WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitoring studies suggest

  1. Monitoring of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography – case study and suggestion of method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Michoński

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back and pelvic pain is one of the most frequently reported disorders in pregnancy, however etiology and pathology of this problem have not been fully determined. The relationship between back pain experienced during pregnancy and posture remains unclear. It is challenging to measure reliably postural and spinal changes at the time of pregnancy, since most imaging studies cannot be used due to the radiation burden. 3D shape measurement, or surface topography (ST, systems designed for posture evaluation could potentially fill this void. A pilot study was conducted to test the potential of monitoring the change of spine curvatures and posture during pregnancy using surface topography. A single case was studied to test the methodology and preliminarily assess the usefulness of the procedure before performing a randomized trial. The apparatus used in this study was metrologically tested and utilized earlier in scoliosis screening. Case presentation The subject was measured using a custom-made structured light illumination scanner with accuracy of 0.2 mm. Measurement was taken every 2 weeks, between 17th and 37th week of pregnancy, 11 measurements in total. From the measurement the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angles, and vertical balance angle were extracted automatically. Custom-written software was used for analysis. Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODI was done with every measurement. The values were correctly extracted from the measurement. The results were: 50.9 ± 2.4° for kyphosis angle, 58.1 ± 2.1° for lordosis angle and 4.7 ± 1.7° for vertical balance angle. The registered change was 7.4° in kyphosis angle, 8.4° in lordosis angle and 5.5° in vertical balance angle. The calculated ODI values were between moderate disability and severe disability (22 to 58 %. Conclusions This case study presents that surface topography may be suitable for monitoring of spinal curvature

  2. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requirements...... measures to determine the efficiency of the performed emission mitigation is defined. Finally, several principles are presented for how criteria can be developed for when a monitoring program can be terminated....

  3. Community study suggests segmentation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnard, A

    1989-01-01

    Results of a sample survey commissioned by a voluntary health organization in a major metropolitan area describes why individuals give their time and money to charitable organizations and what approaches are likely to result in such donations. Within demographic subgroups, the variables of age and income proved to be important factors with respect to why people gave and what appeals they prefer. The variables of gender and education were found to be of somewhat less importance. Findings were compared with a national Gallup study conducted in 1987. In an era of increasingly specialized marketing for all organizations, the findings offer voluntary and fund-raising organizations a basis for determining appropriate appeals for demographic segments in a community.

  4. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  5. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  6. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  7. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  8. Biomarkers of teratogenesis: suggestions from animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavini, Erminio; Menegola, Elena

    2012-09-01

    Biomarkers of effect are measurable biochemical, physiological or other alterations within an organism that can be recognized as causing an established or potential impairment of embryo-fetal development. They may be identified studying the mechanisms of action of teratogens. Hyperacetylation of histones, oxidative stress, cholesterol and retinoic acid unbalance are some of the identified mechanisms of action of some known teratogens. Nevertheless, their use is not currently applicable in human pregnancy because of the difficulty of the choice of biological material, the time when the material must be obtained, and the invasivity of methods. Furthermore, before using them in human pregnancy studies, biomarkers should be validated in experimental animals and in epidemiologic studies. On the contrary, some biomarkers could be useful in the screening of developmental toxicity of chemicals and drugs, comparing molecules of the same chemical class or with the similar pharmacologic activity, and using adequate in vitro tests, in order to reduce the use of experimental animals.

  9. Boolean queries for news monitoring: Suggesting new query terms to expert users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Wabeke, T.; Kaptein, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate query suggestion for Boolean queries in a news monitoring system. Users of this system receive news articles that match their running query on a daily basis. Because the news for a topic continuously changes, the queries need regular updating. We first investigated the

  10. The ISRM suggested methods for rock characterization, testing and monitoring 2007-2014

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of ISRM suggested methods for testing or measuring properties of rocks and rock masses both in the laboratory and in situ, as well as for monitoring the performance of rock engineering structures. The first collection (Yellow Book) has been published in 1981. In order to provide access to all the Suggested Methods in one volume, the ISRM Blue Book was published in 2007 (by the ISRM via the Turkish National Group) and contains the complete set of Suggested Methods from 1974 to 2006 inclusive. The papers in this most recent volume have been published during the last seven years in international journals, mainly in Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. They offer guidance for rock characterization procedures and laboratory and field testing and monitoring in rock engineering. These methods provide a definitive procedure for the identification, measurement and evaluation of one or more qualities, characteristics, or properties of rocks or rock systems that produces a test result.

  11. Pregnancy Problems More Likely with Baby Boys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160159.html Pregnancy Problems More Likely With Baby Boys, Study Suggests Gender-related differences seem to start ... are more likely when women are carrying baby boys, new research suggests. After analyzing more than half ...

  12. Eye Problems May Be Tied to Zika, Lab Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 165947.html Eye Problems May Be Tied to Zika, Lab Study Suggests Work with monkeys indicates birth ... 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists exploring how the Zika virus passes from pregnant monkeys to their fetuses ...

  13. Long-tern monitoring in the Netherlands suggests that lichens respond to global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herk, van C.M.; Aptroot, A.; Dobben, van H.F.

    2002-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that part of the recent changes in the lichen flora of the Netherlands is attributable to an increase in temperature. Changes which have occurred over the last 22 years were studied in detail, and were subjected to a statistical treatment by comparing the change of

  14. Long-tern monitoring in the Netherlands suggests that lichens respond to global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herk, van C.M.; Aptroot, A.; Dobben, van H.F.

    2002-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that part of the recent changes in the lichen flora of the Netherlands is attributable to an increase in temperature. Changes which have occurred over the last 22 years were studied in detail, and were subjected to a statistical treatment by comparing the change of speci

  15. 16 CFR Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 - Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility 1 Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility EC03OC91.008...

  16. Autocomplete as Research Tool: A Study on Providing Search Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ward

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As the library website and on its online searching tools become the primary “branch” many users visit for their research, methods for providing automated, context-sensitive research assistance need to be developed to guide unmediated searching towards the most relevant results.  This study examines one such method, the use of autocompletion in search interfaces, by conducting usability tests on its use in typical academic research scenarios.  The study reports notable findings on user preference for autocomplete features, and suggests best practices for their implementation.

  17. Candidate Gene Studies in Hypodontia Suggest Role for FGF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; D’Souza, Rena N.; Mues, Gabriele; Deeley, Kathleen; Hsin, Hong-Yuan; Küchler, Erika C.; Meira, Raquel; Patir, Asli; Tannure, Patricia N.; Lips, Andrea; Costa, Marcelo C.; Granjeiro, Jose M.; Seymen, Figen; Modesto, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    The majority of tooth agenesis cases are mild (hypodontia) and typically not associated with the gene mutations linked to oligodontia. From this, we hypothesize that most cases of tooth agenesis fit a polygenic mode of inheritance, where several genes with small effects cause a variety of varying phenotypes. In this study, we looked at 18 not typically studied genes in this condition, to ascertain their contribution to hypodontia. Our study subjects consisted of 167 patients with hypodontia and their parents from two cohorts (one from Brazil and one from Turkey). An additional 465 DNA samples (93 cases with hypodontia and 372 controls without family history for tooth agenesis or oral clefts) from Brazil were also available for this study. 93 single nucleotide polymorphisms that maximally represent the linkage disequilibrium structure of the genes for the 18 genes were selected and genotyped using Taqman chemistry. Chi-square was used to test if genotype distributions were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 24 markers that were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and had allele frequencies higher than 5% in a panel of 50 CEPH samples were further tested. Association between hypodontia and genetic variants was tested with the transmission disequilibrium test within the program Family-Based Association Test (FBAT) and by using chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Alpha at a level of 0.05 was used to report results. Results suggest possible associations between several genes and hypodontia in the three populations. In the Turkish cohort (n=51 parent-affected child trios) the most significant results were as follows: FGF3 rs1893047, p=0.08; GLI3 rs929387, p=0.03; GLI3 haplotype rs929387-rs846266, p=0.002; and PAX9 rs2073242, p=0.03. In the Brazilian cohort (n=116 parent-affected child trios), the results were as follows: DLX1 rs788173, p=0.07; FGF3 rs12574452, p=0.03; GLI2 rs1992901, p=0.03; and PITX2 rs2595110, p=0.01. The second Brazilian cohort also suggested that FGF3

  18. Suggestions for teacher education from concept mapping studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Reiska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance primary and secondary education, teaching and learning methods need to be continuously developed as well as, of course, promote teaching quality dependent on teacher personality, teacher professional development, teacher self-development, etc. Teacher professional development gives the novice teacher access to a wide set of teaching methods and assessment opportunities, especially geared to flexible learning and assessment methods, which can be considered for adoption. One such flexible method is the use of concept mapping. This article describes the results of several studies, where concept mapping method was used, giving many didactical suggestions for using concept mapping for learning and especially for assessment. Additionally, considerations are introduced on using concept maps as a research instrument.

  19. Molecular spectroscopic study for suggested mechanism of chrome tanned leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashy, Elshahat H. A.; Osman, Osama; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-03-01

    Collagen represents the structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which gives strength of hides and/or skin under tanning process. Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent all over the world. The methods for production of leather evolved over several centuries as art and engineering with little understanding of the underlying science. The present work is devoted to suggest the most probable mechanistic action of chrome tan on hide proteins. First the affect of Cr upon hide protein is indicated by the studied mechanical properties. Then the spectroscopic characterization of the hide protein as well as chrome tanned leather was carried out with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR. The obtained results indicate how the chromium can attached with the active sites of collagen. Molecular modeling confirms that chromium can react with amino as well as carboxylate groups. Four schemes were obtained to describe the possible interactions of chrome tan with hide proteins.

  20. Directions in Geoheritage Studies: Suggestions from the Italian Geomorphological Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Valeria

    2015-04-01

    geomorphological mapping; by making use of both traditional paper maps and computer-elaborated documents produced by GIS new visual products for geotourism have been created. Geomorphological heritage is now analysed with a special focus on its relationships with cultural landscape and human history; integrated studies of natural and cultural landscapes allow development of better itineraries for geotourism. Quantitative selection of geomorphosites and definition of global value of geotouristic trails according to dedicated relational database are performed with a focus on monitoring of evolution rates of active geomorphosites in different morphoclimatic contexts in order to evaluate the risk scenarios in touristic contexts. Development of innovative educational strategies for the dissemination of scientific research results on geomorphosites includes extensive use of multimedia and Web technologies. More and more detailed reconstruction of the recent evolutionary stages of the geomorphological landscape are performed by means of collaborative investigations performed by geomorphologists, geoarcheologists, archeologists. Relationships between geomorphological heritage and parks are now a comprehensive development, including the proposal of interdisciplinary attractions such as geoarcheological parks, mining and other georesources thematic parks. Geomorphosites are now selected with a particular attention to targeted climatic conditions and environments, such as glacial and periglacial environments, karsts lands.

  1. Clinical significance of second degree Wenckebach type sinoatrial block identified during Holter monitoring in patients with symptoms suggestive of arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramarz, Elżbieta; Makowski, Karol

    2015-01-01

    To determine the clinical significance of the sinoatrial block II° of the Wenckebach type (block W) identified during Holter monitoring. The study included 300 patients (mean age 54 ± 17 years; 130 women) with symptoms suggestive of arrhythmia who underwent Holter monitoring. Block W was identified by a dedicated computer program and subsequently confirmed by a cardiologist. Block W was diagnosed in 88 patients (29%). It occurred only during sleep in 37 (12%) patients and during both daytime activity and sleep in 51 (17%) patients. Block W only during sleep happened predominately in young patients aged between 20 and 30 years, whereas episodes that occurred during both daytime and sleep were found mainly in patients between 60 and 70 years of age. Prospective observation time averaged 41 ± 11 months, and the time to the diagnosis of sinus node disease was 26 ± 10 months. Cox multivariate analyses showed that block W during both daytime and sleep is an independent predictor for the future diagnosis of sinus node disease [hazard ratio-13.6 (5.2-35.5); P < 0.0001]. Age-specific analyses confined this effect to the patients ≥50 years of age. The results also suggest that in patients ≥50 years of age block W during both daytime and sleep may be related to a significant improvement in survival [hazard ratio-0.03 (0.007-0.16); P < 0.0001]. Block W during daytime activity in patients with symptoms suggestive of arrhythmia indicates an increased likelihood of the future diagnosis of sinus node disease. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Monitoring the outcomes of interventions against Taenia solium: options and suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, M W; Garcia, H H; Gauci, C G; Donadeu, M; Abela-Ridder, B

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in reducing the incidence of human neurocysticercosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium. Several intervention trials are currently assessing various options for control of T. solium transmission. A critical aspect of these trials will be the evaluation of whether the interventions have been successful. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate or valuable methods that should be used. Here, we undertake a critical assessment of the diagnostic tests which are currently available for human T. solium taeniasis and human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as their suitability for evaluation of intervention trial outcomes. Suggestions are made about which of the measures that are available for evaluation of T. solium interventions would be most suitable, and which methodologies are the most appropriate given currently available technologies. Suggestions are also made in relation to the most urgent research needs in order to address deficiencies in current diagnostic methods.

  3. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  4. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  5. Several Suggestions on the Climate Change and Its Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the abundant studies,the relevant information and comprehensive analysis of the climate changes,several important problems on the climate changes and its studies were proposed.Based on the temporal distribution of the meteorological disaster of agriculture,the wave theory was expounded so as to draw people's attention on climate changes and to be objective,just and careful about the study.

  6. Even Your Bones Can Get Fat, Mouse Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study: 14 lean mice raised on a "normal diet" and 14 obese mice raised on a high-fat diet. At 4 months of age, half of the ... and whys behind exercise's impact on bone fat composition remains murky. She said her current focus is ...

  7. Khat Use and Neurobehavioral Functions: Suggestions for Future Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; al’Absi, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a rich body of research available regarding the effect of acute and chronic khat dosing in animal models, research on the behavioral and cognitive effects of khat in human subjects is not extensive and several of the available studies have been done only in the context of observational and single-case studies. In light of the absence of a substantial literature on the neurobehavioral deficits associated with khat use and to provide a context that could be used to identify themes for future research we review previous research that has focused on other stimulant drugs. This review highlights multiple areas of neurocognitive deficit that have been identified in previous studies of individuals who have been chronic users of stimulants, such as amphetamines and methamphetamines. The review highlights a substantial body of evidence demonstrating a wide range of learning and memory impairments including deficits that persist during abstinence from active drug use. This review does not imply a similar khat effect, but due to some similarities pharmacologically between the active components of khat (cathinone and cathine) and amphetamines, future studies examining these same domains of cognitive functioning in chronic khat users and abstinent khat users appears to be warranted, if possible using some of the same or similar laboratory measures. PMID:20553832

  8. Study Review on Urban Village and Related Planning Policy Suggestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The paper summarizes the studies on urban village (chengzhongcun) in domestic and abroad from four perspectives including the concepts and definitions,the formation mechanism,the value orientations,and the renovation and reform strategies.Based on the summary,the paper states that a neutralized value orientation should be the logical starting point of analysis on urban village;the formation of urban village should be interpreted within the framework of "institution-action;" and the strategy of community management of urban village should be made from the angle of constructing city low-grade community and the restrictions of current institutions and various practical conditions.

  9. MATHEMATICAL MODEL SUGGESTED FOR THE STUDY OF THE KNEE MECHANICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius GRĂMADĂ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the operated the knee biomechanical behavior is important during the life of the endoprosthesis,lifestyle changes and medical rehabilitation. One of the main causes of failure of a primary total prosthetic knee joint isthe instability. From the moment of its implantation, the endoprosthesis is subjected to external forces, which tend todestabilize it, while the muscles and pericapsulare ligaments oppose it. Theoretically there is a relationship between theexternal disturbing force, respectively ligament tension and the knee frontal plane deviation. The purpose of this paperis to test several mathematical models describing the biomechanical behavior of knee ligaments in relation todeviation. On a group of 39 patients we measured the torque of the joint capsule in relation to the deviation using apressure sensor tensor and a torque screwdriver, and we analyzed these data using a statistical program. We havedemonstrated the existence of this relationship as a function of degree 2 and we made predictions based on itcalculating ligament torque and ligament stiffness at 0 and 5 degrees of deviation. The conclusion of this study showsthat there is a strong relationship between ligament torque and deviation knee, which can be described mathematically.This model can be used to study the knee operated and improve the prosthetic devices.

  10. Suggestions for Formulating Collaborative Remote Sensing Emergency Plan Based on Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Wang, F.; Zheng, X.; Qi, M.

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid development of the Remote Sensing (RS) technology, Remote Sensing Services for Emergency Monitoring (RSSEM) are playing a more and more important role in the field of emergency management, where the collaborative RS approaches (including such as Space-Air-Ground platforms) can provide the decision-makers a quick access to the detailed, real-time information about the emergencies. However, there are still some problems in the current mechanism of RSSEM, for example, the inappropriate choices of the collaborative RS approaches, the miscellaneous procedures and so on. It is urgent to formulate a collaborative RS emergency plan for regulating the applications of the RS monitoring approaches in order to be well prepared for the emergency management. In our studies, creating a good collaborative RS emergency plan is the main research objective. This paper is divided into four parts. The Part Ⅰ gives a brief introduction about the research background. The Part Ⅱ investigates four case studies to analyze the applications of the RS technologies under the guidance of the available RS related emergency plans, and then points out the existing problems in the mechanism of the RSSEM. The Part Ⅲ proposes our suggestions for formulating the collaborative RS emergency plan to explore the countermeasures of the problems pointed out in the Part Ⅱ. The last part concludes this paper and discusses the future work of the collaborative RS emergency plan.

  11. Competence-Based System Self-Study System for Suggesting Study Materials Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitchot, Athitaya; Gilbert, Lester; Wills, Gary B.

    2014-01-01

    The article proposes a self-study system which suggests web links to learners. The suggestions depend upon the learner's chosen competences selected from a competence structure for a particular knowledge domain. Three experiments were conducted, where the first compared the perceived usefulness and value of the links generated by different…

  12. Ants as Indicators in Brazil: A Review with Suggestions to Improve the Use of Ants in Environmental Monitoring Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. Ribas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the use of ants as indicators in Brazil, based on a critical review of published articles. The analysis of fifty-eight papers, encompassing a range of almost 25 years, indicates an increased number of studies using ants as indicators in the last decade. Among the parameters analyzed in the papers, species composition is the most suitable to evaluate the effect of the disturbance on ant communities. The use of other metrics that consider the specificity and fidelity (e.g., IndVal index of ant species to a level or state of disturbance is also highly desirable. We discuss several alternative ways of overcoming many of the drawbacks related to the robustness of the results and to reduce the financial, logistic, and time costs involved with the use of ants as indicators in monitoring programs. By doing so, we expect to encourage new research on ants as bioindicators as well as to summarize current knowledge, facilitating further research.

  13. Luminosity monitor studies for TESLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoly, O. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Schulte, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The feasibility of a luminosity monitor based on a radiative Bhabha detector is investigated n the context of the TESLA linear collider. Another option based on low energy e{sup +}e{sup -} pair calorimetry is also discussed. In order to monitor the beam parameters at the interaction point by optimizing the luminosity, these detectors should be able to provide a relative measurement of the luminosity with a resolution better that 1% using a fraction of the TESLA bunch train. (author) 8 refs.

  14. A study on efficiency and effectiveness of suggestion system: A case study of oil products distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amaneh Bahraminasab

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important tools for improving the relative efficiencies of any organization is to establish suggestion system. Having a reliable system, which could reflect all employees’ comments and concerns, helps managers take necessary actions to remove any possible obstacle in the system. In this paper, we measure efficiency and effectiveness of suggestion system in the National Iranian Oil Products Distribution. We also provide practical suggestions for improvement and necessary actions required to review the system. The proposed study of this paper uses a sample of 297 people from 1294 employees who work in different position for some of the regional offices of this firm in north part of Iran. The study has used two separate questionnaires, where the first one consists of 40 questions in Likert scale trying to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of the suggestion system. In addition, we use another questionnaire to rank important factors detected in the first stage. The results of questionnaires have been analyzed using different statistical tests.

  15. Design and array signal suggestion of array type pulsed eddy current probe for health monitoring of metal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Kil [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    An array type probe for monitoring metal tubes is proposed in this paper which utilizes peak value and peak time of a pulsed eddy current(PEC) signal. The probe consists of an array of encircling coils along a tube and the outside of coils is shielded by ferrite to prevent source magnetic fields from directly affecting sensor signals since it is the magnetic fields produced by eddy currents that reflect the condition of metal tubes. The positions of both exciter and sensor coils are consecutively moved automatically so that manual scanning is not necessary. At one position of send-receive coils, peak value and peak time are extracted from a sensor PEC signal and these data are accumulated for all positions to form an array type peak value signal and an array type peak time signal. Numerical simulation was performed using the backward difference method in time and the finite element method for spatial analysis. Simulation results showed that peak value increases and the peak appears earlier as the defect depth or length increases. The proposed array signals are shown to be excellent in reflecting the defect location as well as variations of defect depth and length within the array probe.

  16. Do author-suggested reviewers rate submissions more favorably than editor-suggested reviewers? A study on atmospheric chemistry and physics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ratings in journal peer review can be affected by sources of bias. The bias variable investigated here was the information on whether authors had suggested a possible reviewer for their manuscript, and whether the editor had taken up that suggestion or had chosen a reviewer that had not been suggested by the authors. Studies have shown that author-suggested reviewers rate manuscripts more favorably than editor-suggested reviewers do. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reviewers' ratings on three evaluation criteria and the reviewers' final publication recommendations were available for 552 manuscripts (in total 1145 reviews that were submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, an interactive open access journal using public peer review (authors' and reviewers' comments are publicly exchanged. Public peer review is supposed to bring a new openness to the reviewing process that will enhance its objectivity. In the statistical analysis the quality of a manuscript was controlled for to prevent favorable reviewers' ratings from being attributable to quality instead of to the bias variable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results agree with those from other studies that editor-suggested reviewers rated manuscripts between 30% and 42% less favorably than author-suggested reviewers. Against this backdrop journal editors should consider either doing without the use of author-suggested reviewers or, if they are used, bringing in more than one editor-suggested reviewer for the review process (so that the review by author-suggested reviewers can be put in perspective.

  17. Identifying the management barriers for establishing suggestions system: A case study of educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Nouri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Suggestions system is one of the new cooperative management plans, which affects making good decisions, self-confidence and employees occupational approval. The aim of this research is to survey the barriers for establishment of suggestion system. The proposed study designs and distributes a questionnaire among 195 out of 26550 managers who work for educational system in city of Kermanshah, Iran. The primary purpose of this survey is to learn whether lack of accepting any risk on behalf of management team, conflict of interest in management style, lack of belief on suggestions system in an organization are important barriers of executing suggestions system in an organization or not. The results of Freedman test confirm all seven components of the hypothesis. As a result, lack of accepting risk among management team is number one barrier in having suggestion system followed by existing conflict between management style and suggestions system and lack of management's belief to suggestions system, weakness in education for suggestions system and fear in management disruption because of having suggestions system. The other barriers coming in the last priority in terms of their relative importance include lack of management's support to suggestions system and weakness in management position because of accepting suggestions system.

  18. STUDIES ON TOOL WEAR CONDITION MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Metin ERTUNÇ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wear mechanisms on cutting tools, especially for the drill bits, during the cutting operation have been investigated. As the importance of full automation in industry has gained substantial importance, tool wear condition monitoring during the cutting operation has been the subject of many investigators. Tool condition monitoring is very crucial in order to change the tool before breakage. Because tool breakage can cause considerable economical damage to both the machine tool and workpiece. In this paper, the studies on the monitoring of drill bit wear in literature have been introduced; the direct/indirect techniques used and sensor fusion techniques have been summarized. The methods which were proposed to determine tool wear evolution as processing the sensor signals collected have been provided and their references have been given for detailed information.

  19. 关于开展农村环境质量监测的实践与建议%Practice and Suggestion on Rural Environmental Quality Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨璐

    2013-01-01

      提出了我国农村环境质量监测的主要内容,结合国家环保部提出的“以奖促治”政策,并以被列入试点村庄的空气、地表水、饮用水源和土壤要素的布点采样、监测指标和技术方法为例,对农村环境质量监测进行了较详细的说明和评价。为农村环境质量监测提出了几点建议。%This paper presents the main contents of China’s rural environmental quality monitoring ,combined with the ” award to promote governance”policy proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection ,and as an example of rural environmental quality monitoring in the pilot villages is particularly explained and evaluated including sampling and monitoring indicators and technical method of air ,surface water ,drinking water ,and soil .It proposes some suggestions for rural environmental quality monitoring .

  20. Dissociation, personality, suggestibility, alexithymia, and problems with emotional regulation: A correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Serrano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores the relationship between psychological and somatic dissociation and different personality and emotional variables, including suggestibility, alexithymia, and emotional regulation and dysregulation. The results with a sample of 355 partipants of a normal population reveal that there is a positive relationship between both types of dissociation, suggestibility and emotional dysregulation. Likewise, there were different patterns of personality associated both to psychological and somatic dissociation. Correlations found in this study put forward the importance to take into account both types of dissociactive symptoms, psychological and somatic ones.

  1. A Study on the Relationship between Organizational Culture and Organizational Performance and a Model Suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yildiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture is defined as set of goals and values shared by employees in the organization. Recently it has also come to be perceived as a resource of knowledge in the organization. In the literature, along with the studies aiming at identifying the elements of organizational culture, there are some research that study the relationship between organizational culture and performance. This article is a theoretical study of the two concepts and suggests a research model for further research. Recently, knowledge management and innovation strategy have started to be regarded as features of organizational culture. Research shows that these two variables also have significant impacts on organizational performance. Our model suggests measuring the effect of organizational culture on performance along with the supportive impacts of knowledge management and innovation strategy.

  2. Computational Biology Study of S100 Family with Suggestions for Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The S100 family is a class of calcium-regulated proteins with EF-hand. They are widely distributed and are implicated in diverse intracellular and extracellular physiological processes. A study of the S100 family using computational biology methods such as multiple sequence alignment, structural alignment and the construction of an evolutionary tree will promote understanding of S100 protein structures and their function, and could provide suggestions for crystallization.

  3. Studies suggest alternatives to amalgam as a retrograde filling material for apicectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Toru

    2004-01-01

    Sources were Medline and the Cochrane Library. Studies included were in vivo with human subjects, had experimental and control groups, and gave quantitative results in English, German or French. Success and failure rates were derived from randomised controlled trials (RCT), clinical controlled trials (CCT), cohort studies (CS) and case-controlled studies (CCS). Qualitative synthesis of results was performed. Two RCT, six CCT and 14 CCS were identified. The two RCT suggest that glass ionomer may be more effective than amalgam, conversely one CCT showed amalgam to be more effective. CCTs also suggest that EBA (reinforced zinc oxide eugenol) cement, composite with GLUMA (Bayer AG., Leverkusen, Germany) and gold leaf retrograde filling may be more effective than amalgam. A further CCT suggested that gutta-percha used as a retrograde filing is less effective than when used following an orthograde approach. Based on the outcome of two RCT, glass ionomer appears as effective as amalgam. EBA cement, composite with GLUMA and gold leaf and orthograde gutta-percha may also be as effective as amalgam. Evidence is limited, however, and further research is needed.

  4. Clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis: an optical coherence tomography study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Oreja-Guevara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a simple, high-resolution technique to quantify the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL, which provides an indirect measurement of axonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS. This study aimed to evaluate RNFL thickness in patients at presentation with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS suggestive of MS. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study. Twenty-four patients with CIS suggestive of MS (8 optic neuritis [ON], 6 spinal cord syndromes, 5 brainstem symptoms and 5 with sensory and other syndromes were prospectively studied. The main outcome evaluated was RNFL thickness at CIS onset. Secondary objectives were to study the relationship between RNFL thickness and MRI criteria for disease dissemination in space (DIS as well as the presence of oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirteen patients had decreased RNFL thickness in at least one quadrant. Mean RNFL thickness was 101.67±10.72 µm in retrobulbar ON eyes and 96.93±10.54 in unaffected eyes. Three of the 6 patients with myelitis had at least one abnormal quadrant in one of the two eyes. Eight CIS patients fulfilled DIS MRI criteria. The presence of at least one quadrant of an optic nerve with a RNFL thickness at a P<5% cut-off value had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 56% for predicting DIS MRI. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study show that axonal damage measured by OCT is present in any type of CIS; even in myelitis forms, not only in ON as seen up to now. OCT can detect axonal damage in very early stages of disease and seems to have high sensitivity and moderate specificity for predicting DIS MRI. Studies with prospective long-term follow-up would be needed to establish the prognostic value of baseline OCT findings.

  5. Field study suggests that sex determination in sea lamprey is directly influenced by larval growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Swink, William D.; Brenden, Travis O.

    2017-01-01

    Sex determination mechanisms in fishes lie along a genetic-environmental continuum and thereby offer opportunities to understand how physiology and environment interact to determine sex. Mechanisms and ecological consequences of sex determination in fishes are primarily garnered from teleosts, with little investigation into basal fishes. We tagged and released larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into unproductive lake and productive stream environments. Sex ratios produced from these environments were quantified by recapturing tagged individuals as adults. Sex ratios from unproductive and productive environments were initially similar. However, sex ratios soon diverged, with unproductive environments becoming increasingly male-skewed and productive environments becoming less male-skewed with time. We hypothesize that slower growth in unproductive environments contributed to the sex ratio differences by directly influencing sex determination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that growth rate in a fish species directly influences sex determination; other studies have suggested that the environmental variables to which sex determination is sensitive (e.g. density, temperature) act as cues for favourable or unfavourable growth conditions. Understanding mechanisms of sex determination in lampreys may provide unique insight into the underlying principles of sex determination in other vertebrates and provide innovative approaches for their management where valued and invasive.

  6. A two-stage association study suggests BRAP as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuquan Zhang

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which altered immune function typically plays an important role in mediating the effect of environmental insults and regulation of inflammation. The breast cancer suppressor protein associated protein (BRAP is suggested to exert vital effects in neurodevelopment by modulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and inflammation signaling. To explore the possible role of BRAP in SZ, we conducted a two-stage study to examine the association of BRAP polymorphisms with SZ in the Han Chinese population. In stage one, we screened SNPs in BRAP from our GWAS data, which detected three associated SNPs, with rs3782886 being the most significant one (P  =  2.31E-6, OR  =  0.67. In stage two, we validated these three SNPs in an independently collected population including 1957 patients and 1509 controls, supporting the association of rs3782886 with SZ (P  =  1.43E-6, OR  =  0.73. Furthermore, cis-eQTL analysis indicates that rs3782886 genotypes are associated with mRNA levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (ALDH2 (P  =  0.0039 and myosin regulatory light chain 2 (MYL2 (P < 1.0E-4. Our data suggest that the BRAP gene may confer vulnerability for SZ in Han Chinese population, adding further evidence for the involvement of developmental and/or neuroinflammatory cascades in the illness.

  7. Primate study suggests pentobarbital may help protect the brain during radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skolnick, A.

    1990-08-01

    Radiation therapy, an often indispensable treatment for a wide range of brain tumors, is a double-edged sword, especially when used to treat children. Research reported at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, in Atlanta, Ga., now suggests that pentobarbital and perhaps other barbiturates may help protect the brain from radiation-induced damage, especially to the pituitary and hypothalmus, where such damage can lead to serious, life-long problems for children. Jeffrey J. Olson, MD, now assistant professor of neurosurgery at Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, reported the results of a study of the radioprotective effects of pentobarbital on the brain of a primate, which he and colleagues at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recently completed.

  8. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Field Monitoring,Treatment Facility Monitoring and Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation is a compilation of harmful algal bloom (HAB) related field monitoring data from the 2015 bloom season, treatment plant monitoring data from the 2013 and 2014 bloom seasons, and bench-scale treatment study data from 2015.

  9. Microbiota studies in the bile duct strongly suggest a role for Helicobacter pylori in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Jiménez, F; Guitron, A; Segura-López, F; Méndez-Tenorio, A; Iwai, S; Hernández-Guerrero, A; Torres, J

    2016-02-01

    Biliary tract cancer or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECCA) represents the sixth commonest cause of cancer in the gastrointestinal tract in western countries. We aimed to characterize the microbiota and its predicted associated functions in the biliary tract of ECCA and benign biliary pathology (BBP). Samples were taken from 100 patients with ECCA and 100 patients with BBP by endoscopic cholangio-pancreatography for DNA extraction. Ten patients with ECCA and ten with BBP were selected for microbiota studies using the V4-16S rRNA gene and sequenced in Illumina platform. Microbiota analyses included sample-to-sample distance metrics, ordination/clustering and prediction of functions. Presence of Nesterenkonia sp. and Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genes were tested in the 100 ECCA and 100 BBP samples. Phylum Proteobacteria dominated all samples (60.4% average). Ordination multicomponent analyses showed significant microbiota separation between ECCA and BBP (p 0.010). Analyses of 4002 operational taxonomic units with presence variation in at least one category probed a separation of ECCA from BBP. Among these, Nesterenkonia decreased, whereas Methylophilaceae, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Novosphingobium and H. pylori increased in ECCA. Predicted associated functions showed increased abundance of H. pylori virulence genes in ECCA. cagA and vacA genes were confirmed by PCR in ECCA and BBP samples. This is the first microbiota report in ECCA and BBP to show significant changes in microbial composition. Bacterial species unusual for human flora were found: Methylophilaceae and Nesterenkonia are reported in hypersaline soils, and Mesorhizobium is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium. Enrichment of virulence genes confirms previous studies suggesting that H. pylori might be associated with ECCA.

  10. Genome-wide association studies suggest sex-specific loci associated with abdominal and visceral fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yun Ju; Pérusse, Louis; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Fornage, Myriam; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rice, Treva; Terry, Gregg; Jacobs, David R.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Curran, Joanne E; Carr, John Jeffrey; Blangero, John; Ghosh, Sujoy; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify loci associated with abdominal fat and replicate prior findings, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) studies of abdominal fat traits: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adipose tissue (TAT) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VSR). Subjects and Methods Sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses were performed on each trait with (TRAIT-BMI) or without (TRAIT) adjustment for BMI, and cohort-specific results were combined via a fixed effects meta-analysis. A total of 2,513 subjects of European descent were available for the discovery phase. For replication, 2,171 European Americans and 772 African Americans were available. Results A total of 52 SNPs encompassing 7 loci showed suggestive evidence of association (p < 1.0 × 10−6) with abdominal fat in the sex-combined analyses. The strongest evidence was found on chromosome 7p14.3 between a SNP near BBS9 gene and VAT (rs12374818; p= 1.10 × 10−7), an association that was replicated (p = 0.02). For the BMI-adjusted trait, the strongest evidence of association was found between a SNP near CYCSP30 and VAT-BMI (rs10506943; p= 2.42 × 10−7). Our sex-specific analyses identified one genome-wide significant (p < 5.0 × 10−8) locus for SAT in women with 11 SNPs encompassing the MLLT10, DNAJC1 and EBLN1 genes on chromosome 10p12.31 (p = 3.97 × 10−8 to 1.13 × 10−8). The THNSL2 gene previously associated with VAT in women was also replicated (p= 0.006). The six gene/loci showing the strongest evidence of association with VAT or VAT-BMI were interrogated for their functional links with obesity and inflammation using the Biograph knowledge-mining software. Genes showing the closest functional links with obesity and inflammation were ADCY8 and KCNK9, respectively. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for new loci influencing abdominal visceral (BBS9, ADCY8, KCNK9) and subcutaneous (MLLT10/DNAJC1/EBLN1) fat, and confirmed a locus (THNSL2

  11. A Study on the Standardization of Court Interpretation and Suggestions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧

    2016-01-01

    In order to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of all parties, ensure the justice of legal proceedings and main-tain the Chinese judicial system's positive international image, high quality interpretation of legal proceedings is extremely im-portant. This paper will analyze the nature of court interpreting and draw lessons from successful foreign practices. Moreover, some thoughts and suggestions will be presented for the establishment of national court interpreting standards in China.

  12. Comparing to Prepare: Suggesting Ways to Study Social Media Today—and Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Olof Larsson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available While the two currently most popular social media services – Twitter and Facebook – are different in terms of technical and end-user details, this paper suggests that a series of similarities can also be found regarding different modes of communication offered by both services. These modes are labeled as Broadcasting, Redistributing, Interacting and Acknowledging. The argument is put forward that such synthesis of communication modes across platform could prove useful for longitudinal and comparative research efforts.

  13. Using hypnotic suggestion to model loss of control and awareness of movements: an exploratory FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinton Deeley

    Full Text Available The feeling of voluntary control and awareness of movement is fundamental to our notions of selfhood and responsibility for actions, yet can be lost in neuropsychiatric syndromes (e.g. delusions of control, non-epileptic seizures and culturally influenced dissociative states (e.g. attributions of spirit possession. The brain processes involved remain poorly understood. We used suggestion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate loss of control and awareness of right hand movements in 15 highly hypnotically suggestible subjects. Loss of perceived control of movements was associated with reduced connectivity between supplementary motor area (SMA and motor regions. Reduced awareness of involuntary movements was associated with less activation in parietal cortices (BA 7, BA 40 and insula. Collectively these results suggest that the sense of voluntary control of movement may critically depend on the functional coupling of SMA with motor systems, and provide a potential neural basis for the narrowing of awareness reported in pathological and culturally influenced dissociative phenomena.

  14. Study on Application of Mobile Radiological Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The mobile radiological monitor has been applied for the radiation level of a nuclear facility in 2011. Based on the requirement, the monitor had been improved, it can measure and save the data of gamma-ray and neutron radiation level, the dose rate and the

  15. E-Cigarettes May Be Less Toxic Than Tobacco, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163433.html E-Cigarettes May Be Less Toxic Than Tobacco, Study ... 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Smokers who switch to e-cigarettes can substantially reduce their intake of toxic ...

  16. Some limitations on the external validity of psychotherapy efficacy studies and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, Glenn D

    2012-01-01

    Increased emphasis on identifying empirically supported treatments (ESTs) has enhanced the scientific basis for psychotherapy practice, but uncritical acceptance of ESTs as the basis for credentialing and policy decisions risks stifling innovation and creativity in the field. There are limitations inherent in efficacy studies of psychotherapy that can constrain external validity. This article discusses several limitations on the external validity of efficacy studies, as well as other issues related to evaluating psychotherapy outcome research. These limitations and concerns include: 1) the practice of maximizing homogeneity by selecting participants diagnosed with a single Axis I disorder; 2) the practice of requiring manualized therapies for efficacy research; 3) the assumption that lasting and meaningful changes occur and can be assessed within a relatively short time frame; 4) the assumption that valid assessments of outcome can be conducted in randomized control trials studies without concern for researcher allegiance; and 5) the view that evidence of effectiveness from non-RCT design studies can be ignored. Finally, alternative research approaches for studying psychotherapy that can potentially supplement knowledge gained from efficacy studies and foster continued innovation and creativity in the field are discussed.

  17. Confirmation Bias and the Open Access Advantage: Some Methodological Suggestions for the Davis Citation Study

    CERN Document Server

    Harnad, Stevan

    2008-01-01

    Davis (2008) analyzes citations from 2004-2007 in 11 biomedical journals. 15% of authors paid to make them Open Access (OA). The outcome is a significant OA citation Advantage, but a small one (21%). The author infers that the OA advantage has been shrinking yearly, but the data suggest the opposite. Further analyses are necessary: (1) Not just author-choice (paid) OA but Free OA self-archiving needs to be taken into account rather than being counted as non-OA. (2) proportion of OA articles per journal per year needs to be reported and taken into account. (3) The Journal Impact Factor and the relation between the size of the OA Advantage article 'citation-bracket' need to be taken into account. (4) The sample-size for the highest-impact, largest-sample journal analyzed, PNAS, is restricted and excluded from some of the analyses. The full PNAS dataset is needed. (5) The interaction between OA and time, 2004-2007, is based on retrospective data from a June 2008 total cumulative citation count. The dates of both...

  18. Life at extreme conditions: Neutron scattering studies of biological molecules suggest that evolution selected dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joseph (Giuseppe) Zaccai

    2008-10-01

    The short review concentrates on recent work performed at the neutrons in biology laboratories of the Institut Laue Langevin and Institut de Biologie Structurale in Grenoble. Extremophile organisms have been discovered that require extreme conditions of temperature, pressure or solvent environment for survival. The existence of such organisms poses a significant challenge in understanding the physical chemistry of their proteins, in view of the great sensitivity of protein structure and stability to the aqueous environment and to external conditions in general. Results of neutron scattering measurements on the dynamics of proteins from extremophile organisms, in vitro as well as in vivo, indicated remarkably how adaptation to extreme conditions involves forces and fluctuation amplitudes that have been selected specifically, suggesting that evolutionary macromolecular selection proceeded via dynamics. The experiments were performed on a halophilic protein, and membrane adapted to high salt, a thermophilic enzyme adapted to high temperature and its mesophilic (adapted to 37°C) homologue; and in vivo for psychrophilic, mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic bacteria, adapted respectively to temperatures of 4°C, 37°C, 75°C and 85°C. Further work demonstrated the existence of a water component of exceptionally low mobility in an extreme halophile from the Dead Sea, which is not present in mesophile bacterial cells.

  19. Software Architecture and Framework for Programmable Logic Controllers: A Case Study and Suggestions for Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. George Walters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs are widely used for control and automation of machines and processes, so the quality of PLC software has a direct impact on production efficiency. This paper describes a PLC program for a food production line that was completely rewritten using a different software architecture and framework. The PLC hardware and the production line equipment were not changed, so this project provides an opportunity to quantify the impact of different PLC software architecture on production efficiency. The average number of cases of products produced per production hour during the first ten months with the new program was 6.1% higher than the average during the previous ten months with the old program. PLC software, unlike most other software, is often used by the end-user for troubleshooting. In this case, a relatively simple architecture and framework that favors the end-user significantly improved production efficiency over a more sophisticated architecture and framework that favors the software developer. Suggestions for further research on software architecture and framework are given.

  20. Studies suggest an association between maternal periodontal disease and pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel

    2008-01-01

    In this systematic review, several types of infections are identified and investigated: urinary tract infection, periodontal disease, Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, HIV infection, malaria and other persistent bacterial and viral infections. Separate analyses were conducted for each of them. This summary review will only focus on the link between pre-eclampsia and periodontitis, which was just a part of the original systematic review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE, CINAHL, LILACS (all from inception to June 30, 2007), proceedings of international meetings on pre-eclampsia, bibliography of the retrieved articles, reviews, chapters in standard textbooks on hypertension in pregnancy, and contact with investigators involved in the field were used to identify relevant studies. No language restrictions were imposed. Cohort, case-control or cross-sectional studies with original data that evaluated the association between maternal periodontal disease and pre-eclampsia were included. Cases were defined as women suffering from hypertension plus proteinuria, after 20 weeks' gestation. Data were extracted from each study according to design, geographic location, sample size, gestational age when periodontal disease was diagnosed, definition and severity of pre-eclampsia, confounding factors controlled for, temporality of the association, and report of dose-response gradient. Studies included in the systematic review were also included in the meta-analysis if they reported Odds Ratio (OR) or Relative Risk (RR) estimates with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs), or provided the information necessary to calculate them. Results from different reports were combined to produce a pooled OR according to the Mantel-Haenszel method, using both fixed- and random-effects models. Heterogeneity was quantified with I(2) statistics. Studies were also quality assessed. Seven case-control studies and 2 cohort studies evaluated the association between periodontal disease and pre-eclampsia. Six

  1. Genome-wide study of association and interaction with maternal cytomegalovirus infection suggests new schizophrenia loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, A D; Demontis, D; Grove, J;

    2014-01-01

    in ARNTL (P=3.78 × 10(-6)) and rs8057927 in CDH13 (P=1.39 × 10(-5)). Both genes have previously been linked to schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorders. The strongest associated SNP in the combined analysis, including Danish and German-Dutch samples, was rs12922317 in RUNDC2A (P=9.04 × 10...... was found for rs7902091 (P(SNP × CMV)=7.3 × 10(-7)) in CTNNA3, a gene not previously implicated in schizophrenia, stressing the importance of including environmental factors in genetic studies.......Genetic and environmental components as well as their interaction contribute to the risk of schizophrenia, making it highly relevant to include environmental factors in genetic studies of schizophrenia. This study comprises genome-wide association (GWA) and follow-up analyses of all individuals...

  2. SUMMARY OF THE EAU CLAIRE COUNTY YOUTH STUDY AND SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THURSTON, JOHN R.; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT DESCRIBES A RESEARCH STUDY IN WHICH THE CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR OF EQUAL NUMBERS OF TEACHER-APPROVED AND TEACHER-DISAPPROVED YOUNGSTERS WAS ANALYZED IN RELATION TO FAMILY BACKGROUNDS. THE STUDENTS WERE FURTHER DIVIDED EVENLY INTO RURAL AND URBAN GROUPS AND END OF YEAR THIRD-, SIXTH-, AND NINTH-GRADE STUDENTS. A SECOND LIST WAS GENERATED 2…

  3. The rings of Saturn: State of current knowledge and some suggestions for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    The state of our current knowledge of the properties of the ring system as a whole, and of the particles individually, is assessed. Attention is primarily devoted to recent results and possibilities for exploration of the ring system by a Saturn orbiter. In particular, the infrared and microwave properties of the ring system are discussed. The behavior of the ring brightness is not well understood in the critical transition spectral region from approximately 100 micrometers to approximately 1 cm. Also, the dynamical behavior of the ring system is discussed. Recent theoretical studies show that ongoing dynamical effects continually affect the ring structure in azimuth (possibly producing the A ring brightness asymmetry) and in the vertical direction. Orbital spacecraft-based studies of the rings will offer several unique advantages and impact important cosmogonical questions. Bistatic radar studies and millimeter-wavelength spectrometer/radiometry will give particle sizes and composition limits needed to resolve the question of the density of the rings, and provide important boundary conditions on the state of Saturn's protoplanetary nebula near the time of planetary formation.

  4. Study of the integration of public and school libraries: a methodological strategy as a suggestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Marisol Rodríguez González

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a theoretical foundation from the philosophical, social and pedagogic perspectives it is offered the theoretical budgets that sustain the integration between the Systems of Public Libraries and School Libraries. The recognition of inadequacies -by means of a previous diagnosis - in the relationships of these two systems it directed the study of this problem and it took to the proposal of a methodological strategy that facilitates the integration among the Systems of Public and School Libraries. Their application demonstrated to be effective and pertinent starting from the transformations that were achieved in those subjects of experimentation.

  5. Coumarins as Potential Antioxidant Agents Complemented with Suggested Mechanisms and Approved by Molecular Modeling Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasameen K. Al-Majedy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Syntheses of coumarins, which are a structurally interesting antioxidant activity, was done in this article. The modification of 7-hydroxycoumarin by different reaction steps was done to yield target compounds. Molecular structures were characterized by different spectroscopical techniques (Fourier transformation infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance. Antioxidant activities were performed by using various in vitro spectrophometric assays against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. All compounds exhibited high efficiency as antioxidants compared to ascorbic acid. The highest efficiency scavenging activity was found for compound 3 (91.0 ± 5.0, followed by compounds 2 and 4 (88.0 ± 2.00; and 87.0 ± 3.00. Ascorbic acid C was used as a standard drug with a percentage inhibition of 91.00 ± 1.5. The mechanism of the synthesized compounds as antioxidants was also studied. Hartree–Fock–based quantum chemical studies have been carried out with the basis set to 3-21G, in order to obtain information about the three-dimensional (3D geometries, electronic structure, molecular modeling, and electronic levels, namely HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, to understand the antioxidant activity for the synthesized compounds.

  6. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iliya V; Mackeben, Manfred; Vollmer, Annika; Martus, Peter; Nguyen, Nhung X; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision), which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST). Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses) that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental) and reading (control) training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group). To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT) during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field. In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training condition

  7. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya V Ivanov

    Full Text Available Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP, lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision, which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST.Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental and reading (control training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group. To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS, the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field.In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training

  8. Water on Mars: A status report and suggestions for further study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, John; McKay, Christopher P.

    2016-07-01

    The most recent MEPAG review of Mars Special Regions (Rummel et al., 2014) contained the following statement, "Mars' average atmospheric pressure allows for liquid water when it exceeds that of the triple point of water, and at lower altitudes (e.g., Hellas and Argyre Basins) that is commonly the case. Higher temperatures and/or insolation may allow melting or condensation over limited areas for short time periods." Nonetheless, the US National Academies - European Science Foundation review of the MEPAG report disagreed with a preliminary statement regarding the potential for snow fallen on Mars to melt, and thus stated that, "The review committee asserts that pure liquid water simply cannot exist on Mars because the atmosphere is too dry to allow it. The partial pressure of atmospheric water vapor is typically less than 1 Pa near the surface of Mars, whereas the partial pressure of water vapor at the triple point of water is about 600 Pa." This paper will address the discrepancies between what the MEPAG paper actually asserted, and the validity of the arguments in each report and in the literature for and against liquid water on Mars - whether salty or pure (as the Mars-driven snow). Refs: Committee to Review the MEPAG Report on Mars Special Regions; Space Studies Board; The [US] National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; European Space Sciences Committee; European Science Foundation. (2015). Review of the MEPAG Report on Mars Special Regions. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Rummel, J. D., Beaty, D. W., Jones, M. A., Bakermans, C., Barlow, N. G., Boston, P. J., ... & Wray, J. J. (2014). A New Analysis of Mars "Special Regions": Findings of the Second MEPAG Special Regions Science Analysis Group (SR-SAG2). Astrobiology, 14, 887-968.

  9. Bronchopulmonary Carcinoids causing Cushing Syndrome: Results from a Multicentric Study Suggesting a More Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lococo, Filippo; Margaritora, Stefano; Cardillo, Giuseppe; Filosso, Perluigi; Novellis, Pierluigi; Rapicetta, Cristian; Carleo, Francesco; Bora, Giulia; Cesario, Alfredo; Stefani, Alessandro; Rossi, Giulio; Paci, Massimiliano

    2016-03-01

    Cushing syndrome (CS) caused by bronchopulmonary carcinoids (BCs) is a very rare entity. The aim of this study was to revisit the features of a multicenter clinical series to identify significant prognostic factors. From January 2002 to December 2013, the clinical and pathological data of 23 patients (treated in five different institutions) were retrospectively reviewed. Survival analysis was performed to explore the relative weight of potential prognostic factors. Median age and male/female ratio were 48 years and 14/9, respectively. Most (> 80%) of the patients presented with CS-related symptoms at diagnosis. Tumor location was peripheral in 13 patients (57%) and central in 10 (43%). All patients but two (treated with chemotherapy) underwent surgical resection with curative intent. Definitive cyto/histology was indicative of typical carcinoid (TC) in 16 cases (70%) and atypical carcinoid (AC) in 7 cases (30%). A complete remission of CS was obtained in 16 cases (70%). Lymph nodal involvement was detected in 11 cases (48%), with N2 disease occurring in 7 (∼ 30% of all cases). Four patients (22%) experienced a relapse of the disease after radical surgery. Overall 5-year survival (long-term survival, LTS) was 60%, better in TCs when compared with AC (LTS: 66 v s. 48%, p = 0.28). Log-rank analysis identified ECOG performance status, cTNM and cN staging, pTNM and pN staging, persistence of CS and relapses (local p = 0.006; distant p = 0.001) as significant prognostic factors in this cohort of patients. BCs causing CS are characterized by a high rate of lymph-nodal involvement, a suboptimal prognosis (5-year survival = 60%, 66% in TCs) and a remarkable risk of relapse even after radical resection. Advanced stage, lymph-nodal involvement and the persisting of the CS after treatment correlate with a poor prognosis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Study on Lubricating Oil Monitoring Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng-bi

    2006-01-01

    Lubricating oil monitoring has been proven to be an effective method for detecting and diagnosing machinery failures and essential for realizing condition based maintenance. In this paper, mathematical statistics methods for determining the oil parameters featuring machinery failures and the parameters' probability distribution functions and their thresholds are put forward.

  11. Comparison of image quality between mammography dedicated monitor and UHD 4K monitor, using standard mammographic phantom: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Cha, Soon Joo; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kim, You Sung; Kim, Jeong A [Dept. of Radiology, Inje Unveristy Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Using standard mammographic phantom images, we compared the image quality obtained between a mammography dedicated 5 megapixel monitor (5M) and a UHD 4K (4K) monitor with digital imaging and communications in medicine display, to investigate the possibility of clinical application of 4K monitors. Three different exposures (autoexposure, overexposure and underexposure) images of mammographic phantom were obtained, and six radiologists independently evaluated the images in 5M and 4K without image modulation, by scoring of fibers, groups of specks and masses within the phantom image. The mean score of each object on both monitors was independently analyzed, using t-test and interobserver reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of SPSS. The overall mean scores of fiber, group of specks, and mass in 5M were 4.25, 3.92, and 3.28 respectively, and scores obtained in 4K monitor were 3.81, 3.58, and 3.14, respectively. No statistical difference was seen in scores of fiber and mass between the two monitors at all exposure conditions, but the score of group of specks in 4K was statistically lower in the overall (p = 0.0492) and in underexposure conditions (p = 0.012). The ICC for interobserver reliability was excellent (0.874). Our study suggests that since the mammographic phantom images are appropriate with no significant difference in image quality observed between the two monitors, the 4K monitor could be used for clinical studies. Since this is a small preliminary study using phantom images, the result may differ in actual mammographic images, and subsequent investigation with clinical mammographic images is required.

  12. A study of reactor monitoring method with neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeshima, Kunihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the methodology of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) monitoring with neural networks, which create the plant models by the learning of the past normal operation patterns. The concept of this method is to detect the symptom of small anomalies by monitoring the deviations between the process signals measured from an actual plant and corresponding output signals from the neural network model, which might not be equal if the abnormal operational patterns are presented to the input of the neural network. Auto-associative network, which has same output as inputs, can detect an kind of anomaly condition by using normal operation data only. The monitoring tests of the feedforward neural network with adaptive learning were performed using the PWR plant simulator by which many kinds of anomaly conditions can be easily simulated. The adaptively trained feedforward network could follow the actual plant dynamics and the changes of plant condition, and then find most of the anomalies much earlier than the conventional alarm system during steady state and transient operations. Then the off-line and on-line test results during one year operation at the actual NPP (PWR) showed that the neural network could detect several small anomalies which the operators or the conventional alarm system didn't noticed. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis suggests that the plant models by neural networks are appropriate. Finally, the simulation results show that the recurrent neural network with feedback connections could successfully model the slow behavior of the reactor dynamics without adaptive learning. Therefore, the recurrent neural network with adaptive learning will be the best choice for the actual reactor monitoring system. (author)

  13. Case Study - Monitoring the Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PACURAR Ana Talida

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic cell represents one of the most dynamic and attractive way to converts renewable energy sources in electricity production. That means to convert solar energy into electricity. In this paper is presented a analogy between two types of photovoltaic panels installed, with educational role for students. Also the objective of this paper is to estimate the performance of photovoltaic panels and to provide the best solution for industry. These two types of photovoltaic panels were monitored at the same time and taking into account the same weather conditions. In introduction of this paper is a short description regarding the silicon, because it is considered to be the most frequently used material for photovoltaic cell production at industrial level. In this context are mentioned below photovoltaic cells: mono-crystalline, polycrystalline, ribbon silicon and amorphous silicon (thin film cells. It is also presented for all these types of cells the structure, the function, the advantages and the disadvantages.

  14. Study of an integrated electronic monitor for neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barelaud, B.; Nexon-Mokhtari, F.; Barrau, C.; Decossac, J.L.; Vareille, J.C. [Limoges Univ., 87 (France); Sarrabayrouse, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France). Lab. d`Automatique et d`Analyse des Systemes

    1994-12-31

    Many neutron beams monitors in 10 keV - 50 keV range are perturbed by gamma radiation impact. This new monitor uses two silicon (junction) diodes operating coincidence detection, combined with an electronic threshold to eliminate gamma background noise. The results and analyses presented here only concern feasibility studies. (D.L.). 11 refs.

  15. Traffic monitoring using handheld GSM phones. Part B: Simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catalano, S.; Van der Zijpp, N.J.

    2002-01-01

    Revised version of LVV rapport, VK 2001.004. This report contains the description of a novel map-matching algorithm, and the results of a simulation study into the feasibility of traffic monitoring using handheld mobile phones.

  16. Biological characteristics as a part of pollution monitoring studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.

    Ecosystem modifications can be considered as an integral part of any pollution monitoring studies and in such cases community structure/diversity is of prime importance. Considering this advantage of aquatic life, pelagic and benthic communities...

  17. Performance monitoring in autism spectrum disorders: A systematic literature review of event-related potential studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüpen, Philippa; Groen, Yvonne; Gaastra, Geraldina F; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by impairments in social-emotional situations, executive functioning, and behavioral regulation. These symptoms may be related to deficits in performance monitoring, i.e., the ability to observe and evaluate one's own behavior and performance which is necessary for the regulation of future behavior. The present literature review investigated electroencephalic correlates of performance monitoring in ASD. Event-related potentials (ERPs) considered in this review included internal performance monitoring components (error-related negativity, error positivity), external performance monitoring components (feedback-related negativity, feedback-P3), and observational performance monitoring components (observer error-related negativity, observer feedback-related negativity). The majority of studies point to reduced internal performance monitoring in ASD. External performance monitoring in reward-processing paradigms, where rewards are independent of performance, seems to be intact in ASD. So far, no studies have investigated the observer error-related negativity in ASD. Available data on the observer feedback-related negativity are inconclusive, since only two studies with differential study results investigated this construct in ASD. In general, results suggest that individuals with ASD have problems with internal performance monitoring and with learning from external, abstract feedback. In contrast, the processing of external, concrete feedback seems to be largely intact in ASD.

  18. The Translucent Cadaver: A Follow-up Study to Gauge the Efficacy of Implementing Changes Suggested by Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Driescher, Natasha Darné; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In a study conducted in 2011, the use of full body digital X-ray images (Lodox® Statscan®) and drawings were described for surface anatomy education during which suggestions were made by students on how to improve the method. Educational innovations should continuously be adjusted and improved to provide the best possible scenario for student…

  19. Feasibility study of patient motion monitoring using tactile array sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Cho, Min Seok; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate patient pretreatment set-up error and intra-fraction motion using the tactile array sensors (Pressure Profile Systems Inc, Los Angeles, CA) which could measure distributed pressure profiles along the contacting surface and to check a feasibility of the sensor (tactile array sensor) in the patient motion monitoring. Laser alignment and optical camera based monitoring system are very useful for reduce patient set-up error but these systems could not monitor the blind area like patient's back position. Actually after patient alignment using laser or optical monitoring system, it was assumed that there is no error in the patient's back position (pressure profile distribution). But if an error occurs in the patient's back position, it will affect the radiation therapy accuracy. In spite of optical motion monitoring or using the immobilization tool, distributed pressure profiles of patient's back position was changed during inter and intra-fraction. For more accurate patient set-up, blind area (patient's back) monitoring was necessary. We expect that the proposed method will be very useful for make up for the weakness of optical monitoring method.

  20. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  1. Implementing supported self-management for asthma: a systematic review and suggested hierarchy of evidence of implementation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Hilary; Epiphaniou, Eleni; Pearce, Gemma; Parke, Hannah; Greenhalgh, Trish; Sheikh, Aziz; Griffiths, Chris J; Taylor, Stephanie J C

    2015-06-01

    Asthma self-management remains poorly implemented in clinical practice despite overwhelming evidence of improved healthcare outcomes, reflected in guideline recommendations over three decades. To inform delivery in routine care, we synthesised evidence from implementation studies of self-management support interventions. We systematically searched eight electronic databases (1980 to 2012) and research registers, and performed snowball and manual searches for studies evaluating implementation of asthma self-management in routine practice. We included, and adapted systematic review methodology to reflect, a broad range of implementation study designs. We extracted data on study characteristics, process measures (for example, action plan ownership), asthma control (for example, patient reported control questionnaires, days off school/work, symptom-free days) and use of health services (for example, admissions, emergency department attendances, unscheduled consultations). We assessed quality using the validated Downs and Black checklist, and conducted a narrative synthesis informed by Kennedy's whole systems theoretical approach (considering patient, practitioner and organisational components and the interaction between these). We included 18 studies (6 randomised trials, 2 quasi-experimental studies, 8 with historical controls and 3 with retrospective comparators) from primary, secondary, community and managed care settings serving a total estimated asthma population of 800,000 people in six countries. In these studies, targeting professionals (n = 2) improved process, but had no clinically significant effect on clinical outcomes. Targeting patients (n = 6) improved some process measures, but had an inconsistent impact on clinical outcomes. Targeting the organisation (n = 3) improved process measures, but had little/no effect on clinical outcomes. Interventions that explicitly addressed patient, professional and organisational factors (n = 7) showed the most

  2. Bivariate genome-wide association study suggests that the DARC gene influences lean body mass and age at menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Rong; Zhang, Lei; Pei, Yufang; Zhao, Lanjuan; Ran, Shu; Han, Yingying; Zhu, Xuezhen; Shen, Hui; Tian, Qing; Deng, Hongwen

    2012-06-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) and age at menarche (AAM) are two important complex traits for human health. The aim of this study was to identify pleiotropic genes for both traits using a powerful bivariate genome-wide association study (GWAS). Two studies, a discovery study and a replication study, were performed. In the discovery study, 909622 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 801 unrelated female Han Chinese subjects using the Affymetrix human genome-wide SNP array 6.0 platform. Then, a bivariate GWAS was performed to identify the SNPs that may be important for LBM and AAM. In the replication study, significant findings from the discovery study were validated in 1692 unrelated Caucasian female subjects. One SNP rs3027009 that was bivariately associated with left arm lean mass and AAM in the discovery samples (P=7.26×10(-6)) and in the replication samples (P=0.005) was identified. The SNP is located at the upstream of DARC (Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines) gene, suggesting that DARC may play an important role in regulating the metabolisms of both LBM and AAM.

  3. Social Studies Progress Monitoring and Intervention for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyers, Sarah J.; Lembke, Erica S.; Curs, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the technical adequacy of vocabulary-matching curriculum-based measurement (CBM) to identify and monitor the progress of 148 middle school students in social studies. In addition, the effectiveness of a reading comprehension intervention, Collaborative Strategic Reading (Klingner, Vaughn, Dimino, Schumm, & Bryant, 2001),…

  4. The career aspirations of adolescents with eating disorders: an exploratory study and suggested links to adolescent self-concept development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis K; Tzavela, Eleni C; Apostolidou, Eftychia; Antonogeorgos, George; Sakou, Irine-Ikbale; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2014-01-01

    The health effects of eating disorders (EDs) in adolescence have been widely studied, but their impact on present adolescent psychosocial adjustment and development have been overseen. This study aimed to investigate the association between EDs and career aspirations in middle adolescence. The participants were 147 adolescents diagnosed with EDs. Participants reported on their future career aspirations, and these were coded according to the International Standard Classification of Education of 1997. Of the participants, 83 adolescents were followed up longitudinally, and their aspirations were reassessed and compared for stability across the two assessments. Moreover, participants' career aspirations were compared to those of healthy (non-ED) best-friend controls. Health-related and social-behavioral science careers were chosen significantly more by adolescents with an ED as compared to their non-ED counterparts. For adolescents with an ED, career choices were consistent across reassessments. These findings suggest that adolescents with an ED gravitate toward careers associated with their pathology, namely, both facets of their mind-body pathology. This finding may indicate restricted identity development for adolescents with an ED. Suggestions for treatments protocols to include identity exploration are discussed.

  5. An Investigation of the Glucose Monitoring Practices of Nurses in Stroke Care: A Descriptive Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Laird

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose derangement is commonly observed among adults admitted to hospital with acute stroke. This paper presents the findings from a descriptive cohort study that investigated the glucose monitoring practices of nurses caring for adults admitted to hospital with stroke or transient ischaemic attack. We found that a history of diabetes mellitus was strongly associated with initiation of glucose monitoring and higher frequency of that monitoring. Glucose monitoring was continued for a significantly longer duration of days for adults with a history of diabetes mellitus, when compared to the remainder of the cohort. As glucose monitoring was not routine practice for adults with no history of diabetes mellitus, the detection and treatment of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia events could be delayed. There was a significant positive association between the admission hospital that is most likely to offer stroke unit care and the opportunity for glucose monitoring. We concluded that adults with acute stroke, irrespective of their diabetes mellitus status prior to admission to hospital, are vulnerable to both hyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic events. This study suggests that the full potential of nurses in the monitoring of glucose among hospitalised adults with stroke has yet to be realised.

  6. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  7. Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-residual radiation exposure: recent research and suggestions for future studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Beck, Harold L; Cullings, Harry M; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kaul, Dean C; Maruyama, Satoshi; Reeves, Glen I; Ruehm, Werner; Sakaguchi, Aya; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stram, Daniel O; Tonda, Tetsuji; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Young, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  8. Study of Gene Trafficking between Acanthamoeba and Giant Viruses Suggests an Undiscovered Family of Amoeba-Infecting Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maumus, Florian; Blanc, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    The nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) are a group of extremely complex double-stranded DNA viruses, which are major parasites of a variety of eukaryotes. Recent studies showed that certain unicellular eukaryotes contain fragments of NCLDV DNA integrated in their genome, when surprisingly many of these organisms were not previously shown to be infected by NCLDVs. These findings prompted us to search the genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii strain Neff (Neff), one of the most prolific hosts in the discovery of giant NCLDVs, for possible DNA inserts of viral origin. We report the identification of 267 markers of lateral gene transfer with viruses, approximately half of which are clustered in Neff genome regions of viral origins, transcriptionally inactive or exhibit nucleotide-composition signatures suggestive of a foreign origin. The integrated viral genes had diverse origin among relatives of viruses that infect Neff, including Mollivirus, Pandoravirus, Marseillevirus, Pithovirus, and Mimivirus. However, phylogenetic analysis suggests the existence of a yet-undiscovered family of amoeba-infecting NCLDV in addition to the five already characterized. The active transcription of some apparently anciently integrated virus-like genes suggests that some viral genes might have been domesticated during the amoeba evolution. These insights confirm that genomic insertion of NCLDV DNA is a common theme in eukaryotes. This gene flow contributed fertilizing the eukaryotic gene repertoire and participated in the occurrence of orphan genes, a long standing issue in genomics. Search for viral inserts in eukaryotic genomes followed by environmental screening of the original viruses should be used to isolate radically new NCLDVs. PMID:27811174

  9. 国家动物源细菌耐药性监测工作的探讨和建议%Discussion and Suggestion on the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Surveillance Program in Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾欣; 金凌艳; 蔡金华; 刘雅妮; 王蓓

    2009-01-01

    The foreign profile of antimicrobial resistance monitoring and surveillance program in animal, and the purpose of resistance monitoring and surveillance program were described. A variety of factors to be considered for resistance monitoring and surveillance program were introduced and discussed, including the animal species, food products, Sampling strategies, specimens collecting, bacterial species, antimicrobials, standardized susceptibility testing, quality control, database design and recording, report and analysis of result. Suggestion was pointed out about antimicrobial resistance monitoring and surveillance program in the future.%介绍了国外动物源细菌耐药性监测工作的情况及目标,对我国的动物源细菌耐药性监测工作需考虑的许多因素进行了介绍和讨论,包括动物品种、食品、采样方法、样本的收集、细菌品种、抗菌药物、标准药敏试验法、质控、结果记录和数据库设计、报告和结果分析等,并对今后的动物源细菌耐药性监测工作提出了建议.

  10. Genetic knockout and pharmacological blockade studies of the 5-HT7 receptor suggest therapeutic potential in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guscott, M; Bristow, L J; Hadingham, K; Rosahl, T W; Beer, M S; Stanton, J A; Bromidge, F; Owens, A P; Huscroft, I; Myers, J; Rupniak, N M; Patel, S; Whiting, P J; Hutson, P H; Fone, K C; Biello, S M; Kulagowski, J J; McAllister, G

    2005-03-01

    The affinity of several antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs for the 5-HT7 receptor and its CNS distribution suggest potential in the treatment of psychiatric diseases. However, there is little direct evidence of receptor function in vivo to support this. We therefore evaluated 5-HT7 receptors as a potential drug target by generating and assessing a 5-HT7 receptor knockout mouse. No difference in assays sensitive to potential psychotic or anxiety states was observed between the 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice and wild type controls. However, in the Porsolt swim test, 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice showed a significant decrease in immobility compared to controls, a phenotype similar to antidepressant treated mice. Intriguingly, treatment of wild types with SB-258719, a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, did not produce a significant decrease in immobility unless animals were tested in the dark (or active) cycle, rather than the light, adding to the body of evidence suggesting a circadian influence on receptor function. Extracellular recordings from hypothalamic slices showed that circadian rhythm phase shifts to 8-OH-DPAT are attenuated in the 5-HT7 receptor KO mice also indicating a role for the receptor in the regulation of circadian rhythms. These pharmacological and genetic knockout studies provide the first direct evidence that 5-HT7 receptor antagonists should be investigated for efficacy in the treatment of depression.

  11. Comparative study of two portable systems for oral anticoagulant monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Marta; Lafuente, Pedro José; Unanue, Iciar; Iriarte, José Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Portable prothrombin time (PT) monitors offer the potential for both simplifying and improving oral anticoagulation management. It is necessary to evaluate their concordance and correlation with other PT systems. Our objective was to evaluate the concordance and clinical correlation of two portable PT determination systems, ProTime (ITC) and CoaguChek S (Roche Diagnostics). In all, 20 healthy individuals and 60 anticoagulated patients stabilized over 3 months in a therapeutic International Normalized Ratio (INR) range between 2-3.5 were studied. A drop of capillary blood was obtained simultaneously from two different fingers of each patient and applied to the monitor's application zone. The mean INR of the patients' blood samples of the two monitors differed by 0.01 units (2.32+/-0.63 for Pro Time and 2.33+/-0.68 for CoaguChek). The percentage of simple concordance and the kappa index were 88.3 and 75.9%, respectively. The coefficient of correlation was 0.922. The mean difference (bias) between the monitors was 0.01. The portable PT monitors evaluated presented a high percentage of concordance in INR results.

  12. Experiment Study of Fiber Optic Sensing in Railway Security Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian Fan; De-Sheng Jiang; Wei-Lai Li

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at some security problems in railway running and the application condition of existing technology, this paper studies some issues of using fiber optic sensing technology in railway security monitoring. Through field experiment measuring the strain of the rail and analyzing the experiment data, the method of diagnosing the health condition of rail and wheel is investigated.

  13. Monitoring dental erosion by colour measurement : An in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J. B.; Zijp, J. R.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a method to monitor dental erosion by evaluation of the colour change of teeth as a function of enamel loss, and to evaluate the reproducibility of the method used. Methods: Light reflectance spectra of 12 extracted human incisors were measured using

  14. Predictive Studies Suggest that the Risk for the Selection of Antibiotic Resistance by Biocides Is Likely Low in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, María Blanca; Decorosi, Francesca; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Martínez, José Luis; Hernández, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Biocides are used without restriction for several purposes. As a consequence, large amounts of biocides are released without any control in the environment, a situation that can challenge the microbial population dynamics, including selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Previous work has shown that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants overexpressing the efflux pump SmeDEF and induces expression of this pump triggering transient low-level resistance. In the present work we analyze if two other common biocides, benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene, trigger antibiotic resistance in S. maltophilia. Bioinformatic and biochemical methods showed that benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene bind the repressor of smeDEF, SmeT. Only benzalkonium chloride triggers expression of smeD and its effect in transient antibiotic resistance is minor. None of the hexachlorophene-selected mutants was antibiotic resistant. Two benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presented reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and were impaired in growth. Metabolic profiling showed they were more proficient than their parental strain in the use of some dipeptides. We can then conclude that although bioinformatic predictions and biochemical studies suggest that both hexachlorophene and benzalkonium chloride should induce smeDEF expression leading to transient S. maltophilia resistance to antibiotics, phenotypic assays showed this not to be true. The facts that hexachlorophene resistant mutants are not antibiotic resistant and that the benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presenting altered susceptibility to antibiotics were impaired in growth suggests that the risk for the selection (and fixation) of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants by these biocides is likely low, at least in the absence of constant selection pressure.

  15. Predictive Studies Suggest that the Risk for the Selection of Antibiotic Resistance by Biocides Is Likely Low in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Blanca Sánchez

    Full Text Available Biocides are used without restriction for several purposes. As a consequence, large amounts of biocides are released without any control in the environment, a situation that can challenge the microbial population dynamics, including selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Previous work has shown that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants overexpressing the efflux pump SmeDEF and induces expression of this pump triggering transient low-level resistance. In the present work we analyze if two other common biocides, benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene, trigger antibiotic resistance in S. maltophilia. Bioinformatic and biochemical methods showed that benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene bind the repressor of smeDEF, SmeT. Only benzalkonium chloride triggers expression of smeD and its effect in transient antibiotic resistance is minor. None of the hexachlorophene-selected mutants was antibiotic resistant. Two benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presented reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and were impaired in growth. Metabolic profiling showed they were more proficient than their parental strain in the use of some dipeptides. We can then conclude that although bioinformatic predictions and biochemical studies suggest that both hexachlorophene and benzalkonium chloride should induce smeDEF expression leading to transient S. maltophilia resistance to antibiotics, phenotypic assays showed this not to be true. The facts that hexachlorophene resistant mutants are not antibiotic resistant and that the benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presenting altered susceptibility to antibiotics were impaired in growth suggests that the risk for the selection (and fixation of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants by these biocides is likely low, at least in the absence of constant selection pressure.

  16. Dosing of Milrinone in Preterm Neonates to Prevent Postligation Cardiac Syndrome: Simulation Study Suggests Need for Bolus Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallik, Maarja; Tasa, Tõnis; Starkopf, Joel; Metsvaht, Tuuli

    2017-01-01

    Milrinone has been suggested as a possible first-line therapy for preterm neonates to prevent postligation cardiac syndrome (PLCS) through decreasing systemic vascular resistance and increasing cardiac contractility. The optimal dosing regimen, however, is not known. To model the dosing of milrinone in preterm infants for prevention of PLCS after surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Milrinone time-concentration profiles were simulated for 1,000 subjects using the volume of distribution and clearance estimates based on one compartmental population pharmacokinetic model by Paradisis et al. [Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2007;92:F204-F209]. Dose optimization was based on retrospectively collected demographic data from neonates undergoing PDA ligation in Estonian PICUs between 2012 and 2014 and existing pharmacodynamic data. The target plasma concentration was set at 150-200 ng/ml. The simulation study used demographic data from 31 neonates who underwent PDA ligation. The median postnatal age was 13 days (range: 3-29) and weight was 760 g (range: 500-2,351). With continuous infusion of milrinone 0.33 μg/kg/min, the proportion of subjects within the desired concentration range was 0% by 3 h, 36% by 6 h, and 61% by 8 h; 99% of subjects exceeded the range by 18 h. The maximum proportion of total simulated concentrations in the target range was attained with a bolus infusion of 0.73 μg/kg/min for 3 h followed by a 0.16-μg/kg/min maintenance infusion. Mathematical simulations suggest that in preterm neonates the plasma time-concentration profile of milrinone can be optimized with a slow loading dose followed by maintenance infusion. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Predictive Studies Suggest that the Risk for the Selection of Antibiotic Resistance by Biocides Is Likely Low in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, María Blanca; Decorosi, Francesca; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Martínez, José Luis; Hernández, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Biocides are used without restriction for several purposes. As a consequence, large amounts of biocides are released without any control in the environment, a situation that can challenge the microbial population dynamics, including selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Previous work has shown that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants overexpressing the efflux pump SmeDEF and induces expression of this pump triggering transient low-level resistance. In the present work we analyze if two other common biocides, benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene, trigger antibiotic resistance in S. maltophilia. Bioinformatic and biochemical methods showed that benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophene bind the repressor of smeDEF, SmeT. Only benzalkonium chloride triggers expression of smeD and its effect in transient antibiotic resistance is minor. None of the hexachlorophene-selected mutants was antibiotic resistant. Two benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presented reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and were impaired in growth. Metabolic profiling showed they were more proficient than their parental strain in the use of some dipeptides. We can then conclude that although bioinformatic predictions and biochemical studies suggest that both hexachlorophene and benzalkonium chloride should induce smeDEF expression leading to transient S. maltophilia resistance to antibiotics, phenotypic assays showed this not to be true. The facts that hexachlorophene resistant mutants are not antibiotic resistant and that the benzalkonium chloride resistant mutants presenting altered susceptibility to antibiotics were impaired in growth suggests that the risk for the selection (and fixation) of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistant mutants by these biocides is likely low, at least in the absence of constant selection pressure. PMID:26201074

  18. Evaluation on the Implementation of Urban and Rural Planning Law and Some Policy Suggestions: A Case Study in Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Kai; Li; Hao; Zhang; Qingfei

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates the implementation of the Urban and Rural Planning Law in western China through questionnaires, interviews, onsite visits, and literature analysis. Results show that, though the western region has made great progress in the study and publicity of the Law, as well as in their local legislation and administrative system adjustments, there are problems impeding the implementation of the Law, such as overlapping government administration, inadequate implementation measures, controversial provisions that cause operational difficulties, local legislative confusion, and poor legal awareness. As such, this article proposes suggestions as follows: to legalize the detailed implementation rules and regulations, as well as other related regulations and technical standards, in order to improve the system of urban and rural planning laws and regulations; to strengthen legal supervision to maintain the authority of the law; to formulate proper planning policy guidelines based on the specifi c conditions of western region; and to strengthen the publicity, education, and training of the Law so as to promote the publics’ legal awareness.

  19. Clinical Holistic Medicine: A Pilot Study on HIV and Quality of Life and a Suggested Cure for HIV and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to examine the association between the immunological impact of HIV (measured by CD4 count and global self-assessed quality of life (QOL (measured with QOL1 for people suffering from HIV, to see if the connection was large and statistically strong enough to support our hypothesis of a strong QOL-immunological connection through the nonspecific, nonreceptor-mediated immune system, and thus to give a rationale for a holistic cure for HIV. This cross-sectional population study in Uganda included 20 HIV infected persons with no symptoms of AIDS and a CD4 count above 200 mill./liter. The main outcome measures were CD4 count, global QOL measured with the validated questionnaire QOL1, translated to Luganda and translated back to English. We found a large, clinically significant correlation between the number of T-helper cells (CD4 and global self-assessed quality of life (QOL1 (r = 0.57, p = 0.021, when controlled for age, gender, and years of infection. Together with other studies and holistic medicine theory, the results have given rationale for a holistic cure for HIV. We suggest, based on our findings and theoretical considerations, that HIV patients who improve their global QOL, also will improve their CD4 counts. Using the technique of holistic medicine based on the life mission theory and the holistic process theory of healing, we hypothesize that the improvement of QOL can have sufficient biological effect on the CD4, which could avoid or postpone the development of AIDS. A holistic HIV/AIDS cure improving the QOL draws on hidden resources in the person and is thus affordable for everybody. Improving global QOL also means a higher consciousness and a more ethical attitude, making it more difficult for the HIV-infected person to pass on the infection.

  20. Neurobiological correlates of EMDR monitoring - an EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pagani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR is a recognized first-line treatment for psychological trauma. However its neurobiological bases have yet to be fully disclosed. METHODS: Electroencephalography (EEG was used to fully monitor neuronal activation throughout EMDR sessions including the autobiographical script. Ten patients with major psychological trauma were investigated during their first EMDR session (T0 and during the last one performed after processing the index trauma (T1. Neuropsychological tests were administered at the same time. Comparisons were performed between EEGs of patients at T0 and T1 and between EEGs of patients and 10 controls who underwent the same EMDR procedure at T0. Connectivity analyses were carried out by lagged phase synchronization. RESULTS: During bilateral ocular stimulation (BS of EMDR sessions EEG showed a significantly higher activity on the orbito-frontal, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in patients at T0 shifting towards left temporo-occipital regions at T1. A similar trend was found for autobiographical script with a higher firing in fronto-temporal limbic regions at T0 moving to right temporo-occipital cortex at T1. The comparisons between patients and controls confirmed the maximal activation in the limbic cortex of patients occurring before trauma processing. Connectivity analysis showed decreased pair-wise interactions between prefrontal and cingulate cortex during BS in patients as compared to controls and between fusiform gyrus and visual cortex during script listening in patients at T1 as compared to T0. These changes correlated significantly with those occurring in neuropsychological tests. CONCLUSIONS: The ground-breaking methodology enabled our study to image for the first time the specific activations associated with the therapeutic actions typical of EMDR protocol. The findings suggest that traumatic events are processed at cognitive level following successful

  1. An international observational study suggests that artificial intelligence for clinical decision support optimizes anemia management in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Carlo; Molina, Manuel; Ponce, Pedro; Tothova, Monika; Cattinelli, Isabella; Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Mari, Flavio; Amato, Claudia; Leipold, Frank; Wehmeyer, Wolfgang; Stuard, Stefano; Stopper, Andrea; Canaud, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    Managing anemia in hemodialysis patients can be challenging because of competing therapeutic targets and individual variability. Because therapy recommendations provided by a decision support system can benefit both patients and doctors, we evaluated the impact of an artificial intelligence decision support system, the Anemia Control Model (ACM), on anemia outcomes. Based on patient profiles, the ACM was built to recommend suitable erythropoietic-stimulating agent doses. Our retrospective study consisted of a 12-month control phase (standard anemia care), followed by a 12-month observation phase (ACM-guided care) encompassing 752 patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy in 3 NephroCare clinics located in separate countries. The percentage of hemoglobin values on target, the median darbepoetin dose, and individual hemoglobin fluctuation (estimated from the intrapatient hemoglobin standard deviation) were deemed primary outcomes. In the observation phase, median darbepoetin consumption significantly decreased from 0.63 to 0.46 μg/kg/month, whereas on-target hemoglobin values significantly increased from 70.6% to 76.6%, reaching 83.2% when the ACM suggestions were implemented. Moreover, ACM introduction led to a significant decrease in hemoglobin fluctuation (intrapatient standard deviation decreased from 0.95 g/dl to 0.83 g/dl). Thus, ACM support helped improve anemia outcomes of hemodialysis patients, minimizing erythropoietic-stimulating agent use with the potential to reduce the cost of treatment.

  2. Studies on inhibition of respiratory cytochrome bc1 complex by the fungicide pyrimorph suggest a novel inhibitory mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Xiao

    Full Text Available The respiratory chain cytochrome bc1 complex (cyt bc1 is a major target of numerous antibiotics and fungicides. All cyt bc1 inhibitors act on either the ubiquinol oxidation (QP or ubiquinone reduction (QN site. The primary cause of resistance to bc1 inhibitors is target site mutations, creating a need for novel agents that act on alternative sites within the cyt bc1 to overcome resistance. Pyrimorph, a synthetic fungicide, inhibits the growth of a broad range of plant pathogenic fungi, though little is known concerning its mechanism of action. In this study, using isolated mitochondria from pathogenic fungus Phytophthora capsici, we show that pyrimorph blocks mitochondrial electron transport by affecting the function of cyt bc1. Indeed, pyrimorph inhibits the activities of both purified 11-subunit mitochondrial and 4-subunit bacterial bc1 with IC50 values of 85.0 μM and 69.2 μM, respectively, indicating that it targets the essential subunits of cyt bc1 complexes. Using an array of biochemical and spectral methods, we show that pyrimorph acts on an area near the QP site and falls into the category of a mixed-type, noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate ubiquinol. In silico molecular docking of pyrimorph to cyt b from mammalian and bacterial sources also suggests that pyrimorph binds in the vicinity of the quinol oxidation site.

  3. Studies on inhibition of respiratory cytochrome bc1 complex by the fungicide pyrimorph suggest a novel inhibitory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu-Mei; Esser, Lothar; Zhou, Fei; Li, Chang; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Yu, Chang-An; Qin, Zhao-Hai; Xia, Di

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory chain cytochrome bc1 complex (cyt bc1) is a major target of numerous antibiotics and fungicides. All cyt bc1 inhibitors act on either the ubiquinol oxidation (QP) or ubiquinone reduction (QN) site. The primary cause of resistance to bc1 inhibitors is target site mutations, creating a need for novel agents that act on alternative sites within the cyt bc1 to overcome resistance. Pyrimorph, a synthetic fungicide, inhibits the growth of a broad range of plant pathogenic fungi, though little is known concerning its mechanism of action. In this study, using isolated mitochondria from pathogenic fungus Phytophthora capsici, we show that pyrimorph blocks mitochondrial electron transport by affecting the function of cyt bc1. Indeed, pyrimorph inhibits the activities of both purified 11-subunit mitochondrial and 4-subunit bacterial bc1 with IC50 values of 85.0 μM and 69.2 μM, respectively, indicating that it targets the essential subunits of cyt bc1 complexes. Using an array of biochemical and spectral methods, we show that pyrimorph acts on an area near the QP site and falls into the category of a mixed-type, noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate ubiquinol. In silico molecular docking of pyrimorph to cyt b from mammalian and bacterial sources also suggests that pyrimorph binds in the vicinity of the quinol oxidation site.

  4. Genome-Wide Association Studies Suggest Limited Immune Gene Enrichment in Schizophrenia Compared to 5 Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, Jennie G; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Spain, Sarah L; Finucane, Hilary K; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Kennedy, James L; Knight, Jo

    2016-09-01

    There has been intense debate over the immunological basis of schizophrenia, and the potential utility of adjunct immunotherapies. The major histocompatibility complex is consistently the most powerful region of association in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia and has been interpreted as strong genetic evidence supporting the immune hypothesis. However, global pathway analyses provide inconsistent evidence of immune involvement in schizophrenia, and it remains unclear whether genetic data support an immune etiology per se. Here we empirically test the hypothesis that variation in immune genes contributes to schizophrenia. We show that there is no enrichment of immune loci outside of the MHC region in the largest genetic study of schizophrenia conducted to date, in contrast to 5 diseases of known immune origin. Among 108 regions of the genome previously associated with schizophrenia, we identify 6 immune candidates (DPP4, HSPD1, EGR1, CLU, ESAM, NFATC3) encoding proteins with alternative, nonimmune roles in the brain. While our findings do not refute evidence that has accumulated in support of the immune hypothesis, they suggest that genetically mediated alterations in immune function may not play a major role in schizophrenia susceptibility. Instead, there may be a role for pleiotropic effects of a small number of immune genes that also regulate brain development and plasticity. Whether immune alterations drive schizophrenia progression is an important question to be addressed by future research, especially in light of the growing interest in applying immunotherapies in schizophrenia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  5. Problems and Suggestions of Video Monitoring System in Flood Control%视频监控系统在防汛中存在的问题及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王森

    2013-01-01

    Take the curre nt construction situation of the monitoring system of Daqinghe River Management Office for example, in connection with the problem of video monitoring system in flood control, put forward some suggestions about constructing 3G wireless video monitoring system, which helps utilizing visual management and grasping site situations timely, and provides solutions for flood control decision and disaster relief.%  以河北省大清河管理处监视系统的建设现状为例,针对视频监视系统在防汛中存在问题,提出了建设基于3G无线网络的视频监控系统的建议,使大清河河务处防汛工作能够应用可视化管理方式,及时了解现场情况,为防洪调度决策和指挥抢险救灾提供了一种解决方法。

  6. Review of the literature and suggestions for the design of rodent survival studies for the identification of compounds that increase health and life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Stephen Richard

    2012-02-01

    Much of the literature describing the search for agents that increase the life span of rodents was found to suffer from confounds. One-hundred-six studies, absent 20 contradictory melatonin studies, of compounds or combinations of compounds were reviewed. Only six studies reported both life span extension and food consumption data, thereby excluding the potential effects of caloric restriction. Six other studies reported life span extension without a change in body weight. However, weight can be an unreliable surrogate measure of caloric consumption. Twenty studies reported that food consumption or weight was unchanged, but it was unclear whether these data were anecdotal or systematic. Twenty-nine reported extended life span likely due to induced caloric restriction. Thirty-six studies reported no effect on life span, and three a decrease. The remaining studies suffer from more serious confounds. Though still widely cited, studies showing life span extension using short-lived or "enfeebled" rodents have not been shown to predict longevity effects in long-lived animals. We suggest improvements in experimental design that will enhance the reliability of the rodent life span literature. First, animals should receive measured quantities of food and its consumption monitored, preferably daily, and reported. Weights should be measured regularly and reported. Second, a genetically heterogeneous, long-lived rodent should be utilized. Third, chemically defined diets should be used. Fourth, a positive control (e.g., a calorically restricted group) is highly desirable. Fifth, drug dosages should be chosen based on surrogate endpoints or accepted cross-species scaling factors. These procedures should improve the reliability of the scientific literature and accelerate the identification of longevity and health span-enhancing agents.

  7. A Study of the electronic information monitoring of bruxism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinglu Zhang; Xinmin Yin; Zongxin Yao

    2008-01-01

    Objective:Bruxism is the term used for teeth grinding or jaw clenching. An electronic monitor of bruxism was developed to evaluate bruxism duration and frequency. Methods: Ten cases were selected in the Department of Prosthodontics of Jiangsu Stomatological Hospital to evaluate the monitor. A stabilization occlusal splint was fabricated for each of the 10 cases. The vertical dimension for each splint was 0.5 mm lower than mandibular postural position. Some sensors had been prearranged at each splint which could transfer the variation of the biting force into electronic signals. The data of sleeping duration, grinding duration and grinding frequency were recorded with this new type of bruxism monitor, which had been specifically invented to study bruxism. Results:The data from 10 bruxism cases were collected and the results were considered reliable. Subjects nocturnal duration parameters did not change significantly from night-to-night. Conclusion:The bruxiam monitor can automatically measure and record bruxism data using an occlusal splint. This device is valuable for diagnosis and evaluation of bruxism.

  8. Stopped-Flow Studies of the Reduction of the Copper Centers Suggest a Bifurcated Electron Transfer Pathway in Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Shefali; Hosseinzadeh, Parisa; Lu, Yi; Blackburn, Ninian J

    2016-04-01

    Peptidylglycine monooxygenase (PHM) is a dicopper enzyme that plays a vital role in the amidation of glycine-extended pro-peptides. One of the crucial aspects of its chemistry is the transfer of two electrons from an electron-storing and -transferring site (CuH) to the oxygen binding site and catalytic center (CuM) over a distance of 11 Å during one catalytic turnover event. Here we present our studies of the first electron transfer (ET) step (reductive phase) in wild-type (WT) PHM as well as its variants. Stopped flow was used to record the reduction kinetic traces using the chromophoric agent N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (DMPD) as the reductant. The reduction was found to be biphasic in the WT PHM with an initial fast phase (17.2 s(-1)) followed by a much slower phase (0.46 s(-1)). We were able to ascribe the fast and slow phase to the CuH and CuM sites, respectively, by making use of the H242A and H107AH108A mutants that contain only the CuH site and CuM site, respectively. In the absence of substrate, the redox potentials determined by cyclic voltammetry were 270 mV (CuH site) and -15 mV (CuM site), but binding of substrate (Ac-YVG) was found to alter both potentials so that they converged to a common value of 83 mV. Substrate binding also accelerated the slow reductive phase by ~10-fold, an effect that could be explained at least partially by the equalization of the reduction potential of the copper centers. Studies of H108A showed that the ET to the CuM site is blocked, highlighting the role of the H108 ligand as a component of the reductive ET pathway. Strikingly, the rate of reduction of the H172A variant was unaffected despite the rate of catalysis being 3 orders of magnitude slower than that of the WT PHM. These studies strongly indicate that the reductive phase and catalytic phase ET pathways are different and suggest a bifurcated ET pathway in PHM. We propose that H172 and Y79 form part of an alternate pathway for the catalytic phase

  9. Progressive effect of beta amyloid peptides accumulation on CA1 pyramidal neurons: a model study suggesting possible treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana eCulmone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Several independent studies show that accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ peptides , one of the characteristic hallmark of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, can affect normal neuronal activity in different ways. However, in spite of intense experimental work to explain the possible underlying mechanisms of action, a comprehensive and congruent understanding is still lacking. Part of the problem might be the opposite ways in which Aβ have been experimentally found to affect the normal activity of a neuron; for example, making a neuron more excitable (by reducing the A- or DR-type K+ currents or less excitable (by reducing synaptic transmission and Na+ current. The overall picture is therefore confusing, since the interplay of many mechanisms makes it difficult to link individual experimental findings with the more general problem of understanding the progression of the disease. This is an important issue, especially for the development of new drugs trying to ameliorate the effects of the disease. We addressed these paradoxes through computational models. We first modeled the different stages of AD by progressively modifying the intrinsic membrane and synaptic properties of a realistic model neuron, while accounting for multiple and different experimental findings and by evaluating the contribution of each mechanism to the overall modulation of the cell’s excitability. We then tested a number of manipulations of channel and synaptic activation properties that could compensate for the effects of Aβ. The model predicts possible therapeutic treatments in terms of pharmacological manipulations of channels’ kinetic and activation properties. The results also suggest how and which mechanisms can be targeted by a drug to restore the original firing conditions.

  10. Meta-analysis of breast cancer microarray studies in conjunction with conserved cis-elements suggest patterns for coordinate regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundberg Cathryn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression measurements from breast cancer (BrCa tumors are established clinical predictive tools to identify tumor subtypes, identify patients showing poor/good prognosis, and identify patients likely to have disease recurrence. However, diverse breast cancer datasets in conjunction with diagnostic clinical arrays show little overlap in the sets of genes identified. One approach to identify a set of consistently dysregulated candidate genes in these tumors is to employ meta-analysis of multiple independent microarray datasets. This allows one to compare expression data from a diverse collection of breast tumor array datasets generated on either cDNA or oligonucleotide arrays. Results We gathered expression data from 9 published microarray studies examining estrogen receptor positive (ER+ and estrogen receptor negative (ER- BrCa tumor cases from the Oncomine database. We performed a meta-analysis and identified genes that were universally up or down regulated with respect to ER+ versus ER- tumor status. We surveyed both the proximal promoter and 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR of our top-ranking genes in each expression group to test whether common sequence elements may contribute to the observed expression patterns. Utilizing a combination of known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS, evolutionarily conserved mammalian promoter and 3'UTR motifs, and microRNA (miRNA seed sequences, we identified numerous motifs that were disproportionately represented between the two gene classes suggesting a common regulatory network for the observed gene expression patterns. Conclusion Some of the genes we identified distinguish key transcripts previously seen in array studies, while others are newly defined. Many of the genes identified as overexpressed in ER- tumors were previously identified as expression markers for neoplastic transformation in multiple human cancers. Moreover, our motif analysis identified a collection of

  11. Comparative study of optical fiber cure-monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Peter A.; Powell, Graham R.; Fernando, Gerard F.; Waters, David N.; France, Chris M.; Spooncer, Ronald C.

    1997-06-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study undertaken for different types of optical fiber sensor developed to monitor the cure of an epoxy resin system. The optical fiber sensors used to monitor the cure process were based on transmission spectroscopy, evanescent wave spectroscopy and refractive index monitoring. The transmission sensor was prepared by aligning two optical fibers within a specially prepared sleeve with a gap between the optical fiber end-faces. During cure, resin from the specimen flowed into the gap between the optical fibers allowing transmission spectra of the resin to be obtained. The evanescent wave sensor was prepared by stripping the cladding from a high refractive index core optical fiber. The prepared sensor was embedded in the sample and attenuated total reflectance spectra recorded from the resin/core boundary. Refractive index monitoring was undertaken using a high refractive index core optical fiber which had a small portion of its cladding removed. The prepared sensor was embedded in the resin specimen and light from a single wavelength source was launched into the fiber. Changes in the guiding characteristics of the sensor due to refractive index changes at the resin/core boundary were used to monitor the progress of the cure reaction. The transmission and evanescent wave spectroscopy sensors were used to follow changes in characteristic near-infrared absorption bands of the resin over the range 1450 - 1700 nm during the cure reaction. Consequently these techniques required tunable wavelength sources covering specific wavelength ranges. However, the refractive index based sensor used a single wavelength source. Therefore the equipment costs for this type of sensor were considerably less. Additionally, the refractive index sensor did not require a single wavelength source at any particular wavelength and could be applied to any spectral region in which the optical fiber would transmit light. The advantages and disadvantages of these

  12. A Corpus-Based System of Error Detection and Revision Suggestion for Spanish Learners in Taiwan: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui-Chuan; Chu, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Cheng-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Compared with English learners, Spanish learners have fewer resources for automatic error detection and revision and following the current integrative Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), we combined corpus-based approach and CALL to create the System of Error Detection and Revision Suggestion (SEDRS) for learning Spanish. Through…

  13. Implementing Monitoring Systems in Mobile Applications – a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian DOSPINESCU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the evolution of mobile applications allowed the developers to become more and more creative. In this way, we can imagine many applications models with a real impact in the real life. In this article we are trying to present a case study for a monitoring sys-tem using the Android platform and the benefits of computer networks. We use the power of mobile sockets and mobile threads, integrating them in a complex architecture in order to ob-tain a real monitoring system. As an immediate application, we propose a baby monitoring sys-tems so that the children could be remotely supervised by their parents. The case study is based on an Android mobile client-server architecture and also uses the capabilities offered by the phone’s speaker and microphone. We intend to have a robust application and that’s why we in-itially preferred Network Service Discovery and Android P2P, but these functionalities are im-plemented starting with Android 4.1. So, we emulated all these functionalities by using a model based on sockets and server sockets.

  14. Speaking one's second language under time pressure: an ERP study on verbal self-monitoring in German-Dutch bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Schiller, Niels O

    2009-03-01

    This study addresses how verbal self-monitoring and the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) are affected by time pressure when a task is performed in a second language as opposed to performance in the native language. German-Dutch bilinguals were required to perform a phoneme-monitoring task in Dutch with and without a time pressure manipulation. We obtained an ERN following verbal errors that showed an atypical increase in amplitude under time pressure. This finding is taken to suggest that under time pressure participants had more interference from their native language, which in turn led to a greater response conflict and thus enhancement of the amplitude of the ERN. This result demonstrates once more that the ERN is sensitive to psycholinguistic manipulations and suggests that the functioning of the verbal self-monitoring system during speaking is comparable to other performance monitoring, such as action monitoring.

  15. The Status Quo, Problems of Monitoring the Flow of Banks’ Credit Funds and Suggestions%银行信贷资金流向监控现状、问题与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施韬

    2016-01-01

    目前商业银行信贷资金流向监控主要以银监会的“三个办法一个指引”为基础框架,各行根据自身情况,制定了具体措施和管理办法。但在实际执行过程中,普遍面临着诸多困难,执行效果欠佳。本文建议通过改进“受托支付”管理办法,借助征信系统加强事后管理,来完善当前信贷资金流向监控。%Currently, the commercial banks monitor the flow of their credit funds mainly according to the basic framework of Chi-na Banking Regulatory Commission as well as their own concrete measures and management rules. But in the actual executing process, the banks are generally faced with many difficulties;therefore the executing effect is satisfied. The paper suggests that monitoring the flow of the credit funds should be perfected by improving the entrusted payment management rules and with the help of the credit re-porting system to strengthen the post-management.

  16. Nature of Science Progression in School Year 1-9: a Case Study of Teachers' Suggestions and Rationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leden, Lotta; Hansson, Lena

    2017-07-01

    The inclusion of nature of science (NOS) in science education has for a long time been regarded as crucial. There is, however, a lack of research on appropriate NOS aspects for different educational levels. An even more neglected area of research is that focusing on teachers' perspectives on NOS teaching at different levels. The aim of this article is to examine NOS progression in the light of teachers' suggestions and rationales. In order to obtain teachers' informed perspectives, we chose to involve six teachers (teaching grades 1-9) in a 3-year research project. They took part in focus group discussions about NOS and NOS teaching as well as implemented jointly planned NOS teaching sessions. Data that this article builds on was collected at the end of the project. The teachers' suggestions for NOS progression often relied on adding more NOS issues at every stage, thereby creating the foundations of a broader but not necessarily deeper understanding of NOS. Five rationales, for if/when specific NOS issues are appropriate to introduce, emerged from the analysis of the teacher discussions. Some of these rationales, including practice makes perfect and increasing levels of depth can potentially accommodate room for many NOS issues in the science classroom, while maturity and experience instead has a restricting effect on NOS teaching. Also, choice of context and teaching approaches play an important role in teachers' rationales for whether specific NOS issues should be included or not at different stages. The article discusses the implications for teacher education and professional development.

  17. Inaccuracy of INR measurements and suggestions for improved WHO guidelines for calibration of reference preparations – a statistical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attermann, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    procedure also results in serious overestimation of the accuracy of INR measurements, thus leading to a false sense of security in oral anticoagulant therapy. In an example with data from WHO guidelines, we show that the systematic overprediction of INR (which is believed to be 0) may be as large as 5......%, when prediction is performed under the conventional WHO model. Under the same model the CV of the predicted vs. the true INR is believed to be only about 1% when it in reality is more than 4%. We suggest that the conventional calibration procedure is modified in order to reduce the twofold negative...... impact of lower true accuracy and overestimated reported accuracy on oral anticoagulant therapy and to allow for an unambiguous definition of true INR values....

  18. Are reviewers suggested by authors as good as those chosen by editors? Results of a rater-blinded, retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkin Emma C

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BioMed Central (BMC requires authors to suggest four reviewers when making a submission. Editors searching for reviewers use these suggestions as a source. The review process of the medical journals in the BMC series is open – authors and reviewers know each other's identity – although reviewers can make confidential comments to the editor. Reviews are published alongside accepted articles so readers may see the reviewers' names and recommendations. Our objective was to compare the performance of author-nominated reviewers (ANR with that of editor-chosen reviewers (ECR in terms of review quality and recommendations about submissions in an online-only medical journal. Methods Pairs of reviews from 100 consecutive submissions to medical journals in the BMC series (with one author-nominated and one editor-chosen reviewer and a final decision were assessed by two raters, blinded to reviewer type, using a validated review quality instrument (RQI which rates 7 items on 5-point Likert scales. The raters discussed their ratings after the first 20 pairs (keeping reviewer type masked and resolved major discrepancies in scoring and interpretation to improve inter-rater reliability. Reviewers' recommendations were also compared. Results Reviewer source had no impact on review quality (mean RQI score (± SD 2.24 ± 0.55 for ANR, 2.34 ± 0.54 for ECR or tone (mean scores on additional question 2.72 ANR vs 2.82 ECR (maximum score = 5 in both cases. However author-nominated reviewers were significantly more likely to recommend acceptance (47 vs 35 and less likely to recommend rejection (10 vs 23 than editor-chosen reviewers after initial review (p Conclusion Author-nominated reviewers produced reviews of similar quality to editor-chosen reviewers but were more likely to recommend acceptance during the initial stages of peer review.

  19. Phylogenomic study indicates widespread lateral gene transfer in Entamoeba and suggests a past intimate relationship with parabasalids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jessica R; Katz, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) has impacted the evolutionary history of eukaryotes, though to a lesser extent than in bacteria and archaea. Detecting LGT and distinguishing it from single gene tree artifacts is difficult, particularly when considering very ancient events (i.e., over hundreds of millions of years). Here, we use two independent lines of evidence--a taxon-rich phylogenetic approach and an assessment of the patterns of gene presence/absence--to evaluate the extent of LGT in the parasitic amoebozoan genus Entamoeba. Previous work has suggested that a number of genes in the genome of Entamoeba spp. were acquired by LGT. Our approach, using an automated phylogenomic pipeline to build taxon-rich gene trees, suggests that LGT is more extensive than previously thought. Our analyses reveal that genes have frequently entered the Entamoeba genome via nonvertical events, including at least 116 genes acquired directly from bacteria or archaea, plus an additional 22 genes in which Entamoeba plus one other eukaryote are nested among bacteria and/or archaea. These genes may make good candidates for novel therapeutics, as drugs targeting these genes are less likely to impact the human host. Although we recognize the challenges of inferring intradomain transfers given systematic errors in gene trees, we find 109 genes supporting LGT from a eukaryote to Entamoeba spp., and 178 genes unique to Entamoeba spp. and one other eukaryotic taxon (i.e., presence/absence data). Inspection of these intradomain LGTs provide evidence of a common sister relationship between genes of Entamoeba (Amoebozoa) and parabasalids (Excavata). We speculate that this indicates a past close relationship (e.g., symbiosis) between ancestors of these extant lineages.

  20. SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring: a case study for normal strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, S.; Zhang, H. B.; Ou, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    The stress history of concrete structures that have survived an earthquake can serve as a critical index to evaluate the health of the structure. There are currently few reliable monitoring methods to assess concrete stress after a seismic event. Piezoelectric-based smart aggregate (SA) provides an innovative experimental approach to monitor stress on concrete. The principle of SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring is based on the assumption that concrete stress can be reliably predicted by the average output voltages of limited SAs with an acceptable margin of error. In this study, the meso-scale randomness of concrete was evaluated throughout the overall stress range of concrete and the influence of different load paths was considered. Four cylindrical specimens of normal strength concrete were embedded with a total of 24 SAs. The SA output sensitivity curve in the paths of loading-unloading with different amplitudes and monotonic loading up to failure was obtained. Monitoring errors were analyzed during pre- and post-peak stages from the experimental results. This research suggests that SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring for normal strength concrete is reliable.

  1. A Preliminary Feasibility Study On Seismic Monitoring Of Polymer Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P. K.; Park, C.; Lim, B.; Nam, M.

    2012-12-01

    Polymer flooding using water with soluble polymers is an enhanced oil recovery technique, which intends to maximize oil-recovery sweep efficiency by minimizing fingering effects and as a result creating a smooth flood front; polymer flooding decreases the flow rates within high permeability zone while enhances those of lower permeabilities. Understanding of fluid fronts and saturations is critical to not only optimizing polymer flooding but also monitoring the efficiency. Polymer flooding monitoring can be made in single well scale with high-resolution wireline logging, in inter-well scale with tomography, and in reservoir scale with surface survey. For reservoir scale monitoring, this study makes a preliminary feasibility study based on constructing rock physics models (RPMs), which can bridge variations in reservoir parameters to the changes in seismic responses. For constructing RPMs, we change reservoir parameters with consideration of polymer flooding to a reservoir. Time-lapse seismic data for corresponding RPMs are simulated using a time-domain staggered-finite-difference modeling with implementation of a boundary condition of conventional perfect match layer. Analysis on time-lapse seismic data with respect to the changes in fluid front and saturation can give an insight on feasibility of surface seismic survey to polymer flooding. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency & Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2012T100201588). Myung Jin Nam was partially supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MEST) (No. 2011-0014684).

  2. Genome-environment association study suggests local adaptation to climate at the regional scale in Fagus sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Andrea R; Frank, Aline; Heiri, Caroline; Lalagüe, Hadrien; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    The evolutionary potential of long-lived species, such as forest trees, is fundamental for their local persistence under climate change (CC). Genome-environment association (GEA) analyses reveal if species in heterogeneous environments at the regional scale are under differential selection resulting in populations with potential preadaptation to CC within this area. In 79 natural Fagus sylvatica populations, neutral genetic patterns were characterized using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and genomic variation (144 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) out of 52 candidate genes) was related to 87 environmental predictors in the latent factor mixed model, logistic regressions and isolation by distance/environmental (IBD/IBE) tests. SSR diversity revealed relatedness at up to 150 m intertree distance but an absence of large-scale spatial genetic structure and IBE. In the GEA analyses, 16 SNPs in 10 genes responded to one or several environmental predictors and IBE, corrected for IBD, was confirmed. The GEA often reflected the proposed gene functions, including indications for adaptation to water availability and temperature. Genomic divergence and the lack of large-scale neutral genetic patterns suggest that gene flow allows the spread of advantageous alleles in adaptive genes. Thereby, adaptation processes are likely to take place in species occurring in heterogeneous environments, which might reduce their regional extinction risk under CC.

  3. A brief, critical review of research on impaired control over alcohol use and suggestions for future studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Robert F; Beseler, Cheryl L; Helms, Christa M; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Wakeling, Vanessa A; Kahler, Christopher W

    2014-02-01

    Impaired control, defined as "a breakdown of an intention to limit consumption" (Heather et al. J Stud Alcohol 1993; 54, 701), has historically been considered an important aspect of addiction. Despite recognition of its importance to addiction and potential value as an early indicator of problem drinking risk, we argue that impaired control over alcohol use has not received sufficient research attention. In an effort to spark further research, the present critical review offers brief discussion of the current state of knowledge regarding impaired control and avenues for future research. Three main research areas are addressed: (i) epidemiology; (ii) measurement issues; and (iii) potential mechanisms underlying relationships between impaired control and subsequent problem drinking. Measurement issues include complexities involved in self-report assessment of impaired control, development and validation of human and animal laboratory models, and impaired control's relationship to other constructs (i.e., impulsivity and other difficulties with self-control; symptoms of dependence such as craving). We discuss briefly 2 potential mechanisms that may help to explain why some drinkers experience impaired control while others do not: neurobiological dysfunction and family history/genetics. Suggestions for future research are focused on ways in which the impaired control construct may enhance prediction of who might be at particular risk of subsequent problem drinking and to facilitate intervention to reduce problem alcohol use.

  4. The evolution of signaling complexity suggests a mechanism for reducing the genomic search space in human association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, K J L; Merriman, B; Bahamonde, M E; Wong, M-L; Licinio, J

    2005-01-01

    the genome. We suggest that the development and use of theoretical models can provide insight into the nature of biological systems and may lead to significant improvements in computational algorithms designed to reduce the complexity of the human genome.

  5. Convergent evidence from mouse and human studies suggests the involvement of zinc finger protein 326 gene in antidepressant treatment response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Jay Liou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The forced swim test (FST is a commonly used model to predict antidepressant efficacy. Uncovering the genetic basis of the model may unravel the mechanism of antidepressant treatment. METHODS: FVB/NJ (FVB and C57BL/6J (B6 were first identified as the response and non-response strains to fluoxetine (a serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor antidepressant treatment in the mouse FST. Simple-interval (SIM and composite-interval (CIM mappings were applied to map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs of the anti-immobility effect of fluoxetine in FST (FST(FLX in 865 male B6×FVB-F2 mice. The brain mRNA expressions of the gene with the maximum QTL-linkage signal for FST(FLX after the FST were compared between B6 and FVB mice and also compared between fluoxetine and saline treatment. The association of the variants in the human homologue of the mouse FST(FLX-QTL gene with major depressive disorder (MDD and antidepressant response were investigated in 1080 human subjects (MDD/control = 582/498. RESULTS: One linkage signal for FST(FLX-QTL was detected at an intronic SNP (rs6215396 of the mouse Zfp326 gene (maximal CIM-LOD = 9.36. The Zfp326 mRNA expression in the FVB thalamus was significantly down-regulated by fluoxetine in the FST, and the higher FVB-to-B6 Zfp326 mRNA expressions in the frontal cortex, striatum and hypothalamus diminished after fluoxetine treatment. Two coding-synonymous SNPs (rs2816881 and rs10922744 in the human homologue of Zfp326, ZNF326, were significantly associated with the 8-week antidepressant treatment response in the MDD patients (Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.004-0.028. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest the involvement of the Zfp326 and ZNF326 genes in antidepressant treatment response.

  6. A Monte Carlo Study on the Performance of a Corrected Formula for Epsilon Approximate Suggested by Lecoutre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru San; Dunlap, William P.

    1994-01-01

    The present simulation study confirms that the corrected epsilon approximate test of B. Lecoutre yields a less biased estimation of population epsilon and reduces Type I error rates when compared to the epsilon approximate test of H. Huynh and L. S. Feldt. (SLD)

  7. Preliminary Study Suggests Low Incidence of Gastric Carcinoma in Kelantan Relates To Low Rate of Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Raj, S. Mahendra

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric carcinoma is generally more common in the antrum/body and is of the intestinal type. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of gastric carcinoma in an area known to have a low prevalence of H. pylori. Pathology records of gastric carcinoma diagnosed at Hospital University Sains Malaysia between 1995 and 1999 were retrieved and studied. There were a total of 23 cases. The median age was 60 years. Eighteen patients were Malay and 5 were Chinese. The most common location of the tumour was the cardia/gastrooesophageal junction (61%, 14/23 patients). The majority was of the intestinal type (69.6%, 16/23). The frequency of gastric carcinoma appears to be exceptionally low in the area of study. The Chinese population was over-represented. The higher frequency of tumour in the cardia/gastro-oesophageal junction as compared to the antrum and body is in sharp contrast to most other studies. This reaffirms the notion that Helicobacter pylori infection is a causative agent for non-cardia gastric carcinomas. PMID:22973153

  8. Pregnancy Diet High in Refined Grains Could Increase Child Obesity Risk By Age 7, NIH Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases Media Advisory Wednesday, June 7, 2017 Pregnancy diet high in refined grains could increase child obesity ... during pregnancy, affects about 5 percent of all pregnancies in the United ... studies have linked diets high in refined grains — such as white rice — ...

  9. Structural Studies of Bacterioferritin B from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Suggest a Gating Mechanism for Iron Uptake via the Ferroxidase Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeratunga, Saroja K.; Lovell, Scott; Yao, Huili; Battaile, Kevin P.; Fischer, Christopher J.; Gee, Casey E.; Rivera, Mario (Kansas); (HWMRI)

    2010-03-16

    solution, suggest that the ferroxidase pore is the dominant entry route for the uptake of iron by Pa BfrB. These findings, which are clearly distinct from those made with Escherichia coli Bfr [Crow, A. C., Lawson, T. L., Lewin, A., Moore, G. R., and Le Brun, N. E. (2009) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 6808-6813], indicate that not all bacterioferritins operate in the same manner.

  10. A Qualitative Study of the Status of Children's Play From the Viewpoints of Experts and Suggestions for Promotion Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, Maryam; Hajnaghizadeh, Fatemeh; Damari, Behzad

    2015-08-01

    The latest national census reports the population of Iranian children (1 - 8 years old) about 11 millions. On the other hand, the latest population policies approved by supreme cultural revolution council (SCRC) will make this population increase faster. Childhood development is one of the social determinants of health, of which "child's play" is a part. This study is an effort to identify difficulties and challenges of the plays influential on Iranian children's health nationwide, in order to present enhancive strategies by utilizing the views of stakeholders and national studies. Analyzing children's play stakeholders, main organizations were identified and views of 13 informed people involved in the field were investigated through deep semi-structured interview. A denaturalized approach was employed in analyzing the data. In addition to descriptions of the state, interventions development, and designing the conceptual model, national reports and studies, and other countries' experiences were also reviewed. Society's little knowledge of "children's plays", absence of administrators for children's play, shortage of public facilities for children's play and improper geographical and demographic availability, absence of policies for Iranian "toy", and little attention of media to the issue are the five major problems as stated by interviewees. The proposed interventions are presented as "promoting the educational levels of parents and selected administrators for children's play", "approving the play and toy policy for Iran 2025", and "increasing public facilities for children's play with defined distribution and availability".

  11. CAM Use and Suggestions for Medical Care of Senior Citizens: A Qualitative Study Using the World Café Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stöckigt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little data exists concerning the reasons for using complementary and alternative (CAM therapies by seniors. Therefore, the aim of this study is to learn about motives of German seniors for using CAM therapies and their wishes for health care in general. Methods. One focus group and one “World Café” following a semistructured interview guide were conducted. All discussions were recorded digitally, transcribed, and analyzed according to Qualitative Content Analysis using the software MAXQDA. Results. In total 21 seniors participated (eighteen female, three male, mean age 72.5 ± 4.3 years. Most of the participants had lifelong experiences with medicinal herbs and home remedies due to unavailable conventional care during childhood. Also important for them were nutrition and exercise. These methods were often used as self-care to enhance wellbeing, to prevent and to cure illnesses. The participants would welcome an integration of CAM in health care services. They asked especially for more empathic physicians who are better trained in CAM and respect their experiences. Conclusion. The importance of life experience in regard to health care by senior can be seen as a resource. Qualitative studies investigating physician-patient relationships and intergenerational aspects in CAM use could be of interest for further studies.

  12. Seroprevalence of Alphavirus Antibodies in a Cross-Sectional Study in Southwestern Tanzania Suggests Endemic Circulation of Chikungunya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Gerhard; Saathoff, Elmar; Kroidl, Inge; Ntinginya, Nyanda Elias; Maboko, Leonard; Löscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, Alphavirus infections and their most prominent member, chikungunya fever, a viral disease which first became apparent in Tanzania in 1953, have been very little investigated in regions without epidemic occurrence. Few data exist on burden of disease and socio-economic and environmental covariates disposing to infection. Methods A cross-sectional seroprevalence study was undertaken in 1,215 persons from Mbeya region, South-Western Tanzania, to determine the seroprevalence of anti-Alphavirus IgG antibodies, and to investigate associated risk factors. Results 18% of 1,215 samples were positive for Alphavirus IgG. Seropositivity was associated with participant age, low to intermediate elevation, flat terrain and with IgG positivity for Rift Valley fever, Flaviviridae, and rickettsiae of the spotted fever group. When comparing the geographical distribution of Alphavirus seropositivity to that of Rift Valley fever, it was obvious that Alphaviruses had spread more widely throughout the study area, while Rift Valley fever was concentrated along the shore of Lake Malawi. Conclusion Alphavirus infections may contribute significantly to the febrile disease burden in the study area, and are associated with several arthropod-borne infections. Their spread seems only limited by factors affecting mosquitoes, and seems less restricted than that of Rift Valley fever. PMID:25079964

  13. Seroprevalence of alphavirus antibodies in a cross-sectional study in southwestern Tanzania suggests endemic circulation of chikungunya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Weller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, Alphavirus infections and their most prominent member, chikungunya fever, a viral disease which first became apparent in Tanzania in 1953, have been very little investigated in regions without epidemic occurrence. Few data exist on burden of disease and socio-economic and environmental covariates disposing to infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional seroprevalence study was undertaken in 1,215 persons from Mbeya region, South-Western Tanzania, to determine the seroprevalence of anti-Alphavirus IgG antibodies, and to investigate associated risk factors. RESULTS: 18% of 1,215 samples were positive for Alphavirus IgG. Seropositivity was associated with participant age, low to intermediate elevation, flat terrain and with IgG positivity for Rift Valley fever, Flaviviridae, and rickettsiae of the spotted fever group. When comparing the geographical distribution of Alphavirus seropositivity to that of Rift Valley fever, it was obvious that Alphaviruses had spread more widely throughout the study area, while Rift Valley fever was concentrated along the shore of Lake Malawi. CONCLUSION: Alphavirus infections may contribute significantly to the febrile disease burden in the study area, and are associated with several arthropod-borne infections. Their spread seems only limited by factors affecting mosquitoes, and seems less restricted than that of Rift Valley fever.

  14. Genome-wide association study in multiple human prion diseases suggests genetic risk factors additional to PRNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Simon; Uphill, James; Beck, John; Poulter, Mark; Campbell, Tracy; Lowe, Jessica; Adamson, Gary; Hummerich, Holger; Klopp, Norman; Rückert, Ina-Maria; Wichmann, H-Erich; Azazi, Dhoyazan; Plagnol, Vincent; Pako, Wandagi H.; Whitfield, Jerome; Alpers, Michael P.; Whittaker, John; Balding, David J.; Zerr, Inga; Kretzschmar, Hans; Collinge, John

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals caused by the misfolding and aggregation of prion protein (PrP). Mammalian prion diseases are under strong genetic control but few risk factors are known aside from the PrP gene locus (PRNP). No genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been done aside from a small sample of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD). We conducted GWAS of sporadic CJD (sCJD), variant CJD (vCJD), iatrogenic CJD, inherited prion disease, kuru and resistance to kuru despite attendance at mortuary feasts. After quality control, we analysed 2000 samples and 6015 control individuals (provided by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium and KORA-gen) for 491032-511862 SNPs in the European study. Association studies were done in each geographical and aetiological group followed by several combined analyses. The PRNP locus was highly associated with risk in all geographical and aetiological groups. This association was driven by the known coding variation at rs1799990 (PRNP codon 129). No non-PRNP loci achieved genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis of all human prion disease. SNPs at the ZBTB38–RASA2 locus were associated with CJD in the UK (rs295301, P = 3.13 × 10−8; OR, 0.70) but these SNPs showed no replication evidence of association in German sCJD or in Papua New Guinea-based tests. A SNP in the CHN2 gene was associated with vCJD [P = 1.5 × 10−7; odds ratio (OR), 2.36], but not in UK sCJD (P = 0.049; OR, 1.24), in German sCJD or in PNG groups. In the overall meta-analysis of CJD, 14 SNPs were associated (P < 10−5; two at PRNP, three at ZBTB38–RASA2, nine at nine other independent non-PRNP loci), more than would be expected by chance. None of the loci recently identified as genome-wide significant in studies of other neurodegenerative diseases showed any clear evidence of association in prion diseases. Concerning common genetic variation, it is likely that the PRNP locus contains the only

  15. Smart garment for trunk posture monitoring: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Man

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor postures of the spine have been considered in association with a number of spinal musculoskeletal disorders, including structural deformity of the spine and back pain. Improper posturing for the patients with spinal disorders may further deteriorate their pain and deformities. Therefore, posture training has been proposed and its rationale is to use the patient's own back muscles to keep the spine within the natural curvature. A posture training device may help to facilitate this therapeutic approach by providing continuous posture monitoring and feedback signals to the patient when "poor" posture is detected. In addition, the users of the device may learn good postural habits that could carry over into their whole life. Methods A smart garment with integrated accelerometers and gyroscopes, which can detect postural changes in terms of curvature variation of the spine in the sagittal and coronal planes, has been developed with intention to facilitate posture training. The smart garment was evaluated in laboratory tests and with 5 normal subjects during their daily activities. Results Laboratory tests verified that the accuracy of the system is Conclusion The smart garment has been developed to be a portable and user-friendly trunk posture monitoring system and it could be used for collection of the trunk posture information and provision of instant feedback to the user if necessary for posture training purpose. The current pilot study demonstrated that the posture of normal subjects could be monitored and trained via this smart garment. With further clinical investigations, this system could be considered in some flexible spinal deformities such as scoliosis and kyphosis.

  16. Barriers to self-monitoring of blood glucose among adults with diabetes in an HMO: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton Mary B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that patients at greatest risk for diabetes complications are least likely to self-monitor blood glucose. However, these studies rely on self-reports of monitoring, an unreliable measure of actual behavior. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between patient characteristics and self-monitoring in a large health maintenance organization (HMO using test strips as objective measures of self-monitoring practice. Methods This cross-sectional study included 4,565 continuously enrolled adult managed care patients in eastern Massachusetts with diabetes. Any self-monitoring was defined as filling at least one prescription for self-monitoring test strips during the study period (10/1/92–9/30/93. Regular SMBG among test strip users was defined as testing an average of once per day for those using insulin and every other day for those using oral sulfonylureas only. Measures of health status, demographic data, and neighborhood socioeconomic status were obtained from automated medical records and 1990 census tract data. Results In multivariate analyses, lower neighborhood socioeconomic status, older age, fewer HbA1c tests, and fewer physician visits were associated with lower rates of self-monitoring. Obesity and fewer comorbidities were also associated with lower rates of self-monitoring among insulin-managed patients, while black race and high glycemic level (HbA1c>10 were associated with less frequent monitoring. For patients taking oral sulfonylureas, higher dose of diabetes medications was associated with initiation of self-monitoring and HbA1c lab testing was associated with more frequent testing. Conclusions Managed care organizations may face the greatest challenges in changing the self-monitoring behavior of patients at greatest risk for poor health outcomes (i.e., the elderly, minorities, and people living in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods.

  17. Genome-wide association study in multiple human prion diseases suggests genetic risk factors additional to PRNP

    OpenAIRE

    Mead, Simon; Uphill, James; Beck, John; Poulter, Mark; Campbell, Tracy; Lowe, Jessica; Adamson, Gary; Hummerich, Holger; Klopp, Norman; Rückert, Ina-Maria; Wichmann, H-Erich; Azazi, Dhoyazan; Plagnol, Vincent; Pako, Wandagi H.; Whitfield, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals caused by the misfolding and aggregation of prion protein (PrP). Mammalian prion diseases are under strong genetic control but few risk factors are known aside from the PrP gene locus (PRNP). No genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been done aside from a small sample of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD). We conducted GWAS of sporadic CJD (sCJD), variant CJD (vCJD), iatrogenic CJD, inherited prion disease, kuru...

  18. A Genome-Wide Association Study Suggests Novel Loci Associated with a Schizophrenia-Related Brain-Based Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Hass

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia and their siblings typically show subtle changes of brain structures, such as a reduction of hippocampal volume. Hippocampal volume is heritable, may explain a variety of cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and is thus considered an intermediate phenotype for this mental illness. The aim of our analyses was to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP related to hippocampal volume without making prior assumptions about possible candidate genes. In this study, we combined genetics, imaging and neuropsychological data obtained from the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium study of schizophrenia (n = 328. A total of 743,591 SNPs were tested for association with hippocampal volume in a genome-wide association study. Gene expression profiles of human hippocampal tissue were investigated for gene regions of significantly associated SNPs. None of the genetic markers reached genome-wide significance. However, six highly correlated SNPs (rs4808611, rs35686037, rs12982178, rs1042178, rs10406920, rs8170 on chromosome 19p13.11, located within or in close proximity to the genes NR2F6, USHBP1, and BABAM1, as well as four SNPs in three other genomic regions (chromosome 1, 2 and 10 had p-values between 6.75×10(-6 and 8.3×10(-7. Using existing data of a very recently published GWAS of hippocampal volume and additional data of a multicentre study in a large cohort of adolescents of European ancestry, we found supporting evidence for our results. Furthermore, allelic differences in rs4808611 and rs8170 were highly associated with differential mRNA expression in the cis-acting region. Associations with memory functioning indicate a possible functional importance of the identified risk variants. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of a brain structure closely linked to schizophrenia. In silico replication, mRNA expression and cognitive data provide additional support for the relevance of our findings

  19. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in Germany: A qualitative study on pregnant women's attitudes, experiences, and suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görig, Tatiana; Schneider, Sven; Bock, Christina; Maul, Holger; Kleinwechter, Helmut; Diehl, Katharina

    2015-11-01

    to explore pregnant women's experiences with the recently implemented screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). qualitative study. Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan region, Germany. 20 pregnant women aged 27-41 years (mean: 32.6 years) who were at least in gestational week 29, i.e., those who should have already been screened for GDM. semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions were conducted via telephone between November 2013 and February 2014. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and subsequently analyzed using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. The screening was seen as an important instrument to detect GDM and thus to prevent possible health problems in both mother and child. Some deviations from the recommended screening procedure were reported in the interviews, e.g., collecting capillary blood instead of venous blood during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); offering an OGTT without a prior glucose challenge test (GCT); conducting a GCT after an overnight fast. Two women had to actively ask for the screening to be done. One woman reported that her gynaecologist advised her against the screening. this qualitative study reflects the women's experiences with the new screening for GDM. Our findings show that two years after the introduction of universal GDM screening in Germany the screening procedure does not always seem to meet the standards of the German maternity guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification, modeling, and characterization studies of Tetrahymena thermophila myosin FERM domains suggests a conserved core fold but functional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Che L; Singh, Shaneen M

    2015-11-01

    Myosins (MYO) define a superfamily of motor proteins which facilitate movement along cytoskeletal actin filaments in an ATP-dependent manner. To date, over 30 classes of myosin have been defined that vary in their roles and distribution across different taxa. The multidomain tail of myosin is responsible for the observed functional differences in different myosin classes facilitating differential binding to different cargos. One domain found in this region, the FERM domain, is found in several diverse proteins and is involved in many biological functions ranging from cell adhesion and actin-driven cytoskeleton assembly to cell signaling. Recently, new classes of unconventional myosin have been identified in Tetrahymena thermophila. In this study, we have identified, modeled, and characterized eight FERM domains from the unconventional T. thermophila myosins as their complete functional MyTH4-FERM cassettes. Our results reveal notable sequence, structural, and electrostatic differences between T. thermophila and other characterized FERM domains. Specifically, T. thermophila FERM domains contain helical inserts or extensions, which contribute to significant differences in surface electrostatic profiles of T. thermophila myosin FERMs when compared to the conventional FERM domains. Analyses of the modeled domains reveal differences in key functional residues as well as phosphoinositide-binding signatures and affinities. The work presented here broadens the scope of our understanding of myosin classes and their inherent functions, and provides a platform for experimentalists to design rational experimental studies to test the functional roles for T. thermophila myosins.

  1. Measles susceptibility in young Thai men suggests need for young adult measles vaccination: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonwong, Siriphan; Chuenchitra, Thippawan; Khantapura, Patchariya; Islam, Dilara; Mason, Carl J

    2016-04-11

    Measles remains a major public health concern in Thailand despite the introduction of vaccination since 1984. Similar to other countries, Thailand has experienced numerous measles outbreaks including adult communities such as university student dormitories, prisons, refugee camps, and military recruit camps. These outbreaks raise questions on the seroprotective antibody level in Thai adults. To better understand measles susceptibility in young Thai adults, a retrospective measles seroprevalence study on repository serum specimens obtained with informed consent from young Thai men entering the Royal Thai Army (RTA) during 2007-2008 was conducted. A total of 7760 stratified randomized samples were chosen by residence province. Measles IgG titer was measured using a commercial IgG quantitative ELISA kit following the manufacturer's instructions. An antibody level ≥ 250 International Units per Liter (IU/L) was interpreted as seropositive. The overall measles seroprevalence was 78.5 % (95 % Confidence Interval: 77.6-79.4 %) with geometric mean titer of 738 IU/L (95 % Confidence Interval: 716-760 IU/L). The measles seroprevalence by province ranged from 59.6 % to 93.1 %. A trend of decreasing seroprevalence in the younger cohorts despite increasing immunization coverage was found. Lower seroprevalence than vaccination coverage was observed in the youngest age group. To achieve long term measles control and elimination, an integrated two doses vaccination strategy has been implemented in children in Thailand. This nationwide measles seroprevalence study in young adult RTA recruits found a measles seroprevalence lower than WHO's recommendation for measles outbreak prevention and elimination. These results raise concerns for measles control in Thailand. Supplementary immunization in young adults is essential especially in high-risk and densely populated communities to establish herd immunity for outbreak prevention and elimination.

  2. [Comparative study of two techniques of ciclosporine monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, Rim; El Jebari, Hanène; Gaïes, Emna; Charfi, Ons; Jebabli, Nadia; Thouraya, Riahi; Ben Messaouda, Mhamed; Lakhal, Mohamed; Klouz, Anis; Salouage, Issam; Trabelsi, Sameh

    2015-01-01

    Ciclosporine (CsA) is an immunosuppressant drug used in bone marrow transplantation in order to extend allograft survival. Despite its efficiency, CsA can expose to therapeutic failure or to toxicity because of underdosing or overdosage. So, many techniques of monitoring CsA in blood were used, the referance one is the chromatographic technique then, the automated techniques: fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and chimiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). In this study, we aimed to compare the results of CsA concentrations measured by the two automised techniques. Statistical studies showed that the two techniques were repeatable and reproductible. Results obtained by FPIA were slightly higher than those obtained by CMIA but without a significative difference. In conclusion, FPIA technique could be used to measure CsA blood concentration in replacement of CMIA in case of technical problems.

  3. How information systems should support the information needs of general dentists in clinical settings: suggestions from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wali Teena

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in designing useful clinical information systems in dentistry is to incorporate clinical evidence based on dentists' information needs and then integrate the system seamlessly into the complex clinical workflow. However, little is known about the actual information needs of dentists during treatment sessions. The purpose of this study is to identify general dentists' information needs and the information sources they use to meet those needs in clinical settings so as to inform the design of dental information systems. Methods A semi-structured interview was conducted with a convenience sample of 18 general dentists in the Pittsburgh area during clinical hours. One hundred and five patient cases were reported by these dentists. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed using thematic analysis with a constant comparative method to identify categories and themes regarding information needs and information source use patterns. Results Two top-level categories of information needs were identified: foreground and background information needs. To meet these needs, dentists used four types of information sources: clinical information/tasks, administrative tasks, patient education and professional development. Major themes of dentists' unmet information needs include: (1 timely access to information on various subjects; (2 better visual representations of dental problems; (3 access to patient-specific evidence-based information; and (4 accurate, complete and consistent documentation of patient records. Resource use patterns include: (1 dentists' information needs matched information source use; (2 little use of electronic sources took place during treatment; (3 source use depended on the nature and complexity of the dental problems; and (4 dentists routinely practiced cross-referencing to verify patient information. Conclusions Dentists have various information needs at the point of care. Among them, the needs

  4. Some seismologieal results and geostructural suggestions from a study of the Reggio Calabria earthquake of 16 January, 1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L o GIUDICE

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the analytic determination of the most important parameters of the Reggio Calabria earthquake, several geostructural hypotheses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical hvpocentre, calculated in two separate phases for (lie epicentral coordinates (q> = 38°04'28"; A = 15°38'55" and for the depth (h = 10.04 km, is consistent with an earlier macroseismic estimation. The travel times for the first arrivals, limited to the distance interval 0 ^ ¿1° ^ 12 can be approximated by means of the three linear equations: which can be interpreted as the travel-time curves of the direct (Pg and refracted (Pn i , P„2 longitudinal waves. The existence of a focal mechanism, compatible with a couple + oppositely directed force model is deduced from a study of the signs of the first impulses. This model includes faulting and displacement with dislocation plane N 22"K and inclination of ~ 75° towards XI 12°E. Considering the focal location and our geostructural knowledge of the area involved, the Reggio Calabria earthquake can be explained by a process of tectonic distension due to the drift of the Calabrian Arc and to other reliable geostructural elements. The explanation is critically evaluated in relation to the tectonic forces involving the Strait of Messina and the volcanic zone of Etna.

  5. "Audiometric studies in 53 cases with sudden sensorineural hearing loss:can we suggest an algorithm for treatment? "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemati Sh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sudden sensorinueural hearing loss (SSNHL is a baffling condition for patients, and its etiology, audiologic characteristics, prognostic factors, and treatment are still controversial. Methods: In this prospective study, we performed pure tone audiometry (PTA, impedance acoustics (IA, auditory brainstem responses (ABR, otoacoustic emissions (OAE, and transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE before beginning treatment for 53 patients with SSNHL. We then entered each patient, randomly and alternately, in one of two treatment groups: oral steroids + acyclovir vs. intravenous urographin. Results: In 22 (41.5% of the 53 patients (22 female, 31 male, we found negative or no signal to noise ratio and overall correlation in TEOAE. Furthermore, 26 cases (49% had positive overall correlations less than 50%, and five cases (4.4% had overall correlations >50%. Although 15 cases (28.3% responded well, 20 cases (37.7% showed only a partial response, and 18 cases (33.9% had poor or no response to our treatment. The mean value for overall correlation in the three subgroups of patients (no response, partial response, and complete response was -3.5% (±1/16%, + 11% (±1.99%, and +36.6% (±3.07% respectively (P = 0.01. From 52 cases, 20 had no reproducible wave in ABR (38.5%, three cases had abnormal ABR with normal OAE, all of which responded completely to treatments. Thirteen cases had abnormal ABR and OAE, none of which responded to treatment, and six cases had normal ABR with abnormal OAE, which often responded to treatment. Conclusions: ABR and OAE may be useful in the diagnosis of SSNHL and determining the site of such lesions as ischemia or neuropathy. The overall correlation (and S/N ratio in TEOAE is a valuable prognostic factor in SSNHL.

  6. Analysis of educational research at a medical faculty in Germany and suggestions for strategic development - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Sarah; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based medical education is playing an increasingly important role in the choice of didactic methods and the development of medical curricula and assessments. In Germany, a growing number of educational research projects has accompanied an ongoing change in the medical education process. The aim of this project was to assess medical education research activities at one medical faculty to develop procedural recommendations for the support and development of best evidence medical education. Methods: Using a newly developed online questionnaire, the 65 institutes and departments of the medical faculty of Hamburg University at Hamburg University Medical-Center (UKE) were asked to report their medical education research and service projects, medical education publications, medical education theses, financial support for educational projects, and supportive structures that they would consider helpful in the future. The data were grouped, and a SWOT analysis was performed. Results: In total, 60 scientists who were involved in 112 medical education research publications between 1998 and 2014 were identified at the UKE. Twenty-five of them had published at least one manuscript as first or last author. Thirty-three UKE institutions were involved in educational service or research projects at the time of the study, and 75.8% of them received internal or external funding. Regular educational research meetings and the acquisition of co-operation partners were mentioned most frequently as beneficial supportive structures for the future. Conclusion: An analysis to define the status quo of medical education research at a medical faculty seems to be a helpful first step for the development of a strategy and structure to further support researchers in medical education.

  7. Flood Monitoring and Hydrologic Studies Using Retracked Satellite Radar Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Shum, C.; Lee, H.; Alsdorf, D.; Schwartz, F.

    2008-12-01

    Nadir, pulse-limited radar altimetry measurements have been used to monitor large surface-water bodies. In spite of progress, there is a need for a robust and automated procedure, which allows classification and stage measurements in small water bodies, which lying along the orbital path, using multiple radar altimeter measurements. Here we used an algorithm, which is mainly based on radar scatter waveform response and statistical analysis of mean and standard deviation of the resulting water level change to classify surface- waters from other land covers. We tested the algorithm using 10-Hz retracked radar altimetry measurements from TOPEX over regions including the Amazon River basin, the Prairie Pothole Region in North America, and south-western Taiwan. The estimated water-level stages are compared with data from available stage measurements, and altimetry data available from public data centers. We also applied the algorithm to study the 1997 hundred-year Red River flood, and the June 2008 fifty-year flood in the Upper Midwest of the United States. For the1997 flood, it is found that the flooded regions detected by altimetry include the Red River Basin in North Dakota and Minnesota, the Missouri River Basin in North Dakota and South Dakota, the Minnesota River Basin and the Mississippi River Basin in Minnesota and Iowa. The extent of the flood agrees with the USGS record. The observed water height in Grand Forks reaches 6 meters above the normal. The ENVISAT altimetry is shown to be able to track the ebb and recede of the 2008 Iowa City flood. The results of this study could be applied to provide improved accuracy and potentially automated classification of nadir radar altimetry observed small inland water body measurements for hydrologic studies and for flood monitoring.

  8. Preliminary studies of a new monitor ionization chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Maíra T; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V E

    2010-01-01

    A new monitor ionization chamber was developed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) in order to monitor X-ray beams. The main difference of this monitor ionization chamber in relation to other monitor chambers is its geometry, which consists of a ring-shaped sensitive volume. Because of this geometry, the monitor chamber has a central hole through which the direct radiation beam passes. The operational characteristics of the monitor chamber were evaluated: saturation, ion collection efficiency and polarity effect. Besides these tests, the short- and medium-term stabilities of its response were also evaluated. During the tests the leakage current was always negligible. All results showed values within those recommended internationally (IEC, 1997. Medical electrical equipment-dosimeters with ionization chambers and/or semi-conductor detectors as used in X-ray diagnostic imaging. IEC 61674. International Electrotechnical Commission, Genève). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Timothy; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    The goal of Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies is to collect monitoring data to evaluate wild and natural steelhead populations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. During 2007, intensive population data were collected in Fish Creek (Lochsa River tributary) and Rapid River (Little Salmon River tributary); extensive data were collected in other selected spawning tributaries. Weirs were operated in Fish Creek and Rapid River to estimate adult escapement and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. Snorkel surveys were conducted in Fish Creek, Rapid River, and Boulder Creek (Little Salmon River tributary) to estimate parr density. Screw traps were operated in Fish Creek, Rapid River, Secesh River, and Big Creek to estimate juvenile emigrant abundance, to tag fish for survival estimation, and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. The estimated wild adult steelhead escapement in Fish Creek was 81 fish and in Rapid River was 32 fish. We estimate that juvenile emigration was 24,127 fish from Fish Creek; 5,632 fish from Rapid River; and 43,674 fish from Big Creek. The Secesh trap was pulled for an extended period due to wildfires, so we did not estimate emigrant abundance for that location. In cooperation with Idaho Supplementation Studies, trap tenders PIT tagged 25,618 steelhead juveniles at 18 screw trap sites in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. To estimate age composition, 143 adult steelhead and 5,082 juvenile steelhead scale samples were collected. At the time of this report, 114 adult and 1,642 juvenile samples have been aged. Project personnel collected genetic samples from 122 adults and 839 juveniles. We sent 678 genetic samples to the IDFG Eagle Fish Genetics Laboratory for analysis. Water temperature was recorded at 37 locations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages.

  10. Suggestions for the Development of Environmental Monitoring Technical Talents based on Competence Theory%基于能力素质理论对环境监测技术人才发展的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林楠; 牛航宇; 高国伟; 马莉娟; 徐琳

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing several competency models of technical researchers, encoding the competency ele-ments and processing the data with statistic method,this paper finally got 6 aspects of 20 core competency ele-ments of technical talents. Moreover,the results also provide some practical suggestions for not only facilitating research development, technology innovation and knowledge communication, but also strengthening work-team building and career confidence of environmental monitoring technical researchers.%通过分析技术研发人员能力素质模型,对能力素质要素作编码整理、频次统计和赋值计算,最终得到6个方面共20项技术研究人员核心能力素质要素. 据此,对今后一段时期环境监测技术人才的发展提出了改进制度推动研究发展、融合业务促进创新涌现、加强交流建设知识平台、优化结构打造高质团队、树立目标增强事业自信等建议.

  11. A Study on the Estimation Method of Risk Based Area for Jetty Safety Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Wook Nam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the importance of safety-monitoring systems was highlighted by the unprecedented collision between a ship and a jetty in Yeosu. Accordingly, in this study, we introduce the concept of risk based area and develop a methodology for a jetty safety-monitoring system. By calculating the risk based areas for a ship and a jetty, the risk of collision was evaluated. To calculate the risk based areas, we employed an automatic identification system for the ship, stopping-distance equations, and the regulation velocity near the jetty. In this paper, we suggest a risk calculation method for jetty safety monitoring that can determine the collision probability in real time and predict collisions using the amount of overlap between the two calculated risk based areas. A test was conducted at a jetty control center at GS Caltex, and the effectiveness of the proposed risk calculation method was verified. The method is currently applied to the jetty-monitoring system at GS Caltex in Yeosu for the prevention of collisions.

  12. Quantifying the economic benefit of groundwater monitoring: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geer, F. van; Marsman, A.; Janssen, G.M.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Usually the design of the monitoring system is based on the relation between the monitoring effort and the uncertainty of the information. Often the estimation error standard deviation is used as a criterion for the design. Despite the fact that, for scientists, the standard deviation as a measure o

  13. Theories of Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W

    1928-02-01

    The word "suggestion" has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence.Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena.The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability.Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct "inhibited in its aim" (transference) and brings in his distinction of "ego" and "ego-ideal" (or "super-ego") to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible.

  14. BENEFIT MONITORING AND EVALUATION (BME: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ridwan Malik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, the ultimate benefits of health development projects are reflected as increased incomes or tangible improvements in quality of life. They will only be forth coming if services provided by project have more direct effect for those who use the services. However the effects of health programs might be direct or indirect so that they are difficult to be measured comparing with other sectors. The study team conducted a study on Benefit Monitoring and Evaluation (BME by using The Rural Health and Population Project (ADB Ill-Loan No.1299-lno as objective of the study. The study was conducted in the year 2000, however, the results of this study is relevant to be published due to it is difficult to find the references, which showed the experiences of the BME study in the health sector. The prime objective of the Rural Health and Population Project was to assist the Government in raising the health status of the population and reducing total fertility rates through the improvement of quality, relevance, efficiency and effectiveness of community-based rural health and family planning (FP delivery system. The Project adopted the following three strategic initiatives: (1 to change the role and orientation of the district hospital; (2 to improve community-based rural health, nutrition and FP service delivery and capabilities; and (3 to strengthen the organization and management at district level. To examine the extent, to which these reforms through the project implementation have intended benefits and effects, both individually and collectively, the evaluation team conducted a study to evaluate the progress on the field implementation of these reforms in the area of the project. The evaluation  of benefits of projects will be conducted, whether or not the benchmarks of benefit monitoring was adequately documented when the project is prepared. The study team using a conceptual  model called a Logical Framework (LF a set of cause

  15. Monitoring the Veterinary Medical Student Experience: An Institutional Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, RoseAnn; Mavis, Brian E; Lloyd, James W; Grabill, Chandra M; Henry, Rebecca C; Patterson, Coretta C

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary medical school challenges students academically and personally, and some students report depression and anxiety at rates higher than the general population and other medical students. This study describes changes in veterinary medical student self-esteem (SE) over four years of professional education, attending to differences between high and low SE students and the characteristics specific to low SE veterinary medical students. The study population was students enrolled at the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine from 2006 to 2012. We used data from the annual anonymous survey administered college-wide that is used to monitor the curriculum and learning environment. The survey asked respondents to rate their knowledge and skill development, learning environment, perceptions of stress, skill development, and SE. Participants also provided information on their academic performance and demographics. A contrasting groups design was used: high and low SE students were compared using logistic regression to identify factors associated with low SE. A total of 1,653 respondents met inclusion criteria: 789 low SE and 864 high SE students. The proportion of high and low SE students varied over time, with the greatest proportion of low SE students during the second-year of the program. Perceived stress was associated with low SE, whereas perceived supportive learning environment and skill development were associated with high SE. These data have provided impetus for curricular and learning environment changes to enhance student support. They also provide guidance for additional research to better understand various student academic trajectories and their implications for success.

  16. [Safety study of long-term video-electroencephalogram monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, M; Vivanco, R; Massot, A; Jiménez, J; Roquer, J; Rocamora, R

    2014-01-01

    The increased morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life associated with drug-resistant epilepsy justify admitting patients to epilepsy monitoring units (EMU). These units employ methods that promote the occurrence of seizures, which involves a risk of secondary adverse events. The aim of our study is to characterise and quantify these adverse events in a Spanish EMU. A descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study of patients admitted consecutively to our EMU. Patients admitted due to status epilepticus, clusters of seizures, or as participants in a clinical trial were excluded. We included 175 patients, of whom 92.1% (161) did not suffer any adverse events. Status epilepticus was present in 3.4% (6); 1.7% (3) had traumatic injury, 1.7% (3) had interictal or postictal psychosis, and 1.1% (2) had cardiorespiratory impairment. There were no risk factors associated with these adverse events. The most frequently-identified adverse events were status epilepticus, traumatic injury, interictal or postictal psychosis, and cardiorespiratory disorders. The frequency of these adverse events was similar to that seen in international literature. The complications detected do not contraindicate VEEGM. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Health monitoring studies on composite structures for aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G.; Roach, D.; Hansche, B.; Meza, R.; Robinson, N.

    1996-02-01

    This paper discusses ongoing work to develop structural health monitoring techniques for composite aerospace structures such as aircraft control surfaces, fuselage sections or repairs, and reusable launch vehicle fuel tanks. The overall project is divided into four tasks: Operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage detection. Five composite plates were constructed to study delaminations, disbonds, and fluid retention issues as the initial step in creating an operational system. These four square feet plates were graphite-epoxy with nomex honeycomb cores. The diagnostic measurements are composed of modal tests with a scanning laser vibrometer at over 500 scan points per plate covering the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. This data has been reduced into experimental dynamics matrices using a generic, software package developed at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The continuing effort will entail performing a series of damage identification studies to detect, localize, and determine the extent of the damage. This work is providing understanding and algorithm development for a global NDE technique for composite aerospace structures.

  18. Suggested safeguards an

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    ... COORDINATION. (FACILITATION OR CASE MANAGEMENT) IN SOUTH AFRICA ... SUGGESTED SAFEGUARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE AND .... professional practice.27 They have to assess the situation; educate the parents.

  19. LHC Transvers Profile Monitors studies (MD on May 6th, 2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, E; Dehning, B; Emery, J; Lefevre, T; Gras, JJ; Jeff, A; Rabiller, A; Roncarolo, F; Sapinski, M; Kain, V; Pojer, M; Bartosik, H; Salvant, B

    2011-01-01

    This note contains the preliminary results of the LHC MD that took place on 6-May-2011 (from 2 to 10 a.m.), dedicated to study Wire Scanners (WS), Synchrotron Radiation Monitors (BSRT) and Beam Gas Ionization Monitors (BGI). The MD aimed at performing different studies on the individual monitors as well as at cross calibrating them with beams composed of bunches with different transverse emittances in stable conditions. At the same time, it was possible to perform calibration studies with the Abort Gap Monitor (AGM) and Longitudinal Density Monitor (LDM) that share the extracted light with the BSRT.

  20. Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring studies: a new study method for risk management in pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Deborah; Shakir, Saad A W

    2015-02-01

    The evolving regulatory landscape has heightened the need for innovative, proactive, efficient and more meaningful solutions for 'real-world' post-authorization safety studies (PASS) that not only align with risk management objectives to gather additional safety monitoring information or assess a pattern of drug utilization, but also satisfy key regulatory requirements for marketing authorization holder risk management planning and execution needs. There is a need for data capture across the primary care and secondary care interface, or for exploring use of new medicines in secondary care to support conducting PASS. To fulfil this need, event monitoring has evolved. The Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring (SCEM) study is a new application that enables a cohort of patients prescribed a medicine in the hospital and secondary care settings to be monitored. The method also permits the inclusion of a comparator cohort of patients receiving standard care, or another counterfactual comparator group, to be monitored concurrently, depending on the study question. The approach has been developed in parallel with the new legislative requirement for pharmaceutical companies to undertake a risk management plan as part of post-authorization safety monitoring. SCEM studies recognize that the study population comprises those patients who may have treatment initiated under the care of specialist health care professionals and who are more complex in terms of underlying disease, co-morbidities and concomitant medications than the general disease population treated in primary care. The aims of this paper are to discuss the SCEM new-user study design, rationale and features that aim to address possible bias (such as selection bias) and current applications.

  1. Perceptions and experiences of participants in a study of in-vehicle monitoring of teenage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Farmer, Charles M; Jenness, James W

    2010-08-01

    To assess the perceptions and experiences of participants in a study of a device that monitored teenagers' driving. A device that continuously monitors and reports risky driving maneuvers was installed in vehicles of 84 newly licensed teenagers. Study groups varied by whether parents had access to a Web site that summarized their teenagers' driving and by whether in-vehicle alerts provided feedback to drivers. Recruitment of subjects and problems with the device were documented. Teenagers and parents were interviewed after removal of the device. Although the study was conducted in a large urban area, recruitment progressed slowly. Parents who declined to participate usually said their teenagers opposed it, or they were concerned about intruding on the privacy of their children or jeopardizing trust with them. Both parents and teenagers thought in-vehicle alerts helped teenagers drive more safely, although two thirds of teenagers tried to drown out the alerts with loud music. Parents found the Web site useful but reported fewer Web site visits over time. Most parents would prefer receiving information through summary report cards rather than through a Web site. Both parents and teenagers thought the overall system was effective in improving teenagers' driving. Most parents said the Web site and/or device helped them talk to their teenagers about their driving. Parents thought the most effective system would be an in-vehicle alert with immediate parental notification; teenagers preferred a system allowing them to correct behavior before parental notification. The difficulties in recruiting families for a study of in-vehicle monitoring and feedback technology suggest that gaining broad acceptance may be challenging. Although many teenagers were annoyed by the technology, most said they drove more safely because of it. Sending report cards to parents and allowing teenagers to correct behavior before parents are notified may increase the usefulness and acceptability of

  2. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  3. Biotelemetric Wireless Intracranial Pressure Monitoring: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Behfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of intracranial pressure (ICP is of great importance in management of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs. The existing clinically established ICP measurement methods require catheter insertion in the cranial cavity. This increases the risk of infection and hemorrhage. Thus, noninvasive but accurate techniques are attractive. In this paper, we present two wireless, batteryless, and minimally invasive implantable sensors for continuous ICP monitoring. The implants comprise ultrathin (50 μm flexible spiral coils connected in parallel to a capacitive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS pressure sensor. The implantable sensors are inductively coupled to an external on-body reader antenna. The ICP variation can be detected wirelessly through measuring the reader antenna’s input impedance. This paper also proposes novel implant placement to improve the efficiency of the inductive link. In this study, the performance of the proposed telemetry system was evaluated in a hydrostatic pressure measurement setup. The impact of the human tissues on the inductive link was simulated using a 5 mm layer of pig skin. The results from the in vitro measurement proved the capability of our developed sensors to detect ICP variations ranging from 0 to 70 mmHg at 2.5 mmHg intervals.

  4. A study on impact monitoring using a piezoelectric paint sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyung Woo; Kang, Dong Hoon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Bok; Kang, Lae Hyong [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The piezoelectric paint sensor is a paint type sensor comprising of an epoxy and piezoelectric powder, which is the main component of a piezoelectric material. This sensor can be easily attached to any type of structure as compared to other sensors because it is viable to directly apply it on structures, as in the case with a typical paint. In this study, the capability of piezoelectric paint sensor for impact detection was evaluated. In Particular, the applications of the piezoelectric paint sensor for railroad vehicles were considered. There have been various cases reported about the damages caused by flying gravel to the under-cover of the railroad vehicle during operation. In order to prevent this, real-time monitoring of the large under-cover surface of the railroad vehicle is unavoidable. Under the assumption of vehicle application, sensor sensitivities were measured after multiple and prolonged exposure to thermal cycle environment -20⁓60 degrees Celsius). Sensitivity evaluation of paint sensor under environmental conditions was conducted in an aluminum specimen. In results, despite the small variations in sensitivity, we could confirm the applicability of this paint sensor for impact detection even after a severe environmental exposure test.

  5. Research Suggestions for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to perform accurate research. Also includes suggestions for specific research projects under such headings as: (1) types; (2) environments; (3) interactions; (4) classification; (5) hexagonal model; and (6) differentiation. (HMV)

  6. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Contributors offer suggestions concerning parents as reading stimulators, book discussions, a test bank for the secondary school/college reading lab, standardized reading tests, television reading, plagiarism, vocabulary development, and book reports. (FL)

  7. Open To Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Suggests class activities in three short articles including: (1) "Students Evaluate Reading," by Lenore Sandel; (2) "Solving Verbal Analogies," by Edward J. Dwyer; and (3) "Becoming Testwise," by Dean Schoen. (RS)

  8. Continuous mine environmental monitoring system - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, D.P.; Sahu, H.B. [Regional Engineering College, Rourkela (India)

    2001-07-01

    The introduction of continuous remote environmental monitoring and control systems in modern coal mines is a great step forward in achieving increased mine safety, higher productivity and effective utilization of manpower. They provide alarms and displays of early warnings and impending dangerous conditions in the mine. They also provide facilities to monitor and control air quality, differential pressure, noise etc. Telemetry systems have distinct advantages over the old tube bundle techniques and are being increasingly used. This article discusses in detail the basic components and the functioning of telemonitoring systems in use with special reference to Colliery A, a degree-1 gassy coal mine worked by the bord and pillar method. The system monitors and processes data on temperature, methane and carbon monoxide. 1 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Monitoring Levothyroxine Dose during Pregnancy: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhi Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women can influence the outcome for mother and fetus at all stages of pregnancy. As the fetus is entirely dependent on maternal thyroid hormones for its development until about 13 weeks of gestation, it is important to ensure adequate thyroxine substitution in pregnant women during the first trimester. Objective: The aim of this prospective study was to explore whether hypothyroidic pregnant women are adequately levothyroxine (L-T4 substituted in early pregnancy. Approach: During March 2008 to July 2009, 93 pregnant females with thyroid diseases were followed at the outpatient department of INMAS. At the first visit 86 patients were on L-T4 substitution for hypothyroidism. Seven other patients had hyperthyroidism. The patients were regularly followed every 4-8 weeks during pregnancy for dose adjustment. Before each visit serum Free Thyroxine (FT4 and TSH concentrations were determined. Results: Of the 86 patients on thyroxine substitution for hypothyroidism 56 (65.12% had serum TSH values within the reference range at their first TSH test. Thirty (34.9% had TSH values outside the reference range. In 5 patients TSH was 4 increase at the first evaluation during pregnancy was 17.46±30.8µg day1. In the 50 patients who needed to increase L-T4, 26% reached a definitive therapeutic dosage within 12th week of pregnancy, 24% within the 20th week and 50% within the 31st week. Conclusion/Recommendations: In 34.9% of pregnant women on L-T4 substitution for hypothyroidism, serum TSH values were abnormal when first tested and they had increased chances of fetal loss if not treated timely. Thyroid function in pregnant women on thyroxine substitution should be monitored as soon as pregnancy has been confirmed and carefully followed during pregnancy.

  10. A study on drug safety monitoring program in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance is useful in assuring the safety of medicines and protecting the consumers from their harmful effects. A number of single drugs as well as fixed dose combinations have been banned from manufacturing, marketing and distribution in India. An important issue about the availability of banned drugs over the counter in India is that sufficient adverse drug reactions data about these drugs have not been reported. The most common categories of drugs withdrawn in the last decade were nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (28%, antidiabetics (14.28%, antiobesity (14.28%, antihistamines (14.28%, gastroprokinetic drugs (7.14%, breast cancer and infertility drugs (7.14%, irritable bowel syndrome and constipation drugs (7.14% and antibiotics (7.14%. Drug withdrawals from market were made mainly due to safety issues involving cardiovascular events (57.14% and liver damage (14.28%. Majority of drugs have been banned since 3-5 years in other countries but are still available for sale in India. The present study compares the drug safety monitoring systems in the developed countries such as the USA and UK and provides implications for developing a system that can ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in India. Absence of a gold standard for a drug safety surveillance system, variations in culture and clinical practice across countries makes it difficult for India to completely adopt another country′s practices. There should be a multidisciplinary approach towards drug safety that should be implemented throughout the entire duration spanning from drug discovery to usage by consumers.

  11. Monitoring Social Learning Processes in Adaptive Comanagement: Three Case Studies from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Cundill

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning provides the basis for fostering transitions toward adaptive comanagement. Understanding the ways in which arenas for collaboration and learning are created, and the outcomes of these processes in different contexts, is therefore crucial. This paper presents the results of an experimental research process that identified a small set of key variables that influence effective collaboration and learning, and tested a methodology for monitoring these in a collaborative way in three case studies in South Africa. The small set of key variables tested in this study was sensitive enough to register change over a period of 18 months. Results suggest that the background conditions necessary for social learning can be externally managed during an initiative, with positive outcomes for collaboration and learning. Monitoring outcomes suggest that for learning to be effective, a balance needs to be sought between maintaining key individuals within the system, preventing rigidity and vulnerability when this is achieved, and encouraging active participation within communities of practice. Effective facilitation by an 'honest broker' is one of the ways in which this can be achieved. The results point to an over simplification in the rhetoric that currently surrounds the learning outcomes of multilevel networks, and challenges the idea that democratic structures are necessarily important for effective natural resource management at the community level.

  12. Attitudes to Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER; JOHNSON

    2007-01-01

    As an Australian expat teaching English in China for over four years, I often encourage my students to not only learn the English language but also try to understand Western culture. This includes the fact that Westerners frequently initiate proactive suggestions on any aspects of soci-

  13. Modalities of Invasive Arterial Pressure Monitoring in Critically Ill Patients: A Prospective Observational Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacq, Gwenaëlle; Gritti, Karine; Carré, Cécile; Fleury, Nadège; Lang, Annie; Courau-Courtois, Josette; Bedos, Jean-Pierre; Legriel, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    Few studies assessed modalities of invasive arterial pressure monitoring (IAPM). We evaluated effects on measured values of various combinations of transducer level, catheter access site, and patient position...

  14. GPR monitoring of oil displacement - A laboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present laboratory experiments where we address the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) capability of monitoring oil displacement processes in porous media. This has significant applications in near-subsurface environments where remediation of contaminant such as oil-derived liquids is c

  15. Monitoring consumer confidence in food safety: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Frewer, L.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Renes, R.J.; Wit, de W.; Timmers, J.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: In response to the potential for negative economic and societal effects resulting from a low level of consumer confidence in food safety, it is important to know how confidence is potentially influenced by external events. The aim of this article is to describe the development of a monitor

  16. GPR monitoring of oil displacement - A laboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present laboratory experiments where we address the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) capability of monitoring oil displacement processes in porous media. This has significant applications in near-subsurface environments where remediation of contaminant such as oil-derived liquids is

  17. Suggestions for Teaching Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Na-na

    2013-01-01

    Teacher development and teaching practice(TP) have caught the eyes of researchers at home and abroad for many years. Many western scholars hold that reflective teaching is an efficient way to promote teacher development, but traditional TP is prevailing in China. Based on the merits and demerits of traditional TP and reflective TP, the author hopes to provide some suggestions for the people involved to promote the development of teacher education.

  18. Beam Impedance Studies of the PS Beam Gas Ionization Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Avgidis, Fotios

    2016-01-01

    The Beam Gas Ionization monitor (BGI) is a device for continuous beam size monitoring that is intended to be installed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) during the extended year-end technical stop from December 2016 to April 2017. With the objective of determining the impedance contribution of the BGI vacuum chamber to the overall beam impedance, we report on RF measurements on the device in a laboratory frame, measurement data analysis, and RF simulations of the structure under investigation. For the impedance contribution characterization of the BGI, the following approach has been followed: First, the EM fields inside a simplified BGI model that doesn’t include any of the internal components of the vacuum chamber have been simulated. RF measurements have been performed on the same empty structure showing great agreement between measurement and simulation and thus verifying the validity of the model. Second, simulations have been executed on a fully assembled BGI model that includes all the internal ele...

  19. Leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation technology trade study update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTZEL, J.S.

    1998-11-10

    This document is a revision and update to the initial report that describes various leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) technologies that can be used to support the retrieval of waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. This revision focuses on the improvements in the technical performance of previously identified and useful technologies, and it introduces new technologies that might prove to be useful.

  20. A study on Geographic National (Urban) Conditions Monitoring of Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated and surveyed the current situation of the policy of Geographic National (Urban) Conditions Monitoring in Beijing based on the experimental unit over China carried out by National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation. Then analysed the guarantee of the implement considering the characteristics of programming and construction, policy and regulation in Beijing. Finally presented the frame system of Geographic National (Urban) Conditions Monit...

  1. Holter monitoring for the screening of cardiac disease in diabetes mellitus: The non-invasive Holter monitoring observation of new cardiac events in diabetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Yoko M; Ueshima, Kenji; Nohara, Ryuji; Mizunuma, Yoshimi; Segawa, Ikuo; Tanaka-Mizuno, Sachiko; Yasuno, Shinji; Nakao, Kazuwa; Hiramori, Katsuhiko; Kihara, Yasuki

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the usefulness of Holter monitoring to detect cardiac disease and predict future cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic diabetic patients. This is a multi-centre, prospective study in 406 asymptomatic diabetic patients. They were categorized into three groups based on findings of Holter monitoring. A total of 377 met inclusion criteria and were classified as low (n = 172), moderate (n = 136) and high risk (n = 69). In total, 86 in moderate and 53 in high risk receive further evaluation. In total, 29 in moderate and 25 in high risk were diagnosed as cardiac disease and 12 required additional treatment, including coronary intervention. Over 1.8 years of mean follow-up, 11 (16.5 per 1000 person-years) experienced cardiovascular events. The cumulative incidence in moderate and high risk was higher than that in low risk (p = 0.029 and p = 0.014, respectively). Our study suggests that Holter monitoring may be a useful screening tool to detect cardiac disease and predict future cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic diabetic patients.

  2. Reflection in Learning through a Self-monitoring Device: Design Research on EEG Self-Monitoring during a Study Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Durall

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of self-monitoring technologies has created opportunities for gaining awareness about one’s own behavior and reflecting on it. In teaching and learning, there is interest in using self-monitoring technologies, but very few studies have explored the possibilities. In this paper, we present a design study that investigates a technology (called Feeler that guides students to follow a specific learning script, monitors changes in their electroencephalogram (EEG while studying, and later provides visualization of the EEG data. The results are two-fold: (1 the hardware/software prototype and (2 the conclusions from the proof-of-concept research conducted with the prototype and six participants. In the research, we collected qualitative data from interviews to identify whether the prototype supported students to develop their reflective skills. The thematic analysis of the interviews showed that the Feeler’s learning script and visualization of the EEG data supported greater levels of reflection by fostering students’ curiosity, puzzlement, and personal inquiry. The proof-of-concept research also provided insights into several factors, such as the value of personal experience, the challenge of assumptions, and the contextualization of the data that trigger reflective thinking. The results validate the design concept and the role of the prototype in supporting awareness of and reflection about students’ mental states when they perform academic tasks.

  3. Studies on monitoring hemodynamics and oxygen dynamics of adult respiratory distress syndrome secondary to high altitude pulmonary edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Siqing; Wu Tianyi; Cheng Qiang; Li Pei; Bian Huiping

    2013-01-01

    To study monitoring hemodynamics and oxygen dynamics of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)secondary to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE),we performed clinic and laboratory studies in 8 patients who preliminarily developed high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) and then ARDS occurred at an altitude of 4500 m.After an initial emergency treatment on high mountains,all the patients were rapidly transported to a hospital at a lower altitude of 2808 m.The right cardiac catheterizations were carried out within 5 h after hospitalized.The monitoring hemodynamics and oxygen dynamics were studied via a thermodilution Swan-Gaze catheter.The results showed that before treatments at the beginning of monitoring,there presented a significant pulmonary artery hypertension with a decreased cardiac function,and a lower oxygen metabolism in all the 8 patients.However,after some effective treatments,including mechanical ventilation and using dexamethasone,furosemide,etc,four days later the result of a repeated monitoring showed that their pulmonary artery pressure had been decreased with an improved cardiac function with all the oxygen metabolic indexes increased significantly.Our studies suggested that performing monitoring hemodynamics in patients with ARDS secondary to HAPE will define the clinical therapeutic measures which will benefit the outcome.

  4. Monitoring daily function in persons with transfemoral amputations using a commercial activity monitor: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mark V; Deeny, Sean; McCarthy, Cliodhna; Valentin, Juliana; Jayaraman, Arun

    2014-12-01

    To assess in a feasibility study the mobility of persons with transfemoral amputations using data collected from a popular, consumer-oriented activity monitor (Fitbit). Observational cohort study. Research hospital outpatient evaluation. Nine subjects with transfemoral amputations (4 women and 5 men, ages 21-64 years) and Medicare functional assessments (K level) of K3 (n = 7), K2 (n = 1), and K4 (n = 1). One-week monitoring of physical activity using the Fitbit One activity monitor. Daily estimates of step counts, distance walked, floors/stairs climbed, calories burned, and proprietary Fitbit activity scores. For each day, the amount of time in each of the following levels of activity was also reported: sedentary, lightly active, fairly active, and highly active. The percentage of movement time above the fairly active level had a predictable relationship to the designated K level. The average activity measures show decreased levels of activity for obese subjects (body mass index >30). Estimated step counts were highly predictive/redundant with estimated miles walked without setting individual stride lengths. Using linear regression prediction models, calorie estimates were found to be highly dependent on subject age, height, and weight, whereas the proprietary activity score was independent of all 3 demographic factors. This feasibility study demonstrates that the Fitbit activity monitor estimates the activity of subjects with transfemoral amputations, producing results that correlate with their K-level functional activity classifications. The Fitbit activity score is independent of individual variations in age, weight, and height compared with estimated calories for this small sample size. These tools may provide useful insights into prosthetic use in an at-home environment. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Suitability of MEMS Accelerometers for Condition Monitoring: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarbar, Alhussein; Mekid, Samir; Starr, Andrew; Pietruszkiewicz, Robert

    2008-02-06

    With increasing demands for wireless sensing nodes for assets control and condition monitoring; needs for alternatives to expensive conventional accelerometers in vibration measurements have been arisen. Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometer is one of the available options. The performances of three of the MEMS accelerometers from different manufacturers are investigated in this paper and compared to a well calibrated commercial accelerometer used as a reference for MEMS sensors performance evaluation. Tests were performed on a real CNC machine in a typical industrial environmental workshop and the achieved results are presented.

  6. The Study of a Beam Profile Monitor based on Faraday Cup Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. M.; Park, S. H.; Kim, S. G.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The metal can then be discharged to measure a small current equivalent to the number of impinging ions. The beam current can be measured and used to determine the number of ions or electrons hitting the cup. Recently, beam profile monitor (BPM) based on Faraday cup array (FCA), which represented beam position through the spatial and temporal distribution of the beam current, has been studied due to advantages of measure of wide-range ion beam current. FCA system is divided into a FC, an electrical circuit and display parts. We have studied FCA to monitor beam profile on an electrostatic accelerator with wide-range ion current. In this paper, we represented basic characteristics and designs for the fabricated FCA. FCA system, which consisted of FC system, electronic readout system, and output display, was suggested to measure ion beam current, efficiently. FC system consisted of a collimator, suppressor, tiny FC, insulator frame, and circuit board divided into elec PCB, cap PCB, and con PCB. FC size was 4 mm diameters and FCA system was considered as 8 x 8 array and whole size of 8 x 8 mm''2. FCA system was set-up in vacuum chamber and an integrator and output display parts were formed out of chamber to minimize number of feed-through.

  7. Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin Study - Vibration Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) tested two identical gearboxes. One was tested on the NWTCs 2.5 MW dynamometer and the other was field tested in a turbine in a nearby wind plant. In the field, the test gearbox experienced two oil loss events that resulted in damage to its internal bearings and gears. Since the damage was not severe, the test gearbox was removed from the field and retested in the NWTCs dynamometer before it was disassembled. During the dynamometer retest, some vibration data along with testing condition information were collected. These data enabled NREL to launch a Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin project, as described in this report. The main objective of this project was to evaluate different vibration analysis algorithms used in wind turbine condition monitoring (CM) and find out whether the typical practices are effective. With involvement of both academic researchers and industrial partners, the project sets an example on providing cutting edge research results back to industry.

  8. A study on the condition monitoring for safety-related electric cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Hwan; Ahn, S. P.; Yeo, S. M.; Kang, Y. S.; Ahn, S. M.; Kim, I. S.; Kim, D. S.; Kang, J. S. [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this report, we have studied compositions and characteristics of various types of insulation material for cables in Nuclear Power Plant. We arrange relationship with condition monitoring methods. Also, we propose new condition monitoring method using third harmonic frequency. We test the proposed method with CV cables. We also describe about feature of condition monitoring such as application, theory, characteristic, thereby other engineer can confirm to advantage and disadvantage for each method, and possibly choice adequate condition monitoring method for various types of cables.

  9. Intensive monitoring of duloxetine : results of a web-based intensive monitoring study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Härmark, Linda; van Puijenbroek, Eugene; van Grootheest, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Duloxetine (Cymbalta(A (R))) is a serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) re-uptake inhibitor indicated for the treatment of depression, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and general anxiety disorder. The aim of this study is to gain insight in the user and safety profile of duloxetine in daily

  10. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Geomagnetic Storm Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) space environments community utilizes near real time space weather data to support a variety of ISS engineering and science activities. The team has operated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a floating potential probe, and a plasma impedance probe) on ISS since 2006 to obtain in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in ISS frame potential due to electrostatic current collection from the plasma environment (spacecraft charging) and inductive (vxB) effects from the vehicle motion across the Earth s magnetic field. An ongoing effort is to use FPMU for measuring the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms at ISS altitudes and investigate auroral charging of the vehicle as it passes through regions of precipitating auroral electrons. This work is challenged by restrictions on FPMU operations that limit observation time to less than about a third of a year. As a result, FPMU campaigns ranging in length from a few days to a few weeks are typically scheduled weeks in advance for ISS engineering and payload science activities. In order to capture geomagnetic storm data under these terms, we monitor near real time space weather data from NASA, NOAA, and ESA sources to determine solar wind disturbance arrival times at Earth likely to be geoeffective (including coronal mass ejections and high speed streams associated with coronal holes) and activate the FPMU ahead of the storm onset. Using this technique we have successfully captured FPMU data during a number of geomagnetic storm periods including periods with ISS auroral charging. This presentation will describe the strategies and challenges in capturing FPMU data during geomagnetic storms, the near real time space weather resources utilized for monitoring the space weather environment, and provide examples of auroral charging data obtained during storm operations.

  11. Geoelectric Monitoring Studies for the Carbon Dioxide Geological Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosha, T.; Ishido, T.; Nishi, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Self-potential (SP) anomalies of negative polarity are frequently observed near deep wells. These anomalies appear to be caused by an underground electrochemical mechanism similar to a galvanic cell: the metallic well casing acts as a vertical electronic conductor connecting regions of differing redox potential. Electrons flow upward though the casing from a deeper reducing environment to a shallower oxidizing environment, and simultaneously a compensating vertical flow of ions is induced in the surrounding formation to maintain charge neutrality. If the redox potential in the deeper region is then increased by injecting an oxidizing substance, the difference in redox potential between the shallower and deeper regions will be reduced, resulting in an SP increase near the wellhead. We have been monitoring earth-surface SP during gas injection tests at various sites in Japan. When air was injected into a 100-meter well within a geothermal field, a remarkable simultaneous increase in SP centered on the wellhead was observed. A small but unmistakable SP increase also took place near the wellhead when CO2 was slowly injected, which we believe was caused by local pH reduction at depth resulting from dissolution of the injected CO2 in the aquifer fluid. SP changes were also observed in Yubari, geological sequestration test site in Japan, where one well injected CO2 into a coal bed and the fluid containing CH4 was produced from a nearby well. The CO2 content of the fluid was also monitored. SP increased substantially around the injection wellhead, but no significant SP changes attributable to the injection were observed near the production wellhead. This is consistent with the observation that CO2 did not break through into the production well during the experiment. We believe that SP measurements at the earth surface represent a new and promising technique for sensing the approach of CO2 to well casings deep within the subsurface.

  12. Valid measures of periodic leg movements (PLMs) during a suggested immobilization test using the PAM-RL leg activity monitors require adjusting detection parameters for noise and signal in each recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Myung Sung; Montplaisir, Jacques; Desautels, Alex; Winkelman, John W; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A; Earley, Christopher J; Allen, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with restless legs syndrome (RLS) (Willis-Ekbom disease [WED]) usually have periodic leg movements (PLMs). The suggested immobilization test (SIT) measures sensory and motor features of WED during wakefulness. Surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings of the anterior tibialis (AT) are used as the standard for counting PLMs. However, due to several limitations, leg activity meters such as the PAM-RL were advanced as a potential substitute. In our study, we assessed the validity of the measurements of PLM during wakefulness (PLMW) in the SIT for PAM-RL using both default and custom detection threshold parameters compared to AT EMG. Data were obtained from 39 participants who were diagnosed with primary WED and who were on stable medication as part of another study using the SIT to repeatedly evaluate WED symptoms over 6-12 months. EMG recordings and PAM-RL, when available, were used to detect PLMW for each SIT. Complete PAM-RL and polysomnography (PSG) EMG data were available for 253 SITs from that study. The default PAM-RL (dPAM-RL) detected leg movements based on manufacturer's noise (resting) and signal (movement) amplitude criteria developed to accurately detect PLM during sleep (PLMS). The custom PAM-RL (cPAM-RL) similarly detected leg movements except the noise and movement detection parameters were adjusted to match the PAM-RL data for each SIT. The distributions of the differences between either dPAM-RL or cPAM-RL and EMG PLMW were strongly leptokurtic (Kurtosis >2) with many small differences and a few unusually large differences. These distributions are better described by median and quartile ranges than mean and standard deviation. Despite an adequate correlation (r=0.66) between the dPAM-RL and EMG recordings, the dPAM-RL on average significantly underscored the number of PLMW (median: quartiles=-13: -51.2, 0.0) and on Bland-Altman plots had a significant magnitude bias with greater underscoring for larger average PLMW/h. There also was an

  13. Combining GPS with heart rate monitoring to measure physical activity in children: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J Scott; Badland, Hannah M; Schofield, Grant

    2009-09-01

    The recent development of global positioning system (GPS) receivers with integrated heart rate (HR) monitoring has provided a new method for estimating the energy expenditure associated with children's movement. The purpose of this feasibility study was to trial a combination of GPS surveillance and HR monitoring in 39 primary-aged children from New Zealand. Spatial location and HR data were recorded during a school lunch break using an integrated GPS/HR receiver (1Hz). Children averaged a total distance of 1.10+/-0.56km at speeds ranging from 0 to 18.6kmh(-1). Activity patterns were characterised by short bursts of moderate to high speeds followed by longer periods of slow speeds. In addition, boys averaged higher speeds than girls (1.77+/-0.62kmh(-1) and 1.36+/-0.50kmh(-1), respectively; p=0.003). The percentage of time spent at 0kmh(-1) (stationary) ranged from 0.1% to 21.3% with a mean of 6.4+/-4.6%. These data suggest that while children were relatively active during the lunch period, they spent a substantial portion of time engaged in slow or stationary physical activities. Furthermore, associations between HR, average speed, and stationary time demonstrated that children who moved at faster speeds expended more energy than those who moved at slower speeds. We conclude that the combined approach of GPS and HR monitoring is a promising new method for investigating children's play-related energy expenditure. There is also scope to integrate GPS data with geographic information systems to examine where children play and accumulate physical activity.

  14. Energy monitoring and the 'energy passport' for buildings - Preliminary study; Energie-Monitoring Gebaeude und Gebaeude-Energiepass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, A.; Menti, U.-P. [Amstein and Walthert AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Sigg, R.; Besser, U. [Intep Integrale Planung GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This preliminary study for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the situation in Switzerland with regard to the creation of an energy-consumption rating system for buildings. Present and future developments in Europe in this area are examined. This preliminary study provides the basis for a main study in that it defines the main questions to be looked at. Present-day data collection on the energy consumption of buildings is looked at critically. The authors suggest the integration of an energy-consumption data bank in the existing building and apartment register. The situation in Europe, where specific ideas on the introduction of national 'energy passports' for buildings are being looked at, is considered. The work that will have to be done in Switzerland in this area is reviewed, and the essential prerequisites for the implementation of such an energy-monitoring system are discussed.

  15. Barriers to successful treatment of alcohol addiction as perceived by healthcare professionals in Thailand – a Delphi study about obstacles and improvement suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many Thai people experiencing alcohol addiction do not seek help, and those who do often have inadequate access to treatment. There are few research studies focusing on alcohol addiction treatment in Thailand. Objective: The purpose of the current study was to identify barriers to the treatment of alcohol addiction and to collect experts’ suggestions for improving treatment in Thailand. The Delphi technique was used to achieve consensual agreement among an expert panel within the field of alcohol addiction and treatment. Design: Three rounds of a Delphi survey were completed by a panel of experts in alcohol addiction, including physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists, healthcare officers, and an Alcoholics Anonymous member. The open-ended answers provided by 34 experts in the first round resulted in 60 statements, which were later grouped into three themes. After three rounds of questionnaires, 51 statements were accepted as consensus. Results: Thirty-two experts participated in all three Delphi rounds. Over 80% of participants were particularly concerned about five obstacles to alcohol addiction treatment. The majority of suggestions from the expert panel were related to patients’ right to treatment and the national policy for reducing the negative effects of alcohol. According to the results of the present study, the experts suggested that the treatment of alcohol addiction should be continuous from primary care to tertiary care, and convenient pathways should be established in healthcare services. The experts would also like to increase the number of healthcare providers and improve their knowledge and skills in working with people experiencing alcohol addiction. Conclusions: Equal rights to health and treatment for people experiencing alcohol addiction in Thailand require policy improvements, as well as acceptance and awareness of alcohol addiction from both the public and policymakers.

  16. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  17. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  18. Design of a Nanosatellite Ground Monitoring and Control Software – a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Alexander Díaz González

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing countries that have carried out the development of CubeSat missions for academic purposes do not offer aerospace engineering programs at their universities. This causes difficulties for traditional engineers upon the formal use of different standards and frameworks for aerospace development, such as the European Cooperation for Space Standardization and Space Mission Analysis and Design . One way in which traditional software engineers can easily understand the structure of an aerospace framework, in order to apply it on the development of CubeSat mission software parts, is comparing its most important elements in relation to the elements suggested by a more familiar method. In this paper, we present a hybrid framework between the ECSS-E-ST-40C standard and the Rational Unified Process, which can be used by traditional software engineers as a guide model for the development of software elements in academic nanosatellite missions. The model integrates the processes and documentation suggested by the ECSS-E-ST-40C with the disciplines, workflows and artifacts suggested in Rational Unified Process. This simplifies the structure of ECSS-E-ST-40C and allows traditional software engineers to easily understand its work elements. The paper describes as study case the implementation of the hybrid model in the analysis and design of ground monitoring and control software for the Libertad-2 satellite mission, which is currently being developed by the Universidad Sergio Arboleda in Colombia.

  19. The FOBIMO (FOraminiferal BIo-MOnitoring) initiative—Towards a standardised protocol for soft-bottom benthic foraminiferal monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Joachim; Alve, Elisabeth; Geslin, Emmanuelle; Jorissen, Frans; Korsun, Sergei; Spezzaferri, Silva; Abramovich, Sigal; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Armynot du Chatelet, Eric; Barras, Christine; Bergamin, Luisa; Bicchi, Erica; Bouchet, Vincent; Cearreta, Alejandro; Di Bella, Letizia; Dijkstra, Noortje; Trevisan Disaro, Sibelle; Ferraro, Luciana; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Gennari, Giordana; Golikova, Elena; Haynert, Kristin; Hess, Silvia; Husum, Katrine; Martins, Virginia; McGann, Mary; Oron, Shai; Romano, Elena; Mello Sousa, Silvia; Tsujimoto, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The European Community Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was established to provide guidelines for monitoring the quality of marine ecosystems. Monitoring the status of marine environments is traditionally based on macrofauna surveys, for which standardised methods have been established. Benthic foraminifera are also good indicators of environmental status because of their fast turnover rates, high degree of specialisation, and the preservation of dead assemblages in the fossil record. In spite of the growing interest in foraminiferal bio-monitoring during the last decades, no standardised methodology has been proposed until today. The aim of the FOraminiferal BIo-MOnitoring (FOBIMO) expert workshop, held in June 2011 at Fribourg, Switzerland, which assembled 37 scientists from 24 research groups and 13 countries, was to develop a suite of standard methods. This paper presents the main outcome of the workshop, a list of motivated recommendations with respect to sampling devices, sample storage, treatment, faunal analysis and documentation. Our recommendations fulfil the criteria imposed both by scientific rigour and by the practical limitations of routine studies. Hence, our aim is to standardise methodologies used in bio-monitoring only and not to limit the use of different methods in pure scientific studies. Unless otherwise stated, all recommendations concern living (stained) benthic foraminiferal assemblages. We have chosen to propose two types of recommendations. Mandatory recommendations have to be followed if a study wants to qualify as sound and compatible to the norms. The most important of these recommendations are the interval from 0 to 1 cm below the sediment surface has to be sampled, and an interface corer or box corer that keeps the sediment surface intact is to be used for offshore surveys. A grab sampler must not be deployed in soft sediments. Three replicate samples are to be taken and analysed separately. Samples are to be washed on a

  20. Landfill monitoring using remote sensing: a case study of Glina, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboaea, Cristina; Petrescu, Florian

    2013-10-01

    Landfill monitoring is one of the most important components of waste management. This article presents a case study on landfill monitoring using remote sensing technology. The study area was the Glina landfill, one of the largest municipal waste disposal sites in Romania. The methodology consisted of monitoring the differences of temperature computed for several distinct waste disposal zones with respect to a ground reference area, all of them located within the landfill site. The remote sensing data used were Landsat satellite multi-temporal data. The differences of temperature were computed using Landsat thermal infrared data. The study confirmed the use of multi-temporal Landsat imagery as a complementary data source.

  1. Monitorizing nitinol alloy surface reactions for biofouling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinu, C.Z. [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Photenhauerstrasse 108, Dresden (Germany); Dinca, V.C. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: valentina.dinca@inflpr.ro; Soare, S. [UNIBUC-MICROGEN, University of Bucharest, Centre for Research, Education and Consulting in Microbiology, Genetics and Biotechnology (MICROGEN), Splaiul Independentei, 91-95, RO 76201 Bucharest (Romania); Moldovan, A. [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Photenhauerstrasse 108, Dresden (Germany); Smarandache, D. [UNIBUC-MICROGEN, University of Bucharest, Centre for Research, Education and Consulting in Microbiology, Genetics and Biotechnology (MICROGEN), Splaiul Independentei, 91-95, RO 76201 Bucharest (Romania); Scarisoareanu, N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Barbalat, A. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Birjega, R. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Bucharest (Romania); DiStefano, V. Ferrari [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Electronics, Rome (Italy)

    2007-07-31

    Growth and deposition of unwanted bacteria on implant metal alloys affect their use as biomedical samples. Monitoring any bacterial biofilm accumulation will provide early countermeasures. For a reliable antifouling strategy we prepared nitinol (NiTi) thin films on Ti-derived substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. As the microstructure of Ti-alloy is dictated by the tensile strength, fatigue and the fracture toughness we tested the use of hydrogen as an alloying element. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigated the crystalline structure, chemical composition and respectively the surface morphology of the nitinol hydrogen and hydrogen-free samples. Moreover, the alloys were integrated and tested using a cellular metric and their responses were systematic evaluated and quantified. Our attractive approach is meant to select the suitable components for an effective and trustworthy anti-fouling strategy. A greater understanding of such processes should lead to novel and effective control methods that would improve in the future implant stability and capabilities.

  2. Study on Monitoring Rock Burst through Drill Pipe Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to identify the danger of rock burst from the response of drill pipe torque during drilling process to overcome many defects of the conventional volume of drilled coal rubble method. It is based on the relationship of rock burst with coal stress and coal strength. Through theoretic analysis, the change mechanism of drill pipe torque and the relationship of drill pipe torque with coal stress, coal strength, and drilling speed are investigated. In light of the analysis, a new device for testing drill pipe torque is developed and a series of experiments is performed under different conditions; the results show that drill pipe torque linearly increases with the increase of coal stress and coal strength; the faster the drilling speed, the larger the drill pipe torque, and vice versa. When monitoring rock burst by drill pipe torque method, the index of rock burst is regarded as a function in which coal stress index and coal strength index are principal variables. The results are important for the forecast of rock burst in coal mine.

  3. Monitorizing nitinol alloy surface reactions for biofouling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, C. Z.; Dinca, V. C.; Soare, S.; Moldovan, A.; Smarandache, D.; Scarisoareanu, N.; Barbalat, A.; Birjega, R.; Dinescu, M.; DiStefano, V. Ferrari

    2007-07-01

    Growth and deposition of unwanted bacteria on implant metal alloys affect their use as biomedical samples. Monitoring any bacterial biofilm accumulation will provide early countermeasures. For a reliable antifouling strategy we prepared nitinol (NiTi) thin films on Ti-derived substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. As the microstructure of Ti-alloy is dictated by the tensile strength, fatigue and the fracture toughness we tested the use of hydrogen as an alloying element. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigated the crystalline structure, chemical composition and respectively the surface morphology of the nitinol hydrogen and hydrogen-free samples. Moreover, the alloys were integrated and tested using a cellular metric and their responses were systematic evaluated and quantified. Our attractive approach is meant to select the suitable components for an effective and trustworthy anti-fouling strategy. A greater understanding of such processes should lead to novel and effective control methods that would improve in the future implant stability and capabilities.

  4. The World Neutron Monitor Network as a tool for the study of solar neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Usoskin

    Full Text Available The use of the World Neutron Monitor Network to detect high-energy solar neutrons is discussed in detail. It is shown that the existing network can be used for the routine detection of intense sporadic solar-neutron events whenever they occur. A technique is suggested involving the weighted summation of responses of separate monitors to solar neutrons. It is demonstrated that the use of this method improves the significance of solar-neutron event detection. Different results of the simulation of the neutron-monitor sensitivity to solar neutrons have been tested with respect to their application for practical use. It is shown that the total number of neutrons with energy above 300 MeV injected from the Sun during a solar flare can be estimated directly from the time-integrated neutron-monitor response to solar neutrons without any model assumptions. The estimation technique has been developed.

  5. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  6. Enhanced Monitored Natural Recovery (EMNR) Case Studies Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    mixture, granulated bentonite clay , and AquaBlok™. Placement strategies for capping material included surface and subsurface (i.e., underwater... bentonite clay ). Measured thicknesses after placement ranged from 15 to 62 cm. For Stage I testing, results suggested that placement of the sand/topsoil...composition. Where data are available to support the discussion, these topics are considered in assessing the strengths and limitations of thin layer

  7. Dilemmas of the Development of Self-Study Students and Suggestions%自考生在夹缝中生存的现状及其出路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静姝

    2011-01-01

    随着高等教育自学考试日益受到广大考生青睐,自考所引发的一系列问题和思考也开始备受关注。这里主要通过分析自考生的特点及其面临的进退维谷的夹缝中的生存状态,来对自考进行进一步改进,对提升自考文凭的含金量提出建议。%Self-study in higher education is prevalent and wellreceived by most examinees.This paper offers some suggestions through analyzing the examinee's characteristics and the situation confronting with the dilemmas of the development,as to improve the value of the self-study degree.

  8. Adaptive Management and Social Learning in Collaborative and Community-Based Monitoring: a Study of Five Community-Based Forestry Organizations in the western USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Ballard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative and community-based monitoring are becoming more frequent, yet few studies have examined the process and outcomes of these monitoring approaches. We studied 18 collaborative or community-based ecological assessment or monitoring projects undertaken by five community-based forestry organizations (CBFs, to investigate the objectives, process, and outcomes of collaborative ecological monitoring by CBF organizations. We found that collaborative monitoring can lead to shared ecological understanding among diverse participants, build trust internally and credibility externally, foster social learning and community-building, and advance adaptive management. The CBFs experienced challenges in recruiting and sustaining community participation in monitoring, building needed technical capacity for monitoring, and communicating monitoring results back to the broader community. Our results suggest that involving diverse and sometimes adversarial interests at key points in the monitoring process can help resolve conflicts and advance social learning, while also strengthening the link between social and ecological systems by improving the information base for management and increasing collective awareness of the interdependence of human and natural forest communities.

  9. Studies on naturally occurring infectious bursal disease viruses suggest that a single amino acid substitution at position 253 in VP2 increases pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackwood, D J; Sreedevi, B; LeFever, L J; Sommer-Wagner, S E

    2008-07-20

    Three classic IBDV strains were previously isolated from commercial layer chicken flocks and shown to be phylogenetically related to vaccine strains but pathogenic in susceptible chickens. In this study, their viral genomes were sequenced and compared to sequences of vaccines being used in those flocks. The vaccine strains examined were sequenced directly from the manufacturer and had identical genome segment B sequences. Compared to these vaccines, the GA-1, H-30 and CS-2-35 isolates each had one silent mutation in the gene that encodes VP1. Compared to the two vaccines used at the time CS-2-35 was isolated, the segment A sequence of CS-2-35 contained numerous nucleotide and amino acid mutations suggesting the CS-2-35 virus was not closely related to these vaccines. This virus however did have amino acid mutations in VP2 that are reported to be necessary for replication in cell culture and lacked two of the three amino acid mutations previously shown to be necessary for virulence. These data suggest that CS-2-35 was a descendant from an attenuated strain of IBDV. When the segment A genomic sequences of the GA-1 and H-30 viruses were compared to the vaccines being used in those flocks they were most closely related to the attenuated D78 vaccine strain. In genome segment A, three nucleotide mutations in GA-1 and four in H-30 were observed compared to the D78 classic vaccine. These nucleotide mutations caused one amino acid (H253N) change in the GA-1 virus and two amino acids (H253Q and G259D) were different in the H-30 virus. In addition, both the GA-1 and H-30 viruses had the amino acid G76 in VP2 that appears to be unique to the vaccine D78. The data suggest that GA-1 and H-30 are genetically related and have a common ancestor even though they were isolated from geographically distant flocks. The evidence also suggests that GA-1, H-30 and CS-2-35 could be reversions from attenuated vaccine viruses or by coincidence genetically resemble classic IBDV vaccines. It

  10. Crystallographic studies of prion protein (PrP) segments suggest how structural changes encoded by polymorphism at residue 129 modulate susceptibility to human prion disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Marcin I; Sawaya, Michael R; Cascio, Duilio; Eisenberg, David

    2010-09-24

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in codon 129 of the human prion gene, leading to a change from methionine to valine at residue 129 of prion protein (PrP), has been shown to be a determinant in the susceptibility to prion disease. However, the molecular basis of this effect remains unexplained. In the current study, we determined crystal structures of prion segments having either Met or Val at residue 129. These 6-residue segments of PrP centered on residue 129 are "steric zippers," pairs of interacting β-sheets. Both structures of these "homozygous steric zippers" reveal direct intermolecular interactions between Met or Val in one sheet and the identical residue in the mating sheet. These two structures, plus a structure-based model of the heterozygous Met-Val steric zipper, suggest an explanation for the previously observed effects of this locus on prion disease susceptibility and progression.

  11. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tanya B; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K

    2015-11-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study's qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants' narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention.

  12. Study on workloads of human care worker with the introduction of IT system - the characteristics of work loads by observational research and the suggestions for KAIZEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Matsuda, Fumiko; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Motegi, Nobuyuki; Ikegami, Thor; Sakai, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristic of workloads on human care worker with the introduction of IT system, and suggested the support measures for KAIZEN in Japan. The investigation method is workflow line and hearing with a focus on work observation. The objects were 8 human care workers of the acute hospital that introduced an electronic system. By the introduction of the electronic chart, the nurse station sojourn time decreased, sickroom sojourn time increased, and time about direct nursing care to a patient increased. In addition, access to patient information became easy, and the offer of the health care service based on correct information came to be possible in real time. By The point of workflow line, it was effect that moving lengths decreased in order to install the electronic chart in patients' rooms. Though, it was a problem that it hasn't formed where to place the instruments such as sphygmomanometer, clinical thermometer and others.

  13. Crystallographic Studies of Prion Protein (PrP) Segments Suggest How Structural Changes Encoded by Polymorphism at Residue 129 Modulate Susceptibility to Human Prion Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostol, Marcin I.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Cascio, Duilio; Eisenberg, David (UCLA)

    2010-09-23

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in codon 129 of the human prion gene, leading to a change from methionine to valine at residue 129 of prion protein (PrP), has been shown to be a determinant in the susceptibility to prion disease. However, the molecular basis of this effect remains unexplained. In the current study, we determined crystal structures of prion segments having either Met or Val at residue 129. These 6-residue segments of PrP centered on residue 129 are 'steric zippers,' pairs of interacting {beta}-sheets. Both structures of these 'homozygous steric zippers' reveal direct intermolecular interactions between Met or Val in one sheet and the identical residue in the mating sheet. These two structures, plus a structure-based model of the heterozygous Met-Val steric zipper, suggest an explanation for the previously observed effects of this locus on prion disease susceptibility and progression.

  14. Docking Studies of Plant Polyphenols with Aβ Fragments Suggests Determinants That Enable Design of Inhibitors towards Preventing Aggregation Events during Alzheimer’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shruthila

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aggregation of Amyloid beta peptides is considered as one of the causative events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Polyphenols present in different plant sources, which have acclaimed therapeutic values, are known to inhibit the formation of Amyloid fibrils. Hence, docking studies with different polyphenols were carried out to appreciate their binding modes and plausible molecular interactions. The results reveal a consensus pattern of association, exhibiting that all the ligands preferentially dock to the metal coordinating residues in the peptide fragments. In fact, the metal interacting geometries in the Aβ segments are known to be implicated in aggregation events. Further, due to non-specific binding, these polyphenols are expected to have a competitive inhibitory efficacy over a range of amyloid peptide fragments. Thus, these findings suggest that the polyphenolic compounds could become promising lead molecules that aid in the development of inhibitors and neuroprotectors towards prevention of amyloid fibril formations and AD.

  15. VAMOS: The verification and monitoring options study: Current research options for in-situ monitoring and verification of contaminant remediation and containment within the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsill, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R.D. [Tech Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Verification and Monitoring Options Study Project (VAMOS) was established to identify high-priority options for future vadose-zone environmental research in the areas of in-situ remediation monitoring, post-closure monitoring, and containment emplacement and verification monitoring. VAMOS examined projected needs not currently being met with applied technology in order to develop viable monitoring and verification research options. The study emphasized a compatible systems approach to reinforce the need for utilizing compatible components to provide user friendly site monitoring systems. To identify the needs and research options related to vadose-zone environmental monitoring and verification, a literature search and expert panel forums were conducted. The search included present drivers for environmental monitoring technology, technology applications, and research efforts. The forums included scientific, academic, industry, and regulatory environmental professionals as well as end users of environmental technology. The experts evaluated current and future monitoring and verification needs, methods for meeting these needs, and viable research options and directions. A variety of high-priority technology development, user facility, and technology guidance research options were developed and presented as an outcome of the literature search and expert panel forums.

  16. Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara; Fernández, Laura; Natali, María Paula; Meza, Amalia; Moirano, Juan

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric water vapour has been acknowledged as an essential climate variable. Weather prediction and hazard assessment systems benefit from real-time observations, whereas long-term records contribute to climate studies. Nowadays, ground-based GNSS products have become widely employed, complementing satellite observations over the oceans. Although the past decade has seen a significant development of the GNSS infrastructure in Central and South America, its potential for atmospheric water vapour monitoring has not been fully exploited. With this in mind, we have performed a regional, seven-year long and homogeneous analysis, comprising 136 GNSS tracking stations, obtaining high-rate and continuous observations of column integrated water vapour and troposphere zenith total delay (Bianchi et al. 2016). As preliminary application for this data set, we have estimated local water vapour trends, their significance, and their relation with specific climate regimes. We have found evidence of drying at temperate regions in South America, at a rate of about 2% per decade, while a slow moistening of the troposphere over tropical regions is also weakly suggested by our results. Furthermore, we have assessed the regional performance of the empirical model GPT2w to blindly estimate troposphere delays. The model fairly reproduces the observed mean delays, including their annual and semi-annual variations. Nevertheless, a long-term evaluation has shown systematical biases, up to 20 mm, probably inherited form the underling atmospheric reanalysis. Additionally, the complete data set has been made openly available at a scientific repository (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.858234). References: C. Bianchi, L. Mendoza, L. Fernandez, M. P. Natali, A. Meza, J. F. Moirano, Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies, Ann. Geophys., ISSN 0992-7689, eISSN 1432-0576, 34 (7), 623-639 (doi:10.5194/angeo-34-623-2016).

  17. [Study on real-time wearable monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuhong; Wang, Tianhao; Li, Chenming

    2013-02-01

    In order to study the way of evaluating human performance under heat and cold stresses, we developed a wearable physiological monitoring system-intelligent belt system, capable of providing real-time, continuous and dynamic monitoring of multiple physiological parameters. The system has following features: multiuser communication, high integration, strong environment adaptability, dynamic features and real time physiological monitoring ability. The system uses sensing belts and elastic belts to acquire physiological parameters, uses WIFI to build wireless network monitoring for multiuser, and uses Delphi to develop data processing software capable of real-time viewing, storagng, processing, and alerting. With four different intensity-activity trials on six subjects and compared with standard laboratory human physiological acquisition instruments, the system was proved to be able to acquire accu-rate physiological parameters such as ECG, respiration, multi-point body temperatures, and body movement. The system worked steadily and reliably. This wearable real-time monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses can solve the problem facing our country that human heat stress and cold stress monitoring technology is insufficient, provide new methods and new ways for monitoring and evaluation of human heat and cold stresses under real task or stress environment, and provide technical platform for the study on human ergonomics.

  18. [Justification of regulations for the use of computers with LCD monitor during academic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M I; Sazanyuk, Z I; Laponova, E D; Voronova, B Z; Lashneva, I P

    2014-01-01

    In the article there are reported the results of studies of the effect on the functional state of the body of schoolchildren curriculum with the use of personal computers with LCD monitors. The resistance to the development of visual and general fatigue in schoolchildren -users of personal computers with LCD monitors was found to be higher because they provide a more favorable environment for visual work in comparison with monitors based on cathode-ray tube. The use of LED lighting in classrooms contributes to the creation a more favorable light environment than in fluorescent lighting and reduces fatigable impact (both general and visual) of classes with the use of personal computers.

  19. Studies of beam heating of proton beam profile monitor SEM's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovich, Zarko; Osiecki, Thomas H.; Kopp, Sacha E.; /Texas U.

    2005-05-01

    The authors present calculations of the expected temperature rise of proton beam profile monitors due to beam heating. The profile monitors are secondary emission monitors (SEM's) to be made of Titanium foils. The heating is studied to understand whether there is any loss of tension or alignment of such devices. Additionally, calculations of thermally-induced dynamic stress are presented. Ti foil is compared to other materials and also to wire SEM's. The calculations were initially performed for the NuMI beam, where the per-pulse intensity is quite high; for completeness the calculations are also performed for other beam energies and intensities.

  20. A New Perspective on Sustainable Soil Remediation-Case Study Suggests Novel Fungal Genera Could Facilitate in situ Biodegradation of Hazardous Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicki, L M; Cooper, E; Ferguson, P L; Stapleton, H M; Vilgalys, R; Gunsch, C K

    2016-01-01

    Deciding upon a cost effective and sustainable method to address soil pollution is a challenge for many remedial project managers. High pressure to quickly achieve cleanup goals pushes for energy-intensive remedies that rapidly address the contaminants of concern with established technologies, often leaving little room for research and development especially for slower treatment technologies, such as bioremediation, for the more heavily polluted sites. In the present case study, new genomic approaches have been leveraged to assess fungal biostimulation potential in soils polluted with particularly persistent hydrophobic contaminants. This new approach provides insights into the genetic functions available at a given site in a way never before possible. In particular, this article presents a case study where next generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to categorize fungi in soils from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund site in Portsmouth, Virginia. Data suggest that original attempts to harness fungi for bioremediation may have focused on fungal genera poorly suited to survive under heavily polluted site conditions, and that more targeted approaches relying on native indigenous fungi which are better equipped to survive under site specific conditions may be more appropriate.

  1. Whole-Home Dehumidifiers: Field-Monitoring Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Tom; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Johnson, Russell

    2014-09-23

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) initiated a WHD field-metering study to expand current knowledge of and obtain data on WHD operation and energy consumption in real-world applications. The field study collected real-time data on WHD energy consumption, along with information regarding housing characteristics, consumer behavior, and various outdoor conditions expected to affect WHD performance and efficiency. Although the metering study collected similar data regarding air conditioner operation, this report discusses only WHDs. The primary objectives of the LBNL field-metering study are to (1) expand knowledge of the configurations, energy consumption profiles, consumer patterns of use (e.g., relative humidity [RH] settings), and environmental parameters of whole-home dehumidification systems; and (2) develop distributions of hours of dehumidifier operation in four operating modes: off, standby, fan-only, and compressor (also called dehumidification mode). Profiling energy consumption entails documenting the power consumption, duration of power consumption in different modes, condensate generation, and properties of output air of an installed system under field conditions of varying inlet air temperature and RH, as well as system configuration. This profiling provides a more detailed and deeper understanding of WHD operation and its complexities. This report describes LBNL’s whole-home dehumidification field-metering study conducted at four homes in Wisconsin and Florida. The initial phase of the WHD field-metering study was conducted on one home in Madison, Wisconsin, from June to December of 2013. During a second phase, three Florida homes were metered from June to October of 2014. This report presents and examines data from the Wisconsin site and from the three Florida sites.

  2. Immunotoxicity of nanoparticles: a computational study suggests that CNTs and C60 fullerenes might be recognized as pathogens by Toll-like receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabekova, M.; Rasulev, B.; Theodore, M.; Jackman, J.; Leszczynska, D.; Leszczynski, J.

    2014-03-01

    Over the last decade, a great deal of attention has been devoted to study the inflammatory response upon exposure to multi/single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and different fullerene derivatives. In particular, carbon nanoparticles are reported to provoke substantial inflammation in alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells, epidermal keratinocytes, cultured monocyte-macrophage cells, etc. We suggest a hypothetical model providing the potential mechanistic explanation for immune and inflammatory responses observed upon exposure to carbon nanoparticles. Specifically, we performed a theoretical study to analyze CNT and C60 fullerene interactions with the available X-ray structures of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) homo- and hetero-dimer extracellular domains. This assumption was based on the fact that similar to the known TLR ligands both CNTs and fullerenes induce, in cells, the secretion of certain inflammatory protein mediators, such as interleukins and chemokines. These proteins are observed within inflammation downstream processes resulted from the ligand molecule dependent inhibition or activation of TLR-induced signal transduction. Our computational studies have shown that the internal hydrophobic pockets of some TLRs might be capable of binding small-sized carbon nanostructures (5,5 armchair SWCNTs containing 11 carbon atom layers and C60 fullerene). High binding scores and minor structural alterations induced in TLR ectodomains upon binding C60 and CNTs further supported our hypothesis. Additionally, the proposed hypothesis is strengthened by the indirect experimental findings indicating that CNTs and fullerenes induce an excessive expression of specific cytokines and chemokines (i.e. IL-8 and MCP1).Over the last decade, a great deal of attention has been devoted to study the inflammatory response upon exposure to multi/single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and different fullerene derivatives. In particular, carbon nanoparticles are reported to provoke

  3. Can saliva offer an advantage in monitoring of diabetes mellitus? – A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Balan, Preethi; Subhas G Babu; Sucheta, Kumari N.; Shetty, Shishir R.; Rangare, Anusha L.; Castelino, Renita L.; Fazil, Areekat K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes Mellitus is emerging as a major health problem over these years. Present method of blood glucose monitoring by venepuncture is invasive leading to reduced patient compliance and thereby ineffective judicious monitoring. The need of the hour is to direct research in the direction of establishing painless and more acceptable blood glucose analysis method.The objective of the study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the concentrations of salivary glucose and blood gluco...

  4. Wide-field monitoring strategy for the study of fast optical transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskin, Grigory; Bondar, Sergey; Karpov, Sergey; Guarnieri, Adriano; Bartolini, Corrado; Greco, Giuseppe; Piccioni, Adalberto

    2010-10-01

    We discuss the strategy of search for fast optical transients accompanying gamma-ray bursts by means of continuous monitoring of wide sky fields with high temporal resolution. We describe the design, performance and results of our cameras, FAVOR and TORTORA. Also we discuss the perspectives of this strategy and possible design of next-generation equipment for wide-field monitoring which will be able to detect optical transients and to study their color and polarization properties with high time resolution.

  5. Feasibility study: Assess the feasibility of siting a monitored retrievable storage facility. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of phase one of this study are: To understand the waste management system and a monitored retrievable storage facility; and to determine whether the applicant has real interest in pursuing the feasibility assessment process. Contents of this report are: Generating electric power; facts about exposure to radiation; handling storage, and transportation techniques; description of a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility; and benefits to be received by host jurisdiction.

  6. Study on attribute characterization for reservoir dynamic monitoring by seismic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Study on characterizing reservoir parameters dynamic variations by time-lapse seismic attributes is the theoretical basis for effectively distinguishing reservoir parameters variations and conducting time-lapse seismic interpretation,and it is also a key step for time-lapse seismic application in real oil fields. Based on the rock physical model of unconsolidated sandstone,the different effects of oil saturation and effective pressure variations on seismic P-wave and S-wave velocities are calculated and analyzed. Using numerical simulation on decoupled wave equations,the responses of seismic amplitude with different offsets to reservoir oil saturation variations are analyzed,pre-stack time-lapse seismic attributes differences for oil saturation and effective pressure variations of P-P wave and P-S converted wave are calculated,and time-lapse seismic AVO (Amplitude Versus Offset) response rules of P-P wave and P-S converted wave to effective pressure and oil saturation variations are compared. The theoretical modeling study shows that it is feasible to distinguish different reservoir parameters dynamic variations by pre-stack time-lapse seismic information,including pre-stack time-lapse seismic attributes and AVO information,which has great potential in improving time-lapse seismic interpreta-tion precision. It also shows that the time-lapse seismic response mechanism study on objective oil fields is especially important in establishing effective time-lapse seismic data process and interpreta-tion scheme.

  7. Opportunistic mobile air pollution monitoring: A case study with city wardens in Antwerp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Joris; Theunis, Jan; Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Botteldooren, Dick; De Baets, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential of opportunistic mobile monitoring to map the exposure to air pollution in the urban environment at a high spatial resolution. Opportunistic mobile monitoring makes use of existing mobile infrastructure or people's common daily routines to move measurement devices around. Opportunistic mobile monitoring can also play a crucial role in participatory monitoring campaigns as a typical way to gather data. A case study to measure black carbon was set up in Antwerp, Belgium, with the collaboration of city employees (city wardens). The Antwerp city wardens are outdoors for a large part of the day on surveillance tours by bicycle or on foot, and gathered a total of 393 h of measurements. The data collection is unstructured both in space and time, leading to sampling bias. A temporal adjustment can only partly counteract this bias. Although a high spatial coverage was obtained, there is still a rather large uncertainty on the average concentration levels at a spatial resolution of 50 m due to a limited number of measurements and sampling bias. Despite of this uncertainty, large spatial patterns within the city are clearly captured. This study illustrates the potential of campaigns with unstructured opportunistic mobile monitoring, including participatory monitoring campaigns. The results demonstrate that such an approach can indeed be used to identify broad spatial trends over a wider area, enabling applications including hotspot identification, personal exposure studies, regression mapping, etc. But, they also emphasize the need for repeated measurements and careful processing and interpretation of the data.

  8. STUDY OF REAL-TIME EXPERT SYSTEM TOOL FOR INDUSTRIAL FAULT MONITORING AND DIAGNOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢桂林; 周建荣

    1992-01-01

    From the requirements ot industrial production,an integrated fault monitoring,diagnosis and repairing system is suggested in this paper. This new scheme of fault monitoring and diagnosis system is realized by a master-slave real-time expert system,and a real-time expert system tool for this system is also developed accordingly. As an example of application of this tool,a realtime expert system for fault monitoring and diagnosis on DC mine hoist is developed. Experiments show that this tool possesses better supporting environment,strong knowledge acquisition ability, and convenience for use. The system developed by this tool not only meets the realtime requirement of DC hoist,but also can give correct diagnosis results.

  9. 中国通用航空租赁发展政策建议研究%Study on policy suggestions of general aviation leasing development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴桐水; 罗先飞

    2013-01-01

    通用航空租赁的发展将满足通用航空发展中的融资需求,改善中国通用航空制造业的市场环境,带动通用航空及其关联产业的发展.根据通用航空租赁业务流程,从内、外部原因来分析中国通用航空租赁主要存在的问题.研究提出了促进中国通用航空租赁发展的相关政策建议,从而推进中国通用航空租赁的发展.%The development of general aviation leasing will meet the financing needs in the development of general aviation, improve the market environment of China's general aviation manufacturing industry, and spur the development of general aviation and its related industries. In this paper, analyze the main problems of China's general aviation leasing from internal and external reasons according to the business processes of general aviation leasing. The study propose the policy suggestions of the general aviation leasing development in order to improve the development of China's general aviation leasing.

  10. Theme of Ayyari and Javanmardi and its Didactic-Suggestive Teachings in Prose Epics (case study: Samak-e Ayyar, Darabnameh and Firouzshahnameh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ja’afarpoor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous researches, exploration of the theme of Ayyari and teachings of Javanmardi and branches of this socio-political rite has focused mostly on prose and sometimes poetic mystical texts due to elitist view of researchers, and centrality and special status of the Holy Quran and religious texts. Perhaps, elucidating and representing the close relation of Ayyari and Javanmardi to epic texts and showing didactic teachings of this moral society can be a new and impressive effort to reveal its primary and Iranian origin and also correct some existing incorrect considerations. By this background in mind, the present paper aims to introduce in two sections the theoretical foundations of research in four axes including: prose epic narratives, didactic literature, its nature and branches, historical background and ups and downs of Ayyari and Javanmardi. Then, by comparative and typological approach in two prose epics Samak-e Ayyar and Darabnameh, didactic-suggestive teachings of Ayyaran and Javanmardan are analyzed and described. Having an almost comprehensive view on previous studies in this field, the present article reveals some points not considered before.

  11. Empirically based Suggested Insights into the Concept of False-Self Defense: Contributions From a Study on Normalization of Children With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichengreen, Adva; Hoofien, Dan; Bachar, Eytan

    2016-02-01

    The concept of the false self has been used widely in psychoanalytic theory and practice but seldom in empirical research. In this empirically based study, elevated features of false-self defense were hypothetically associated with risk factors attendant on processes of rehabilitation and integration of children with disabilities, processes that encourage adaptation of the child to the able-bodied environment. Self-report questionnaires and in-depth interviews were conducted with 88 deaf and hard-of-hearing students and a comparison group of 88 hearing counterparts. Results demonstrate that despite the important contribution of rehabilitation and integration to the well-being of these children, these efforts may put the child at risk of increased use of the false-self defense. The empirical findings suggest two general theoretical conclusions: (1) The Winnicottian concept of the environment, usually confined to the parent-child relationship, can be understood more broadly as including cultural, social, and rehabilitational variables that both influence the parent-child relationship and operate independently of it. (2) The monolithic conceptualization of the false self may be more accurately unpacked to reveal two distinct subtypes: the compliant and the split false self.

  12. Offspring of parents with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy have higher C-reactive protein levels suggestive of inflammatory processes: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsolova Svetla

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the characteristic extensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is usually considered a non-inflammatory disease. Methods We examined a marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP, in the offspring of patients with BEN, a population at risk for BEN, prior to development of established disease to determine if an inflammatory process could be identified in the early stages of the disease. In 2003/04, 102 adult offspring whose parents had BEN and a control group of 99 adult offspring of non-BEN patients were enrolled in this prospective study. This cohort was re-examined yearly for four consecutive years. Levels of serum CRP were measured in years 3 and 4 and compared between groups. The data were analyzed with mixed models. Results Compared to controls, offspring of BEN parents had statistically higher CRP levels in two consecutive years, suggestive of early inflammatory reactivity. Whenever the mother was affected by BEN (both parents, or mother only, serum CRP was significantly increased, but not if only the father had BEN. CRP was inversely related to kidney cortex width but not to markers or renal function. Conclusion Early stages of BEN may involve inflammatory processes. The observation of a maternal involvement supports the concept of fetal programming, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other chronic kidney diseases.

  13. Awareness during anaesthesia for surgery requiring evoked potential monitoring: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritish J Korula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evoked potential monitoring such as somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP or motor-evoked potential (MEP monitoring during surgical procedures in proximity to the spinal cord requires minimising the minimum alveolar concentrations (MACs below the anaesthetic concentrations normally required (1 MAC to prevent interference in amplitude and latency of evoked potentials. This could result in awareness. Our primary objective was to determine the incidence of awareness while administering low MAC inhalational anaesthetics for these unique procedures. The secondary objective was to assess the adequacy of our anaesthetic technique from neurophysiologist′s perspective. Methods: In this prospective observational pilot study, 61 American Society of Anesthesiologists 1 and 2 patients undergoing spinal surgery for whom intraoperative evoked potential monitoring was performed were included; during the maintenance phase, 0.7-0.8 MAC of isoflurane was targeted. We evaluated the intraoperative depth of anaesthesia using a bispectral (BIS index monitor as well as the patients response to surgical stimulus (PRST scoring system. Post-operatively, a modified Bruce questionnaire was used to verify awareness. The adequacy of evoked potential readings was also assessed. Results: Of the 61 patients, no patient had explicit awareness. Intraoperatively, 19 of 61 patients had a BIS value of above sixty at least once, during surgery. There was no correlation with PRST scoring and BIS during surgery. Fifty-four out of 61 patient′s evoked potential readings were deemed ′good′ or ′fair′ for the conduct of electrophysiological monitoring. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrates that administering low MAC inhalational anaesthetics to facilitate evoked potential monitoring does not result in explicit awareness. However, larger studies are needed to verify this. The conduct of SSEP electrophysiological monitoring was satisfactory with the use of this

  14. Human leptospirosis in Seychelles: A prospective study confirms the heavy burden of the disease but suggests that rats are not the main reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Biscornet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira for which rats are considered as the main reservoir. Disease incidence is higher in tropical countries, especially in insular ecosystems. Our objectives were to determine the current burden of leptospirosis in Seychelles, a country ranking first worldwide according to historical data, to establish epidemiological links between animal reservoirs and human disease, and to identify drivers of transmission.A total of 223 patients with acute febrile symptoms of unknown origin were enrolled in a 12-months prospective study and tested for leptospirosis through real-time PCR, IgM ELISA and MAT. In addition, 739 rats trapped throughout the main island were investigated for Leptospira renal carriage. All molecularly confirmed positive samples were further genotyped.A total of 51 patients fulfilled the biological criteria of acute leptospirosis, corresponding to an annual incidence of 54.6 (95% CI 40.7-71.8 per 100,000 inhabitants. Leptospira carriage in Rattus spp. was overall low (7.7% but dramatically higher in Rattus norvegicus (52.9% than in Rattus rattus (4.4%. Leptospira interrogans was the only detected species in both humans and rats, and was represented by three distinct Sequence Types (STs. Two were novel STs identified in two thirds of acute human cases while noteworthily absent from rats.This study shows that human leptospirosis still represents a heavy disease burden in Seychelles. Genotype data suggests that rats are actually not the main reservoir for human disease. We highlight a rather limited efficacy of preventive measures so far implemented in Seychelles. This could result from ineffective control measures of excreting animal populations, possibly due to a misidentification of the main contaminating reservoir(s. Altogether, presented data stimulate the exploration of alternative reservoir animal hosts.

  15. Suggestion of optimal radiation fields in rectal cancer patients after surgical resection for the development of the patterns of care study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hoon; Park, Jin Hong; Kim, Dae Yong [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2003-06-01

    To suggest the optimal radiation fields after a surgical resection based on a nationwide survey on the principles of radiotherapy for rectal cancer in the Korean Patterns of Care Study. A consensus committee, composed of radiation oncologists from 18 hospitals in Seoul Metropolitan area, developed a survey format to analyze radiation oncologist's treatment principles for rectal cancer after a surgical resection. The survey format included 19 questions on the principles of defining field margins, and was sent to the radiation oncologists in charge of gastrointestinal malignancies in all Korean hospitals (48 hospitals). Thirty three (69%) oncologists replied. On the basis of the replies and literature review, the committee developed guidelines for the optimal radiation fields for rectal cancer. The following guidelines were developed: superior border between the lower tip of the L5 vertebral body and upper sacroiliac joint; inferior border 2-3 cm distal to the anastomosis in patient whose sphincter was saved, and 2-3 cm distal to the perineal scar in patients whose anal sphincter was sacrificed; anterior margin at the posterior tip of the symphysis pubis or 2-3 cm anterior to the vertebral body, to include the internal iliac lymph node and posterior margin 1.5-2 cm posterior to the anterior surface of the sacrum, to include the presacral space with enough margin. Comparison with the guidelines, the replies on the superior margin coincided in 23 cases (70%), the inferior margin after sphincter saving surgery in 13 (39%), the inferior margin after abdominoperineal resection in 32 (97%), the lateral margin in 32 (97%), the posterior margins in 32 (97%) and the anterior margin in 16 (45%). These recommendations should be tailored to each patient according to the clinical characteristics such as tumor location, pathological and operative findings, for the optimal treatment. The adequacy of these guidelines should be proved by following the Korean Patterns of Care

  16. Webcams for bird detection and monitoring: a demonstration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Willem W; Vermeulen, Bart; Stuckens, Jan; Lhermitte, Stefaan; Van der Zande, Dimitry; Van Ranst, Marc; Coppin, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.

  17. Determinants of delayed care seeking for TB suggestive symptoms in Seru district, Oromiya region, Ethiopia: a community based unmatched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirgu, Robel; Lemessa, Firaol; Hirpa, Selamawit; Alemayehu, Abraham; Klinkenberg, Eveline

    2017-04-20

    Early tuberculosis (TB) case finding and adequate chemotherapy are essential for interrupting disease transmission and preventing complications due to delayed care seeking. This study was undertaken in order to provide insights into the magnitude and determinants of patient delay. The study was conducted in rural Seru district, employing a population based unmatched case-control study design. The WHO standardized TB screening tool was used to identify presumptive TB cases among the district population ages > 15 years. Presumptive TB cases who sought care in a health facility more than 14 days after the onset of symptoms were considered cases while those who sought care within the first 14 days were classified as controls. A structured interview questionnaire was used to capture socio demographic characteristics and health care service utilization related data from the study participants. A multiple binary logistic regression model was used to identify any factor associated with patient care seeking delay. A total of 9,782 individuals were screened, of which 980 (10%, 95% CI; 9.4-10.5%) presumptive TB cases were identified. From these cases 358 (76%, 95% CI; 75.6%-76.4%) sought care within the first 14 days of the onset of symptoms with a median patient delay of 15 days, IQR (5-30 days). The most common TB suggestive symptom mentioned by the participants was night sweat 754 (76.4%) while the least common was a history of contact with a confirmed TB case in the past one year 207 (21.1%). Individuals in the 45-54 age range had lower odds of delay (AOR 0.31, 95%CI 0.15, 0.61) as compared to those 15-24 years old. First TB treatment episode (AOR16.2, 95% CI 9.94, 26.26) and limited access to either traditional or modern modes of transportation (AOR 2.62, 95% CI 1.25, 5.49) were independently associated with patient care delay. Increasing community awareness about the risks of delayed care seeking and the importance of accessing health services close to the community can

  18. Some studies on condition monitoring techniques for on line condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of mine winder motor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Kumar. Chatterjee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Survey of existing literature reveals that no serious attempt has been made so far to monitor the health of mine winder motors. The electrical motors are the critical equipment of the mine winders which require constant condition monitoring for planning the right time for their maintenance and thus ensure maximum machineavailability. In this research work an online condition monitoring instrumentation system has been developed based on axial flux, current and vibration monitoring technique for mine winder motor. The online condition monitoring instrumentation system is noninvasive in nature and can be connected with mine winder motors which are in operation. The developed instrumentation system would be able to diagnose the health of mine winder motor and the motor fault of incipient nature can be pinpointed by the trend analysis of the frequency spectrum of time varying signal of axial flux, motor current and vibration.

  19. Monitoring historical masonry structures with operational modal analysis: Two case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, L. F.; Marques, L.; Lourenço, P. B.; De Roeck, G.; Campos-Costa, A.; Roque, J.

    2010-07-01

    The paper addresses two complex case studies of modal and structural identification of monuments in Portugal: the Clock Tower of Mogadouro and the Church of Jerónimos Monastery, in Lisbon. These are being monitored by University of Minho with vibration, temperature and relative air humidity sensors. Operational modal analysis is being used to estimate the modal parameters, followed by statistical analysis to evaluate the environmental effects on the dynamic response. The aim is to explore damage assessment in masonry structures at an early stage by vibration signatures, as a part of a health monitoring process that helps in the preservation of historical constructions. The paper presents the necessary preliminary dynamic analysis steps before the monitoring task, which includes installation of the monitoring system, system identification and subsequent FE model updating analysis, automatic modal identification and investigation of the influence of the environment on the identified modal parameters.

  20. QRAC-the-Code: a comprehension monitoring strategy for middle school social studies textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Sheri; Riccomini, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Requirements for reading and ascertaining information from text increase as students advance through the educational system, especially in content-rich classes; hence, monitoring comprehension is especially important. However, this is a particularly challenging skill for many students who struggle with reading comprehension, including students with learning disabilities. A randomized pre-post experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a comprehension monitoring strategy (QRAC-the-Code) for improving the reading comprehension of 323 students in grades 6 and 7 in inclusive social studies classes. Findings indicated that both general education students and students with learning disabilities who were taught a simple comprehension monitoring strategy improved their comprehension of textbook content compared to students who read independently and noted important points. In addition, students in the comprehension monitoring condition reported using more reading strategies after the intervention. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  1. Epidemiological study of epilepsy by monitoring prescriptions of antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, R; Borselli, G; Marinai, C; Borgheresi, A; Cavalieri, A

    1995-07-28

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a simple and effective method of acquiring epidemiological information about epilepsy. Data on antiepileptic drug prescriptions was collected, the utilization pattern being based on defined daily doses (DDDs). Antiepileptic drugs are epidemiological tracers of epilepsy due to their chronic and highly specific usage. Consequently, a prevalence rate for the whole population may be obtained by using DDDs. Data on antiepileptic drug prescriptions for a period of 6 months in 1992 and 6 months in 1993 indicate a utilization of approximately 7 DDDs of antiepileptic drugs per 1,000 inhabitants. The prevalence of epilepsy was estimated by correcting the exposure calculated in DDDs by a factor of 0.68. In our sample, the prevalence of the disease was 5.2 per 1,000 inhabitants in 1992 and 4.9 per 1,000 in 1993. Physician prescriptions were concentrated on four compounds, namely phenobarbital, carbamazepine, valproic acid and phenytoin, which together represented 90% of total antiepileptic drug prescriptions.

  2. Nuclear Track Detectors for Environmental Studies and Radiation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzoor, S. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); PRD, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: manzoor@bo.infn.it; Balestra, S.; Cozzi, M.; Errico, M.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Kumar, A. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Dept. of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Eng. and Tech., Longowal 148 106 India (India); Margiotta, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Patrizii, L. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Popa, V. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Institute of Space Sciences, Bucharest R-77125 (Romania); Qureshi, I.E. [PRD, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan); Togo, V. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    Several improvements were made for Nuclear Track Detectors (NTDs) used for environmental studies and for particle searches. A new method was used to determine the bulk etch rate of CR39 and Makrofol NTDs. It is based on the simultaneous measurement of the diameter and of the height of etch-pit cones caused by relativistic heavy ions (158 A GeV Pb{sup 82+} and In{sup 49+} ions) and their fragments. The use of alcohol in the etching solution improves the surface quality of NTDs and it raises their thresholds. The detectors were used for the determination of nuclear fragmentation cross sections of Iron and Silicon ions of 1.0 and 0.41 GeV/nucleon. These measurements are important for the determination of doses in hadrontherapy and for doses received by astronauts. The detectors were also used in the search of massive particles in the cosmic radiation, for the determination of the mass spectrum of cosmic rays and for the evaluation of Po{sup 210}{alpha}-decay and of natural radon concentrations.

  3. Webcams for Bird Detection and Monitoring: A Demonstration Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem W. Verstraeten

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.

  4. Site location optimization of regional air quality monitoring network in China: methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junyu; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Liu, Panwei; Zhong, Liuju; Lai, Senchao

    2011-11-01

    Regional air quality monitoring networks (RAQMN) are urgently needed in China due to increasing regional air pollution in city clusters, arising from rapid economic development in recent decades. This paper proposes a methodological framework for site location optimization in designing a RAQMN adapting to air quality management practice in China. The framework utilizes synthetic assessment concentrations developed from simulated data from a regional air quality model in order to simplify the optimal process and to reduce costs. On the basis of analyzing various constraints such as cost and budget, terrain conditions, administrative district, population density and spatial coverage, the framework takes the maximum approximate degree as an optimization objective to achieve site location optimization of a RAQMN. An expert judgment approach was incorporated into the framework to help adjust initial optimization results in order to make the network more practical and representative. A case study was used to demonstrate the application of the framework, indicating that it is feasible to conduct site optimization for a RAQMN design in China. The effects of different combinations of primary and secondary pollutants on site location optimization were investigated. It is suggested that the network design considering both primary and secondary pollutants could better represent regional pollution characteristics and more extensively reflect temporal and spatial variations of regional air quality. The work shown in this study can be used as a reference to guide site location optimization of a RAQMN design in China or other regions of the world.

  5. Incidence and localizing value of vertigo and dizziness in patients with epilepsy: Video-EEG monitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-10-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are common neurological complaints that have long been associated with epilepsy. However, studies of patients with epileptic vertigo or dizziness with concurrent EEG monitoring are scarce. We performed the present study to investigate the incidence and localizing value of vertigo and dizziness in patients with epilepsy who had confirmation of EEG changes via video-EEG monitoring. Data of aura and clinical seizure episodes of 831 consecutive patients who underwent video-EEG monitoring were analyzed retrospectively. Out of 831 patients, 40 patients (4.8%) experienced vertigo or dizziness as aura (mean age, 32.8±11.8years), all of whom had partial seizures. Eight had mesial temporal, 20 had lateral temporal, four had frontal, one had parietal, and seven had occipital lobe onset seizures. An intracranial EEG with cortical stimulation study was performed in seven patients, and the area of stimulation-induced vertigo or dizziness coincided with the ictal onset area in only one patient. Our study showed that vertigo or dizziness is a common aura in patients with epilepsy, and that the temporal lobe is the most frequent ictal onset area in these patients. However, it can be suggested that the symptomatogenic area in patients with epileptic vertigo and dizziness may not coincide with the ictal onset area.

  6. Genome-wide linkage study suggests a susceptibility locus for isolated bilateral microtia on 4p15.32-4p16.2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    Full Text Available Microtia is a congenital deformity where the external ear is underdeveloped. Genetic investigations have identified many susceptibility genes of microtia-related syndromes. However, no causal genes were reported for isolated microtia, the main form of microtia. We conducted a genome-wide linkage analysis on a 5-generation Chinese pedigree with isolated bilateral microtia. We identified a suggestive linkage locus on 4p15.32-4p16.2 with parametric LOD score of 2.70 and nonparametric linkage score (Zmean of 12.28 (simulated occurrence per genome scan equal to 0.46 and 0.47, respectively. Haplotype reconstruction analysis of the 4p15.32-4p16.2 region further confined the linkage signal to a 10-Mb segment located between rs12505562 and rs12649803 (9.65-30.24 cM; 5.54-15.58 Mb. Various human organ developmental genes reside in this 10-Mb susceptibility region, such as EVC, EVC2, SLC2A9, NKX3-2, and HMX1. The coding regions of three genes, EVC known for cartilage development and NKX3-2, HMX1 involved in microtia, were selected for sequencing with 5 individuals from the pedigree. Of the 38 identified sequence variants, none segregates along with the disease phenotype. Other genes or DNA sequences of the 10-Mb region warrant for further investigation. In conclusion, we report a susceptibility locus of isolated microtia, and this finding will encourage future studies on the genetic basis of ear deformity.

  7. Genome-wide linkage study suggests a susceptibility locus for isolated bilateral microtia on 4p15.32-4p16.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Hu, Jintian; Zhang, Jiao; Jin, Qian; Wang, Duen-Mei; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Qingguo; Zhang, Yong-Biao

    2014-01-01

    Microtia is a congenital deformity where the external ear is underdeveloped. Genetic investigations have identified many susceptibility genes of microtia-related syndromes. However, no causal genes were reported for isolated microtia, the main form of microtia. We conducted a genome-wide linkage analysis on a 5-generation Chinese pedigree with isolated bilateral microtia. We identified a suggestive linkage locus on 4p15.32-4p16.2 with parametric LOD score of 2.70 and nonparametric linkage score (Zmean) of 12.28 (simulated occurrence per genome scan equal to 0.46 and 0.47, respectively). Haplotype reconstruction analysis of the 4p15.32-4p16.2 region further confined the linkage signal to a 10-Mb segment located between rs12505562 and rs12649803 (9.65-30.24 cM; 5.54-15.58 Mb). Various human organ developmental genes reside in this 10-Mb susceptibility region, such as EVC, EVC2, SLC2A9, NKX3-2, and HMX1. The coding regions of three genes, EVC known for cartilage development and NKX3-2, HMX1 involved in microtia, were selected for sequencing with 5 individuals from the pedigree. Of the 38 identified sequence variants, none segregates along with the disease phenotype. Other genes or DNA sequences of the 10-Mb region warrant for further investigation. In conclusion, we report a susceptibility locus of isolated microtia, and this finding will encourage future studies on the genetic basis of ear deformity.

  8. The study of key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai

    2016-08-01

    This paper has studied the key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring. The validations show that the consistence of the coordinate system must be considered firstly to exclude the system bias between GNSS and strong-motion. The GNSS sampling rate is suggested about 1-5 Hz, and we should give the strong-motion's baseline shift with a larger dynamic noise as its variation is very swift. The initialization time of solving the baseline shift is less than one minute, and ambiguity resolution strategy is not greatly improved the solution. The data quality is very important for the solution, we advised to use multi-frequency and multi-system observations. These ideas give an important guide for real-time earthquake monitoring and early warning by the tight integration of GNSS and strong-motion records.

  9. Current sedation and monitoring practice for colonoscopy: an International Observational Study (EPAGE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froehlich, F; Harris, JK; Wietlisbach, V;

    2006-01-01

    in endoscopy centers internationally. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This observational study included consecutive patients referred for colonoscopy at 21 centers in 11 countries. Endoscopists reported sedation and monitoring practice, using a standard questionnaire for each patient. RESULTS: 6004 patients were......BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Sedation and monitoring practice during colonoscopy varies between centers and over time. Knowledge of current practice is needed to ensure quality of care and help focus future research. The objective of this study was to examine sedation and monitoring practice...... included in this study, of whom 53 % received conscious/moderate sedation during colonoscopy, 30 % received deep sedation, and 17 % received no sedation. Sedation agents most commonly used were midazolam (47 %) and opioids (33 %). Pulse oximetry was done during colonoscopy in 77 % of patients, blood...

  10. U.S. Geological Survey geohydrologic studies and monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory, southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2017-09-14

    BackgroundThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geohydrologic studies and monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is an ongoing, long-term program. This program, which began in 1949, includes hydrologic monitoring networks and investigative studies that describe the effects of waste disposal on water contained in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer and the availability of water for long-term consumptive and industrial use. Interpretive reports documenting study findings are available to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors; other Federal, State, and local agencies; private firms; and the public at https://id.water.usgs.gov/INL/Pubs/index.html. Information contained within these reports is crucial to the management and use of the aquifer by the INL and the State of Idaho. USGS geohydrologic studies and monitoring are done in cooperation with the DOE Idaho Operations Office.

  11. Community pharmacists, medication monitoring, and the routine nature of refills: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witry, Matthew J; Doucette, William R

    2014-01-01

    To describe the attitudes, contextual factors, and behaviors associated with medication monitoring in the dispensing process by community pharmacists. Descriptive qualitative research with semistructured interviews. Midwestern community pharmacies or telephone. 12 licensed community pharmacists from chain, independent, and grocery pharmacies. 45-minute, semistructured interviews were conducted to gather detailed live experiences and perspectives pertinent to the study objective. Transcripts were coded descriptively and interpretively, originating with the input and monitoring process domains of the Health Collaboration Model. A thematic dichotomy was interpreted in the analysis. All participants discussed both (1) the technical and routine nature of their work, and (2) the problem-solving and relational aspects of practice. More specifically, medication monitoring was constrained by busyness, lack of patient interest, and the routine nature of refills, although to varying extents. Some predominantly responded to unique circumstances such as patient question-asking, prior memory of a patient interaction or service utilization, or technical issues such as medication cost. Others added unprompted questions of varying specificity when handing off the prescription to understand patient medication experiences. Pharmacists felt challenged by nonadherence monitoring because workflows made this information difficult to access and late refills were prevalent. Community pharmacies seeking to increase medication monitoring in the dispensing process may target the routine nature of refills and the availability of monitoring information.

  12. A Study of Multi-Signal Monitoring System Establishment for Hemodynamic Energy Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YeonSoo Shin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deaths due to cardiovascular diseases are increasing worldwide, and multi-signal monitoring systems to diagnose such diseases are under development. However, only a few researches are underway for devices that monitor hemodynamic energy, which is a marker for pulsatile flow generated by the contraction and relaxation of the heart. Therefore, this study aimed to integrate multiple monitoring devices into a single device, while also incorporating hemodynamic energy monitoring. Blood pressure and flow were measured with two channels each, while electrocardiogram (ECG, photoplethysmography (PPG, and temperature were measured with one channel each. All signals were processed at hardware level, and then converted into analog voltage. The seven signals were then converted into digital signals with a data acquisition board (DAQ. The software was developed with Labview™ (National Instruments, U.S.A to form a graphic user interface (GUI on a tablet computer (ACER, U.S.A through USB 2.0, to allow for monitoring and analysis of the signals obtained. Development of this system successfully formed a multi-signal monitoring system that integrates multiple signals into one device. Future directions include development of cardiovascular diagnosis algorithm and evaluation of the system via preclinical animal experiments.

  13. Patient satisfaction and suggestions for improvement of remote ICD monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helen Høgh; Larsen, Mie Christa Jensen; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe

    2012-01-01

    -up clinic at Rigshospitalet using CareLink® (Medtronic) remote follow-up, who had made =2 transmissions, received a questionnaire. RESULTS: Three hundred eighty-five patients (81.2%) answered. Mean time with ICD was 56¿±¿45 months and mean age was 62¿±¿13 years; 80% was male. Diagnosis related to ICD...

  14. Study for Reactor Monitoring using Anti-neutrino Detection in the Neos experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bo Young; Sun, Gwang Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Eun Ju [ISB, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-05-15

    In this study we describe a feasibility study of reactor monitoring using antineutrino detection in the Neutrino Experiment for Oscillation at Short baseline (NEOS) at Hanbit power plant. Recently, in the perspective of nonproliferation issues and misuse of nuclear energy as a fast-growing nuclear energy industry, the application of anti-neutrino measurement has been proposed and the feasibility studies has been carried out as a novel technology for monitoring the burning process of nuclear power reactor. The NEOS detector with 1000 L Gd-doped liquid scintillator was installed in tendon gallery at Hanbit power station unit 5 and has been collecting close to 2000 IBD events per day with the signal to noise ratio of ∼ 20. As a preliminary result, we demonstrate the possibility of monitoring nuclear power reactor with the IBD counting rate during reactor power ON, ramping up, and OFF.

  15. Multicenter Study of Posaconazole Therapeutic Drug Monitoring: Exposure-Response Relationship and Factors Affecting Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Dolton, Michael J; Ray, John E.; Chen, Sharon C.-A.; Ng, Kingsley; Pont, Lisa; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Posaconazole has an important role in the prophylaxis and salvage treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), although poor and variable bioavailability remains an important clinical concern. Therapeutic drug monitoring of posaconazole concentrations has remained contentious, with the use of relatively small patient cohorts in previous studies hindering the assessment of exposure-response relationships. This multicenter retrospective study aimed to investigate relationships between posaco...

  16. Tuberculosis patients' reasons for, and suggestions to address non-uptake of HIV testing: a cross-sectional study in the Free State Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters Edwin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa endorses the global policy shift from primarily client-initiated voluntary counselling and testing (VCT to routine/provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC. The reason for this policy shift has been to facilitate uptake of HIV testing amongst at-risk populations in high-prevalence settings. Despite ostensible implementation of routine/PITC, uptake amongst tuberculosis (TB patients in this country remains a challenge. This study presents the reasons that non-tested TB patients offered for their refusal of HIV testing and reflects on all TB patients' suggestions as to how this situation may be alleviated. Methods In February-March 2008, a cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 600 TB patients across 61 primary health care facilities in four sub-districts in the Free State. Patient selection was done proportionally to the numbers registered at each facility in 2007. Data were subjected to bivariate tests and content analysis of open-ended questions. Results Almost one-third (32.5% of the respondents reported that they had not undertaken HIV testing, with the most often offered explanation being that they were 'undecided' (37.0%. Other self-reported reasons for non-uptake included: fear (e.g. of testing HIV-positive, 19.0%; perception of being at low risk of HIV infection (13.4%; desire first to deal with TB 'on its own' (12.5%; and because HIV testing had not been offered to them (12.0%. Many patients expressed the need for support and motivation not only from health care workers (33.3%, but also from their significant others (56.6%. Patients further expressed a need for (increased dissemination of TB-HIV information by health care workers (46.1%. Conclusions Patients did not undergo HIV testing for various patient-/individual-related reasons. Non-uptake of HIV testing was also due to health system limitations such as the non-offer of HIV testing. Other measures may be necessary to supplement routine

  17. Monitoring, genomic study and control of patulin producing fungi in Korean fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongho; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Yun, Hyejung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suhyun [KBSI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jongchun [Seonam Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    This study was intended to apply irradiation technology for the degradation of patulin from apples and apple juices by investigating their physical, mechanical, biological, and pharmacochemical properties in view of potential uses in the bio-industry. The patulin producing fungi was separated from in Korean apples. Totally, 16 morphological types of fungi were isolated from the apples and a patulin producing fungi was identified. The isolated patulin producing fungus was found to a represent species of Penicillium crustosum. The patulin, dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 50 ppm was practically degraded by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 1.0 kGy, while 33% of the patulin was remained at apple juice. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1 kGy of gamma irradiation (recommended radiation doses for radicidation and/or quarantine in fruits) is effective for the reduction of patulin, but the nutritional elements should be considered because the radio-degradation effects are environment dependant. The effects of a gamma irradiation on the physiochemical and physical characteristics of apple was investigated during a post-irradiation storage at 4 and 25. Gamma irradiation dose not affect stability of the nutritional contents, functional properties and physical characteristics of apples, especially in the condition of a cold storage after a radiation treatment. The degradation condition characteristics of patulin in apple juice and functional properties of corresponding condition were monitored by response surface methodology (RSM)

  18. Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Clara Eugenia; Mendoza, Luciano Pedro Oscar; Fernández, Laura Isabel; Natali, María Paula; Meza, Amalia Margarita; Francisco Moirano, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric water vapour has been acknowledged as an essential climate variable. Weather prediction and hazard assessment systems benefit from real-time observations, whereas long-term records contribute to climate studies. Nowadays, ground-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) products have become widely employed, complementing satellite observations over the oceans. Although the past decade has seen a significant development of the GNSS infrastructure in Central and South America, its potential for atmospheric water vapour monitoring has not been fully exploited. With this in mind, we have performed a regional, 7-year-long and homogeneous analysis, comprising 136 GNSS tracking stations, obtaining high-rate and continuous observations of column-integrated water vapour and troposphere zenith total delay. As a preliminary application for this data set, we have estimated local water vapour trends, their significance, and their relation with specific climate regimes. We have found evidence of drying at temperate regions in South America, at a rate of about 2 % per decade, while a slow moistening of the troposphere over tropical regions is also weakly suggested by our results. Furthermore, we have assessed the regional performance of the empirical model GPT2w to blindly estimate troposphere delays. The model reproduces the observed mean delays fairly well, including their annual and semi-annual variations. Nevertheless, a long-term evaluation has shown systematical biases, up to 20 mm, probably inherited from the underlying atmospheric reanalysis. Additionally, the complete data set has been made openly available as supplementary material.

  19. Monitoring of IVF birth outcomes in Finland: a data quality study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemminki Elina

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The collection of information on infertility treatments is important for the surveillance of potential health consequences and to monitor service provision. Study design We compared the coverage and outcomes of IVF children reported in aggregated IVF statistics, the Medical Birth Register (subsequently: MBR and research data based on reimbursements for IVF treatments in Finland in 1996–1998. Results The number of newborns were nearly equal in the three data sources (N = 4331–4384, but the linkage between the MBR and the research data revealed that almost 40% of the reported IVF children were not the same individuals. The perinatal outcomes in the three data sources were similar, excluding the much lower incidence of major congenital anomalies in the IVF statistics (157/10 000 newborns compared to other sources (409–422/10 000 newborns. Conclusion The differences in perinatal outcomes in the three data sets were in general minor, which suggests that the observed non-recording in the MBR is most likely unbiased.

  20. Kinetics of linear rouleaux formation studied by visual monitoring of red cell dynamic organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshtein, G; Wajnblum, D; Yedgar, S

    2000-05-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of plasma proteins or other macromolecules may form aggregates, normally in rouleaux formations, which are dispersed with increasing blood flow. Experimental observations have suggested that the spontaneous aggregation process involves the formation of linear rouleaux (FLR) followed by formation of branched rouleaux networks. Theoretical models for the spontaneous rouleaux formation were formulated, taking into consideration that FLR may involve both "polymerization," i.e., interaction between two single RBCs (e + e) and the addition of a single RBC to the end of an existing rouleau (e + r), as well as "condensation" between two rouleaux by end-to-end addition (r + r). The present study was undertaken to experimentally examine the theoretical models and their assumptions, by visual monitoring of the spontaneous FLR (from singly dispersed RBC) in plasma, in a narrow gap flow chamber. The results validate the theoretical model, showing that FLR involves both polymerization and condensation, and that the kinetic constants for the above three types of intercellular interactions are the same, i.e., k(ee) = k(er) = k(rr) = k, and for all tested hematocrits (0.625-6%) k < 0.13 +/- 0.03 s(-1).

  1. An implantable intracardiac accelerometer for monitoring myocardial contractility. The Multicenter PEA Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickards, A F; Bombardini, T; Corbucci, G; Plicchi, G

    1996-12-01

    implantable device. Pharmacological inotropic stimulation, but not pacing induced chronotropic stimulation, increases PEA amplitude, in keeping with experimental studies, suggesting that PEA is an index of myocardial contractility. Acute variations in PEA are closely paralleled by changes in RV dP/dtmax, but are mainly determined by LV events. The clinical applicability of the method using RV endocardial leads and an implantable device offers potential for diagnostic applications in the long-term monitoring of myocardial function in man.

  2. Using Satellite Imagery to Monitor the Major Lakes; Case Study Lake Hamun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Islam, R.; Bah, A.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    Proper lakes function can ease the impact of floods and drought especially in arid and semi-arid regions. They are important environmentally and can directly affect human lives. Better understanding of the effect of climate change and human-driven changes on lakes would provide invaluable information for policy-makers and local people. As part of a comprehensive study, we aim to monitor the land-cover/ land-use changes in the world's major lakes using satellite observations. As a case study, Hamun Lake which is a pluvial Lake, also known as shallow Lake, located on the south-east of Iran and adjacent to Afghanistan, and Pakistan borders is investigated. The Lake is the main source of resources (agriculture, fishing and hunting) for the people around it and politically important in the region since it is shared among three different countries. The purpose of the research is to find the Lake's area from 1972 to 2015 and to see if any drought or water resources management has affected the lake. Analyzing satellites imagery from Landsat shows that the area of the Lake changes seasonally and intra-annually. Significant seasonal effects are found in 1975,1977, 1987, 1993, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2009 and 2011, as well as, substantial amount of shallow water is found throughout the years. The precipitation records as well as drought historical records are studied for the lake's basin. Meteorological studies suggest that the drought, decrease of rainfalls in the province and the improper management of the Lake have caused environmental, economic and geographical consequences. The results reveal that lake has experienced at least two prolong dryings since 1972 which drought cannot solely be blamed as main forcing factor.Proper lakes function can ease the impact of floods and drought especially in arid and semi-arid regions. They are important environmentally and can directly affect human lives. Better understanding of the effect of climate change and human-driven changes on lakes

  3. Evaluation of the performance of diagnosis monitors in use in Salvador city: pilot study; Avaliacao do desempenho de monitores diagnostico em uso na cidade de Salvador: estudo piloto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Igor; Geambastiani, Paulo; Ferreira, Mario; Macedo, Eric; Navarro, Marcus; Navarro, Valeria; Pereira, Lara; Jesus, Evandro de; Leite, Handerson Jorge Dourado, E-mail: lem.labprosaud@ifba.edu.br [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LABPROSAUD/IFBA), Salvador , BA (Brazil). Lab. de Produtos para Saude; Lins, Carolina [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saude Publica, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Radiologically, the image quality is the accuracy of the representation of the patient's anatomy. Considering the importance of the performance of the monitors to the overall effectiveness of a practice of diagnostic imaging, the objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of diagnostic monitors in use, using the method described in the report 03 of the AAPA and Spanish protocol, using calibrated instrumentation traceable to NIST and to RBC. The results of the monitors evaluated to date show 100% compliance for geometric distortion tests and internal reflection and 0% compliance to the dependence of luminance test. (author)

  4. Reviews and syntheses: Greenhouse gas emissions in natural and agricultural lands in sub-Saharan Africa: synthesis of available data and suggestions for further studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.-G. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes currently available data on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from African natural and agricultural lands, outlines the knowledge gaps and suggests future directions and strategies for GHG emission studies. GHG emission data were collected from 73 studies conducted in 22 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Soil GHG emissions from African natural terrestrial systems ranged from 3.3 to 57.0 Mg carbon dioxide (CO2 ha−1 yr−1, −4.8 to 3.5 kg methane (CH4 ha−1 yr−1 and −0.1 to 13.7 kg nitrous oxide (N2O ha−1 yr−1. Soil physical and chemical properties, rewetting, vegetation type, forest management and land-use changes were all found to be important factors affecting soil GHG emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions from African aquatic systems ranged from 5.7 to 232.0 Mg CO2 ha−1 yr−1, −26.3 to 2741.9 kg CH4 ha−1 yr−1 and 0.2 to 3.5 kg N2O ha−1 yr−1 and were strongly affected by discharge. Soil GHG emissions from African croplands ranged from 1.7 to 141.2 Mg CO2 ha−1 yr−1, −1.3 to 66.7 kg CH4 ha−1 yr−1and 0.05 to 112.0 kg N2O ha−1 yr−1 and the N2O emission factor (EF ranged from 0.01 to 4.1 %. Incorporation of crop residues or manure with inorganic fertilizers resulted in significant changes in GHG emissions but these were different for CO2 and N2O. Soil GHG emissions in vegetable gardens ranged from 73.3 to 132.0 Mg CO2 ha−1 yr−1 and 53.4 to 177.6 kg N2O ha−1 yr−1 and N2O EFs ranged from 3 to 4 %. Soil CO2 and N2O emissions from agroforestry were 38.6 Mg CO2 ha−1 yr−1 and 0.2 to 26.7 kg N2O ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Improving fallow with nitrogen (N-fixing trees increased CO2 and N2O emissions compared to conventional croplands and type and quality of plant residue is likely to be an important control factor affecting N2O emissions. Throughout agricultural lands, N2O emissions slowly increased with N inputs below 150 kg N ha−1 yr−1 and increased exponentially with N

  5. [Study on the relationship between prenatal monitoring index in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and perinatal prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junling; Kuang, Jingxia; Cheng, Xiaolin

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the association between prenatal monitoring index in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and the perinatal prognosis, as well as the characteristics of perinatal situations. A retrospective study on the clinical data of 88 cases intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and prognosis that were treated in our hospital from Jan. 2011 to Jan. 2014 was carried out. Relationship between prenatal monitoring index in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and perinatal prognosis, together with the epidemiological features of infants were analyzed. The incidence rates of perinatal meconium stained amniotic fluid, asphyxia neonatorum, premature and fetal distress were significantly higher in the study group than those in the controls, with differences statistically significant (P intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, with most frequently seen as meconium stained amniotic fluid. It was necessary to monitor the level of prenatal CG, ALT, AST, TBIL and TBA in puerperant in predicting the perinatal prognosis.

  6. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in young cryptogenic ischemic stroke: A 3-week ECG Holter monitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanak, Daniel; Hutyra, Martin; Kral, Michal; Bartkova, Andrea; Zapletalova, Jana; Fedorco, Marian; Veverka, Tomas; Vindis, David; Dornak, Tomas; Skala, Tomas; Skoloudik, David; Taborsky, Milos; Kanovsky, Petr

    2015-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation is known very frequent cause of ischemic stroke. Undetected paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) is thus often considered a possible cause of cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CIS). The aim of this prospective study was to detect PAF using ECG Holter monitoring and determinate whether prolongation of the Holter monitoring to 3 weeks would increase the detection rates of PAF in young CIS patients ≤ 50 years. The study set consisted of IS patients ≤ 50 years enrolled in the HISTORY (Heart and Ischemic STrOke Relationship studY) study (NCT01541163). CIS was defined according to the TOAST criteria including the absence of ultrasonographic or angiographic signs of atherosclerosis, vasculitis or dissection. Admission ECG, serum levels of high sensitive Troponin T (hs TnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), markers of thrombophilia, transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and 24-hour ECG-Holter monitoring were performed in all patients. In case of negative 24-h ECG Holter, an additional 3-weeks monitoring was done. Of the 105 enrolled patients ≤ 50 years, 95 (90%) were identified as cryptogenic (49 males, mean age 39.1 ± 8.2 years). All CIS patients had normal admission ECG. In total, PAF was detected in 9 (9.5%, 95% CI: 3.5% - 17.8%) patients; in two during 24-h ECG Holter and in seven during 3-weeks Holter monitoring. Patients with PAF had more frequently elevated admission hs TnT and NT-proBNP levels (P - 0.0001). PAF was detected in 9.5% of young CIS patients and 3-weeks ECG Holter monitoring increased the detection rate.

  7. Long-Term Impact of Caregiving and Metabolic Syndrome with Perceived Decline in Cognitive Function 8 Years Later: A Pilot Study Suggesting Important Avenues for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, Beverly H.; Austin, Shirley B.; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Williams, Redford B.; Siegler, Ilene C

    2013-01-01

    The chronic stress of caregiving has been associated with increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia. One theoretical model suggests that a group of risk factors known as the metabolic syndrome MET_SYN (e.g. hypertension, poor glucose regulation, central obesity, and high triglyceride levels) that have demonstrated associations with both stress and cognitive decline, may mediate the association between caregiver stress and cognitive decline. It is also possible that caregiving may mode...

  8. Reduction of pollutants in painting operation and suggestion of an optimal technique for extracting titanium dioxide from paint sludge in car manufacturing industries--case study (SAIPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezri, Seyed Mostafa; Shariat, Seyed Mahmood; Tabibian, Sahar

    2012-06-01

    Paint sludge of car manufacturing industries are not disposed in landfills, since they contain hazardous materials with a high concentration of chromium, aluminum, titanium, barium, copper, Iron, magnesium, strontium, and so on. Thus, it is essential to find solutions in order to neutralize them or suggest cost-effective techniques, which are also environmentally acceptable. Because, this sludge contains considerable amounts of Ti pigments and unbaked resins, recycling these pigments--which could be used in a variety of industries such as paint factories--is an appropriate subject for further research. In this article, with the aim of identification of main pollutants in order to eliminate them and suggest a cost-effective solution to recover the sludge, a large number of tests including X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X ray diffraction spectroscopy, and diffusion thermal analysis are conducted to determine types and concentration of elements, and combinations of paint sludge in car manufacturing industries. As titanium dioxide (TiO₂) is widely used as the main pigment of automobile paints, an optimal technique is suggested for extracting TiO₂ with high purity percentage through adopting scientific methods such as membrane and electrolysis.

  9. Post-operative monitoring of cortical taurine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micheli, E; Pinna, G; Alfieri, A; Caramia, G; Bianchi, L; Colivicchi, M A; Della Corte, L; Bricolo, A

    2000-01-01

    Intracerebral MD enables the retrieval of endogenous substances from the extracellular fluid (ECF) of the brain and has been demonstrated to be a sensitive technique for early detection of subtle vasospasm-induced neurometabolic abnormalities in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to monitor cortical extracellular concentrations of energy metabolism markers, such as glucose and lactate, neurotransmitter amino acids, such as glutamate, aspartate, GABA and taurine to identify any neurochemical patterns of cerebral ischemia. A prospective clinical study was conducted on a group of 16 patients with non-severe SAH operated on within 72 hours after initial bleeding. Following aneurysm clipping, an MD catheter was inserted in the cortical region where vasospasm could be expected to develop, and perfused with artificial CSF at 0.3 microl/min flow rate. Dialysate was collected every 6 hours and then analyzed on High Performance Liquid Cromatography (HPLC) for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, aspartate, GABA and taurine. Mean ECF taurine concentrations ranged from 1.4 + 0.7 to 12.3 + 7.8 micromol/l in single patients: global mean value was 5.8 + 3.8 micromol/l. In this series, the highest absolute taurine value was 25.7 micromol/l, observed in a patient who developed clinical and radiological signs of cerebral ischemia. Nine patients presented clinical disturbances related to cerebral vasospasm. In this setting, representing a mild-to-moderate hypoxic condition, MD data demonstrated that lactate is the most sensitive marker of cellular energy imbalance. Increased lactate levels positively correlated with glutamate (P<0.0001), aspartate (P<0.0001), GABA (P<0.0001) and taurine (P<0.0001) concentrations. These results suggest that also in humans increased taurine levels reflect a condition of cellular stress. This study confirms that MD is a sensitive technique to reveal subtle metabolic abnormalities possibly resulting in cell damage.

  10. Large scale wildlife monitoring studies: statistical methods for design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, K.H.; Nichols, J.D.; Simons, T.R.; Farnsworth, G.L.; Bailey, L.L.; Sauer, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Techniques for estimation of absolute abundance of wildlife populations have received a lot of attention in recent years. The statistical research has been focused on intensive small-scale studies. Recently, however, wildlife biologists have desired to study populations of animals at very large scales for monitoring purposes. Population indices are widely used in these extensive monitoring programs because they are inexpensive compared to estimates of absolute abundance. A crucial underlying assumption is that the population index (C) is directly proportional to the population density (D). The proportionality constant, b, is simply the probability of 'detection' for animals in the survey. As spatial and temporal comparisons of indices are crucial, it is necessary to also assume that the probability of detection is constant over space and time. Biologists intuitively recognize this when they design rigid protocols for the studies where the indices are collected. Unfortunately, however in many field studios the assumption is clearly invalid. We believe that the estimation of detection probability should be built into the monitoring design through a double sampling approach. A large sample of points provides an abundance index, and a smaller sub-sample of the same points is used to estimate detection probability. There is an important need for statistical research on the design and analysis of these complex studies. Some basic concepts based on actual avian, amphibian, and fish monitoring studies are presented in this article.

  11. Monitoring success of remediation: seven case studies of moisture and mold damaged buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla; Hyvärinen, Anne; Putus, Tuula; Nevalainen, Aino

    2008-07-25

    Based on seven case studies of buildings that underwent different degrees of moisture and mold damage remediation, we aimed to develop methodology for assessment of the success of the remediation process. Methods used in gauging the success included technical monitoring of performance of building structures and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, microbial monitoring of indoor air quality (IAQ), and health effects studies of building occupants. The assessment was based on measurable change in the situations before and after remediation. Based on technical monitoring, remediation was successful in three cases, with partial improvement noted in three cases, whereas no remediation was conducted in one case. Based on microbial monitoring, improvement was detected in one, partial improvement in two and no improvement in two cases, whereas no follow-up was conducted in two cases. Health effect studies (mainly self-reported health status) showed improvement in one case, partial improvement in two cases, and no improvement in two cases, whereas no follow-up was conducted in one case, and in one case, follow-up failed due to low response rate. The results illustrate that it is possible to monitor the effects of remediation using various metrics. However, in some cases, no improvement could be observed in IAQ or occupant health, even if the remediation was considered technically successful, i.e. the remediation was fully completed as recommended. This could be due to many reasons, including: 1) all damage may not have been addressed adequately; 2) IAQ or health may not have been perceived improved regardless of remediation; and/or 3) the methods used may not have been sensitive/specific enough to detect such improvement within the 6-12 months follow-up periods after completion of the remediation. There is a need to further develop tools for monitoring and assessment of the success of moisture damage remediation in buildings.

  12. A new methodology to identify surface water bodies at risk by using pesticide monitoring data: The glyphosate case study in Lombardy Region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, Andrea; Finizio, Antonio

    2017-08-14

    In the last decades, several monitoring programs were established as an effect of EU Directives addressing the quality of water resources (drinking water, groundwater and surface water). Plant Protection Products (PPPs) are an obvious target of monitoring activities, since they are directly released into the environment. One of the challenges in managing the risk of pesticides at the territorial scale is identifying the locations in water bodies needing implementation of risk mitigation measures. In this, the national pesticides monitoring plans could be very helpful. However, monitoring of pesticides is a challenging task because of the high number of registered pesticides, cost of analyses, and the periodicity of sampling related to pesticide application and use. Extensive high-quality data-sets are consequently often missing. More in general, the information that can be obtained from monitoring studies are frequently undervalued by risk managers. In this study, we propose a new methodology providing indications about the need to implement mitigation measures in stretches of surface water bodies on a territory by combining historical series of monitoring data and GIS. The methodology is articulated in two distinct phases: a) acquisition of monitoring data and setting-up of informative layers of georeferenced data (phase 1) and b) statistical and expert analysis for the identification of areas where implementation of limitation or mitigation measures are suggested (phase 2). Our methodology identifies potentially vulnerable water bodies, considering temporal contamination trends and relative risk levels at selected monitoring stations. A case study is presented considering glyphosate monitoring data in Lombardy Region (Northern of Italy) for the 2008-2014 period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective effects of parental monitoring of children's media use: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A; Reimer, Rachel A; Nathanson, Amy I; Walsh, David A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2014-05-01

    Children spend more time with electronic media than they do in any other activity, aside from sleep. Many of the negative effects that stem from media exposure may be reduced by parental monitoring of children's media use; however, there lacks a clear understanding of the mechanisms and extent of these protective effects. To determine the prospective effects of parental monitoring of children's media on physical, social, and academic outcomes. Prospective cohort design. Data were collected by in-home and in-school surveys in 2 communities in Iowa and Minnesota, where 1323 third- (n = 430), fourth- (n = 446), and fifth- (n = 423) grade students participated. A primary caregiver and teachers also provided data about the student. Participants in the current study were recruited to participate in a social ecological model-based obesity prevention program. Body mass index, average weekly sleep, school performance, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. RESULTS Structural equation modeling revealed that parental monitoring of children's media influences children's sleep, school performance, and prosocial and aggressive behaviors and that these effects are mediated through total screen time and exposure to media violence. Parental monitoring of media has protective effects on a wide variety of academic, social, and physical child outcomes. Pediatricians and physicians are uniquely positioned to provide scientifically based recommendations to families; encouraging parents to monitor children's media carefully can have a wide range of health benefits for children.

  14. Bioindicator plants as monitoring tools for urban and industrial pollutant sources - case studies from Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soja, G.; Schafler, P.; Gerzabek, M. [Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf (Austria). Dept. of Environmental Research

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents two examples for the application of bioindicator techniques in environmental monitoring projects. The results presented here refer to the quantitation of the effects of environmental parameters on the behaviour of bioindicator plants. a.) Environmental monitoring of an industrial pollutant emitter in a rural environment. For monitoring the environmental impact of a coal-fired power plant, an extensive multi-annual monitoring programme had been established four years prior to the start of operation of the power plant. The programme included analyses of soils and field crops and the physiological responses of crop plants in non-filtered and carbon-filtered open-top chambers (OTC). b.) Monitoring of ozone effects on bioindicator plants in a large city and its rural environs. In a two-year multi-location study, the region of Vienna was analysed along a profile from the west to the southeast of the city for visual ozone injury of bioindicator plants. Meteorological conditions and air pollutant concentrations were recorded in detail at 9 out of 25 indicator stations. The resulting dataset was processed with multivariate techniques. (orig.)

  15. Studying an inexpensive wire discone antenna as a candidate for TVWS spectrum monitoring / sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available -Petersburg, Russia, 8-10 October 2014 Studying an Inexpensive Wire Discone Antenna as a Candidate for TVWS Spectrum Monitoring / Sensing Albert A. Lysko1 , Andy Lee2, Arno Hart3, David L. Johnson4 1Meraka Institute Council for Scientific and Industrial Research...

  16. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  17. Developmental changes in error monitoring : An event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersema, Jan R.; van der Meere, Jacob J.; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, R.J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental trajectory of error monitoring. For this purpose, children (age 7-8), young adolescents (age 13-14) and adults (age 23-24) performed a Go/No-Go task and were compared on overt reaction time (RT) performance and on event-related potentials (ER

  18. Required sample size for monitoring stand dynamics in strict forest reserves: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Van Den Meersschaut; Bart De Cuyper; Kris Vandekerkhove; Noel Lust

    2000-01-01

    Stand dynamics in European strict forest reserves are commonly monitored using inventory densities of 5 to 15 percent of the total surface. The assumption that these densities guarantee a representative image of certain parameters is critically analyzed in a case study for the parameters basal area and stem number. The required sample sizes for different accuracy and...

  19. Stability study of the higher order mode beam position monitors at the Accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, L; Jones., R M

    2014-01-01

    erating cavities at FLASH linac, DESY, are equipped with electronics for beam position monitoring, which are based on HOM signals from special couplers. These monitors provide the beam position without additional vacuum components and at low cost. Moreover, they can be used to align the beam in the cavities to reduce the HOM effects on the beam. However, the HOMBPM (Higher Order Mode based Beam Position Monitor) shows an instability problem over time. In this paper, we will present the status of studies on this issue. Several methods are utilized to calibrate the HOMBPMs. These methods include DLR (Direct Linear Regression), and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition). We found that SVD generally is more suitable for HOMBPM calibration. We focus on the HOMBPMs at 1.3 GHz cavities. Techniques developed here are applicable to 3.9 ...

  20. Case studies of high-sensitivity monitoring of natural and engineered slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Lienhart

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available High-sensitivity monitoring solutions are crucial for early warning systems of earth structures. In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of such systems for natural and engineered slopes using two case studies. At the Gradenbach Observatory, one key element of the monitoring system is a large fiber optic strain rosette embedded in the slope. We demonstrate that the strain rosette can depict landslide deformations much earlier than geodetic sensors like GPS or total stations and is therefore well suitable for an early warning system. In a second application we report the construction of a reinforced earth structure using geogrids. A distributed fiber optic measurement system was installed to measure the current operating grade of the geogrids within the earth structure. About 2 km of Brillouin sensing cables were installed in the project area. It is demonstrated that the developed monitoring system is well suited for assessing the current state of health of reinforced earth structures.

  1. Study on Clinical Application of Nerve Monitor in Parotid Tumor Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-peng; JIA Bao-jun; AO Jian-hua; QU Dan-yang; SHENG Yan-jiao

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study is to explore the application value of the nerve monitor adopted to pinpoint facial nerves before anatomization during a parotid tumor surgery. Methods Facial nerves of 36 patients were pinpointed by N800 nerve monitor produced by Shandong Weigao Group Medical Polymer Co. Ltd before being anatomized and exposed in parotid surgeries in order to protect the corresponding facial nerve branch and complete the related surgery. Results All the facial nerves of the 36 patients were located precisely and 108 related facial nerves were suc-cessfully anatomized and protected without any damage. Conclusion Pinpointing the facial nerve branch with a nerve monitor before anatomization pro-motes not only the efficiency of the surgery but also the safety of it and is proved to be more significant in a secondary surgery.

  2. Case studies of high-sensitivity monitoring of natural and engineered slopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Werner Lienhart

    2015-01-01

    High-sensitivity monitoring solutions are crucial for early warning systems of earth structures. In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of such systems for natural and engineered slopes using two case studies. At the Gradenbach Observatory, one key element of the monitoring system is a large fiber optic strain rosette embedded in the slope. We demonstrate that the strain rosette can depict landslide deformations much earlier than geodetic sensors like GPS or total stations and is therefore well suitable for an early warning system. In a second application we report the construction of a reinforced earth structure using geogrids. A distributed fiber optic measurement system was installed to measure the current operating grade of the geogrids within the earth structure. About 2 km of Brillouin sensing cables were installed in the project area. It is demonstrated that the developed monitoring system is well suited for assessing the current state of health of reinforced earth structures.

  3. Spatial patterns of movement of dung beetle species in a tropical forest suggest a new trap spacing for dung beetle biodiversity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro Giovâni da; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of community ecologists is to understand the processes underlying the spatiotemporal patterns of species distribution. Understanding the dispersal process is of great interest in ecology because it is related to several mechanisms driving community structure. We investigated the mobility of dung beetles using mark-release-recapture technique, and tested the usefulness of the current recommendation for interaction distance between baited pitfall traps in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We found differences in mean movement rate between Scarabaeinae species, and between species with different sets of ecological traits. Large-diurnal-tunneler species showed greater mobility than did both large-nocturnal tunneler and roller species. Our results suggest that, based on the analyses of the whole community or the species with the highest number of recaptured individuals, the minimum distance of 50 m between pairs of baited pitfall traps proposed roughly 10 years ago is inadequate. Dung beetle species with different sets of ecological traits may differ in their dispersal ability, so we suggest a new minimum distance of 100 m between pairs of traps to minimize interference between baited pitfall traps for sampling copronecrophagous Scarabaeinae dung beetles.

  4. Syllabus Development Studies in Turkey and in the World for Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language - Some Suggestion for Teaching Arabic in Primary Schools in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÖZCAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Arabic in Turkey and in the world is rising in the last years because of some developments in Middle East. Beside this, Arabic is the language o f Holy Quran and hadiths. As it is known the non - Arab, Muslims need to learn this language in order to understand their religion. After all, of these needs, some countries opened some courses for teaching Arabic. In addition , people started to write some new materials for teaching Arabic in these courses as a foreign language. In Turkey, there are Arabic lessons in intermediate, middle and high school periods. The Education Ministry is publishing syllabus for these lessons. A s Turkey, some countries are teaching Arabic as a foreign language in their schools. In this paper, we tried to analyze the similarities and differences between the syllabuses of these countries and Turkey for teaching Arabic as a foreign language. At the end of the analyze we suggested some suggestions for teaching Arabic in primary schools in Turkey.

  5. Laboratory Studies of Stabilities of Heterocyclic Aromatic Molecules: Suggested Gas Phase Ion-Molecule Routes to Production in Interstellar Gas Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nigel G.; Fondren, L. Dalila; McLain, Jason L.; Jackson, Doug M.

    2006-01-01

    Several ring compounds have been detected in interstellar gas clouds, ISC, including the aromatic, benzene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, have been implicated as carriers of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) and unidentified infrared (UIR) bands. Heterocyclic aromatic rings of intermediate size containing nitrogen, possibly PreLife molecules, were included in early searches but were not detected and a recent search for Pyrimidine was unsuccessful. Our laboratory investigations of routes to such molecules could establish their existence in ISC and suggest conditions under which their concentrations would be maximized thus aiding the searches. The stability of such ring compounds (C5H5N, C4H4N2, C5H11N and C4H8O2) has been tested in the laboratory using charge transfer excitation in ion-molecule reactions. The fragmentation paths, including production of C4H4(+), C3H3N(+) and HCN, suggest reverse routes to the parent molecules, which are presently under laboratory investigation as production sources.

  6. Spatial patterns of movement of dung beetle species in a tropical forest suggest a new trap spacing for dung beetle biodiversity studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Giovâni da Silva

    Full Text Available A primary goal of community ecologists is to understand the processes underlying the spatiotemporal patterns of species distribution. Understanding the dispersal process is of great interest in ecology because it is related to several mechanisms driving community structure. We investigated the mobility of dung beetles using mark-release-recapture technique, and tested the usefulness of the current recommendation for interaction distance between baited pitfall traps in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We found differences in mean movement rate between Scarabaeinae species, and between species with different sets of ecological traits. Large-diurnal-tunneler species showed greater mobility than did both large-nocturnal tunneler and roller species. Our results suggest that, based on the analyses of the whole community or the species with the highest number of recaptured individuals, the minimum distance of 50 m between pairs of baited pitfall traps proposed roughly 10 years ago is inadequate. Dung beetle species with different sets of ecological traits may differ in their dispersal ability, so we suggest a new minimum distance of 100 m between pairs of traps to minimize interference between baited pitfall traps for sampling copronecrophagous Scarabaeinae dung beetles.

  7. A Feasibility Study on ECT Monitoring of Froth Molding of Polyurethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi CHEN; Shi LIU; Xiangyuan DONG

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents our recent experimental investigation on the feasibility of monitoring the froth molding, a special case of solidification process, of polyurethane by using electrical capacitance tomography. The major challenge is the extremely low solid density of the solidified material during the process due to the very large expansion ratio. Suitable calibration method is sought and adequate image reconstruction algorithm is applied for such a task. Different expansion modes have been observed during experiment and corresponding images reconstructed. This visualization technique clearly revealed the expansion process by a time series of images of the solid density. The test results proved the capability of electrical capacitance tomography in monitoring the expansion of polyurethane. Future ways for improvement are also suggested.

  8. James Bay air quality study : report on the results of field monitoring in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-08

    An air quality study in James Bay was conducted, in order to establish general levels of pollutants in outdoor air in the James Bay area of Victoria, British Columbia. The primary sources of air pollution in the area include light duty and heavy duty vehicle traffic, helicopters, floatplanes, and marine vessels such as cruise ships, passenger ferries, commercial fishing and whale watching boats, and recreation motorboats. Air quality monitoring represented the first phase of the project. The second phase involved a detailed pollutant dispersion model including all emission sources. This report described the use of sampling equipment and the measurement of nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, fine particulate matter and contributing sources, and volatile organic compounds, specifically benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene/xylene and naphthalene. Supporting data, including traffic counts, wind speed and direction, precipitation, and cruise ship schedules were collected to assist in the interpretation of the field monitoring results. For each of these pollutants, the report provided responses to several questions, such as defining each pollutant; describing the sources of each pollutant in the James Bay neighbourhood; presenting the results of the field monitoring; discussing the limitations of the monitoring equipment and sampling design; interpreting the results; comparing monitored levels to those measured at other times or locations; and comparing monitored levels to air quality standards or guidelines. Conclusions about each pollutant were presented. It was concluded that phase 2 pollutant dispersion modelling should include estimates of 1-hour, 24-hour, and seasonal average pollutant levels at varying elevations above ground level, with a focus on residential apartment buildings in the study area. 5 tabs., 52 figs., 7 appendices.

  9. Seismic monitoring of soft-rock landslides: New case study at Pechgraben mudslide - Upper Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, Naomi; Santoyo, Juan Carlos; Ottowitz, David; Jochum, Birgit; Pfeiler, Stefan; Supper, Robert; Joswig, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Creeping soft-rock landslides trigger various seismic signals which relate to key dynamics of the slope instability. A new seismic monitoring study is carried out at Pechgraben - Upper Austria, where a clay-shale rich mudslide was reactivated in summer 2013 after heavy rainfalls. The well geophysical instrumentation of the Pechgraben mudslide by the Geological Survey of Austria (LAMOND network including permanent ERT, GPS, piezometers, soil temperature/humidity and photomonitoring) is expected as a better basis for joint interpretation of seismic source processes. Seismic data are acquired by small-aperture (< 30 m) sparse seismic arrays. Potential events are recognized by frequency-time signatures in sonograms, where sonograms are spectrograms featuring a frequency-dependant noise adaptation that enhance the display of weak signal energy down to the noise threshold. Further signal evaluation follows an interactive scheme where semi-automated beam forming method enables for approximate source location. Three seismic arrays where deployed at Pechgraben in October 2015 for an eight days feasibility study. About 200 seismic signals potentially triggered by the landslide were manually picked on night-time measurements. Target signals occur in tremor-like sequences and have duration within 1 - 8 seconds. Local magnitudes are calibrated down to ML -1.5 (Wood-Anderson amplitude ≈ 0.1 μm in 100 m distance). Observed waveforms display high degree of similarity with seismic signals catalogued at other soft-rock landslides suggesting that a general typology of seismic source processes could be established for creeping soft-rock instabilities with potential further implications in landslide mitigation and forecasting.

  10. Monitoring river morphological changes using high resolution multitemporal sar images: a case study on orco river, italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitidieri, Francesco; Nicolina Papa, Maria; Ruello, Giuseppe; Amitrano, Donato; Bizzi, Simone; Demarchi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Improving the knowledge about river processes by applying innovative monitoring techniques is extremely needed to face the challenge of a better river management. In this paper we test the capability of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to enrich the monitoring of river geomorphological processes. Multitemporal SAR images provide observations and measurements at high spatial (3 m), and in particular temporal resolution (15 days). This information if properly processed and classified may significantly enrich our ability to monitor the evolution of river morphological phenomena (erosion/deposition, narrowing/widening, riparian vegetation's evolution and interferences with river flow). This is expected to lead to an enhancements in the river management capabilities, in particular as regards the assessment of hydro-morphological river quality, as strongly suggested by European Commission's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). A case study on the Italian River Orco is here presented. The case study has used a set of 100 COSMO-SkyMed stripmap images (from October 2008 to November 2014) from Italian Space Agency. All the data were acquired with medium look angle (almost 30°) and HH polarization, also for increasing the land-water contrast. Calibration, registration and despeckling procedures were applied on the acquired dataset. In particular, the optimal weighting multitemporal De Grandi filter was adopted in order to allow an effective extraction of the water surfaces contour. This method was applied to extract water contours over the entire historical series of SAR datasets available. Thanks to the generated information we were able to monitor the lateral dynamic of the water channels and infer on the evolutions of erosion/deposition phenomena. To this aim, an RGB representation of multitemporal SAR data was implemented. The series of detected river channel morphological changes was then analyzed in the light of the series of discharge measurements in

  11. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tanya B.; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J.; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study’s qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants’ narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention. PMID:26554330

  12. Study of US Army New Equipment Training and Its Suggestions%美军新装备训练实践及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹会智; 牛俊峰; 单长华; 师张卓; 李太慧

    2013-01-01

    New equipment training is one of the most important approaches of US army equipment development,and also is an important component of military training. Based on the analysis of the US army new equipment training methods and ex-periences,this paper offers some suggestions to Chinese military new equipment training.%  新装备训练是美军装备发展的主要内容之一,也是军事训练的重要组成部分。在详细分析美军新装备训练的做法和经验的基础上,结合我军实际,给出了对我军新装备训练的启示。

  13. Comparative genomic studies suggest that the cyanobacterial endosymbionts of the amoeba Paulinella chromatophora possess an import apparatus for nuclear-encoded proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodył, A; Mackiewicz, P; Stiller, J W

    2010-07-01

    Plastids evolved from free-living cyanobacteria through a process of primary endosymbiosis. The most widely accepted hypothesis derives three ancient lineages of primary plastids, i.e. those of glaucophytes, red algae and green plants, from a single cyanobacterial endosymbiosis. This hypothesis was originally predicated on the assumption that transformations of endosymbionts into organelles must be exceptionally rare because of the difficulty in establishing efficient protein trafficking between a host cell and incipient organelle. It turns out, however, that highly integrated endosymbiotic associations are more common than once thought. Among them is the amoeba Paulinella chromatophora, which harbours independently acquired cyanobacterial endosymbionts functioning as plastids. Sequencing of the Paulinella endosymbiont genome revealed an absence of essential genes for protein trafficking, suggesting their residence in the host nucleus and import of protein products back into the endosymbiont. To investigate this hypothesis, we searched the Paulinella endosymbiont genome for homologues of higher plant translocon proteins that form the import apparatus in two-membrane envelopes of primary plastids. We found homologues of Toc12, Tic21 and Tic32, but genes for other key translocon proteins (e.g. Omp85/Toc75 and Tic20) were missing. We propose that these missing genes were transferred to the Paulinella nucleus and their products are imported and integrated into the endosymbiont envelope membranes, thereby creating an effective protein import apparatus. We further suggest that other bacterial/cyanobacterial endosymbionts found in protists, plants and animals could have evolved efficient protein import systems independently and, therefore, reached the status of true cellular organelles.

  14. 我国钍燃料循环发展研究%Study and suggestions on development of the thorium fuel cycle in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石秀安; 胡永明

    2011-01-01

    调研分析了钍燃料循环的优缺点和国内外研究现状.通过详细分析研究各种堆型的钍资源利用潜力,从核能可持续发展的角度出发,提出了我国钍燃料循环发展的有关结论和建议:(1)当前的核电堆型除高温堆外都不适合进行钍利用;(2)建议采用快堆/热中子堆联合钍燃料循环的方式进行钍资源利用;(3)先进反应堆研究应集中于其堆型本身的研发;(4)当前应该加强钍资源核能利用的基础研究工作.%The features of thorium fuel cycle are analyzed and an overview of development of the thorium fuel cycle is carried out. On the basis of detailed analyses on potentials of utilizing thorium resources in all kinds of reactors, suggestions on development of the thorium fuel cycle in our country are put forward following the outlook of sustainable development of nuclear energy: (1) current reactors can't make full use of thorium resources from industrial viewpoints other than HTRs;(2) an advanced synergic fuel cycle of fast reactors and thermal reactors is suggested to utilize thorium resources; (3) more R&D efforts should be devoted on advanced and immature reactor technologies instead of the thorium utilization of these reactors; (4) currently much fundamental research work on the thorium utilization should be done.

  15. Safety system status monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  16. Monitoring quiescent volcanoes by diffuse He degassing: case study Teide volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Melián, Gladys; Asensio-Ramos, María; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Alonso, Mar

    2016-04-01

    Tenerife (2,034 km2), the largest of the Canary Islands, is the only island that has developed a central volcanic complex (Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes), characterized by the eruption of differentiated magmas. This central volcanic complex has been built in the intersection of the three major volcanic rift-zones of Tenerife, where most of the historical volcanic activity has taken place. The existence of a volcanic-hydrothermal system beneath Teide volcano is suggested by the occurrence of a weak fumarolic system, steamy ground and high rates of diffuse CO2 degassing all around the summit cone of Teide (Pérez et al., 2013). Diffuse emission studies of non-reactive and/or highly mobile gases such as helium have recently provided promising results to detect changes in the magmatic gas component at surface related to volcanic unrest episodes (Padrón et al., 2013). The geochemical properties of He minimize the interaction of this noble gas on its movement toward the earth's surface, and its isotopic composition is not affected by subsequent chemical reactions. It is highly mobile, chemically inert, physically stable, non-biogenic, sparingly soluble in water under ambient conditions, almost non-adsorbable, and highly diffusive with a diffusion coefficient ˜10 times that of CO2. As part of the geochemical monitoring program for the volcanic surveillance of Teide volcano, yearly surveys of diffuse He emission through the surface of the summit cone of Teide volcano have been performed since 2006. Soil He emission rate was measured yearly at ˜130 sampling sites selected in the surface environment of the summit cone of Teide volcano (Tenerife, Canary Islands), covering an area of ˜0.5 km2, assuming that He emission is governed by convection and diffusion. The distribution of the sampling sites was carefully chosen to homogeneously cover the target area, allowing the computation of the total He emission by sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs). Nine surveys have been

  17. Case study on the maintenance of a construction monitoring using USN-based data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangyong; Shin, Yoonseok; Kim, Gwang-Hee

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the adoption of emerging ubiquitous sensor network (USN) technologies for instrumentation within a variety of sustainability systems. USN is emerging as a sensing paradigm that is being newly considered by the sustainability management field as an alternative to traditional tethered monitoring systems. Researchers have been discovering that USN is an exciting technology that should not be viewed simply as a substitute for traditional tethered monitoring systems. In this study, we investigate how a movement monitoring measurement system of a complex building is developed as a research environment for USN and related decision-supportive technologies. To address the apparent danger of building movement, agent-mediated communication concepts have been designed to autonomously manage large volumes of exchanged information. In this study, we additionally detail the design of the proposed system, including its principles, data processing algorithms, system architecture, and user interface specifics. Results of the test and case study demonstrate the effectiveness of the USN-based data acquisition system for real-time monitoring of movement operations.

  18. Case Study on the Maintenance of a Construction Monitoring Using USN-Based Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the adoption of emerging ubiquitous sensor network (USN technologies for instrumentation within a variety of sustainability systems. USN is emerging as a sensing paradigm that is being newly considered by the sustainability management field as an alternative to traditional tethered monitoring systems. Researchers have been discovering that USN is an exciting technology that should not be viewed simply as a substitute for traditional tethered monitoring systems. In this study, we investigate how a movement monitoring measurement system of a complex building is developed as a research environment for USN and related decision-supportive technologies. To address the apparent danger of building movement, agent-mediated communication concepts have been designed to autonomously manage large volumes of exchanged information. In this study, we additionally detail the design of the proposed system, including its principles, data processing algorithms, system architecture, and user interface specifics. Results of the test and case study demonstrate the effectiveness of the USN-based data acquisition system for real-time monitoring of movement operations.

  19. 15N Isotopic Crop Exchange Residue Studies Suggest that IPCC N Input Methodologies to Assess N2O-N Emissions Should be Reevaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult to quantify nitrogen (N) losses from agricultural systems to the environment, however we can use 15N isotopic techniques to conduct site specific studies to increase our knowledge about N management and fate. This manuscript synthesizes the review of two selected 15N isotopic studies...

  20. Perceptions and suggestions of second year medical professional students of deemed health university about their teaching and learning process in pharmacology: an analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagapati Prabhakar Bhat

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study has helped us in knowing the student preferences regarding pharmacology teaching and its outcomes would be helpful in modifying undergraduate pharmacology teaching pattern. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 763-768

  1. Study of secondhand smoke exposure in St. Louis City and County suggests need for comprehensive smoke-free Missouri law adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Cyr, Julianne; Benson, Peter; Colditz, Graham; Pulley, Deren; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study provides information about secondhand smoke exposure across the St. Louis metro area and perceptions and attitudes about tobacco and health within the local hospitality industry. Results from this study support the need for passage and implementation of comprehensive smoke-free laws throughout Missouri, particularly in St. Louis City and County where efforts to pass comprehensive smoke-free laws have been unsuccessful.

  2. An observational study on patient admission in the anaesthesia gas monitor and minimum alveolar concentration monitoring: A deficiency with huge impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Narayan, Anilkumar; Yunus, Md; Kumar, Sanjay; Prakash, Avinash; Sahoo, Sarasa Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) monitoring is an integral part of modern-day anaesthesia. Both MAC and MAC-awake are age dependant, and age of the patient needs to be entered in the monitor. This study was aimed to assess the practice of patient birth year entry in the anaesthesia monitor and its impact on MAC monitoring. Sixty volatile anaesthetic-based general anaesthetics (GAs) were observed silently in two tertiary care teaching hospitals with regard to 'birth year' entry in the patient monitor. The impact on MAC for non-entry of age was assessed. The observed MAC reading and the MAC corrected for age (MACage) of the patients were noted. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences in observed MAC and MACage values. P MAC was similar to MACage in patients aged 40 ± 5 years (36-45 years group). Nearly 79.41% of the observed MACs were incorrect; 55.88% patients were potentially underdosed whereas 23.53% were overdosed. Omitting patient age entry in the monitor results in erroneous MAC values, exposing patients <40 years to underdosing and older patients to overdose.

  3. An observational study on patient admission in the anaesthesia gas monitor and minimum alveolar concentration monitoring: A deficiency with huge impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Md Reazaul Karim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC monitoring is an integral part of modern-day anaesthesia. Both MAC and MAC-awake are age dependant, and age of the patient needs to be entered in the monitor. This study was aimed to assess the practice of patient birth year entry in the anaesthesia monitor and its impact on MAC monitoring. Methods: Sixty volatile anaesthetic-based general anaesthetics (GAs were observed silently in two tertiary care teaching hospitals with regard to 'birth year' entry in the patient monitor. The impact on MAC for non-entry of age was assessed. The observed MAC reading and the MAC corrected for age (MACage of the patients were noted. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences in observed MAC and MACagevalues. P <0.05 was significant. Results: Sixty GAs of patients aged between 10 and 68 years were observed; 96.67% anaesthetics were conducted without entering 'birth year'. Thirty-four patients (mean age 35.14 ± 15.38 years were further assessed for impact of non-entry of age. The observed MAC was similar to MACage in patients aged 40 ± 5 years (36–45 years group. Nearly 79.41% of the observed MACs were incorrect; 55.88% patients were potentially underdosed whereas 23.53% were overdosed. Conclusion: Omitting patient age entry in the monitor results in erroneous MAC values, exposing patients <40 years to underdosing and older patients to overdose.

  4. Disentangling unisensory from fusion effects in the attentional modulation of McGurk effects: a Bayesian modeling study suggests that fusion is attention-dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Tiiippana, Kaisa; Andersen, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The McGurk effect has been shown to be modulated by attention. However, it remains unclear whether attentional effects are due to changes in unisensory processing or in the fusion mechanism. In this paper, we used published experimental data showing that distraction of visual attention weakens th...... Selection criterion. Our findings suggest that distraction of visual attention affects fusion by decreasing the weight of the visual input.......The McGurk effect has been shown to be modulated by attention. However, it remains unclear whether attentional effects are due to changes in unisensory processing or in the fusion mechanism. In this paper, we used published experimental data showing that distraction of visual attention weakens...... the McGurk effect, to fit either the Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception (FLMP) in which the fusion mechanism is fixed, or a variant of it in which the fusion mechanism could be varied depending on attention. The latter model was associated with a larger likelihood when assessed with a Bayesian Model...

  5. A [11C]Ro15 4513 PET study suggests that alcohol dependence in man is associated with reduced α5 benzodiazepine receptors in limbic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Reid, Alastair G; Myers, James; Feeney, Adrian; Hammers, Alexander; Taylor, Lindsay G; Rosso, Lula; Turkheimer, Federico; Brooks, David J; Grasby, Paul; Nutt, David J

    2012-02-01

    Preclinical evidence suggests the α5 subtype of the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor is involved in some of the actions of alcohol and in memory. The positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, [(11)C]Ro15 4513 shows relative selectivity in labelling the α5 subtype over the other GABA-benzodiazepine receptor subtypes in limbic regions of the brain. We used this tracer to investigate the distribution of α5 subtype availability in human alcohol dependence and its relationship to clinical variables. Abstinent (>6 weeks) alcohol-dependent men and healthy male controls underwent an [(11)C]Ro15 4513 PET scan. We report [(11)C]Ro15 4513 brain uptake for 8 alcohol-dependent men and 11 healthy controls. We found a significant reduction in [(11)C]Ro15 4513 binding in the nucleus accumbens, parahippocampal gyri, right hippocampus and amygdala in the alcohol-dependent compared with the healthy control group. Levels of [(11)C]Ro15 4513 binding in both hippocampi were significantly and positively associated with performance on a delayed verbal memory task in the alcohol-dependent but not the control group. We speculate that the reduced limbic [(11)C]Ro15 4513 binding seen here results from the effects of alcohol, though we cannot currently distinguish whether they are compensatory in nature or evidence of brain toxicity.

  6. Site-Directed Mutagenesis and Structural Studies Suggest that the Germination Protease, GPR, in Spores of Bacillus Species Is an Atypical Aspartic Acid Protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Thomas M.; Setlow, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Germination protease (GPR) initiates the degradation of small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP) during germination of spores of Bacillus and Clostridium species. The GPR amino acid sequence is not homologous to members of the major protease families, and previous work has not identified residues involved in GPR catalysis. The current work has focused on identifying catalytically essential amino acids by mutagenesis of Bacillus megaterium gpr. A residue was selected for alteration if it (i) was conserved among spore-forming bacteria, (ii) was a potential nucleophile, and (iii) had not been ruled out as inessential for catalysis. GPR variants were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the active form (P41) was assayed for activity against SASP and the zymogen form (P46) was assayed for the ability to autoprocess to P41. Variants inactive against SASP and unable to autoprocess were analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy and multiangle laser light scattering to determine whether the variant's inactivity was due to loss of secondary or quaternary structure, respectively. Variation of D127 and D193, but no other residues, resulted in inactive P46 and P41, while variants of each form were well structured and tetrameric, suggesting that D127 and D193 are essential for activity and autoprocessing. Mapping these two aspartate residues and a highly conserved lysine onto the B. megaterium P46 crystal structure revealed a striking similarity to the catalytic residues and propeptide lysine of aspartic acid proteases. These data indicate that GPR is an atypical aspartic acid protease. PMID:16199582

  7. Development of micro-flow hydrothermal monitoring systems and their applications to the origin of life study on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Continuous extensive studies on thermophilic organisms have suggested that life emerged on hydrothermal systems on primitive Earth. Thus, it is well known that hydrothermal reactions are, therefore, very important to study fields deeply related to the origin-of-life study. Furthermore, the importance of hydrothermal and solvothermal systems is now realized in both fundamental and practical areas. Here, our recent investigations are described for the development of real-time and in situ monitoring systems for hydrothermal reactions. The systems were primarily developed for the origin-of-life study, but it was also applicable to fundamental and practical areas. The present techniques are based on the concept that a sample solution is injected to a narrow tubing flow reactor at high temperatures, where the sample is rapidly heated up in a very short time by exposure at to a high-temperature narrow tubing flow reactor with a very short time scale. This enables millisecond to second time-scale monitoring in real time and/or in situ at temperatures of up to 400°C. By using these techniques, a series of studies on the hydrothermal origin-of-life have been successfully carried out.

  8. Beach monitoring using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: results of a multi-temporal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Elisa; Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Marco; Pedroncini, Andrea; Ferrari, Marco; Vacchi, Matteo; Firpo, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing. In this study, we show how we applied small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to the study of topographic changes of a beach in Italy, NW Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed the same stretch of coastline three times in 5 months, obtaining ortophotos and digital elevation models of the beach using a structure from motion approach. We then calculated the difference in beach topography between each time step, and we related topography changes to both human and natural modifications of the beach morphology that can be inferred from aerial photos or wave data. We conclude that small drones have the potential to open new possibilities for beach monitoring studies, and can be successfully employed for multi-temporal monitoring studies at relatively low cost.

  9. Wireless non-invasive continuous respiratory monitoring with FMCW radar: a clinical validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, K; Breteler, M J M; van Wolfwinkel, L; Rheineck Leyssius, A T; Kossen, S; Kalkman, C J; van Zaane, B; Peelen, L M

    2016-12-01

    Altered respiratory rate is one of the first symptoms of medical conditions that require timely intervention, e.g., sepsis or opioid-induced respiratory depression. To facilitate continuous respiratory rate monitoring on general hospital wards a contactless, non-invasive, prototype monitor was developed using frequency modulated continuous wave radar. We aimed to study whether radar can reliably measure respiratory rate in postoperative patients. In a diagnostic cross-sectional study patients were monitored with the radar and the reference monitor (pneumotachograph during mechanical ventilation and capnography during spontaneous breathing). Eight patients were included; yielding 796 min of observation time during mechanical ventilation and 521 min during spontaneous breathing. After elimination of movement artifacts the bias and 95 % limits of agreement for mechanical ventilation and spontaneous breathing were -0.12 (-1.76 to 1.51) and -0.59 (-5.82 to 4.63) breaths per minute respectively. The radar was able to accurately measure respiratory rate in mechanically ventilated patients, but the accuracy decreased during spontaneous breathing.

  10. Monitoring studies should consider temporal variability to reveal relations between cyanobacterial abundance and environmental variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA WOJCIECHOWSKI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of monitoring cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic environments is to reveal the relationship between cyanobacterial abundance and environmental variables. Studies typically correlate data that were simultaneously sampled. However, samplings occur sparsely over time and may not reveal the short-term responses of cyanobacterial abundance to environmental changes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that stronger cyanobacteria x environment relationships in monitoring are found when the temporal variability of sampling points is incorporated in the statistical analyses. To this end, we investigated relationships between cyanobacteria and seven environmental variables that were sampled twice yearly for three years across 11 reservoirs, and data from an intensive monitoring in one of these reservoirs. Poor correlations were obtained when correlating data simultaneously sampled. In fact, the 'highly recurrent' role of phosphorus in cyanobacteria blooms is not properly observed in all sampling periods. On the other hand, the strongest correlation values for the total phosphorus x cyanobacteria relationship were observed when we used the variation of sampling points. We have also shown that environment variables better explain cyanobacteria when a time lag is considered. We conclude that, in cyanobacteria monitoring, the best approach to reveal determinants of cyanobacteria blooms is to consider environmental variability.

  11. Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A.; McKee, M.

    2010-12-01

    Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

  12. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  13. Optimization of a Coastal Environmental Monitoring Network Based on the Kriging Method: A Case Study of Quanzhou Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring is fundamental in assessing environmental quality and to fulfill protection and management measures with permit conditions. However, coastal environmental monitoring work faces many problems and challenges, including the fact that monitoring information cannot be linked up with evaluation, monitoring data cannot well reflect the current coastal environmental condition, and monitoring activities are limited by cost constraints. For these reasons, protection and management measures cannot be developed and implemented well by policy makers who intend to solve this issue. In this paper, Quanzhou Bay in southeastern China was selected as a case study; and the Kriging method and a geographic information system were employed to evaluate and optimize the existing monitoring network in a semienclosed bay. This study used coastal environmental monitoring data from 15 sites (including COD, DIN, and PO4-P to adequately analyze the water quality from 2009 to 2012 by applying the Trophic State Index. The monitoring network in Quanzhou Bay was evaluated and optimized, with the number of sites increased from 15 to 24, and the monitoring precision improved by 32.9%. The results demonstrated that the proposed advanced monitoring network optimization was appropriate for environmental monitoring in Quanzhou Bay. It might provide technical support for coastal management and pollutant reduction in similar areas.

  14. Shallow crustal velocities and volcanism suggested from ambient noise studies using a dense broadband seismic network in the Tatun Volcano Group of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Chih; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Kagiyama, Tsuneomi

    2017-07-01

    The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is situated adjacent to the Taipei metropolis and was active predominantly around 0.8-0.2 Ma (Pleistocene). Various recent lines of evidence suggest that the TVG is a potentially active volcano and that future volcanic eruptions cannot be ruled out. Geothermal activities are largely constrained to faults, but the relationship between volcanism and detailed velocity structures is not well understood. We analyzed ambient seismic noise of daily vertical components from 2014 using a dense seismic network of 40 broadband stations. We selected a 0.02° grid spacing to construct 2D and 3D shallow crustal phase velocity maps in the 0.5-3 s period band. Two S-wave velocity profiles transect Chishingshan (Mt. CS) in the shallow 3 km crust are further derived. The footwall of the Shanchiao Fault is dominated by low velocity, which may relate to Tertiary bedrock buried under andesitic lava flows dozens to hundreds of meters thick. The hanging wall of the Shanchiao Fault is the location of recent major volcanic activities. Low velocity zones in the southeast of Dayoukeng (DYK) may be interpreted as hydrothermal reservoirs or water-saturated Tertiary bedrock related to Cenozoic structures in the shallow crust. High velocities conspicuously dominate the east of the TVG, where the earliest stages of volcanism in the TVG are located, but where surface hydro-geothermal activities were absent in recent times. Between the Shanchiao Fault and Kanchiao Fault high velocities were detected, which converge below Mt. CS and may be related to early stages of magma conduits that gradually consolidated. These two faults may play a significant role with the TVG. The submarine volcanism adjacent to the Keelung coastline also requires further attention.

  15. The Practice of Academic Freedom in Classroom Speech in U.S. Catholic Higher Education: A Case Study with Suggestions Concerning Religious Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a case study of seventeen faculty leaders teaching at a Catholic university who responded to a questionnaire concerning academic freedom and its practice in classroom speech. Situating the responses within a heuristic model, this article offers a portrait that provides insight into how these faculty leaders define academic…

  16. Proteomic and biochemical studies of lysine malonylation suggest its malonic aciduria-associated regulatory role in mitochondrial function and fatty acid oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colak, G.; Pougovkina, O.; Dai, L.; Tan, M.; Brinke, te H.; Huang, H.; Wanders, R.J.; Locasale, J.W.; Lombard, D.B.; Boer, de V.C.J.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The protein substrates of sirtuin 5-regulated lysine malonylation (Kmal) remain unknown, hindering its functional analysis. In this study, we carried out proteomic screening, which identified 4042 Kmal sites on 1426 proteins in mouse liver and 4943 Kmal sites on 1822 proteins in human fibroblasts. I

  17. Results of a Multinational Study Suggest the Need for Rapid Diagnosis and Early Antiviral Treatment at the Onset of Herpetic Meningoencephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Cag, Yasemin; Ozturk-Engin, Derya;

    2015-01-01

    Data in the literature regarding the factors that predict unfavorable outcomes in adult herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME) cases are scarce. We conducted a multicenter study in order to provide insights into the predictors of HME outcomes, with special emphasis on the use and timing of antiviral ...

  18. Proteomic and biochemical studies of lysine malonylation suggest its malonic aciduria-associated regulatory role in mitochondrial function and fatty acid oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colak, G.; Pougovkina, O.; Dai, L.; Tan, M.; Brinke, te H.; Huang, H.; Wanders, R.J.; Locasale, J.W.; Lombard, D.B.; Boer, de V.C.J.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The protein substrates of sirtuin 5-regulated lysine malonylation (Kmal) remain unknown, hindering its functional analysis. In this study, we carried out proteomic screening, which identified 4042 Kmal sites on 1426 proteins in mouse liver and 4943 Kmal sites on 1822 proteins in human fibroblasts.

  19. Studies in Higher Education in England and Scotland with Suggestions for Universities and Colleges in the United States. Bulletin, 1917, No. 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, George Edwin

    1917-01-01

    The object of this study is to point out facts and tendencies in higher education in Great Britain by which American universities and colleges can profit. Since May, 1913, the compiler of the bulletin has visited 56 institutions, of which 18 have been universities, 14 university colleges, and 24 colleges and technical and agricultural colleges and…

  20. A large candidate-gene association study suggests genetic variants at IRF5 and PRDM1 to be associated with aggressive periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Arne S.; Jochens, Arne; Dommisch, Henrik; Graetz, Christian; Jockel-Schneider, Yvonne; Harks, Inga; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Meyle, Joerg; Eickholz, Peter; Folwaczny, Mathias; Laine, Marja; Noack, Barbara; Wijmenga, Cisca; Lieb, Wolfgang; Bruckmann, Corinna; Schreiber, Stefan; Jepsen, Soren; Loos, Bruno G.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Epidemiological and clinical studies indicated a relationship of periodontitis with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to identify shared genetic susceptibility loci of RA and periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty-seven risk genes of genome-wide significance of RA and SLE were genotyped

  1. A large candidate-gene association study suggests genetic variants at IRF5 and PRDM1 to be associated with aggressive periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, A.S.; Jochens, A.; Dommisch, H.; Graetz, C.; Jockel-Schneider, Y.; Harks, I.; Staufenbiel, I.; Meyle, J.; Eickholz, P.; Folwaczny, M.; Laine, M.; Noack, B.; Wijmenga, C.; Lieb, W.; Bruckmann, C.; Schreiber, S.; Jepsen, S.; Loos, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Epidemiological and clinical studies indicated a relationship of periodontitis with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to identify shared genetic susceptibility loci of RA and periodontitis. Materials and Methods Forty-seven risk genes of genome-wide significance of RA and SLE were genotyped in

  2. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies suggest that the effects of thapsigargin on human platelets are mediated by changes in intracellular calcium but not by intracellular histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, S P; McNicol, A; Becker, A B;

    1992-01-01

    The involvement of intracellular histamine in thapsigargin (Tg)-induced platelet aggregation was studied. Platelet aggregation induced by 0.25 and 0.5 microM Tg was not accompanied by a rise in intracellular histamine but a significant (p <0.01) increase in the level of intracellular histamine wa...

  3. The Practice of Academic Freedom in Classroom Speech in U.S. Catholic Higher Education: A Case Study with Suggestions Concerning Religious Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a case study of seventeen faculty leaders teaching at a Catholic university who responded to a questionnaire concerning academic freedom and its practice in classroom speech. Situating the responses within a heuristic model, this article offers a portrait that provides insight into how these faculty leaders define academic…

  4. A Study on the Optimal Positions of ECG Electrodes in a Garment for the Design of ECG-Monitoring Clothing for Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hakyung; Lee, Joo Hyeon

    2015-09-01

    Smart clothing is a sort of wearable device used for ubiquitous health monitoring. It provides comfort and efficiency in vital sign measurements and has been studied and developed in various types of monitoring platforms such as T-shirt and sports bra. However, despite these previous approaches, smart clothing for electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring has encountered a serious shortcoming relevant to motion artifacts caused by wearer movement. In effect, motion artifacts are one of the major problems in practical implementation of most wearable health-monitoring devices. In the ECG measurements collected by a garment, motion artifacts are usually caused by improper location of the electrode, leading to lack of contact between the electrode and skin with body motion. The aim of this study was to suggest a design for ECG-monitoring clothing contributing to reduction of motion artifacts. Based on the clothing science theory, it was assumed in this study that the stability of the electrode in a dynamic state differed depending on the electrode location in an ECG-monitoring garment. Founded on this assumption, effects of 56 electrode positions were determined by sectioning the surface of the garment into grids with 6 cm intervals in the front and back of the bodice. In order to determine the optimal locations of the ECG electrodes from the 56 positions, ECG measurements were collected from 10 participants at every electrode position in the garment while the wearer was in motion. The electrode locations indicating both an ECG measurement rate higher than 80.0 % and a large amplitude during motion were selected as the optimal electrode locations. The results of this analysis show four electrode locations with consistently higher ECG measurement rates and larger amplitudes amongst the 56 locations. These four locations were abstracted to be least affected by wearer movement in this research. Based on this result, a design of the garment-formed ECG monitoring platform

  5. Model performance evaluation (validation and calibration) in model-based studies of therapeutic interventions for cardiovascular diseases : a review and suggested reporting framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Ali Afzali, Hossein; Gray, Jodi; Karnon, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Decision analytic models play an increasingly important role in the economic evaluation of health technologies. Given uncertainties around the assumptions used to develop such models, several guidelines have been published to identify and assess 'best practice' in the model development process, including general modelling approach (e.g., time horizon), model structure, input data and model performance evaluation. This paper focuses on model performance evaluation. In the absence of a sufficient level of detail around model performance evaluation, concerns regarding the accuracy of model outputs, and hence the credibility of such models, are frequently raised. Following presentation of its components, a review of the application and reporting of model performance evaluation is presented. Taking cardiovascular disease as an illustrative example, the review investigates the use of face validity, internal validity, external validity, and cross model validity. As a part of the performance evaluation process, model calibration is also discussed and its use in applied studies investigated. The review found that the application and reporting of model performance evaluation across 81 studies of treatment for cardiovascular disease was variable. Cross-model validation was reported in 55 % of the reviewed studies, though the level of detail provided varied considerably. We found that very few studies documented other types of validity, and only 6 % of the reviewed articles reported a calibration process. Considering the above findings, we propose a comprehensive model performance evaluation framework (checklist), informed by a review of best-practice guidelines. This framework provides a basis for more accurate and consistent documentation of model performance evaluation. This will improve the peer review process and the comparability of modelling studies. Recognising the fundamental role of decision analytic models in informing public funding decisions, the proposed

  6. Square(2) - A Web Application for Data Monitoring in Epidemiological and Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Krabbe, Christine; Schössow, Janka; Albers, Martin; Radke, Dörte; Henke, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Valid scientific inferences from epidemiological and clinical studies require high data quality. Data generating departments therefore aim to detect data irregularities as early as possible in order to guide quality management processes. In addition, after the completion of data collections the obtained data quality must be evaluated. This can be challenging in complex studies due to a wide scope of examinations, numerous study variables, multiple examiners, devices, and examination centers. This paper describes a Java EE web application used to monitor and evaluate data quality in institutions with complex and multiple studies, named Square(2). It uses the Java libraries Apache MyFaces 2, extended by BootsFaces for layout and style. RServe and REngine manage calls to R server processes. All study data and metadata are stored in PostgreSQL. R is the statistics backend and LaTeX is used for the generation of print ready PDF reports. A GUI manages the entire workflow. Square(2) covers all steps in the data monitoring workflow, including the setup of studies and their structure, the handling of metadata for data monitoring purposes, selection of variables, upload of data, statistical analyses, and the generation as well as inspection of quality reports. To take into account data protection issues, Square(2) comprises an extensive user rights and roles concept.

  7. Field Monitoring of Deformations and Internal Forces of Surrounding Rocks and Lining Structures in the Construction of the Gangkou Double-Arched Tunnel—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Yan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Double-arched tunnel is a special and complex underground structure which needs to be monitored carefully during construction. Taking the Gangkou tunnel as the engineering background, this paper presents a case study of field monitoring of a representative double-arched tunnel. Typical cross sections were chosen in each class of surrounding rock masses in the tunnel area and different types of sensors were embedded in designed locations, and the deformations and forces of both surrounding rocks and lining structures were monitored systematically. The dynamic evolution as well as the spatial distribution characteristics of the monitoring data including the internal displacements of surrounding rocks and the contact pressures between surrounding rocks and primary linings, the axial forces in rock bolts and the internal forces in both steel arches and secondary linings were analyzed. The monitoring and analysis results show that the deformations and forces of both surrounding rocks and lining structures are directly related to the construction procedures, geological conditions and locations in the double-arched tunnel. According to the results, some reasonable suggestions were provided for the improvement of the tunnel construction. This study will provide useful reference and guidance for the design, construction and monitoring of similar engineering projects in future.

  8. ApolipoproteinE ε4 allelic variant, cognitive decline and psychosis in Alzheimer disease: a review of the literature and suggestions for upcoming studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Spoletini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (ApoE ε4 allele represents a well known vascular risk factor for developing Alzheimer disease (AD and differences in ApoE genotypes may explain a part of the variability in AD phenotypes. In fact, ApoE ε4 allele possession seems to be associated with a more precocious age of onset, greater episodic memory impairment, and psychotic symptoms. The first question we discuss regards the role of ApoE ε4 on cognitive progression of AD. In fact, while a general agreement exists about the role played by ApoE ε4 on the precocious onset of AD, cognitive decline has been differently associated with ApoE ε4 allele possession in AD patients in a continuum of faster decline, no effect, and slower decline. An attemptable interpretation is that the biological processes leading to the onset of AD are different from those involved in determining its clinical course. The second question regards the possible relationship between the presence of the degenerative pathological hallmarks of the disease in specific cerebral areas and different cognitive or behavioural symptoms. In fact, there is evidence that degenerative pathology in hippocampal formation and frontal cortex reflects the progression of cognitive deficits in brain aging and AD and that hypometabolism in right frontal lobe and greater frontal neuropsychological deficits occur in AD patients with psychosis in comparison to those without. The third question regards, specifically, the relationship between ApoE ε4 variant and behavioural symptoms. In fact, there is evidence supporting the link between being carriers of ApoE ε4 allele and severity of delusions, mostly at the early stage of the illness. In an interpretative challenge, we suggest that the link between being carriers of ApoE ε4 allele and suffering from delusions in AD may be explained by frontal lobe dysfunctions. Finally, we hypothesize that the most precocious onset of AD illness, described in carriers of ApoE ε4

  9. A genome‐wide association study suggests an association of Chr8p21.3 ( GFRA2 ) with diabetic neuropathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, W; Deshmukh, H. A.; van Zuydam, N.R.; Liu, Y.; Donnelly, L.A.; Zhou, K.; ,; Morris, A D; Colhoun, H. M.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Smith, B.H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Neuropathic pain, caused by a lesion or a disease affecting the somatosensory system, is one of the most common complications in diabetic patients. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic factors contributing to this type of pain in a general diabetic population. Method We accessed the Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research Tayside (GoDARTS) datasets that contain prescription information and monofilament test results for 9439 diabetic patients, among which 6927 d...

  10. Neuropsychiatric events with varenicline: a modified prescription-event monitoring study in general practice in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggy, Yvonne; Cornelius, Victoria; Fogg, Carole; Kasliwal, Rachna; Layton, Deborah; Shakir, Saad A W

    2013-07-01

    Varenicline (Champix(®)), launched in the UK in December 2006, is indicated for the treatment of smoking cessation in adults (≥18 years of age). In 2008, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) in the UK issued a warning suggesting that varenicline was associated with disparate neuropsychiatric symptoms, including depression, suicidal thoughts and behaviour. In response to this regulatory warning, the Drug Safety Research Unit conducted a modified prescription-event monitoring (M-PEM) study to monitor the safety of varenicline. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and examine the pattern of neuropsychiatric events reported to general practitioners (GPs) in England during the immediate postmarketing period for varenicline. A postmarketing surveillance study was conducted using the observational cohort technique of M-PEM. Patients were identified from dispensed prescriptions issued by primary care physicians between December 2006 and March 2007. Data on exposure, previous history of psychiatric illness and events reported during and after treatment were collected from questionnaires. In order to determine whether hazards for neuropsychiatric events of interest (depression, anxiety, aggression, suicidal ideation, non-fatal self-harm) were non-constant over time (which could indicate a possible association with the drug), the pattern of events was examined by plotting the smoothed hazard function estimate and then fitting a Weibull model. The Weibull model shape parameter (β) and 95 % confidence interval were used as a test for a non-constant hazard function (where a value of 1 indicates a constant hazard over time). In addition to this analysis, the difference in incidence densities (IDs) between month 1 and months 2-3 were calculated and compared. The cohort comprised of 12,159 patients (median age 47 years [interquartile range 19]; 56.9 % [n = 6924 female]). The number of events reported during treatment, reason for

  11. Molecular modeling and simulation studies of recombinant laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica suggests significant role in the biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Deepti; Rawat, Surender [Laboratory of Enzymology and Recombinant DNA Technology, Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India); Waseem, Mohd; Gupta, Sunita; Lynn, Andrew [School of Computational & Integrative Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Nitin, Mukesh; Ramchiary, Nirala [School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sharma, Krishna Kant, E-mail: kekulsharma@gmail.com [Laboratory of Enzymology and Recombinant DNA Technology, Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India)

    2016-01-08

    The YacK gene from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7, cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), showed laccase activity when oxidized with 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and guaiacol. The recombinant laccase protein was purified and characterized biochemically with a molecular mass of ≈58 KDa on SDS-PAGE and showed positive zymogram with ABTS. The protein was highly robust with optimum pH 9.0 and stable at 70 °C upto 12 h with residual activity of 70%. Kinetic constants, K{sub m} values, for ABTS and guaiacol were 675 μM and 2070 μM, respectively, with corresponding Vmax values of 0.125 μmol/ml/min and 6500 μmol/ml/min. It also possess antioxidative property against BSA and Cu{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} model system. Constant pH MD simulation studies at different protonation states of the system showed ABTS to be most stable at acidic pH, whereas, diclofenac at neutral pH. Interestingly, aspirin drifted out of the binding pocket at acidic and neutral pH, but showed stable binding at alkaline pH. The biotransformation of diclofenac and aspirin by laccase also corroborated the in silico results. This is the first report on biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) using recombinant laccase from gut bacteria, supported by in silico simulation studies. - Highlights: • Laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). • Recombinant laccase was found to be thermostable and alkali tolerant. • The in silico and experimental studied proves the biotransformation of NSAIDs. • Laccase binds to ligands differentially under different protonation state. • Laccase also possesses free radical scavenging property.

  12. Monitoring antimalarial safety and tolerability in clinical trials: A case study from Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpimbaza Arthur

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New antimalarial regimens, including artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs, have been adopted widely as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Although these drugs appear to be safe and well-tolerated, experience with their use in Africa is limited and continued assessment of safety is a priority. However, no standardized guidelines for evaluating drug safety and tolerability in malaria studies exist. A system for monitoring adverse events in antimalarial trials conducted in Uganda was developed. Here the reporting system is described, and difficulties faced in analysing and interpreting the safety results are illustrated, using data from the trials. Case description Between 2002 and 2007, eleven randomized, controlled clinical trials were conducted to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of different antimalarial regimens for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. The approach to adverse event monitoring was similar in all studies. A total of 5,614 treatments were evaluated in 4,876 patients. Differences in baseline characteristics and patterns of adverse event reporting were noted between the sites, which limited the ability to pool and analyse data. Clinical failure following antimalarial treatment confounded associations between treatment and adverse events that were also common symptoms of malaria, particularly in areas of lower transmission intensity. Discussion and evaluation Despite prospectively evaluating for adverse events, limitations in the monitoring system were identified. New standardized guidelines for monitoring safety and tolerability in antimalarial trials are needed, which should address how to detect events of greatest importance, including serious events, those with a causal relationship to the treatment, those which impact on adherence, and events not previously reported. Conclusion Although the World Health Organization has supported the development of

  13. Air pollutant monitoring for the East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Hodgson, Alfred T.

    2002-11-01

    .6-1.0 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Although statistical analysis of the data is yet to be performed, some general observations can be made. Absolute pollutant levels varied by season and week, but the simultaneous sampling design allowed for comparisons of concentrations among schools during each interval. Pollutant concentrations at each school were normalized to the sampling period averages among all schools. The normalized concentrations were generally consistent at each school throughout the entire study, suggesting that measured differences represent ongoing conditions and chronic exposures in the vicinities of the schools. Substantially elevated concentrations of NO{sub x}, NO{sub 2}, and BC, and somewhat elevated concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} were observed at one school located less than 100 meters to the east of I-880. Normalized concentrations of NO{sub x}, NO{sub 2}, and BC were also higher at the three other ''nearby and downwind'' schools relative to those located far from any freeway or other major traffic source. An ancillary monitoring program was implemented to examine the correlation between school-based pollutant measurements and measurements throughout the neighborhoods adjacent to three of the schools. Volunteer households were obtained from among the families of participating schoolchildren. Concentrations of NO{sub x} and NO{sub 2} were measured with passive samplers outside the homes of these volunteers during one of two 1-week periods in spring 2002. Simultaneous measurements were conducted at all ten of the schools and a central monitoring station during each week. The neighborhoods surrounding two schools were predominantly upwind of the I-880 freeway, while the neighborhood surrounding the other school was downwind from I-880. The overall distribution of concentrations observed for the residences near the downwind school appeared to be substantially higher than the regional background concentrations. The variability observed within the

  14. Ecology Study and Suggestions of Offshore Fouling Organisms%近海污损生物生态研究及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡煜峰; 曹文浩; 张慧; 程志强; 林岳光; 严涛

    2012-01-01

    海洋污损生物是关系到设施安全的重要因素之一,开展近海污损生物生态研究不仅可为海洋设施的设计、建造和保养提供科学依据,而且还有助于促进海洋生态系统作用机制研究的深入,揭示污损生物时空变化规律及其关键制约因素,并为海洋恢复生态学的发展提供借鉴。%As a key impact factor,biofouling played an important role on the safety and service life of marine facilities.Study on offshore fouling was a scientific base for the design,construction and maintenance of marine installations.It also improved the study on the mechanism of marine ecological system,elucidated the temporal and spatial scales in the development of fouling communities,and provided a reference for marine restoration ecology.

  15. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Habitat Monitoring Study, 2011 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Thom, Ronald M.; Wright, Cynthia L.

    2012-03-22

    The Ecosystem Monitoring Program is a collaborative effort between the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (LCREP), University of Washington, Wetland Ecosystem Team (UW), US Geological Survey, Water Science Center (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA-Fisheries, hereafter NOAA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory (PNNL). The goal of the program is to conduct emergent wetland monitoring aimed at characterizing salmonid habitats in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) from the mouth of the estuary to Bonneville Dam (Figure 1). This is an ecosystem based monitoring program focused on evaluating status and trends in habitat and reducing uncertainties regarding these ecosystems to ultimately improve the survival of juvenile salmonids through the LCRE. This project comprehensively assesses habitat, fish, food web, and abiotic conditions in the lower river, focusing on shallow water and vegetated habitats used by juvenile salmonids for feeding, rearing and refugia. The information is intended to be used to guide management actions associated with species recovery, particularly that of threatened and endangered salmonids. PNNL’s role in this multi-year study is to monitor the habitat structure (e.g., vegetation, topography, channel morphology, and sediment type) as well as hydrologic patterns.

  16. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Habitat Monitoring Study, 2011 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaufmann, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cullinan, Valerie I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wright, Cynthia L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The Ecosystem Monitoring Program is a collaborative effort between the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (LCREP), University of Washington, Wetland Ecosystem Team (UW), US Geological Survey, Water Science Center (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA-Fisheries, hereafter NOAA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory (PNNL). The goal of the program is to conduct emergent wetland monitoring aimed at characterizing salmonid habitats in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) from the mouth of the estuary to Bonneville Dam (Figure 1). This is an ecosystem based monitoring program focused on evaluating status and trends in habitat and reducing uncertainties regarding these ecosystems to ultimately improve the survival of juvenile salmonids through the LCRE. This project comprehensively assesses habitat, fish, food web, and abiotic conditions in the lower river, focusing on shallow water and vegetated habitats used by juvenile salmonids for feeding, rearing and refugia. The information is intended to be used to guide management actions associated with species recovery, particularly that of threatened and endangered salmonids. PNNL’s role in this multi-year study is to monitor the habitat structure (e.g., vegetation, topography, channel morphology, and sediment type) as well as hydrologic patterns.

  17. Scour Monitoring System for Subsea Pipeline Based on Active Thermometry: Numerical and Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and in-sediment scenarios during heating and cooling processes. Two sets of experiments, including exposing different lengths of the upper surface of the pipeline to water and creating free spans of various lengths, were carried out in laboratory. In both cases, the scour condition was immediately detected by the proposed monitoring system, which confirmed the system is robust and very sensitive. Numerical study of the method was also investigated by using the finite element method (FEM with ANSYS, resulting in reasonable agreement with the test data. This brand new system provides a promising, low cost, highly precise and flexible approach for scour monitoring of subsea pipelines.

  18. Study on Wireless Network Communication in Stage Hydraulic Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel stage hydraulic monitoring system based on Internet of Things (IoT is proposed in this paper. Compared with the traditional wired system, the proposed system is a flexible working method and can save the cost. Furthermore, it has the low power consumption, high safety, and large scale network. The real-time pressure and flow data can be collected by using the nodes in ZigBee network. The fault detection and diagnosis process was used in this study, which was facilitated by measuring pressure of flow. When the monitored data exceeds the normal range, some failure may occur in the stage hydraulic system. If any failure occurs in the circuit, the maintainers can be informed immediately, which can greatly improve maintenance efficiency, ensuring the failure to be eliminated in time. Meanwhile, we can take advantage of wireless sensor network (WSN to connect the multiple loops and then monitor the loops by using ZigBee technology, which greatly improves the efficiency of monitoring.

  19. Field-lysimeter and Column Studies As Complementary Survey Tools For Monitored Natural Attenuation (mna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totsche, K. U.; Hensel, D.; Jann, S.; Jaesche, P.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Scheibke, R.

    The contamination of the unsaturated soil zone with organic pollutants (PAH, BTEX, PCB, Phenols, etc.) and pollutant mixtures, e.g. light/dense non-aqueous phase liq- uids (L/D-NAPLs), represents a specific challenge for sanitation and remediation of contaminated sites. Monitored natural attenuation as an alternative option for remedi- ation of such sites requires (1) the proof of an effective pollutant reduction potential and (2) the proof that a further spreading of the contaminants and their potentially toxic metabolites is minimized to an acceptable minimum concentration level. These demands apply equally likely to contaminated soil and groundwater environments. However, a major problem arises when the task is to monitor the release and transport of contaminants within the unsaturated soil zone over a longer period (> 10 years) of time at an expenditure as small as possible. The aim of our presentation is to employ and test a survey technique to monitor pollutant release and redistribution within the unsaturated soil zone in the context of MNA. The proposed technique is based on the combination of laboratory-column and field-lysimeter studies. The first is used to ac- quire knowledge on the governing processes, the latter is used to monitor release and transport of the contaminants.

  20. Action-Monitoring Dysfunction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea - A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Song Chou

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with a broad range of frontal lobe dysfunctions. However, no study has investigated action monitoring, a crucial domain of frontal cognitive functions, in patients with OSA. By using the modified Flanker task, we tested the hypothesis that patients with OSA have an impaired action monitoring function. We recruited 25 untreated patients with moderate-severe OSA and 12 control participants who were matched for age, sex, apolipoprotein E4, and education level. Every enrolled participant underwent a standard overnight laboratory-based polysomnography and completed a modified Flanker task. Compared with the controls, the patients with OSA presented a significantly lower correct response rate in all trials (78.9% vs 95.9%, P = .008, congruent trials (84.7% vs 98.3%, P = .016, and incongruent trials (77.4% vs 94.7%, P = .009. The post-error correction rate was significantly lower in the patients with OSA than in the controls (74.9% vs 93.8%, P = .005. Furthermore, strong significant correlations were observed between the arousal index and correct rate in all trials (r = -0.390, P < .05 and in the incongruent trials (r = -0.429, P < .01, as well as between the arousal index and rate of post-error correction (r = -0.435, P < .01. We concluded that the action monitoring function was impaired in the patients with OSA. Sleep fragmentation was a major determinant of impaired action monitoring in these patients.

  1. Error detection capability of a novel transmission detector: a validation study for online VMAT monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasler, Marlies; Michel, Kilian; Marrazzo, Livia; Obenland, Michael; Pallotta, Stefania; Björnsgard, Mari; Lutterbach, Johannes

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize a new single large-area ionization chamber, the integral quality monitor system (iRT, Germany), for online and real-time beam monitoring. Signal stability, monitor unit (MU) linearity and dose rate dependence were investigated for static and arc deliveries and compared to independent ionization chamber measurements. The dose verification capability of the transmission detector system was evaluated by comparing calculated and measured detector signals for 15 volumetric modulated arc therapy plans. The error detection sensitivity was tested by introducing MLC position and linac output errors. Deviations in dose distributions between the original and error-induced plans were compared in terms of detector signal deviation, dose-volume histogram (DVH) metrics and 2D γ-evaluation (2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm). The detector signal is linearly dependent on linac output and shows negligible (good correlation between DVH metrics and detector signal deviation was found (e.g. PTV D mean: R 2  =  0.97). Positional MLC errors of 1 mm and errors in linac output of 2% were identified with the transmission detector system. The extensive tests performed in this investigation show that the new transmission detector provides a stable and sensitive cumulative signal output and is suitable for beam monitoring during patient treatment.

  2. Use of shear waves for diagnosis and ablation monitoring of prostate cancer: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A.; Rus, G.; Saffari, N.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains as a major healthcare issue. Limitations in current diagnosis and treatment monitoring techniques imply that there is still a need for improvements. The efficacy of prostate cancer diagnosis is still low, generating under and over diagnoses. High intensity focused ultrasound ablation is an emerging treatment modality, which enables the noninvasive ablation of pathogenic tissue. Clinical trials are being carried out to evaluate its longterm efficacy as a focal treatment for prostate cancer. Successful treatment of prostate cancer using non-invasive modalities is critically dependent on accurate diagnostic means and is greatly benefited by a real-time monitoring system. While magnetic resonance imaging remains the gold standard for prostate imaging, its wider implementation for prostate cancer diagnosis remains prohibitively expensive. Conventional ultrasound is currently limited to guiding biopsy. Elastography techniques are emerging as a promising real-time imaging method, as cancer nodules are usually stiffer than adjacent healthy prostatic tissue. In this paper, a new transurethral approach is proposed, using shear waves for diagnosis and ablation monitoring of prostate cancer. A finite-difference time domain model is developed for studying the feasibility of the method, and an inverse problem technique based on genetic algorithms is proposed for reconstructing the location, size and stiffness parameters of the tumour. Preliminary results indicate that the use of shear waves for diagnosis and monitoring ablation of prostate cancer is feasible.

  3. Long term monitoring of jaguars in the Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary, Belize; Implications for camera trap studies of carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Bart J.; Foster, Rebecca J.; Sanchez, Emma; Gutierrez-González, Carmina E.; Silver, Scott C.; Ostro, Linde E. T.; Kelly, Marcella J.; Kay, Elma; Quigley, Howard

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we estimate life history parameters and abundance for a protected jaguar population using camera-trap data from a 14-year monitoring program (2002–2015) in Belize, Central America. We investigated the dynamics of this jaguar population using 3,075 detection events of 105 individual adult jaguars. Using robust design open population models, we estimated apparent survival and temporary emigration and investigated individual heterogeneity in detection rates across years. Survival probability was high and constant among the years for both sexes (φ = 0.78), and the maximum (conservative) age recorded was 14 years. Temporary emigration rate for the population was random, but constant through time at 0.20 per year. Detection probability varied between sexes, and among years and individuals. Heterogeneity in detection took the form of a dichotomy for males: those with consistently high detection rates, and those with low, sporadic detection rates, suggesting a relatively stable population of ‘residents’ consistently present and a fluctuating layer of ‘transients’. Female detection was always low and sporadic. On average, twice as many males than females were detected per survey, and individual detection rates were significantly higher for males. We attribute sex-based differences in detection to biases resulting from social variation in trail-walking behaviour. The number of individual females detected increased when the survey period was extended from 3 months to a full year. Due to the low detection rates of females and the variable ‘transient’ male subpopulation, annual abundance estimates based on 3-month surveys had low precision. To estimate survival and monitor population changes in elusive, wide-ranging, low-density species, we recommend repeated surveys over multiple years; and suggest that continuous monitoring over multiple years yields even further insight into population dynamics of elusive predator populations. PMID:28658274

  4. Local minima conformations of the Sc3N @C80 endohedral complex: Ab initio quantum chemical study and suggestions for experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanov, Ilya; Kholod, Yana; Simeon, Tomekia; Kaczmarek, Anna; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    The results of an ab initio quantum chemical study of the Sc3N@C80 endohedral complex are reported. The Hartree-Fock (HF) and B3LYP levels of theory were employed in conjunction with STO-3G and 6-31G(d) basis sets to determine the geometry and properties of the local minima conformations of Sc3N cluster inside the C80 cage. Weak bonding between the Sc3N and C80 molecule and a number of very close geometry and nearly identical by energy local minima structures can explain the large mobility of the endohedral cluster, but complicate determination of the global minimum structure. The effect of the endohedral cluster on the vibrational spectrum of Sc3N@C80 is revealed. Based on the theoretical infrared (IR) spectra, the experimental method to distinguish local minima structures of Sc3N@C80 is proposed.

  5. Spontaneous monitoring of adverse reactions to drugs by Italian dermatologists: a pilot study. Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    During 1988, the Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia (GISED) coordinated a pilot study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of a system for spontaneous monitoring of adverse drug reactions in dermatological practice in Italy. Approximately 400 dermatologists were asked to collaborate, and 141 agreed to the study. Procedures similar to those well established in other surveillance programs (including the use of standard forms and standardized assessment procedure) were adopted. In a 2-month period 775 reports were collected, of which 711 were maintained after careful evaluation. The general profile of the adverse reactions reported was in accordance with the experience derived by other spontaneous surveillance programs. The main purpose of spontaneous reporting systems is the identification of new reactions, and a model analysis was proposed, in our study, with reference to skin reactions to bamifylline. The demonstration of the feasibility of a drug-monitoring program in Italy, where little tradition exists in the area, is the most important result of our study.

  6. Molecular modeling and simulation studies of recombinant laccase from Yersinia enterocolitica suggests significant role in the biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepti; Rawat, Surender; Waseem, Mohd; Gupta, Sunita; Lynn, Andrew; Nitin, Mukesh; Ramchiary, Nirala; Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-01-08

    The YacK gene from Yersinia enterocolitica strain 7, cloned in pET28a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), showed laccase activity when oxidized with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and guaiacol. The recombinant laccase protein was purified and characterized biochemically with a molecular mass of ≈58 KDa on SDS-PAGE and showed positive zymogram with ABTS. The protein was highly robust with optimum pH 9.0 and stable at 70 °C upto 12 h with residual activity of 70%. Kinetic constants, Km values, for ABTS and guaiacol were 675 μM and 2070 μM, respectively, with corresponding Vmax values of 0.125 μmol/ml/min and 6500 μmol/ml/min. It also possess antioxidative property against BSA and Cu(2+)/H2O2 model system. Constant pH MD simulation studies at different protonation states of the system showed ABTS to be most stable at acidic pH, whereas, diclofenac at neutral pH. Interestingly, aspirin drifted out of the binding pocket at acidic and neutral pH, but showed stable binding at alkaline pH. The biotransformation of diclofenac and aspirin by laccase also corroborated the in silico results. This is the first report on biotransformation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) using recombinant laccase from gut bacteria, supported by in silico simulation studies.

  7. Study of 'Redhaven' peach and its white-fleshed mutant suggests a key role of CCD4 carotenoid dioxygenase in carotenoid and norisoprenoid volatile metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartarini Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are plant metabolites which are not only essential in photosynthesis but also important quality factors in determining the pigmentation and aroma of flowers and fruits. To investigate the regulation of carotenoid metabolism, as related to norisoprenoids and other volatile compounds in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch., and the role of carotenoid dioxygenases in determining differences in flesh color phenotype and volatile composition, the expression patterns of relevant carotenoid genes and metabolites were studied during fruit development along with volatile compound content. Two contrasted cultivars, the yellow-fleshed 'Redhaven' (RH and its white-fleshed mutant 'Redhaven Bianca' (RHB were examined. Results The two genotypes displayed marked differences in the accumulation of carotenoid pigments in mesocarp tissues. Lower carotenoid levels and higher levels of norisoprenoid volatiles were observed in RHB, which might be explained by differential activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD enzymes. In fact, the ccd4 transcript levels were dramatically higher at late ripening stages in RHB with respect to RH. The two genotypes also showed differences in the expression patterns of several carotenoid and isoprenoid transcripts, compatible with a feed-back regulation of these transcripts. Abamine SG - an inhibitor of CCD enzymes - decreased the levels of both isoprenoid and non-isoprenoid volatiles in RHB fruits, indicating a complex regulation of volatile production. Conclusions Differential expression of ccd4 is likely to be the major determinant in the accumulation of carotenoids and carotenoid-derived volatiles in peach fruit flesh. More in general, dioxygenases appear to be key factors controlling volatile composition in peach fruit, since abamine SG-treated 'Redhaven Bianca' fruits had strongly reduced levels of norisoprenoids and other volatile classes. Comparative functional studies of peach carotenoid

  8. A phase 2 study on the treatment of hyperkalemia in patients with chronic kidney disease suggests that the selective potassium trap, ZS-9, is safe and efficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Stephen R; Singh, Bhupinder; Lavin, Philip T; Stavros, Fiona; Rasmussen, Henrik S

    2015-08-01

    Hyperkalemia contributes to significant mortality and limits the use of cardioprotective and renoprotective renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockers. Current therapies are poorly tolerated and not always effective. Here we conducted a phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-escalation study to assess safety and efficacy of ZS-9. This oral selective cation exchanger that preferentially entraps potassium in the gastrointestinal tract was given to patients with stable Stage 3 chronic kidney disease and hyperkalemia (5.0 to 6.0 mEq/l) during a 2-day period. Of 90 eligible patients with mean baseline serum potassium of 5.1 mEq/l, 30 were randomized to placebo, 12-0.3 g, 24-3 g, or 24 to 10 g of ZS-9 three times daily for 2 days with regular meals. None withdrew and ZS-9 dose-dependently reduced serum potassium. The primary efficacy end point (rate of serum potassium decline in the first 48 h) was met with significance in the 3- and 10-g cohorts. From baseline, mean serum potassium was significantly decreased by 0.92±0.52 mEq/l at 38 h. Urinary potassium excretion significantly decreased with 10-g ZS-9 as compared to placebo at day 2 (+15.8 +/- 21.8 vs. +8.9 +/- 22.9 mEq per 24h) from placebo at day 2. In this short-term study, no serious adverse events were reported; only mild constipation in the 3-g dose group was possibly related to treatment. Thus, ZS-9 was well-tolerated in patients with stable chronic kidney disease and hyperkalemia leading to a rapid, sustained reduction in serum potassium.

  9. Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Danube monitoring sites in Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia and Serbia. Most of these sites have continuous stable isotope and tritium records of over 10 years. The longest and most complete record of isotopes in precipitation and the Danube is from Vienna, which contains continuous tritium and stable isotope records since the 1960s. Previous estimates of residence time using tritium in the upper Danube are about 3-5 years (Rank et al., 1998, Yurtsever, 1999). However, these estimates were based on a tritium record up to 1995 and some of the parts of the observed time series were not represented well by the models. We are now re-evaluating the upper Danube residence time using a complete record covering the entire tritium transient created by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (1964-2005). Several combinations of lumped parameter models are being tested using MULTIS and LUMPY. The models assume two main water components in parallel; a "fast" component that represents water with a short residence time (less than one year), resulting from recent precipitation and fast runoff, and a "slow" or "old" component representing discharge of older groundwaters to the river. Preliminary results obtained during this exercise, as well as those determined using other environmental tracers, are providing new insights into the age distribution of water in the upper Danube. Initial calculations with the complete tritium record for Vienna suggest that the mean residence time is substantially older than previous estimates. This study also demonstrates the value of the GNIP/GNIR/WISER dataset for examining dynamics of surface water systems.

  10. MR monitoring of focused ultrasonic surgery of renal cortex: experimental and simulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, K; Damianou, C A; Colucci, V; Unger, E; Cline, H H; Jolesz, F A

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided and -monitored noninvasive ultrasonic surgery can be performed in highly perfused tissues from outside the body. A simulation study was performed to evaluate the optimal sonication parameters. An MR-compatible positioning device was then used to manipulate a focused ultrasound transducer in an MR imager, which was used to sonicate kidneys of five rabbits at various power levels and different durations. Temperature elevation during sonication was monitored with a T1-weighted spoiled gradient-echo sequence. The simulation study demonstrated that a sharply focused transducer and relatively short sonication times (30 seconds or less) are necessary to prevent damage to the overlying skin and muscle tissue, which have a much lower blood perfusion rate than kidney. The experiments showed that the imaging sequence was sensitive enough to show temperature elevation during sonication, thereby indicating the location of the beam focus. Histologic evaluations showed that kidney necrosis could be consistently induced without damage to overlying skin and muscle. The study demonstrated that highly perfused tissues such as the renal cortex can be coagulated from outside the body with focused ultrasound and that MR imaging can be used to guide and monitor this surgery.

  11. A model-based telecoupling analysis for the Patagonian shelf: a new suggested template on how to study global seabirds-fisheries interactions for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettmann, F.; Raya Rey, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Southwest Atlantic Ocean, and the extended Patagonian shelf in particular, presents us with a very complex ecosystem of global relevance for food security and global peace. It is a highly productive area and it maintains a great diversity and abundance of seabird species. Fisheries have been identified as a main stressor for the marine ecosystems and as one of the main causes of seabird population declines. Using the framework of telecoupling - a sophisticated description of natural and socioeconomic interactions over large distances - here we present a fresh holistic look at the dynamic fisheries and (endangered) seabird interactions for the Patagonian shelf. While data are sparse, we employ machine learning-based predictions for a more holistic overview. We found that these waters of the Patagonian Shelf are significantly affected by many nations and outside players. We found that the input, output and spill-over of the Patagonian shelf ecosystem are distributed virtually all over the globe. In addition, we also found `losers' (=nations and their citizens that are left out entirely from this global resource and its governance). Our findings are based on best-available public trade and fish harvest analysis for this region, linked with predictive modeling (machine learning and geographic information systems GIS) to generalize for nine seabird species. We conveniently extend this analysis with a perspective from the financial sector and policy that enables the Patagonian fisheries as international investment and development projects. As increasingly recognized elsewhere, we believe that telecoupling can serve as a new but rather sophisticated study template highlighting wider complexities, bottlenecks and sensitivities for a vastly improved conservation research on oceans and global sustainability questions.

  12. Comparative study of gas-analyzing systems designed for continuous monitoring of TPP emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, O. E.; Roslyakov, P. V.

    2017-06-01

    Determining the composition of combustion products is important in terms of both control of emissions into the atmosphere from thermal power plants and optimization of fuel combustion processes in electric power plants. For this purpose, the concentration of oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and sulfur oxides in flue gases is monitored; in case of solid fuel combustion, fly ash concentration is monitored as well. According to the new nature conservation law in Russia, all large TPPs shall be equipped with continuous emission monitoring and measurement systems (CEMMS) into the atmosphere. In order to ensure the continuous monitoring of pollutant emissions, direct round-the-clock measurements are conducted with the use of either domestically produced or imported gas analyzers and analysis systems, the operation of which is based on various physicochemical methods and which can be generally used when introducing CEMMS. Depending on the type and purposes of measurement, various kinds of instruments having different features may be used. This article represents a comparative study of gas-analysis systems for measuring the content of polluting substances in exhaust gases based on various physical and physicochemical analysis methods. It lists basic characteristics of the methods commonly applied in the area of gas analysis. It is proven that, considering the necessity of the long-term, continuous operation of gas analyzers for monitoring and measurement of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere, as well as the requirements for reliability and independence from aggressive components and temperature of the gas flow, it is preferable to use optical gas analyzers for the aforementioned purposes. In order to reduce the costs of equipment comprising a CEMMS at a TPP and optimize the combustion processes, electrochemical and thermomagnetic gas analyzers may also be used.

  13. "Ultrasound Monitoring of Temperature Change during Interstitial Laser Thermotherapy of Liver: An In Vitro Study"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gorji-Ara

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: In thermal tissue ablation, it is very important to control the increase in the temperature for having an efficient ablation therapy. We conducted this study to determine the efficacy of measuring pixel shift of ultrasound B-mode images as a function of change in tissue temperature. Materials and Methods: By fixing some microthermocouples in liver tissues, temperature at different points was monitored invasively in vitro during laser-induced thermotherapy. According to our results, optimum power and exposure time were determined for ultrasound temperature monitoring. Simultaneously, noninvasive temperature monitoring was performed with ultrasound B-mode images. These images were saved on computer from 25ºC to 95ºC with 10 ºC steps. The speed of sound changes with each 10°C temperature change that produce virtual shifts in the scatter positions. Using an image processing method, the pixel shift due to 10 °C temperature change was extracted by motion detection. Results: The cubic regression function between the mean pixel shifts on ultrasound B-mode images caused by the change in speed of sound, which in turn was a function of the mean change in temperature, was evaluated. When temperature increased, pixel shift occurs in ultrasound images. The maximum pixel shift was observed between 60 to 70 ºC (temperature changes (ΔT of 35–45 ºC. After 70ºC, the local pixel shift due to change in the speed of sound in liver tissue had an irregular decreasing. Pearson correlation coefficient between invasive and non-invasive measurements for 10°C temperature changes was 0.93 and the non-linear function was suitable for monitoring of temperature. Conclusion: Monitoring of changes in temperature based on pixel shifts observed in ultrasound B-mode images in interstitial laser thermotherapy of liver seems a good modality.

  14. Monitoring Central Venous Catheter Resistance to Predict Imminent Occlusion: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Joshua; Tang, Li; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E; Brennan, Rachel C; Shook, David R; Stokes, Dennis C; Monagle, Paul; Curtis, Nigel; Worth, Leon J; Allison, Kim; Sun, Yilun; Flynn, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Long-term central venous catheters are essential for the management of chronic medical conditions, including childhood cancer. Catheter occlusion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent complications, including bloodstream infection, venous thrombosis, and catheter fracture. Therefore, predicting and pre-emptively treating occlusions should prevent complications, but no method for predicting such occlusions has been developed. We conducted a prospective trial to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of catheter-resistance monitoring, a novel approach to predicting central venous catheter occlusion in pediatric patients. Participants who had tunneled catheters and were receiving treatment for cancer or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation underwent weekly catheter-resistance monitoring for up to 12 weeks. Resistance was assessed by measuring the inline pressure at multiple flow-rates via a syringe pump system fitted with a pressure-sensing transducer. When turbulent flow through the device was evident, resistance was not estimated, and the result was noted as "non-laminar." Ten patients attended 113 catheter-resistance monitoring visits. Elevated catheter resistance (>8.8% increase) was strongly associated with the subsequent development of acute catheter occlusion within 10 days (odds ratio = 6.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-21.5; p change in resistance greater than 8.8% or a non-laminar result predicted subsequent occlusion (odds ratio = 6.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-22.8; p = 0.002; sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 63%). Participants rated catheter-resistance monitoring as highly acceptable. In this pediatric hematology and oncology population, catheter-resistance monitoring is feasible, acceptable, and predicts imminent catheter occlusion. Larger studies are required to validate these findings, assess the predictive value for other clinical outcomes, and determine the impact of pre-emptive therapy. Clinicaltrials

  15. A Feasibility Study for Life Signs Monitoring via a Continuous-Wave Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Soldovieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a feasibility study for life signs detection using a continuous-wave radar working in the band around 4 GHz. The data-processing is carried out by using two different data processing approaches, which are compared about the possibility to characterize the frequency behaviour of the breathing and heartbeat activity. The two approaches are used with the main aim to show the possibility of monitoring the vital signs activity in an accurate and reliable way.

  16. Column flotation monitoring based on electrical capacitance volume tomography: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, Didied; Harjanto, Sri; Nugraha, Harisma; Huda, Mahfudz Al; Taruno, Warsito Purwo

    2017-01-01

    A preliminary study of column flotation monitoring process using electrical capacitance volume tomography (ECVT) was conducted. ECVT was one of the monitoring systems which based on the capacitance measurement. It was used to understand the phenomenon that occurs inside the column in a three-dimensional (3-D) image. A linear back projection (LBP) algorithm technique was used to reconstruct the 3-D ECVT images from all measurement data obtained in this study. As a preliminary study, the effect of gas injection in the two-phase (liquid and gas) system was conducted. This study is conducted to assess the possibility of ECVT system in the monitoring of column flotation process. The experiments were conducted by using column flotation with 5 cm diameter and 150 cm height in which a sparger was installed at the bottom of column to inject air inside the column. 32-CH rectangular ECVT sensor was installed at 13 cm above the sparger and placed around the column. The gas injection variations used were 2-7 l/min with interval 1 l/min and all experiments were conducted at room temperature. Based on the signal and image analysis, the signals and 3-D ECVT images showed differences when the gas injection was varied. An increase in gas injection will decrease the fluctuation of signal intensity which correlates to the 3-D ECVT images. Average signals obtained by ECVT when given gas injection variations were in the range of 440.09 to 453.62 mV from high to low gas injection. Based on these results, ECVT has a prospect as an imaging tool to monitor the column flotation process. And also, hopefully, based on the analysis of 3-D images generated by ECVT system, the metallurgical performance would be analyzed in the further researches.

  17. The experience of family members of ICU patients who require extensive monitoring: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claudia DiSabatino; Custard, Kristi

    2014-09-01

    A mixed methods study using family research with a phenomenological approach (n = 5 families) was conducted to explore family members' perceptions about the extensive monitoring technology used on their critically ill family member after cardiac surgery, as experienced when family members initially visited the patient in the cardiovascular intensive care unit. Five relevant themes emerged: overwhelmed by all of the machines; feelings of uncertainty; methods of coping; meaning of the numbers on the machines; and need for education.

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies for a Bio-Impedance Vital-Sign Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Bio -impedance can be used for peripheral pulse detection as a non-invasive method for continuous vital sign monitoring. The objective of this study...was to evaluate the commercially available electrode materials that might be useful as wearable electrodes for the measurement of bio -impedance puse...Reproducibility and sensitivity of the bio -impedance measurement were comparable to the sensitivities of the pulse oximeter, laser Doppler, and

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERINATAL OUTCOME IN LOW RISK PREGNANCIES WITH CTG MONITORING AND INTERMITTENT AUSCULTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimala Ratna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available EFM was introduced into widespread clinical practice in the 1970s to 1980s on the premise that it would facilitate early detection of abnormal FHR patterns thought to be associated with hypoxia thus allowing earlier intervention to prevent foetal neurological damage and/or death. There is a lack of evidence of benefit supporting the use of the admission CTG in low-risk pregnancy. In this study we the aim to evaluate the effects of Cardiotocograph Foetal Monitoring on perinatal outcome in low risk Obstetric population and determine the cost effective and reliable method of fetal monitoring that is applicable to low-risk population. METHODOLOGY A prospective randomized study conducted on 200 low risk pregnant women in labour divided into 2 groups of 100 each. Group A includes those monitored with admission CTG and Group B includes those monitored with intermittent auscultation (IA. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS The demographic features, parity and gestational age in both the groups were comparable; 10 out of the 100 in CTG group had meconium stained liquor whereas 15 of them had meconium in IA group; 71% of the patients in CTG group had normal delivery, whereas it was 84% in IA group. Incidence of LSCS was 23% in CTG group as against 9% in IA group. A ‘P’ value of 0.02, RR of 2 5 for operative deliveries in CTG group was observed which was significant. Incidence of AVD was 6% in CTG group and 7% in IA group with a p value of <0.05, which is statistically significant. The incidence of MSL, APGAR scores at 1, 5 and 10 minutes and NICU admissions were comparable in both the groups. There was no significant difference in babies with low APGAR <7 at 5 min and NICU admissions in both the groups. In our study the sensitivity of CTG was 63.63%, specificity 80.35%, positive predictive value 33.3%, negative predictive value 94.93%. The low sensitivity and high false positives led to the intervention in delivery and increase in operative delivery with no

  20. Acoustic monitoring (RFM of total hip arthroplasty results of a cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger AC

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction At present there are no reliable non-traumatic and non-invasive methods to analyse the healing process and loosening status after total hip replacement. Therefore early as well as late loosening of prosthesis and interface component problems are difficult to be found or diagnosed at any time. Methods In a cadaver study the potential application of Resonance Frequency Monitoring (RFM will be evaluated as a non-invasive and non-traumatic method to monitor loosening and interface problems in hip replacement. In a 65 year old female cadaver different stability scenarios for a total hip replacement (shaft, head/modular head and cup, ESKA, Luebeck, Germany are simulated in cemented and cement less prosthesis and then analysed with RFM. The types of stability vary from secure/press-fit to interface-shaft disruption. Results The RFM shows in cemented as well as cement less prosthesis significant intra-individual differences in the spectral measurements with a high dynamic (20 dB difference corresponding to the factor 100 (10000%, regarding the simulated status of stability in the prosthesis system. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate RFM as a highly sensitive non-invasive and non-traumatic method to support the application of RFM as a hip prosthesis monitoring procedure. The data obtained shows the possibility to use RFM for osteointegration surveillance and early detection of interface problems, but will require further evaluation in clinical and experimental studies.

  1. Monitoring activities of teenagers to comprehend their habits: study protocol for a mixed-methods cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bélanger, Mathieu; Caissie, Isabelle; Beauchamp, Jacinthe; O’Loughlin, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine; Mancuso, Michelina

    2013-01-01

    Background Efforts to increase physical activity in youth need to consider which activities are most likely to be sustained over time in order to promote lifelong participation in physical activity. The Monitoring Activities of Teenagers to Comprehend their Habits (MATCH) study is a prospective cohort study that uses quantitative and qualitative methods to develop new knowledge on the sustainability of specific physical activities. Methods/design Eight hundred and forty-three grade 5 and 6 st...

  2. Concept of Complex Environmental Monitoring Network - Vardzia Rock Cut City Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashvili, Mikheil; Vacheishvili, Nikoloz; Margottini, Claudio; Basilaia, Giorgi; Chkhaidze, Davit; Kvavadze, Davit; Spizzichino, Daniele; Boscagli, Franceso; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Adikashvili, Luka; Navrozashvili, Levan

    2016-04-01

    displacement and deformation of Vardzia cliff by means of Ground-based SAR (GBSAR) interferometry, continuous photo fixation of ongoing destruction. Works were started in 2014 from the development of network concept and at the end of year 2015 installation of all major components were accomplished. Special Wi-Fi network was installed, using 5.8 GHz frequency to online connect all the station to the central data center in Tbilisi and the same time avoiding complex network of wires on cultural monument. Acquired Data and network status can be seen online on Vardzia.IliaUni.edu.ge. For the management of considerable data flow special Internet Of Thing (IOT) server was developed. First streams of data are already collected and processing started, initial results already obtained and given in current presentation. It should be outlined that Vardzia complex monitoring network does not represent unitary technical or conceptual solution, but it is a constantly developing model to be farther extended by adding more monitoring points and/or increasing monitored parameters. It is extremely important to test and validate given approach in reality, enabling use of these technologies in the study and conservation projects of other, similar monuments.

  3. ARBRE monitoring - ecology of short rotation coppice. Four year study involving wildlife monitoring of commercial SCR plantations planted on arable land and arable control plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.D.; Bishop, J.D.; McKay, H.V.; Sage, R.B.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) funded project monitoring wildlife within and around a number of commercially managed Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) plantations aimed at using the information gathered to assess the ecological impact of SRC plantations on the wildlife in the area. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of the monitoring programme examining the distribution of flora and fauna within the plantations, and the monitoring of birds, plants, insects and butterflies. The greater diversity of wildlife and plants in the SRC plots, the higher densities of birds, and the increasing number of butterfly species are discussed along with the increased mean number of invertebrate orders with subsequent growth of willow coppices, and the habitats at the edges of the plots and at headlands designed for access to machinery within the plots.

  4. Childhood Asthma May Encourage Obesity, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Asthma in Children Obesity in Children Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Asthma in Children Obesity in Children About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  5. Optical surface scanning for respiratory motion monitoring in radiotherapy: a feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekke, Susanne Lise; Mahmood, Faisal; Helt-Hansen, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the feasibility of a surface scanning system (Catalyst) for respiratory motion monitoring of breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). DIBH is used to reduce the radiation dose to the heart and lung. In contrast to RPM, a compet......Purpose. We evaluated the feasibility of a surface scanning system (Catalyst) for respiratory motion monitoring of breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). DIBH is used to reduce the radiation dose to the heart and lung. In contrast to RPM...... and 3: the Quasar phantom was used to study if the angle of the monitored surface affects the amplitude of the recorded signal. Results. Experiment 1: we observed comparable period estimates for both systems. The amplitudes were 8 ± 0.1 mm (Catalyst) and 4.9 ± 0.1 mm (RPM). Independent check with in...... 1. Experiment 3: an increased (fixed) surface angle during breathing motion resulted in an overestimated amplitude with RPM, while the amplitude estimated by Catalyst was unaffected. Conclusion. Our study showed that Catalyst can be used as a better alternative to the RPM. With Catalyst...

  6. Feasibility Study of a Rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS): Results of Operator's Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Raylund; Summers, Harold; Cronkhite, James

    1996-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the feasibility of a state-of-the-art health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) to provide monitoring of critical mechanical systems on the helicopter, including motors, drive train, engines, and life-limited components. The implementation of HUMS and cost integration with current maintenance procedures was assessed from the operator's viewpoint in order to achieve expected benefits from these systems, such as enhanced safety, reduced maintenance cost, and increased availability. An operational HUMS that was installed and operated under an independent flight trial program was used as a basis for this study. The HUMS equipment and software were commercially available. Based on the results of the feasibility study, the HUMS used in the flight trial program generally demonstrated a high level of reliability in monitoring the rotor system, engines, drive train, and life-limited components. The system acted as a sentinel to warn of impending failures. A worn tail rotor pitch bearing was detected by HUMS, which had the capability for self testing to diagnose system and sensor faults. Examples of potential payback to the operator with HUMS were identified, including reduced insurance cost through enhanced safety, lower operating costs derived from maintenance credits, increased aircraft availability, and improved operating efficiency. The interfacing of HUMS with current operational procedures was assessed to require only minimal revisions to the operator's maintenance manuals. Finally the success in realizing the potential benefits from HUMS technology was found to depend on the operator, helicopter manufacturer, regulator (FAA), and HUMS supplier working together.

  7. Image monitoring on the behavior study of three genetic groups of confined goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Maria da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of three genetic groups of confined goats by image monitoring using nine unneutered goats of the Azul, Graúna and Moxotó genotypes. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement (genetic groups × periods - morning, afternoon and night, with three replications. Animals were monitored by video cameras placed at the ceiling of each stall for 10 days. There were interaction factors in the frequency of behavioral categories: interaction with the trough, self-cleaning, standing bipedally, social interaction, and other activities. Azul, Graúna and Moxotó native goats kept in the same environment under the same system of containment and feeding show different frequencies and durations in their behaviors, which are influenced by the period of the day.

  8. Study of monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining area by D-InSAR technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Liang; LI Wen-jie; TAN Yang

    2008-01-01

    Along with the increasing demand for coal and the great importance attached to mine safety, gaining the information of mine surface distortion timely has already become an urgent need to guarantee the safety of mine production. D-InSAR technology is a new measure which can provide the information of surface distortion in mining areas at centi-meter level through the processing of SAR image gained from radar satellite. In addition, this technology has the advantage of monitoring large areas with no weather limit. Intro-duced the basic principle and data processing steps of D-InSAR systematically and ac-quired the differential interferometry based on case study data. The advantages of D-InSAR and it's usability in monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining areas were proved.

  9. Telecommunication monitoring is a method for studies of the effect of heliomagnetic fluctuations on cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibisov, S M; Vishnevsky, V V; Ragulskaya, M V

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents the results of 9-year biogeophysical monitoring (1998-2007) of spatial and time effects of space weather and atmospheric and climatic factors on the status of normal subjects, which was carried out simultaneously in geographical areas situated at different latitudes. Requirements to conditions of long-term telecommunication biogeophysical monitoring studies are formulated, providing the reliability and reproducibility of the experiment results. The results indicate that the role of atmospheric and climatic factors in modification of dynamic regimens of human body functioning is significantly higher in subjects living at lower latitudes. The spatial and time regularities of the effects of space and physical factors on human body were detected (the latitude, time, trigger, amplitude, synergetic, and cumulative effects of the population averaging of the reaction). These effects indicate that human body belongs to a class of open nonlinear dynamic systems with all characteristics intrinsic of it.

  10. Study of monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining area by D-InSAR technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Liang; LI Wen-jie; TAN Yang

    2008-01-01

    Along with the increasing demand for coal and the great importance attached to mine safety,gaining the information of mine surface distortion timely has already become an urgent need to guarantee the safety of mine production.D-InSAR technology is a new measure which can provide the information of surface distortion in mining areas at centimeter level through the processing of SAR image gained from radar satellite.In addition,this technology has the advantage of monitoring large areas with no weather limit.Introduced the basic principle and data processing steps of D-InSAR systematically and acquired the differential interferometry based on case study data.The advantages of D-InSAR and it's usability in monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining areas were proved.

  11. The effectiveness of Google GLASS as a vital signs monitor in surgery: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammed Husnain; Aydin, Abdullatif; Lowdon, Alexandra; Ahmed, Hamza Ibn; Muir, Gordon H; Khan, M Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the Google GLASS as a vital signs monitor in a surgical setting and identify potential uses. This prospective, observational and comparative study recruited novice (n = 24), intermediate (n = 8) and expert urologists (n = 5). All candidates performed a procedure on the GreenLight Simulator within a simulated setting using a standard vital signs monitor and then the Google GLASS. The time taken to respond to abnormal vital signs during both sessions was recorded. A quantitative survey was used to assess the usability and acceptability of the Google GLASS surgery. The majority (84%) of participants responded quicker to abnormal signs with the Google GLASS compared to a standard monitor (p = 0.0267). The average simulation score during a standard-monitor and GLASS-session scored to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.253). All parameters of simulation were also similar in both sessions including average sweep speed (p = 0.594), average blood loss (p = 0.761) and average grams vaporised (p = 0.102). Surgical performance between both sessions was similar and not hampered by the use of Google GLASS. Furthermore, 81% of candidates stated the GLASS was comfortable to wear during the procedure. This study has demonstrated that head-mounted displays such as the Google GLASS are potentially useful in surgery to aid patient care without hampering the surgeons view. It is hoped that the innovation and evolution of these devices triggers the potential future application of such devices within the medical field. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monitoring endemic livestock diseases using laboratory diagnosticdata: A simulation study to evaluate the performance of univariateprocess monitoring control algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Dorea, Fernanda; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;

    2016-01-01

    (number of sentinel herds tested in the surveillance system) on the performance of the algorithms. Three univariate process monitoring control algorithms were compared: Shewart p Chart 1 (PSHEW), Cumulative Sum2 (CUSUM) and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average3 (EWMA). Increases in seroprevalence were......, it was possible to assess the accuracy and timeliness of the surveillance system working in real-time. The results showed that EWMA and PSHEW had higher CumSe (when compared with the CUSUM) from week 1 until the end of the period for all simulated scenarios. Changes in seroprevalence from 0.10 to 0.20 were more...... easily detected (higher CumSe) than changes from 0.10 to 0.15 for all three algorithms. Similar results were found with EWMA and PSHEW, based on the median time to detection. Changes in the seroprevalence were detected later with CUSUM, compared to EWMA and PSHEW for the different scenarios. Increasing...

  13. 基于SDN的流量监控研究%SDN-based Trafifc Monitoring Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帅; 王松生; 檀朝红; 魏亮

    2016-01-01

    SDN-based traffic monitoring study is a modern 1G/10G/40G network visibility fabric that leverages high-performance, open Ethernet switches to provide pervasive security monitoring and visibility of an organization’s network trafifc at ultra-low CapEx/OpEx costs.It is a next-generation Network Packet Broker (NPB) that addresses the chalenges of current NPB-based monitoring solutions. Using an SDN-centric architecture, it enables scale-out fabric for enterprise-wide monitoring with a single pane of glass for operational simplicity. Multi-tenancy lets multiple IT teams (NetOps, DevOps, SecOps) simultaneously perform network monitoring using tenant-speciifc passive/inline tools and policies.The characteristics refered have been veriifed on the UMS platform which is our own data monitoring system.%基于SDN的流量监控系统是一种现代1G/10G/40G网络监视连接结构,采用高性能、开放式以太网交换机以超低资本支出/运营支出成本来对组织的网络流量进行无处不在的安全监控和流量监视。它是全新设计的新一代网络数据包代理(NPB),旨在服目前基于NPB的监控解决方案所面临的难题。基于SDN的流量监控系统以SDN为中心的体系结构,具备以下特点:实现了横向扩展连接结构,从而可以在整个企业范围内进行监控;采用单一平台进行管理,使操作变得轻松简单;提供多租户机制,使多个IT团队(NetOps、 DevOps、 SecOps)能够采用具体租户专用的被动式/在线式工具和策略来同时执行网络监控。上述特性均在自有数据监控平台UMS上得到验证。

  14. Monitoring for social learning : insights from Brazilian NGOs and Dutch farmer study groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, I.; Proost, J.

    2002-01-01

    The process of monitoring can help to trigger learning. As collective monitoring is constructed as part of a social partnership, the generalised and superficial statements on how monitoring is to be implemented that prevail will not suffice for the diversity of contexts in which joint monitoring is

  15. A Preliminary Study on the IoT-Based Pavement Monitoring Platform Based on the Piezoelectric-Cantilever-Beam Powered Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green and sustainable power supply for sensors in pavement monitoring system has attracted attentions of civil engineers recently. In this paper, the piezoelectric energy harvesting technology is used to provide the power for the acceleration sensor and Radio Frequency (RF communication. The developed piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam is used for collecting the vibrational energy. The energy collection circuit is used to charge the battery, where the power can achieve 1.68 mW and can meet the power need of acceleration sensor for data collection and transmission in one operation cycle, that is, 32.8 seconds. Based on the piezoelectric-cantilever-beam powered sensor, the preliminary study on the IoT-based pavement monitoring platform is suggested, which provides a new applicable approach for civil infrastructure health monitoring.

  16. Environmental Monitoring in the Small Business: A Case Study on this Process in a Company of the Real Estate Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bassi Sutter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is observed a gap in the literature regard to studies related to strategic planning in small businesses, specifically related to environmental monitoring. As a result of this gap, this study aimed to understand how a small real estate company monitors the environment in which it operates. To develop the study, we opted for a descriptive and qualitative approach, based on the method of a single case study. The conceptual foundations used for structuring the field research took into account a secondary data survey on strategic planning, environmental analysis in strategic planning, conceptualization of small and medium sized business (SMB and environment monitoring in SMB’s The study also has shown that although the respondents assert they perform environmental monitoring consistently, the process as described in the literature is not formal and systematic in the company studied. It has been observed efforts of the partners in this direction, but such activities are still restricted to the owners of the company. Given the proposed objective of this research, the case study did outline the main characteristics of the monitoring process of a small company in the construction sector. The study therefore contributes to broaden the knowledge about the structure of environmental monitoring in small businesses, enriching the theme that is still underdeveloped. In the business context, this study contributes pointing out factors that could be better developed by company managers and may serve as an example for other small businesses that are in the early stages of its environmental monitoring system development.

  17. [Suggestion and hypnosis in hysteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, P

    1995-12-15

    Suggestive influences allow to resolve ambiguities. Normally they are only accepted if they correspond with the knowledge and believes of the subject. Under hypnosis or under the impact of serious psychic perturbations one may take up reality constructions which are not in conformity with these criteria. The restriction of consciousness and the ignoring of certain functions permitting this are the common basis of hypnosis and hysteria. But suggestions do not cause the later; they may only shape the symptomatology. Hypnosis can create a terrain facilitating the resolution of the problems underlying hysteria but it does not represent the treatment of hysteria.

  18. Integrated environmental monitoring and multivariate data analysis-A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Ingvar; Westad, Frank; Nilssen, Ingunn; de Freitas, Felipe Sales; Dos Santos, Natalia Gomes; Dos Santos, Francisco; Cabral, Marcelo Montenegro; Bicego, Marcia Caruso; Figueira, Rubens; Johnsen, Ståle

    2017-03-01

    The present article describes integration of environmental monitoring and discharge data and interpretation using multivariate statistics, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares (PLS) regression. The monitoring was carried out at the Peregrino oil field off the coast of Brazil. One sensor platform and 3 sediment traps were placed on the seabed. The sensors measured current speed and direction, turbidity, temperature, and conductivity. The sediment trap samples were used to determine suspended particulate matter that was characterized with respect to a number of chemical parameters (26 alkanes, 16 PAHs, N, C, calcium carbonate, and Ba). Data on discharges of drill cuttings and water-based drilling fluid were provided on a daily basis. The monitoring was carried out during 7 campaigns from June 2010 to October 2012, each lasting 2 to 3 months due to the capacity of the sediment traps. The data from the campaigns were preprocessed, combined, and interpreted using multivariate statistics. No systematic difference could be observed between campaigns or traps despite the fact that the first campaign was carried out before drilling, and 1 of 3 sediment traps was located in an area not expected to be influenced by the discharges. There was a strong covariation between suspended particulate matter and total N and organic C suggesting that the majority of the sediment samples had a natural and biogenic origin. Furthermore, the multivariate regression showed no correlation between discharges of drill cuttings and sediment trap or turbidity data taking current speed and direction into consideration. Because of this lack of correlation with discharges from the drilling location, a more detailed evaluation of chemical indicators providing information about origin was carried out in addition to numerical modeling of dispersion and deposition. The chemical indicators and the modeling of dispersion and deposition support the conclusions from the multivariate

  19. Monitoring recovery after laser surgery of the breast with optical tomography: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Yates, Tara D.; Gibson, Adam; Everdell, Nicholas; Arridge, Simon R.; Chicken, Dennis W.; Douek, Michael; Keshtgar, Mohammed R. S.

    2005-04-01

    Results are presented of a study to monitor the changes in the optical properties of breast tissue over a 12-month period after interstitial laser photocoagulation treatment of a fibroadenoma. The study involved generating cross-sectional images of the breast with a multichannel time-resolved imaging system and a nonlinear image reconstruction algorithm. Images of the internal absorbing and scattering properties revealed the expected initial inflammatory response, followed by the development of low-scattering cysts consistent with corresponding ultrasound examinations. Although results indicate that purely qualitative images can potentially provide clinically valuable data, means of enhancing diagnostic information by overcoming present limitations of the approach are discussed.

  20. Design of a mobile laboratory for ventilation studies and indoor air pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, J.V.; Hollowell, C.D.; Lin, C.I.; Pepper, J.H.

    1978-04-01

    The design and fabrication of a mobile laboratory for research and development studies of ventilation requirements and energy utilization in residential and commercial buildings are described. Functionality, flexibility, and versatility have been stressed without sacrificing appearance and operator convenience. It is believed that modifications of and additions to the mobile laboratory (such as adding the capability to monitor building energy flow) can be made with a minimum of inconvenience. The studies being performed will provide data needed for the establishment of energy efficient ventilation standards.

  1. Monitoring soil wetness variations by means of satellite passive microwave observations: the HYDROPTIMET study cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lacava

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is an important component of the hydrological cycle. In the framework of modern flood warning systems, the knowledge of soil moisture is crucial, due to the influence on the soil response in terms of infiltration-runoff. Precipitation-runoff processes, in fact, are related to catchment's hydrological conditions before the precipitation. Thus, an estimation of these conditions is of significant importance to improve the reliability of flood warning systems. Combining such information with other weather-related satellite products (i.e. rain rate estimation might represent a useful exercise in order to improve our capability to handle (and possibly mitigate or prevent hydro-geological hazards. Remote sensing, in the last few years, has supported several techniques for soil moisture/wetness monitoring. Most of the satellite-based techniques use microwave data, thanks to the all-weather and all-time capability of these data, as well as to their high sensitivity to water content in the soil. On the other hand, microwave data are unfortunately highly affected by the presence of surface roughness or vegetation coverage within the instantaneous satellite field of view (IFOV. Those problems, consequently, strongly limit the efficiency and the reliability of traditional satellite techniques. Recently, using data coming from AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, flying aboard NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellites, a new methodology for soil wetness estimation has been proposed. The proposed index, called Soil Wetness Variation Index (SWVI, developed by a multi-temporal analysis of AMSU records, seems able to reduce the problems related to vegetation and/or roughness effects. Such an approach has been tested, with promising results, on the analysis of some flooding events which occurred in Europe in the past. In this study, results achieved for the HYDROPTIMET test cases will be analysed and discussed in detail

  2. The SMARTER pilot study: Testing feasibility of real-time feedback for dietary self-monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora E. Burke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-monitoring (SM of food intake is central to weight loss treatment. Technology makes it possible to reinforce this behavior change strategy by providing real-time feedback (FB tailored to the diary entry. To test the feasibility of providing 1–4 daily FB messages tailored to dietary recordings via a smartphone, we conducted a 12-week pilot randomized clinical trial in Pittsburgh, PA in US in 2015. We compared 3 groups: SM using the Lose It! smartphone app (Group 1; SM + FB (Group 2; and SM + FB + attending three in-person group sessions (Group 3. The sample (N = 39 was mostly white and female with a mean body mass index of 33.76 kg/m2. Adherence to dietary SM was recorded daily, weight was assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. The mean percentage of days adherent to dietary SM was similar among Groups 1, 2, and 3 (p = 0.66 at 53.50% vs. 55.86% vs. 65.33%, respectively. At 12 weeks, all groups had a significant percent weight loss (p < 0.05, with no differences among groups (−2.85% vs. −3.14% vs. −3.37% (p = 0.95; 26% of the participants lost ≥ 5% of their baseline weight. Mean retention was 74% with no differences among groups (p = 0.37. All groups adhered to SM at levels comparable to or better than other weight loss studies and lost acceptable amounts of weight, with minimal intervention contact over 12 weeks. These preliminary findings suggest this 3-group approach testing SM alone vs. SM with real-time FB messages alone or supplemented with limited in-person group sessions warrants further testing in a larger, more diverse sample and for a longer intervention period.

  3. Advancing internal erosion monitoring using seismic methods in field and laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Minal L.

    This dissertation presents research involving laboratory and field investigation of passive and active methods for monitoring and assessing earthen embankment infrastructure such as dams and levees. Internal erosion occurs as soil particles in an earthen structure migrate to an exit point under seepage forces. This process is a primary failure mode for dams and levees. Current dam and levee monitoring practices are not able to identify early stages of internal erosion, and often the result is loss of structure utility and costly repairs. This research contributes to innovations for detection and monitoring by studying internal erosion and monitoring through field experiments, laboratory experiments, and social and political framing. The field research in this dissertation included two studies (2009 and 2012) of a full-scale earthen embankment at the IJkdijk in the Netherlands. In both of these tests, internal erosion occurred as evidenced by seepage followed by sand traces and boils, and in 2009, eventual failure. With the benefit of arrays of closely spaced piezometers, pore pressure trends indicated internal erosion near the initiation time. Temporally and spatially dense pore water pressure measurements detected two pore water pressure transitions characteristic to the development of internal erosion, even in piezometers located away from the backward erosion activity. At the first transition, the backward erosion caused anomalous pressure decrease in piezometers, even under constant or increasing upstream water level. At the second transition, measurements stabilized as backward erosion extended further upstream of the piezometers, as shown in the 2009 test. The transitions provide an indication of the temporal development and the spatial extent of backward erosion. The 2012 IJkdijk test also included passive acoustic emissions (AE) monitoring. This study analyzed AE activity over the course of the 7-day test using a grid of geophones installed on the

  4. 新形势下江苏省地表水自动监测站运行管理模式对策建议%Suggestions and Counter Measures of Management Modes of Automatic Monitoring Sta-tions for Surface Water in Jiangsu Province in the New Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亮; 钟声; 曹军; 郭蓉; 魏宏农; 汪晓燕

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development process and current status of operation and management models of automatic monito-ring stations for surface water in Jiangsu Province, as well as needs and the problems during the operation and management.The ad-vantages and disadvantages of the operation and management models in other areas of the nation were analyzed.It was proposed to decentralize the management authority for part of the stations in order to achieve authority and responsibility equitably.It was also suggested to start social quality control management in pilot stations for the sake of strengthening provincial monitoring and manage-ment capability, and in addition, to further improve the construction of the system in order to raise the management level.Finally, it was proposed to explore novel management models in order to improve the efficiency of automatic monitoring and management.%简述了江苏省地表水自动监测站运行管理模式发展历程和现状,以及运行管理需求和存在的问题。分析了国内其他地区地表水自动监测站运行管理模式的优缺点。提出,下放部分站点管理权限,实现权责相对统一;试点社会化质控管理,强化省级监督管理能力;进一步完善制度建设,提高水站管理水平;探索新型管理模式,提高自动监测管理效能。

  5. Intensive irradiation studies, monitoring and commissioning data analysis on the ATLAS MDT chambers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071390; Susinno, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS MDT chambers have been extensively studied, starting from irradiation test to commissioning activities. First, a detailed description of high rate and high background tests is given. These tests have been carried out on a small ATLAS-like MDT chamber, by the Cosenza and Roma TRE groups. The precision tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer, in fact, have to operate for more than 10 years in the harsh LHC background, due mainly to low energy neutrons and photons. Aging effects, such as the deterioration of the tube themselves can appear and difficulties in pattern recognition and tracking may occur. Moreover an upgrade to Super-LHC is foreseen. Then, there is an accurate description of the MDTGnam package, the official software for the on-line monitoring of MDT performances. When dealing with a complex apparatus, such as the ATLAS experiment, an on-line monitoring system is a fundamental tool. The GNAM project, developed by Cosenza, Pavia, Pisa and Napoli groups, is a monitoring framework to be us...

  6. Study on Semi-Parametric Statistical Model of Safety Monitoring of Cracks in Concrete Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongshi Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cracks are one of the hidden dangers in concrete dams. The study on safety monitoring models of concrete dam cracks has always been difficult. Using the parametric statistical model of safety monitoring of cracks in concrete dams, with the help of the semi-parametric statistical theory, and considering the abnormal behaviors of these cracks, the semi-parametric statistical model of safety monitoring of concrete dam cracks is established to overcome the limitation of the parametric model in expressing the objective model. Previous projects show that the semi-parametric statistical model has a stronger fitting effect and has a better explanation for cracks in concrete dams than the parametric statistical model. However, when used for forecast, the forecast capability of the semi-parametric statistical model is equivalent to that of the parametric statistical model. The modeling of the semi-parametric statistical model is simple, has a reasonable principle, and has a strong practicality, with a good application prospect in the actual project.

  7. Performance Studies of the Vibration Wire Monitor on the Test Stand with Low Energy Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Kota; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kinsho, Michikazu

    In the high intensity proton accelerator as the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) accelerators, serious radiation and residual dose is induced by a small beam loss such a beam halo. Therefore, diagnostics of the beam halo formation is one of the most important issues to control the beam loss. For the beam halo monitor, the vibration wire monitor (VWM) has a potential for investigating the beam halo and weak beam scanning. The VWM has a wide dynamic range, high resolution and the VWM is not susceptible to secondary electrons and electric noises. We have studied the VWM features as a new beam-halo monitor on the test stand with low energy electron gun. The frequency shift of the irradiated vibration wire was confirmed about wire material and the electron beam profile measured by using the VWM was consistent with the results of the Faraday cup measurement. Also we calculated a temperature distribution on the vibration wire which is irradiated by the electron beam with the numerical simulation. The simulations have been fairly successful in reproducing the transient of the irradiated vibration wire frequency measured by test stand experiments. In this paper, we will report a result of performance evaluation for the VWM on the test stands and discuss the VWM for beam halo diagnostic

  8. The role of the Data and Safety Monitoring Board in a clinical trial: The CRISIS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubkov, Richard; Casper, T. Charles; Dean, J. Michael; Anand, K. J. S.; Zimmerman, Jerry; Meert, Kathleen L.; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Berger, John; Harrison, Rick; Willson, Douglas F.; Nicholson, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Objective Randomized clinical trials are commonly overseen by a data and safety monitoring board (DSMB) comprised of experts in medicine, ethics, and biostatistics. DSMB responsibilities include protocol approval, interim review of study enrollment, protocol compliance, safety, and efficacy data. DSMB decisions can affect study design and conduct, as well as reported findings. Researchers must incorporate DSMB oversight into the design, monitoring, and reporting of randomized trials. Design Case study, narrative review. Methods The DSMB’s role during the comparative pediatric Critical Illness Stress-Induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) Prevention Trial is described. Findings The NIH-appointed CRISIS DSMB was charged with monitoring sample size adequacy and feasibility, safety with respect to adverse events and 28-day mortality, and efficacy with respect to the primary nosocomial infection/sepsis outcome. The Federal Drug Administration also requested DSMB interim review before opening CRISIS to children below one year of age. The first interim analysis found higher 28-day mortality in one treatment arm. The DSMB maintained trial closure to younger children, and requested a second interim data review six months later. At this second meeting, mortality was no longer of concern, while a weak efficacy trend of lower infection/sepsis rates in one study arm emerged. As over 40% of total patients had been enrolled, the DSMB elected to examine conditional power, and unmask treatment arm identities. Upon finding somewhat greater efficacy in the placebo arm, the DSMB recommended stopping CRISIS due to futility. Conclusions The design and operating procedures of a multicenter randomized trial must consider a pivotal DSMB role. Maximum study design flexibility must be allowed, and investigators must be prepared for protocol modifications due to interim findings. The DSMB must have sufficient clinical and statistical expertise to assess potential importance of interim

  9. Use of sulfur hexafluoride airflow studies to determine the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in an alpha inhalation exposure laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    Determination of the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in the workplace is quite subjective and is generally one of the more difficult tasks in radiation protection. General guidance for determining the number and placement of air sampling and monitoring instruments has been provided by technical reports such as Mishima, J. These two documents and other published guidelines suggest that some insight into sampler placement can be obtained by conducting airflow studies involving the dilution and clearance of the relatively inert tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) in sampler placement studies and describes the results of a study done within the ITRI alpha inhalation exposure laboratories. The objectives of the study were to document an appropriate method for conducting SF{sub 6} dispersion studies, and to confirm the appropriate number and placement of air monitors and air samplers within a typical ITRI inhalation exposure laboratory. The results of this study have become part of the technical bases for air sampling and monitoring in the test room.

  10. Accuracy evaluation of the optical surface monitoring system on EDGE linear accelerator in a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Fogliata, Antonella; Stravato, Antonella; Tomatis, Stefano; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) requires dedicated systems to monitor the patient position during the treatment to avoid target underdosage due to involuntary shift. The optical surface monitoring system (OSMS) is here evaluated in a phantom-based study. The new EDGE linear accelerator from Varian (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) integrates, for cranial lesions, the common cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and kV-MV portal images to the optical surface monitoring system (OSMS), a device able to detect real-time patient׳s face movements in all 6 couch axes (vertical, longitudinal, lateral, rotation along the vertical axis, pitch, and roll). We have evaluated the OSMS imaging capability in checking the phantoms׳ position and monitoring its motion. With this aim, a home-made cranial phantom was developed to evaluate the OSMS accuracy in 4 different experiments: (1) comparison with CBCT in isocenter location, (2) capability to recognize predefined shifts up to 2° or 3cm, (3) evaluation at different couch angles, (4) ability to properly reconstruct the surface when the linac gantry visually block one of the cameras. The OSMS system showed, with a phantom, to be accurate for positioning in respect to the CBCT imaging system with differences of 0.6 ± 0.3mm for linear vector displacement, with a maximum rotational inaccuracy of 0.3°. OSMS presented an accuracy of 0.3mm for displacement up to 1cm and 1°, and 0.5mm for larger displacements. Different couch angles (45° and 90°) induced a mean vector uncertainty < 0.4mm. Coverage of 1 camera produced an uncertainty < 0.5mm. Translations and rotations of a phantom can be accurately detect with the optical surface detector system.

  11. Wireless miniature implantable devices and ASICs for monitoring, treatment, and study of glaucoma and cardiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric Y.

    Glaucoma affects about 65 million people and is the second leading cause of blindness in the world. Although the condition is irreversible and incurable, early detection is vital to slowing and even stopping the progression of the disease. Our work focuses on the design, fabrication, and assembly of a continuous active glaucoma intraocular pressure (IOP) monitor that provides clinicians with the necessary data to more accurately diagnose and treat patients. Major benefits of an active monitoring device include the potential to develop a closed-loop treatment system and to operate independently for extended periods of time. The fully wireless operation uses gigahertzfrequency electromagnetic wave propagation, which allows for an orientation independent transfer of power and data over reasonable distances. Our system is comprised of a MEMS capacitive sensor, capacitive power storage array, ASIC, and monopole antenna assembled into a biocompatible liquid crystal polymer (LCP) package. We have performed in vivo trials on rabbits, both chronic and acute, to validate system functionality, fully wireless feasibility, and biocompatibility. Heart failure (HF) affects approximately 2% of the adult population in developed countries and 6-10% of people over the age of 65. Continuous monitoring of blood pressure, flow, and chemistry from a minimally invasive device can serve as a diagnostic and early-warning system for cardiac health. We developed a miniaturized system attached to the outer surface of an FDA approved stent, used as both the antenna for wireless telemetry/powering and structural support. The system comprises of a MEMS pressure sensor, ASIC for the sensor interface and wireless capabilities, LCP substrate, and FDA approved stent. In vivo studies on pigs validated functionality and fully wireless operation and demonstrate the feasibility of a stent-based wireless implant for continuous monitoring of blood pressure as well as other parameters including oxygen, flow

  12. Preliminary Study of UAS Equipped with Thermal Camera for Volcanic Geothermal Monitoring in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Shih-Hong; Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2017-07-18

    Thermal infrared cameras sense the temperature information of sensed scenes. With the development of UASs (Unmanned Aircraft Systems), thermal infrared cameras can now be carried on a quadcopter UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle) to appropriately collect high-resolution thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring in a local area. Therefore, the quadcopter UAS used to acquire thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring has been developed in Taiwan as part of this study to overcome the difficult terrain with highly variable topography and extreme environmental conditions. An XM6 thermal infrared camera was employed in this thermal image collection system. The Trimble BD970 GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) board was also carried on the quadcopter UAV to gather dual-frequency GNSS observations in order to determine the flying trajectory data by using the Post-Processed Kinematic (PPK) technique; this will be used to establish the position and orientation of collected thermal images with less ground control points (GCPs). The digital surface model (DSM) and thermal orthoimages were then produced from collected thermal images. Tests conducted in the Hsiaoyukeng area of Taiwan's Yangmingshan National Park show that the difference between produced DSM and airborne LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data are about 37% between -1 m and 1 m, and 66% between -2 m and 2 m in the area surrounded by GCPs. As the accuracy of thermal orthoimages is about 1.78 m, it is deemed sufficient for volcanic geothermal monitoring. In addition, the thermal orthoimages show some phenomena not only more globally than do the traditional methods for volcanic geothermal monitoring, but they also show that the developed system can be further employed in Taiwan in the future.

  13. Subsidence monitoring system for offshore applications: technology scouting and feasibility studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miandro, R.; Dacome, C.; Mosconi, A.; Roncari, G.

    2015-11-01

    Because of concern about possible impacts of hydrocarbon production activities on coastal-area environments and infrastructures, new hydrocarbon offshore development projects in Italy must submit a monitoring plan to Italian authorities to measure and analyse real-time subsidence evolution. The general geological context, where the main offshore Adriatic fields are located, is represented by young unconsolidated terrigenous sediments. In such geological environments, sea floor subsidence, caused by hydrocarbon extraction, is quite probable. Though many tools are available for subsidence monitoring onshore, few are available for offshore monitoring. To fill the gap ENI (Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi) started a research program, principally in collaboration with three companies, to generate a monitoring system tool to measure seafloor subsidence. The tool, according to ENI design technical-specification, would be a robust long pipeline or cable, with a variable or constant outside diameter (less than or equal to 100 mm) and interval spaced measuring points. The design specifications for the first prototype were: to detect 1 mm altitude variation, to work up to 100 m water depth and investigation length of 3 km. Advanced feasibility studies have been carried out with: Fugro Geoservices B.V. (Netherlands), D'Appolonia (Italy), Agisco (Italy). Five design (using three fundamental measurements concepts and five measurement tools) were explored: cable shape changes measured by cable strain using fiber optics (Fugro); cable inclination measured using tiltmeters (D'Appolonia) and measured using fiber optics (Fugro); and internal cable altitude-dependent pressure changes measured using fiber optics (Fugro) and measured using pressure transducers at discrete intervals along the hydraulic system (Agisco). Each design tool was analysed and a rank ordering of preferences was performed. The third method (measurement of pressure changes), with the solution proposed by Agisco, was

  14. Accuracy evaluation of the optical surface monitoring system on EDGE linear accelerator in a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Fogliata, Antonella, E-mail: Antonella.Fogliata@humanitas.it; Stravato, Antonella; Tomatis, Stefano; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta

    2016-07-01

    Frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) requires dedicated systems to monitor the patient position during the treatment to avoid target underdosage due to involuntary shift. The optical surface monitoring system (OSMS) is here evaluated in a phantom-based study. The new EDGE linear accelerator from Varian (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) integrates, for cranial lesions, the common cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and kV-MV portal images to the optical surface monitoring system (OSMS), a device able to detect real-time patient's face movements in all 6 couch axes (vertical, longitudinal, lateral, rotation along the vertical axis, pitch, and roll). We have evaluated the OSMS imaging capability in checking the phantoms' position and monitoring its motion. With this aim, a home-made cranial phantom was developed to evaluate the OSMS accuracy in 4 different experiments: (1) comparison with CBCT in isocenter location, (2) capability to recognize predefined shifts up to 2° or 3 cm, (3) evaluation at different couch angles, (4) ability to properly reconstruct the surface when the linac gantry visually block one of the cameras. The OSMS system showed, with a phantom, to be accurate for positioning in respect to the CBCT imaging system with differences of 0.6 ± 0.3 mm for linear vector displacement, with a maximum rotational inaccuracy of 0.3°. OSMS presented an accuracy of 0.3 mm for displacement up to 1 cm and 1°, and 0.5 mm for larger displacements. Different couch angles (45° and 90°) induced a mean vector uncertainty < 0.4 mm. Coverage of 1 camera produced an uncertainty < 0.5 mm. Translations and rotations of a phantom can be accurately detect with the optical surface detector system.

  15. Preliminary Study of UAS Equipped with Thermal Camera for Volcanic Geothermal Monitoring in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hong Chio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared cameras sense the temperature information of sensed scenes. With the development of UASs (Unmanned Aircraft Systems, thermal infrared cameras can now be carried on a quadcopter UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle to appropriately collect high-resolution thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring in a local area. Therefore, the quadcopter UAS used to acquire thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring has been developed in Taiwan as part of this study to overcome the difficult terrain with highly variable topography and extreme environmental conditions. An XM6 thermal infrared camera was employed in this thermal image collection system. The Trimble BD970 GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer board was also carried on the quadcopter UAV to gather dual-frequency GNSS observations in order to determine the flying trajectory data by using the Post-Processed Kinematic (PPK technique; this will be used to establish the position and orientation of collected thermal images with less ground control points (GCPs. The digital surface model (DSM and thermal orthoimages were then produced from collected thermal images. Tests conducted in the Hsiaoyukeng area of Taiwan’s Yangmingshan National Park show that the difference between produced DSM and airborne LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data are about 37% between −1 m and 1 m, and 66% between −2 m and 2 m in the area surrounded by GCPs. As the accuracy of thermal orthoimages is about 1.78 m, it is deemed sufficient for volcanic geothermal monitoring. In addition, the thermal orthoimages show some phenomena not only more globally than do the traditional methods for volcanic geothermal monitoring, but they also show that the developed system can be further employed in Taiwan in the future.

  16. The Thai Anesthesia Incident Monitoring Study (Thai AIMS) of anesthetic equipment failure/malfunction: an analysis of 1996 incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaphanyo, Chaiyapruk; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Sriramatr, Dujduen; Pulnitiporn, Aksorn; Sriraj, Wimonrat

    2009-11-01

    The present study is a part of the multi-centered study of model of anesthesia relating adverse events in Thailand by incident report (The Thai Anesthesia Incident Monitoring Study or Thai AIMS). The objective was to identify the frequency distribution, contributing factors, and factors minimizing incident of equipment failure/malfunction. As a prospective descriptive research design, anesthesia providers reported the data as soon as the incidents of equipment failure/malfunction occurred. Standardized forms of incident report were then mailed to the center at Chulalongkorn University and three anesthesiologists reviewed the data. Ninety-two cases of equipment failure/malfunction were reported from 51 hospitals across Thailand Between January and June 2007, 92 incidents of equipment failure/malfunction were reported out of 1996 anesthesia-related incidents (4.6%). Failed/malfunctioned equipment included anesthetic circuit (17.4%), anesthesia machine (15.2%), capnography (15.2%), laryngoscope (15.2%), ventilator (12%), pulse oximeter (8.7%), vaporizer (4.3%), endotracheal tube (3.3%), sodalime (3.3%), and electrocardiogram (2.2%). All 16 anesthetic circuit incidents (100%) were detected by clinical signs whereas five incidents (31.3%) were detected firstly by monitors. All 14 laryngoscope malfunction (100%) were detected solely by clinical signs. Only one out of eight (12.5%) of pulse oximeter incidents was detected by clinical signs before the pulse oximeter itself. Three out of four (75%) incidents of vaporizer were detected by clinical signs before monitors. The majority of equipment malfunction was considered as related to anesthetic (69.6%) and system factors (69.6%) and 71.7% of incidents were preventable. Seventy-four incidents (80.4%) were caused by human error and, specifically, rule-based error in three fourths. Contributing factors were ineffective equipment, haste, lack of experience, ineffective monitors, and inadequate equipment. Factors minimizing

  17. Individual Differences in Fifth Graders' Literacy and Academic Language Predict Comprehension Monitoring Development: An Eye-Movement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated fifth graders' (n = 52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children…

  18. Validation of MODIS and SEVIRI Active Fire Monitoring products over Western Romania. Case study: Arad County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanea, Lavinia; Alina Ristea, Mihaela

    2014-05-01

    At the national level, the issue of wildfire monitoring represents a long debated topic. However, in the present situation, fire management requires various improvements in terms of detection, monitoring and post-fire analysis. The objectives of this study are to validate the data provided by MODIS (Terra and Aqua) Active Fire Monitoring and SEVIRI (MSG) FIR (Active Fire Monitoring) satellite products, with wildfires field data from The Romanian General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations (IGSU) (1), to chart the efficiency of satellite products in locating fires and study their strengths and weaknesses using a SWOT analysis (2). This is the initial step of a larger project that aims to implement an online Geographic Information System for fire management that will ease wildfire data manipulation and facilitate the decision making process. In order to do so, the current study objectives must be achieved. Our general strategy is to determine the consistency of direct (field measurements) and indirect (satellite data) observations. Depending on the amount of field information, the fire characteristics (location, frequency, extension area, moment of occurrence, type of fire, and others) will be studied through a statistical analysis. The products show some peculiar restrictiveness like spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, we will process and interpret satellite products to identify wildfires according to the data from IGSU using specialized software. The case study for the application of these procedures is a set of fire events from Arad county - Romania, that occurred between 2007 and 2013. In order to do so, it is important to compare results from different sensors with field information through various methods and to use only consistent results. The results will play an important role in achieving the above mentioned informational system, which will integrate field information, satellite data and values of parameters that influence the evolution of

  19. Comparison of remote sensing and fixed-site monitoring approaches for examining air pollution and health in a national study population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Genevieve; Dobbin, Nina A.; Sun, Liu; Burnett, Richard T.; Martin, Randall V.; Davidson, Andrew; Cakmak, Sabit; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Lamsal, Lok N.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Peters, Paul A.; Johnson, Markey

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) has emerged as a cutting edge approach for estimating ground level ambient air pollution. Previous studies have reported a high correlation between ground level PM2.5 and NO2 estimated by RS and measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites. The current study examined associations between air pollution and adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes using multi-year averages of NO2 and PM2.5 from RS and from regulatory monitoring. RS estimates were derived using satellite measurements from OMI, MODIS, and MISR instruments. Regulatory monitoring data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. Self-reported prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, allergies, and chronic bronchitis were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (a national sample of individuals 12 years of age and older). Multi-year ambient pollutant averages were assigned to each study participant based on their six digit postal code at the time of health survey, and were used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution. RS derived estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with 6-10% increases in respiratory and allergic health outcomes per interquartile range (3.97 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 1.03 ppb for NO2) among adults (aged 20-64) in the national study population. Risk estimates for air pollution and respiratory/allergic health outcomes based on RS were similar to risk estimates based on regulatory monitoring for areas where regulatory monitoring data were available (within 40 km of a regulatory monitoring station). RS derived estimates of air pollution were also associated with adverse health outcomes among participants residing outside the catchment area of the regulatory monitoring network (p health among participants living outside the catchment area for regulatory monitoring suggest that RS can provide useful estimates of long-term ambient air pollution in epidemiologic studies. This is

  20. A study on real-time fault monitoring detection method of bearing using the infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Tae [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Jong; Hong, Dong Pyo [School of Mechanical System Engineering, Chonbuk Nationa University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Since real-time monitoring system like a fault early detection has been very important, infrared thermography technique as a new diagnosis method was proposed. This study is focused on the damage detection and temperature characteristic analysis of ball bearing using the non-destructive infrared thermography method. In this paper, for the reliability assessment, infrared experimental data were compared with the frequency data of the existing. As results, the temperature characteristics of ball bearing were analyzed under various loading conditions. Finally it was confirmed that the infrared technique was useful for real-time detection of the bearing damages.

  1. Study on Wireless Network Communication in Stage Hydraulic Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A novel stage hydraulic monitoring system based on Internet of Things (IoT) is proposed in this paper. Compared with the traditional wired system, the proposed system is a flexible working method and can save the cost. Furthermore, it has the low power consumption, high safety, and large scale network. The real-time pressure and flow data can be collected by using the nodes in ZigBee network. The fault detection and diagnosis process was used in this study, which was facilitated by measuring ...

  2. Macromycetes of oak forests in the Łagiewnicki Forest (Central Poland - monitoring studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ławrynowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycological observations were carried out in the years 1994- 1996 in two permanent plots in a ca. 90-year-old oak forest (Calamagrostio-Quercetum petraeae in the Las Łagiewnicki Forest, a large forest complex within the borders of the city of Łódź. The study was conducted in the frame of the international project "Mycological monitoring in European oak forests". During the 3 years (15 observations 124 species of macromycetes were identified: 50 mycorrhizal, 72 saprobic and 2 parasitic species. Among them, 7 species inscribed on the Red List of threatened macromycetes in Poland (Wojewoda and Ławrynowicz 1992 were found.

  3. Proof-of-Concept Studies for a Local Tie Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeing, Benno; Behrend, Dirk; Gipson, John; Nothnagel, Axel

    2010-01-01

    We present preliminary results of proof-of-concept studies for an automatic monitoring system of local site ties. The system is based on the usage of robotic total stations. A set of tests were performed with a Leica TCA2003 total station on the local network of Goddard s Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) and the 5-m VLBI antenna at this site. Both the TCA2003 and the VLBI antenna are controlled from a Matlab-coded control program. Running specific observational programs, data were collected that indicate that the reference point of the VLBI antenna can be automatically determined with an accuracy of 1 mm or better.

  4. Telephone monitoring and support for veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Craig S; DiLandro, Caryn; Corwin, Kim N; Drescher, Kent D; Cooney, Jean H; Gusman, Fred

    2006-10-01

    Dropout from outpatient mental health treatment may contribute to high rates of relapse and rehospitalization among veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a quasi-experimental cohort study, 87 male and 17 female veterans discharging from residential PTSD treatment received either standard referral to outpatient care (N = 77) or standard referrals supplemented by biweekly telephone calls (N = 27). Telephone monitoring and support was feasible and acceptable to 85% of clients. Compared to prior patient cohorts, clients receiving telephone support were twice as likely (88% vs. 43%) to complete an outpatient visit within 1 month of discharge and reported higher satisfaction with care.

  5. How to study optimal timing of PET/CT for monitoring of cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vach, Werner; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Fischer, Barbara Malene Bjerregaard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The use of PET/CT for monitoring treatment response in cancer patients after chemo- or radiotherapy is a very promising approach to optimize cancer treatment. However, the timing of the PET/CT-based evaluation of reduction in viable tumor tissue is a crucial question. We investigated how...... to plan and analyze studies to optimize this timing. Methods: General considerations about studying the optimal timing are given and four fundamental steps are illustrated using data from a published study. Results: The optimal timing should be examined by optimizing the schedule with respect...... to predicting the overall individual time course we can observe in the case of dense measurements. The optimal timing needs not to and should not be studied by optimizing the association with the prognosis of the patient. Conclusions: The optimal timing should be examined in specific ‘schedule optimizing...

  6. Database study of lenalidomide (Revlimid) in Germany: monitoring off-label use [Monitoring des Off-Label-Use von Lenalidomid (Revlimid) in Deutschland

    OpenAIRE

    Dörks, Michael; Langner, Ingo; Behr, Sigrid; Timmer, Antje; Garbe, Edeltraut

    2013-01-01

    [english] Background: Lenalidomide, a derivate of thalidomide, in combination with dexamethasone is indicated for the treatment of multiple myeloma in patients who have received at least one prior therapy. In the USA, lenalidomide is also licensed for the treatment of a certain form of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Monitoring of off-label use in Germany is part of the risk management plan mandated by the regulatory authority. Material and methods: Our retrospective epidemiological study wa...

  7. Multicenter study of posaconazole therapeutic drug monitoring: exposure-response relationship and factors affecting concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolton, Michael J; Ray, John E; Chen, Sharon C-A; Ng, Kingsley; Pont, Lisa; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2012-11-01

    Posaconazole has an important role in the prophylaxis and salvage treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), although poor and variable bioavailability remains an important clinical concern. Therapeutic drug monitoring of posaconazole concentrations has remained contentious, with the use of relatively small patient cohorts in previous studies hindering the assessment of exposure-response relationships. This multicenter retrospective study aimed to investigate relationships between posaconazole concentration and clinical outcomes and adverse events and to assess clinical factors and drug interactions that may affect posaconazole concentrations. Medical records were reviewed for patients who received posaconazole and had ≥1 concentration measured at six hospitals in Australia. Data from 86 patients with 541 posaconazole concentrations were included in the study. Among 72 patients taking posaconazole for prophylaxis against IFIs, 12 patients (17%) developed a breakthrough fungal infection; median posaconazole concentrations were significantly lower than in those who did not develop fungal infection (median [range], 289 [50 to 471] ng/ml versus 485 [0 to 2,035] ng/ml; P posaconazole concentration was a significant predictor of breakthrough fungal infection via binary logistic regression (P posaconazole exposure, including coadministration with proton pump inhibitors, metoclopramide, phenytoin or rifampin, and the H(2) antagonist ranitidine (P posaconazole exposure (P posaconazole concentrations are common and are associated with breakthrough fungal infection, supporting the utility of monitoring posaconazole concentrations to ensure optimal systemic exposure.

  8. Retaining clients in an outcome monitoring evaluation study: HIV prevention efforts in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryce D; Kalayil, Elizabeth J; Patel-Larson, Alpa; Chen, Brenda; Vaughan, Marla

    2012-02-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP) conducted outcome monitoring studies on evidence-based interventions (EBIs) provided by CDC-funded community-based organizations (CBOs). Critical to the success of outcome monitoring was the ability of CBOs to recruit and retain clients in evaluation studies. Two EBIs, Video Opportunities for Innovative Condom Education and Safer Sex (VOICES/VOCES) and Healthy Relationships, were evaluated using repeated measure studies, which require robust follow-up retention rates to increase the validity and usefulness of the findings. The retention rates were high for both VOICES/VOCES CBOs (95.8% at 30 days and 91.1% at 120 days), and Healthy Relationships CBOs (89.5% at 90 days and 83.5% at 180 days). This paper presents an overview of the retention of clients, challenges to follow-up, and strategies developed by CBOs to achieve high retention rates. These strategies and rates are discussed within the context of the CBOs' target populations and communities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Comparative study of the suitability of two lichen species for trace element atmospheric monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2013-07-01

    Lichens have been widely used in monitoring studies. Consequently, it is very useful to study the suitability of lichen species to monitor pollutants allowing in this way the best choice. The aim of this study was to compare the accumulation of trace elements by two epiphytic lichen species Canoparmelia texana (Tuck) Elix and Hale and Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg.) Zahlbr. Five samples of each species were collected during the period from November 2010 in a same site far from downtown Sao Paulo city. Lichens collected from tree barks were cleaned, freeze-dried, ground and analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Aliquots of lichen samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced gamma activities were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a digital spectrum analyzer. Concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cs, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, V and Zn were determined in both lichen species. The results demonstrated that both species can be used for evaluating air quality. The element concentrations showed difference between lichen species and also among their sampling periods. These differences may be attributed to the distinct mechanisms of element absorption by lichens as well as various other factors that affect their element accumulation. The comparative evaluation made calculating the ratios between C. texana species sample and that in Usnea amblyoclada for elemental concentrations indicated that, in general, foliose C. texana present similar or higher concentrations than those presented by fruticose Usnea. (author)

  10. Monitoring aggregate disintegration with laser diffraction: A tool for studying soils as sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Joseph; Kasmerchak, Chase; Liang, Mengyu

    2016-04-01

    One of the more important characteristics of soil that becomes hillslope, fluvial, or aeolian sediment is the presences of aggregates, which disintegrate at varying rates and to varying degrees during transport. Laser diffraction particle size analyzers allow monitoring of aggregate disintegration as a sample of soil or sediment suspended in water is circulated continuously through the measurement cell (Bieganowski et al., 2010, Clay Minerals 45-23-34; Mason et al., Catena 87:107-118). Mason et al. (2011) applied this approach to aeolian sedimentary aggregates (e.g. clay pellets eroded from dry lakebeds), immersing dry samples in DI water and circulating them through a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 particle size analyzer for three hours while repeated size distribution (SD) measurements were made. A final measurement was made after sonication and treatment with Na-metaphosphate. In that study, most samples approached a steady SD within three hours, which included both primary mineral grains and persistent aggregates. The disintegration process could be modeled with a first-order rate law representing the disintegration of a single population of aggregates. A wide range of model parameters were observed among the samples studied, and it was suggested that they could be useful in predicting the behavior of these aggregates, under rainfall impact and during slopewash or fluvial transport. Addition of Ca++ to the suspension altered aggregate behavior in some but not all cases. We applied the same method to dry, unground material from upper horizons of soils sampled along a bioclimatic gradient in northern Minnesota, USA, all formed in lithologically similar glacigenic sediment. These ranged from Alfisols (Luvisols) formed under forest since the last deglaciation, to Alfisols under forest that more recently replaced grassland, and Mollisols (Chernozems) that formed entirely under grassland vegetation. Few of these soil samples approached a steady SD within three hours, and

  11. Suggestions on photons and fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Alvargonzalez, R

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a configuration of photons consistent with a spin $\\hbar$, and a configuration of the fermions coherent with a spin $\\hbar/2$. These suggested configurations open the way to further analyses which lead to the following conclusions: - There cannot exist elementary particles of spin $\\hbar/2$ with a mass inferior to $1m_e$ or with a radius greater than $1l_e$. - The electrostatic force derives from the centrifugal forces inherent to the spin and are propagated by photons. - The derivation of the electrostatic force explains the existence of positive and negative charges and Coulomb's law. - The enormous differences between the centrifugal forces and the centripetal forces at the surface of the protons give rise to quantic fluctuations of space which generate the energy flows necessary for equilibrium. These energy flows can explain gravitation and the strong force. - The mass of the proton, $m_p$, and the mass of the neutron, $m_n$, must each have a concrete value required for the cohes...

  12. Methodology for locale-scale monitoring for the PROTHEGO project: the Choirokoitia case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Agapiou, Athos; Cuca, Branka; Danezis, Chris; Cigna, Francesca; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2016-10-01

    PROTHEGO (PROTection of European Cultural HEritage from GeO-hazards) is a collaborative research project funded in the framework of the Joint Programming Initiative on Cultural Heritage and Global Change (JPICH) - Heritage Plus in 2015-2018 (www.prothego.eu). PROTHEGO aims to make an innovative contribution towards the analysis of geohazards in areas of cultural heritage, and uses novel space technology based on radar interferometry (InSAR) to retrieve information on ground stability and motion in the 400+ UNESCO's World Heritage List monuments and sites of Europe. InSAR can be used to measure micro-movements to identify geo-hazards. In order to verify the InSAR image data, field and close range measurements are necessary. This paper presents the methodology for local-scale monitoring of the Choirokoitia study site in Cyprus, inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List, and part of the demonstration sites of PROTHEGO. Various field and remote sensing methods will be exploited for the local-scale monitoring, static GNSS, total station, leveling, laser scanning and UAV and compared with the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry results. The in-situ measurements will be taken systematically in order to document any changes and geo-hazards that affect standing archaeological remains. In addition, ground truth from in-situ visits will provide feedback related to the classification results of urban expansion and land use change maps. Available archival and current optical satellite images will be used to calibrate and identify the level of risk at the Cyprus case study site. The ground based geotechnical monitoring will be compared and validated with InSAR data to evaluate cultural heritage sites deformation trend and to understand its behaviour over the last two decades.

  13. Ambulatory EEG NeuroMonitor platform for engagement studies of children with development delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ruhi; Consul-Pacareu, Sergi; Abusaud, Mohammed; Sahadat, Md N.; Morshed, Bashir I.

    2013-05-01

    Engagement monitoring is crucial in many clinical and therapy applications such as early learning preschool classes for children with developmental delays including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or cerebral palsy; as it is challenging for the instructors to evaluate the individual responses of these children to determine the effectiveness of the teaching strategies due to the diverse and unique need of each child who might have difficulty in verbal or behavioral communication. This paper presents an ambulatory scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) NeuroMonitor platform to study brain engagement activities in natural settings. The developed platform is miniature (size: 2.2" x 0.8" x 0.36", weight: 41.8 gm with 800 mAh Li-ion battery and 3 snap leads) and low-power (active mode: 32 mA low power mode: under 5mA) with 2 channels (Fp1, Fp2) to record prefrontal cortex activities of the subject in natural settings while concealed within a headband. The signals from the electrodes are amplified with a low-power instrumentation amplifier; notch filtered (fc = 60Hz), then band-passed by a 2nd-order Chebyshev-I low-pass filter cascaded with a 2nd-order low-pass (fc = 125Hz). A PSoC ADC (16-bit, 256 sps) samples this filtered signal, and can either transmit it through a Class-2 Bluetooth transceiver to a remote station for real-time analysis or store it in a microSD card for offline processing. This platform is currently being evaluated to capture data in the classroom settings for engagement monitoring of children, aimed to study the effectiveness of various teaching strategies that will allow the development of personalized classroom curriculum for children with developmental delays.

  14. A study on reception electrodes for the vital-sign monitor using near-field intra-body communication enhanced by spread spectrum technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takumi; Shimatani, Yuichi; Kyoso, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    As a novel vital sign monitor, we have developed wireless ECG monitoring system with Near-field intra-body communication (NF-IBC) technique. However, it was hard to ensure communication reliability because transmission channel is noisy and unstable. In order to solve the problem, we utilize spread spectrum (SS), which is known as robust communication technique even through poor transmission channel. In previous study, we have already developed an ECG monitor using NF-IBC enhanced by SS. In this paper, we evaluated on structure of the reception electrode for reliable communication. Based on the evaluations with bit error rate, we suggested the reception electrode structure which can keep the communication reliability. As the results we considered that we can expand the reception electrode up to 2.25 m(2). Moreover, we proposed the structure of the reception electrodes that can keep the communication reliability. Finally we suggested how to use the SS NF-IBC vital-sign monitor in room that larger than 2.25 m(2), and we had shown the practicability of the systems.

  15. Genetic association studies of performance monitoring and learning from feedback: The role of dopamine and serotonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullsperger, M.

    2010-01-01

    Performance monitoring is essential for optimization of action outcomes. Research consistently implicates the posterior medial frontal cortex, particularly the rostral cingulate zone, in monitoring for unfavorable action outcomes, signaling the need for adjustments and learning from feedback.

  16. Tropical forest monitoring, combining satellite and social data, to inform management and livelihood implications: Case studies from Indonesian West Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Rohan

    2012-06-01

    Deforestation in the world's tropics is an urgent international issue. One response has been the development of satellite based monitoring initiatives largely focused on the carbon rich forests of western Indonesia. In contrast this study focuses on one eastern Indonesian district, Kabupaten Kupang, which has some of the largest and least studied tracts of remaining forest in West Timor. A combination of remote sensing, GIS and social science methods were used to describe the state of forests in Kabupaten Kupang, how and why they are changing. Using satellite imagery, case studies and on-ground interviews, this study explores the proposition that transdisciplinary local social, cultural and biophysical knowledge is important for effectively using remotely sensed data as a tool to inform local management policies. When compared to some other parts of Indonesia, the rate and extent of deforestation in West Timor was found to be relatively small and a satellite based assessment alone could conclude that it is not a critical issue. However this study showed that when on-ground social data are coupled with (such) satellite-based data a more complex picture emerges, related to key livelihood issues. The causes of forest cover change were found to be multivariate and location specific, requiring management approaches tailored to local social issues. This study suggests that integrative research can maximise the utility of satellite data for understanding causation and thus informing management strategies. In addition, the satellite based assessment found that at the time of the study less than 4% of forested land was within national parks and nature reserves and less than a third of the protected catchment forest zone was forested. These data suggest considerable scope for upland re-forestation activities or the redrawing of protected forest boundaries.

  17. Final report on fiscal year 1992 activities for the environmental monitors line-loss study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenoyer, J.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-09

    The work performed on this Environmental Monitors Line-Loss Study has been performed under Contract Numbers MLW-SVV-073750 and MFH-SVV-207554. Work on the task was initiated mid-December 1991, and this report documents and summarizes the work performed through January 18, 1993. The sections included in this report summarize the work performed on the Environmental Monitors Line-Loss Study. The sections included in this report are arranged to reflect individual sub-tasks and include: descriptions of measurement systems and procedures used to obtain cascade impactor samples and laser spectrometer measurements from multiple stacks and locations; information on data acquisition, analyses, assessment, and software; discussion of the analyses and measurement results from the cascade impactor and laser spectrometer systems and software used; discussion on the development of general test methods and procedures for line-loss determinations; an overall summary and specific conclusions that can be made with regard to efforts performed on this task during FY 1992 and FY 1993. Supporting information for these sections is included in this report as appendices.

  18. The support of multidimensional approaches in integrate monitoring for SEA: a case of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, C. M.; Selicato, M.

    2013-01-01

    During the centuries, the seaside has represented a crucial pole for future human development and civilization. The use of the sea for transport and trade and the overwhelming availability of food derived from coastal waters have encouraged and strengthened the growth of urban settlements. In the same time, the human pressure menaces to destroy coastal habitats and consequently their carrying capacity that allows for many essential functions. Low-impact activities are often replaced, on the surface, by new intensive ones that are attractive in the short term, but that in the long term undermine by reducing the resilience of the coast. It is clear that, in a perspective of sustainable development, economically efficient and socially equitable use of coastal areas need to be supported inside strategies to correct these weaknesses. The definition of such strategies and their implementation in the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is an essential tool for supporting decisions and of monitoring. The issues of monitoring, more in particular, have been the subject of study and modelling by the use of Dynamic Spatial Data Analysis (DSDA), in the case of the SEA of the Coastal Plan of the Italian Apulia Region, as an information instrument for regulating the anthropogenic changes; a possibility to implement the analysis of environmental sensitivity and propensity to Coastal erosion has been explored, in order to control the level of human pressure on land. The monitoring system should provide an automatic "alert" when the dimension and the velocity of the change of land use overpass some threshold of environmental pressure.

  19. Experimental study on structural defect detection by monitoring distributed dynamic strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R. M.; Babanajad, S. K.; Taylor, T.; Ansari, F.

    2015-11-01

    A defect detection method of civil structures is studied. In order to complete the task, the proposed detection method is based on the analysis of distributed dynamic strains using Brillouin scattering based fiber optic sensors along large span structures. The current challenges in the detection of localized damage fundamentally include monitoring the dynamic strain as well as eliminating the system noise and the distortion of the changing distributed strain. Due to the capability of Brillouin scattering based methods in distributed monitoring of large structures, Brillouin optical time-domain analysis approach is implemented for assessing damage. In order to highlight the singularity at the damage location, Fourier as well as dual tree complex wavelet transform approaches were conducted. During the processing, the dynamic distributed strain in the time domain was transformed into the frequency domain for extraction of natural and forced frequencies. Then, the data was decomposed, filtered for extraction of crack features and reconstructed. The feasibility of the proposed method is evaluated through an experimental program involving the use of pulse-pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis for the distributed measurement of dynamic strain with 13 Hz sampling speed and detection of simulated cracks in a 15 m long steel beam. The beam mimics a bridge girder with two artificial cracks along its length subjected to free and forced vibrations. The results indicate that the method based on the discontinuities in the strain distribution is applicable in the detection of very small damage as small as 40 micro strains. A crack gauge independently monitored the crack opening displacements during the experiments, and the limit of detected crack openings based on the first appearance of strain singularities was 30 μm.

  20. The support of multidimensional approaches in integrate monitoring for SEA: a case of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Torre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During centuries, seaside has represented a crucial pole for future human development and civilization. The use of the sea for transport and trade and the overwhelming availability of food derived from coastal waters have encouraged and strengthened the growth of urban settlements. In the same time, the human pressure menaces to destroy coastal habitats, and consequently their carrying capacity that permits to guest many essential functions.

    Low-impact activities are often replaced on the surface by new intensive others that are attractive in the short term, but that in the long term undermine of reducing the resilience of the coast. It is clear that, in a perspective of sustainable development, economically efficient and socially equitable use of coastal areas need to be supported inside strategies to correct these weaknesses. The definition of such strategies and their implementation in the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA is an essential tool of decision support and of monitoring.

    The issues of monitoring, more in particular, have been subject of study and modeling by the use of Dynamic Spatial Data Analisys (DSDA, in the case of the SEA of the Coastal Plan of the Italian Apulia Region, as an information instrument for regulating the anthropogenic changes; a possibility to implement the analysis of environmental sensitivity and propensity to Coastal erosion has been explored, in order to control the level of human pressure on land. The monitoring system should provide an automatic "alert" when the dimension and the velocity of change of land use overpass some threshold of environmental pressure.

  1. The support of multidimensional approaches in integrate monitoring for SEA: a case of study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Torre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the centuries, the seaside has represented a crucial pole for future human development and civilization. The use of the sea for transport and trade and the overwhelming availability of food derived from coastal waters have encouraged and strengthened the growth of urban settlements. In the same time, the human pressure menaces to destroy coastal habitats and consequently their carrying capacity that allows for many essential functions. Low-impact activities are often replaced, on the surface, by new intensive ones that are attractive in the short term, but that in the long term undermine by reducing the resilience of the coast. It is clear that, in a perspective of sustainable development, economically efficient and socially equitable use of coastal areas need to be supported inside strategies to correct these weaknesses. The definition of such strategies and their implementation in the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA is an essential tool for supporting decisions and of monitoring. The issues of monitoring, more in particular, have been the subject of study and modelling by the use of Dynamic Spatial Data Analysis (DSDA, in the case of the SEA of the Coastal Plan of the Italian Apulia Region, as an information instrument for regulating the anthropogenic changes; a possibility to implement the analysis of environmental sensitivity and propensity to Coastal erosion has been explored, in order to control the level of human pressure on land. The monitoring system should provide an automatic "alert" when the dimension and the velocity of the change of land use overpass some threshold of environmental pressure.

  2. New study on the correlation between carbon dioxide concentration in the environment and radon monitor devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokhi, A; Burghele, B D; Fábián, F; Kovács, T

    2015-12-01

    The influence of high geogenic carbon dioxide concentrations on monitoring devices might present a significant challenge to the measurement of radon concentrations in environments with a high level of carbon dioxide concentration such as volcano sites, mofettes, caves, etc. In this study, the influence of carbon dioxide concentration on several different types of radon monitor devices - including Alpha Spectrometry (Sarad RTM 2200, EQF 3220, RAD7), Ionizing Chamber (AlphaGUARD PQ2000 PRO) and Active Cell (Active scintillation cell, Pylon 300A) - was examined to represent new aspects of radon measuring in environments with carbon dioxide. In light of the results, all measuring devices were exposed to variable conditions affected by carbon dioxide concentration, except for the AlphaGUARD, which was kept in a steady state throughout the experiment. It was observed that alpha spectroscopy devices were affected by carbon dioxide, since measured radon concentrations decreased in the presence of 70% and 90% carbon dioxide concentrations by 26.5 ± 2% and 14.5 ± 2.5% for EQF 3220, and 32 ± 2% and 35.5 ± 2% for RTM 2200. However, the ionizing chamber instrument was unaffected by changes in carbon dioxide concentration. It was determined that the RAD7 performed relatively inefficiently in the presence of carbon dioxide concentrations higher than 67% by an overall efficiency factor of approximately 0.52, confirming that it is not an admissible radon monitor instrument in environments with high carbon dioxide concentrations.

  3. Air pollution exposure estimation using dispersion modelling and continuous monitoring data in a prospective birth cohort study in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Hooven Edith H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies suggest that pregnant women and children are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of air pollution. A prospective cohort study in pregnant women and their children enables identification of the specific effects and critical periods. This paper describes the design of air pollution exposure assessment for participants of the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in 9778 women in the Netherlands. Individual exposures to PM10 and NO2 levels at the home address were estimated for mothers and children, using a combination of advanced dispersion modelling and continuous monitoring data, taking into account the spatial and temporal variation in air pollution concentrations. Full residential history was considered. We observed substantial spatial and temporal variation in air pollution exposure levels. The Generation R Study provides unique possibilities to examine effects of short- and long-term air pollution exposure on various maternal and childhood outcomes and to identify potential critical windows of exposure.

  4. Development of a telemedical monitoring concept for the care of malnourished geriatric home-dwelling patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Matthias; van den Berg, Neeltje; Kraft, Kathleen; Schmekel, Stefanie; Gärtner, Simone; Krüger, Janine; Meyer, Jens; Lerch, Markus M; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    Elderly patients are at high risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia, promoting further morbidity which in turn decreases quality of life and increases the claiming of medical services and associated costs. Early and sustained administration of oral nutritional supplements has been shown to improve the nutritional status with robust clinical benefit. Many patients however, poorly adhere to prescribed supplements, so consistent monitoring is needed. Clinical monitoring usually ends with the discharge rendering the continuation of nutritional supplement therapy in the patient's home problematic. We developed a telemedicine based health care concept for intensive home monitoring. In a first randomized controlled prospective study we analyzed the feasibility of this innovative approach. The intervention group received oral nutritional supplements and telemedical monitoring with daily assessment of body weight, number of taken oral energy supplements and state of health. The control group received usual care. 13 patients were included in each group, eight patients of the intervention group left the study prematurely, five patients were closely monitored and used the devices for a mean 67 ± 63.5 days. Follow up data of body weight and BMI showed no relevant differences between both groups. The results and experiences gained in this pilot study demonstrate that telemedical systems provide encouraging new options to enable an intensive monitoring of malnourished patients. A continuous intensive therapy monitoring of this patient group however, is a particular challenge. Albeit possibilities, limitations and useful parameters were identified, which will be used to improve the conception in an ongoing prospective randomized trial.

  5. A systematic review of prescription pattern monitoring studies and their effectiveness in promoting rational use of medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Shipra Jain; Prerna Upadhyaya; Jaswant Goyal; Kumar Abhijit; Pushpawati Jain; Vikas Seth; Moghe, Vijay V.

    2015-01-01

    Prescription pattern monitoring studies (PPMS) are a tool for assessing the prescribing, dispensing and distribution of medicines. The main aim of PPMS is to facilitate rational use of medicines (RUM). There is paucity of published data analysing the effectiveness of PPMS. The present review has been done to assess the effectiveness of prescription pattern monitoring studies in promoting RUM. Data search was conducted on internet. A multitude of PPMS done on different classes of drugs were co...

  6. A Study on a Remote Monitoring and Diagnosis System and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qiang; HE Zheng-jia

    2005-01-01

    Remote monitoring and diagnosis ( RMD ) is a new kind of monitoring and diagnosis technology that combines computer science, communication technology and fault diagnosis technology. Via the Internet a remote monitoring and diagnosis system can be established. In this paper, the model of an Internet based remote monitoring and diagnosis system is presented; the function of every part of the RMD system is discussed. Then, we introduce a practical example of a remote monitoring and diagnosis system that we established in a factory; its traits and functions are described.

  7. Blackbird Creek Monitoring Program to Study the impact of Climate Change and Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, G.; Chintapenta, L. K.; Roeske, K. P.; Stone, M.; Phalen, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Blackbird Creek Monitoring Program at Delaware State University continues to utilize various perspectives to study the dynamics of one of Delaware's most pristine ecosystems. The water quality of Blackbird Creek has been constantly monitored for 3 years and correlated with the rain and storm events. Soil nutrients composition has been studied by extracting the water associated with soil aggregates and analyzing the levels of different nutrients. Soil quality is also assessed for heavy metals to identify potential human impact that may affect the health of ecosystem. Within the Blackbird Creek there is a threat to native plant communities from invasive plant species as they alter the ecosystem dynamics. Saltmarsh cord grass (Spartina alterniflora) and common reed (Phragmites australius) are the common wetland plants. Aerial mapping of the creek has been conducted to determine the area covered by invasive plant species. The microbial community structure plays a key role in soil carbon and nitrogen cycles in the ecosystem. Molecular analysis has been performed to study the microbial diversity with respect to the type of marsh grasses. This program has also incorporated the use of diatoms as biological indicators to assess the health of ecosystem and correlate that data with physical and chemical water quality data. The abundance and diversity of macro fauna such as blue crabs, fish and other significant species has also been studied. Stable isotopic analysis of these macro fauna has also been performed to study the food web. The results from this program will be helpful in addressing environmental challenges and designing management strategies.

  8. Adverse drug reactions monitoring of psychotropic drugs: a tertiary care centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemendra Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many new psychotropic drugs/ agents have been developed and found to be effective in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, these drugs also exhibit adverse drug reactions (ADRs which may affect compliance in psychiatric patients. Hence the present study was aimed at monitoring and assessing ADRs caused by psychotropic drugs. Methods: A hospital based prospective observational study was carried out in the psychiatry outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital for the duration of six months. Two hundred and two patients were included in the study and ADRs were documented using a predesigned data collection form. The causality assessment was carried out as per the criteria of both the World Health Organization- Uppsala Monitoring Centre (WHO-UMC and Naranjo scale. Severity and predictability assessment of ADRs were also performed. Results: A total of 106 ADRs were observed during the study period with majority of them occurring in 25-35 years of age group (40.56%. Weight gain (18.86% followed by sedation (16.03% and insomnia (11.32% were found to be the commonest ADRs. Risperidone (19.8% and escitalopram (12.3% were the drugs responsible for majority of the ADRs. Causality assessment showed that most of ADRs were possible and probable. 94.33% of ADRs were found to be mild and 89% of them were predictable. Conclusion: A wide range of ADRs affecting central nervous and metabolic systems were reported with psychotropic drugs. The study findings necessitate the need for an active pharmacovigilance programme for the safe and effective use of psychotropics.

  9. Are physical activity studies in Hispanics meeting reporting guidelines for continuous monitoring technology? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Charles S; Parker, Nathan H; Soltero, Erica G; Rosales Chavez, José; O'Connor, Daniel P; Gallagher, Martina R; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-09-18

    Continuous monitoring technologies such as accelerometers and pedometers are the gold standard for physical activity (PA) measurement. However, inconsistencies in use, analysis, and reporting limit the understanding of dose-response relationships involving PA and the ability to make comparisons across studies and population subgroups. These issues are particularly detrimental to the study of PA across different ethnicities with different PA habits. This systematic review examined the inclusion of published guidelines involving data collection, processing, and reporting among articles using accelerometers or pedometers in Hispanic or Latino populations. English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) articles published between 2000 and 2013 using accelerometers or pedometers to measure PA among Hispanics or Latinos were identified through systematic literature searches. Of the 253 abstracts which were initially reviewed, 57 met eligibility criteria (44 accelerometer, 13 pedometer). Articles were coded and reviewed to evaluate compliance with recommended guidelines (N = 20), and the percentage of accelerometer and pedometer articles following each guideline were computed and reported. On average, 57.1 % of accelerometer and 62.2 % of pedometer articles reported each recommended guideline for data collection. Device manufacturer and model were reported most frequently, and provision of instructions for device wear in Spanish was reported least frequently. On average, 29.6 % of accelerometer articles reported each guideline for data processing. Definitions of an acceptable day for inclusion in analyses were reported most frequently, and definitions of an acceptable hour for inclusion in analyses were reported least frequently. On average, 18.8 % of accelerometer and 85.7 % of pedometer articles included each guideline for data reporting. Accelerometer articles most frequently included average number of valid days and least frequently

  10. Study on On-line Trace Analysis Technique for SG Tube Leakage Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seban; Park, Jongsuk; Kim, Seungil; Jo, Youngsoo; Kang, Dukwon [HaJI Co. Ltd., Radiation Eng. Center, Shihung (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    NPPs steam generator leakage monitoring method is mainly adopted in the world. Since this method is using nuclear fission product of certain radionuclides ({sup 16}N, {sup 3}H, Xe, etc.), it is only available when the reactor power is more than 20%. Therefore, it requires alternative techniques of real-time leakage monitoring under a variety of operation conditions such as start-up, abnormal environment of NPPs, etc. Boron which exists mostly nonionic particle state has been weakly ionized, revealing the lowest anionic tendency in aqueous phase (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}>Cl{sup -}>F{sup -}>SiO{sub 2}{sup -}>HBO{sub 3}{sup -}). In general, B has been titrated with a NaOH solution into a new compound forming a strong alkaline anion after being dissociated with addition of a polyhydric alcohol. And that has been also measured amplified conductivity that reacting directly polyhydric alcohol by conductivity detector. GE (General Electric Company) has applied monitoring equipment of ultrapure water production by using mannitol reagent as polyhydric alcohol, which is detected less than 20 ppb of boron in the semiconductor company. However, the separation of boron among the secondary water system has been regarded as a critical issue because it contains a lot of impurities and particulate materials which are N{sub 2}H{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, ETA and component of the iron in the system. This study is a follow-up study concerning the separation of boron peak presented at the 2013 Korean Nuclear Society. This study indicates the possibility of analysis of trace-level boron. The study investigated the separation of boron peak with anion through 3-steps mode. In previous studies, the problem of peaks overlap has been solved through the rinse process completely removing the interfering ions presented on the line. The combination of mannitol and MSA was dissociated from the strong compound between boron and a chelating type resin in the CB column. In particular, the CB column will be able to

  11. Geochemical monitoring of Taal volcano (Philippines) by means of diffuse CO2 degassing studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Arcilla, Carlo; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Lagmay, Alfredo M.; Rodríguez, Fátima; Quina, Gerald; Alonso, Mar; Padilla, Germán D.; Aurelio, Mario A.

    2017-04-01

    Observing changes in the discharge rate of CO2 is an important part of volcanic monitoring programs, because it is released by progressive depressurization of magma during ascent and reach the surface well before their parental magma. Taal Volcano in Southwest Luzon, Philippines, lies between a volcanic arc front facing the subduction zone along the Manila Trench and a volcanic field formed from extension beyond the arc front. Taal Volcano Island is formed by a main tuff cone surrounded by several smaller tuff cones, tuff rings and scoria cones. This island is located in the center of the 30 km wide Taal Caldera, now filled by Taal Lake. To monitor the volcanic activity of Taal volcano is a priority task in the Philippines, because several million people live within a 20-km radius of Taal's caldera rim. During the last period of volcanic unrest from 2010 to 2011, the main crater lake of Taal volcano released the highest diffuse CO2 emission rates through the water surface reported to date by volcanic lakes worldwide. The maximum CO2 emission rate measured in the study period occurred two months before the strongest seismic activity recorded during the unrest period (Arpa et al., 2013, Bull Volcanol 75:747). After the unrest period, diffuse CO2 emission has remained in the range 532-860 t/d in the period 2013-2016. In January 2016, an automatic geochemical station to monitor in a continuous mode the diffuse CO2 degassing in a selected location of Taal, was installed in January 2016 to improve the early warning system at the volcano. The station is located at Daang Kastila, at the northern portion of the main crater rim. It measures hourly the diffuse CO2 efflux, atmospheric CO2 concentration, soil water content and temperature, wind speed and direction, air temperature and humidity, rainfall, and barometric pressure. The 2016 time series show CO2 efflux values in the range 20-690 g m-2 d-1.Soil temperature, heavily influenced by rainfall, ranged between 74 and 96o

  12. Usability Study of a Wireless Monitoring System among Alzheimer’s Disease Elderly Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Abbate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare technologies are slowly entering into our daily lives, replacing old devices and techniques with newer intelligent ones. Although they are meant to help people, the reaction and willingness to use such new devices by the people can be unexpected, especially among the elderly. We conducted a usability study of a fall monitoring system in a long-term nursing home. The subjects were the elderly with advanced Alzheimer’s disease. The study presented here highlights some of the challenges faced in the use of wearable devices and the lessons learned. The results gave us useful insights, leading to ergonomics and aesthetics modifications to our wearable systems that significantly improved their usability and acceptance. New evaluating metrics were designed for the performance evaluation of usability and acceptability.

  13. Is Abeta a sufficient Biomarker for monitoring anti-Abeta clinical studies? A critical review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eMoreth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid-beta (Aβ in Alzheimer’s disease (AD appeared to be a promising target for disease-modifying therapeutic strategies like passive immunotherapy with anti-Aβ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. Biochemical markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF include alterations of Aβ that allow the diagnosis of AD. Biomarker strategies, such as the levels of Aβ in CSF and plasma, currently play an important role in early clinical trials for AD. Indeed, these strategies have a relevant impact on the outcome of such studies, since the biomarkers are used to monitor the bioactivity of anti-Aβ mAbs. The clinical trials of Solanezumab were mainly based on the readout of Aβ levels in CSF and plasma, whereas those of Bapineuzumab were based on cognition; however, little is known about the mechanisms altering these biomarker levels, and no biomarker has yet been proven to be a successful predictor for AD therapy. In addition, the Aβ biomarkers allow for the determination of free and bound anti-Aβ mAb in order to monitor the available amount of bioactive drug and could give hints to the mechanism of action. In this review, we discuss clinical Aβ biomarker data and the latest regulatory strategies.

  14. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  15. Studies of a proton phase beam monitor for range verification in proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, T.; Golnik, C.; Enghardt, W.; Petzoldt, J.; Kormoll, T.; Pausch, G. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, OncoRay, PF 41, 01307 Dresden, (Germany); Straessner, A. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute for Nuclear and Particle Physics, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden, (Germany); Roemer, K.; Dreyer, A.; Hueso-Gonzalez, F.; Enghardt, W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF 510 119, 01314 Dresden, (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    A primary subject of the present research in particle therapy is to ensure the precise irradiation of the target volume. The prompt gamma timing (PGT) method provides one possibility for in vivo range verification during the irradiation of patients. Prompt gamma rays with high energies are emitted promptly due to nuclear reactions of protons with tissue. The arrival time of these gammas to the detector reflects the stopping process of the primary protons in tissue and are directly correlated to the range. Due to the time resolution of the detector and the proton bunch time spread, as well as drifts of the bunch phase with respect to the accelerator frequency, timing spectra are smeared out and compromise the accuracy of range information intended for future clinical applications. Nevertheless, counteracting this limitation and recovering range information from the PGT measured spectra, corrections using a phase beam monitor can be performed. A first prototype of phase beam monitor was tested at GSI Darmstadt, where measurements of the energy profile of the ion bunches were performed. At the ELBE accelerator Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), set up to provide bremsstrahlung photons in very short pulses, a constant fraction algorithm for the incoming digital signals was evaluated, which is used for optimizing the time resolution. Studies of scattering experiments with different thin targets and detector positions are accomplished at Oncoray Dresden, where a clinical proton beam is available. These experiments allow a basic characterization of the proton bunch structure and the detection yield. (authors)

  16. Studies of a Proton Bunch Phase Monitor for Range Verification in Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, T.; Golnik, C.; Enghardt, W.; Petzoldt, J.; Kormoll, T.; Pausch, G. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, OncoRay, PF 41, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Straessner, A. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute for Nuclear and Particle Physics, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Roemer, K.; Dreyer, A.; Hueso-Gonzalez, F.; Enghardt, W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF 510 119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    A primary subject of the present research in particle therapy is to ensure the precise irradiation of the target volume. The prompt gamma timing (PGT) method provides one possibility for in vivo range verification during the irradiation of patients. Prompt gamma rays with high energies are emitted promptly due to nuclear reactions of protons with tissue. The arrival time of these gammas to the detector reflects the stopping process of the primary protons in tissue and is directly correlated to the range. Due to the time resolution of the detector and the proton bunch time spread, as well as drifts of the bunch phase with respect to the accelerator frequency, timing spectra are smeared out and compromise the accuracy of range information intended for future clinical applications. Nevertheless, counteracting this limitation and recovering range information from the PGT measured spectra, corrections using a bunch phase monitor can be performed. A first prototype of bunch phase monitor was tested at GSI Darmstadt, where measurements of the energy correlation profile of the ion bunches were performed. At the ELBE accelerator at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), set up to provide bremsstrahlung photons in very short pulses, a constant fraction algorithm for the incoming digital signals was evaluated, which is used for optimizing the time resolution. Studies of scattering experiments with different thin targets and detector positions are accomplished at Onco Ray Dresden, where a clinical proton beam is available. These experiments allow a basic characterization of the proton bunch structure and the detection yield. (authors)

  17. Comparative study on ATR-FTIR calibration models for monitoring solution concentration in cooling crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangkun; Liu, Tao; Wang, Xue Z.; Liu, Jingxiang; Jiang, Xiaobin

    2017-02-01

    In this paper calibration model building based on using an ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is investigated for in-situ measurement of the solution concentration during a cooling crystallization process. The cooling crystallization of L-glutamic Acid (LGA) as a case is studied here. It was found that using the metastable zone (MSZ) data for model calibration can guarantee the prediction accuracy for monitoring the operating window of cooling crystallization, compared to the usage of undersaturated zone (USZ) spectra for model building as traditionally practiced. Calibration experiments were made for LGA solution under different concentrations. Four candidate calibration models were established using different zone data for comparison, by using a multivariate partial least-squares (PLS) regression algorithm for the collected spectra together with the corresponding temperature values. Experiments under different process conditions including the changes of solution concentration and operating temperature were conducted. The results indicate that using the MSZ spectra for model calibration can give more accurate prediction of the solution concentration during the crystallization process, while maintaining accuracy in changing the operating temperature. The primary reason of prediction error was clarified as spectral nonlinearity for in-situ measurement between USZ and MSZ. In addition, an LGA cooling crystallization experiment was performed to verify the sensitivity of these calibration models for monitoring the crystal growth process.

  18. Feasibility study on a strain based deflection monitoring system for wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghyun; Aihara, Aya; Puntsagdash, Ganbayar; Kawaguchi, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Hiraku; Okuma, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    The bending stiffness of the wind turbine blades has decreased due to the trend of wind turbine upsizing. Consequently, the risk of blades breakage by hitting the tower has increased. In order to prevent such incidents, this study proposes a deflection monitoring system that can be installed to already operating wind turbine's blades. The monitoring system is composed of an estimation algorithm to detect blade deflection and a wireless sensor network as a hardware equipment. As for the estimation method for blade deflection, a strain-based estimation algorithm and an objective function for optimal sensor arrangement are proposed. Strain-based estimation algorithm is using a linear correlation between strain and deflections, which can be expressed in a form of a transformation matrix. The objective function includes the terms of strain sensitivity and condition number of the transformation matrix between strain and deflection. In order to calculate the objective function, a simplified experimental model of the blade is constructed by interpolating the mode shape of a blade from modal testing. The interpolation method is effective considering a practical use to operating wind turbines' blades since it is not necessary to establish a finite element model of a blade. On the other hand, a sensor network with wireless connection with an open source hardware is developed. It is installed to a 300 W scale wind turbine and vibration of the blade on operation is investigated.

  19. Real Time Apnoea Monitoring of Children Using the Microsoft Kinect Sensor: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naji, Ali; Gibson, Kim; Lee, Sang-Heon; Chahl, Javaan

    2017-02-03

    The objective of this study was to design a non-invasive system for the observation of respiratory rates and detection of apnoea using analysis of real time image sequences captured in any given sleep position and under any light conditions (even in dark environments). A Microsoft Kinect sensor was used to visualize the variations in the thorax and abdomen from the respiratory rhythm. These variations were magnified, analyzed and detected at a distance of 2.5 m from the subject. A modified motion magnification system and frame subtraction technique were used to identify breathing movements by detecting rapid motion areas in the magnified frame sequences. The experimental results on a set of video data from five subjects (3 h for each subject) showed that our monitoring system can accurately measure respiratory rate and therefore detect apnoea in infants and young children. The proposed system is feasible, accurate, safe and low computational complexity, making it an efficient alternative for non-contact home sleep monitoring systems and advancing health care applications.

  20. Real Time Apnoea Monitoring of Children Using the Microsoft Kinect Sensor: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al-Naji

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to design a non-invasive system for the observation of respiratory rates and detection of apnoea using analysis of real time image sequences captured in any given sleep position and under any light conditions (even in dark environments. A Microsoft Kinect sensor was used to visualize the variations in the thorax and abdomen from the respiratory rhythm. These variations were magnified, analyzed and detected at a distance of 2.5 m from the subject. A modified motion magnification system and frame subtraction technique were used to identify breathing movements by detecting rapid motion areas in the magnified frame sequences. The experimental results on a set of video data from five subjects (3 h for each subject showed that our monitoring system can accurately measure respiratory rate and therefore detect apnoea in infants and young children. The proposed system is feasible, accurate, safe and low computational complexity, making it an efficient alternative for non-contact home sleep monitoring systems and advancing health care applications.

  1. The study for practicality of remote fire monitoring using the image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Joon; Hwang, Sung Tai; Jeong, Kwung Chai; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Go Leo; Baik, Hong Kee; Baik, Moon Kee; Kim, Joo Sung; No, In Young

    1999-12-01

    1. Object; The study for practicality of remote fire monitoring system early to be able to the fire with small scaled fire in nuclear facility and commercial building. 2. Content; Examination of algorithm for artificial intelligence neural network(NN), Achieving of image preprocessing technology need to application, Production of image files of firing, Experiment of the feature extraction from images, Construction of experimental equipment and software for discrimination of the fire, Experiment of functionality of software for fire monitoring, Learning of neural network with the image and testing of discrimination of the fire. 3. Results; The technology of feature extraction of event related with neural network, discrimination of event generation, and enhancement to be discriminated the fire with learning of neural network was established. The present ability of discrimination of the fire that the reliability was about 99 percent as error of discrimination being about 0.0098 in case of learning, but it is difficult to discriminate because of various kinds of background images. Later it will be required the working for reducing the error of discrimination of the fire, with non-fire images. (author)

  2. A telehealth architecture for networked embedded systems: a case study in in vivo health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, Foad; Massey, Tammara; Noshadi, Hyduke; Hagopian, Hagop; Lin, C K; Tan, Robert; Schmidt, Jacob; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2009-05-01

    The improvement in processor performance through continuous breakthroughs in transistor technology has resulted in the proliferation of lightweight embedded systems. Advances in wireless technology and embedded systems have enabled remote healthcare and telemedicine. While medical examinations could previously extract only localized symptoms through snapshots, now continuous monitoring can discretely analyze how a patient's lifestyle affects his/her physiological conditions and if additional symptoms occur under various stimuli. We demonstrate how medical applications in particular benefit from a hierarchical networking scheme that will improve the quantity and quality of ubiquitous data collection. Our Telehealth networking infrastructure provides flexibility in terms of functionality and the type of applications that it supports. We specifically present a case study that demonstrates the effectiveness of our networked embedded infrastructure in an in vivo pressure application. Experimental results of the in vivo system demonstrate how it can wirelessly transmit pressure readings measuring from 0 to 1.5 lbf/in (2) with an accuracy of 0.02 lbf/in (2). The challenges in biocompatible packaging, transducer drift, power management, and in vivo signal transmission are also discussed. This research brings researchers a step closer to continuous, real-time systemic monitoring that will allow one to analyze the dynamic human physiology.

  3. Real Time Apnoea Monitoring of Children Using the Microsoft Kinect Sensor: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naji, Ali; Gibson, Kim; Lee, Sang-Heon; Chahl, Javaan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design a non-invasive system for the observation of respiratory rates and detection of apnoea using analysis of real time image sequences captured in any given sleep position and under any light conditions (even in dark environments). A Microsoft Kinect sensor was used to visualize the variations in the thorax and abdomen from the respiratory rhythm. These variations were magnified, analyzed and detected at a distance of 2.5 m from the subject. A modified motion magnification system and frame subtraction technique were used to identify breathing movements by detecting rapid motion areas in the magnified frame sequences. The experimental results on a set of video data from five subjects (3 h for each subject) showed that our monitoring system can accurately measure respiratory rate and therefore detect apnoea in infants and young children. The proposed system is feasible, accurate, safe and low computational complexity, making it an efficient alternative for non-contact home sleep monitoring systems and advancing health care applications. PMID:28165382

  4. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  5. Monitoring implementation of desertification combating plan using geomatics – A case study, districts Dhar and Jhabua, Madhya Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dasgupta Arunima; P S Dhinwa; A S Rajawat

    2015-02-01

    The world’s drylands are subject to desertification as a result of extended droughts, climate change, and human activities. Development in drylands depends on addressing degradation of the ecosystem, main-streaming sustainable natural resources management, and building upon the existing adaptive capacities of communities and institutions. In this regard, recent scientific results aimed to promote sustainable development through action plans for combating desertification. In India, under the Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (IMSD) programme, remote sensing based integrated land and water resource studies were carried out with an objective to generate locale specific action plans for sustainable development of a region. A specific study was carried out, in districts of Jhabua and Dhar, in Madhya Pradesh using Composite Land Development Sites (CLDS) approach for forest and wasteland development and soil and water conservation. Various treatments were suggested and implemented in 1995. The present study was carried out with an objective to monitor the positive impacts of combating plan implementation through visual interpretation and NDVI analysis of temporal images of LISS III data, since 1991 to 2013. The study reveals that there is substantial increase in the area of irrigated agricultural land with increase in number of check dams along with the stream channels.

  6. Study of the Ubiquitous Hog Farm System Using Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring and Facilities Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwan Hwang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation.

  7. Engaging Remote Sensing and Citizen Science into Water Quality Monitoring: A Case Study in Nhue-Day River Basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Van Le, Khoa; Minkman, Ellen; Nguyen Thi Phuong, Thuy; Rutten, Martine; Bastiaanssen, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing and citizen science can be utilized to fulfill the gap of conventional monitoring methods. However, how to engage these techniques, principally taking advantage of local capacities and of globally accessible data for satisfying the continuous data requirements and uncertainties are exciting challenges. Previous studies in Vietnam showed that official documents regulated towards responding the vital need of upgrading national water monitoring infrastructures do not put the huge potentials of free satellite images and crowd-based data collection into account, this factor also limits publications related to these techniques. In this research, a new water monitoring approach will be developed friendly with areas suffering poor quality monitoring works. Particularly, algorithms respecting to the relationship between temperature, total suspended sediment (TSS), chlorophyll and information collected by sensors onboard Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 MSI satellites are built in the study area in Northern Vietnam; additionally, undergraduate student volunteers were sent to the sites with all the measurement activities are designed to coincide with the time when the study area captured by the satellites to compare the results. While conventional techniques are proving their irreplaceable role in the water monitoring network, the utilization of remote sensing techniques and citizen science in this study will demonstrate highly supportive values, saving monitoring costs and time; advantaging local human resources to science; providing an inclusive assessment of water quality changes along with land-use change in the study area, these approaches are excellent alternatives to meet the demand of real-time, continuous data nationwide.

  8. Design of a mobile laboratory for ventilation studies and indoor air pollution monitoring. [Residences and commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, J.V.; Hollowell, C.D.; Lin, C.I.; Pepper, J.H.

    1978-04-01

    A mobile laboratory for research and development studies of ventilation requirements and energy utilization in residential and commercial buildings was designed and fabricated. The mobile laboratory contains sampling, calibrating, and monitoring systems to measure the concentration of CO, CO/sub 2/, NO, NO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, O/sub 3/, and SO/sub 2/, and infiltration rates can be monitored continuously using a tracer gas system in which the tracer is injected into the room, mixed with room air, and monitored.

  9. Study of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL detectors for individual monitoring for weakly penetrating radiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The results are described of a study of three commercially available LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL materials aiming at using this phosphor for individual monitoring for weakly penetrating radiations. Due to the high radiation sensitivity of the material it is suitable for application as thin detectors which...... are necessary for monitoring weakly penetrating radiations. Furthermore, the good energy response characteristics of the material for exposure to photons makes it also attractive for monitoring strongly penetrating radiations. Results are given on glow curve analyses of the LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL phosphor and data...

  10. Can POCIS be used in Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) monitoring networks? A study focusing on pesticides in a French agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulier, Gaëlle; Lissalde, Sophie; Charriau, Adeline; Buzier, Rémy; Delmas, François; Gery, Kéwin; Moreira, Aurélie; Guibaud, Gilles; Mazzella, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the main current limitations in the application of the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) in regulatory monitoring programmes were evaluated. POCIS were exposed from March to December by successive periods of 14 days in the River Trec (Lot et Garonne, France) and analysed for 34 pesticides. The study of the uncertainty related to the POCIS data was performed and we concluded that it might be up to 138%, which is higher than European Union requirements but this issue was adequately counterbalanced by the gain of temporal representativeness. Comparison with data from the official monitoring programme from the French Water Agency showed that the POCIS is already suitable for both operational and investigative monitoring. The sampled fraction issue, and then compliance with Environmental Quality Standards, was also addressed. It was confirmed that POCIS samples only the dissolved fraction of dimethenamid and showed that for compounds like atrazine, desethylatrazine and metolachlor, the POCIS concentration is equivalent to the whole water concentration. For dimethenamid, which exhibited a tendency to adsorb on suspended matter, a method was suggested to assess the raw water concentration from the POCIS measure. Finally, an innovative procedure for using passive sampler data for compliance checks in the framework of surveillance monitoring is proposed.

  11. Root mass ratio: index derived by assimilation of synthetic aperture radar and the improved World Food Study model for heavy metal stress monitoring in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiangnan; Liu, Meiling; Liu, Feng; Jin, Ming; Wu, Ling

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic assessment of heavy metal contamination in crops is essential for food security and the farmland ecological environment. A new index for monitoring heavy metal stress based on the assimilation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data and the crop growth model is performed. The improved World Food Study (WOFOST) model was used in this study, which is embedded with two stress factors to improve the accuracy of assimilation. Biomass (BM) values retrieved by SAR data were assimilated into the improved WOFOST model to simulate dry weight of rice roots (WRT), and the root mass ratio (RMR, WRT/BM) was calculated as an index for monitoring heavy metal stress. SAR shows enormous potential for monitoring crop growth status in cloudy area. Compared with other physiological indices, RMR could weaken the weight change of rice caused by other background factors. In the temporal scale, RMR showed a faster significant decrease when the stress was greater. The spatial distribution of RMR and the stress factors exhibited good consistency. These results suggest that RMR derived from the assimilation method based on SAR data and the improved WOFOST model is effective for dynamically monitoring the rice growth status in cloudy regions under heavy metal stress.

  12. Monitoring studies of slide system under the action of seismic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Anton

    2013-04-01

    The immediate detection of landslide activity that is provided by real-time systems can be crucial in saving human lives and protecting property. Traditional field observations, even if taken regularly, cannot detect changes at the moment they occur. Moreover, active landslides can be hazardous to work on, and large movements often occur during storms when visibility is poor. The continuous data provided by remote real-time monitoring permits a better understanding of dynamic landslide behavior that, in turn, enables engineers to create more effective designs to prevent or halt landslides. Monitoring of the coastal zone involves the following block diagram: input - processing -output - feed-back. We feed the input with data on a studied technogenous loading on the coastal zone, and the input presents the analysis of motion of a geological medium and the subsequent forecast of evolution of its lithodynamic characteristics. The submitted report describes a practical system of monitoring for the Central Livadiya Slide System (CLSSC) of the Crimea, which is intended for the diagnostics of a lithodynamic situation in the real-time mode, conducting the data base on heliogenous and lithogenous parameters, and predicting a future state of the slide-containing system. In the system of monitoring of a state of CLSSC, which is realized on a computer, the registered heliogenous parameters include the level of solar activity, changes in temperature and moisture regimes, changes in the character and intensity of precipitations, the wind velocity, etc. In this case, data are introduced into the computer in the manual mode. Lithogenous parameters are presented by a collection of conditions and factors characterizing the mechanism and dynamics of changes in the equilibrium state of slopes of CLSSC. The control over the evolution of lithogenous parameters is realized in the following way: 1. The control over movement of the control points on the surface of active slides is carried

  13. SAR interferometry monitoring along the ancient Rome City Walls -the PROTHEGO project case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Cristina; Cimino, Maria gabriella; Leoni, Gabriele; Marcelli, Marina; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    Led by the Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, in collaboration with NERC British Geological Survey, Geological and Mining Institute of Spain, University of Milano-Bicocca and Cyprus University of Technology, the PROTHEGO project, co-funded in the framework of JPI on Cultural Heritage EU program (2015-2018), brings an innovative contribution towards the analysis of geo-hazards in areas of cultural heritage in Europe. The project apply InSAR techniques to monitor monuments and sites that are potentially unstable due to natural geo-hazard. After the remote sensing investigation, detailed geological interpretation, hazard analysis, local-scale monitoring, advanced modeling and field surveying for some case studies is implemented. The selected case studies are: the Alhambra in Granada (ES); the Choirokoitia village (CY); the Derwent Valley Mills (UK); the Pompei archaeological site and Historical centre of Rome (IT). In this work, in particular, we will focus on ground deformation measurements (obtained by satellite SAR Interferometry) and on their interpretation with respect to the ancient Rome City Walls. The research activities carried out jointly with the Superintendence's technicians, foresee the implementation of a dedicated web GIS platform as a final repository for data storage and spatial data elaboration. The entire circuit of the ancient city walls (both Mura Aureliane and Mura Gianicolensi), was digitalized and georeferenced. All the elements (towers, gates and wall segments) were drawn and collected in order to produce a map of elements at risk. A detailed historical analysis (during the last twenty years) of the ground and structural deformations were performed. A specific data sheet of ruptures was created and fulfilled in order to produce a geographic inventory of past damage. This data sheet contains the following attributes: triggering data; typology of damage; dimension, triggering mechanism; presence of restoration works

  14. Monitoring endemic livestock diseases using laboratory diagnostic data: A simulation study to evaluate the performance of univariate process monitoring control algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Dórea, Fernanda; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2016-05-01

    Surveillance systems are critical for accurate, timely monitoring and effective disease control. In this study, we investigated the performance of univariate process monitoring control algorithms in detecting changes in seroprevalence for endemic diseases. We also assessed the effect of sample size (number of sentinel herds tested in the surveillance system) on the performance of the algorithms. Three univariate process monitoring control algorithms were compared: Shewart p Chart(1) (PSHEW), Cumulative Sum(2) (CUSUM) and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average(3) (EWMA). Increases in seroprevalence were simulated from 0.10 to 0.15 and 0.20 over 4, 8, 24, 52 and 104 weeks. Each epidemic scenario was run with 2000 iterations. The cumulative sensitivity(4) (CumSe) and timeliness were used to evaluate the algorithms' performance with a 1% false alarm rate. Using these performance evaluation criteria, it was possible to assess the accuracy and timeliness of the surveillance system working in real-time. The results showed that EWMA and PSHEW had higher CumSe (when compared with the CUSUM) from week 1 until the end of the period for all simulated scenarios. Changes in seroprevalence from 0.10 to 0.20 were more easily detected (higher CumSe) than changes from 0.10 to 0.15 for all three algorithms. Similar results were found with EWMA and PSHEW, based on the median time to detection. Changes in the seroprevalence were detected later with CUSUM, compared to EWMA and PSHEW for the different scenarios. Increasing the sample size 10 fold halved the time to detection (CumSe=1), whereas increasing the sample size 100 fold reduced the time to detection by a factor of 6. This study investigated the performance of three univariate process monitoring control algorithms in monitoring endemic diseases. It was shown that automated systems based on these detection methods identified changes in seroprevalence at different times. Increasing the number of tested herds would lead to faster

  15. A Study on the Potential Applications of Satellite Data in Air Quality Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2011-01-01

    In this study we explore the potential applications of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) -like satellite sensors in air quality research for some Asian regions. The MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT), NCEP global reanalysis meteorological data, and daily surface PM(sub 10) concentrations over China and Thailand from 2001 to 2009 were analyzed using simple and multiple regression models. The AOT-PM(sub 10) correlation demonstrates substantial seasonal and regional difference, likely reflecting variations in aerosol composition and atmospheric conditions, Meteorological factors, particularly relative humidity, were found to influence the AOT-PM(sub 10) relationship. Their inclusion in regression models leads to more accurate assessment of PM(sub 10) from space borne observations. We further introduced a simple method for employing the satellite data to empirically forecast surface particulate pollution, In general, AOT from the previous day (day 0) is used as a predicator variable, along with the forecasted meteorology for the following day (day 1), to predict the PM(sub 10) level for day 1. The contribution of regional transport is represented by backward trajectories combined with AOT. This method was evaluated through PM(sub 10) hindcasts for 2008-2009, using ohservations from 2005 to 2007 as a training data set to obtain model coefficients. For five big Chinese cities, over 50% of the hindcasts have percentage error less than or equal to 30%. Similar performance was achieved for cities in northern Thailand. The MODIS AOT data are responsible for at least part of the demonstrated forecasting skill. This method can be easily adapted for other regions, but is probably most useful for those having sparse ground monitoring networks or no access to sophisticated deterministic models. We also highlight several existing issues, including some inherent to a regression-based approach as exemplified by a case study for Beijing, Further studies will be

  16. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) - Status and Potential Science Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    TEMPO is the first NASA Earth Venture Instrument, to launch between 2019 and 2021. It measures atmospheric pollution from Mexico City and Cuba to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly at high spatial resolution, ~ 10 km2. It measures the key elements of air pollution chemistry. Geostationary (GEO) measurements capture the variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry at sub-urban scale to improve emission inventories, monitor population exposure, and enable emission-control strategies. TEMPO measures the UV/visible spectra to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2 CO, C2 H2 O2, H2 O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. It tracks aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products. TEMPO is the North American component of the global geostationary constellation for pollution monitoring, with the European Sentinel-4 and the Korean GEMS. TEMPO studies may include: Solar-induced fluorescence from chlorophyll over land and in the ocean to study tropical dynamics, primary productivity, carbon uptake, to detect red tides, and to study phytoplankton; Measurements of stratospheric intrusions that cause air quality exceedances; Measurements at peaks in vehicle travel to capture the variability in emissions from mobile sources; Measurements of thunderstorm activity, including outflow regions to better quantify lightning NOx and O3 production; Cropland measurements follow the temporal evolution of emissions after fertilizer application and from rain-induced emissions from semi-arid soils; Measurements investigate the chemical processing of primary fire emissions and the secondary formation of VOCs and ozone; Measurements examine ocean halogen emissions and their impact on the oxidizing capacity of coastal environments; Spectra of nighttime lights are markers for human activity, energy conservation, and compliance with outdoor lighting standards intended to reduce light pollution.

  17. Water quality monitoring records for estimating tap water arsenic and nitrate: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuehn Carrie M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tap water may be an important source of exposure to arsenic and nitrate. Obtaining and analyzing samples in the context of large studies of health effects can be expensive. As an alternative, studies might estimate contaminant levels in individual homes by using publicly available water quality monitoring records, either alone or in combination with geographic information systems (GIS. Methods We examined the validity of records-based methods in Washington State, where arsenic and nitrate contamination is prevalent but generally observed at modest levels. Laboratory analysis of samples from 107 homes (median 0.6 μg/L arsenic, median 0.4 mg/L nitrate as nitrogen served as our "gold standard." Using Spearman's rho we compared these measures to estimates obtained using only the homes' street addresses and recent and/or historical measures from publicly monitored water sources within specified distances (radii ranging from one half mile to 10 miles. Results Agreement improved as distance decreased, but the proportion of homes for which we could estimate summary measures also decreased. When including all homes, agreement was 0.05-0.24 for arsenic (8 miles, and 0.31-0.33 for nitrate (6 miles. Focusing on the closest source yielded little improvement. Agreement was greatest among homes with private wells. For homes on a water system, agreement improved considerably if we included only sources serving the relevant system (ρ = 0.29 for arsenic, ρ = 0.60 for nitrate. Conclusions Historical water quality databases show some promise for categorizing epidemiologic study participants in terms of relative tap water nitrate levels. Nonetheless, such records-based methods must be used with caution, and their use for arsenic may be limited.

  18. Suggestions for Preview in Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Na

    2015-01-01

    Among the factors which affect the efficiency of learning English, preview stands out as an increasingly significant one in English studying.Some constructive suggestions about the preview are given to apply in the preview of English.

  19. Monitoring Ground Deformation Using Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PSI) and Small Baselines (SBAS) Techniques Integrated in the ESA RSS Service: The Case Study of Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Manuel J.; Cuccu, Roberto; Rivolta, Giancarlo

    2015-05-01

    This work is focused on the infrastructure monitoring of areas which had experienced significant urbanization and therefore, also an increase of the exploitation of natural resources. Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PS-InSAR) and Small Baselines (SBAS) approaches are applied to three study areas for which large datasets of SAR images are available in ascending and descending modes to finally deploy deformation maps of different buildings and infrastructures. Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia areas have been selected for this study, having experienced an increase of the exploitation of natural resources in parallel with their urban expansion. Moreover, Rome is a very special case, where Cultural Heritage permeating the city and its surroundings would suggest the necessity of a tool for monitoring the stability of the different sites. This work wants to analyse the potential deformation that had occurred in these areas during the period 1992 to 2010, by applying Persistent Scatters Interferometry to ESA ERS SAR and Envisat ASAR data.

  20. Monitoring the morphological evolution of complex glaciers: the Planpincieux case-study (Mont Blanc - Aosta Valley)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordan, Daniele; Manconi, Andrea; Allasia, Paolo; Curtaz, Michèle; Vagliasindi, Marco; Bertolo, Davide

    2014-05-01

    The Planpincieux Glacier (PG) is located on the Italian side of the Grandes Jorasses massif, Mont Blanc, Italy. This area is historically known for the occasional activation of ice falls events from the frontal part of the glacier. The PG is a so-called "polythermal" glacier, meaning that the liquid water present at contact between ice and the bedrock in the lower part of the glacier itself plays an important role in the glacier dynamics, and ice falls might occur in a sudden and unpredictable fashion. In this scenario, the accurate analysis of the glacier morphological evolution assumes a crucial role. Starting from 2012, within the framework of the regional plan for glaciers risk detection, a research project was set up to study the Planpincieux Glacier and evaluate the potential hazard concerning the possible activation of large ice or ice-snow avalanches triggered by icefall events in that area. Dynamics of such avalanches, as well as potentially endangered areas, have been evaluated in an expertise by the SLF Institute. Therefore, the availability of both qualitative information and quantitative measurements relevant to the glacier movements represented a primary goal. After a careful evaluation of several possible technical solutions to achieve displacement monitoring also based on the results of a preliminary study managed by the ETH Zurich (prof. M. Funk), we installed an experimental monitoring station located on the opposite side of the valley, at the top of the Mt. de la Saxe, ca. 3.5 km away from the main target. The monitoring station is composed of two modules, including: (i) a surveillance module, based on a medium resolution digital camera, observing large part of the slope; (ii) a photogrammetric module, based on a high resolution digital camera equipped with a 300mm optical zoom, pointed on the Planpincieux glacier front. At this stage, our analyses focused mainly on the qualitative assessment and recognition of impulsive phenomena affecting the

  1. Study on remote monitoring system for landslide hazard based on Wireless Sensor Network and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Yang; TAO Zhi-gang; WANG Chang-jun; XIE Xing

    2011-01-01

    Based on Beidou satellite communication platform,sliding force remote monitoring and warning system was widely used in Lingbao Luoshan gold ore,which had achieved remarkable social and economical benefits.However,there is one monitoring point at every 1 000 m2,and their distribution is so discrete that it will no doubt increase construction and operation cost if every monitoring point was installed a Beidou subscriber machine.Therefore,based on Zigbee wireless sensor network technology,network structure and the nodes,embed wireless sensor node in remote monitoring and warning system,a base platform of local wireless sensor network is formed,and it can combine punctiform monitoring information with planar network and transmit concentrated information through Beidou satellite terminal machine; as a result,this largely expands the transmission distance of monitoring data.

  2. [Study on the optimization of monitoring indicators of drinking water quality during health supervision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bixiong; E, Xueli; Zhang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    To optimize non-regular drinking water quality indices (except Giardia and Cryptosporidium) of urban drinking water. Several methods including drinking water quality exceed the standard, the risk of exceeding standard, the frequency of detecting concentrations below the detection limit, water quality comprehensive index evaluation method, and attribute reduction algorithm of rough set theory were applied, redundancy factor of water quality indicators were eliminated, control factors that play a leading role in drinking water safety were found. Optimization results showed in 62 unconventional water quality monitoring indicators of urban drinking water, 42 water quality indicators could be optimized reduction by comprehensively evaluation combined with attribute reduction of rough set. Optimization of the water quality monitoring indicators and reduction of monitoring indicators and monitoring frequency could ensure the safety of drinking water quality while lowering monitoring costs and reducing monitoring pressure of the sanitation supervision departments.

  3. Use of space-filling curves to select sample locations in natural resource monitoring studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Andrew J; Scott, Charles T

    2009-02-01

    The establishment of several large area monitoring networks over the past few decades has led to increased research into ways to spatially balance sample locations across the landscape. Many of these methods are well documented and have been used in the past with great success. In this paper, we present a method using geographic information systems (GIS) and fractals to create a sampling frame, superimpose a tessellation and draw a sample. We present a case study that illustrates the technique and compares results to those from other methods using data from Voyageurs National Park in Minnesota. Our method compares favorably with results from a popular plot selection method, Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified Design, and offers several additional advantages, including ease of implementation, intuitive appeal, and the ability to maintain spatial balance by adding new plots in the event of an inaccessible plot encountered in the field.

  4. Prescription-event monitoring. A preliminary study of benoxaprofen and fenbufen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, W H

    1984-01-01

    Prescription-Event Monitoring (PEM) has been established at the Drug Surveillance Research Unit of the University of Southampton as a low-cost technique for ascertaining the pattern of events, whether drug-related or not, in large general practice cohorts. The reporting of "events" without the need for an opinion about the probability that they may be adverse drug reactions (ADRs) removes much of the uncertainty inherent in voluntary ADR reporting systems. Numerators (adverse events) and denominators (the number of prescriptions), enable estimates of incidence to be derived from the data. Where related drugs are studied concurrently, differences in the pattern of events may signal important differences in their safety or efficacy . A successful large-scale preliminary exercise involving nearly 9 000 doctors and 16 000 patients is described.

  5. Case study sensitivity analysis of transmission spectra for water contaminant monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrakos, S. G.; Yapijakis, C.; Aiken, D.; Shabaev, A.; Ramsey, S.; Peak, J.

    2016-05-01

    Monitoring of contaminants associated with specific water resources using transmission spectra, with respect to types and relative concentrations, requires tracking statistical profiles of water contaminants in terms of spatial-temporal distributions of electromagnetic absorption spectra ranging from the ultraviolet to infrared. For this purpose, correlation between spectral signatures and types of contaminants within specific water resources must be made, as well as correlation of spectral signatures with results of processes for removal of contaminants, such as ozonation. Correlation between absorption spectra and changes in chemical and physical characteristics of contaminants, within a volume of sampled solution, requires sufficient sensitivity. The present study examines the sensitivity of transmission spectra with respect to general characteristics of water contaminants for spectral analysis of water samples.

  6. Optimising the neutron environment of Radiation Portal Monitors: a computational optimisation study

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbert, Mark R; Packer, Lee W

    2015-01-01

    Efficient and reliable detection of radiological or nuclear threats is a crucial part of national and international efforts to prevent terrorist activities. Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs), which are deployed worldwide, are intended to interdict smuggled fissile material by detecting emissions of neutrons and gamma rays. However, considering the range and variety of threat sources, vehicular and shielding scenarios, and that only a small signature is present, it is important that the design of the RPMs allows these signatures to be accurately differentiated from the environmental background. Using Monte-Carlo neutron-transport simulations of a model helium-3 detector system we have conducted a parameter study to identify the optimum combination of detector shielding and collimation that maximises the sensitivity of RPMs. These structures, which could be simply and cost-effectively added to existing RPMs, can improve the detector response by more than a factor of two relative to an unmodified, bare design. Fu...

  7. Radiation damage study on diamond sensors of the ALICE Beam Condition Monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Vai, Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE Beam Monitoring System has been developed with the aim of detecting beam failures that can affect the experimental region. It is composed of synthetic diamonds as detector, a material that is particularly adapt to harsh radiation environment. However some sensors have shown an increase in the noise in the last year of operation. For this reason, I have developed a station to study the working parameters of the diamond sensors used in this system, in order to check their conditions. I've found an increase of the dark current of almost all the sensors and, in particular, the sensors of the system BCM-A seem to have suffered a greater damage than the others.

  8. [Study on mobile phone based wireless ECG monitoring technology system typical demonstration applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Liu, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Based on the mobile phone platform with wireless real-time ECG monitoring system developed in our lab, this article is dedicated to evaluate its practical value in people test. A series of new conceptual experiments were designed and performed. Particularly, ECG characteristics under different age, gender, health and motion conditions are evaluated. Effects of living habits such as drinking wine, coffee including various psychological conditions such as excitation, anxiety etc. to the ECG response are investigated. The human ECG under different time in a day such as morning, afternoon and late-night was evaluated. These conceptual experiments, which are hard to conduct otherwise using conventional devices, demonstrate the pervasive merits of the new system for fundamental study of heart disease as well as daily healthcare.

  9. Study and evaluation of the Siemens virtual wedge factor: dosimetric monitor system and variable field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendon Rio, J R Sendon; Martinez, C Otero; GarcIa, M Sanchez; Busto, R Lobato; Vega, V Luna; Sueiro, J Mosquera; Camean, M Pombar [Servizo de Radiofisica e Proteccion Radioloxica, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: jose.ramon.sendon.del.rio@sergas.es

    2008-03-07

    In the year 1997 Siemens introduced the virtual wedge in its accelerators. The idea was that a dose profile similar to that of a physical wedge can be obtained by moving one of the accelerator jaws at a constant speed while the dose rate is changing. This work explores the observed behaviour of virtual wedge factors. A model is suggested which takes into account that at any point in time, when the jaw moves, the dose at a point of interest in the phantom is not only due to the direct beam. It also depends on the scattered radiation in the phantom, the head scatter and the behaviour of the monitoring system of the accelerator. Measurements are performed in a Siemens Primus accelerator and compared to the model predictions. It is shown that the model agrees reasonably well with measurements spanning a wide range of conditions. A strong dependence of virtual wedge factors on the dosimetric board has been confirmed and an explanation has been given on how the balance between different contributions is responsible for virtual wedge factors values.

  10. Monitoring methane emission of mud volcanoes by seismic tremor measurements: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Albarello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for estimating methane emission at mud volcanoes is here proposed based on measurements of the seismic tremor on their surface. Data obtained at the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan reveal the presence of energy bursts characterized by well-determined features (i.e. waveforms, spectra and polarization properties that can be associated with bubbling at depth. Counting such events provides a possible tool for monitoring gas production in the reservoir, thus minimizing logistic troubles and representing a cheap and effective alternative to more complex approaches. Specifically, we model the energy bursts as the effect of resonant gas bubbles at depth. This modelling allows to estimate the dimension of the bubbles and, consequently, the gas outflow from the main conduit in the assumption that all emissions from depth occur by bubble uprising. The application of this model to seismic events detected at the Dashgil mud volcano during three sessions of measurements carried out in 2006 and 2007 provides gas flux estimates that are in line with those provided by independent measurements at the same structure. This encouraging result suggests that the one here proposed could be considered a new promising, cheap and easy to apply tool for gas flux measurements in bubbling gas seepage areas.

  11. Cerebral hemodynamics in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during positive airways pressure (CPAP) therapy: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Fritschi, Ursula; Lehner, Isabella; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-03-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) the periodic reduction or cessation of breathing due to narrowing or occlusion of the upper airway during sleep leads to daytime symptoms and increased cardiovascular risk, including stroke. The higher risk of stroke is related to the impairment in cerebral vascular autoregulation. Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) therapy at night is the most effective treatment for OSA. However, there is no suitable bedside monitoring method evaluating the treatment efficacy of CPAP therapy, especially to monitor the recovery of cerebral hemodynamics. NIRS is ideally suited for non-invasive monitoring the cerebral hemodynamics during sleep. In this study, we will for first time assess dynamic changes of cerebral hemodynamics during nocturnal CPAP therapy in 3 patients with OSA using NIRS. We found periodic oscillations in HbO2, HHb, tissue oxygenation index (TOI) and blood volume associated with periodic apnea events without CPAP in all OSA patients. These oscillations were gradually attenuated and finally eliminated with the stepwise increments of CPAP pressures. The oscillations were totally eliminated in blood volume earlier than in other hemodynamic parameters. These results suggested that 1) the cerebral hemodynamic oscillations induced by OSA events can effectively be attenuated by CPAP therapy, and 2) blood flow and blood volume recovered first during CPAP therapy, followed by the recovery of oxygen consumption. Our study suggested that NIRS is a useful tool to evaluate the efficacy of CPAP therapy in patients with OSA bedside and in real time.

  12. Efficacy of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R S; Raudzens, P; Nunemacher, M

    1995-01-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring is of benefit in protecting tissue at risk for trauma or ischemia during surgical procedures. Monitoring modalities include EEG, computer processed EEG, somatosensory (SEP), auditory (BAEP), and visual evoked potentials (VEP), and cranial nerve monitoring. The efficacy of monitoring is controversial, because no properly controlled prospective study of outcome with and without monitoring has been done. The weight of evidence suggests that loss of spontaneous EEG and SEP correlate well with critical reductions of cerebral blood flow. Meta-analysis of series comprising 3,028 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomies shows that SEP deteriorated in 5.6% of cases, with 20% of these having postoperative deficits, but more might have had deficits if they had not been shunted. SEP monitoring can be useful in surgery affecting brain and cord vasculature. Monitoring is not indicated for routine lumbosacral spine surgery. BAEPs have predictive value for preservation of hearing after acoustic neuroma surgery, and other surgery near the brainstem. VEPs have been too variable to be of major use in the operating room. For neurophysiologic monitoring to be useful, it must be performed by an experienced team, and the surgeon must be willing to act on the findings. Under these circumstances, monitoring can reduce surgical complications in selected cases.

  13. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Sahoko; Li, Weihua; Omura, Seiichi; Fujitani, Yuji; Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi; Hiraku, Yusuke; Hisanaga, Naomi; Wakai, Kenji; Ding, Xuncheng; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Ichihara, Gaku

    2016-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO2 particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter <300 nm was associated positively with total number of N-N and negatively with total number of increase or decrease in successive RR intervals greater than 50 ms (RR50+/-) or percentage of RR 50+/- that were parameters of parasympathetic function. The total mass concentration was 9.58-30.8 mg/m3 during work, but significantly less before work (0.36 mg/m3). The clear abnormality in respiratory function was not observed in sixteen workers who had worked for 10 months to 13 years in the factory. The study showed that exposure to particles with a diameter <300 nm might affect HRV in workers handling TiO2 particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  14. Limnological Studies at Eau Galle Lake, Wisconsin. Report 1. Introduction and Water Quality Monitoring Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Environmental Laboratory EWQ0S Task VITA PO Box 631, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180-0631 _____________ It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE...and Water Quality Operational Studies, is a small, dimictic, flood control reservoir located in west-central Wisconsin. Major land uses in . this small...Au unanouced 0 Justifiation Distibtin/0 .o. Unclassified 35CUI"TY CLASSIFICATION OF TNtS PAO9MIhun DSIM EMSt*ed) PREFACE The work described in this

  15. A quantitative study of the 6NM-64 neutron monitor by using Geant4: 1. Detection efficiency for different particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschalis, P. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Zografos 15783, Athens (Greece); Mavromichalaki, H., E-mail: emavromi@phys.uoa.gr [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Zografos 15783, Athens (Greece); Dorman, L.I. [Israel Cosmic Ray and Space Weather Centre and Emilio Ségre Observatory, Affiliated to Tel Aviv University, Golan Research Institute, and Israel Space Agency, Qazrin 12900 (Israel); Cosmic Ray Department of N.V. Pushkov IZMIRAN, Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk 142190, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-21

    The neutron monitors are the ground based detectors that continuously measure the flow of the cosmic rays that reach the earth′s surface. The measurements of the neutron monitors are of great importance for the scientific community since they contribute to the study of several scientific fields, such as the solar activity and the prediction of the space weather. For this reason, most of the neutron monitors worldwide are organized in a network, in order for their measurements to be easily accessible. The correct evaluation of the measurements and their connection with the physical quantities of the cosmic rays require the knowledge of the interactions and the detection procedure that take place inside the neutron monitor. In this work a quantitative study of the 6NM-64 behavior is presented based on Monte Carlo simulations by using the well known Geant4 simulations toolkit. The study focuses on the detection efficiency of the neutron monitor, both in sections and as a whole for the different particle species, on its dependence on the incident direction of the particles and on the secondary neutrons produced inside the neutron monitor.

  16. Debris Flow Monitoring System and Observed Event in Taiwan: A Case Study at Aiyuzi River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HSIAO Taichung; LEE Bingjean; CHOU Tienyin; LIEN Huipain; CHANG Yinghuei

    2007-01-01

    Since 2002, the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau, which is responsible for the conservation and administrative management of hillside in Taiwan, has been cooperating with Feng Chia University. Together, they have successfully carried out the establishment and maintenance of 13 fixed debris flow monitoring stations over the island and 2 mobile debris flow monitoring stations. During July 2004, a powerful southwest air current brought by Mindulle Typhoon caused serious flood in central and southern Taiwan. This paper aims to describe the establishment of debris flow monitoring systems in Taiwan and the observation of the debris flow event during Mindulle Typhoon at Aiyuzi River in Shenmu Village, Nantou County by the monitoring station.

  17. Recombination monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-02-03

    This is a brief report on LEReC recombination monitor design considerations. The recombination produced Au78+ ion rate is reviewed. Based on this two designs are discussed. One is to use the large dispersion lattice. It is shown that even with the large separation of the Au78+ beam from the Au79+ beam, the continued monitoring of the recombination is not possible. Accumulation of Au78+ ions is needed, plus collimation of the Au79+ beam. In another design, it is shown that the recombination monitor can be built based on the proposed scheme with the nominal lattice. From machine operation point of view, this design is preferable. Finally, possible studies and the alternative strategies with the basic goal of the monitor are discussed.

  18. A systematic review of prescription pattern monitoring studies and their effectiveness in promoting rational use of medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shipra; Upadhyaya, Prerna; Goyal, Jaswant; Kumar, Abhijit; Jain, Pushpawati; Seth, Vikas; Moghe, Vijay V

    2015-01-01

    Prescription pattern monitoring studies (PPMS) are a tool for assessing the prescribing, dispensing and distribution of medicines. The main aim of PPMS is to facilitate rational use of medicines (RUM). There is paucity of published data analysing the effectiveness of PPMS. The present review has been done to assess the effectiveness of prescription pattern monitoring studies in promoting RUM. Data search was conducted on internet. A multitude of PPMS done on different classes of drugs were collected and analyzed. PPMS using WHO prescribing indicators were also included. The present article reviews various prescription pattern monitoring studies of drugs conducted all over country and abroad. It was observed in the majority of such studies that physicians do not adhere to the guidelines made by regulatory agencies leading to irrational use of medicines. This in turn leads to increased incidence of treatment failure, antimicrobial resistance and economic burden on the patient and the community as a whole. The treatment of diseases by the use of essential drugs, prescribed by their generic names, has been emphasized by the WHO and the National Health Policy of India. We conclude that the prescription monitoring studies provide a bridge between areas like rational use of drugs, pharmacovigilance, evidence based medicine, pharmacoeconomics, pharmacogenetics and ecopharmacovigilance. In India, this is the need of the hour to utilise the data generated by so many prescription pattern monitoring studies done in every state and on every drug, so that the main aim of promoting rational use of drugs is fulfilled.

  19. A systematic review of prescription pattern monitoring studies and their effectiveness in promoting rational use of medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prescription pattern monitoring studies (PPMS are a tool for assessing the prescribing, dispensing and distribution of medicines. The main aim of PPMS is to facilitate rational use of medicines (RUM. There is paucity of published data analysing the effectiveness of PPMS. The present review has been done to assess the effectiveness of prescription pattern monitoring studies in promoting RUM. Data search was conducted on internet. A multitude of PPMS done on different classes of drugs were collected and analyzed. PPMS using WHO prescribing indicators were also included. The present article reviews various prescription pattern monitoring studies of drugs conducted all over country and abroad. It was observed in the majority of such studies that physicians do not adhere to the guidelines made by regulatory agencies leading to irrational use of medicines. This in turn leads to increased incidence of treatment failure, antimicrobial resistance and economic burden on the patient and the community as a whole. The treatment of diseases by the use of essential drugs, prescribed by their generic names, has been emphasized by the WHO and the National Health Policy of India. We conclude that the prescription monitoring studies provide a bridge between areas like rational use of drugs, pharmacovigilance, evidence based medicine, pharmacoeconomics, pharmacogenetics and ecopharmacovigilance. In India, this is the need of the hour to utilise the data generated by so many prescription pattern monitoring studies done in every state and on every drug, so that the main aim of promoting rational use of drugs is fulfilled.

  20. Evaluation of a Model-Based Hemodynamic Monitoring Method in a Porcine Study of Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Revie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The accuracy and clinical applicability of an improved model-based system for tracking hemodynamic changes is assessed in an animal study on septic shock. Methods. This study used cardiovascular measurements recorded during a porcine trial studying the efficacy of large-pore hemofiltration for treating septic shock. Four Pietrain pigs were instrumented and induced with septic shock. A subset of the measured data, representing clinically available measurements, was used to identify subject-specific cardiovascular models. These models were then validated against the remaining measurements. Results. The system accurately matched independent measures of left and right ventricle end diastolic volumes and maximum left and right ventricular pressures to percentage errors less than 20% (except for the 95th percentile error in maximum right ventricular pressure and all R2>0.76. An average decrease of 42% in systemic resistance, a main cardiovascular consequence of septic shock, was observed 120 minutes after the infusion of the endotoxin, consistent with experimentally measured trends. Moreover, modelled temporal trends in right ventricular end systolic elastance and afterload tracked changes in corresponding experimentally derived metrics. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that this model-based method can monitor disease-dependent changes in preload, afterload, and contractility in porcine study of septic shock.

  1. What tools are useful for monitoring endemic diseases? A simulation study based on different time-series components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Jensen, D; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    Control and eradication programs play an important role in disease monitoring and surveillance. It is important to follow up on implemented strategies to reduce and/or eliminate a specific disease. The objectives of this study were to investigate the performance of different detection methods......, including methods commonly used in biosurveillance as well as state space models, for monitoring the effect of endemic disease control and eradication programs. We simulated 16 different scenarios of changes in disease sero-prevalence, inspired by real-world data from the Danish PRRS (Porcine Reproductive...... and Respiratory Syndrome) monitoring program. The changes included increases, decreases and/or constant sero-prevalence levels in different combinations. Two state space models were used to model the simulated data and different monitoring methods, such as univariate process control algorithms (UPCA...

  2. [Monitoring infection at the intensive care unit--a multicenter pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, F; Wewalka, G; Rotter, M; Kilian, J; Hummel, E; Hartenauer, U; Gähler, R; Scherzer, E; Pauser, G

    1989-06-01

    During a period of 3 months an infection survey was carried out in 4 intensive care units (ICUs), 2 in Vienna, Austria, and one each in Ulm and Münster, Federal Republic of Germany, using a common protocol. A total of 329 patients was monitored prospectively. This pilot study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of parameters included in the monitoring form. It was attempted to characterize the patient populations of the four units. Mean duration of stay (1-12 days), mortality (8-26%), leading diagnosis upon admission, intubation rate (41-91%) and use of pulmonary artery catheter (12-35%) were distinctly different. The rate of patients admitted already with an infection was 9-43%, septicemia was diagnosed in up to 27% of the diseased. The rate of infection acquired in the unit was between 12 and 37%, the most frequent types were bronchopneumonia, septicemia and urinary tract infection. When septicemia patients were compared to non-septicemia patients who had been admitted for more than 3 days, it appeared that the latter stayed significantly shorter at the ICU and showed less frequently bronchopneumonia or urinary tract infection at the time of admission. Septicemia patients acquired more frequently additional infections like broncho-pneumonia or urinary tract infection while staying at the ICU. The median day of onset of septicemia was the fifth day and only in a quarter of cases diagnosis could be supported by a positive blood culture. The use of antibiotics in the 4 ICUs is compared and shows marked differences. Based upon experience with this type of infection survey a new modified protocol is introduced, which displays the time course of documented events.

  3. Cadence Feedback With ECE PEDO to Monitor Physical Activity Intensity: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardic, Fusun; Göcer, Esra

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the monitoring capabilities of the equipment for clever exercise pedometer (ECE PEDO) that provides audible feedback when the person exceeds the upper and lower limits of the target step numbers per minute and to compare step counts with Yamax SW-200 (YX200) as the criterion pedometer.A total of 30 adult volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were classified as normal weight (n = 10), overweight (n = 10), and obese (n = 10). After the submaximal exercise test on a treadmill, the moderate intensity for walking was determined by using YX200 pedometer and then the number of steps taken in a minute was measured. Lower and upper limits of steps per minute (cadence) were recorded in ECE PEDO providing audible feedback when the person's walking speed gets out of the limits. Volunteers walked for 30 minutes in the individual step count range by attaching the ECE PEDO and YX200 pedometer on both sides of the waist belt in the same session. Step counts of the volunteers were recorded. Wilcoxon, Spearman correlation, and Bland-Altman analyses were performed to show the relationship and agreement between the results of 2 devices.Subjects took an average of 3511 ± 426 and 3493 ± 399 steps during 30 minutes with ECE PEDO and criterion pedometer, respectively. About 3500 steps taken by ECE PEDO reflected that this pedometer has capability of identifying steps per minute to meet moderate intensity of physical activity. There was a strong correlation between step counts of both devices (P PEDO and YX200 pedometer in the Bland-Altman analysis.Although both devices showed a strong similarity in counting steps, the ECE PEDO provides monitoring of intensity such that a person can walk in a specified time with a desired speed.

  4. On-Line Change Monitoring with Transformed Multi-Spectral Time Series, a Study Case in Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng; Hamunyela, Eliakim

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the methods for detecting structural changes in time series have been adapted for forest disturbance monitoring using satellite data. The BFAST (Breaks For Additive Season and Trend) Monitor framework, which detects forest cover disturbances from satellite image time series based on empirical fluctuation tests, is particularly used for near real-time deforestation monitoring, and it has been shown to be robust in detecting forest disturbances. Typically, a vegetation index that is transformed from spectral bands into feature space (e.g. normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI)) is used as input for BFAST Monitor. However, using a vegetation index for deforestation monitoring is a major limitation because it is difficult to separate deforestation from multiple seasonality effects, noise, and other forest disturbance. In this study, we address such limitation by exploiting the multi-spectral band of satellite data. To demonstrate our approach, we carried out a case study in a deciduous tropical forest in Bolivia, South America. We reduce the dimensionality from spectral bands, space and time with projective methods particularly the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), resulting in a new index that is more suitable for change monitoring. Our results show significantly improved temporal delay in deforestation detection. With our approach, we achieved a median temporal lag of 6 observations, which was significantly shorter than the temporal lags from conventional approaches (14 to 21 observations).

  5. Dual vs. single computer monitor in a Canadian hospital Archiving Department: a study of efficiency and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Godbout, Sylvie T; Bellemare, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of clinical coding by Archivists (also known as Clinical Coders in some other countries) using single and dual computer monitors. In the present context, processing a record corresponds to checking the available information; searching for the missing physician information; and finally, performing clinical coding. We collected data for each Archivist during her use of the single monitor for 40 hours and during her use of the dual monitor for 20 hours. During the experimental periods, Archivists did not perform other related duties, so we were able to measure the real-time processing of records. To control for the type of records and their impact on the process time required, we categorised the cases as major or minor, based on whether acute care or day surgery was involved. Overall results show that 1,234 records were processed using a single monitor and 647 records using a dual monitor. The time required to process a record was significantly higher (p= .071) with a single monitor compared to a dual monitor (19.83 vs.18.73 minutes). However, the percentage of major cases was significantly higher (p= .000) in the single monitor group compared to the dual monitor group (78% vs. 69%). As a consequence, we adjusted our results, which reduced the difference in time required to process a record between the two systems from 1.1 to 0.61 minutes. Thus, the net real-time difference was only 37 seconds in favour of the dual monitor system. Extrapolated over a 5-year period, this would represent a time savings of 3.1% and generate a net cost savings of $7,729 CAD (Canadian dollars) for each workstation that devoted 35 hours per week to the processing of records. Finally, satisfaction questionnaire responses indicated a high level of satisfaction and support for the dual-monitor system. The implementation of a dual-monitor system in a hospital archiving department is an efficient option in the context of scarce human resources and has the

  6. Effects of working memory capacity on metacognitive monitoring: A study of group differences using a listening span test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie eKomori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an executive function of working memory that serves to update novel information, focusing attention on task-relevant targets, and eliminating task-irrelevant noise. The present research used a verbal working memory task to examine how working memory capacity limits affect monitoring. Participants performed a Japanese listening span test that included maintenance of target words and listening comprehension. On each trial, participants responded to the target word and then immediately estimated confidence in recall performance for that word (metacognitive judgment. The results confirmed significant differences in monitoring accuracy between high and low capacity groups in a multi-task situation. That is, confidence judgments were superior in high versus low capacity participants in terms of absolute accuracy and discrimination. The present research further investigated how memory load and interference affect underestimation of successful recall. The results indicated that the level of memory load that reduced word recall performance and led to an underconfidence bias varied according to participants’ memory capacity. In addition, irreverent information associated with incorrect true/ false decisions (secondary task and word recall within the current trial impaired monitoring accuracy in both participant groups. These findings suggest that inference from unsuccessful decisions only influences low, but not high, capacity participants. Therefore, monitoring accuracy, which requires high working memory capacity, improves metacognitive abilities by inhibiting task-irrelevant noise and focusing attention on detecting task-relevant targets or useful retrieval cues, which could improve actual cognitive performance.

  7. Plant applications of online corrosion monitoring: CO2 capture amine plant case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, R.D.; Srinivasan, S.; Khakharia, P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Mertens, J.; Vroey, S. de

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, there has been a significant effort to bring corrosion monitoring<