. The experimental and control groups did not differ in their linguistic-cognitive abilities or in their performance in the pre-test tasks. However, the performance of the experimental group was significantly better than the control group in the reading and monitoring tasks carried out after the intervention. The evidences found in this study suggest that text comprehension can be improved by the efficiency adolescents monitor their reading process.

  5. Targeting binge eating through components of dialectical behavior therapy: preliminary outcomes for individually supported diary card self-monitoring versus group-based DBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Angela S; Skinner, Jeremy B; Hawley, Kristin M

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined two condensed adaptations of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for binge eating. Women with full- or sub-threshold variants of either binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa were randomly assigned to individually supported self-monitoring using adapted DBT diary cards (DC) or group-based DBT, each 15 sessions over 16 weeks. DC sessions focused on problem-solving diary card completion issues, praising diary card completion, and supporting nonjudgmental awareness of eating-related habits and urges, but not formally teaching DBT skills. Group-based DBT included eating mindfulness, progressing through graded exposure; mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills; and coaching calls between sessions. Both treatments evidenced large and significant improvements in binge eating, bulimic symptoms, and interoceptive awareness. For group-based DBT, ineffectiveness, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and perfectionism also decreased significantly, with medium to large effect sizes. For DC, results were not significant but large in effect size for body dissatisfaction and medium in effect size for ineffectiveness and drive for thinness. Retention for both treatments was higher than recent trends for eating disorder treatment in fee-for-service practice and for similar clinic settings, but favored DC, with the greater attrition of group-based DBT primarily attributed to its more intensive and time-consuming nature, and dropout overall associated with less pretreatment impairment and greater interoceptive awareness. This preliminary investigation suggests that with both abbreviated DBT-based treatments, substantial improvement in core binge eating symptoms is possible, enhancing potential avenues for implementation beyond more time-intensive DBT.

  6. Numerical processing efficiency improved in children using mental abacus: ERP evidence utilizing a numerical Stroop task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eYao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether long-term abacus-based mental calculation (AMC training improved numerical processing efficiency and at what stage of information processing the effect appeard. Thirty-three children participated in the study and were randomly assigned to two groups at primary school entry, matched for age, gender and IQ. All children went through the same curriculum except that the abacus group received a 2-hour/per week AMC training, while the control group did traditional numerical practice for a similar amount of time. After a two-year training, they were tested with a numerical Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG and event related potential (ERP recording techniques were used to monitor the temporal dynamics during the task. Children were required to determine the numerical magnitude (NC task or the physical size (PC task of two numbers presented simultaneously. In the NC task, the AMC group showed faster response times but similar accuracy compared to the control group. In the PC task, the two groups exhibited the same speed and accuracy. The saliency of numerical information relative to physical information was greater in AMC group. With regards to ERP results, the AMC group displayed congruity effects both in the earlier (N1 and later (N2 and LPC (late positive component time domain, while the control group only displayed congruity effects for LPC. In the left parietal region, LPC amplitudes were larger for the AMC than the control group. Individual differences for LPC amplitudes over left parietal area showed a positive correlation with RTs in the NC task in both congruent and neutral conditions. After controlling for the N2 amplitude, this correlation also became significant in the incongruent condition. Our results suggest that AMC training can strengthen the relationship between symbolic representation and numerical magnitude so that numerical information processing becomes quicker and automatic in AMC children.

  7. Numerical processing efficiency improved in children using mental abacus: ERP evidence utilizing a numerical Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Du, Fenglei; Wang, Chunjie; Liu, Yuqiu; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether long-term abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training improved numerical processing efficiency and at what stage of information processing the effect appeard. Thirty-three children participated in the study and were randomly assigned to two groups at primary school entry, matched for age, gender and IQ. All children went through the same curriculum except that the abacus group received a 2-h/per week AMC training, while the control group did traditional numerical practice for a similar amount of time. After a 2-year training, they were tested with a numerical Stroop task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and event related potential (ERP) recording techniques were used to monitor the temporal dynamics during the task. Children were required to determine the numerical magnitude (NC) (NC task) or the physical size (PC task) of two numbers presented simultaneously. In the NC task, the AMC group showed faster response times but similar accuracy compared to the control group. In the PC task, the two groups exhibited the same speed and accuracy. The saliency of numerical information relative to physical information was greater in AMC group. With regards to ERP results, the AMC group displayed congruity effects both in the earlier (N1) and later (N2 and LPC (late positive component) time domain, while the control group only displayed congruity effects for LPC. In the left parietal region, LPC amplitudes were larger for the AMC than the control group. Individual differences for LPC amplitudes over left parietal area showed a positive correlation with RTs in the NC task in both congruent and neutral conditions. After controlling for the N2 amplitude, this correlation also became significant in the incongruent condition. Our results suggest that AMC training can strengthen the relationship between symbolic representation and numerical magnitude so that numerical information processing becomes quicker and automatic in AMC children.

  8. Network Monitoring with Nagios

    CERN Document Server

    Dondich, Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Network monitoring can be a complex task to implement and maintain in your IT infrastructure. Nagios, an open-source host, service and network monitoring program can help you streamline your network monitoring tasks and reduce the cost of operation.With this shortcut guide, we'll go over how Nagios fits in the overall network monitoring puzzle. We'll also cover installation and basic usage. Finally, we'll show you how to extend Nagios with other tools to extend functionality.

  9. Common neural recruitment across diverse sustained attention tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Jessica A; Manly, Tom

    2012-01-01

    At one level "sustained attention" is simply a description of a task demand. It is often used, however, in reference to a putatively unitary capacity to remain engaged in tasks that are lengthy, dull, repetitive and/or characterised by long intervals between relevant events. Deficits in sustained attention have been reported in a range of clinical conditions. Despite this, there is paucity of well-controlled human functional imaging evidence about regions commonly recruited during diverse sustained attention tasks. Here, for the first time, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to monitor brain activity patterns as healthy volunteers performed two sustained attention tasks. The first, widely used in clinical assessment, required participants to count tones separated by long unpredictable intervals. This was contrasted with a control counting condition in which tones were presented at a brisk, regular rate. The second task was the Sustained Attention to Response Test (SART) in which participants responded to sequentially presented digits with the exception of a nominated infrequent no-go target. In the control condition, no-go trials were explicitly absent, removing the requirement to maintain a readiness to withhold responses. Although there were distinct patterns of activation associated with each task relative to its control, activity common to both tasks was found in the bilateral inferior frontal operculum, anterior cingulate, and bilateral premotor cortex. Although some researchers argue for a specific role of the inferior frontal operculum in inhibition, our results are consistent with recent findings of a more general attentional role for this area. The maintenance of a goal directed stance in the absence of strong environmental facilitation is challenging and this may underpin the sensitivity of sustained attention tasks to functional difficulties in a range of clinical groups.

  10. An action-incongruent secondary task modulates prediction accuracy in experienced performers: evidence for motor simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Desmond; Lohse, Keith R; Hodges, Nicola J

    2016-07-01

    We provide behavioral evidence that the human motor system is involved in the perceptual decision processes of skilled performers, directly linking prediction accuracy to the (in)ability of the motor system to activate in a response-specific way. Experienced and non-experienced dart players were asked to predict, from temporally occluded video sequences, the landing position of a dart thrown previously by themselves (self) or another (other). This prediction task was performed while additionally performing (a) an action-incongruent secondary motor task (right arm force production), (b) a congruent secondary motor task (mimicking) or (c) an attention-matched task (tone-monitoring). Non-experienced dart players were not affected by any of the secondary task manipulations, relative to control conditions, yet prediction accuracy decreased for the experienced players when additionally performing the force-production, motor task. This interference effect was present for 'self' as well as 'other' decisions, reducing the accuracy of experienced participants to a novice level. The mimicking (congruent) secondary task condition did not interfere with (or facilitate) prediction accuracy for either group. We conclude that visual-motor experience moderates the process of decision making, such that a seemingly visual-cognitive prediction task relies on activation of the motor system for experienced performers. This fits with a motor simulation account of action prediction in sports and other tasks, and alerts to the specificity of these simulative processes.

  11. An Overview of the NOAA Drought Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, S.; Mo, K.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Wood, A.

    2012-01-01

    The charge of the NOAA Drought Task Force is to coordinate and facilitate the various MAPP-funded research efforts with the overall goal of achieving significant advances in understanding and in the ability to monitor and predict drought over North America. In order to achieve this, the task force has developed a Drought Test-bed that individual research groups can use to test/evaluate methods and ideas. Central to this is a focus on three high profile North American droughts (1998-2004 western US drought, 2006-2007 SE US drought, 2011- current Tex-Mex drought) to facilitate collaboration among projects, including the development of metrics to assess the quality of monitoring and prediction products, and the development of an experimental drought monitoring and prediction system that incorporates and assesses recent advances. This talk will review the progress and plans of the task force, including efforts to help advance official national drought products, and the development of early warning systems by the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS). Coordination with other relevant national and international efforts such as the emerging NMME capabilities and the international effort to develop a Global Drought Information System (GDIS) will be discussed.

  12. Performance Monitoring and Behavioral Adjustments in a Time-Estimation Task:Evidence from ERP Study%时间估计任务中的反馈加工和行为调节:来自ERP的证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向玲; 王宝玺; 张庆林

    2012-01-01

    It is important for successful future behavior to learn from past mistakes. In the last two decades, performance monitoring has received a lot of attention. Some studies showed that the FRN (feedback related negativity) was sensitive to adjustment behavior following the feedback stimulus, whereas some studies did not find any relationship between ERN amplitude and behavioral adjustments. So it is unclear how the brains learn from past mistakes. In the present study, we used a time-estimation task with feedback type (correct, incorrect-slow, incorrect-fast with the graded incorrect feedback as a function of the degree of error under gain and loss condition. Event-related potentials were recorded to explore the neural mechanism of the performance monitoring and behavioral adjustment in time-estimation task. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in this study. Subjects were asked to estimate a 1-second interval and feedback was based on the estimation of the participants. Subjects received graded incorrect feedback as a function of the degree of error and the 'punishment' on incorrect trials was loss 30 Yuan, loss 20 Yuan, or loss 10 Yuan relative to correct trials. Analyses of the behavioral data revealed that the subjects shortened or lengthened their judgments according to feedback and the amount of adjustment was related to the suggested degree of error. Behavioral data indicated that the subjects made use of the information provided by the feedback in adjusting their behavior from one trial to the next. Analyses of ERP data focused on feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300. FRN analyses revealed that FRN was sensitive to feedback value but insensitive to fast-slow incorrect feedback or three punishment levels. These results suggested the dissociation between the processes underlying generation of the FRN and the processes responsible for behavioral adjustments. P300 showed an opposite pattern relative to FRN: P300 was modulated not only by fast

  13. Investigating executive functions in children with severe speech and movement disorders using structured tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine eStadskleiv

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions are the basis for goal-directed activity and include planning, monitoring, and inhibition, and language seems to play a role in the development of these functions. There is a tradition of studying executive function in both typical and atypical populations, and the present study investigates executive functions in children with severe speech and motor impairments who are communicating using communication aids with graphic symbols, letters and/or words. There are few neuropsychological studies of children in this group and little is known about their cognitive functioning, including executive functions. It was hypothesized that aided communication would tax executive functions more than speech. 29 children using communication aids and 27 naturally speaking children participated. Structured tasks resembling everyday activities, where the action goals had to be reached through communication with a partner, were used to get information about executive functions. The children a directed the partner to perform actions like building a Lego tower from a model the partner could not see and b gave information about an object without naming it to a person who had to guess what object it was. The executive functions of planning, monitoring and impulse control were coded from the children’s on-task behavior. Both groups solved most of the tasks correctly, indicating that aided communicators are able to use language to direct another person to do a complex set of actions. Planning and lack of impulsivity was positively related to task success in both groups. The aided group completed significantly fewer tasks, spent longer time and showed more variation in performance than the comparison group. The aided communicators scored lower on planning and showed more impulsivity than the comparison group, while both groups showed an equal degree of monitoring of the work progress. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that aided language

  14. Maternity care practices and breastfeeding experiences of women in different racial and ethnic groups: Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Indu B; Morrow, Brian; D'Angelo, Denise; Li, Ruowei

    2012-11-01

    Research shows that maternity care practices are important to promoting breastfeeding in the early post partum period; however, little is known about the association between maternity care practices and breastfeeding among different racial and ethnic groups. We examined the association between maternity care practices and breastfeeding duration to ≥10 weeks overall and among various racial and ethnic groups using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS). PRAMS is a state, population-based surveillance system that collects information on maternal behaviors. We used maternity care practices data from 11 states and New York City with response rates ≥70% from 2004 to 2006. Multiple maternity care practices were examined and the analysis adjusted for demographic characteristics, participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), lifestyle, and infant variables. The outcome variable for multivariable analysis was breastfeeding duration to Breastfeeding patterns varied with white and Hispanic women reporting highest breastfeeding initiation and duration prevalence. Overall, practices positively associated with ≥10 duration were: breastfeeding initiated within the first hour after birth (adjusted OR [AOR] = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16-1.45); fed breast milk only (AOR = 2.40; 95% CI: 2.15-2.68); breastfed on demand (AOR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.08-1.40) and receiving telephone support (AOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03-1.39). Maternity care practices associated with breastfeeding to ≥10 weeks varied across three racial/ethnic groups. One practice, that of giving newborns breast milk only, was positively associated with breastfeeding duration of ≥10 weeks across all three groups. Maternity care practices associated with breastfeeding continuation to ≥10 weeks varied by race/ethnicity. For example: breastfeeding within the first hour, baby given a pacifier, and assistance from hospital staff, were

  15. Mobile Thread Task Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.

  16. Group sequential monitoring based on the weighted log-rank test statistic with the Fleming-Harrington class of weights in cancer vaccine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takahiro

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, immunological science has evolved, and cancer vaccines are now approved and available for treating existing cancers. Because cancer vaccines require time to elicit an immune response, a delayed treatment effect is expected and is actually observed in drug approval studies. Accordingly, we propose the evaluation of survival endpoints by weighted log-rank tests with the Fleming-Harrington class of weights. We consider group sequential monitoring, which allows early efficacy stopping, and determine a semiparametric information fraction for the Fleming-Harrington family of weights, which is necessary for the error spending function. Moreover, we give a flexible survival model in cancer vaccine studies that considers not only the delayed treatment effect but also the long-term survivors. In a Monte Carlo simulation study, we illustrate that when the primary analysis is a weighted log-rank test emphasizing the late differences, the proposed information fraction can be a useful alternative to the surrogate information fraction, which is proportional to the number of events. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and molecular weight monitoring of a novel Schiff base polymer containing phenol group: Thermal stability, conductivity and antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Baran, Nuray; Saçak, Mehmet

    2017-10-01

    A novel Schiff base polymer containing phenol group, Poly(3-[[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino]phenol) P(3-DBAP), was prepared by oxidative polycondensation reaction of 3-[[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino]phenol (3-DBAP) using NaOCl, H2O2, O2 oxidants in aqueous alkaline medium. Yield and molecular weight distribution of P(3-DBAP) were monitored depending on oxidant types and concentration, monomer concentration and as well as polymerization temperature and time. UV-Vis, FTIR and 1HNMR techniques were used to identify the structures of Schiff base monomer and polymer. Thermal behavior of P(3-DBAP), which was determined to be thermally stable up to 1200 °C via TG-DTG techniques, was illuminated by Thermo-IR spectra recorded in the temperature range of 25-800 °C. It was determined that the electrical conductivity value of the P(3-DBAP) increased 108 fold after doped with iodine for 24 h at 60 °C according to undoped form and it was measured 4.6 × 10-4 S/cm. Also, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the monomer and polymer were assayed against Sarcina lutea, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus Feacalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis bacteria, and Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi.

  18. Application of Multi-task Sparse Group Lasso Feature Extraction and Support Vector Machine Regression in the Stellar Atmospheric Parametrization%多任务Sparse Group Lasso特征提取与支持向量机回归在恒星大气物理参量估计中的应用∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高伟; 李乡儒

    2016-01-01

    The multi-task learning puts the multiple tasks together to analyse and calculate for discovering the correlation between them, which can improve the accu-racy of analysis results. This kind of methods have been widely studied in machine learning, pattern recognition, computer vision, and other related fields. This paper investigates the application of multi-task learning in estimating the effective tempera-ture (Teff ), surface gravity (lg g), and chemical abundance ([Fe/H]). Firstly, the spectral characteristics of the three atmospheric physical parameters are extracted by using the multi-task Sparse Group Lasso algorithm, and then the support vector machine is used to estimate the atmospheric physical parameters. The proposed scheme is evaluated on both Sloan stellar spectra and theoretical spectra computed from Kurucz’s New Opacity Distribution Function (NEWODF) model. The mean absolute errors (MAEs) on the Sloan spectra are: 0.0064 for lg (Teff/K), 0.1622 for lg (g/(cm · s−2)), and 0.1221 dex for [Fe/H];The MAEs on synthetic spectra are 0.0006 for lg (Teff/K), 0.0098 for lg (g/(cm · s−2)), and 0.0082 dex for [Fe/H]. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme is excellent for atmospheric parameter estimation.%多任务学习(Multi-task Learning, MTL)就是把多个问题一起进行分析、计算,以发掘不同问题之间的相关性,提高分析结果的精度,该类方法已被广泛地应用于机器学习、模式识别、计算机视觉等领域.使用多任务学习方案研究了恒星大气物理参数中表面温度(Teff )、表面重力加速度(lg g)、化学丰度([Fe/H])的估计问题.首先使用多任务Sparse Group Lasso算法提取对3个大气物理参数均有预测能力的光谱特征;然后使用支持向量机估计恒星大气物理参数.该方案在Sloan实测恒星光谱和理论光谱上均做了测试.在实测光谱上的平均绝对误差分别为:0.0064(lg (Teff/K)),0.1622(lg (g/(cm·s−2))),0.1221 dex

  19. Research on Geographical Urban Conditions Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    by LUO A1inghai Abstract Geographical national conditions monitoring has become an important task of surveying and geographical information industry, and will make a profound influence on the development of surveying and ge- ographical information. This paper introduced the basic concept of ge- ographical national conditions monitoring, and discussed its main tasks including complete surveying, dynamic monitoring, statistical analysis and regular release, and expounded the main content of geographical urban conditions monitoring including urbanization monitoring, social- economic development monitoring, transportation foundation monitor- ing and natural ecological environment monitoring, and put forwards the framework system of geographical urban conditions monitoring. Key words surveying and mapping ,geographical national conditions, monitoring ( Page:l )

  20. Is there a bilingual advantage in the ANT task? Evidence from children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko eAntón

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals in a variety of tasks that do not tap into linguistic processes. The origin of this bilingual advantage has been questioned in recent years. While some authors argue that the reason behind this apparent advantage is bilinguals’ enhanced executive functioning, inhibitory skills and/or monitoring abilities, other authors suggest that the locus of these differences between bilinguals and monolinguals may lie in uncontrolled factors or incorrectly matched samples. In the current study we tested a group of 180 bilingual children and a group of 180 carefully matched monolinguals in a child-friendly version of the ANT task. Following recent evidence from similar studies with children, our results showed no bilingual advantage at all, given that the performance of the two groups in the task and the indices associated with the individual attention networks were highly similar and statistically indistinguishable.

  1. A Linguistic Communication Measure for Monitoring Changes in Chinese Aphasic Narrative Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Law, Sam-Po

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM) in monitoring changes of narrative production in five Chinese adults with aphasia in the period of spontaneous recovery (SR group) and four who underwent anomia therapies (Tx group). Language samples elicited from a picture description task were…

  2. World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM) 2016 standards for recording and scoring leg movements in polysomnograms developed by a joint task force from the International and the European Restless Legs Syndrome Study Groups (IRLSSG and EURLSSG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, R; Fulda, S; Allen, R P; Zucconi, M; Bruni, O; Chokroverty, S; Ferini-Strambi, L; Frauscher, B; Garcia-Borreguero, D; Hirshkowitz, M; Högl, B; Inoue, Y; Jahangir, A; Manconi, M; Marcus, C L; Picchietti, D L; Plazzi, G; Winkelman, J W; Zak, R S

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the results of the work by a joint task force of the International and European Restless Legs Syndrome Study Groups and World Association of Sleep Medicine that revised and updated the current standards for recording and scoring leg movements (LM) in polysomnographic recordings (PSG). First, the background of the decisions made and the explanations of the new rules are reported and then specific standard rules are presented for recording, detecting, scoring and reporting LM activity in PSG. Each standard rule has been classified with a level of evidence. At the end of the paper, Appendix 1 provides algorithms to aid implementation of these new standards in software tools. There are two main changes introduced by these new rules: 1) Candidate LM (CLM), are any monolateral LM 0.5-10 s long or bilateral LM 0.5-15 s long; 2) periodic LM (PLM) are now defined by runs of at least four consecutive CLM with an intermovement interval ≥10 and ≤ 90 s without any CLM preceded by an interval  0.5 s regardless of duration, otherwise the technician scores the LM as for the old standards. There is a new criterion for the morphology of LM that applies only to computerized LM detection to better match expert visual detection. Available automatic scoring programs will incorporate all the new rules so that the new standards should reduce technician burden for scoring PLMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  4. Task-specificity of balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboin, Louis-Solal; Gruber, Markus; Kramer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Despite much research on balance training, it is still unclear whether balance training leads to highly task-specific adaptations or rather non-specific adaptations. Hence, in this study we examined whether balance training increased performance only in the balance task that was trained or also in non-trained tasks. Forty healthy participants (28 m 12 f, 25 ± 4 years, 177 ± 10 cm, 73 ± 14 kg) were assigned to one of two training groups (TGs) or a control group. Both TGs completed six sessions over 2 weeks, only the training device differed. Before and after the training, performance in the trained task as well as in additional untrained tasks was recorded. ANOVAs showed that each TG outperformed the other groups only in the task they had trained (e.g., task trained by TG1: +225% in TG1, only +41% and +30% in TG2 and control, group*time interaction, pbalance training resulted in highly task-specific effects, no transfer even to very similar tasks was observed. Therefore, we recommend identifying and training exactly those tasks that need improvement, and test the efficacy of training programs using specific tests instead of general tests with limited functional relevance.

  5. "Task" as Research Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedhouse, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The article examines "task" as research construct as predominantly conceived in terms of task-as-workplan in the task-based learning/second language acquisition literature. It is suggested that "task" has weak construct validity and ontology in an overwhelmingly quantitative paradigm because the construct has a "split personality."…

  6. Loads Monitoring and Hums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Strain Measurement Fibre Optic Strain Temperature Pressure Crack Gage Crack Growth Accelerometer C.G. or Local Acceleration, Vibration, Buffet Pressure...Fig. 3.3-3 Zone 4 sensor location and results 1-15 A different method of monitoring structural health is shown in Fig. 3.3-4, a fibre optic array...Computer System Fig. 3.3-4 Fibre Optic monitoring array embedded in structure The two major tasks of structural health monitoring: Identification of

  7. Effective components of feedback from Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) in youth mental health care: Study protocol of a three-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonsbeek, A.M.S. van; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.; Veerman, J.W.; Tiemens, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Routine Outcome Monitoring refers to regular measurements of clients' progress in clinical practice, aiming to evaluate and, if necessary, adapt treatment. Clients fill out questionnaires and clinicians receive feedback about the results. Studies concerning feedback in youth mental

  8. Recalling academic tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  9. Kokkos? Task DAG Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Harold C.; Ibanez, Daniel Alejandro

    2017-09-01

    This report documents the ASC/ATDM Kokkos deliverable "Production Portable Dy- namic Task DAG Capability." This capability enables applications to create and execute a dynamic task DAG ; a collection of heterogeneous computational tasks with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) of "execute after" dependencies where tasks and their dependencies are dynamically created and destroyed as tasks execute. The Kokkos task scheduler executes the dynamic task DAG on the target execution resource; e.g. a multicore CPU, a manycore CPU such as Intel's Knights Landing (KNL), or an NVIDIA GPU. Several major technical challenges had to be addressed during development of Kokkos' Task DAG capability: (1) portability to a GPU with it's simplified hardware and micro- runtime, (2) thread-scalable memory allocation and deallocation from a bounded pool of memory, (3) thread-scalable scheduler for dynamic task DAG, (4) usability by applications.

  10. Task Allocation Strategy Based on Game Theory in Group Computing%群体计算中基于博弈论的任务分配策略❋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鸣; 彭成; 满君丰; 刘美博; 杜坤

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of big data promotes the progress of economy and technology,but the features,low value density,bring challenges to the big data.These features make that it need urgently complex cognitive reasoning,which is effectively solved by human-machine collaboration based crowd computing.However,crowd computing’s task allocation strategy is not maturity completely.some scholars have come up with a theme-aware task assignment framework,which solves task allocation to different professional background and knowledge level,but it does not deal with task allocation invol-ving same knowledge level and professional background,which makes higher computational efficiency.To deal with this problem,it propose a task allocation algorithm based on game theory,which detects the accuracy with same professional and knowledge level.The task allocation algorithm based on game theory,compared with randomly task allocation,shows the accuracy of game theory algorithm.%大数据的快速发展,推动了社会经济和科技的发展,但大数据的价值密度低等特点为其发展带来了挑战。大数据的这些特点使得大数据迫切需要复杂认知的推理技术,而人机协作的群体计算成为了复杂认知推理技术的有效途径,但其任务分配策略还尚未完善。尽管已经有学者提出了基于用户主题感知的任务分配策略,解决了涉及不同专业背景及不同知识水平的任务分配,但并未解决处于同层次知识水平和专业背景的用户如何分配任务,使得计算效率更高。针对此问题,提出了基于博弈论的任务分配算法,检测相同专业背景和知识水平的人群完成任务的准确率,与任务随机分配相比较,突出博弈论算法的准确性。

  11. Sensitization to group direction in the postgraduate training on Group-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Bruschetta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The psychodynamic training group here introduced is a part of the General Training on Group Analysis of the Centre of Palermo of COIRAG Postgraduate School on Analytic Psychotherapy. The training project’s aim, built for the class of the third year, develops a sensitization device which provide a unique set of aquarium. The aim of that methodological artifice is not to engage students on specific group management techniques, but to allow the whole class group to bring into play the complexity of relations, of which is necessary to have awareness in order to lead a group within an institutional context: The main clinical referents that we chose to monitor in this experience are the relationship between conductors and participants and the relationship between group, task and setting. The brief description of this methodology is also including the reporting of two "cases" treated in the course of training. Keywords: Group leadership, Founding dimension, Cultural themes 

  12. The Impact of Task Complexity and Strategic Planning Time on EFL Learners’Accuracy and Fluency in Written Task Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salimi, Asghar; Alavinia, Parviz; Hosseini, Parvin; Shafaei, Ali

    2012-01-01

    ... in the literature on the joint effects of task complexity and types of pre-task planning on L2 learners’ performance. The present study investigates the effects of strategic pre-task planning time and task complexity on a group of L2 learners...

  13. Project Tasks in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1998-01-01

    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  14. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  15. Launching Complex Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  16. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching fr

  17. Hippocampal lesions in rats impair learning and memory for locations on a touch-sensitive computer screen: the "ASAT" task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpos, J C; Dias, R; Bussey, T J; Saksida, L M

    2008-10-10

    It has been repeatedly demonstrated across species that the hippocampus is critical for spatial learning and memory. Consequently, numerous paradigms have been created to study spatial learning in the rodent. Most of these tasks, such as the Morris water maze, 8-arm radial maze, and T-maze, are non-automated procedures. It was our goal to create an automated task in the rodent that is quickly learned, hippocampal-dependent, and minimizes the confounding variables present in most tests measuring hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. To accomplish this, we created a novel search task using a standard operant box fitted with a touch-sensitive computer monitor. Subjects were required to locate an S+ "hidden" amongst other identical stimuli on the monitor. In two versions of the task the S+ stayed in the same location within a session but shifted location between sessions. In a third version of the task the S+ was moved to a new location after every 10 trials. It was found that the location of the S+ was quickly acquired each day (within 10 trials), and that the hippocampal-lesion group was impaired when compared to their control cohort. With the benefits inherent in automation, these tasks confer significant advantages over traditional tasks used to study spatial learning and memory in the rodent. When combined with previously developed non-spatial cognitive tests that can also be run in the touch-screen apparatus, the result is a powerful cognitive test battery for the rodent.

  18. Cohesiveness and Performance on an Additive Task: Evidence for Multidimensionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaro, Stephen J.; Lowe, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a study designed to contrast the effects of task-based and interpersonal cohesiveness on group performance of students. Concludes that high task cohesion helped group performance, while interpersonal attraction had no apparent effect. Finding that increased interpersonal cohesion improved task commitment, the authors suggest that…

  19. Exploration of key stakeholders' preferences for pre-hospital physiologic monitoring by emergency rescue services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mort, Alasdair J; Rushworth, Gordon F

    2013-12-01

    To gather preferences for novel pre-hospital physiologic monitoring technologies from emergency rescue services. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with three groups from UK Search and Rescue (SAR); (1) Extractors (e.g. SAR teams), (2) Transporters (personnel primarily responsible for casualty transport), and (3) Treaters (e.g. Emergency Department doctors). Three themes were defined; SAR casualty management, novel physiologic monitor potential, and physiologic monitor physical properties. Some SAR groups already employed physiologic monitoring but there was no consensus on which monitor(s) to carry or what to monitor and how frequently. Existing monitors also tended to be bulky and heavy and could be unreliable in an unstable environment or if the casualty was cold. Those performing monitoring tended to have only basic first-aid training, and their workload was often high particularly if there was more than one casualty. The potential benefits of employing a novel monitor were strategic and clinical; an opportunity for transmitting data off-scene in order to facilitate monitoring or generate advice (i.e. telemedicine) was also voiced. A range of more intuitive, physical properties was also raised (e.g. small/compact, lightweight). SAR-specific technology should be simple to operate by those with less medical training, which means that clinical data interpretation and presentation should be carefully considered. It would be beneficial if novel monitors carried out a majority of the interpretation, allowing rescuers to proceed with their priority task of removing the casualty to safety.

  20. An error-related negativity potential investigation of response monitoring function in individuals with Internet addiction disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhe eZhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction disorder (IAD is an impulse disorder or at least related to impulse control disorder. Deficits in executive functioning, including response monitoring, have been proposed as a hallmark feature of impulse control disorders. The error-related negativity (ERN reflects individual’s ability to monitor behavior. Since IAD belongs to a compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorder, theoretically, it should present response monitoring functional deficit characteristics of some disorders, such as substance dependence, ADHD or alcohol abuse, testing with an Erikson flanker task. Up to now, no studies on response monitoring functional deficit in IAD were reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether IAD displays response monitoring functional deficit characteristics in a modified Erikson flanker task.23 subjects were recruited as IAD group. 23 matched age, gender and education healthy persons were recruited as control group. All participants completed the modified Erikson flanker task while measured with event-related potentials (ERPs. IAD group made more total error rates than did controls (P < 0.01; Reactive times for total error responses in IAD group were shorter than did controls (P < 0.01. The mean ERN amplitudes of total error response conditions at frontal electrode sites and at central electrode sites of IAD group were reduced compared with control group (all P < 0.01. These results revealed that IAD displays response monitoring functional deficit characteristics and shares ERN characteristics of compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorder.

  1. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Congress enacted the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) in response to growing awareness of a land loss crisis in Louisiana. Projects funded by CWPPRA require monitoring and evaluation of project effectiveness, and there is also a need to assess the cumulative effects of all projects to achieve a sustainable coastal environment. In 2003, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration (OCPR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received approval from the CWPPRA Task Force to implement the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) as a mechanism to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of CWPPRA projects at the project, region, and coastwide levels. The CRMS design implements a multiple reference approach by using aspects of hydrogeomorphic functional assessments and probabilistic sampling. The CRMS program is as dynamic as the coastal habitats it monitors. The program is currently funded through CWPPRA and provides data for a variety of user groups, including resource managers, academics, landowners, and researchers.

  2. Trading a Problem-solving Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Shigeo

    This paper focuses on a task allocation problem, especially cases where the task is to find a solution in a search problem or a constraint satisfaction problem. If the search problem is hard to solve, a contractor may fail to find a solution. Here, the more computational resources such as the CPU time the contractor invests in solving the search problem, the more a solution is likely to be found. This brings about a new problem that a contractee has to find an appropriate level of the quality in a task achievement as well as to find an efficient allocation of a task among contractors. For example, if the contractee asks the contractor to find a solution with certainty, the payment from the contractee to the contractor may exceed the contractee's benefit from obtaining a solution, which discourages the contractee from trading a task. However, solving this problem is difficult because the contractee cannot ascertain the contractor's problem-solving ability such as the amount of available resources and knowledge (e.g. algorithms, heuristics) or monitor what amount of resources are actually invested in solving the allocated task. To solve this problem, we propose a task allocation mechanism that is able to choose an appropriate level of the quality in a task achievement and prove that this mechanism guarantees that each contractor reveals its true information. Moreover, we show that our mechanism can increase the contractee's utility compared with a simple auction mechanism by using computer simulation.

  3. Relative contributions of task-relevant and task-irrelevant dimensions in priming of pop-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Audrey L; Lleras, Alejandro; Beck, Diane M

    2014-10-13

    Intertrial effects such as priming of pop-out (PoP) often occur for task-irrelevant dimensions as well as task-relevant dimensions, though to a weaker extent. Here we test the hypothesis that increased priming for task-relevant dimensions is due to greater passive build-up of priming for the task-relevant dimension rather than to an active filtering of task-irrelevant dimensions; if this is the case, then we should observe a positive correlation between the magnitude of task-relevant and task-irrelevant priming. We tested this hypothesis using a pop-out search task in which the task-relevant dimension was orientation and the task-irrelevant dimension was color. We found a strong, positive association between task-relevant and task-irrelevant priming across a large group of participants (N = 100); additionally, we observed increased priming over consecutive repetitions for the task-relevant dimension, whereas task-irrelevant priming was constant across multiple repetitions. As further evidence against an active filtering account, task-irrelevant priming showed no systematic relationship with visual short-term memory capacity, which has been shown to correlate with filtering ability. Together, our results suggest that task-irrelevant dimensions are co-selected rather than filtered out during target search. Further, increased task-relevant priming may reflect an enhanced representation of the task-relevant dimension that is reinforced over consecutive repetitions. © 2014 ARVO.

  4. SOCIAL MEDIA MINING SHARED TASK WORKSHOP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Abeed; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Social media has evolved into a crucial resource for obtaining large volumes of real-time information. The promise of social media has been realized by the public health domain, and recent research has addressed some important challenges in that domain by utilizing social media data. Tasks such as monitoring flu trends, viral disease outbreaks, medication abuse, and adverse drug reactions are some examples of studies where data from social media have been exploited. The focus of this workshop is to explore solutions to three important natural language processing challenges for domain-specific social media text: (i) text classification, (ii) information extraction, and (iii) concept normalization. To explore different approaches to solving these problems on social media data, we designed a shared task which was open to participants globally. We designed three tasks using our in-house annotated Twitter data on adverse drug reactions. Task 1 involved automatic classification of adverse drug reaction assertive user posts; Task 2 focused on extracting specific adverse drug reaction mentions from user posts; and Task 3, which was slightly ill-defined due to the complex nature of the problem, involved normalizing user mentions of adverse drug reactions to standardized concept IDs. A total of 11 teams participated, and a total of 24 (18 for Task 1, and 6 for Task 2) system runs were submitted. Following the evaluation of the systems, and an assessment of their innovation/novelty, we accepted 7 descriptive manuscripts for publication--5 for Task 1 and 2 for Task 2. We provide descriptions of the tasks, data, and participating systems in this paper.

  5. Error Sonification of a Complex Motor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riener Robert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual information is mainly used to master complex motor tasks. Thus, additional information providing augmented feedback should be displayed in other modalities than vision, e.g. hearing. The present work evaluated the potential of error sonification to enhance learning of a rowing-type motor task. In contrast to a control group receiving self-controlled terminal feedback, the experimental group could not significantly reduce spatial errors. Thus, motor learning was not enhanced by error sonification, although during the training the participant could benefit from it. It seems that the motor task was too slow, resulting in immediate corrections of the movement rather than in an internal representation of the general characteristics of the motor task. Therefore, further studies should elaborate the impact of error sonification when general characteristics of the motor tasks are already known.

  6. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 2, Radiation Monitoring and Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

    2012-07-31

    The FRMAC Monitoring and Sampling Manual, Volume 2 provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for field radiation monitoring and sample collection activities that are performed by the Monitoring group during a FRMAC response to a radiological emergency.

  7. Looking at the Keyboard or the Monitor: Relationship with Text Production Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Roger; Wengelin, Asa; Johansson, Victoria; Holmqvist, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explored text production differences in an expository text production task between writers who looked mainly at the keyboard and writers who looked mainly at the monitor. Eye-tracking technology and keystroke-logging were combined to systematically describe and define these two groups in respect of the complex interplay between…

  8. Amphibian research and monitoring initiative: Concepts and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P.S.; Adams, M.J.; Battaglin, W.A.; Gallant, A.L.; James, D.L.; Knutson, M.; Langtimm, C.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides the basis for discussion and subsequent articulation of a national plan for the Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI). The authors were members of a task force formed from within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that included scientists with expertise in biology, cartography, hydrology, and statistics. The assignment of the task force was to extend work begun by the National Amphibian Leadership Group. This group, composed of senior USGS scientists, managers, and external authorities, met in Gainesville, Florida, in February 20001. The product of this meeting was a document outlining the framework for a national program to monitor amphibian populations and to conduct research into the causes of declines.

  9. Time's up! Involvement of metamemory knowledge, executive functions, and time monitoring in children's prospective memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurten, Marie; Lejeune, Caroline; Meulemans, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    This study examined time-based prospective memory (PM) in children and explored the possible involvement of metamemory knowledge and executive functions in the use of an appropriate time-monitoring strategy depending on the ongoing task's difficulty. Specifically, a sample of 72 typically developing children aged 4, 6, and 9 years old were given an original PM paradigm composed of both an ongoing procedural activity and a PM task. Half of the participants (expert group) were trained in the ongoing activity before the prospective test. As expected, results show that time monitoring had a positive effect on children's PM performance. Furthermore, mediation analyses reveal that strategic time monitoring was predicted by metamemory knowledge in the expert group but only by executive functions in the novice group. Overall, these findings provide interesting avenues to explain how metamemory knowledge, strategy use, and executive functions interact to improve PM performance during childhood.

  10. Learning redundant motor tasks with and without overlapping dimensions: facilitation and interference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Wieser, Jon; Mosier, Kristine M; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A; Scheidt, Robert A

    2014-06-11

    Prior learning of a motor skill creates motor memories that can facilitate or interfere with learning of new, but related, motor skills. One hypothesis of motor learning posits that for a sensorimotor task with redundant degrees of freedom, the nervous system learns the geometric structure of the task and improves performance by selectively operating within that task space. We tested this hypothesis by examining if transfer of learning between two tasks depends on shared dimensionality between their respective task spaces. Human participants wore a data glove and learned to manipulate a computer cursor by moving their fingers. Separate groups of participants learned two tasks: a prior task that was unique to each group and a criterion task that was common to all groups. We manipulated the mapping between finger motions and cursor positions in the prior task to define task spaces that either shared or did not share the task space dimensions (x-y axes) of the criterion task. We found that if the prior task shared task dimensions with the criterion task, there was an initial facilitation in criterion task performance. However, if the prior task did not share task dimensions with the criterion task, there was prolonged interference in learning the criterion task due to participants finding inefficient task solutions. These results show that the nervous system learns the task space through practice, and that the degree of shared task space dimensionality influences the extent to which prior experience transfers to subsequent learning of related motor skills.

  11. Mind Wandering in Text Comprehension under Dual-Task Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eDixon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments, subjects responded to on-task probes while reading under dual-task conditions. The secondary task was to monitor the text for occurrences of the letter e. In Experiment 1, reading comprehension was assessed with a multiple-choice recognition test; in Experiment 2, subjects recalled the text. In both experiments, the secondary task replicated the well-known missing-letter effect in which detection of e’s was less effective for the word the. Letter detection was also more effective when subjects were on task, but this effect did not interact with the missing-letter effect. Comprehension was assessed in both the dual-task conditions and in a control single-task conditions. In the single-task conditions, both recognition (Experiment 1 and recall (Experiment 2 was better when subjects were on task, replicating previous research on mind wandering. Surprisingly, though, comprehension under dual-task conditions only showed an effect of being on task when measured with recall; there was no effect on recognition performance. Our interpretation of this pattern of results is that subjects generate their response to on-task probes on the basis of a retrospective assessment of the contents of working memory. Further, we argue that under dual-task conditions, the contents of working memory is not related to the reading processes required for accurate recognition performance. These conclusions have implications for models of text comprehension and for the interpretation of on-task probe responses.

  12. Remote monitoring of inhaled bronchodilator use and weekly feedback about asthma management: an open-group, short-term pilot study of the impact on asthma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Van Sickle

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Adequate symptom control is a problem for many people with asthma. We asked whether weekly email reports on monitored use of inhaled, short-acting bronchodilators might improve scores on composite asthma-control measures. METHODS: Through an investigational electronic medication sensor attached to each participant's inhaler, we monitored 4 months' use of inhaled, short-acting bronchodilators. Participants completed surveys, including the Asthma Control Test(TM (ACT, to assess asthma control at entry and monthly thereafter. After the first month, participants received weekly email reports for 3 months. The reports summarized inhaled bronchodilator use during the preceding week and provided suggestions derived from National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP guidelines. Paired t-tests and random-effects mixed models were implemented to assess changes in primary asthma endpoints. RESULTS: Thirty individuals participated in the 4-month study; 29 provided complete asthma control information. Mean age was 36.8 years (range: 19-74 years; 52% of respondents were female. Mean ACT scores were 17.6 (Standard Deviation [SD]  = 3.35 at entry and 18.4 (SD = 3.60 at completion of the first month. No significant difference appeared between ACT values at entry and completion of the first month (p = 0.66; however, after participants began receiving email reports and online information about their inhaler use, mean ACT scores increased 1.40 points (95% CI: 0.61, 2.18 for each subsequent study month. Significant decreases occurred in 2-week histories of daytime symptoms (β = -1.35, 95% CI: -2.65, -0.04 and nighttime symptoms (β = -0.84, 95% CI: -1.25, -0.44; no significant change in activity limitation (β = -0.21, 95% CI: -0.69, 0.26 was observed. Participants reported increased awareness and understanding of asthma patterns, level of control, bronchodilator use (timing, location and triggers, and improved

  13. Remote monitoring of inhaled bronchodilator use and weekly feedback about asthma management: an open-group, short-term pilot study of the impact on asthma control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sickle, David; Magzamen, Sheryl; Truelove, Shaun; Morrison, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Adequate symptom control is a problem for many people with asthma. We asked whether weekly email reports on monitored use of inhaled, short-acting bronchodilators might improve scores on composite asthma-control measures. Through an investigational electronic medication sensor attached to each participant's inhaler, we monitored 4 months' use of inhaled, short-acting bronchodilators. Participants completed surveys, including the Asthma Control Test(TM) (ACT), to assess asthma control at entry and monthly thereafter. After the first month, participants received weekly email reports for 3 months. The reports summarized inhaled bronchodilator use during the preceding week and provided suggestions derived from National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) guidelines. Paired t-tests and random-effects mixed models were implemented to assess changes in primary asthma endpoints. Thirty individuals participated in the 4-month study; 29 provided complete asthma control information. Mean age was 36.8 years (range: 19-74 years); 52% of respondents were female. Mean ACT scores were 17.6 (Standard Deviation [SD]  = 3.35) at entry and 18.4 (SD = 3.60) at completion of the first month. No significant difference appeared between ACT values at entry and completion of the first month (p = 0.66); however, after participants began receiving email reports and online information about their inhaler use, mean ACT scores increased 1.40 points (95% CI: 0.61, 2.18) for each subsequent study month. Significant decreases occurred in 2-week histories of daytime symptoms (β = -1.35, 95% CI: -2.65, -0.04) and nighttime symptoms (β = -0.84, 95% CI: -1.25, -0.44); no significant change in activity limitation (β = -0.21, 95% CI: -0.69, 0.26) was observed. Participants reported increased awareness and understanding of asthma patterns, level of control, bronchodilator use (timing, location) and triggers, and improved preventive practices. Weekly email reports and

  14. Rehabilitation of executive function: facilitation of effective goal management on complex tasks using periodic auditory alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, Tom; Hawkins, Kari; Evans, Jon; Woldt, Karina; Robertson, Ian H

    2002-01-01

    The 'dysexecutive syndrome' represents a major challenge to functional recovery and adaptation following brain injury--and an important target for rehabilitation. Previous reports of everyday difficulties, and performance on complex, life-like tasks, indicate that an adequately represented goal may become neglected as patients become overly engaged in current activity. Here we examine whether the provision of brief auditory stimuli, acting to interrupt current activity and to cue patients to consider their overall goal, would improve performance in a complex task. Ten brain injured patients completed a modification of Shallice and Burgess' Six Elements task under two conditions. In the 'Hotel' test, the patients were asked to try and do some of each of five sub-tasks within 15 min. As the total time to complete all of the tasks would exceed an hour, the measure emphasises patients' ability to monitor the time, switch between the tasks and keep track of their intentions. Without the external auditory cues, the patients performed significantly more poorly than age- and IQ-matched control volunteers, a common error being to continue performing one task to the detriment of beginning or allocating sufficient time to others. When exposed to the interrupting tones, however, their performance was both significantly improved and no longer significantly different from the control group on important variables. The results have value in assessment in helping to attribute poor performance to 'goal neglect' rather than, for example, poor memory or comprehension. They also suggest that providing environmental support to one aspect of executive function may facilitate monitoring and behavioural flexibility--and therefore the useful expression of other skills that may be relatively intact.

  15. Musical expertise has minimal impact on dual task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchini, Gianna; Filardi, Maria Serena; Crhonkova, Marcela; Halpern, Andrea R

    2017-05-01

    Studies investigating effect of practice on dual task performance have yielded conflicting findings, thus supporting different theoretical accounts about the organisation of attentional resources when tasks are performed simultaneously. Because practice has been proven to reduce the demand of attention for the trained task, the impact of long-lasting training on one task is an ideal way to better understand the mechanisms underlying dual task decline in performance. Our study compared performance during dual task execution in expert musicians compared to controls with little if any musical experience. Participants performed a music recognition task and a visuo-spatial task separately (single task) or simultaneously (dual task). Both groups showed a significant but similar performance decline during dual tasks. In addition, the two groups showed a similar decline of dual task performance during encoding and retrieval of the musical information, mainly attributed to a decline in sensitivity. Our results suggest that attention during dual tasks is similarly distributed by expert and non-experts. These findings are in line with previous studies showing a lack of sensitivity to difficulty and lack of practice effect during dual tasks, supporting the idea that different tasks may rely on different and not-sharable attentional resources.

  16. Monitoring source in an unconscious plagiarism paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, J D; Marsh, R L

    1997-06-01

    Current laboratory paradigms used to assess unconscious plagiarism consist of three tasks. First, participants generate solutions to a puzzle task with a partner (initial generation task); second, they recall their individual contribution (recall-own task); and third, they attempt to create new solutions that were not offered previously (generate-new task). An analysis of these tasks indicated that they differ in terms of the source monitoring they require. The two generative tasks require less differentiated information (e.g., familiarity) and relatively lax decision criteria. The recall-own task, however, demands more differentiated information and more extended decision criteria. In two experiments, factors known to influence source monitoring were manipulated. Consistent with the analysis, no effects were associated with the generative tasks. Recall-own plagiarisms increased when self- and other-generated solutions were difficult to distinguish (Experiment 1) and decreased when the two sources were easier to distinguish (Experiment 2).

  17. Overview of the ID, EPI and REL tasks of BioNLP Shared Task 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyysalo Sampo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the preparation, resources, results and analysis of three tasks of the BioNLP Shared Task 2011: the main tasks on Infectious Diseases (ID and Epigenetics and Post-translational Modifications (EPI, and the supporting task on Entity Relations (REL. The two main tasks represent extensions of the event extraction model introduced in the BioNLP Shared Task 2009 (ST'09 to two new areas of biomedical scientific literature, each motivated by the needs of specific biocuration tasks. The ID task concerns the molecular mechanisms of infection, virulence and resistance, focusing in particular on the functions of a class of signaling systems that are ubiquitous in bacteria. The EPI task is dedicated to the extraction of statements regarding chemical modifications of DNA and proteins, with particular emphasis on changes relating to the epigenetic control of gene expression. By contrast to these two application-oriented main tasks, the REL task seeks to support extraction in general by separating challenges relating to part-of relations into a subproblem that can be addressed by independent systems. Seven groups participated in each of the two main tasks and four groups in the supporting task. The participating systems indicated advances in the capability of event extraction methods and demonstrated generalization in many aspects: from abstracts to full texts, from previously considered subdomains to new ones, and from the ST'09 extraction targets to other entities and events. The highest performance achieved in the supporting task REL, 58% F-score, is broadly comparable with levels reported for other relation extraction tasks. For the ID task, the highest-performing system achieved 56% F-score, comparable to the state-of-the-art performance at the established ST'09 task. In the EPI task, the best result was 53% F-score for the full set of extraction targets and 69% F-score for a reduced set of core extraction targets, approaching a level

  18. What Task Designers Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Describes a research project that is concerned with the design procedures followed by those engaged in designing pedagogic tasks for use in classrooms. Focuses on the part of the project that involves actual observation of designers in the process of developing one specific task for class use. Findings are presented under three headers: control…

  19. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks, is fragme......There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, and recommendations, and supporting exploratory search to sensemaking and analytics, UI and UX design pose an overconstrained challenge. How do we know that our approach is any good? Supporting complex search task requires new collaborations across the whole field of IR, and the proposed workshop will bring together...

  20. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  1. Evaluation and monitoring of Research and Development projects and programmes: Experience of the task force on the evaluation of TAFTIE; La valutazione e il monitoraggio dei progetti e dei programmi di R&S: esperienza della Task Force sulla valutazione di TAFTIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpitti, L. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Funzione Centrale Studi

    1996-08-01

    This paper allows to compare the experiences in the evaluation and monitoring fields among 8 different European agencies (ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment, included) directly involved in technology transfer projects and programmes. In order to compare the different experiences three levels of analysis are used: evaluation methodologies, performance indicators, project characterisation and databases.

  2. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  3. Task-baseret kommunikativ sprogundervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Svendsen

    2015-01-01

    Definition af task-baseret sprogundervisning, kriterier for task. Forskning i Second Language Acquisition med brug af task, tilrettelæggelse af task-baseret kommunikativ undervisning. Begrænsninger i og perspektiver for videreudvikling af task-baseret sprogundervising-......Definition af task-baseret sprogundervisning, kriterier for task. Forskning i Second Language Acquisition med brug af task, tilrettelæggelse af task-baseret kommunikativ undervisning. Begrænsninger i og perspektiver for videreudvikling af task-baseret sprogundervising-...

  4. The effects of group and single housing and automated animal monitoring on urinary corticosterone levels in male C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakura, Remi; Kovalainen, Miia; Leppäluoto, Juhani; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Mäkelä, Kari A

    2016-02-01

    Mice are used extensively in physiological research. Automated home-cage systems have been developed to study single-housed animals. Increased stress by different housing conditions might affect greatly the results when investigating metabolic responses. Urinary corticosteroid concentration is considered as a stress marker. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of different housing conditions and an automated home-cage system with indirect calorimetry located in an environmental chamber on corticosterone levels in mice. Male mice were housed in different conditions and in automated home-cage system to evaluate the effects of housing and measuring conditions on urine corticosterone levels. Corticosterone levels in single-housed mice in the laboratory animal center were consistently lower compared with the group-housed mice. Single-housed mice in a separate, small animal unit showed a rise in their corticosterone levels a day after they were separated to their individual cages, which decreased during the following 2 days. The corticosterone levels of group-housed mice in the same unit were increased during the first 7 days and then decreased. On day 7, the corticosterone concentrations of group-housed mice were significantly higher compared with that of single-housed mice, including the metabolic measurement protocol. In conclusion, single housing caused less stress when compared with group-housed mice. In addition, the urine corticosterone levels were decreased in single-housed mice before the metabolic measurement started. Thus, stress does not affect the results when utilizing the automated system for measuring metabolic parameters like food and water intake and calorimetry.

  5. Single-Task and Dual-Task Gait Among Collegiate Athletes of Different Sport Classifications: Implications for Concussion Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Oldham, Jessie R; DiFabio, Melissa; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Hall, Eric E; Ketcham, Caroline J; Meehan, William P; Buckley, Thomas A

    2017-02-01

    Gait impairments have been documented following sport-related concussion. Whether preexisting gait pattern differences exist among athletes who participate in different sport classifications, however, remains unclear. Dual-task gait examinations probe the simultaneous performance of everyday tasks (ie, walking and thinking), and can quantify gait performance using inertial sensors. The purpose of this study was to compare the single-task and dual-task gait performance of collision/contact and noncontact athletes. A group of collegiate athletes (n = 265) were tested before their season at 3 institutions (mean age= 19.1 ± 1.1 years). All participants stood still (single-task standing) and walked while simultaneously completing a cognitive test (dual-task gait), and completed walking trials without the cognitive test (single-task gait). Spatial-temporal gait parameters were compared between collision/contact and noncontact athletes using MANCOVAs; cognitive task performance was compared using ANCOVAs. No significant single-task or dual-task gait differences were found between collision/contact and noncontact athletes. Noncontact athletes demonstrated higher cognitive task accuracy during single-task standing (P = .001) and dual-task gait conditions (P = .02) than collision/contact athletes. These data demonstrate the utility of a dual-task gait assessment outside of a laboratory and suggest that preinjury cognitive task performance during dual-tasks may differ between athletes of different sport classifications.

  6. Reconsideration of the simulated work task situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia; Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2010-01-01

    The present paper reports on the initial study and the preliminary findings of how the concept of simulated work task situation is reported used in the research literature. The overall objective of the study is in a systematic manner to learn how and for what types of evaluations the concept...... is applied. In particular we are interested to learn whether the recommendations for how to apply simulated work task situations are followed. The preliminary findings indicate a need for clarifications of the recommendations of how to use simulated work task situations. Particularly with respect to ‘realism......’ of the simulated work task situations, which is emphasised through the need for tailoring of the simulated work task situations towards the group of study participant to ensure the depicted situations are realistic and interesting from the participants’ point of view. Likewise it seems that the recommendation...

  7. Task-specific dystonia: pathophysiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadnicka, Anna; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Pareés, Isabel; Meppelink, Anne Marthe; Butler, Katherine; Edwards, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Task-specific dystonia is a form of isolated focal dystonia with the peculiarity of being displayed only during performance of a specific skilled motor task. This distinctive feature makes task-specific dystonia a particularly mysterious and fascinating neurological condition. In this review, we cover phenomenology and its increasingly broad-spectrum risk factors for the disease, critically review pathophysiological theories and evaluate current therapeutic options. We conclude by highlighting the unique features of task-specific dystonia within the wider concept of dystonia. We emphasise the central contribution of environmental risk factors, and propose a model by which these triggers may impact on the motor control of skilled movement. By viewing task-specific dystonia through this new lens which considers the disorder a modifiable disorder of motor control, we are optimistic that research will yield novel therapeutic avenues for this highly motivated group of patients.

  8. Investigating executive functions in children with severe speech and movement disorders using structured tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadskleiv, Kristine; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Batorowicz, Beata; van Balkom, Hans; Dahlgren-Sandberg, Annika; Renner, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions are the basis for goal-directed activity and include planning, monitoring, and inhibition, and language seems to play a role in the development of these functions. There is a tradition of studying executive function in both typical and atypical populations, and the present study investigates executive functions in children with severe speech and motor impairments who are communicating using communication aids with graphic symbols, letters, and/or words. There are few neuropsychological studies of children in this group and little is known about their cognitive functioning, including executive functions. It was hypothesized that aided communication would tax executive functions more than speech. Twenty-nine children using communication aids and 27 naturally speaking children participated. Structured tasks resembling everyday activities, where the action goals had to be reached through communication with a partner, were used to get information about executive functions. The children (a) directed the partner to perform actions like building a Lego tower from a model the partner could not see and (b) gave information about an object without naming it to a person who had to guess what object it was. The executive functions of planning, monitoring, and impulse control were coded from the children's on-task behavior. Both groups solved most of the tasks correctly, indicating that aided communicators are able to use language to direct another person to do a complex set of actions. Planning and lack of impulsivity was positively related to task success in both groups. The aided group completed significantly fewer tasks, spent longer time and showed more variation in performance than the comparison group. The aided communicators scored lower on planning and showed more impulsivity than the comparison group, while both groups showed an equal degree of monitoring of the work progress. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that aided language tax

  9. Supporting Teachers in Structuring Mathematics Lessons Involving Challenging Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Peter; Askew, Mike; Cheeseman, Jill; Clarke, Doug; Mornane, Angela; Roche, Anne; Walker, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The following is a report on an investigation into ways of supporting teachers in converting challenging mathematics tasks into classroom lessons and supporting students in engaging with those tasks. Groups of primary and secondary teachers, respectively, were provided with documentation of ten lessons built around challenging tasks. Teachers…

  10. Task Engagement: A Turning Point in Foreign Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Elizabeth J.; Brooks, Frank B.

    2002-01-01

    Uses a sociocultural framework to suggest task engagement as a viable construct in second language learning research. Examines second language learner data to identify task engagement as it emerges, unfolds in dialogic activity, and becomes associated with he transformation of task, self, and group. (Author/VWL)

  11. Small Group Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Martin M.

    Learning in small groups is a practical way to bring about behavior change. The inquiry learning process is perceived to be the most natural and scientific way of learning. Skills developed include those of problem-solving task analysis, decision-making, value formation and adaptability. The art of small group interaction is developed. Factual…

  12. Fuel oil quality task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V. [R.W. Beckett Corp., Elyria, OH (United States)

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  13. Testing the Automatization Deficit Hypothesis of Dyslexia via a Dual-Task Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Regina L.; van der Leij, Aryan

    1994-01-01

    Fourteen Dutch children with dyslexia were compared with controls on automatic processing under a dual task (motor balance task and auditory choice task) model. Results indicated the dyslexic group was more impaired in the dual task condition than in the single task condition, compared with controls. Findings support the automatization deficit…

  14. Is Distributed Cognition Group Level Cognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Kirk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that recent arguments from group problem solving and task performance to emergent group level cognition that rest on the social parity and related principles are invalid or question begging. The paper shows that standard attributions of problem solving or task performance to groups require only multiple agents of the outcome, not a group agent over and above its members, whether or not any individual member of the group could have accomplished the task independently.

  15. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work is to develop a task light for office lighting that fulfils the minimum requirements of the European standard EN12464 - 1 : Light and lighting – Lighting of work places, Part 1: Indoor workplaces and the Danish standard DS 700 : Lys og belysning I arbejdsrum , or more...... specifically the requirements that apply to the work area and the immediate surrounding area. By providing a task light that fulfils the requirements for task lighting and the immediate surrounding area, the general lighting only needs to provide the illuminance levels required for background lighting...... and thereby a reduction in installed power for general lighting of about 40 % compared to the way illuminance levels are designed in an office environment in Denmark today. This lighting strategy is useful when the placement of the task area is not defined in the space before the lighting is design ed...

  16. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    Civil servants conduct the work which makes welfare states functions on an everyday bases: Police men police, school teachers teach, and tax inspectors inspect. Focus in this paper is on the core tasks of tax inspectors. The paper argues that their core task of securing the collection of revenue...... has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  17. [The effect of reading tasks on learning from multiple texts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effect of reading tasks on the integration of content and source information from multiple texts. Undergraduate students (N = 102) read five newspaper articles about a fictitious incident in either a summarization task condition or an evaluation task condition. Then, they performed an integration test and a source choice test, which assessed their understanding of a situation described in the texts and memory for the sources of text information. The results indicated that the summarization and evaluation task groups were not significantly different in situational understanding. However, the summarization task group significantly surpassed the evaluation task group for source memory. No significant correlation between the situational understanding and the source memory was found for the summarization group, whereas a significant positive correlation was found for the evaluation group. The results are discussed in terms of the documents model framework.

  18. Classroom Interactions in a Cooperative Translation Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui chuan Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For the past decade, translation learning has become one of the main foci for university language students in Taiwan. However, many studies have shown that translation teachers tend to adopt traditional teaching methods without considering class dynamics and student interactions. This paper therefore looks into the interactions in the researcher’s designed cooperative translation task, the Cooperative Translation Task, to see how these interactions helped or hindered students’ translation learning. A small class of 25 translation students and two translation teachers were participants. Videotaping and interviews were conducted in order to investigate the interaction modes and student participants’ perspectives toward each interaction mode. Six interaction modes were found in this task: within group, between group, translator group and comment-giver group, instructor and students, guest teacher and students, and instructor and guest teacher. Based on the results and participants’ responses, suggested teaching guidelines are provided.

  19. Effects of Variations in Task Design on Mathematics Teachers' Learning Experiences: A Case of a Sorting Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koichu, Boris; Zaslavsky, Orit; Dolev, Lea

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study presented in this article was to examine how variations in task design may affect mathematics teachers' learning experiences. The study focuses on sorting tasks, i.e., learning tasks that require grouping a given set of mathematical items, in as many ways as possible, according to different criteria suggested by the learners.…

  20. Energy Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus T.; Madsen, Dines; Christiensen, Thomas

    Energy measurement has become an important aspect of our daily lives since we have learned that energy consumption, is one of the main source of global warming. Measuring instruments varies from a simple watt-meter to more sophisticated microprocessor control devices. The negative effects...... that fossil fuels induce on our environment has forced us to research renewable energy such as sunlight, wind etc. This new environmental awareness has also helped us to realize the importance of monitoring and controlling our energy use. The main purpose in this research is to introduce a more sophisticated...... but affordable way to monitor energy consumption of individuals or groups of home appliances. By knowing their consumption the utilization can be regulated for more efficient use. A prototype system has been constructed to demonstrate our idea....

  1. Energy Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus T.; Madsen, Dines; Christiensen, Thomas

    Energy measurement has become an important aspect of our daily lives since we have learned that energy consumption, is one of the main source of global warming. Measuring instruments varies from a simple watt-meter to more sophisticated microprocessor control devices. The negative effects...... that fossil fuels induce on our environment has forced us to research renewable energy such as sunlight, wind etc. This new environmental awareness has also helped us to realize the importance of monitoring and controlling our energy use. The main purpose in this research is to introduce a more sophisticated...... but affordable way to monitor energy consumption of individuals or groups of home appliances. By knowing their consumption the utilization can be regulated for more efficient use. A prototype system has been constructed to demonstrate our idea....

  2. Monitoring Technology Meets Care Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bygholm, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring technology, especially sensor-based technology, is increasingly taken into use in care work. Despite the simplicity of these technologies – aimed to automate what appear as mundane monitoring tasks – recent research has identified major challenges primarily related to the technology......'s ability to meet the complexity of care work. Understanding intersectional challenges between these care technologies and care work is fundamental to improve design and use of health informatics. In this paper we present an analysis of interaction challenges between a wet-sensor at the task of monitoring...

  3. Dual task performance in normal aging: a comparison of choice reaction time tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Vaportzis

    Full Text Available This study examined dual task performance in 28 younger (18-30 years and 28 older (>60 years adults using two sets of choice reaction time (RT tasks paired with digit tasks. Set one paired simple choice RT with digit forward; set two paired complex choice RT with digit backward. Each task within each set had easy and hard conditions. For the simple choice RT, participants viewed single letters and pressed a specified keyboard key if the letter was X or Z or a different key for other letters (easy. For the hard condition, there were 4 target letters (X, Z, O, Y. Digit forward consisted of 4 (easy or 5 (hard digits. For the complex choice RT, participants viewed 4×4 matrices of Xs and Os, and indicated whether four Xs (easy or four Xs or four Os (hard appeared in a row. Digit backward consisted of 3 (easy or 4 (hard digits. Within each set, participants performed every possible combination of tasks. We found that in the simple choice RT tasks older adults were significantly slower than, but as accurate as younger adults. In the complex choice RT tasks, older adults were significantly less accurate, but as fast as younger adults. For both age groups and both dual task sets, RT decreased and error rates increased with greater task difficulty. Older adults had greater dual task costs for error rates in the simple choice RT, whereas in the complex choice RT, it was the younger group that had greater dual task costs. Findings suggest that younger and older adults may adopt differential behavioral strategies depending on complexity and difficulty of dual tasks.

  4. Rumination in major depressive disorder is associated with impaired neural activation during conflict monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Brandon L; Olson, Ryan L; Bates, Marsha E; Selby, Edward A; Buckman, Jennifer F; Brush, Christopher J; Panza, Emily A; Kranzler, Amy; Eddie, David; Shors, Tracey J

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) often ruminate about past experiences, especially those with negative content. These repetitive thoughts may interfere with cognitive processes related to attention and conflict monitoring. However, the temporal nature of these processes as reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs) has not been well-described. We examined behavioral and ERP indices of conflict monitoring during a modified flanker task and the allocation of attention during an attentional blink (AB) task in 33 individuals with MDD and 36 healthy controls, and whether their behavioral performance and ERPs varied with level of rumination. N2 amplitude elicited by the flanker task was significantly reduced in participants with MDD compared to healthy controls. Level of self-reported rumination was also correlated with N2 amplitude. In contrast, P3 amplitude during the AB task was not significantly different between groups, nor was it correlated with rumination. No significant differences were found in behavioral task performance measures between groups or by rumination levels. These findings suggest that rumination in MDD is associated with select deficits in cognitive control, particularly related to conflict monitoring.

  5. Rumination in major depressive disorder is associated with impaired neural activation during conflict monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon L Alderman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD often ruminate about past experiences, especially those with negative content. These repetitive thoughts may interfere with cognitive processes related to attention and conflict monitoring. However, the temporal nature of these processes as reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs has not been well described. We examined behavioral and ERP indices of conflict monitoring during a modified flanker task and the allocation of attention during an attentional blink (AB task in 33 individuals with MDD and 36 healthy controls, and whether their behavioral performance and ERPs varied with level of rumination. N2 amplitude elicited by the flanker task was significantly reduced in participants with MDD compared to healthy controls. Level of self-reported rumination was also correlated with N2 amplitude. In contrast, P3 amplitude during the AB task was not significantly different between groups, nor was it correlated with rumination. No significant differences were found in behavioral task performance measures between groups or by rumination levels. These findings suggest that rumination in MDD is associated with select deficits in cognitive control, particularly related to conflict monitoring.

  6. Task Switching in a Hierarchical Task Structure: Evidence for the Fragility of the Task Repetition Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms.…

  7. Group Problem Solving

    CERN Document Server

    Laughlin, Patrick R

    2011-01-01

    Experimental research by social and cognitive psychologists has established that cooperative groups solve a wide range of problems better than individuals. Cooperative problem solving groups of scientific researchers, auditors, financial analysts, air crash investigators, and forensic art experts are increasingly important in our complex and interdependent society. This comprehensive textbook--the first of its kind in decades--presents important theories and experimental research about group problem solving. The book focuses on tasks that have demonstrably correct solutions within mathematical

  8. Continuous respirable mine dust monitor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, B.K.; Williams, K.L.; Stein, S.W. [and others

    1996-12-31

    In June 1992, the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) published the Report of the Coal Mine Respirable Dust Task Group, Review of the Program to Control Respirable Coal Mine Dust in the United States. As one of its recommendations, the report called for the accelerated development of two mine dust monitors: (1) a fixed-site monitor capable of providing continuous information on dust levels to the miner, mine operator, and to MSHA, if necessary, and (2) a personal sampling device capable of providing both a short-term personal exposure measurement as well as a full-shift measurement. In response to this recommendation, the U.S. Bureau of Mines initiated the development of a fixed-site machine-mounted continuous respirable dust monitor. The technology chosen for monitor development is the Rupprecht and Patashnick Co., Inc. tapered element oscillating microbalance. Laboratory and in-mine tests have indicated that, with modification, this sensor can meet the humidity and vibration requirements for underground coal mine use. The U.S. Department of Energy Pittsburgh Research Center (DOE-PRC) is continuing that effort by developing prototypes of a continuous dust monitor based on this technology. These prototypes are being evaluated in underground coal mines as they become available. This effort, conducted as a joint venture with MSHA, is nearing completion with every promise of success.

  9. Affordances and synchronization in collective creative construction tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    to the affordances of the task at hand. We also show that during collective, but not individual tasks, within group synchronization grows over time. Finally, we discuss how these measures of synchronization relate to the participants’ engagement in the tasks at hand and to the end products (LEGO models......: the affordances of the task at hand and the gradual consolidation of collaborative practices. Six groups of participants were instructed to construct LEGO models of six abstract notions (“responsibility”, “knowledge”, “justice” etc.), both individually and in groups. We combine video analysis and heart rate...... measurements and employ recurrence analysis techniques to quantify the mutual adaptability of heart rates among the participants in the different tasks. We show that during individual tasks individual heart rates synchronize both within and between groups (but not with controls) plausibly due...

  10. Motor skill experience modulates executive control for task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiuhua; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Chau, Bolton; Fu, Amy S N

    2017-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of types of motor skills, including open and closed skills on enhancing proactive and reactive controls for task switching. Thirty-six athletes in open (n=18) or closed (n=18) sports and a control group (n=18) completed the task-switching paradigm and the simple reaction task. The task-switching paradigm drew on the proactive and reactive control of executive functions, whereas the simple reaction task assessed the processing speed. Significant Validity×Group effect revealed that the participants with open skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the other two groups when the task cue was 100% valid; whereas the participants regardless of motor skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the control group when the task cue was 50% valid. Hierarchical stepwise regression analysis further confirmed these findings. For the simple reaction task, there were no differences found among the three groups. These findings suggest that experience in open skills has benefits of promoting both proactive and reactive controls for task switching, which corresponds to the activity context exposed by the participants. In contrast, experience in closed skills appears to only benefit development of reactive control for task switching. The neural mechanisms for the proactive and reactive controls of executive functions between experts with open and closed skills call for future study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The current status of diabetes professional educational standards and competencies in the UK--a position statement from the Diabetes UK Healthcare Professional Education Competency Framework Task and Finish Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, N; George, S; Priest, L; Deakin, T; Vanterpool, G; Karet, B; Simmons, D

    2011-12-01

    Diabetes is a significant health concern, both in the UK and globally. Management can be complex, often requiring high levels of knowledge and skills in order to provide high-quality and safe care. The provision of good, safe, quality care lies within the foundations of healthcare education, continuing professional development and evidence-based practice, which are inseparable and part of a continuum during the career of any health professional. Sound education provides the launch pad for effective clinical management and positive patient experiences. This position paper reviews and discusses work undertaken by a Working Group under the auspices of Diabetes UK with the remit of considering all health professional educational issues for people delivering care to people with diabetes. This work has scoped the availability of education for those within the healthcare system who may directly or indirectly encounter people with diabetes and reviews alignment to existing competency frameworks within the UK's National Health Service.

  12. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses recent calls to narrow the micro–macro gap in management research (Bamberger, 2008), by incorporating a macro-level context variable (country) in exploring micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Following the integrated model proposed by Forbes and Milliken (1999), we...... identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings...... influence board tasks, and how the context moderates the relationship between processes and tasks. Our hypotheses are tested on a survey-based dataset of 535 medium-sized and large industrial firms in Italy and Norway, which are considered to substantially differ along legal and cultural dimensions...

  13. Goal orientation, perceived task outcome and task demands in mathematics tasks: effects on students' attitude in actual task settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegers, Gerard; van Putten, Cornelis M; de Brabander, Cornelis J

    2002-09-01

    In earlier studies, it has been found that students' domain-specific cognitions and personal learning goals (goal orientation) influence task-specific appraisals of actual learning tasks. The relations between domain-specific and task-specific variables have been specified in the model of adaptive learning. In this study, additional influences, i.e., perceived task outcome on a former occasion and variations in task demands, were investigated. The purpose of this study was to identify personality and situational variables that mediate students' attitude when confronted with a mathematics task. Students worked on a mathematics task in two subsequent sessions. Effects of perceived task outcome at the first session on students' attitude at the second session were investigated. In addition, we investigated how differences in task demands influenced students' attitude. Variations in task demands were provoked by different conditions in task-instruction. In one condition, students were told that the result on the test would add to their mark on mathematics. This outcome orienting condition was contrasted with a task-orienting condition where students were told that the results on the test would not be used to give individual grades. Participants were sixth grade students (N = 345; aged 11-12 years) from 14 primary schools. Multivariate and univariate analyses of (co)variance were applied to the data. Independent variables were goal orientation, task demands, and perceived task outcome, with task-specific variables (estimated competence for the task, task attraction, task relevance, and willingness to invest effort) as the dependent variables. The results showed that previous perceived task outcome had a substantial impact on students' attitude. Additional but smaller effects were found for variation in task demands. Furthermore, effects of previous perceived task outcome and task demands were related to goal orientation. The resulting pattern confirmed that, in general

  14. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  15. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  16. Task-Based Learning: The Interaction between Tasks and Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jacky

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between tasks and learners in task-based learning. Findings suggest that manipulation of task characteristics and conditions may not achieve the intended pedagogic outcomes, and that new ways are needed to focus learners' attention of form without sacrificing the meaning-driven principles of task-based learning.…

  17. Ipsilateral coordination at preferred rate: effects of age, body side and task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Impe, Annouchka; Coxon, James P; Goble, Daniel J; Wenderoth, Nici; Swinnen, Stephan Patrick

    2009-10-01

    Functional imaging studies have shown that elderly individuals activate widespread additional brain networks, compared to young subjects, when performing motor tasks. However, the parameters that effect this unique neural activation, including the spatial distribution of this activation across hemispheres, are still largely unknown. Here, we examined the effect of task complexity and body side on activation differences between older and younger adults while performing cyclical flexion-extension movements of the ipsilateral hand and foot. In particular, easy (isodirectional) and more difficult (non-isodirectional) coordination patterns were performed with either the left or right body side at a self-selected, comfortable rate. Even in the absence of imposed pacing the older group activated a larger brain network, suggestive of increased attentional deployment for monitoring the spatial relationships between the simultaneously moving segments and enhanced sensory processing and integration. Evidence of age-dependent underactivation was also found in contralateral M1, SMA and bilateral putamen, possibly reflecting a functional decline of the basal ganglia-mesial cortex pathway in the older group. An ANOVA model revealed significant main effects of task complexity and body side. However the interaction of these factors with age did not reach significance. Consequently, we conclude that under self-paced conditions, task complexity and body side did not have a modulatory effect on age-related brain activation.

  18. Verbal and nonverbal behavior of ability-grouped dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Carter, Glenda

    In this study we describe the social interactions of ability-grouped dyads as they constructed knowledge of balance concepts to elucidate the relationship between interactions and conceptual growth. The verbal and nonverbal behaviors of 30 fifth-grade students were recorded as they completed three activities related to balance. These student interactions were examined within a framework of social cognition. For each dyad, characteristics of ability-grouped dyads were identified. Results revealed that high-achieving students effectively used prior experiences, maintained focus on the learning task, and were able to manipulate the equipment effectively to construct knowledge. Low-achieving students exhibited off-task behavior, lacked a metacognitive framework for organizing the learning tasks, centered on irrelevant features of the equipment, and were unable to use language effectively to mediate learning. Within low-high student dyads, high-achieving students typically modeled thinking processes and strategies for manipulating equipment. In addition, they focused the low-achieving students on the components of the tasks while verbally monitoring their progress, thus enabling low students to identify the critical features necessary for concept construction. These results highlighted the differences that students have in the use of language and tools. Low students' inefficient use of tools has implications for the ways science teachers structure lessons and group students for laboratory work.Received: 8 March 1993; Revised: 6 January 1994;

  19. Characterization of task-free and task-performance brain states via functional connectome patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Guo, Lei; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Tuo; Zhu, Dajiang; Li, Kaiming; Chen, Hanbo; Lv, Jinglei; Jin, Changfeng; Zhao, Qun; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Tianming

    2013-12-01

    Both resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) and task-based fMRI (T-fMRI) have been widely used to study the functional activities of the human brain during task-free and task-performance periods, respectively. However, due to the difficulty in strictly controlling the participating subject's mental status and their cognitive behaviors during R-fMRI/T-fMRI scans, it has been challenging to ascertain whether or not an R-fMRI/T-fMRI scan truly reflects the participant's functional brain states during task-free/task-performance periods. This paper presents a novel computational approach to characterizing and differentiating the brain's functional status into task-free or task-performance states, by which the functional brain activities can be effectively understood and differentiated. Briefly, the brain's functional state is represented by a whole-brain quasi-stable connectome pattern (WQCP) of R-fMRI or T-fMRI data based on 358 consistent cortical landmarks across individuals, and then an effective sparse representation method was applied to learn the atomic connectome patterns (ACPs) of both task-free and task-performance states. Experimental results demonstrated that the learned ACPs for R-fMRI and T-fMRI datasets are substantially different, as expected. A certain portion of ACPs from R-fMRI and T-fMRI data were overlapped, suggesting some subjects with overlapping ACPs were not in the expected task-free/task-performance brain states. Besides, potential outliers in the T-fMRI dataset were further investigated via functional activation detections in different groups, and our results revealed unexpected task-performances of some subjects. This work offers novel insights into the functional architectures of the brain.

  20. Lunar Health Monitor (LHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisy, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital Research, Inc., has developed a low-profile, wearable sensor suite for monitoring astronaut health in both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The Lunar Health Monitor measures respiration, body temperature, electrocardiogram (EKG) heart rate, and other cardiac functions. Orbital Research's dry recording electrode is central to the innovation and can be incorporated into garments, eliminating the need for conductive pastes, adhesives, or gels. The patented dry recording electrode has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The LHM is easily worn under flight gear or with civilian clothing, making the system completely versatile for applications where continuous physiological monitoring is needed. During Phase II, Orbital Research developed a second-generation LHM that allows sensor customization for specific monitoring applications and anatomical constraints. Evaluations included graded exercise tests, lunar mission task simulations, functional battery tests, and resting measures. The LHM represents the successful integration of sensors into a wearable platform to capture long-duration and ambulatory physiological markers.

  1. A Daunting Task Still

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2010-01-01

    @@ Despite steady economic growth for three decades, China is still a developing country facing daunting poverty alleviation tasks. According to the poverty line of 1,196 yuan ($176) per capita net income in a year set in March 2009, the country still has a poverty population of more than 40 million, mainly living in rural areas.

  2. Task 1 quarternary tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    Activities on the task of quarternary tectonics for the Yucca Mountain Site investigations are described. Technical topics include: A preliminary reveiw of Bare Mountain Trench; A preliminary detailed lineament map of the Southwestern part of the proposed repository; A discussion on the 1994 Double Spring Flat, Nevada earthquake; and evidence for temporal clustering.

  3. Radiation Protection Group Annual Report 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, M

    2004-01-01

    The RP Annual Report summarises the activities carried out by CERN’s Radiation Protection Group in the year 2003. It includes contribution from the EN section of the TIS/IE Group on environmental monitoring. Chapter 1 reports on the measurements and estimations of the impact on the environment and public exposure due to the Organisation’s activities. Chapter 2 provides the results of the monitoring of CERN’s staff, users and contractors to occupational exposure. Chapter 3 deals with operational radiation protection around the accelerators and in the experimental areas. Chapter 4 reports on RP design studies for the LHC and CNGS projects. Chapter 5 addresses the various services provided by the RP Group to other Groups and Divisions at CERN, which include managing radioactive waste, high-level dosimetry, lending radioactive test sources and shipping radioactive materials. Chapter 6 describes activities other than the routine and service tasks, i.e. development work in the field of instrumentation and res...

  4. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  5. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  6. Design on remote monitoring and control system for greenhouse group based on ZigBee and internet%基于ZigBee和Internet的温室群环境远程监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张猛; 房俊龙; 韩雨

    2013-01-01

      针对当前国内温室群环境智能测控研究现状以及黑龙江省寒地日光温室建设实际,研发了一种基于ZigBee和 Internet 的温室群环境远程监控系统。该系统由数个独立温室监控系统组成,各独立温室监控服务器将数据汇总至总服务器,由总服务器提供远程监控接入管理服务。各独立温室监控系统传感网部分基于ZigBee网络设计,通信模块采用TI公司新一代片上系统CC2530,ZigBee网络通过RS232-RJ45协议转换器接入局域网。软件算法设计参考了大系统理论,对温室环境因子进行综合调控。通过日光温室实地试验,测试了ZigBee网络通讯稳定性,通讯丢包率控制在4.9%以内,远程监控系统稳定,满足了工程设计需要。%Wireless technologies have developed rapidly in recent years. Types of wireless technologies range from IrDA that uses infrared light for short-range, point-to-point communications, to wireless personal area network for short range, point-to multi-point communications, such as Bluetooth and ZigBee, to mid-range, multi-hop wireless local area network, to long-distance cellular phone systems, such as GSM/GPRS and CDMA. In this paper, focusing on the domestic research of intelligent control system for greenhouse group and the greenhouse construction of Heilongjiang province, a new type remote monitoring and control system for greenhouse group based on ZigBee and Internet was developed. The group control system was composed of some separate monitoring systems. The data of the separate monitoring servers were sent to master server and connected to remote administration system with master server. The sensor network of the separate monitoring system was based on ZigBee nodes. The monitor nodes were composed by two parts:The communication module and sensor module. The MCU of the communication module was adopted CC2530 of Texas Instruments. The flash memory, which is important to

  7. Can tasks be inherently boring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charney, Evan

    2013-12-01

    Kurzban et al. argue that the experiences of "effort," "boredom," and "fatigue" are indications that the costs of a task outweigh its benefits. Reducing the costs of tasks to "opportunity costs" has the effect of rendering tasks costless and of denying that they can be inherently boring or tedious, something that "vigilance tasks" were intentionally designed to be.

  8. Set shifting training with categorization tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Soveri

    Full Text Available The very few cognitive training studies targeting an important executive function, set shifting, have reported performance improvements that also generalized to untrained tasks. The present randomized controlled trial extends set shifting training research by comparing previously used cued training with uncued training. A computerized adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test was utilized as the training task in a pretest-posttest experimental design involving three groups of university students. One group received uncued training (n = 14, another received cued training (n = 14 and the control group (n = 14 only participated in pre- and posttests. The uncued training group showed posttraining performance increases on their training task, but neither training group showed statistically significant transfer effects. Nevertheless, comparison of effect sizes for transfer effects indicated that our results did not differ significantly from the previous studies. Our results suggest that the cognitive effects of computerized set shifting training are mostly task-specific, and would preclude any robust generalization effects with this training.

  9. ACC/AHA Special Report: Clinical Practice Guideline Implementation Strategies: A Summary of Systematic Reviews by the NHLBI Implementation Science Work Group: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wiley V; Pearson, Thomas A; Bennett, Glen C; Cushman, William C; Gaziano, Thomas A; Gorman, Paul N; Handler, Joel; Krumholz, Harlan M; Kushner, Robert F; MacKenzie, Thomas D; Sacco, Ralph L; Smith, Sidney C; Stevens, Victor J; Wells, Barbara L; Castillo, Graciela; Heil, Susan K R; Stephens, Jennifer; Vann, Julie C Jacobson

    2017-02-28

    In 2008, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened an Implementation Science Work Group to assess evidence-based strategies for effectively implementing clinical practice guidelines. This was part of a larger effort to update existing clinical practice guidelines on cholesterol, blood pressure, and overweight/obesity. Review evidence from the published implementation science literature and identify effective or promising strategies to enhance the adoption and implementation of clinical practice guidelines. This systematic review was conducted on 4 critical questions, each focusing on the adoption and effectiveness of 4 intervention strategies: (1) reminders, (2) educational outreach visits, (3) audit and feedback, and (4) provider incentives. A scoping review of the Rx for Change database of systematic reviews was used to identify promising guideline implementation interventions aimed at providers. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori for each question, and the published literature was initially searched up to 2012, and then updated with a supplemental search to 2015. Two independent reviewers screened the returned citations to identify relevant reviews and rated the quality of each included review. Audit and feedback and educational outreach visits were generally effective in improving both process of care (15 of 21 reviews and 12 of 13 reviews, respectively) and clinical outcomes (7 of 12 reviews and 3 of 5 reviews, respectively). Provider incentives showed mixed effectiveness for improving both process of care (3 of 4 reviews) and clinical outcomes (3 reviews equally distributed between generally effective, mixed, and generally ineffective). Reminders showed mixed effectiveness for improving process of care outcomes (27 reviews with 11 mixed and 3 generally ineffective results) and were generally ineffective for clinical outcomes (18 reviews with 6 mixed and 9 generally ineffective results). Educational outreach visits (2 of 2

  10. Electronic performance monitoring and social context: impact on productivity and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, J R; Kolb, K J

    1995-06-01

    In a laboratory study, the presence of individual- or work-group-level electronic performance monitoring (EPM) was manipulated as participants worked on a data-entry task alone, as a member of a noninteracting aggregate, or as a member of a cohesive group. The pattern of results suggested the operation of a social facilitation effect, as highly skilled monitored participants keyed more entries than highly skilled nonmonitored participants. The opposite pattern was detected among low-skilled participants. No signs of social loafing were detected among group-monitored participants. Nonmonitored workers and members of cohesive groups felt the least stressed. The implications of these findings for organizations adopting EPM systems are discussed.

  11. Performing Task Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    . Here cross-professional coordination of work was done by scheduled communication twice a day. When we proposed a way for further integration of tasks through an all-inclusive team organization, we were met with resistance. We use the study to discuss whether relational coordination theory is able to do......In the paper, we deal with how to organize work for cross-professional knowledge sharing. We do so inspired by relational coordination theory, which is affiliated with positive organizational scholarship. Relational coordination theory is constituted by a combination of relationships marked...... away with differences regarding task definitions and working conditions as well as professional knowledge hierarchies and responsibilities for parts and wholes....

  12. Community hoarding task forces: a comparative case study of five task forces in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratiotis, Christiana

    2013-05-01

    During the past decade, many community task forces have formed to address hoarding problems that come to public attention. Such task forces provide a societal-level intervention to assist people with the most severe cases of hoarding, who do not voluntarily seek or want help for their hoarding behaviour. This qualitative study of five U.S. hoarding task forces included sites selected for their diversity of purpose, approaches to hoarding intervention and community geography, composition and resources. Data were collected during the period of September 2007-March 2008. The case study methodology used multiple forms of data, including semi-structured interviews, analysis of documents, small group interviews and investigator observation. This study captured the perspectives of public and private sector service providers such as mental health, housing, social service, public health agencies and community enforcement organisations (fire, police, legal, animal control) to examine how task forces organise and operate and the emerging practice and policy changes. Study findings suggest that structural factors (e.g. leadership, purpose, funding and membership) impact hoarding task force viability, that participation on a task force influences practice and policy decisions about hoarding, and that social work can expand its role in task force leadership. Task forces may be a mechanism for improving community policies about hoarding and mechanisms for addressing other social problems across multiple sectors.

  13. Features or tasks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    In this paper for the Workshop on Human-computer interaction and e-learning, NordiCHI 2002, the author argues that in developing innovative E-learning systems, especially if constructivist pedagogy is to be applied, it will be useful to model the user interface on the often complex tasks...... that the user has to perform rather than just focusing on technical features (and adapting system use to them)....

  14. Safety system status monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  15. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  16. Monitoring of PAEMs and beta-agonists in urine for a small group of experimental subjects and PAEs and beta-agonists in drinking water consumed by the same subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Yang, Gordon C C; Wang, Chih-Lung; Chiu, Yu-Han

    2014-07-30

    This 5-month study contains two parts: (1) to monitor the concentrations of 11 phthalate esters metabolites (PAEMs) and two beta-agonists in human urine samples collected from a small group of consented participants including 16 females and five males; and (2) to analyze the residues of phthalate esters (PAEs) and beta-agonists in various categories of drinking water consumed by the same group of subjects. Each category of human urine and drinking water had 183 samples of its own. The analytical results showed that nine PAEMs were detected in human urine and eight PAEs were detected in drinking water samples. It was found that average concentrations of PAEMs increased as the age increased, but no significant difference between sexes. Further, using the principal component analysis, the loadings of age effect were found to be two times greater than that of gender effect in terms of four DEHP metabolites. Regarding beta-agonists of concern (i.e., ractopamine and salbutamol), they were neither detected in human urine nor drinking water samples in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Common basic measurements in the IEA Task 13 houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxhof, B.; Wittchen, K.B.

    1993-02-01

    As agreed upon at the Task 13 Monitoring Workshop in Kandersteg, Switzerland, September 1991, some common tests and measurements have to be carried out in all the IEA task 13 houses, in order to be able to compare the houses to a certain extent. This comparison of the houses is desirable as the houses will be totally different and even built in different climate zones. Suggestions and proposals have been invited also from teams that are not building and monitoring a Task 13 house, as their experience from other projects make a valuable contribution to this subtask, ``Subtask B: Testing and Data Analysis``. A first draft of this little document was presented at the Kandersteg Workshop, and revisions have been discussed at the succeeding Task 13 Experts` Meetings, resulting in this final version. (au)

  18. A Comparative Study of Task-based vs. Task- supported Teaching Approaches in an EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Shafipoor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the numerous merits of task-based language instruction as claimed by its supporters in the last few decades, task-supported teaching approach as an alternative was introduced. Since then, there have been controversial debates over the superiority of each of these two approaches. Thus, in the current research project, the purpose was to consider these two teaching approaches in the scope of English language teaching, with the purpose of exploring the most efficient one in an Iranian EFL context. To this end, 120 sophomore students, majoring in English language translation course at Islamic Azad University, Shar-e-Qods branch were selected among 4 intact reading comprehension II classes. Next, they were divided into two experimental groups. The first experimental group received task-based instruction and for the second experimental group, task-trusted teaching approach was applied. The results of the data analyses turned out that task-trusted teaching approach was superior to task-based teaching in teaching reading to EFL learners.

  19. Effects of Gait and Cognitive Task Difficulty on Cognitive-Motor Interference in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Plummer-D'Amato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although gait-related dual-task interference in aging is well established, the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on dual-task interference is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on cognitive-motor interference in aging. Fifteen older adults (72.1 years, SD 5.2 and 20 young adults (21.7 years, SD 1.6 performed three walking tasks of varying difficulty (self-selected speed, fast speed, and fast speed with obstacle crossing under single- and dual-task conditions. The cognitive tasks were the auditory Stroop task and the clock task. There was a significant Group × Gait Task × Cognitive Task interaction for the dual-task effect on gait speed. After adjusting for education, there were no significant effects of gait or cognitive task difficulty on the dual-task effects on cognitive task performance. The results of this study provide evidence that gait task difficulty influences dual-task effects on gait speed, especially in older adults. Moreover, the effects of gait task difficulty on dual-task interference appear to be influenced by the difficulty of the cognitive task. Education is an important factor influencing cognitive-motor interference effects on cognition, but not gait.

  20. Group lending and the role of the group leader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkel, R.; Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates strategic monitoring behavior within group lending. We show that monitoring efforts of group members differ in equilibrium due to the asymmetry between members in terms of future profits. In particular, we show that the entrepreneur with the highest future profits also puts i

  1. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  2. Report of the heavy-ion fusion task group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, G.A.; Booth, L.A.; Henderson, D.B.; Jameson, R.A.; Kindel, J.M.; Knapp, E.A.; Pollock, R.; Talbert, W.L.; Thode, L.E.; Williams, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    An assessment of heavy-ion fusion has been completed. Energetic heavy ions, for example 10-GeV uranium, provided by an rf linac or an induction linac, are used as alternatives to laser light to drive inertial confinement fusion pellets. The assessment has covered accelerator technology, transport of heavy-ion beams, target interaction physics, civilian power issues, and military applications. It is concluded that particle accelerators promise to be efficient pellet drivers, but that there are formidable technical problems to be solved. It is recommended that a moderate level research program on heavy-ion fusion be pursued and that LASL should continue to work on critical issues in accelerator development, beam transport, reactor systems studies, and target physics over the next few years.

  3. Task Group on Strengthening the DoD Enterprise Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    studies and academic publications, including: – Business Roundtable, Principles of Corporate Governance (2005) – McKinsey Quarterly, Organizing for...could be made in the Department’s corporate governance based upon the above observations? Other: 14. Are there any other people that have

  4. Peer support in small group EFL writing tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS DAVID GUERRA LYONS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se basa en una investigación de aula enfocada en la temática del apoyo en tareas de escritura en grupos pequeños al interior de un curso de inglés como lengua extranjera. Se buscó analizar la forma como los aprendices estructuran distintas formas de apoyo según su conciencia intersubjetiva de las necesidades y objetivos de sus pares, las cuales fueron comparadas con las ofrecidas por el docente con el fin de identificar similitudes y contrastes. Se encontró que los aprendices ofrecen al menos tres tipos de apoyo: cognitivo, estratégico y evaluativo. En cada uno de ellos se encontraron dinámicas intersubjetivas particulares a medida que los aprendices interpretaban las necesidades y objetivos que surgían durante la tarea. Se observó que el apoyo del docente fue principalmente estratégico, es decir, orientado al desarrollo de la tarea. Además, se observa que el apoyo del docente a menudo no corresponde con las necesidades de los aprendices debido a una falta de espacios para el establecimiento de terreno intersubjetivo común. Al final se discuten implicaciones pedagógicas e investigativas de estos hallazgos.

  5. Unique Signal mathematical analysis task group FY03 status report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baty, Roy Stuart (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Johnston, Anna Marie; Hart, Elizabeth (Utah State University, Logan, UT); White, Allan (NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA); Cooper, James Arlin

    2003-12-01

    The Unique Signal is a key constituent of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety (ENDS). Although the Unique Signal approach is well prescribed and mathematically assured, there are numerous unsolved mathematical problems that could help assess the risk of deviations from the ideal approach. Some of the mathematics-based results shown in this report are: 1. The risk that two patterns with poor characteristics (easily generated by inadvertent processes) could be combined through exclusive-or mixing to generate an actual Unique Signal pattern has been investigated and found to be minimal (not significant when compared to the incompatibility metric of actual Unique Signal patterns used in nuclear weapons). 2. The risk of generating actual Unique Signal patterns with linear feedback shift registers is minimal, but the patterns in use are not as invulnerable to inadvertent generation by dependent processes as previously thought. 3. New methods of testing pair-wise incompatibility threats have resulted in no significant problems found for the set of Unique Signal patterns currently used. Any new patterns introduced would have to be carefully assessed for compatibility with existing patterns, since some new patterns under consideration were found to be deficient when associated with other patterns in use. 4. Markov models were shown to correspond to some of the engineered properties of Unique Signal sequences. This gives new support for the original design objectives. 5. Potential dependence among events (caused by a variety of communication protocols) has been studied. New evidence has been derived of the risk associated with combined communication of multiple events, and of the improvement in abnormal-environment safety that can be achieved through separate-event communication.

  6. Multicultural Leader Behaviors in Ethnically Mixed Task Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-15

    Deficit, difference, and bicultural models of Afro-American behavior. Harvard Educational Review, 1971, 41, (2), 137-157. Vasconcellos, J. La raza ...cosmica (4th ed.). Mexico, D.F.: Espasa-Calpe Mexicana, S. A., 1976. Zea, L. Dependencia y liberacion en la cultura latinoamericana. Mexico, D.F

  7. Task Dynamics in a College Biology Course for Prospective Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovici, Hedy

    2001-01-01

    Explores the dynamic profile of a task as interpreted by a group of six prospective elementary teachers enrolled in a college biology course. Describes the shift from a planned task to a transitional task and finally an enacted task. (Author/MM)

  8. Task Dynamics in a College Biology Course for Prospective Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovici, Hedy

    2001-01-01

    Explores the dynamic profile of a task as interpreted by a group of six prospective elementary teachers enrolled in a college biology course. Describes the shift from a planned task to a transitional task and finally an enacted task. (Author/MM)

  9. Task Dominance Determines Backward Inhibition in Task Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Jost

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Switching between tasks is assumed to be accompanied by inhibiting currently irrelevant, but competing tasks. A dominant task that strongly interferes with performing a weaker task may receive especially strong inhibition. We tested this prediction by letting participants switch among three tasks that differ in dominance: a location discrimination task with strong stimulus–response bindings (responding with left-hand and right-hand button presses to stimuli presented left or right to the fixation cross was combined with a color/pattern and a shape discrimination task, for which stimulus–response mappings were arbitrary (e.g., left-hand button press mapped to a red stimulus. Across three experiments, the dominance of the location task was documented by faster and more accurate responses than in the other tasks. This even held for incompatible stimulus–response mappings (i.e., right-hand response to a left-presented stimulus and vice versa, indicating that set-level compatibility (i.e., “dimension overlap” was sufficient for making this location task dominant. As a behavioral marker for backward inhibition, we utilized n-2 repetition costs that are defined by higher reaction times for a switch back to a just abandoned and thus just inhibited task (ABA sequence than for a switch to a less recently inhibited task (CBA, n-2 non-repetition. Reliable n-2 task repetition costs were obtained for all three tasks. Importantly, these costs were largest for the location task, suggesting that inhibition indeed was stronger for the dominant task. This finding adds to other evidence that the amount of inhibition is adjusted in a context-sensitive way.

  10. The Variety of Group Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaoYanyan; YuZhihao

    2004-01-01

    With the rapid enrollment expansion in the recent years,the author feels it urgent to reform the traditional group work,and therefore to form a new and more effective pattern of group learning. The new of group word is based on the principles of cooperation and that of the task with the more flexible marking system.

  11. Grouped frequent sequential patterns derived from terrestrial image time series to monitor landslide behaviour - Application to the dynamics of the Sanières/Roche Plombée rockslide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péricault, Youen; Pothier, Catherine; Méger, Nicolas; Trouvé, Emmanuel; Vernier, Flavien; Rigotti, Christophe; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Image time series acquired with remote sensing methods based on optical terrestrial photogrammetry have great potential for understanding and monitoring the Earth surface dynamics at local scale, and are particularly interesting for landslide monitoring. Image correlation techniques can be applied to calculate the displacement fields, in either the image geometry or the terrain geometry if orthorectification procedures are applied. The resulting products are times series of displacement vectors for each epoch in which knowledge extraction techniques can be applied to discover relevant movement patterns in space and time. We used an unsupervised method (Grouped Frequent Sequential patterns / GFS-patterns) based on the mining of the displacement field. The method was originally developed for the analysis of time series of satellite images. It involves the extraction of trends / sub-trends affecting each pixel covering at least a minimum surface area and sufficiently connected to each other. The results of the mining are presented in spatio-temporal location maps (STL-map) of each GFS-pattern. In these maps, the spatial information is given by the pixel locations and the time information is displayed using a color ramp. The method is tested on a time series of 36 optical terrestrial images of the Sanières/Roche Plombée rockslide (South East French Alps) from 28 of July to 1 September 2014. From this series 35 2D displacement fields were calculated for epochs of three days, and the time series of vector magnitude and direction were analysed with GFS-patterns / STL-map. The method allowed identifying several patterns corresponding to different kinematical behaviour of the rockslide (long-term creep at the top of the slope, surficial movement of the debris at the base of the slope). The unsupervised knowledge extraction method GFS-pattern / STL-map, originally developed to analyse time series of satellite images showed in this study real possibilities of use for

  12. The Impact of Task Complexity and Strategic Planning Time on EFL Learners’ Accuracy and Fluency in Written Task Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Salimi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The past twenty years has witnessed a remarkable increase in the number of studies investigating different aspects and features of tasks in the second and foreign language class and their effects on learners’ oral and written task performance. Building up on a review of the studies conducted in the field of task-based language teaching a gap was revealed in the literature on the joint effects of task complexity and types of pre-task planning on L2 learners’ performance. The present study investigates the effects of strategic pre-task planning time and task complexity on a group of L2 learners’ written performance in terms of accuracy and fluency. The means of accuracy and fluency of 50 intermediate English language learners, both male and female, chosen randomly from Iran National Language Institute, Miandoab Branch were compared using T-test as the statistical means of analysis. The findings revealed a positive influence of pre-task strategic planning time in both simple and complex tasks, suggesting significant implications for syllabus and task designers, language teachers, and SLA researchers. Keywords: Task-based language teaching, Planning time, Strategic planning, Task complexity, Accuracy, Fluency

  13. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  14. Plasticity of executive control through task switching training in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eZinke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that cognitive training can enhance performance in executive control tasks. Current study was designed to explore whether executive control can also be trained in adolescents, what particular aspects of executive control may underlie training and transfer effects, and whether acute bouts of exercise directly prior to cognitive training enhance training effects. For that purpose, a task switching training was employed that has been shown to be effective in other age groups. A group of adolescents (10-14 years, n = 20 that received a three-week TS training was compared to a group (n = 20 that received the same TS training but who exercised on a stationary bike before each training session. Additionally, a no-contact and an exercise-only control group were included (both ns = 20. Analyses indicated that both training groups significantly reduced their switching costs over the course of the training sessions and also reduced their mixing costs in a near transfer task. The reduction in mixing costs in the near transfer task was larger in the trained groups than in the non-trained control groups. Far transfer of cognitive training was limited to a choice reaction time task and a tendency for faster reaction times in an updating task. Findings indicate that executive control can be enhanced in adolescents through training and that updating may be of particular relevance for the effects of task switching training.

  15. Calorimetry Task Force Report

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullin, Salavat; Banerjee, Sunanda; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bhatti, Anwar; Chlebana, Frank; Cossutti, Fabio; Hirschauer, James; Ivanchenko, V; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Kunori, Shuichi; Kroeger, Rob; Liu, Yanwen; Moeller, Anthony; Paulini, Manfred; Piperov, Stefan; Rahmat, Rahmat; Rovelli, Chiara; Safronov, Grigory; Sharma, Seema; Spiropulu, Maria; Yetkin, Taylan

    2010-01-01

    In this note we summarize the progress made by the calorimeter simulation task force (CaloTF) over the past year. The CaloTF was established in February 2008 in order to understand and reconcile the discrepancies observed between the CMS calorimetry simulation and test beam data recorded during 2004 and 2006. The simulation has been significantly improved by using a newer version of Geant4 and an improved physics list for the full CMS detector simulation. Simulation times have been reduced by introducing flexible parameterizations to describe showering in the calorimeter (using a Gflash-like approach) which have been tuned to the test beam data.

  16. Quarternary tectonics, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.W.

    1993-09-30

    Activities conducted for the evaluation of the geology and seismotectonics stability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes continued. Tasks concerned with quaternary tectonics include: scheduling of photography of Little Skull Mountain area; the collection and dating of rock varnish samples from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area for carbon 14 AMS and cation-ratio analysis; collection of samples for thermoluminescence dating from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area; mapping of the northern area of Crater Flat; and surveying of the May 17, 1993 Eureka the Valley earthquake area.

  17. Age and muscle-dependent variations in corticospinal excitability during standing tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Remaud

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated how modulation in corticospinal excitability elicited in the context of standing tasks varies as a function of age and between muscles. Changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs recorded in tibialis anterior (TA and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL were monitored while participants (young, n = 10; seniors, n = 11 either quietly stood (QS or performed a heel raise (HR task. In the later condition, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS pulses were delivered at three specific time points during the task: 1 250 ms before the "go" cue (preparatory (PREP phase, 2 100 ms before the heel rise (anticipatory postural adjustment (APA phase, and 3 200 ms after heel rise (execution (EXEC phase. In each task and each phase, variations in MEP characteristics were analysed for age and muscle-dependent effects. Variations in silent period (SP duration were also examined for certain phases (APA and EXEC. Our analysis revealed no major difference during QS, as participants exhibited very similar patterns of modulation in both TA and GL, irrespective of their age group. During the HR task, young adults exhibited a differential modulation in the PREP phase with enhanced responses in TA relative to GL, which was not seen in seniors. Finally, besides differences in MEP latency, age had little influence on MEP modulation during the APA and EXEC phases, where amplitude was largely a function of background muscle activity associated with each phase (i.e., APA: TA; EXEC: GL. No age or muscle effects were detected for SP measurements. Overall, our results revealed no major differences between young adults and healthy seniors in the ability to modulate corticospinal facilitation destined to ankle muscles during standing tasks, with maybe the exception of the ability to prime muscle synergies in the preparatory phase of action.

  18. On the contingent nature of language‐learning tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Hellermann, John; Pekarek Doehler, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Using methods from conversation analysis, this paper explores ways that teacher‐designed language‐learning task interactions can vary in their performance due to the nature of face‐to‐face interaction. The analysis describes three task interactions from language‐learning classrooms, showing how the contingencies that are necessitated by learners working in small groups provide for different task performance as well as different potentials for language learning. The video‐recorded interactions...

  19. Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: a closer look at task switching and dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician) were matched on age and socioeconomic status and administered task switching and dual-task paradigms. Results demonstrated reduced global and local switch costs in musicians compared with non-musicians, suggesting that musical training can contribute to increased efficiency in the ability to shift flexibly between mental sets. On dual-task performance, musicians also outperformed non-musicians. There was neither a cognitive advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, nor an interaction between music and language to suggest additive effects of both types of experience. These findings demonstrate that long-term musical training is associated with improvements in task switching and dual-task performance.

  20. Deficits in error-monitoring by college students with schizotypal traits: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs to investigate deficits in error-monitoring by college students with schizotypal traits. Scores on the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ were used to categorize the participants into schizotypal-trait (n = 17 and normal control (n = 20 groups. The error-monitoring abilities of the participants were evaluated using the Simon task, which consists of congruent (locations of stimulus and response are the same and incongruent (locations of stimulus and response are different conditions. The schizotypal-trait group committed more errors on the Simon task and exhibited smaller error-related negativity (ERN amplitudes than did the control group. Additionally, ERN amplitude measured at FCz was negatively correlated with the error rate on the Simon task in the schizotypal-trait group but not in the control group. The two groups did not differ in terms of correct-related potentials (CRN, error positivity (Pe and correct-related positivity (Pc amplitudes. The present results indicate that individuals with schizotypal traits have deficits in error-monitoring and that reduced ERN amplitudes may represent a biological marker of schizophrenia.

  1. Social Loafing in a Co-operative Classroom Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Adrian C.; Linley, P. Alex; Hargreaves, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether social loafing (the tendency for individuals to reduce their input when performing as part of a group) existed in a collaborative educational task employing groups of three and eight participants. Indicates that individuals working in smaller groups were more productive than those working in larger groups. (CMK)

  2. Task Analysis Assessment on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Public transportation acts as social mobility and caters the daily needs of the society for passengers to travel from one place to another. This is true for a country like Malaysia where international trade has been growing significantly over the past few decades. Task analysis assessment was conducted with the consideration of cognitive ergonomic view towards problem related to human factors. Conducting research regarding the task analysis on bus traffic controllers had allowed a better understanding regarding the nature of work and the overall monitoring activities of the bus services. This paper served to study the task analysis assessment on intrastate bus traffic controllers and the objectives of this study include to conduct task analysis assessment on the bus traffic controllers. Task analysis assessment for the bus traffic controllers was developed via Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA). There are a total of five subsidiary tasks on level one and only two were able to be further broken down in level two. Development of HTA allowed a better understanding regarding the work and this could further ease the evaluation of the tasks conducted by the bus traffic controllers. Thus, human error could be reduced for the safety of all passengers and increase the overall efficiency of the system. Besides, it could assist in improving the operation of the bus traffic controllers by modelling or synthesizing the existing tasks if necessary.

  3. Circadian Effects on Simple Components of Complex Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Benjamin A.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Vieane, Alex Z.; Gutzwiller, Robert S.; Sebok, Angelia L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to advance understanding and prediction of the impact of circadian rhythm on aspects of complex task performance during unexpected automation failures, and subsequent fault management. Participants trained on two tasks: a process control simulation, featuring automated support; and a multi-tasking platform. Participants then completed one task in a very early morning (circadian night) session, and the other during a late afternoon (circadian day) session. Small effects of time of day were seen on simple components of task performance, but impacts on more demanding components, such as those that occur following an automation failure, were muted relative to previous studies where circadian rhythm was compounded with sleep deprivation and fatigue. Circadian low participants engaged in compensatory strategies, rather than passively monitoring the automation. The findings and implications are discussed in the context of a model that includes the effects of sleep and fatigue factors.

  4. Advanced Materials for Exploration Task Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M. B. (Compiler); Murphy, K. L.; Schneider, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) Activity in Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC s) Exploration Science and Technology Directorate coordinated activities from 2001 to 2006 to support in-space propulsion technologies for future missions. Working together, materials scientists and mission planners identified materials shortfalls that are limiting the performance of long-term missions. The goal of the AME project was to deliver improved materials in targeted areas to meet technology development milestones of NASA s exploration-dedicated activities. Materials research tasks were targeted in five areas: (1) Thermal management materials, (2) propulsion materials, (3) materials characterization, (4) vehicle health monitoring materials, and (5) structural materials. Selected tasks were scheduled for completion such that these new materials could be incorporated into customer development plans.

  5. Principles of Communicative Task Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    The use of the learning task as a basic planning and instructional tool for communicative second language instruction is discussed, and considerations and procedures for designing such tasks are outlined. A task is defined as a piece of classroom work that involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing, or interacting in the target…

  6. TASK: Let's Have a Party!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, James

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a creative way to demystify contemporary art for students. TASK is artist Oliver Herring's creation, where participants actively interpret instructions found on little pieces of paper--what he calls "tasks." An art classroom has all the key ingredients for a TASK event: (1) people; (2) materials; (3) space;…

  7. TASK: Let's Have a Party!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, James

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a creative way to demystify contemporary art for students. TASK is artist Oliver Herring's creation, where participants actively interpret instructions found on little pieces of paper--what he calls "tasks." An art classroom has all the key ingredients for a TASK event: (1) people; (2) materials; (3) space;…

  8. Formal language models for finding groups of experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Liang; M. de Rijke

    2016-01-01

    The task of finding groups or teams has recently received increased attention, as a natural and challenging extension of search tasks aimed at retrieving individual entities. We introduce a new group finding task: given a query topic, we try to find knowledgeable groups that have expertise on that t

  9. Genetic Peculiarities of Blood Group Distribution in Infants Born to Mothers With 0(I Rh(+ Blood Group in Bukovyna Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оksana G. Cherniukh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of distribution of the group (according to AB0 system and rhesus characteristics (according to anti-D system in infants born to mothers with 0(I Rh(+ blood group in Chernivtsi region (Ukraine during the period of 2013-2014. The relationship of the umbilical bilirubin level and hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN (erythroblastosis fetalis, the necessity of its careful monitoring during the first day of life of a newborn, especially in case a baby belongs to a certain risk group, has been analyzed. The issue concerning probable HDN occurrence from mothers with А(II Rh(+ blood group which is dominant in this region has been touched upon. The tasks for further work in this direction of ecopathophysiology in the areas of gene penetration have been assigned.

  10. Abnormal error monitoring in math-anxious individuals: evidence from error-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Angels

    2013-01-01

    This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA) and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN) in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN), the error positivity component (Pe), classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants' math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN.

  11. Abnormal error monitoring in math-anxious individuals: evidence from error-related brain potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Suárez-Pellicioni

    Full Text Available This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN, the error positivity component (Pe, classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants' math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN.

  12. Testing multiple coordination constraints with a novel bimanual visuomotor task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene M Sisti

    Full Text Available The acquisition of a new bimanual skill depends on several motor coordination constraints. To date, coordination constraints have often been tested relatively independently of one another, particularly with respect to isofrequency and multifrequency rhythms. Here, we used a new paradigm to test the interaction of multiple coordination constraints. Coordination constraints that were tested included temporal complexity, directionality, muscle grouping, and hand dominance. Twenty-two healthy young adults performed a bimanual dial rotation task that required left and right hand coordination to track a moving target on a computer monitor. Two groups were compared, either with or without four days of practice with augmented visual feedback. Four directional patterns were tested such that both hands moved either rightward (clockwise, leftward (counterclockwise, inward or outward relative to each other. Seven frequency ratios (3∶1, 2∶1, 3∶2, 1∶1, 2∶3. 1∶2, 1∶3 between the left and right hand were introduced. As expected, isofrequency patterns (1∶1 were performed more successfully than multifrequency patterns (non 1∶1. In addition, performance was more accurate when participants were required to move faster with the dominant right hand (1∶3, 1∶2 and 2∶3 than with the non-dominant left hand (3∶1, 2∶1, 3∶2. Interestingly, performance deteriorated as the relative angular velocity between the two hands increased, regardless of whether the required frequency ratio was an integer or non-integer. This contrasted with previous finger tapping research where the integer ratios generally led to less error than the non-integer ratios. We suggest that this is due to the different movement topologies that are required of each paradigm. Overall, we found that this visuomotor task was useful for testing the interaction of multiple coordination constraints as well as the release from these constraints with practice in the presence of

  13. Modeling Cognitive Strategies during Complex Task Performing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Altun, Arif

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine individuals' computer based complex task performing processes and strategies in order to determine the reasons of failure by cognitive task analysis method and cued retrospective think aloud with eye movement data. Study group was five senior students from Computer Education and Instructional Technologies…

  14. A Task that Elicits Reasoning: A Dual Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelewitz, Dina; Mueller, Mary; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the forms of reasoning elicited as fourth grade students in a suburban district and sixth grade students in an urban district worked on similar tasks involving reasoning with the use of Cuisenaire rods. Analysis of the two data sets shows similarities in the reasoning used by both groups of students on specific tasks, and the…

  15. A Task that Elicits Reasoning: A Dual Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelewitz, Dina; Mueller, Mary; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the forms of reasoning elicited as fourth grade students in a suburban district and sixth grade students in an urban district worked on similar tasks involving reasoning with the use of Cuisenaire rods. Analysis of the two data sets shows similarities in the reasoning used by both groups of students on specific tasks, and the…

  16. Does a Speaking Task Affect Second Language Comprehensibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Dustin; Trofimovich, Pavel; Isaacs, Talia; Saito, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated task effects on listener perception of second language (L2) comprehensibility (ease of understanding). Sixty university-level adult speakers of English from 4 first language (L1) backgrounds (Chinese, Romance, Hindi, Farsi), with 15 speakers per group, were recorded performing 2 tasks (IELTS long-turn speaking task…

  17. Validating the Electric Maze Task as a Measure of Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Kelly W.; Cheatham, Carol L.

    2017-01-01

    The Electric Maze Task (EMT) is a novel planning task designed to allow flexible testing of planning abilities across a broad age range and to incorporate manipulations to test underlying planning abilities, such as working-memory and inhibitory control skills. The EMT was tested in a group of 63 typically developing 7- to 12-year-olds.…

  18. IEA SHC Task 42/ECES Annex 29 WG A1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ristić, Alenka; Furbo, Simon; Moser, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    An overview on the recent results on the engineering and characterization of sorption materials, PCMs and TCMs investigated in the working group WG A1 “Engineering and processing of TES materials” of IEA SHC Task 42 / ECES Annex 29 (Task 4229) entitled “Compact Thermal Energy Storage” is presented....

  19. Graphical tasks to aid in diagnosing and monitoring Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that is often characterized by motor symptoms. The four cardinal motor symptoms are bradykinesia (slow movement), resting tremor (trembling of a body part in rest), rigidity (muscular stiffness), and balance problems. In addition, a reduction in ha

  20. Emergent Power Hierarchies and Group Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauendorfer, Denise; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Sanchez-Cortes, Dairazalia; Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    In newly formed groups, informal hierarchies emerge automatically and readily. In this study, we argue that emergent group hierarchies enhance group performance (Hypothesis 1) and we assume that the more the power hierarchy within a group corresponds to the task-competence differences of the individual group members, the better the group performs (Hypothesis 2). Twelve three-person groups and 28 four-person groups were investigated while solving the Winter Survival Task. Results show that emerging power hierarchies positively impact group performance but the alignment between task-competence and power hierarchy did not affect group performance. Thus, emergent power hierarchies are beneficial for group performance and although they were on average created around individual group members' competence, this correspondence was not a prerequisite for better group performance.