WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitoring spotted owls

  1. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger,; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  2. Competitive interactions and resource partitioning between northern spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Anthony, Robert G.; Forsman, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    The federally threatened northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is the focus of intensive conservation efforts that have led to much forested land being reserved as habitat for the owl and associated wildlife species throughout the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Recently, however, a relatively new threat to spotted owls has emerged in the form of an invasive competitor: the congeneric barred owl (S. varia). As barred owls have rapidly expanded their populations into the entire range of the northern spotted owl, mounting evidence indicates that they are displacing, hybridizing with, and even killing spotted owls. The range expansion by barred owls into western North America has made an already complex conservation issue even more contentious, and a lack of information on the ecological relationships between the 2 species has hampered recovery efforts for northern spotted owls. We investigated spatial relationships, habitat use, diets, survival, and reproduction of sympatric spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon, USA, during 2007–2009. Our overall objective was to determine the potential for and possible consequences of competition for space, habitat, and food between these previously allopatric owl species. Our study included 29 spotted owls and 28 barred owls that were radio-marked in 36 neighboring territories and monitored over a 24-month period. Based on repeated surveys of both species, the number of territories occupied by pairs of barred owls in the 745-km2 study area (82) greatly outnumbered those occupied by pairs of spotted owls (15). Estimates of mean size of home ranges and core-use areas of spotted owls (1,843 ha and 305 ha, respectively) were 2–4 times larger than those of barred owls (581 ha and 188 ha, respectively). Individual spotted and barred owls in adjacent territories often had overlapping home ranges, but interspecific space sharing was largely restricted to broader foraging areas in the home range

  3. The biology of the California spotted owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Gutiérrez; Douglas J. Tempel; M. Zachariah Peery

    2017-01-01

    The spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) is one of the most studied raptors in the world (Lõmus 2004) because forest management throughout its range has the potential to negatively affect owl populations. Information on the California spotted owl (S. o. occidentalis) has been summarized in several literature reviews (e.g.,...

  4. Blood parasites in Owls with conservation implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, H.D.; Dumbacher, J.P.; Anderson, N.L.; Keane, J.J.; Valkiunas, G.; Haig, S.M.; Tell, L.A.; Sehgal, R.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis courina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia). An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl. We screened 111 Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and 387 owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites (Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp.). California Spotted Owls had the greatest number of simultaneous multi-species infections (44%). Additionally, sequencing results revealed that the Northern and California Spotted Owl subspecies together had the highest number of Leucocytozoon parasite lineages (n=17) and unique lineages (n=12). This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one leucocytozoon species (L. danilewskyi) has been accepted as valid among all owls, suggesting that L. danilewskyi is a cryptic species. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. West Coast Barred Owls had a lower prevalence of infection (15%) when compared to sympatric Spotted Owls (S. o. caurina 52%, S. o. occidentalis 79%) and Barred Owls from the historic range (61%). Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls. ?? 2008 Ishak et al.

  5. Activity patterns of nesting Mexican Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Delaney; Teryl G. Grubb; Paul Beier

    1999-01-01

    We collected 2,665 hr of behavioral information using video surveillance on 19 Mexican Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) pairs between 25 April and 26 July 1996. Prey deliveries per day increased as the nesting season progressed, with an average of 2.68 prey deliveries during incubation, 4.10 items during brooding, and 4.51 items during the...

  6. Transient dynamics of invasive competition: barred owls, spotted owls, habitat, and the demons of competition present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Katie M; Anthony, Robert G; Andrews, Lawrence S

    2011-10-01

    The recent range expansion of Barred Owls (Strix varia) into the Pacific Northwest, where the species now co-occurs with the endemic Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina), resulted in a unique opportunity to investigate potential competition between two congeneric, previously allopatric species. The primary criticism of early competition research was the use of current species' distribution patterns to infer past processes; however, the recent expansion of the Barred Owl and the ability to model the processes that result in site occupancy (i.e., colonization and extinction) allowed us to address the competitive process directly rather than inferring past processes through current patterns. The purpose of our study was to determine whether Barred Owls had any negative effects on occupancy dynamics of nesting territories by Northern Spotted Owls and how these effects were influenced by habitat characteristics of Spotted Owl territories. We used single-species, multi-season occupancy models and covariates quantifying Barred Owl detections and habitat characteristics to model extinction and colonization rates of Spotted Owl pairs in southern Oregon, USA. We observed a strong, negative association between Barred Owl detections and colonization rates and a strong positive effect of Barred Owl detections on extinction rates of Spotted Owls. We observed increased extinction rates in response to decreased amounts of old forest at the territory core and higher colonization rates when old-forest habitat was less fragmented. Annual site occupancy for pairs reflected the strong effects of Barred Owls on occupancy dynamics with much lower occupancy rates predicted for territories where Barred Owls were detected. The strong Barred Owl and habitat effects on occupancy dynamics of Spotted Owls provided evidence of interference competition between the species. These effects increase the importance of conserving large amounts of contiguous, old-forest habitat to maintain

  7. Demography of Mexican spotted owls in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Gary C. White; James P. Ward; Sean C. Kyle; Darrell L. Apprill; Todd A. Rawlinson; Ryan S. Jonnes

    2014-01-01

    Information on population dynamics is key to gauging the status of threatened or endangered species. We monitored demography of a population of threatened Mexican spotted owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico from 2003 to 2011. We estimated reproductive output for territorial pairs of owls; used mark-recapture methodology and Pradel...

  8. Cover of tall trees best predicts California spotted owl habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm P. North; Jonathan T. Kane; Van R. Kane; Gregory P. Asner; William Berigan; Derek J. Churchill; Scott Conway; R.J. Gutiérrez; Sean Jeronimo; John Keane; Alexander Koltunov; Tina Mark; Monika Moskal; Thomas Munton; Zachary Peery; Carlos Ramirez; Rahel Sollmann; Angela White; Sheila Whitmore

    2017-01-01

    Restoration of western dry forests in the USA often focuses on reducing fuel loads. In the range of the spotted owl, these treatments may reduce canopy cover and tree density, which could reduce preferred habitat conditions for the owl and other sensitive species. In particular, high canopy cover (≥70%) has been widely reported to be an important feature of spotted owl...

  9. 78 FR 57171 - Experimental Removal of Barred Owls To Benefit Threatened Northern Spotted Owls; Record of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... result, conservation efforts for the northern spotted owl have been largely focused on habitat protection... conservation benefit of threatened northern spotted owls (notice of intent) in the Federal Register (74 FR... to fill the opportunities. Our initial overtures to zoos and zoological parks resulted in interest...

  10. Geographic variation and genetic structure in Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R.S.; Forsman, E.D.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2001-01-01

    We examined genetic variation, population structure, and definition of conservation units in Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis). Spotted Owls are mostly non-migratory, long-lived, socially monogamous birds that have decreased population viability due to their occupation of highly-fragmented late successional forests in western North America. To investigate potential effects of habitat fragmentation on population structure, we used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to examine genetic variation hierarchically among local breeding areas, subregional groups, regional groups, and subspecies via sampling of 21 breeding areas (276 individuals) among the three subspecies of Spotted Owls. Data from 11 variable bands suggest a significant relationship between geographic distance among local breeding groups and genetic distance (Mantel r = 0.53, P genetic drift. Merging nuclear data with recent mitochondrial data provides support for designation of an Evolutionary Significant Unit for Mexican Spotted Owls and two overlapping Management Units for Northern and California Spotted Owls.

  11. Home range characteristics of Mexican Spotted Owls in the Rincon Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David W.; Van Riper, Charpes III

    2014-01-01

    We studied a small isolated population of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) from 1996–1997 in the Rincon Mountains of Saguaro National Park, southeastern Arizona, USA. All mixed-conifer and pine-oak forest patches in the park were surveyed for Spotted Owls, and we located, captured, and radio-tagged 10 adult birds representing five mated pairs. Using radio-telemetry, we examined owl home range characteristics, roost habitat, and monitored reproduction within these five territories. Breeding season (Mar–Sep) home range size for 10 adult owls (95% adaptive kernel isopleths) averaged 267 ha (±207 SD), and varied widely among owls (range 34–652 ha). Mean home range size for owl pairs was 478 ha (±417 ha SD), and ranged from 70–1,160 ha. Owls that produced young used smaller home ranges than owls that had no young. Six habitat variables differed significantly between roost and random sites, including: percent canopy cover, number of trees, number of vegetation layers, average height of trees, average diameter of trees, and tree basal area. Radio-marked owls remained in their territories following small prescribed management fires within those territories, exhibiting no proximate effects to the presence of prescribed fire.

  12. 78 FR 44588 - Experimental Removal of Barred Owls To Benefit Threatened Northern Spotted Owls; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... scientific collecting permits under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703-712; MBTA) for lethal and... barred owl removal on spotted owl site occupancy, reproduction, and survival (USFWS 2011, p. III-65). The... reproduction (Olson et al. 2004, p. 1048; Anthony et al. 2006, p. 32; Forsman et al. 2011, pp. 41-43,...

  13. Improving strategies to assess competitive effects of barred owls on northern spotted owls in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Weekes, Anne

    2011-01-01

    A scientific study has determined that survey methods designed for spotted owls do not always detect barred owls that are actually present in spotted owl habitat. The researchers suggest that strategies to address potential interactions between spotted owls and barred owls will require carefully designed surveys that account for response behaviors and imperfect detection of both species. Species-specific sampling methods, which are proposed, can be used by forest managers to determine the occurrence and distribution of barred owls with high confidence. This fact sheet provides highlights of the research (Wiens and others, 2011).

  14. California spotted owls: Chapter 5 in Managing Sierra Nevada forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Suzanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) are habitat specialists that are strongly associated with late-successional forests. For nesting and roosting, they require large trees and snags embedded in a stand with a complex forest structure (Blakesley et al. 2005, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, Verner et al. 1992b). In mixedconifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California spotted owls typically nest and roost in stands with high canopy closure (≥75 percent) [Note: when citing studies, we use terminology consistent with Jennings et al. (1999), however, not all studies properly distinguish between canopy cover and closure and often use the terms interchangeably (see chapter 14 for clarification)] and an abundance of large trees (>24 in (60 cm) diameter at breast height [d.b.h.]) (Bias and Gutiérrez 1992, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, LaHaye et al. 1997, Moen and Gutiérrez 1997, Verner et al. 1992a). The California spotted owl guidelines (Verner et al. 1992b) effectively summarized much of the information about nesting and roosting habitat. Since that report, research on the California spotted owl has continued with much of the new information concentrated in five areas: population trends, barred owl (Strix varia) invasion, climate effects, foraging habitat, and owl response to fire.

  15. 77 FR 50526 - Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for the Northern Spotted Owl, Skamania, Klickitat, and Yakima...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for the Northern Spotted Owl, Skamania... take of the threatened northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) at a level that enables the... would also authorize incidental take of the spotted owl as a result of management activities during...

  16. 77 FR 12985 - Proposed Revised Habitat for the Spotted Owl: Minimizing Regulatory Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ...#0;#0; ] Memorandum of February 28, 2012 Proposed Revised Habitat for the Spotted Owl: Minimizing... Department of the Interior (Department) proposed critical habitat for the northern spotted owl. The proposal... should be designated as critical habitat for the spotted owl, based on a full evaluation of all...

  17. 76 FR 37141 - Notice of Availability for Comment: Draft Recovery Plan, First Revision; Mexican Spotted Owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ...; Mexican Spotted Owl AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request... recovery plan, first revision, for the Mexican Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) under the Endangered... will also accept any new information on the status of the Mexican spotted owl throughout its range...

  18. Modeling co-occurrence of northern spotted and barred owls: accounting for detection probability differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Larissa L.; Reid, Janice A.; Forsman, Eric D.; Nichols, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Barred owls (Strix varia) have recently expanded their range and now encompass the entire range of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). This expansion has led to two important issues of concern for management of northern spotted owls: (1) possible competitive interactions between the two species that could contribute to population declines of northern spotted owls, and (2) possible changes in vocalization behavior and detection probabilities of northern spotted owls induced by presence of barred owls. We used a two-species occupancy model to investigate whether there was evidence of competitive exclusion between the two species at study locations in Oregon, USA. We simultaneously estimated detection probabilities for both species and determined if the presence of one species influenced the detection of the other species. Model selection results and associated parameter estimates provided no evidence that barred owls excluded spotted owls from territories. We found strong evidence that detection probabilities differed for the two species, with higher probabilities for northern spotted owls that are the object of current surveys. Non-detection of barred owls is very common in surveys for northern spotted owls, and detection of both owl species was negatively influenced by the presence of the congeneric species. Our results suggest that analyses directed at hypotheses of barred owl effects on demographic or occupancy vital rates of northern spotted owls need to deal adequately with imperfect and variable detection probabilities for both species.

  19. Modeling co-occurrence of northern spotted and barred owls: accounting for detection probability differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larissa L. Bailey; Janice A. Reid; Eric D. Forsman; James D. Nichols

    2009-01-01

    Barred owls (Strix valia) have recently expanded their range and now encompass the entire range of the northern spotted owl (Strix ocddentalis caulina). This expansion has led to two important issues of concern for management of northern spotted owls: (1) possible competitive interactions between the two species that could...

  20. The effects of habitat, climate, and Barred Owls on long-term demography of Northern Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Catherine; Forsman, Eric D.; Franklin, Alan B.; Davis, Raymond J.; White, Gary C.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Doherty, Paul F.; Bailey, Larissa; Clark, Darren A.; Ackers, Steven H.; Andrews, Lawrence S.; Augustine, Benjamin; Biswell, Brian L.; Blakesley, Jennifer; Carlson, Peter C.; Clement, Matthew J.; Diller, Lowell V.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Green, Adam; Gremel, Scott A.; Herter, Dale R.; Higley, J. Mark; Hobson, Jeremy; Horn, Rob B.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; McCafferty, Christopher; McDonald, Trent; McDonnell, Kevin; Olson, Gail S.; Reid, Janice A.; Rockweit, Jeremy; Ruiz, Viviana; Saenz, Jessica; Sovern, Stan G.

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of species' vital rates and an understanding of the factors affecting those parameters over time and space can provide crucial information for management and conservation. We used mark–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected during 1985–2013 to evaluate population processes of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in 11 study areas in Washington, Oregon, and northern California, USA. We estimated apparent survival, fecundity, recruitment, rate of population change, and local extinction and colonization rates, and investigated relationships between these parameters and the amount of suitable habitat, local and regional variation in meteorological conditions, and competition with Barred Owls (Strix varia). Data were analyzed for each area separately and in a meta-analysis of all areas combined, following a strict protocol for data collection, preparation, and analysis. We used mixed effects linear models for analyses of fecundity, Cormack-Jolly-Seber open population models for analyses of apparent annual survival (ϕ), and a reparameterization of the Jolly-Seber capture–recapture model (i.e. reverse Jolly-Seber; RJS) to estimate annual rates of population change (λRJS) and recruitment. We also modeled territory occupancy dynamics of Northern Spotted Owls and Barred Owls in each study area using 2-species occupancy models. Estimated mean annual rates of population change (λ) suggested that Spotted Owl populations declined from 1.2% to 8.4% per year depending on the study area. The weighted mean estimate of λ for all study areas was 0.962 (± 0.019 SE; 95% CI: 0.925–0.999), indicating an estimated range-wide decline of 3.8% per year from 1985 to 2013. Variation in recruitment rates across the range of the Spotted Owl was best explained by an interaction between total winter precipitation and mean minimum winter temperature. Thus, recruitment rates were highest when both total precipitation (29 cm) and

  1. Population dynamics of spotted owls in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakesley, J.A.; Seamans, M.E.; Conner, M.M.; Franklin, A.B.; White, Gary C.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Munton, T.E.; Shaw, D.W.H.; Keane, J.J.; Steger, G.N.; McDonald, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    The California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is the only spotted owl subspecies not listed as threatened or endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act despite petitions to list it as threatened. We conducted a meta-analysis of population data for 4 populations in the southern Cascades and Sierra Nevada, California, USA, from 1990 to 2005 to assist a listing evaluation by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Our study areas (from N to S) were on the Lassen National Forest (LAS), Eldorado National Forest (ELD), Sierra National Forest (SIE), and Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SKC). These study areas represented a broad spectrum of habitat and management conditions in these mountain ranges. We estimated apparent survival probability, reproductive output, and rate of population change for spotted owls on individual study areas and for all study areas combined (meta-analysis) using model selection or model-averaging based on maximum-likelihood estimation. We followed a formal protocol to conduct this analysis that was similar to other spotted owl meta-analyses. Consistency of field and analytical methods among our studies reduced confounding methodological effects when evaluating results. We used 991 marked spotted owls in the analysis of apparent survival. Apparent survival probability was higher for adult than for subadult owls. There was little difference in apparent survival between male and female owls. Model-averaged mean estimates of apparent survival probability of adult owls varied from 0.811 ?? 0.021 for females at LAS to 0.890 ?? 0.016 for males at SKC. Apparent survival increased over time for owls of all age classes at LAS and SIE, for adults at ELD, and for second-year subadults and adults at SKC. The meta-analysis of apparent survival, which included only adult owls, confirmed an increasing trend in survival over time. Survival rates were higher for owls on SKC than on the other study areas. We analyzed data

  2. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  3. Population dynamics of the California spotted owl in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Blakesley; M.E. Seamans; M.M. Connor; A.B. Franklin; G.C. White; R.J. Gutierrez; J.E. Hines; J.D. Nichols; T.E. Munton; D.W.H. Shaw; J.J. Keane; G.N. Steger; T.L. McDonald

    2010-01-01

    The California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is the only spotted owl subspecies not listed as threatened or endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act despite petitions to list it as threatened. We conducted a meta-analysis of population data for 4 populations in the southern Cascades and Sierra Nevada, California,...

  4. Sex ratios of fledgling and recaptured subadult spotted owls in the southern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    George N. Steger

    1995-01-01

    Estimates of instantaneous growth rates (A) of spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) populations have been based on demographic data that uniformly assumed an equal sex ratio among fledglings. In this study, sex ratios of subadults, banded as juveniles, and fledgling California spotted owls (S. o. occidentalis) were observed and compared to an assumed 1 : 1 ratio. The...

  5. 77 FR 74688 - Final Recovery Plan, First Revision; Mexican Spotted Owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Final Recovery Plan, First Revision; Mexican Spotted Owl AGENCY: Fish and... Service, announce the availability of our final recovery plan, first revision, for the Mexican Spotted Owl... and threatened wildlife and plants. ADDRESSES: If you wish to view the recovery plan, you may obtain...

  6. 77 FR 14061 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Northern Spotted Owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... processes due to land management practices, especially fire and successional patterns (Franklin et al. 2002... disturbance and climate change (Lindenmayer et al. 2008, p. 87). In general, silviculture prescriptions that... and control, (3) northern spotted owl surveys and monitoring, (4) fire management, (5) linear projects...

  7. 77 FR 27010 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Northern Spotted Owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ...; Revised Critical Habitat for the Northern Spotted Owl AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... designated critical habitat for the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina), and announced the... the northern spotted owl is extended to July 6, 2012. Please note comments submitted...

  8. 76 FR 38575 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Wildlife Service, announce the availability of the Revised Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl... Spotted Owl available for public review and comment from September 15 through November 15, 2010...

  9. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis): Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Krysta H; Girard, Yvette A; Woods, Leslie; Johnson, Christine K

    2016-12-01

    Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina) in California during 2011-2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis). The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  10. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis: Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysta H. Rogers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina in California during 2011–2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis. The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  11. Using detection dogs to conduct simultaneous surveys of northern spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina and barred owls (Strix varia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K Wasser

    Full Text Available State and federal actions to conserve northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina habitat are largely initiated by establishing habitat occupancy. Northern spotted owl occupancy is typically assessed by eliciting their response to simulated conspecific vocalizations. However, proximity of barred owls (Strix varia-a significant threat to northern spotted owls-can suppress northern spotted owl responsiveness to vocalization surveys and hence their probability of detection. We developed a survey method to simultaneously detect both species that does not require vocalization. Detection dogs (Canis familiaris located owl pellets accumulated under roost sites, within search areas selected using habitat association maps. We compared success of detection dog surveys to vocalization surveys slightly modified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Draft 2010 Survey Protocol. Seventeen 2 km × 2 km polygons were each surveyed multiple times in an area where northern spotted owls were known to nest prior to 1997 and barred owl density was thought to be low. Mitochondrial DNA was used to confirm species from pellets detected by dogs. Spotted owl and barred owl detection probabilities were significantly higher for dog than vocalization surveys. For spotted owls, this difference increased with number of site visits. Cumulative detection probabilities of northern spotted owls were 29% after session 1, 62% after session 2, and 87% after session 3 for dog surveys, compared to 25% after session 1, increasing to 59% by session 6 for vocalization surveys. Mean detection probability for barred owls was 20.1% for dog surveys and 7.3% for vocal surveys. Results suggest that detection dog surveys can complement vocalization surveys by providing a reliable method for establishing occupancy of both northern spotted and barred owl without requiring owl vocalization. This helps meet objectives of Recovery Actions 24 and 25 of the Revised Recovery Plan for the

  12. Do owls use torpor? Winter thermoregulation in free-ranging pearl-spotted owlets and African scops-owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Ben; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2010-01-01

    Numerous avian taxa use torpor, which involves pronounced reductions in body temperature (T(b)) to below normothermic levels. However, the occurrence of this phenomenon in owls (Strigidae) remains largely unknown. We investigated winter patterns of thermoregulation in the crepuscular 80-g pearl-spotted owlet Glaucidium perlatum and the strictly nocturnal 61-g African scops-owl Otus senegalensis by obtaining telemetric measurements of skin temperature (T(skin)) from free-ranging individuals in the Kalahari Desert of southern Africa. Pearl-spotted owlets remained homeothermic throughout the study period, whereas African scops-owls routinely used shallow torpor, with T(skin) reduced by 3.3 degrees -8.6 degrees C (pooled mean, 5.3+/- 1.1 degrees C) below normothermic levels for 3-4 h after sunrise. The mean lowest T(skin) recorded in three African scops-owl individuals was 29.0 degrees C +/- 0.1 degrees C. The thermoregulatory differences between these two species may be related to their diets and activity patterns. African scops-owls are almost exclusively insectivorous and experience a marked reduction in food availability on cold winter nights. In contrast, pearl-spotted owlets have more flexible activity patterns and include larger or diurnal vertebrate prey in their diet.

  13. Genetic structure, introgression, and a narrow hybrid zone between northern and California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrowclough, G F; Groth, J G; Mertz, L A; Gutiérrez, R J

    2005-04-01

    The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is a threatened subspecies and the California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is a subspecies of special concern in the western United States. Concern for their continued viability has arisen because of habitat loss caused by timber harvesting. The taxonomic status of the northern subspecies has been the subject of continuing controversy. We investigated the phylogeographical and population genetic structure of northern and California spotted owls with special reference to their region of contact. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences confirmed the existence of two well-differentiated lineages connected by a narrow hybrid zone in a region of low population density in north central California. Maximum-likelihood estimates indicated bidirectional gene flow between the lineages but limited introgression outside the region of contact. The lengths of both the mtDNA hybrid zone and the reduced density patch were similar and slightly exceeded estimates of natal dispersal distances. This suggests that the two subspecies were in secondary contact in a hybrid zone trapped by a population density trough. Consequently, the zone of interaction is expected to be geographically stable. We discovered a third, rare clade of haplotypes, which we interpreted to be a result of incomplete lineage sorting; those haplotypes result in a paraphyletic northern spotted owl with respect to the California spotted owl. A congeneric species, the barred owl (Strix varia), occasionally hybridizes with spotted owls; our results indicated an upper bound for the frequency of barred owl mtDNA haplotypes in northern spotted owl populations of 3%.

  14. California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) habitat use patterns in a burned landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyes, Stephanie; Roberts, Susan L.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Fire is a dynamic ecosystem process of mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, but there is limited scientific information addressing wildlife habitat use in burned landscapes. Recent studies have presented contradictory information regarding the effects of stand-replacing wildfires on Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis) and their habitat. While fire promotes heterogeneous forest landscapes shown to be favored by owls, high severity fire may create large canopy gaps that can fragment the closed-canopy habitat preferred by Spotted Owls. We used radio-telemetry to determine whether foraging California Spotted Owls (S. o. occidentalis) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA, showed selection for particular fire severity patch types within their home ranges. Our results suggested that Spotted Owls exhibited strong habitat selection within their home ranges for locations near the roost and edge habitats, and weak selection for lower fire severity patch types. Although owls selected high contrast edges with greater relative probabilities than low contrast edges, we did not detect a statistical difference between these probabilities. Protecting forests from stand-replacing fires via mechanical thinning or prescribed fire is a priority for management agencies, and our results suggest that fires of low to moderate severity can create habitat conditions within California Spotted Owls' home ranges that are favored for foraging.

  15. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Mexican Spotted Owl

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of Mexican Spotted Owl, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for...

  16. Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Millsap, B.A.; Pendleton, Beth Giron

    1990-01-01

    Eight species of owls regularly occur and may breed in one or more of the southeastern states. Several additional northern or western species appear irregularly as accidentals or during years of southward incursions. In the Southeast, the most common and wide- spread owls are the common barn-owl, eastern screech-owl, great horned owl and barred owl; the most restricted is the burrowing owl. The long-eared, short-eared, and northern saw-whet owls are primarily winter visitors in this region, although small and very localized nesting populations of short-eared owls may occur in Virginia. Long-eared owls and northern saw-whet owls may occur in West Virginia and northern saw-whet owls may occur in the highlands of Tennessee and North Carolina. Several owls of the Southeast are Blue-listed as threatened, endangered, or of local concern, including the common barn-owl, eastern screech-owl, burrow'ing owl and short-eared owl. The nesting status of the long-eared owl and northern saw-whet owl are still poorly known. These two owls should be included on stat and regional lists of species of special concern. Important limiting factors for all owls of the Southeast include habitat loss and human related mortality. Management issues center on obtaining a data base useful in predicting the effects of current forest management practices on owl populations and encouraging use of forestry techniques that least impact owls. Research needs include initiating studies of all aspects of the life history and habitat relationships of each owl species.

  17. Effects of fire on spotted owl site occupancy in a late-successional forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Susan L.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Miles, A. Keith; Kelt, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    The spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) is a late-successional forest dependent species that is sensitive to forest management practices throughout its range. An increase in the frequency and spatial extent of standreplacing fires in western North America has prompted concern for the persistence of spotted owls and other sensitive late-successional forest associated species. However, there is sparse information on the effects of fire on spotted owls to guide conservation policies. In 2004-2005, we surveyed for California spotted owls during the breeding season at 32 random sites (16 burned, 16 unburned) throughout late-successional montane forest in Yosemite National Park, California. Our burned areas burned at all severities, but predominately involved low to moderate fire severity. Based on an information theoretic approach, spotted owl detection and occupancy rates were similar between burned and unburned sites. Nest and roost site occupancy was best explained by a model that combined total tree basal area (positive effect) with cover by coarse woody debris (negative effect). The density estimates of California spotted owl pairs were similar in burned and unburned forests, and the overall mean density estimate for Yosemite was higher than previously reported for montane forests. Our results indicate that low to moderate severity fires, historically common within montane forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, maintain habitat characteristics essential for spotted owl site occupancy. These results suggest that managed fires that emulate the historic fire regime of these forests may maintain spotted owl habitat and protect this species from the effects of future catastrophic fires.

  18. Effects of experimental removal of barred owls on population demography of northern spotted owls in Washington and Oregon—2015 progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Dugger, Katie M.; Lewicki, Krista E.; Simon, David C.

    2016-03-14

    Evidence indicates that competition with newly established barred owls (Strix varia) is causing rapid declines in populations of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), and that the longterm persistence of spotted owls may be in question without additional management intervention. A pilot study in California showed that lethal removal of barred owls in combination with habitat conservation may be able to slow or even reverse population declines of spotted owls at local scales, but it remains unknown whether similar results can be obtained in larger areas with different forest conditions and where barred owls are more abundant. In 2015, we implemented a before-after-controlimpact (BACI) experimental design on two study areas in Oregon and Washington with at least 20 years of pre-treatment demographic data on spotted owls to determine if removal of barred owls can improve population trends of spatially associated spotted owls. Here we provide an overview of our research accomplishments and preliminary results in Oregon and Washington in 2015.

  19. Effects of experimental removal of barred owls on population demography of northern spotted owls in Washington and Oregon—2016 progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Dugger, Katie M.; Lewicki, Krista E.; Simon, David C.

    2017-04-13

    Evidence indicates that competition with invasive barred owls (Strix varia) is causing rapid declines in populations of northern spotted owls (S. occidentalis caurina), and that the long-term persistence of spotted owls may be in question without additional management intervention. A pilot study in California showed that removal of barred owls in combination with habitat conservation may be able to slow or even reverse population declines of spotted owls at local scales, but it remains unknown whether similar results can be obtained in areas with different forest conditions and a greater density of barred owls. In 2015, we implemented a before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design on three study areas in Oregon and Washington with at least 20 years of pre-treatment demographic data on spotted owls to determine if removal of barred owls can improve localized population trends of spotted owls. Here, we report on research accomplishments and preliminary results from the first 21 months (March 2015–December 2016) of the planned 5-year experiment.

  20. A quantitative evaluation of the conservation umbrella of spotted owl management areas in the Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Ryan D; Roberts, L Jay

    2015-01-01

    Whether by design or default, single species management often serves as an umbrella for species with similar habitat requirements. In recent decades the focus of National Forest management in the Sierra Nevada of California has shifted towards increasing closed canopy mature forest conditions through the protection of areas occupied by the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). To evaluate the implications of these habitat changes and the potential umbrella resulting from a system of owl reserves on the broader avian community, we estimated occupancy of birds inside and outside of Spotted Owl Home Range Core Areas in northeastern California. We used point count data in a multi-species hierarchical Bayesian model incorporating the detection history of 81 species over a two-year time period (2005-2006). A small set of vegetation cover and topography covariates were included in the model to account for broad differences in habitat conditions, as well as a term identifying whether or not a site was within a Core Area. Seventeen species had a negative Core Area effect, seven had a positive effect, and the rest were not significant. Estimated species richness was significantly different with 23.1 species per 100 m radius circle outside Core Areas and 21.7 inside Core Areas. The majority of the species negatively associated with Core Areas are tied to early successional and other disturbance-dependent habitats. Conservation and climate vulnerability rankings were mixed. On average we found higher scores (greater risk) for the species positively associated with Core Areas, but a larger number of species with the highest scores were negatively associated with Core Areas. We discuss the implications for managing the Sierra Nevada ecosystem and illustrate the role of monitoring broader suites of species in guiding management of large complex ecosystems.

  1. Science verses political reality in delisting criteria for a threatened species: The Mexican spotted owl experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary C. White; William M. Block; Joseph L. Ganey; William H. Moir; James P. Ward; Alan B. Franklin; Steven L. Spangle; Sarah E. Rinkevich; J. Robert Vahle; Frank P. Howe; James L. Dick

    1999-01-01

    The Mexican spotted owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in April 1993 (USDI 1993). Concomitant with the listing of the owl, a recovery team was appointed to develop a plan to recover the owl, allowing for its removal from the list of threatened and endangered species. The recovery plan - "the...

  2. Count and detection-nondetection survey data of barred owls (Strix varia) in historical breeding territories of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the Oregon Coast Ranges, 1995-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains count and detection-nondetection data of Barred Owls from 106 historical breeding territories of Northern Spotted Owl territories (i.e. sites)...

  3. First-year movements by juvenile Mexican spotted owls in the Canyonlands of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, D.W.; van Riper, Charles

    2000-01-01

    We studied first-year movements of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) during natal dispersal in canyonlands of southern Utah. Thirty-one juvenile Mexican Spotted Owls were captured and radiotracked during 1992-95 to examine behavior and conduct experiments related to the onset of natal dispersal. Juvenile Spotted Owls dispersed from their nest areas during September to October each year, with 85% leaving in September. The onset of movements was sudden and juveniles dispersed in varied directions. The median distance from nest area to last observed location was 25.7 km (range = 1.7-92.3 km). Three of 26 juveniles tracked (11%) were alive after one year, although none were observed with mates. We conducted a feeding experiment, using Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguicuculatus), to test the influence of increased food supply on dispersal onset. The mean dispersal date of five owls that received supplemental food (Julian day no. 255 ?? 2.6 SD) was significantly different than a control group (day no. 273 ?? 12.3).

  4. Roost habitat of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in the canyonlands of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David W.; Van Riper, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In large portions of their geographic range, Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) roost in forest-dominated environments, but in some areas the owls use relatively arid rocky canyonlands. We measured habitat characteristics at 133 male roosts (n = 20 males) during 1992-95, and 56 female roosts (n = 13 females) during 1994-95. Across all years and study areas, 44% of Mexican Spotted Owl roosts occurred in mixed-conifer forest patches, 30% in desert scrub habitat, 16% in pinyon-juniper woodlands, and 10% of roosts occurred in riparian vegetation. Two basic substrates were used as perches by owls, including rock ledges or various trees, where roost height averaged 9 m (0.54 SD), and average height of cliffs above perched owls was 50 m (58 SD). For both males and females, trees types used most frequently included various firs (51%), followed by pinyon pine (18%), Utah juniper (15%), and big-tooth maple or box elder combined (15%). Roost sites were located in canyons composed of cliff-forming geologic formations, primarily oriented north-west to south-east. The width of canyons measured at roosts averaged 68 m (105 SD), but ranged from 1-500 m. Canopy cover at roosts used by owls ranged from 44% to 71%, mean tree height of all trees present was 9.5 m and mean diameter of trees was 25.4 cm. Non-roost habitat was warmer, not as steep, and possessed fewer caves and ledges than roost habitat. Trees present in roost plots were taller, and thus showed greater average diameter than trees present in non-roost habitat.

  5. Genetic differentiation and inferred dynamics of a hybrid zone between Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) and California Spotted Owls (S. o. occidentalis) in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Tom; Forsman, Eric D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic differentiation among Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies has been established in prior studies. These investigations also provided evidence for introgression and hybridization among taxa but were limited by a lack of samples from geographic regions where subspecies came into close contact. We analyzed new sets of samples from Northern Spotted Owls (NSO: S. o. caurina) and California Spotted Owls (CSO: S. o. occidentalis) in northern California using mitochondrial DNA sequences (mtDNA) and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci to obtain a clearer depiction of genetic differentiation and hybridization in the region. Our analyses revealed that a NSO population close to the northern edge of the CSO range in northern California (the NSO Contact Zone population) is highly differentiated relative to other NSO populations throughout the remainder of their range. Phylogenetic analyses identified a unique lineage of mtDNA in the NSO Contact Zone, and Bayesian clustering analyses of the microsatellite data identified the Contact Zone as a third distinct population that is differentiated from CSO and NSO found in the remainder of the subspecies' range. Hybridization between NSO and CSO was readily detected in the NSO Contact Zone, with over 50% of individuals showing evidence of hybrid ancestry. Hybridization was also identified among 14% of CSO samples, which were dispersed across the subspecies' range in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The asymmetry of hybridization suggested that the hybrid zone may be dynamic and moving. Although evidence of hybridization existed, we identified no F1 generation hybrid individuals. We instead found evidence for F2 or backcrossed individuals among our samples. The absence of F1 hybrids may indicate that (1) our 10 microsatellites were unable to distinguish hybrid types, (2) primary interactions between subspecies are occurring elsewhere on the landscape, or (3) dispersal between the subspecies' ranges is reduced relative to

  6. Roosting habitat use and selection by northern spotted owls during natal dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovern, Stan G.; Forsman, Eric D.; Dugger, Catherine M.; Taylor, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    We studied habitat selection by northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) during natal dispersal in Washington State, USA, at both the roost site and landscape scales. We used logistic regression to obtain parameters for an exponential resource selection function based on vegetation attributes in roost and random plots in 76 forest stands that were used for roosting. We used a similar analysis to evaluate selection of landscape habitat attributes based on 301 radio-telemetry relocations and random points within our study area. We found no evidence of within-stand selection for any of the variables examined, but 78% of roosts were in stands with at least some large (>50 cm dbh) trees. At the landscape scale, owls selected for stands with high canopy cover (>70%). Dispersing owls selected vegetation types that were more similar to habitat selected by adult owls than habitat that would result from following guidelines previously proposed to maintain dispersal habitat. Our analysis indicates that juvenile owls select stands for roosting that have greater canopy cover than is recommended in current agency guidelines.

  7. Local weather, regional climate, and annual survival of the northern spotted owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E.M.; Anthony, R.G.; Forsman, E.D.; Olson, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    We used an information-theoretical approach and Cormack-Jolly-Seber models for open populations in program MARK to examine relationships between survival rates of Northern Spotted Owls and a variety of local weather variables and long-term climate variables. In four of the six populations examined, survival was positively associated with wetter than normal conditions during the growing season or high summer temperatures. At the three study areas located at the highest elevations, survival was positively associated with winter temperature but also had a negative or quadratic relation with the number of storms and winter precipitation. A metaanalysis of all six areas combined indicated that annual survival was most strongly associated with phase shifts in the Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation, which reflect large-scale temperature and precipitation patterns in this region. Climate accounted for a variable amount (1-41%) of the total process variation in annual survival but for more year-to-year variation (3-66%) than did spatial variation among owl territories (0-7%). Negative associations between survival and cold, wet winters and nesting seasons were similar to those found in other studies of the Spotted Owl. The relationships between survival and growing-season precipitation and regional climate patterns, however, had not been reported for this species previously. Climate-change models for the first half of the 21st century predict warmer, wetter winters and hotter, drier summers for the Pacific Northwest. Our results indicate that these conditions could decrease Spotted Owl survival in some areas. Copyright ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  8. Population trends in northern spotted owls: Associations with climate in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E.M.; Anthony, R.G.; Forsman, E.D.

    2010-01-01

    We used reverse time capture-mark-recapture models to describe associations between rate of population change (??) and climate for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) at six long-term study areas in Washington and Oregon, USA. Populations in three of six areas showed strong evidence of declining populations, while populations in two additional areas were likely declining as well. At four areas, ?? was positively associated with wetter-than-normal conditions during the growing season, which likely affects prey availability. Lambda was also negatively associated with cold, wet winters and nesting seasons, and the number of hot summer days. The amount of annual variation in ?? accounted for by climate varied across study areas (3-85%). Rate of population change was more sensitive to adult survival than to recruitment; however, there was considerable variation among years and across study areas for all demographic rates. While annual survival was more closely related to regional climate conditions, recruitment was often associated with local weather. In addition to climate, declines in recruitment at four of six areas were associated with increased presence of barred owls. Climate change models predict warmer, wetter winters and hotter, drier summers for the Pacific Northwest in the first half of the 21st century. Our results indicate that these conditions have the potential to negatively affect annual survival, recruitment, and consequently population growth rates for northern spotted owls. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Potential influences of climate and nest structure on spotted owl reproductive success: a biophysical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockweit, Jeremy T; Franklin, Alan B; Bakken, George S; Gutiérrez, R J

    2012-01-01

    Many bird species do not make their own nests; therefore, selection of existing sites that provide adequate microclimates is critical. This is particularly true for owls in north temperate climates that often nest early in the year when inclement weather is common. Spotted owls use three main types of nest structures, each of which are structurally distinct and may provide varying levels of protection to the eggs or young. We tested the hypothesis that spotted owl nest configuration influences nest microclimate using both experimental and observational data. We used a wind tunnel to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficient (h(c)) of eggs in 25 potential nest configurations that mimicked 2 nest types (top-cavity and platform nests), at 3 different wind speeds. We then used the estimates of h(c) in a biophysical heat transfer model to estimate how long it would take unattended eggs to cool from incubation temperature (~36 °C) to physiological zero temperature (PZT; ~26 °C) under natural environmental conditions. Our results indicated that the structural configuration of nests influences the cooling time of the eggs inside those nests, and hence, influences the nest microclimate. Estimates of time to PZT ranged from 10.6 minutes to 33.3 minutes. Nest configurations that were most similar to platform nests always had the fastest egg cooling times, suggesting that platform nests were the least protective of those nests we tested. Our field data coupled with our experimental results suggested that nest choice is important for the reproductive success of owls during years of inclement weather or in regions characterized by inclement weather during the nesting season.

  10. Potential influences of climate and nest structure on spotted owl reproductive success: a biophysical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Rockweit

    Full Text Available Many bird species do not make their own nests; therefore, selection of existing sites that provide adequate microclimates is critical. This is particularly true for owls in north temperate climates that often nest early in the year when inclement weather is common. Spotted owls use three main types of nest structures, each of which are structurally distinct and may provide varying levels of protection to the eggs or young. We tested the hypothesis that spotted owl nest configuration influences nest microclimate using both experimental and observational data. We used a wind tunnel to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficient (h(c of eggs in 25 potential nest configurations that mimicked 2 nest types (top-cavity and platform nests, at 3 different wind speeds. We then used the estimates of h(c in a biophysical heat transfer model to estimate how long it would take unattended eggs to cool from incubation temperature (~36 °C to physiological zero temperature (PZT; ~26 °C under natural environmental conditions. Our results indicated that the structural configuration of nests influences the cooling time of the eggs inside those nests, and hence, influences the nest microclimate. Estimates of time to PZT ranged from 10.6 minutes to 33.3 minutes. Nest configurations that were most similar to platform nests always had the fastest egg cooling times, suggesting that platform nests were the least protective of those nests we tested. Our field data coupled with our experimental results suggested that nest choice is important for the reproductive success of owls during years of inclement weather or in regions characterized by inclement weather during the nesting season.

  11. The Scientific Basis for Modeling Northern Spotted Owl Habitat: A Response to Loehle, Irwin, Manly, and Merrill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recently revised the recovery plan (USFWS 2011) and designated Critical Habitat (USFWS 2012a) for the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). The Critical Habitat designation was based in part on a map of relative habitat suitability...

  12. The scientific basis for modeling Northern Spotted Owl habitat: A response to Loehle, Irwin, Manly, and Merrill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey R. Dunk; Brian Woodbridge; Elizabeth M. Glenn; Raymond J. Davis; Katherine Fitzgerald; Paul Henson; David W. LaPlante; Bruce G. Marcot; Barry R. Noon; Martin G. Raphael; Nathan H. Schumaker; Brendan. White

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recently revised the recovery plan (USFWS, 2011) and designated Critical Habitat (USFWS, 2012a) for the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). The Critical Habitat designation was based in part on a map of relative habitat suitability that was developed by USFWS (2011, 2012b) for this purpose. Loehle...

  13. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  14. Biological monitoring of heavy metal contaminations using owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2012-03-01

    Iron, manganese, copper, lead and cadmium were measured in the livers, muscles, kidneys and bones of Eurasian Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo), Brown Hawk Owls (Nixos scutulata) and Collared Scops Owls (Otus lempiji) from Korea. Iron concentrations by tissue within species did not differ, but there were significant differences among tissues across all species. Manganese and copper concentrations in muscles, kidneys and bones, but not livers, differed among species and also differed among tissues in the three owl species. We suggest that manganese and copper concentrations from this study were far below the level associated with their toxicity. Lead concentrations significantly differed among all species for livers and bones, and among tissues for each species. Cadmium concentrations were significantly different among species for all tissues and among tissues in Eurasian Eagle Owls and Collared Scops Owls. For most samples, lead concentrations in livers and bones, and cadmium in livers and kidneys, were within the background levels for wild birds. For some Eurasian Eagle Owls and Collared Scops Owls, lead concentrations were at an acute exposure level, whilst lead concentrations were at a chronic exposure level in Brown Hawk Owls. Cadmium concentrations were at a chronic exposure level in all three owl species. Acute and chronic poisoning was significantly correlated between indicator tissues. We suggest that lead and cadmium contamination in Eurasian Eagle Owls may reflect a Korean source, Brown Hawk Owls may reflect Korean and wintering sites, and Collared Scops Owls may reflect breeding and/or wintering sites. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  15. Population dynamics of the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis): a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, A.B.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Nichols, J.D.; Seamans, M.E.; White, Gary C.; Zimmerman, G.S.; Hines, J.E.; Munton, T.E.; LaHaye, W.S.; Blakesley, J.A.; Steger, G.N.; Noon, B.R.; Shaw, D.W.H.; Keane, J.J.; McDonald, T.L.; Britting, S.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a current assessment of the population characteristics of California Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) resident on four study areas in the Sierra Nevada and one study area in southern California. Our meta-analysis followed rigorous a priori analysis protocols, which we derived through extensive discussion during a week-long analysis workshop. Because there is great interest in the owl?s population status, we used state-of-the-art analytical methods to obtain results as precise as possible. Our meta-analysis included data from five California study areas located on the Lassen National Forest (1990-2000), Eldorado National Forest (1986-2000), Sierra National Forest (1990-2000), Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks (1990-2000), and San Bernardino National Forest (1987-1998). Four of the five study areas spanned the length of the Sierra Nevada, whereas the fifth study area encompassed the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California. Study areas ranged in size from 343 km2 (Sequoia and Kings Canyon) to 2,200 km (Lassen). All studies were designed to use capture-recapture methods and analysis. We used survival in a meta-analysis because field methods were very similar among studies. However, we did not use reproduction in a meta-analysis because it was not clear if variation among individual study-area protocols used to assess reproductive output of owls would confound results. Thus, we analyzed fecundity only by individual study area. We examined population trend using the reparameterized Jolly-Seber capture-recapture estimator (8t) We did not estimate juvenile survival rates because of estimation problems and potential bias because of juvenile emigration from study areas. We used mark-recapture estimators under an information theoretic framework to assess apparent survival rates of adult owls. The pooled estimate for adult apparent survival for the five study areas was 0.833, which was lower than pooled adult

  16. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in northern spotted owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.J.; Bunikis, J.; Barbour, A.G.; Wolcott, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Acute septicemic spirochetosis was diagnosed in an adult male northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) found dead in Kittitas County, Washington, USA. Gross necropsy findings included marked enlargement of the liver and spleen and serofibrinous deposits on the serous membranes lining the body cavities and the pericardial and perihepatic sacs. Microscopic observations included macrophage infiltration in the liver and spleen with mild thrombosis and multifocal necrosis, as well as hemorrhage and acute inflammation in the choroid plexus of the brain. No viruses or pathogenic bacteria were isolated from brain, liver, or spleen, and no parasites were found in blood smears or impression smears of the liver. Chlamydial culture attempts were unsuccessful and no chlamydial antibodies were detected in serum. In silver-stained microscopic sections and by transmission electron microscopy of liver, numerous long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria were seen in the liver, spleen, cerebral ventricles, and within blood vessels in many organs. The organism was identified as a member of the Borrelia genus by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird.

  17. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in a northern spotted owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nancy J; Bunikis, Jonas; Barbour, Alan G; Wolcott, Mark J

    2002-01-01

    Acute septicemic spirochetosis was diagnosed in an adult male northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) found dead in Kittitas County, Washington, USA. Gross necropsy findings included marked enlargement of the liver and spleen and serofibrinous deposits on the serous membranes lining the body cavities and the pericardial and perihepatic sacs. Microscopic observations included macrophage infiltration in the liver and spleen with mild thrombosis and multifocal necrosis, as well as hemorrhage and acute inflammation in the choroid plexus of the brain. No viruses or pathogenic bacteria were isolated from brain, liver, or spleen, and no parasites were found in blood smears or impression smears of the liver. Chlamydial culture attempts were unsuccessful and no chlamydial antibodies were detected in serum. In silver-stained microscopic sections and by transmission electron microscopy of liver, numerous long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria were seen in the liver, spleen, cerebral ventricles, and within blood vessels in many organs. The organism was identified as a member of the Borrelia genus by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird.

  18. Logistic quantile regression provides improved estimates for bounded avian counts: A case study of California Spotted Owl fledgling production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Brian S.; Noon, Barry R.; Scherer, Rick D.; Keane, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Counts of avian fledglings, nestlings, or clutch size that are bounded below by zero and above by some small integer form a discrete random variable distribution that is not approximated well by conventional parametric count distributions such as the Poisson or negative binomial. We developed a logistic quantile regression model to provide estimates of the empirical conditional distribution of a bounded discrete random variable. The logistic quantile regression model requires that counts are randomly jittered to a continuous random variable, logit transformed to bound them between specified lower and upper values, then estimated in conventional linear quantile regression, repeating the 3 steps and averaging estimates. Back-transformation to the original discrete scale relies on the fact that quantiles are equivariant to monotonic transformations. We demonstrate this statistical procedure by modeling 20 years of California Spotted Owl fledgling production (0−3 per territory) on the Lassen National Forest, California, USA, as related to climate, demographic, and landscape habitat characteristics at territories. Spotted Owl fledgling counts increased nonlinearly with decreasing precipitation in the early nesting period, in the winter prior to nesting, and in the prior growing season; with increasing minimum temperatures in the early nesting period; with adult compared to subadult parents; when there was no fledgling production in the prior year; and when percentage of the landscape surrounding nesting sites (202 ha) with trees ≥25 m height increased. Changes in production were primarily driven by changes in the proportion of territories with 2 or 3 fledglings. Average variances of the discrete cumulative distributions of the estimated fledgling counts indicated that temporal changes in climate and parent age class explained 18% of the annual variance in owl fledgling production, which was 34% of the total variance. Prior fledgling production explained as much of

  19. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  20. US EPA OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator (OWL): uses linear regression to fit a plane to the elevation of the water table in monitoring wells in each round of sampling. The slope of the plane fit to the water table is used to predict the direction and gradient of ground water flow. Along with ...

  1. Integrating species distributional, conservation planning, and individual based population models: A case study in critical habitat evaluation for the Northern Spotted Owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background / Question / Methods As part of the ongoing northern spotted owl recovery planning effort, we evaluated a series of alternative potential critical habitat scenarios using a species-distribution model (MaxEnt), a conservation-planning model (Zonation), and an individua...

  2. Integrating distributional, spatial prioritization, and individual-based models to evaluate potential critical habitat networks: A case study using the Northern Spotted Owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the northern spotted owl recovery planning effort, we evaluated a series of alternative critical habitat scenarios using a species-distribution model (MaxEnt), a conservation-planning model (Zonation), and an individual-based population model (HexSim). With this suite ...

  3. Assessing the cocmpatibility of fuel treatments, wildfire risk, and conservation of Northern Spotted Owl habitats and populations in the eastern Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land managers are faced with conundrum when tasked with maintaining populations of threatened Northern Spotted Owl (NSO; Strix occidentalis caurina) while reducing wildfire risk in dry, fire-prone forests of the inland northwest. The USDI Fish and Wildlife Service Final Recovery...

  4. Preliminary risk assessment of the Mexican Spotted Owl under a spatially-weighted foraging regime at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Pratt, L.E.

    1997-02-01

    The Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that the Department of Energy takes special precautions to protect the Mexican Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis lucida). In order to do so, risk to the owl presented by radiological and nonradiological contaminants must be estimated. A preliminary risk assessment on the Mexican Spotted Owl in two Ecological Exposure Units (EEUs) was performed using a modified Environmental Protection Agency Quotient method, the FORTRAN model ECORSK4, and a geographic information system. Estimated doses to the owl under a spatially-weighted foraging regime were compared against toxicological reference doses generating hazard indices (HIs) and hazard quotients (HQs) for three risk source types. The average HI was 0.20 for EEU-21 and 0.0015 for EEU-40. Under the risk parameter assumptions made, hazard quotient results indicated no unacceptable risk to the owl, including a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes a linear additive toxicity type. An HI of 1.0 was used as the evaluative criteria for determining the acceptability of risk. This value was exceeded (1.06) in only one of 200 simulated potential nest sites. Cesium-137, Ni, {sup 239}Pu, Al and {sup 234}U we`re among the constituents with the highest partial HQs. Improving model realism by weighting simulated owl foraging based on distance from potential nest sites decreased the estimated risk by 72% (0.5 HI units) for EEU-21 and by 97.6% (6.3E-02 HI units) for EEU-40. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, owl habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain risk from contaminants at acceptably low levels.

  5. Burrowing Owl Monitoring Report for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, Justin W.; Lindsey, Cole T.; Nugent, John J.

    2013-03-14

    The monitoring during 2012 focused on documenting the status of known burrows. Newly identified burrows were documented while examining historical locations, during ecological resource reviews, or discovered during other monitoring efforts. The timing of the monitoring effort allowed staff to perform the surveys without disrupting any breeding or hatching, while also allowing for easy discernment of adults from juveniles, which helped in determining burrow-use type.

  6. Method for laser spot welding monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassero, Giorgio

    1994-09-01

    As more powerful solid state laser sources appear on the market, new applications become technically possible and important from the economical point of view. For every process a preliminary optimization phase is necessary. The main parameters, used for a welding application by a high power Nd-YAG laser, are: pulse energy, pulse width, repetition rate and process duration or speed. In this paper an experimental methodology, for the development of an electrooptical laser spot welding monitoring system, is presented. The electromagnetic emission from the molten pool was observed and measured with appropriate sensors. The statistical method `Parameter Design' was used to obtain an accurate analysis of the process parameter that influence process results. A laser station with a solid state laser coupled to an optical fiber (1 mm in diameter) was utilized for the welding tests. The main material used for the experimental plan was zinc coated steel sheet 0.8 mm thick. This material and the related spot welding technique are extensively used in the automotive industry, therefore, the introduction of laser technology in production line will improve the quality of the final product. A correlation, between sensor signals and `through or not through' welds, was assessed. The investigation has furthermore shown the necessity, for the modern laser production systems, to use multisensor heads for process monitoring or control with more advanced signal elaboration procedures.

  7. Barred Owl [ds8

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data define the current range of Barred and hybrid Barred/Spotted Owls in California. The current range includes the coastal mountains of northern California...

  8. U.S. EPA OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS (ROCKY GAP, MD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator (OWL): uses linear regression to fit a plane to the elevation of the water table in monitoring wells in each round of sampling. The slope of the plane fit to the water table is used to predict the direction and gradient of ground water flow. Along with ...

  9. Sexing young snowy owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidensticker, M.T.; Holt, D.W.; Detienne, J.; Talbot, S.; Gray, K.

    2011-01-01

    We predicted sex of 140 Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) nestlings out of 34 nests at our Barrow, Alaska, study area to develop a technique for sexing these owls in the field. We primarily sexed young, flightless owls (3844 d old) by quantifying plumage markings on the remiges and tail, predicting sex, and collecting blood samples to test our field predictions using molecular sexing techniques. We categorized and quantified three different plumage markings: two types of bars (defined as markings that touch the rachis) and spots (defined as markings that do not touch the rachis). We predicted sex in the field assuming that males had more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on the remiges and rectrices. Molecular data indicated that we correctly sexed 100% of the nestlings. We modeled the data using random forests and classification trees. Both models indicated that the number and type of markings on the secondary feathers were the most important in classifying nestling sex. The statistical models verified our initial qualitative prediction that males have more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on flight feathers P6P10 for both wings and tail feathers T1 and T2. This study provides researchers with an easily replicable and highly accurate method for sexing young Snowy Owls in the field, which should aid further studies of sex-ratios and sex-related variation in behavior and growth of this circumpolar owl species. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  10. Standardized Monitoring Strategies for Burrowing Owls on DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    whether each owl was detected visually, vocally , or both. Each adult owl detected at a survey point gets its own line, juveniles associated with one...measurements (tail length, meta-tarsus, wing chord ) are made on adult birds that allow comparison of body size between sexes and sites. Age...Burrowing Owls will have a brood patch. Adult Left Wing 180 Use the method shown in Appendix II to measure the owl’s left wing chord length. Record

  11. Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa) Monitoring at Jack Creek 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains information from mark-recapture surveys conducted in 2015 by USGS as part of an ongoing Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) monitoring effort...

  12. Killing One Owl Species to Save Another

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In Jun. 2011, American wildlife officials released a controversial new plan to protect the spotted owls eliminating their cousins. In the past 20 years, much has been done to bring the spotted owls back, but they are still on the decline.

  13. Performance evaluation of quality monitor models in spot welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhongdian; Li Dongqing; Wang Kai

    2005-01-01

    Performance of quality monitor models in spot welding determines the monitor precision directly, so it's crucial to evaluate it. Previously, mean square error ( MSE ) is often used to evaluate performances of models, but it can only show the total errors of finite specimens of models, and cannot show whether the quality information inferred from models are accurate and reliable enough or not. For this reason, by means of measure error theory, a new way to evaluate the performances of models according to the error distributions is developed as follows: Only if correct and precise enough the error distribution of model is, the quality information inferred from model is accurate and reliable.

  14. Real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.; Flynn, Luke P.; Dean, Ken; Pilger, Eric; Wooster, Martin; Okubo, Chris; Mouginis-Mark, Peter; Garbeil, Harold; Thornber, Carl; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Rothery, Dave; Wright, Robert

    Direct satellite data reception at high temporal frequencies and automated processing enable near-real-time, near-continuous thermal monitoring of volcanoes. We review what has been achieved in terms of turning this capability into real-time tools of use to volcano monitoring agencies. Current capabilities focus on 2 instruments: the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager. Collection of lO AVHRR images per day covering Alaska, the Aleutians, and Kamchatka allows routine, on-reception analysis of volcanic hot spots across this region. Data collected between 1996 and 1998 detected 302 hot spots due to lava flows, lava domes, pyroclastic flows, fumaroles, and geothermally heated lakes at 12 different volcanoes. Information was used for hazard mitigation by the Alaskan Volcano Observatory. GOES provides data for North and South American volcanoes every 15-30 minutes. Automated processing allows eruption information and alerts to be posted on the Internet within 15-60 minutes of reception. We use June 1998 to demonstrate the frequency of data acquisition. During this month 2879 GOES images were collected from which 14,832 sub-images of 6 active volcanoes were processed. Although 82% (12,200) of these sub-images were cloud covered, hot spots were still evident on 11% (1634) of the sub-images. Analysis of GOES data for 1998 identified hot spots due to (1) lava flows at Kilauea and Cerro Azul, (2) dome extrusion and explosive activity at Lascar, Popocatepetl, Colima and Pacaya, and (3) dome cooling and collapse at Soufriere Hills. We were also able to suggest that reports of lava flow activity at Cerro Negro were false. This information was supplied to, and used by, various agencies whose task it is to monitor these volcanoes. Global thermal monitoring will become a reality with the launch of the Earth Observing System's moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS). An automated thermal

  15. Owl Pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Craig D.

    1987-01-01

    Provides complete Project WILD lesson plans for 20-45-minute experiential science learning activity for grades 3-7 students. Describes how students construct a simple food chain through examination of owl pellets. Includes lesson objective, method, background information, materials, procedure, evaluation, and sources of owl pellets and posters.…

  16. Sensors Array Technique for Monitoring Aluminum Alloy Spot Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕤; 罗震; 单平; 步贤政; 袁书现; 敖三三

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the sensors array technique is applied to the quality detection of aluminum alloy spot welding.The sensors array has three forms,i.e.,linear magnetic sensors array,annular magnetic sensors array and cross magnetic sensors array.An algorithm based on principal component analysis is proposed to extract the signal eigenvalues.The three types of magnetic sensors array are used in the experiment of monitoring the signal.After the eigenvalues are extracted,they are used to build a relationship with ...

  17. Realized population change for long-term monitoring: California spotted owl case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary M. Conner; John J. Keane; Claire V. Gallagher; Gretchen Jehle; Thomas E. Munton; Paula A. Shaklee; Ross A. Gerrard

    2013-01-01

    The annual rate of population change (λt) is a good metric for evaluating population performance because it summarizes survival and recruitment rates and can be used for open populations. Another measure of population performance, realized population change (Δt...

  18. Sensors Array Technique for Monitoring Aluminum Alloy Spot Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; LUO Zhen; SHAN Ping; BU Xianzheng; YUAN Shuxian; AO Sansan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the sensors array technique is applied to the quality detection of aluminum alloy spot weld-ing. The sensors array has three forms, i.e., linear magnetic sensors array, annular magnetic sensors array and cross magnetic sensors array. An algorithm based on principal component analysis is proposed to extract the signal eigen-values. The three types of magnetic sensors array are used in the experiment of monitoring the signal. After the eigen-values are extracted, they are used to build a relationship with the nugget information. The result shows that when the distance between the core of the array and the pole is 60 mm, the arrays work best. In this case, when the eigenvalues' range of the linear array is 0.006 5-0.015 1, the quality of the spots is eligible. To the annular and cross array, when the ranges are 0.082 9—0.131 6 and 0.085 1—0.098 2 respectively, the nugget quality is eligible.

  19. Rodenticides in British barn owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, I; Wyllie, I; Freestone, P

    1990-01-01

    Out of 145 Barn Owls found dead through accidents (66%), starvation (32%), shooting (2%) and poisoning (Owls for successive periods of 1, 3 and 6 days. All six owls fed on difenacoum-dosed mice survived all three treatments, in which up to an estimated 101.7 microg of difenacoum was consumed, and the coagulation times of their blood returned to near normal in less than 5-23 days. Four of the six owls fed on brodifacoum-dosed mice died 6-17 days after the 1-day treatment, but the survivors also survived the 3-day and 6-day treatments. Those that died had each eaten 3 mice, with a combined weight of about 105g and a total brodifacoum content of about 46.07 microg, which was equivalent to a dose of 0.150-0.182 mg kg(-1) of owl body weight. After death these owls had 0.63-1.25 micro g(-1) of brodifacoum in their livers. Blood from the survivors would not coagulate at 9 days post-treatment, but did so at 16 days in one bird and between 38 and 78 days in the other. It is concluded that: (1) Barn Owls in Britain are now widely exposed to second-generation rodenticides; (2) not all owls exposed to these chemicals are likely to receive a lethal dose; (3) brodifacoum is more toxic to owls than difenacoum; and (4) while there is yet no evidence that rodenticides have had any appreciable effect on Barn Owl populations in Britain, further monitoring of residue levels and population trends in desirable.

  20. Modeling interactions betweenspotted owl and barred owl populations in fire-prone forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background / Question / Methods Efforts to conserve northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the eastern Cascades of Washington must merge the challenges of providing sufficient structurally complex forest habitat in a fire-prone landscape with the limitations impos...

  1. Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus surveys in the North American Intermountain West: utilizing citizen scientists to conduct monitoring across a broad geographic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus is an open-country species breeding in the northern United States and Canada, and has likely experienced a long-term, range-wide, and substantial decline. However, the cause and magnitude of the decline is not well understood. We set forth to address the first two of six previously proposed conservation priorities to be addressed for this species: (1 better define habitat use and (2 improve population monitoring. We recruited 131 volunteers to survey over 6.2 million ha within the state of Idaho for Short-eared Owls during the 2015 breeding season. We surveyed 75 transects, 71 of which were surveyed twice, and detected Short-eared Owls on 27 transects. We performed multiscale occupancy modeling to identify habitat associations, and performed multiscale abundance modeling to generate a state-wide population estimate. Our results suggest that within the state of Idaho, Short-eared Owls are more often found in areas with marshland or riparian habitat or areas with greater amounts of sagebrush habitat at the 1750 ha transect scale. At the 50 ha point scale, Short-eared Owls tend to associate positively with fallow and bare dirt agricultural land and negatively with grassland. Cropland was not chosen at the broader transect scale suggesting that Short-eared Owls may prefer more heterogeneous landscapes. On the surface our results may seem contradictory to the presumed land use by a "grassland" species; however, the grasslands of the Intermountain West, consisting largely of invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum, lack the complex structure shown to be preferred by these owls. We suggest the local adaptation to agriculture represents the next best habitat to their historical native habitat preferences. Regardless, we have confirmed regional differences that should be considered in conservation planning for this species. Last, our results demonstrate the feasibility, efficiency, and effectiveness of utilizing public

  2. Potential trophic cascades triggered by the barred owl range expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Samantha R.; Noon, Barry R.; Wiens, David; Ripple, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the barred owl (Strix varia) has expanded its range into the Pacific Northwest of the United States resulting in pronounced effects on the demography and behavior of the northern spotted owl (S. occidentalis caurina). The range expansion has brought together historically allopatric species, creating the potential for significant changes in the avian predator community with possible cascading effects on food-web dynamics. The adverse effects of the barred owl on the behavior and demography of the northern spotted owl are well-documented, but little is known about the immediate and long-term effects changes in the predator community may have on native species composition and ecosystem processes. Based on northern spotted owl and barred owl selection for diet and habitat resources, there is a potential for trophic cascades within the region's predator and prey communities, differing responses by their shared and unique prey species, and possible direct and indirect effects on ecosystem processes. We explored the possible ecological consequences of the barred owl range expansion to wildlife communities of the Pacific Northwest based on the theoretical underpinnings of predator–prey relationships, interspecific competition, intraguild predation, and potential cascading trophic interactions. Negative effects on fitness of northern spotted owls because of interspecific competition with barred owls are strong selection forces that may contribute to the regional extinction of the northern spotted owl. In addition, we posit that shared prey species and those uniquely consumed by barred owls, along with other competing native predators, may experience changes in behavior, abundance, and distribution as a result of increased rates of predation by rapidly expanding populations of barred owls.

  3. Dried blood spot analysis for therapeutic drug monitoring of pazopanib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Djoeke; den Hartigh, Jan; Gelderblom, Hans; Qian, Yanwen; den Hollander, Margret; Verheul, Henk; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; van Erp, Nielka P

    2015-12-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is potentially a more patient-friendly and flexible alternative to venous sampling of pazopanib. This study determined the agreement between pazopanib DBS and plasma concentrations to facilitate implementation of pazopanib DBS sampling into clinical practice. Paired DBS and plasma samples were collected in 12 patients. Pazopanib plasma concentrations were calculated from DBS concentrations using the formula: plasma concentration = DBSconcentration /(1 - hematocrit). Passing-Bablok and Bland-Altman analyses were used to determine the agreement between calculated and measured plasma concentrations. We predefined a clinical acceptance limit of 25% for the Bland-Altman analysis. Passing-Bablok analysis showed a small constant (intercept estimate, -8.53 [95%CI, -12.22 to -4.41]) and slightly proportional (slope estimate, 1.15 [95%CI, 1.04-1.24]) bias between calculated and measured concentrations. This bias was clinically nonrelevant, as shown by Bland-Altman analysis; the mean ratio of calculated to measured concentrations was 0.94 (95%CI, 0.65-1.23). The clinical acceptance limits were well within these 95% limits of agreement. More specifically, 92.6% of the data points were within the predefined acceptance limits. Pazopanib plasma concentrations can be accurately calculated from DBS concentrations. Although validation of DBS cards prepared by patients themselves is required, these results show that DBS sampling can be used to monitor pazopanib therapy in clinical practice.

  4. Spot-4 vegetation instrument: Vegetation monitoring on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durpaire, J.-P.; Gentet, T.; Phulpin, T.; Arnaud, M.

    1995-04-01

    Vegetation plays a major role in global climatic change. It is a major contributor to the hydrological cycle and carbon exchanges between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. A new space-based system dedicated to vegetation would be a boom to climatic and environmental studies. The additional possibilities of evaluating agricultural, pasture and forest production would be major contributions to improved natural resources management and a special benefit to agriculture and the general economy in developing countries. A space mission for monitoring terrestrial vegetation at global and local levels is proposed for inclusion in the Spot-4 payload, scheduled for launch around 1997. The "vegetation" concept is more than just an on-board package; it is a complete system with its own space and ground segments. The vegetation instrument (VI) on-board package is designed as an add-on payload that is quite independent of the host satellite. In addition to the basic imaging instrument, the add-on payload includes a solid-state recorder, an image telemetry subsystem and a computer to manage the work plan. To accommodate future long-term missions and achieve a lifetime in excess of 5 years, no moving parts are included in either the imaging instrument proper or the recorder subsystem. The innovative, large field-of-view (101∘) imaging instrument features telecentric lenses and focal-plane illumination compensation. Despite the large FOV, pixel size varies extremely little across the swath. Overall, the instrument offers an excellent revisit capability at the highest resolution. The inclusion of the VI package alongside Spot-4's prime payload of two HRVIR (high resolution visible and i.r.) imaging instruments will open the way to studies requiring both high accuracy satellite imagery and short revisit intervals. The combination of HRVIR and VI imagery will pave the way to powerful new multi-scale interpretation models, particularly as the instruments will share the same

  5. Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) monitoring at Jack Creek 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie; Rowe, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This dataset contains information from mark-recapture and egg mass surveys conducted 2015-2016 by USGS as part of an ongoing Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) monitoring effort at Jack Creek, Klamath County, Oregon. Data consist of spotted frog counts aggregated by date, location, life stage, and sex, as well as data on environmental conditions at the time each survey.

  6. Elf Owl [ds14

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set contains a database of all known positive observations of elf owls in California. This data set is a companion to Elf Owl Surveys which portrays the...

  7. Effects of modeling means on properties of monitoring models of spot welding quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠典; 李冬青; 赵洪运; 于燕

    2002-01-01

    Analyzing and modeling the relation between monitoring information during welding and quality information of the joints is the foundation of monitoring resistance spot welding quality. According to the means of modeling, the known models can be divided into three large categories: single linear regression models, multiple linear regression models and multiple non-linear models. By modeling the relations between dynamic resistance information and welding quality parameters with different means, this paper analyzes effects of modeling means on performances of monitoring models of resistance spot welding quality. From the test results, the following conclusions can be drawn: By comparison with two other kinds of models, artificial neural network (ANN) model can describe non-linear and high coupling relationship between monitoring information and quality information more reasonably, improve performance of monitoring model remarkably, and make the estimated values of welding quality parameters more accurate and reliable.

  8. Unseen sentinels: local monitoring and control in conservation's blind spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Sheil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although official on-the-ground environmental monitoring is absent over much of the world, many people living in these regions observe, manage, and protect their environment. The autonomous monitoring processes associated with these activities are seldom documented and appear poorly recognized by conservation professionals. We identified monitoring activities in three villages in the Mamberamo-Foja region (Mamberamo Regency of Papua (Indonesian New Guinea. In each village we found evidence that local monitoring contributes to effective protection and deters unregulated exploitation. Although everyone gathers observations and shares information, there are also specific roles. For example, the Ijabait hereditary guardians live at strategic sites where they control access to resource-rich lakes and tributaries along the Tariku River. Often, monitoring is combined with and thus influences other activities: for example, hunting regularly includes areas judged vulnerable to incursions by neighboring communities. We identified various examples of community members intervening to prevent and deter outsiders from exploiting resources within their territories. Enforcement of rules and assessment of resource status also help prevent local overexploitation within the communities. Clearly, local people are effective in protecting large areas in a relatively natural state. We discuss the value of these autonomous monitoring and protection processes, their neglect, and the need for explicit recognition by those concerned about these people and their environments, as well as about conservation. We highlight a potential "tragedy of the unseen sentinels" when effective local protection is undermined not because these local systems are invisible, but because no one recognizes what they see.

  9. Ultrasonic Real-Time Quality Monitoring Of Aluminum Spot Weld Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Regalado, Waldo Josue

    The real-time ultrasonic spot weld monitoring system, introduced by our research group, has been designed for the unsupervised quality characterization of the spot welding process. It comprises the ultrasonic transducer (probe) built into one of the welding electrodes and an electronics hardware unit which gathers information from the transducer, performs real-time weld quality characterization and communicates with the robot programmable logic controller (PLC). The system has been fully developed for the inspection of spot welds manufactured in steel alloys, and has been mainly applied in the automotive industry. In recent years, a variety of materials have been introduced to the automotive industry. These include high strength steels, magnesium alloys, and aluminum alloys. Aluminum alloys have been of particular interest due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. Resistance spot welding requirements for aluminum vary greatly from those of steel. Additionally, the oxide film formed on the aluminum surface increases the heat generation between the copper electrodes and the aluminum plates leading to accelerated electrode deterioration. Preliminary studies showed that the real-time quality inspection system was not able to monitor spot welds manufactured with aluminum. The extensive experimental research, finite element modelling of the aluminum welding process and finite difference modeling of the acoustic wave propagation through the aluminum spot welds presented in this dissertation, revealed that the thermodynamics and hence the acoustic wave propagation through an aluminum and a steel spot weld differ significantly. For this reason, the hardware requirements and the algorithms developed to determine the welds quality from the ultrasonic data used on steel, no longer apply on aluminum spot welds. After updating the system and designing the required algorithms, parameters such as liquid nugget penetration and nugget diameter were available in the ultrasonic data

  10. Owls On Silent Wings. The Wonder Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ann C.

    This curriculum guide is all about owls and provides information on the folklore related to owls, present populations, explanations of physical characteristics, exploring owl pellets, burrowing owls, snowy owls, and great horned owls. Included are eight activities using owl cards, owl pellets, puzzles, and origami. This guide aims to increase…

  11. Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) monitoring in the Oregon Cascades 2012-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie; Rowe, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This dataset contains information from visual encounter surveys conducted between 2012 and 2016 by USGS as part of an ongoing Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) monitoring effort in the Oregon Cascade Mountain Range. We surveyed 91 sites using a rotating frame design in the Klamath and Deschutes Basins, Oregon, which encompass most of the species' core extant range. Data consist of spotted frog counts aggregated by date, location, and life stage, as well as data on environmental conditions at the time of each survey.

  12. THE INDUSTRIAL TV SYSTEM OF MULTI-SPOT TELECONTROLLING AND MONITORING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐钊; 钱建生; 吴建新

    1994-01-01

    This system can not only monitor the video signals from 16TV cameras at 10 different spots simultaneously, but also telecontrol the 16 cameras. The hardware in the system is simple, appllcable and reliable, because intelligent components have been adopted and many functions can be achieved by software. Even if the code rates deviate from the designed value (300 baud/s) in 50 times, the remote signals can still be exactly received by the code rate measuring with software. The clash among remote signals from multiple spots a completely eliminated by checking their priorities with software.

  13. Biology and conservation of owls of the Northern Hemisphere: 2nd International symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Duncan; David H. Johnson; Thomas H. Nicholls

    1997-01-01

    The proceeding contains 91 papers authored by 143 people from 13 countries covering biology, ecology, monitoring, habitat-use, status conservation, education, genetics, toxicology, diet, migration, mortality and related topics concerning owls of the Northern Hemisphere. Thirty-three owl species are discussed. Information presented will be useful in owl conservation,...

  14. Population dynamics of Lanyu Scops Owls (Otus elegans botelensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. L. Severinghaus

    1997-01-01

    Monthly visits to Lanyu Island have been made to study Lanyu Scops Owls (Otus elegans botelensis) since 1986. This population has been surveyed by regular census and playback counts, by color banding, by monitoring the survival, reproduction and movements of individual owls, and by mapping and documenting the change in nest trees.

  15. Monitoring and Tracking the LHC Beam Spot within the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Winklmeier, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The parameters of the beam spot produced by the LHC in the ATLAS interaction region are computed online using the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) system. The high rate of triggered events is exploited to make precise measurements of the position, size and orientation of the luminous region in near real-time, as these parameters change significantly even during a single data-taking run. We present the challenges, solutions and results for the online determination, monitoring and beam spot feedback system in ATLAS. A specially designed algorithm, which uses tracks registered in the silicon detectors to reconstruct event vertices, is executed on the HLT processor farm of several thousand CPU cores. Monitoring histograms from all the cores are sampled and aggregated across the farm every 60 seconds. The reconstructed beam values are corrected for detector resolution effects, measured in situ from the separation of vertices whose tracks have been split into two collections. Furthermore, measurements for individual ...

  16. Owl: electronic datasheet generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Evan; Tao, Jenhan; Wheatley, F Carter; Desai, Devina H; Lozanoski, Thomas M; Shah, Pooja D; Awtry, Jake A; Jin, Shawn S; Haddock, Traci L; Densmore, Douglas M

    2014-12-19

    Owl ( www.owlcad.org ) is a biodesign automation tool that generates electronic datasheets for synthetic biological parts using common formatting. Data can be retrieved automatically from existing repositories and modified in the Owl user interface (UI). Owl uses the data to generate an HTML page with standard typesetting that can be saved as a PDF file. Here we present the Owl software tool in its alpha version, its current UI, its description of input data for generating a datasheet, its example datasheets, and the vision of the tool's role in biodesign automation.

  17. Effects of minimum monitor unit threshold on spot scanning proton plan quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Michelle; Beltran, Chris; Mayo, Charles S; Herman, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of the minimum monitor unit (MU) on the quality of clinical treatment plans for scanned proton therapy. Delivery system characteristics limit the minimum number of protons that can be delivered per spot, resulting in a min-MU limit. Plan quality can be impacted by the min-MU limit. Two sites were used to investigate the impact of min-MU on treatment plans: pediatric brain tumor at a depth of 5-10 cm; a head and neck tumor at a depth of 1-20 cm. Three-field, intensity modulated spot scanning proton plans were created for each site with the following parameter variations: min-MU limit range of 0.0000-0.0060; and spot spacing range of 2-8 mm. Comparisons were based on target homogeneity and normal tissue sparing. For the pediatric brain, two versions of the treatment planning system were also compared to judge the effects of the min-MU limit based on when it is accounted for in the optimization process (Eclipse v.10 and v.13, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The increase of the min-MU limit with a fixed spot spacing decreases plan quality both in homogeneous target coverage and in the avoidance of critical structures. Both head and neck and pediatric brain plans show a 20% increase in relative dose for the hot spot in the CTV and 10% increase in key critical structures when comparing min-MU limits of 0.0000 and 0.0060 with a fixed spot spacing of 4 mm. The DVHs of CTVs show min-MU limits of 0.0000 and 0.0010 produce similar plan quality and quality decreases as the min-MU limit increases beyond 0.0020. As spot spacing approaches 8 mm, degradation in plan quality is observed when no min-MU limit is imposed. Given a fixed spot spacing of ≤4 mm, plan quality decreases as min-MU increased beyond 0.0020. The effect of min-MU needs to be taken into consideration while planning proton therapy treatments.

  18. Weldability and Monitoring of Resistance Spot Welding of Q&P and TRIP Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Russo Spena

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at investigating the spot weldability of a new advanced Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P steel and a Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP steel for automotive applications by evaluating the effects of the main welding parameters on the mechanical performance of their dissimilar spot welds. The welding current, the electrode tip voltage and the electrical resistance of sheet stack were monitored in order to detect any metal expulsion and to evaluate its severity, as well as to clarify its effect on spot strength. The joint strength was assessed by means of shear and cross tension tests. The corresponding fracture modes were determined through optical microscopy. The welding current is the main process parameter that affects the weld strength, followed by the clamping force and welding time. Metal expulsion can occur through a single large expulsion or multiple expulsions, whose effects on the shear and cross tension strength have been assessed. Longer welding times can limit the negative effect of an expulsion if it occurs in the first part of the joining process. The spot welds exhibit different fracture modes according to their strengths. Overall, a proper weldability window for the selected process parameters has been determined to obtain sound joints.

  19. 77 FR 14036 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Experimental Removal of Barred Owls to Benefit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... collecting permits under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703-712; MBTA) for lethal and non-lethal... effects of barred owl removal on spotted owl site occupancy, reproduction, and survival (USFWS 2011, p... reproduction (Olson et al. 2004, p. 1048; Anthony et al. 2006, p. 32; Forsman et al. 2011, pp. 41-43,...

  20. Quality monitoring of resistance spot welding based on electrode displacement characteristics analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pengxian; ZHANG Hongjie; CHEN Jianhong; MA Yuezhou

    2007-01-01

    A new method is developed to monitor joint quality based on the information collection and process in spot welding.First,twelve parameters related to weld quality are mined from electrode displacement signal on the basis of different phases of nugget formation marked by simultaneous dynamic resistance signal.Second,through correlation analysis of the parameters and taking tensile-shear strength of the spot-welded joint as evaluation target,different characteristic parameters are reasonably selected.At the same time,linear regression,nonlinear regression and radial basis function (RBF) neural network models are set up to evaluate weld quality between the selected parameters and tensileshear strength.Finally,the validity of the proposed models is certified.Results show that all of the models can be used to monitor joint quality.For the RBF neural network model,which is more effective for monitoring weld quality than the others,the average error validated is 2.88% and the maximal error validated is under 10%.

  1. Owl survey - 2014, Lake Camp to King Salmon, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In discussions of monitoring and conservation actions for priority avian species and species groups on the northern Alaska Peninsula, owls were determined to be a...

  2. Owl pilot survey - 2013 Lake Camp to King Salmon, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In discussions of monitoring and conservation actions for priority avian species and species groups on the northern Alaska Peninsula, owls were determined to be a...

  3. Learning from an Owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeves, Adrian

    1988-01-01

    Describes one creative writing teacher's use of an owl as a focal point for writing activities and how the writing activities aided the students' personal and creative development. Provides samples of student writing. (ARH)

  4. Mixed-Media Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The fun of creating collages is there are unlimited possibilities for the different kinds of materials one can use. In this article, the author describes how her eighth-grade students created an owl using mixed media.

  5. Een "spotted owl" in de achtertuin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Aandacht voor de houtkap in de Oeral, in de laatste oerbossen van Europa. Verminderde houtproductie in West-Europa als gevolg van ander bosbeheer en bosbeleid leidt tot een verschuiving van de houtoogst van West- naar Oost-Europa. Om de druk op de laatste Europese oerbossen te verminderen moeten we

  6. Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa) movement and demography at Dilman Meadow: implications for future monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelgren, Nathan D.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bowerman, Jay; Adams, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) is a highly aquatic frog that has been extirpated from a large portion of its historic range in the Pacific Northwest, and remaining populations are reduced and isolated (Hayes 1997, Pearl and Hayes 2005). Loss and alteration of marsh habitat, predation and competition from exotic fish and bullfrogs, and degraded water quality from agriculture and livestock grazing are implicated in their decline (Hayes 1997, Pearl and Hayes 2005). In 2001, an interagency team translocated a population of frogs from a site that was to be eliminated by the renovation of the dam impounding Wickiup Reservoir, to newly created ponds at Dilman Meadow (121i?? 39' 52" W, 43i?? 41' 58" N), 2.5 km from the original site in central Oregon, USA. We monitored Oregon spotted frog demography and movements at Dilman Meadow for > 4 yr to assess the efficacy of these mitigation efforts, determine metrics for long-term monitoring, and inform future management at the site. More broadly, many aspects of Oregon spotted frog life history are poorly known, so understanding demography and movement patterns is likely to be useful in its conservation. Although wildlife translocations have been attempted extensively as conservation means, few such projects have been sufficiently monitored for demographic rates to understand the causes for the translocation's success or failure (Dodd and Seigel 1991). Our objective here is to document demographic and movement patterns in the population of Oregon spotted frog at Dilman Meadow so that this information will be available to guide management decisions. To better evaluate amphibian population responses to management actions it is important to consider the contribution of each life history stage and both genders to the balance of reproduction and mortality. Population growth or contraction occurs as a complicated function of the probability of breeding, fecundity, and survival during multiple life history stages

  7. OWL Web Ontology Language XML Presentation Syntax

    OpenAIRE

    Hori, Masahiro; Euzenat, Jérôme; Patel-Schneider, Peter

    2003-01-01

    hori2003a; This document describes an XML presentation syntax and XML Schemas for OWL 1.0 sublanguages: OWL Lite, OWL DL, and OWL Full. This document has been written to meet the requirement that OWL 1.0 should have an XML serialization syntax (R15 in [OWL Requirement]). It is not intended to be a normative specification. Instead, it represents a suggestion of one possible XML presentation syntax for OWL.

  8. Role of therapeutic drug monitoring in pulmonary infections : use and potential for expanded use of dried blood spot samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Susan; Bolhuis, Mathieu S.; Koster, Remco A.; Akkerman, Onno W.; van Assen, Sander; Stove, Christophe; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in men. We reviewed literature to document their pharmacological treatments, and the extent to which therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is needed during treatment. We subsequently examined potential use of dried blood spots as sample p

  9. Process window and defect monitoring using high-throughput e-beam inspection guided by computational hot spot detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Pengcheng; Fang, Wei; Liu, Kevin; Jau, Jack; Wang, Lester; Wan, Alex; Hunsche, Stefan; Halder, Sandip; Leray, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    As design rules for leading edge devices have shrunk to 1x nm size and below, device patterns have become sensitive to sub-10nm size defects. Additionally, defectivity and yield are now increasingly dominated by systematic patterning defects. A method for identifying and inspecting these hot spot (HS) locations is necessary for both technology development and High Volume Manufacturing (HVM). In order to achieve sufficient statistical significance across the wafer for a specific product and layer, a guided, high-speed e-beam inspection system is needed to cover a significant amount of high-volume hot spot locations for process window monitoring. In this paper, we explore the capabilities of a novel, highthroughput e-beam hot spot inspection tool, SkyScanTM 5000, on a 10nm back-end-of-line (BEOL) wafer patterned using a triple lithography-etch process. ASML's high-resolution, design-aware computational hot spot inspection is used to identify relevant hot spot locations, including overlay-sensitive patterns. We guide the e-beam tool to these Points of Interest (POI) and obtain experimental data from inspection of 430k wafer locations. The large amount of data allows detection of wafer-level and intra-field defect signatures for a large number of hot spot patterns.

  10. Microfluidic setup for on-line SERS monitoring using laser induced nanoparticle spots as SERS active substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-M. Buja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A microfluidic setup which enables on-line monitoring of residues of malachite green (MG using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS is reported. The SERS active substrate was prepared via laser induced synthesis of silver or gold nanoparticles spot on the bottom of a 200 μm inner dimension glass capillary, by focusing the laser beam during a continuous flow of a mixture of silver nitrate or gold chloride and sodium citrate. The described microfluidic setup enables within a few minutes the monitoring of several processes: the synthesis of the SERS active spot, MG adsorption to the metal surface, detection of the analyte when saturation of the SERS signal is reached, and finally, the desorption of MG from the spot. Moreover, after MG complete desorption, the regeneration of the SERS active spot was achieved. The detection of MG was possible down to 10−7 M concentration with a good reproducibility when using silver or gold spots as SERS substrate.

  11. Owl Pellet Paleontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Lisa K.

    2013-01-01

    In this activity for the beginning of a high school Biology 1 evolution unit, students are challenged to reconstruct organisms found in an owl pellet as a model for fossil reconstruction. They work in groups to develop hypotheses about what animal they have found, what environment it inhabited, and what niche it filled. At the end of the activity,…

  12. Owl, werewolf, firefly: Animal trace narrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Wandelli Loth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The route by a network of narrators from different eras finds a trace of animality in the look and in the flâneur writing, since Restif de La Bretonne proposed, in the eighteenth century, the similarity between the reporter/narrator and a night bird. This track permits that one proposes the category of the owl-narrator, which puts into practice an inhuman method of looking at the shadow areas of the cities. Here considered as narratives of the dark, this cartography runs several textualities intertwined by the desire to see what is beneath the everyday life – from Bretonne and Mercier, through Poe, Baudelaire, João do Rio and arriving to Clarice Lispector. Sometimes, the owl narrative disappears to resurge in every city where there is a stubborn wanderer who overcomes the invisibility spot on the human eye. The crowds go ahead inattentively, overshadowed by the proliferation of signs and advertisements, they march to the future without looking back. The owl does not; it retains the time to envision the disappearance of singularities and to foresee what the today story points out as more clandestine. As claims Benjamin (1994, p. 231, “thinking not only includes the movement of ideas, but also their immobilization”. The walk by the early writer-reporters allows us to consider that the owl-flâneur inaugurates not only himself, but also this kind of narrative based on a poetic of looking to the rubble. The physical roaming characterizes it, but does not determine the narrative, as it does not determine the trip, the inner displacement. Mostly, the impulse to see the unknown awakens other obscured powers, reintegrating them to the perception of the urban movements and driving the narrative to walk, to hear, to smell, to feel. In the nightly flight by means of a pivoting look, literature announces the survivals that do not cease to disappear in front of the contemporary life.

  13. Evaluation of spot and passive sampling for monitoring, flux estimation and risk assessment of pesticides within the constraints of a typical regulatory monitoring scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zulin; Troldborg, Mads; Yates, Kyari; Osprey, Mark; Kerr, Christine; Hallett, Paul D; Baggaley, Nikki; Rhind, Stewart M; Dawson, Julian J C; Hough, Rupert L

    2016-11-01

    In many agricultural catchments of Europe and North America, pesticides occur at generally low concentrations with significant temporal variation. This poses several challenges for both monitoring and understanding ecological risks/impacts of these chemicals. This study aimed to compare the performance of passive and spot sampling strategies given the constraints of typical regulatory monitoring. Nine pesticides were investigated in a river currently undergoing regulatory monitoring (River Ugie, Scotland). Within this regulatory framework, spot and passive sampling were undertaken to understand spatiotemporal occurrence, mass loads and ecological risks. All the target pesticides were detected in water by both sampling strategies. Chlorotoluron was observed to be the dominant pesticide by both spot (maximum: 111.8ng/l, mean: 9.35ng/l) and passive sampling (maximum: 39.24ng/l, mean: 4.76ng/l). The annual pesticide loads were estimated to be 2735g and 1837g based on the spot and passive sampling data, respectively. The spatiotemporal trend suggested that agricultural activities were the primary source of the compounds with variability in loads explained in large by timing of pesticide applications and rainfall. The risk assessment showed chlorotoluron and chlorpyrifos posed the highest ecological risks with 23% of the chlorotoluron spot samples and 36% of the chlorpyrifos passive samples resulting in a Risk Quotient greater than 0.1. This suggests that mitigation measures might need to be taken to reduce the input of pesticides into the river. The overall comparison of the two sampling strategies supported the hypothesis that passive sampling tends to integrate the contaminants over a period of exposure and allows quantification of contamination at low concentration. The results suggested that within a regulatory monitoring context passive sampling was more suitable for flux estimation and risk assessment of trace contaminants which cannot be diagnosed by spot

  14. Owl Research that's Good for the Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristol, Daniel A.

    1986-01-01

    Describes and illustrates how to build nest boxes to provide city homes for screech owls to reestablish a healthy ecological balance. Outlines how to conduct a pellet analysis of an owl's diet and how to study screech owl territoriality. (NEC)

  15. Application of laser ultrasonic method for on-line monitoring of friction stir spot welding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuanshuang; Zhou, Zhenggan; Zhou, Jianghua

    2015-09-01

    Application of a laser ultrasonic method is developed for on-line monitoring of the friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process. Based on the technology of FSSW, laser-generated ultrasonic waves in a good weld and nonweld area are simulated by a finite element method. The reflected and transmitted waves are analyzed to disclose the properties of the welded interface. The noncontact-laser ultrasonic-inspection system was established to verify the numerical results. The reflected waves in the good-weld and nonweld area can be distinguished by time-of-flight. The transmitted waves evidently attenuate in the nonweld area in contrast to signal amplitude in the good weld area because of interfacial impedance difference. Laser ultrasonic C-scan images can sufficiently evaluate the intrinsic character of the weld area in comparison with traditional water-immersion ultrasonic testing results. The research results confirm that laser ultrasonics would be an effective method to realize the characterization of FSSW defects.

  16. Post-fledging behaviour of juveniles in the Little Owl (Athene noctua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dorthe; Thorup, Kasper; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Before dispersal, social and spatial behaviour in owls has only been briefly studied. We used radio tracking to monitor age-influenced social and spatial behaviour in 10 juvenile Little Owls (Athene noctua) from nests in Northern Jutland, Denmark. On average, the post-fledging dependency period...

  17. Monitoring of spotted eagles in Estonia in 1994–2014: Stability of the lesser spotted eagle (Aquila pomarina and decline of the greater spotted eagle (A. clanga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väli Ülo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Populacné trendy orla kriklavého a hrubozobého v Estónsku boli odhadnuté z údajov získaných v rokoch 1994 - 2014 v rámci monitoringu bežných druhov dravcov a tiež zo špeciálnych plôch na monitoring týchto dvoch druhov orlov. Oba metodické prístupy majú svoje klady a zápory, avšak z ich údajov vypocítané populacné trendy sú si podobné. Pocetnost orla kriklavého v posledných dvoch desatrociach mierne kolísala, celkový trend je ale stabilný; velkost jeho populácie sa v súcasnosti odhaduje na 600 - 700 párov. Pocet hniezdnych teritórií orla hrubozobého (cisté aj zmiešané páry významne poklesol, napr. v rokoch 2004 až 2010 o 14 % za rok, v posledných rokoch sa ich pocet zdá byt stabilizovaný na kriticky nízkej úrovni. Pokles pocetnosti cistých párov bol prudší než u zmiešaných párov, ich podiel sa znížil z tretiny na štvrtinu z hniezdnych teritórií orla hrubozobého. Dnes je v Estónsku možné nájst 5 - 10 hniezdnych teritórií tohto druhu orla.

  18. Oregon Spotted Frog Monitoring in the Oregon Cascades 2012-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains information from visual encounter surveys conducted between 2012 and 2016 by USGS as part of an ongoing Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa)...

  19. Monitoring Inland Water Turbidity: Contribution of SPOT5 Take5 to Health Hazard Monitoring in West Africa (Bagre Lake, Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Sylvain; Somdecoste, Tom; Gal, Laetitia

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring turbidity and Surface Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSSC) of inland waters in tropics is essential to assess human health risks, in particular the diarrheal disease risk. In this study, we explore the use of Spot5 time series acquired for the Spot5Take5 Program to monitor turbidity and SSSC on the Bagre Lake (Burkina Faso). Field measurements (turbidity, SSSC, radiometry) are used to evaluate different radiometric indices. The combination of the NIR with a visible band (R or G) is found to be the best suited to retrieve SSSC and turbidity from Spot5 images. Large differences between upstream and downstream areas of the lake are well capture by the Spot5 time series, with large difference in the seasonal maximum both for absolute values and timing. A large sediment transport is observed from upstream to downstream between June and September caused by surface runoff and erosion. The high turbidity values observed suggest that the associated health hazard is potentially high, especially at the beginning of the rainy season and in the upstream areas of the lake.

  20. Owl Pellets and Crisis Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…

  1. OWL 2 Web Ontology Language: XML serialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motik, B.; Patel-Schneider, P.; Bechhofer, S.; Cuenca Grau, B.; Fokoue, A.; Hoekstra, R.; Parsia, B.

    2008-01-01

    The OWL 2 Web Ontology Language, informally OWL 2, is an ontology language for the Semantic Web with formally defined meaning. OWL 2 ontologies provide classes, properties, individuals, and data values and are stored as Semantic Web documents. OWL 2 ontologies can be used along with information writ

  2. Verbalizing OWL in Attempto controlled English

    OpenAIRE

    Kaljurand, K; Fuchs, N E

    2007-01-01

    We describe a verbalization of the logical content of OWL ontologies — using OWL 1.1 without data-valued properties — in Attempto Controlled English (ACE). Because ACE is a subset of English, the verbalization makes OWL ontologies accessible to people with no training in formal methods. We conclude that OWL can be verbalized in concise and understandable English provided that a certain naming style is adopted for OWL individuals, classes, and properties.

  3. DARK SPOT DETECTION USING INTENSITY AND THE DEGREE OF POLARIZATION IN FULLY POLARIMETRIC SAR IMAGES FOR OIL POLUTION MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zakeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil spill surveillance is of great environmental and economical interest, directly contributing to improve environmental protection. Monitoring of oil spills using synthetic aperture radar (SAR has received a considerable attention over the past few years, notably because of SAR data abilities like all-weather and day-and-night capturing. The degree of polarization (DoP is a less computationally complex quantity characterizing a partially polarized electromagnetic field. The key to the proposed approach is making use of DoP as polarimetric information besides intensity ones to improve dark patches detection as the first step of oil spill monitoring. In the proposed approach first simple intensity threshold segmentation like Otsu method is applied to the image. Pixels with intensities below the threshold are regarded as potential dark spot pixels while the others are potential background pixels. Second, the DoP of potential dark spot pixels is estimated. Pixels with DoP below a certain threshold are the real dark-spot pixels. Choosing the threshold is a critical and challenging step. In order to solve choosing the appropriate threshold, we introduce a novel but simple method based on DoP of potential dark spot pixels. Finally, an area threshold is used to eliminate any remaining false targets. The proposed approach is tested on L band NASA/JPL UAVSAR data, covering the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Comparing the obtained results from the new method with conventional approaches like Otsu, K-means and GrowCut shows better achievement of the proposed algorithm. For instance, mean square error (MSE 65%, Overall Accuracy 20% and correlation 40% are improved.

  4. Cercospora leaf spot: monitoring and managing fungicide resistance in populations of Cercospora beticola in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS, Cercospora beticola) is the most serious foliar disease of sugarbeet in Michigan and Ontario.Management of CLS depends on timely fungicide applications, disease forecasting prediction models and the use of CLS resistant sugar beet varieties. Fungicides have a dominant role...

  5. Prey composition modulates exposure risk to anticoagulant rodenticides in a sentinel predator, the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geduhn, Anke; Esther, Alexandra; Schenke, Detlef; Gabriel, Doreen; Jacob, Jens

    2016-02-15

    Worldwide, small rodents are main prey items for many mammalian and avian predators. Some rodent species have pest potential and are managed with anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs). ARs are consumed by target and non-target small mammals and can lead to secondary exposure of predators. The development of appropriate risk mitigation strategies is important and requires detailed knowledge of AR residue pathways. From July 2011 to October 2013 we collected 2397 regurgitated barn owl (Tyto alba) pellets to analyze diet composition of owls on livestock farms in western Germany. 256 of them were fresh pellets that were collected during brodifacoum baiting. Fresh pellets and 742 liver samples of small mammals that were trapped during baiting in the same area were analyzed for residues of ARs. We calculated exposure risk of barn owls to ARs by comparing seasonal diet composition of owls with AR residue patterns in prey species. Risk was highest in autumn, when barn owls increasingly preyed on Apodemus that regularly showed AR residues, sometimes at high concentrations. The major prey species (Microtus spp.) that was consumed most frequently in summer had less potential to contribute to secondary poisoning of owls. There was no effect of AR application on prey composition. We rarely detected ARs in pellets (2 of 256 samples) but 13% of 38 prey individuals in barn owl nests were AR positive and substantiated the expected pathway. AR residues were present in 55% of 11 barn owl carcasses. Fluctuation in non-target small mammal abundance and differences in AR residue exposure patterns in prey species drives exposure risk for barn owls and probably other predators of small mammals. Exposure risk could be minimized through spatial and temporal adaption of AR applications (avoiding long baiting and non-target hot spots at farms) and through selective bait access for target animals.

  6. Burrowing owl survey : 1994 report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report of burrowing owl nesting activity in the Central Region of Colorado in 1994, produced by the Colorado Division of Wildlife. There is little long term data on...

  7. Crop Monitoring Using SPOT-VGT NDVIs S10 Time-Series Product for the Arable Land of Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Vassil

    2013-12-01

    The objects of investigation are the major crops in Bulgaria (winter wheat, winter barley, sunflower and maize). The purpose of this paper is to 1) identify major crops using satellite data with low spatial resolution of 1000 m using agro-phenological information; 2) monitoring based on NDVI time-series values for the years 2007, 2008 and 2010, where anomaly events occur based on the information in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH-BAS) agrometeorological monthly bulletins. The current paper shows the massive potential of using low spatial resolution satellite data in identfying crops and monitoring the development anomalies on crops. This research will contribute in applying and elaborating JRC MARS methodology in Bulgaria by using low resolution SPOT-VGT NDVIs S10 satellite product.

  8. Burrowing Owls, Pulex irritans, and Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belthoff, James R; Bernhardt, Scott A; Ball, Christopher L; Gregg, Michael; Johnson, David H; Ketterling, Rachel; Price, Emily; Tinker, Juliette K

    2015-09-01

    Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are small, ground-dwelling owls of western North America that frequent prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) towns and other grasslands. Because they rely on rodent prey and occupy burrows once or concurrently inhabited by fossorial mammals, the owls often harbor fleas. We examined the potential role of fleas found on burrowing owls in plague dynamics by evaluating prevalence of Yersinia pestis in fleas collected from burrowing owls and in owl blood. During 2012-2013, fleas and blood were collected from burrowing owls in portions of five states with endemic plague-Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, and South Dakota. Fleas were enumerated, taxonomically identified, pooled by nest, and assayed for Y. pestis using culturing and molecular (PCR) approaches. Owl blood underwent serological analysis for plague antibodies and nested PCR for detection of Y. pestis. Of more than 4750 fleas collected from owls, Pulex irritans, a known plague vector in portions of its range, comprised more than 99.4%. However, diagnostic tests for Y. pestis of flea pools (culturing and PCR) and owl blood (PCR and serology) were negative. Thus, even though fleas were prevalent on burrowing owls and the potential for a relationship with burrowing owls as a phoretic host of infected fleas exists, we found no evidence of Y. pestis in sampled fleas or in owls that harbored them. We suggest that studies similar to those reported here during plague epizootics will be especially useful for confirming these results.

  9. Determination of glucose levels using dried filter paper blood spots: new perspective in home monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sterian Ward

    Full Text Available We present a method for the determination of blood glucose using dried filter paper blood spots.To validate this method, we compared our results using filter paper and simultaneously collected venous blood. We demonstrated that there is a linear relationship between the filter paper glucose levels and those determined in whole blood (r=0.98. There was no significant difference between the results of the two methods (p>0.05.This method is a cheap alternative which may improve the control of diabetes mellitus, and may also be very useful in the diagnosis of postprandial hypoglycemia and other special situations.

  10. Systematic review of the use of dried blood spots for monitoring HIV viral load and for early infant diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter W Smit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS have been used as alternative specimens to plasma to increase access to HIV viral load (VL monitoring and early infant diagnosis (EID in remote settings. We systematically reviewed evidence on the performance of DBS compared to plasma for VL monitoring and EID. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Thirteen peer reviewed HIV VL publications and five HIV EID papers were included. Depending on the technology and the viral load distribution in the study population, the percentage of DBS samples that are within 0.5 log of VL in plasma ranged from 52-100%. Because the input sample volume is much smaller in a blood spot, there is a risk of false negatives with DBS. Sensitivity of DBS VL was found to be 78-100% compared to plasma at VL below 1000 copies/ml, but this increased to 100% at a threshold of 5000 copies/ml. Unlike a plasma VL test which measures only cell free HIV RNA, a DBS VL also measures proviral DNA as well as cell-associated RNA, potentially leading to false positive results when using DBS. The systematic review showed that specificity was close to 100% at DBS VL above 5000 copies/ml, and this threshold would be the most reliable for predicting true virologic failure using DBS. For early infant diagnosis, DBS has a sensitivity of 100% compared to fresh whole blood or plasma in all studies. CONCLUSIONS: Although limited data are available for EID, DBS offer a highly sensitive and specific sampling strategy to make viral load monitoring and early infant diagnosis more accessible in remote settings. A standardized approach for sampling, storing, and processing DBS samples would be essential to allow successful implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO Registration #: CRD42013003621.

  11. Systematic Review of the Use of Dried Blood Spots for Monitoring HIV Viral Load and for Early Infant Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Pieter W.; Sollis, Kimberly A.; Fiscus, Susan; Ford, Nathan; Vitoria, Marco; Essajee, Shaffiq; Barnett, David; Cheng, Ben; Crowe, Suzanne M.; Denny, Thomas; Landay, Alan; Stevens, Wendy; Habiyambere, Vincent; Perriens, Joseph H.; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dried blood spots (DBS) have been used as alternative specimens to plasma to increase access to HIV viral load (VL) monitoring and early infant diagnosis (EID) in remote settings. We systematically reviewed evidence on the performance of DBS compared to plasma for VL monitoring and EID. Methods and Findings Thirteen peer reviewed HIV VL publications and five HIV EID papers were included. Depending on the technology and the viral load distribution in the study population, the percentage of DBS samples that are within 0.5 log of VL in plasma ranged from 52–100%. Because the input sample volume is much smaller in a blood spot, there is a risk of false negatives with DBS. Sensitivity of DBS VL was found to be 78–100% compared to plasma at VL below 1000 copies/ml, but this increased to 100% at a threshold of 5000 copies/ml. Unlike a plasma VL test which measures only cell free HIV RNA, a DBS VL also measures proviral DNA as well as cell-associated RNA, potentially leading to false positive results when using DBS. The systematic review showed that specificity was close to 100% at DBS VL above 5000 copies/ml, and this threshold would be the most reliable for predicting true virologic failure using DBS. For early infant diagnosis, DBS has a sensitivity of 100% compared to fresh whole blood or plasma in all studies. Conclusions Although limited data are available for EID, DBS offer a highly sensitive and specific sampling strategy to make viral load monitoring and early infant diagnosis more accessible in remote settings. A standardized approach for sampling, storing, and processing DBS samples would be essential to allow successful implementation. Trial Registration PROSPERO Registration #: CRD42013003621. PMID:24603442

  12. Isn't Citizen Science a Hoot? A Case-study Exploring the Effectiveness of Citizen Science As an Instrument to Teach the Nature of Science through a Local Nocturnal Owl-monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreofsky, Tess Marie

    Citizen science projects present a distinctive opportunity for professional and volunteer scientists to coordinate their efforts to gather unique sets of data that can benefit the scientific and local communities. These projects are assumed to be an effective educational tool to teach nature of science (NOS) to participants (Brossard, Lewenstein, Bonney, 2005). This case study evaluates the effectiveness of participation in a citizen science project as a way to learn about NOS. Through enhancement of the Tryon Creek Owl Monitoring Project the researcher reviewed the characteristics of a citizen science project that were thought to be necessary to impact the volunteers' knowledge of NOS. The study also explored the benefits and limitations to organizing the citizen science protect using the principles of action research. Analysis of participants' knowledge and the effectiveness of active research theory, was evaluated through pre- and post- questionnaires and interviews. Although volunteers were able to explore the core themes of NOS through actively engaging in the scientific process, they did not experience a statistically significant change in their demonstration of understanding. For a multitude of reasons, participants had a positive experience with the presence of an embedded researcher within the project. This case study supports the use of active research as a guide to ensure that within each project the needs of both the scientific community and the volunteer scientists are met.

  13. On a new Owl from Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büttikofer, J.

    1889-01-01

    Amongst the last birds received from Mr. Stampfli, there was a very peculiar new Owl, which I propose to name Bubo lettii, after its discoverer Mr. Lett, our former landlord and huntsman at Schieffelinsville. This Owl shows no affinity to any of the Owls at present known from the old world, but migh

  14. On a new Owl from Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büttikofer, J.

    1889-01-01

    Amongst the last birds received from Mr. Stampfli, there was a very peculiar new Owl, which I propose to name Bubo lettii, after its discoverer Mr. Lett, our former landlord and huntsman at Schieffelinsville. This Owl shows no affinity to any of the Owls at present known from the old world, but

  15. Fast Mapping Algorithm from WSDL to OWL-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf B. El-Sisi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently semantic web services represent the most technology developed for machine to machine interaction. The problem of discovering and selecting the most suitable web service represents a challenge for semantic web services. In this paper performance evaluation of mapping algorithm from web services annotations (WSDL to semantic annotations (OWL-S based on ontology search engine is presented. During mapping process primitive type remains without change. The complex type are converted to OWL ontology by extracted them and passing to ontology search and standardization process without need of conversion into temporary ontology. The keywords extracted in the linguistic search phase and are extended using word net. The mapping algorithm and its modification are implemented in Java and evaluated by 310 files WSDL. The output results of two algorithms are identical. But the proposed modified algorithm is faster than mapping algorithm.

  16. Crop Monitoring Based on SPOT-5 Take-5 and Sentinel-1A Data for the Estimation of Crop Water Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Navarro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical and microwave images have been combined for land cover monitoring in different agriculture scenarios, providing useful information on qualitative and quantitative land cover changes. This study aims to assess the complementarity and interoperability of optical (SPOT-5 Take-5 and synthetic aperture radar (SAR (Sentinel-1A data for crop parameter (basal crop coefficient (Kcb values and the length of the crop’s development stages retrieval and crop type classification, with a focus on crop water requirements, for an irrigation perimeter in Angola. SPOT-5 Take-5 images are used as a proxy of Sentinel-2 data to evaluate the potential of their enhanced temporal resolution for agricultural applications. In situ data are also used to complement the Earth O=observation (EO data. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and dual (VV + VH polarization backscattering time series are used to compute the Kcb curve for four crop types (maize, soybean, bean and pasture and to estimate the length of each phenological growth stage. The Kcb values are then used to compute the crop’s evapotranspiration and to subsequently estimate the crop irrigation requirements based on a soil water balance model. A significant R2 correlation between NDVI and backscatter time series was observed for all crops, demonstrating that optical data can be replaced by microwave data in the presence of cloud cover. However, it was not possible to properly identify each stage of the crop cycle due to the lack of EO data for the complete growing season.

  17. Dynamic web service composition based on OWL-S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing DONG; Yongtao SUN; Sheng YANG; Kang ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Composing existing web services for enterprise applications may enable higher level of reuse. However the composition processes are mostly static and lack of support for runtime redesign. In this paper, we describe our approach to the extension of the OWL-S ontology framework for dynamic web service composition. We raise the level of abstraction and propose an abstract service layer so that web services can be composed at the abstract service level instead of the concrete level. Each abstract service is attached with an instance pool including all instances of the abstract service to facilitate fail-over and dynamic compositions.

  18. Cost Evaluation of Dried Blood Spot Home Sampling as Compared to Conventional Sampling for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martial, Lisa C.; Aarnoutse, Rob E.; Schreuder, Michiel F.; Henriet, Stefanie S.; Brüggemann, Roger J. M.; Joore, Manuela A.

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling for the purpose of therapeutic drug monitoring can be an attractive alternative for conventional blood sampling, especially in children. This study aimed to compare all costs involved in conventional sampling versus DBS home sampling in two pediatric populations: renal transplant patients and hemato-oncology patients. Total costs were computed from a societal perspective by adding up healthcare cost, patient related costs and costs related to loss of productivity of the caregiver. Switching to DBS home sampling was associated with a cost reduction of 43% for hemato-oncology patients (€277 to €158) and 61% for nephrology patients (€259 to €102) from a societal perspective (total costs) per blood draw. From a healthcare perspective, costs reduced with 7% for hemato-oncology patients and with 21% for nephrology patients. Total savings depend on the number of hospital visits that can be avoided by using home sampling instead of conventional sampling. PMID:27941974

  19. Monitoring vegetation dynamics with SPOT-VEGETATION NDVI time-series data in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hongxiu; Sun, Zhandong; Xu, Yongming

    2009-09-01

    Desertification in the arid and semiarid regions directly influences the density and growth status of vegetation, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) has been widely used to monitor vegetation changes. This study analyzed the spatial patters of vegetation activity and its temporal variability in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China since 1998 to 2007 with NDVI data derived from SPOT4 Vegetation. The coefficient of variation (CoV) of the NDVI was used as a parameter to characterize the change of vegetation and to compare the amount of variation in different sets of sample data. The method of quantifying changes in CoV values for each pixel was based on linear regression. The slope of linear regression was acted as the criterion for the change direction: pixels with a negative slope are considered to represent ground area with decreasing amounts of vegetation, vice versa. In this paper, We calculated (1) the inter-annual CoV based on the yearly ONDVI, the sum of the monthly NDVI in the growing season (from April to October), for each pixel between 1998-2007 to reveal the spatial patterns of vegetation activity, (2) the intra-annual CoV based on monthly NDVI by MVC to reflect vegetation seasonal dynamics, (3) the slope (") of the intra-annual CoV regression line for each pixel to identify the overall long-term trend of vegetation dynamics. This experiment demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CoV and its regression analysis based on long term SPOT-VGT NDVI time-series data for vegetation dynamics monitoring.

  20. SEMANTIC ENHANCED UDDI USING OWL-S PROFILE ONTOLOGY FOR THE AUTOMATIC DISCOVERY OF WEB SERVICES IN THE DOMAIN OF TELECOMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lakshmana Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current web services which are evolved in the telecom domain such as payment web services, Yellow pages web services, operator web services, weather web services are failed to bring down the semantic as they used to prove its syntactic description. The reason for bringing down the semantic description into already existing web services will invoke certain operations like automatic discovery of web services, automatic composition of the necessary services, automatic invocation of web services and automatic monitoring of the execution process. At present the web services in the domain of telecommunication is following the parlay X standard. The parlay X has given a set of standard web service API’s for the telecom. The each of the services will have its own interface, services and types In this study in order to bring down the semantic representation we have proposed an idea to enable the semantic through the upper ontology like OWL-S and then how to map OWL-S to UDDI registry and also we have discussed some of the issues that we have faced while mapping OWL-S into UDDI registry. So the approach which we are going to propose improves the accuracy of the telecommunication network services description, discovery and matching, unifies the semantic representation of telecommunications network and Internet services.

  1. Brominated flame retardants in Belgian little owl (Athene noctua) eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, V.; Covaci, A.; Maervoet, J.; Dauwe, T.; Schepens, P.; Eens, M. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Since the 1960s, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are widely used in textiles, plastics, electronic equipment and other materials. Their massive use has led to the ubiquitous presence of PBDEs in the environment and in biota in which the PBDE levels seem to increase rapidly. High concentrations of some congeners may cause adverse effects in both wildlife and in human populations1 and this has led to the growing concern of scientists over the last decade and to the need for more data on environmental levels of PBDEs. The little owl (Athene noctua) is a small sedentary predator, which makes it a very suitable biomonitoring species. This owl species feeds on a variety of preys, including small mammals and birds, reptiles, amphibians, earthworms and beetles, depending on the season and the local circumstances. Because very limited information is available about contamination levels in the little owl, a study was conducted to determine the concentrations of PBDEs, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in deserted or addled eggs of little owls in Belgium. Eggs have been used successfully as a monitoring tool for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in several studies. Although the analysis of POPs in deserted or addled eggs has clear limitations, these can be partially avoided by analysing only highly persistent components, for which the original composition will not change due to 'posthatching' microbiological degradation.

  2. Brominated flame retardants in Belgian little owl (Athene noctua) eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, V.; Covaci, A.; Maervoet, J.; Dauwe, T.; Schepens, P.; Eens, M. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Since the 1960s, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are widely used in textiles, plastics, electronic equipment and other materials. Their massive use has led to the ubiquitous presence of PBDEs in the environment and in biota in which the PBDE levels seem to increase rapidly. High concentrations of some congeners may cause adverse effects in both wildlife and in human populations1 and this has led to the growing concern of scientists over the last decade and to the need for more data on environmental levels of PBDEs. The little owl (Athene noctua) is a small sedentary predator, which makes it a very suitable biomonitoring species. This owl species feeds on a variety of preys, including small mammals and birds, reptiles, amphibians, earthworms and beetles, depending on the season and the local circumstances. Because very limited information is available about contamination levels in the little owl, a study was conducted to determine the concentrations of PBDEs, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in deserted or addled eggs of little owls in Belgium. Eggs have been used successfully as a monitoring tool for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in several studies. Although the analysis of POPs in deserted or addled eggs has clear limitations, these can be partially avoided by analysing only highly persistent components, for which the original composition will not change due to 'posthatching' microbiological degradation.

  3. What Do Owls, Salamanders, Flycatchers and Cuckoos Have In Common?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musgrave, Maria A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Wildlife Management

    2016-09-27

    This is an article from the Los Alamos Living magazine. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on a beautiful and unique landscape that provides important protected habitat to many species, including a few that are federally-listed as threatened or endangered. These species are the Jemez Mountains Salamander, the Mexican Spotted Owl, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher, the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, and the New Mexico Meadow Jumping Mouse. Part of the job of the Laboratory's wildlife biologists is to survey for these species each year and determine what actions need to be taken if they are found.

  4. Flying spot en-face OCT for monitoring cell distribution in collagen-based constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmidis, Konstantinos; Russell, Christopher D.; Black, Richard A.; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2006-02-01

    The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a monitoring tool in the growth of human fibroblasts cells in collagen-based constructs is investigated. Rat-tail tendon type-1 collagen based gels mixed with human fibroblasts were prepared and incubated. Fixed samples were then imaged using OCT, and subsequently cross-sectioned and analysed microscopically. The concentration of cells in samples under different contraction dynamics was investigated using analysis of the OCT images. Results show clear differences in scattering intensity as a consequence of cell concentration in both OCT images and micrographs.

  5. Real time monitoring of spot-welded joints under service load using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ping; Zheng, Botong; Dawood, Mina; Huo, Linsheng; Song, Gangbing

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a nondestructive method to evaluate the health status of resistance spot-welded (RSW) joint under service load using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) active sensing system, in which the PZT transducers were used as both actuator and sensor. The physical principle of the approach was validated through a numerical analysis showing that an opening between the faying faces at the welded joint occurred under tension load. The opening decreased the contact area hence reduced the amplitude of the stress wave received by the PZT sensor. Therefore, by comparing the energy index of the signals before and after the loading, the health condition of the joint can be evaluated. Five ST14 steel single lap joint specimens were tested under tension load while being monitored by the PZT sensing system and digital image correlation (DIC) system in real time. The data obtained from the DIC system validated the numerical results. By comparing the energy index of the signal obtained from the PZT sensing system before and after unloading, it was concluded that the RSW joint was intact after being loaded to the service load. The proposed method is promising in evaluating the health condition of RSW joint nondestructively.

  6. OWL: Yet to arrive on the Web of Data?

    CERN Document Server

    Glimm, Birte; Krötzsch, Markus; Polleres, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Seven years on from OWL becoming a W3C recommendation, and two years on from the more recent OWL 2 W3C recommendation, OWL has still experienced only patchy uptake on the Web. Although certain OWL features (like owl:sameAs) are very popular, other features of OWL are largely neglected by publishers in the Linked Data world. This may suggest that despite the promise of easy implementations and the proposal of tractable profiles suggested in OWL's second version, there is still no "right" standard fragment for the Linked Data community. In this paper, we (1) analyse uptake of OWL on the Web of Data, (2) gain insights into the OWL fragment that is actually used/usable on the Web, where we arrive at the conclusion that this fragment is likely to be a simplified profile based on OWL RL, (3) propose and discuss such a new fragment, which we call OWL LD (for Linked Data).

  7. Black carbon concentrations in the highly polluted Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: a three year monitoring with a dual-spot Aethalometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupakheti, Maheswar; Drinovec, Luka; Puppala, SivaPraveen; Mahata, Khadak; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Kathayat, Bhogendra; Singdan, Pratik; Panday, Arnico; Lawrence, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Our knowledge about ambient black carbon (BC) in the vast Himalayan region, a region vulnerable to impacts of global warming, is very limited due to unavailability of a long-term ambient monitoring. Here we present results from a continuous monitoring of ambient BC concentrations, with a new generation Aethalometer (AE33), over a three year period (January 2013- January 2016) at a semi-urban site in the highly polluted Kathmandu Valley in the foothills of the central Himalaya, one of the most polluted cities in the world. This is the longest time series of BC concentrations that have been monitored with AE33 (which uses the dual-spot technique for a real-time filter loading compensation) in highly polluted ambient environment. The measurements were carried out under the framework of project SusKat (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley). BC concentrations were found to be extremely high, especially in winter and the pre-monsoon period, with the hourly-averaged values often exceeding 50 μg/m3. BC concentrations showed a clear diurnal cycle with a prominent peak around 8-9 am and a second peak around 8-9 pm local time in all four seasons. Night-time BC was also fairly high. The diurnal cycle was driven by a combination of increased emissions from traffic, cooking activities, garbage burning, and lower mixing heights (˜200 m) and reduced horizontal ventilation in the mornings and evenings. BC concentrations showed significant seasonal variations - a maximum in winter season and minimum during the monsoon (rainy) season, with monthly average values in the range 5-30 μg/m3. An increase in emissions from the operation of over 100 brick kilns in winter and spring, and an increase in the use of small but numerous diesel power generators during hours with power cuts contributed significantly to ambient BC concentrations in the valley. Fractional contributions of biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion to BC was estimated based on a real-time method for

  8. Nanoscale Bio-Molecular Control Using EC-OWLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P; Voros, J; Hubbell, J A; Textor, M

    2002-11-20

    A recently developed technique termed ''Electrochemical Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy'' (EC-OWLS) [1] combines evanescent-field optical sensing with electrochemical control of surface adsorption processes. Initial EC-OWLS investigations efficiently monitored molecular surface adsorption and layer thickness changes of an adsorbed polymer layer examined in situ as a function of potential applied to a waveguide1. A layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) served as both a high refractive index waveguide for optical sensing, and a conductive electrode; an electrochemical flow-through fluid cell incorporated working, reference and counter electrodes. Poly(L-lysine)-grafted-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) served as a model, polycation adsorbate. Results indicate that adsorption and desorption of PLL-g-PEG from aqueous buffer are a function of applied potential, and that binding events subsequent to PLL-g-PEG functionalization are dependent on reorganization in the molecular adlayer.

  9. Experiences with Aber-OWL, an Ontology Repository with OWL EL Reasoning

    KAUST Repository

    Slater, Luke

    2016-04-19

    Ontologies are widely used in biology and biomedicine for the annotation and integration of data, and hundreds of ontologies have been developed for this purpose. These ontologies also constitute large volumes of formalized domain knowledge, usually expressed in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Computational access to the knowledge contained within them relies on the use of automated reasoning. We have developed Aber-OWL, an ontology repository that provides OWL EL reasoning to answer queries and verify the consistency of ontologies. Aber-OWL also provides a set of web services which provide ontology-based access to scientific literature in Pubmed and Pubmed Central, SPARQL query expansion to retrieve linked data, and integration with Bio2RDF. Here, we report on our experiences with Aber-OWL and outline a roadmap for future development. Aber-OWL is freely available at http://aber-owl.net.

  10. Optimal body size with respect to maximal speed for the yellow-spotted monitor lizard (Varanus panoptes; Varanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Christofer J; Withers, Philip C; Thompson, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Studies of locomotor performance often link variation in morphology with ecology. While maximum sprint speed is a commonly used performance variable, the absolute limits for this performance trait are not completely understood. Absolute maximal speed has often been shown to increase linearly with body size, but several comparative studies covering a large range of body sizes suggest that maximal speed does not increase indefinitely with body mass but rather reaches an optimum after which speed declines. Because of the comparative nature of these studies, it is difficult to determine whether this decrease is due to biomechanical constraints on maximal speed or is a consequence of phylogenetic inertia or perhaps relaxed selection for lower maximal speed at large body size. To explore this issue, we have examined intraspecific variations in morphology, maximal sprint speed, and kinematics for the yellow-spotted monitor lizard Varanus panoptes, which varied in body mass from 0.09 to 5.75 kg. We show a curvilinear relationship between body size and absolute maximal sprint speed with an optimal body mass with respect to speed of 1.245 kg. This excludes the phylogenetic inertia hypothesis, because this effect should be absent intraspecifically, while supporting the biomechanical constraints hypothesis. The relaxed selection hypothesis cannot be excluded if there is a size-based behavioral shift intraspecifically, but the biomechanical constraints hypothesis is better supported from kinematic analyses. Kinematic measurements of hind limb movement suggest that the distance moved by the body during the stance phase may limit maximum speed. This limit is thought to be imposed by a decreased ability of the bones and muscles to support body mass for larger lizards.

  11. Female plumage spottiness signals parasite resistance in the barn owl (Tyto alba)

    OpenAIRE

    Roulin, A.; Riols, C; Dijkstra, C; Ducrest, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    The hypothesis that extravagant ornaments signal parasite resistance has received support in several species for ornamented males but more rarely for ornamented females. However, recent theories have proposed that females should often be under sexual selection, and therefore females may signal the heritable capacity to resist parasites. We investigated this hypothesis in the socially monogamous barn owl, Tyto alba, in which females exhibit on average more and larger black spots on the plumage...

  12. MODELLING OWL MORTALITY ON ROADS OF ALENTEJO (SOUTHERN PORTUGAL)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Clara; Grilo, Clara; Mira, António

    2008-01-01

    Owls are one of the birds of prey most commonly found dead along roads. Thus, we investigated the importance of 22 environmental variables on the owl casualties and developed predictive models to estimate the likelihood of owl-vehicle collisions in Alentejo, southern Portugal. We recorded 123 corpses of three owl species, the Barn Owl Tyto alba made up 43% (n=53) of the road-kills, followed by the Little Owl Athene noctua (29%, n=36) and the Tawny Owl Strix aluco (28%, n=34), along ...

  13. Banding of Asio Owls in south-central Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Stuart Houston

    1997-01-01

    During a long-term Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) banding program, 1946-1996, there were opportunities to band 507 Long-eared Owls (Asio otus) and 246 Short-eared Owls (Asio flammeus). No less than 35.1 percent of the Long-eared Owls and 63.5 percent of the Short-eared Owls were banded in two unusual years,...

  14. Microsatellite markers characterized in the barn owl (Tyto alba) and of high utility in other owls (Strigiformes: AVES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Akos; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Küpper, Clemens; Major, Agnes; Lee, Patricia L M; Hoffmann, Gyula; Mátics, Róbert; Dawson, Deborah A

    2009-11-01

    We have identified 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the barn owl (Tyto alba), five from testing published owl loci and 10 from testing non-owl loci, including loci known to be of high utility in passerines and shorebirds. All 15 loci were sequenced in barn owl, and new primer sets were designed for eight loci. The 15 polymorphic loci displayed two to 26 alleles in 56-58 barn owls. When tested in 10 other owl species (n = 1-6 individuals), between four and nine loci were polymorphic per species. These loci are suitable for studies of population structure and parentage in owls.

  15. SPOT--towards temporal data mining in medicine and bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusch, Guenter; Bretl, Chris; O'Connor, Martin; Connor, Martin; Das, Amar

    2008-11-06

    Mining large clinical and bioinformatics databases often includes exploration of temporal data. E.g., in liver transplantation, researchers might look for patients with an unusual time pattern of potential complications of the liver. In Knowledge-based Temporal Abstraction time-stamped data points are transformed into an interval-based representation. We extended this framework by creating an open-source platform, SPOT. It supports the R statistical package and knowledge representation standards (OWL, SWRL) using the open source Semantic Web tool Protégé-OWL.

  16. Herpersvirus strigis: host spectrum and distribution in infected owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, H; Sibalin, M

    1975-04-01

    Herpesvirus strigis, a new species of the genus Herpesvirus, is a pathogen for several species of owls in the order Srigiformes. Natural infection has been observed in the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo L.), Long-eared Owl (Asio otus L.) and Snowy Owl (nyctea scandiaca L.) In addition the Little Owl (Athene noctua Scopolic) and Tengmalms Owl (Aegolius funereus L.) was experimentally infected. On the other hand the Tawny Owl (Strix aluco L.) and Barn Owl (Tyto albo Scopoli) proved resistant to a massive experimental infection. Of representatives from nine other orders of birds and mammals, only the Old World Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus L.) was found susceptible to this virus. Distribution of viral antigen in various organs of infected owls, as determined by immunofluorescence and by quantitative virus assay, was in accordance with the occurrence of macroscopic and microscopic lesions.

  17. Heavy-metal concentrations in three owl species from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Lee, Hang; Koo, Tae-Hoe

    2008-01-01

    This study presents concentrations of heavy metals (iron, zinc, manganese, copper, lead, and cadmium) in livers of three owl species from Korea. Essential trace elements (iron, zinc, manganese, and copper) did not differ among the owl species. We suggest that the essential elements are within the normal range and are maintained by normal homeostatic mechanisms. Lead and cadmium concentrations in Eurasian Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo) were significantly lower than in Brown Hawk Owls (Nixos scutulata) and Collared Scops Owls (Otus lempiji). Lead and cadmium concentrations in Korean owl species were at background levels; lead concentrations in two Collared Scops Owls were above background concentrations. Lead and cadmium concentrations were similar to concentrations previously reported in owls from other parts of the world. We suggest that lead and cadmium concentrations in Korean owls are below toxic concentrations.

  18. The vestibular system of the owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, K. E.; Correia, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    Five owls were given vestibular examinations, and two of them were sacrificed to provide serial histological sections of the temporal bones. The owls exhibited a curious variability in the postrotatory head nystagmus following abrupt deceleration; sometimes a brisk nystagnus with direction opposite to that appropriate to the stimulus would occur promptly after deceleration. It was found also that owls can exhibit a remarkable head stability during angular movement of the body about any axis passing through the skull. The vestibular apparatus in the owl is larger than in man, and a prominent crista neglecta is present. The tectorial membrane, the cupula, and the otolithic membranes of the utricle, saccule, and lagena are all attached to surfaces in addition to the surfaces hearing hair cells. These attachments are very substantial in the utricular otolithic membrane and in the cupula.

  19. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  20. [Parasite fauna of Austrian owls (Strigiformes)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzer, E; Frey, H; Nöbauer, H

    1982-11-01

    During the examination of 182 owls--Asio otus (51), Strix aluco (44), Bubo bubo (34), Nyctea scandiaca (15), Athene noctua (14), Otus scops (9), Tyto alba (4), Aegolius funereus (3), Glaucidium passerinum (2), Asio flammeus (2), indigenous "owls" (4)--5 protozoan species, 3 trematode species, 1 cestode species, 6 nematode species, 3 acanthocephalan species, 2 acaride species and 7 insect species could be discovered. Dermanyssus hirundinis was proved on the Long-eared Owl and Carnus hemapterus on the Barn Owl for the first time. The infestation frequency of endo- and ectoparasites was from medium to intense on an average, whereas the infestation intensity was from small to medium. The highest rates of infestation were found at nematodes. A case of "pseudoparasitism" was detected and the significance of the analyses of stomach-contents as a guarantee of diagnosis was pointed out.

  1. Owl Mountain Partnership : An external assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — External review of the Owl Mountain Partnership (OMP) to identify benefits and successes associatedwith collaborative work through the perceptions of participating...

  2. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly.

  3. Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS as a Sensor for Thin Film and Quantum Dot Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Tang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS is usually applied as a biosensor system to the sorption-desorption of proteins to waveguide surfaces. Here, we show that OWLS can be used to monitor the quality of oxide thin film materials and of coatings of pulsed laser deposition synthesized CdSe quantum dots (QDs intended for solar energy applications. In addition to changes in data treatment and experimental procedure, oxide- or QD-coated waveguide sensors must be synthesized. We synthesized zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4 coated (Si,TiO2 waveguide sensors, and used OWLS to monitor the relative mass of the film over time. Films lost mass over time, though at different rates due to variation in fluid flow and its physical effect on removal of film material. The Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD technique was used to deposit CdSe QD coatings on waveguides. Sensors exposed to pH 2 solution lost mass over time in an expected, roughly exponential manner. Sensors at pH 10, in contrast, were stable over time. Results were confirmed with atomic force microscopy imaging. Limiting factors in the use of OWLS in this manner include limitations on the annealing temperature that maybe used to synthesize the oxide film, and limitations on the thickness of the film to be studied. Nevertheless, the technique overcomes a number of difficulties in monitoring the quality of thin films in-situ in liquid environments.

  4. Owls and larks in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina ePfeffer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans come in different chronotypes and, particularly, the late chronotype (the so-called owl has been shown to be associated with a number of health risks. Recent studies indicate that laboratory mice also display various chronotypes. In mice as well as in humans, the chronotype shows correlations with the period length and rhythm stability. In addition, some mouse models for human diseases show alterations in their chronotypic behavior which are comparable to those humans. Thus, analysis of the behavior of mice is a powerful tool to unravel the molecular and genetic background of the chronotype and the prevalence of risks and diseases that are associated with it. In this review, we summarize the correlation of chronotype with free-running period length and rhythm stability in the most commonly used inbred mouse strains, in mice with a compromised molecular clockwork and in a mouse model for neurodegeneration.

  5. Trace metals in primary feathers of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba guttatus) in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneman, W D; Douben, P E

    1993-01-01

    The number of Barn Owls in The Netherlands has been reduced substantially over the last few decades. Death as a result of poisoning seems unlikely, but the pathology of all bird species found dead in The Netherlands between 1975 and 1988 (n = 15 422) shows that 21% of all the birds were contaminated. However, the most important factor responsible for the decline in Barn Owl numbers in The Netherlands has not yet been established. As a part of a new national protection plan for the Barn Owl, the role of heavy metals has been investigated. Concentrations of heavy metals in the primary feathers of the Barn Owl varied according to their position in the wing; especially As, Sb, Fe and Zn whose concentrations depended on the place of the primary feather in the wing and the part of the vane which is used for the monitoring. The HS7 feather vane appears to provide a good estimate, even though the metal concentrations of this feather are always slightly lower than the concentrations in mixed samples of all ten primaries. It is recommended that they are used as a standard. Many factors affect metal concentrations. Increasing levels with age are found, presumably because metals are stored during growth at the end of the feathers as a method of reducing possible harmful effects. No significant correlations were found between the metal concentrations in the organs and those in the feather. Kidney and liver concentrations are always lower than the generally accepted levels for pathological damage of these organs. Even though metal concentrations in Barn Owl feathers are high compared with those reported for other birds in the Netherlands, it is concluded that Barn Owls are not adversely affected by current levels of heavy metal contamination in The Netherlands.

  6. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ultraviolet light, or causes that are not known. Liver spots are very common after age 40. They occur ...

  7. Owl Pellet Analysis--A Useful Tool in Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a technique by which the density and hunting habits of owls can be inferred from their pellets. Owl pellets--usually small, cylindrical packages of undigested bone, hair, etc.--are regurgitated by a roosting bird. A series of activities based on owl pellets are provided. (CP)

  8. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite markers in the Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus, Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus and Snowy Owl B. scandiacus for use in population genetics, individual identification and parentage studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Cody R.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.; Seidensticker, M.T.; Holt, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using DNA from blood and feathers, we screened twenty-four microsatellite primer pairs initially developed for six strigid owls, and four primer pairs shown to be polymorphic across avian taxa, for their utility in Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus), Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus), and Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus). Eight of these primers reliably amplified polymorphic fragments in Great Horned Owl, eleven in Short-eared owl, and ten in Snowy Owl. Analyses of results from presumably unrelated owls demonstrate the utility of these loci for individual identification, parentage assignment, and population genetics studies.

  9. Comparative physiology of sound localization in four species of owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volman, S F; Konishi, M

    1990-01-01

    Bilateral ear asymmetry is found in some, but not all, species of owls. We investigated the neural basis of sound localization in symmetrical and asymmetrical species, to deduce how ear asymmetry might have evolved from the ancestral condition, by comparing the response properties of neurons in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICx) of the symmetrical burrowing owl and asymmetrical long-eared owl with previous findings in the symmetrical great horned owl and asymmetrical barn owl. In the ICx of all of these owls, the neurons had spatially restricted receptive fields, and auditory space was topographically mapped. In the symmetrical owls, ICx units were not restricted in elevation, and only azimuth was mapped in ICx. In the barn owl, the space map is two-dimensional, with elevation forming the second dimension. Receptive fields in the long-eared owl were somewhat restricted in elevation, but their tuning was not sharp enough to determine if elevation is mapped. In every species, the primary cue for azimuth was interaural time difference, although ICx units were also tuned for interaural intensity difference (IID). In the barn owl, the IIDs of sounds with frequencies between about 5 and 8 kHz vary systematically with elevation, and the IID selectivity of ICx neurons primarily encodes elevation. In the symmetrical owls, whose ICx neurons do not respond to frequencies above about 5 kHz, IID appears to be a supplementary cue for azimuth. We hypothesize that ear asymmetry can be exploited by owls that have evolved the higher-frequency hearing necessary to generate elevation cues. Thus, the IID selectivity of ICx neurons in symmetrical owls may preadapt them for asymmetry; the neural circuitry that underlies IID selectivity is already present in symmetrical owls, but because IID is not absolutely required to encode azimuth it can come to encode elevation in asymmetrical owls.

  10. Moonlight makes owls more chatty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Penteriani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lunar cycles seem to affect many of the rhythms, temporal patterns and behaviors of living things on Earth. Ambient light is known to affect visual communication in animals, with the conspicuousness of visual signals being largely determined by the light available for reflection by the sender. Although most previous studies in this context have focused on diurnal light, moonlight should not be neglected from the perspective of visual communication among nocturnal species. We recently discovered that eagle owls Bubo bubo communicate with conspecifics using a patch of white throat plumage that is repeatedly exposed during each call and is only visible during vocal displays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we provide evidence that this species uses moonlight to increase the conspicuousness of this visual signal during call displays. We found that call displays are directly influenced by the amount of moonlight, with silent nights being more frequent during periods with no-moonlight than moonlight. Furthermore, high numbers of calling bouts were more frequent at moonlight. Finally, call posts were located on higher positions on moonlit nights. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the idea that moon phase affects the visual signaling behavior of this species, and provide a starting point for examination of this method of communication by nocturnal species.

  11. A simple dried blood spot method for therapeutic drug monitoring of the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, clomipramine, and their active metabolites using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berm, E J J; Paardekooper, J; Brummel-Mulder, E; Hak, E; Wilffert, B; Maring, J G

    2015-03-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) is considered useful in patients with major depressive disorder, since these drugs display large individual differences in clearance, and the therapeutic windows of these drugs are relatively small. We developed an assay for determination of amitriptyline (ATP), nortriptyline (NTP), imipramine (IMP), desipramine (DSP) clomipramine (CMP) and desmethyl-clomipramine (DCMP) in dried blood spots (DBS). A fast and robust LC-MS/MS method was developed and analytically validated for simultaneous determination of ATP, NTP, IMP, DSP, CMP, and DCMP in DBS. Six mm circles were punched out from DBS collected on Whatman DMPK-C paper and mixed with acetonitrile: methanol 1:3 containing the internal standard. The extract was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Total LC-MS/MS runtime was 4.8 min. The assay was linear in the range 20-500 µg/L for all compounds. Overall-assay accuracy and precision were15% negative bias for all compounds. Punching at the perimeter of the blood spot instead of the center was associated with a positive bias. A good correlation was found between patients plasma and DBS samples of ATP, NTP and DMCP, but not for CMP. In addition, proportional differences were found. This LC-MS/MS method was analytically validated for determination of TCAs in DBS. Future validation will focus on the clinical application of the method.

  12. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) advertise good genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, A; Jungi, T W; Pfister, H; Dijkstra, C

    2000-05-07

    The good genes hypothesis of sexual selection postulates that ornamentation signals superior genetic quality to potential mates. Support for this hypothesis comes from studies on male ornamentation only, while it remains to be shown that female ornamentation may signal genetic quality as well. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) display more black spots on their plumage than males. The expression of this plumage trait has a genetic basis and it has been suggested that males prefer to mate with females displaying more black spots. Given the role of parasites in the evolution of sexually selected traits and of the immune system in parasite resistance, we hypothesize that the extent of female plumage 'spottiness' reflects immunological defence. We assessed the genetic variation in specific antibody production against a non-pathogenic antigen among cross-fostered nestlings and studied its covariation with the plumage spottiness of genetic parents. The magnitude of the antibody response was positively correlated with the plumage spottiness of the genetic mother but not of the genetic father. Our study thereby provides the first experimental support, to our knowledge, for the hypothesis that female ornamentation signals genetic quality.

  13. F-OWL: An Inference Engine for Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Youyong; Finin, Tim; Chen, Harry

    2004-01-01

    Understanding and using the data and knowledge encoded in semantic web documents requires an inference engine. F-OWL is an inference engine for the semantic web language OWL language based on F-logic, an approach to defining frame-based systems in logic. F-OWL is implemented using XSB and Flora-2 and takes full advantage of their features. We describe how F-OWL computes ontology entailment and compare it with other description logic based approaches. We also describe TAGA, a trading agent environment that we have used as a test bed for F-OWL and to explore how multiagent systems can use semantic web concepts and technology.

  14. Measurement of fetal biparietal diameter in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, A Michele; Brady, Alan G; Tustin, George W; Parks, Virginia L; Morris, Chris G; Abee, Christian R

    2010-09-01

    Owl monkeys are New World primates frequently used in biomedical research. Despite the historical difficulty of breeding owl monkeys in captivity, several productive owl monkey breeding colonies exist currently. The animals in the colony we describe here are not timed-pregnant, and determination of gestational age is an important factor in prenatal care. Gestational age of human fetuses is often determined by using transabdominal measurements of fetal biparietal diameter. The purpose of this study was to correlate biparietal diameter measurements with gestational age in owl monkeys. We found that biparietal diameter can be used to accurately predict gestational age in owl monkeys.

  15. Standardizing Legal Content with OWL and RDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondros, Constantine

    Wolters Kluwer is one of the largest legal publishers in the world. Its various publishing units use a multitude of different formats to mark up what is effectively similar content. We describe a common content architecture based on OWL, RDF and XHTML that is used to build a standard representation of legal content, allowing publishable assets to be integrated across the enterprise. This architecture is governed by an OWL ontology that models the (occasionally complex) behaviour of legal documents and acts as a domain model of common legal metadata. How do OWL and RDF scale up to real-world publishing? We describe practical issues in producing and validating RDF on an industrial scale; in performance management; in handling fragmented ontologies; and the challenge of using RDF in a performant XSLT pipeline.

  16. A link between eumelanism and calcium physiology in the barn owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Alexandre; Dauwe, Tom; Blust, Ronny; Eens, Marcel; Beaud, Michel

    2006-09-01

    In many animals, melanin-based coloration is strongly heritable and is largely insensitive to the environment and body condition. According to the handicap principle, such a trait may not reveal individual quality because the production of different melanin-based colorations often entails similar costs. However, a recent study showed that the production of eumelanin pigments requires relatively large amounts of calcium, potentially implying that melanin-based coloration is associated with physiological processes requiring calcium. If this is the case, eumelanism may be traded-off against other metabolic processes that require the same elements. We used a correlative approach to examine, for the first time, this proposition in the barn owl, a species in which individuals vary in the amount, size, and blackness of eumelanic spots. For this purpose, we measured calcium concentration in the left humerus of 85 dead owls. Results showed that the humeri of heavily spotted individuals had a higher concentration of calcium. This suggests either that plumage spottiness signals the ability to absorb calcium from the diet for both eumelanin production and storage in bones, or that lightly spotted individuals use more calcium for metabolic processes at the expense of calcium storage in bones. Our study supports the idea that eumelanin-based coloration is associated with a number of physiological processes requiring calcium.

  17. Population trajectory of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in eastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, C.J.; Pardieck, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that burrowing owls have declined in Washington. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife is currently conducting a status review for burrowing owls which will help determine whether they should be listed as threatened or endangered in the state. To provide insights into the current status of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia), we analyzed data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey using two analytical approaches to determine their current population trajectory in eastern Washington. We used a one-sample t-test to examine whether trend estimates across all BBS routes in Washington differed from zero. We also used a mixed model analysis to estimate the rate of decline in number of burrowing owls detected between 1968 and 2005. The slope in number of burrowing owls detected was negative for 12 of the 16 BBS routes in Washington that have detected burrowing owls. Numbers of breeding burrowing owls detected in eastern Washington declined at a rate of 1.5% annually. We suggest that all BBS routes that have detected burrowing owls in past years in eastern Washington be surveyed annually and additional surveys conducted to track population trends of burrowing owls at finer spatial scales in eastern Washington. In the meantime, land management and regulatory agencies should ensure that publicly managed areas with breeding burrowing owls are not degraded and should implement education and outreach programs to promote protection of privately owned areas with breeding owls.

  18. Spotted inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro, E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.jp [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fusaiji, Okabe-machi, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    We describe new scenarios for generating curvature perturbations when inflaton (curvaton) has significant interactions. We consider a ''spot'', which arises from interactions associated with an enhanced symmetric point (ESP) on the trajectory. Our first example uses the spot to induce a gap in the field equation. We observe that the gap in the field equation may cause generation of curvature perturbation if it does not appear simultaneous in space. The mechanism is similar to the scenario of inhomogeneous phase transition. Then we observe that the spot interactions may initiate warm inflation in the cold Universe. Creation of cosmological perturbation is discussed in relation to the inflaton dynamics and the modulation associated with the spot interactions.

  19. Analysis of the OWL ontologies: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    García-Peñalvo, Francisco José; García, Juan; Therón-Sánchez, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Web Ontology Language (OWL) es una de las últimas recomendaciones de la World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) para desarrollar ontologías. El uso de ontologías OWL debe implicar la posibilidad de la evaluación de la calidad y exactitud. Se han propuesto una gran diversidad de herramientas y métricas para alcanzar este objetivo. OntoQA ONTOMETRIC, representa las herramientas más importantes para evaluar ontologías que suelen apoyarse en mediciones. Este trabajo analiza todas estas herramientas ...

  20. Integration of a real-time tumor monitoring system into gated proton spot-scanning beam therapy: An initial phantom study using patient tumor trajectory data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Taeko; Miyamoto, Naoki; Takao, Seishin; Nihongi, Hideaki; Toramatsu, Chie; Sutherland, Kenneth; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Ishikawa, Masayori; Maeda, Kenichiro [Department of Medical Physics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8638 (Japan); Shimizu, Shinichi; Kinoshita, Rumiko; Umegaki, Kikuo; Shirato, Hiroki [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8648 (Japan); Fujii, Yusuke; Umezawa, Masumi [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Research Laboratory, 7-2-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki 319-1221 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: In spot-scanning proton therapy, the interplay effect between tumor motion and beam delivery leads to deterioration of the dose distribution. To mitigate the impact of tumor motion, gating in combination with repainting is one of the most promising methods that have been proposed. This study focused on a synchrotron-based spot-scanning proton therapy system integrated with real-time tumor monitoring. The authors investigated the effectiveness of gating in terms of both the delivered dose distribution and irradiation time by conducting simulations with patients' motion data. The clinically acceptable range of adjustable irradiation control parameters was explored. Also, the relation between the dose error and the characteristics of tumor motion was investigated.Methods: A simulation study was performed using a water phantom. A gated proton beam was irradiated to a clinical target volume (CTV) of 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 3}, in synchronization with lung cancer patients' tumor trajectory data. With varying parameters of gate width, spot spacing, and delivered dose per spot at one time, both dose uniformity and irradiation time were calculated for 397 tumor trajectory data from 78 patients. In addition, the authors placed an energy absorber upstream of the phantom and varied the thickness to examine the effect of changing the size of the Bragg peak and the number of required energy layers. The parameters with which 95% of the tumor trajectory data fulfill our defined criteria were accepted. Next, correlation coefficients were calculated between the maximum dose error and the tumor motion characteristics that were extracted from the tumor trajectory data.Results: With the assumed CTV, the largest percentage of the data fulfilled the criteria when the gate width was {+-}2 mm. Larger spot spacing was preferred because it increased the number of paintings. With a prescribed dose of 2 Gy, it was difficult to fulfill the

  1. Monitoring mangrove biomass change in Vietnam using SPOT images and an object-based approach combined with machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Lien T. H.; Brabyn, Lars

    2017-06-01

    Mangrove forests are well-known for their provision of ecosystem services and capacity to reduce carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. Mapping and quantifying mangrove biomass is useful for the effective management of these forests and maximizing their ecosystem service performance. The objectives of this research were to model, map, and analyse the biomass change between 2000 and 2011 of mangrove forests in the Cangio region in Vietnam. SPOT 4 and 5 images were used in conjunction with object-based image analysis and machine learning algorithms. The study area included natural and planted mangroves of diverse species. After image preparation, three different mangrove associations were identified using two levels of image segmentation followed by a Support Vector Machine classifier and a range of spectral, texture and GIS information for classification. The overall classification accuracy for the 2000 and 2011 images were 77.1% and 82.9%, respectively. Random Forest regression algorithms were then used for modelling and mapping biomass. The model that integrated spectral, vegetation association type, texture, and vegetation indices obtained the highest accuracy (R2adj = 0.73). Among the different variables, vegetation association type was the most important variable identified by the Random Forest model. Based on the biomass maps generated from the Random Forest, total biomass in the Cangio mangrove forest increased by 820,136 tons over this period, although this change varied between the three different mangrove associations.

  2. Satellite thermal monitoring of the 2010 - 2013 eruption of Kizimen volcano (Kamchatka) using MIROVA hot-spot detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimetti, Francesco; Coppola, Diego; Laiolo, Marco; Cigolini, Corrado

    2017-04-01

    After 81 years of rest, the Holocenic stratovolcano of Kizimen (Kamchatka, Russia) began a new eruptive phase on December 2010. The eruption was preceded by a year-long seismic unrest and fumarole activity, and persisted for 3 years showing a transition from explosive to effusive style. The initial explosive phase caused the partial disruption of the volcano summit and was followed by the effusion of andesitic lava flow along the eastern side of the edifice. Here we used an automatic hot-spot detection system named MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), in order to track the thermal evolution of the eruption and to understand the eruptive dynamic. MIROVA is based on the analysis IR images acquired by the MODIS sensor (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and is able to provide thermal maps (1 km resolution) and Volcanic Radiative Power (VRP, in Watt) time series in near real time (1-4 hours from satellite overpass). Each image with a thermal alert has been classified, distinguishing different quality level of the data based on cloud cover, viewing geometry and coherence with the VRP trend. The analysis of VRP variation show different thermal phases that have been correlated with independent observations of KVERT (Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team). Finally, we show that the relation between total thermal energy radiated (VRE, in Joule) and erupted lava volume is consistent with the typical radiant density of an intermediate-silicic lava flow (Coppola et al., 2013).

  3. Technical Stability and Biological Variability in MicroRNAs from Dried Blood Spots: A Lung Cancer Therapy-Monitoring Showcase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Mustafa; Laufer, Thomas; Backes, Christina; Schrörs, Hannah; Fehlmann, Tobias; Ludwig, Nicole; Kohlhaas, Jochen; Meese, Eckart; Wehler, Thomas; Bals, Robert; Keller, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Different work flows have been proposed to use miRNAs as blood-borne biomarkers. In particular, the method used for collecting blood from patients can considerably influence the diagnostic results. We explored whether dried blood spots (DBSs) facilitate stable miRNA measurements and compared its technical stability with biological variability. First, we tested the stability of DBS samples by generating from 1 person 18 whole-genome-wide miRNA profiles of DBS samples that were exposed to different temperature and humidity conditions. Second, we investigated technical reproducibility by performing 7 replicates of DBS again from 1 person. Third, we investigated DBS samples from 53 patients with lung cancer undergoing different therapies. Across these 3 stages, 108 genome-wide miRNA profiles from DBS were generated and evaluated biostatistically. In the stability analysis, we observed that temperature and humidity had an overall limited influence on the miRNomes (average correlation between the different conditions of 0.993). Usage of a silica gel slightly diminished DBS' technical reproducibility. The 7 technical replicates had an average correlation of 0.996. The correlation with whole-blood PAXGene miRNomes of the same individual was remarkable (correlation of 0.88). Finally, evaluation of the samples from the 53 patients with lung cancer exposed to different therapies showed that the biological variations exceeded the technical variability significantly (P technical variations significantly. DBS-based miRNA profiles will potentially further the translational character of miRNA biomarker studies. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  4. Dynamic monitoring of landscape patterns and ecological processes using HJ-1 and SPOT satellite data over Hulunbeier grassland, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feng Zhang; Ying Li; Sihan Liu; Shaohua Zhao; Yanting Wu

    2014-03-01

    Landscape patterns and ecological processes have been in long-term research focus in the field of landscape ecology, but how to measure their quantitative relations is still open. This work chooses the Hulunbeier grassland as the study area where ecosystem shows high vulnerability, frequent evolvement of landscape patterns and ecological processes. With remote sensing technology, the relationships between landscape patterns and ecological processes were analyzed quantitatively from multi-scale, multitemporal and time series perspective. Firstly, the information about the current situation and change of landscape patterns and ecological processes are obtained from HJ-1 (Environmental and Disaster Small Satellite) and LANDSAT TM (Thermal Mapper) data. Secondly, SPOT NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data during 2000–2008 are used to analyze the dynamic changes of ecological processes, and to simulate its inter-annual variety at pixel scale. Finally, the dynamic change trends of ecological processes of grassland vegetation are described. The results indicate that the unchanged ecosystem types account for most of the study area, unused land in the central part expands continuously which results in the increase of desertification, and most ecosystem types in the eastern part are changed to grassland and woodland. Furthermore, the vegetation vulnerability is the highest in the grassland-dominated region, the second in grassland–farmland–woodland transition, and the smallest in the woodland-dominated region, where the stability is enhanced in turn. Due to the dynamic change of vegetation, it can be concluded that the study area underwent ecological processes of vegetation cover with a negative trend and a changed phenology.

  5. Converter Compressor Building, SWMU 089, Hot Spot Areas 1, 2, and 5 Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    This Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report (OMMR) presents the findings, observations, and results from operation of the air sparging (AS) interim measure (IM) for Hot Spot (HS) Areas 1, 2, and 5 at the Converter Compressor Building (CCB) located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The objective of the IM at CCB HS Areas 1, 2, and 5 is to decrease concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater in the treatment zones via AS to levels that will enable a transition to a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) phase. This OMMR presents system operations and maintenance (O&M) information and performance monitoring results since full-scale O&M began in June 2014 (2 months after initial system startup in April 2014), including quarterly performance monitoring events in July and October 2014 and January and May 2015. Based on the results to date, the AS system is operating as designed and is meeting the performance criteria and IM objective. The performance monitoring network is adequately constructed for assessment of IM performance at CCB HS Areas 1, 2, and 5. At the March 2014 KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT) Meeting, team consensus was reached for the design prepared for expansion of the system to treat the HS 4 area, and at the November 2014 KSCRT Meeting, team consensus was reached that HS 3 was adequately delineated horizontally and vertically and for selection of AS for the remedial approach for HS 3. At the July 2015 KSCRT meeting, team consensus was reached to continue IM operations in all zones until HSs 3 and 4 is operational, once HS 3 and 4 zones are operational discontinue operations in HS 1, 2, and 5 zones where concentrations are less than GCTLs to observe whether rebounding conditions occur. Team consensus was also reached to continue quarterly performance monitoring to determine whether operational zones achieve GCTLs and to continue annual IGWM of CCB-MW0012, CCBMW0013, and CCB-MW0056, located south of the treatment area. The

  6. Sherry Red Owl, Stands at Dawn Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crazy Bull, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Sherry Red Owl, also known as "Stands at Dawn Woman," because she greets each day as a new opportunity and has spent her life working at new things. She worked at Sinte Gleska University (SGU) during its founding years, taught at an elementary school when few Native teachers were employed in the school systems,…

  7. Representing social reality in OWL 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a design pattern that allows for the OWL 2 DL representation of concepts central to social reality: roles. The work presented here is motivated by experiences in the development of the LKIF Core ontology of basic legal concepts [10,8]. This paper applies modelling steps identie

  8. Diagnostic findings in 132 great horned owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Little, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed diagnostic findings for 132 great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) carcasses that were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975-93. The carcasses were collected in 24 states but most came from Colorado (N = 21), Missouri (N = 12), Oregon (N = 12), Wyoming (N = 11), Illinois (N = 10), and Wisconsin (N = 9). Forty-two birds were emaciated but presumptive causes of emaciation, including old injuries, chronic lesions in various organs, and exposure to dieldrin, were found in only 16. A greater proportion of juveniles (56%) than adults (29%) were emaciated. Twelve owls were shot and 35 died from other traumatic injuries. Poisonings were diagnosed in 11 birds, including five associated with hydrogen sulfide exposure in oil fields and six cases of agricultural pesticide poisonings. Electrocution killed nine birds and infectious diseases were found in six. Miscellaneous conditions, including egg impaction, drowning, and visceral gout were diagnosed in three of the birds and the cause of death was undetermined in 14 owls. While this review identifies major diagnostic findings in great horned owls, sample bias prevents definitive conclusions regarding actual proportional causes of mortality.

  9. Biomagnetic monitoring of particulate matter (PM through leaves of an invasive alien plant Lantana camara in an Indo-Burma hot spot region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Present study was performed in urban forests of Aizawl, Mizoram, North East India falling under an Indo-Burma hot spot region of existing ecological relevance and pristine environment. Phyto-sociolology of invasive weeds has been performed and results revealed that Lantana camara was the most dominant invasive weed. Further, the air quality studies revealed high suspended particulate matter (SPM as well as respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM in ambient air of Aizawl, Mizoram, North East India. Bio-magnetic monitoring through plant leaves has been recognised as recent thrust area in the field of particulate matter (PM science. We aimed to investigate that whether magnetic properties of Lantana camara leaves may act as proxy of PM pollution and hence an attempt towards it's sustainable management. Magnetic susceptibility (χ, Anhyste reticremanent magnetization (ARM and Saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM of Lantana camara plant leaves were assessed and concomitantly correlated these magnetic properties with ambient PM in order to screen this invasive plant which may act as proxy for ambient PM concentrations. Results revealed high χ, ARM, SIRM of Lantana camara leaves and moreover, these parameters were having significant and positive correlation with ambient SPM as well as RSPM. Therefore, present study recommended the use of Lantana camara as bio-magnetic monitor which may further have sustainable management implications of an invasive plant.

  10. Home range and habitat use of little owl (Athene noctua in an agricultural landscape in coastal Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Framis, H.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades agricultural landscapes in Catalonia have undergone a profound transformation as in most of Europe. Reforestation and urban development have reduced farmland and therefore the availability of suitable habitat for some bird species such as the little owl (Athene noctua. The outskirts of the city of Mataró by the Mediterranean Sea exemplify this landscape change, but still support a population of little owl where agriculture is carried out. Three resident little owls were monitored with telemetry weekly from November 2007 until the beginning of August 2008 in this suburban agricultural landscape. Mean home range ± SD was 10.9 ± 5.5 ha for minimum convex polygon (MCP100 and 7.4 ± 3.8 ha for Kernel 95% probability function (K95. Home ranges of contiguous neighboring pairs overlapped 18.4% (MCP100 or 6% (K95. Home range varied among seasons reaching a maximum between March and early August but always included the nesting site. Small forested patches were associated with roosting and nesting areas where cavities in Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua were important. When foraging in crop fields, the owls typically fed where crops had recently been harvested and replanted. All three owls bred successfully.

  11. 基于 SPOT-VGT NDVI 时间序列的农牧交错带植被物候监测%Monitoring vegetation phenology in farming-pastoral zone using SPOT-VGT NDVI data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯学会; 牛铮; 高帅; 黄妮

    2013-01-01

      为了分析中国农牧交错带植被典型物候期(生长开始日期,生长结束日期和生长季长度)的变化趋势,利用2001-2010年 SPOT-VGT NDVI(SPOT-VEGETATION normalized differential vegetation index)数据,基于 Savitzky— Golay滤波和动态阈值法,提取了中国北方农牧交错带植被物候期,探讨研究区植被物候期的空间差异和时间变化。研究表明,农牧交错带植被的生长季一般从4月中旬到5月下旬开始,9月下旬至10月下旬结束;从西南部到东北部,植被物候表现出明显的空间差异;农田植被物候期与自然植被略有不同;对研究区10 a 物候期线性拟合,得出研究区大部分植被覆盖区域生长季开始日期呈现提前趋势,提前日期大约为1~10 d 左右;除部分地区外,2001-2010年农牧交错带植被生长季结束日期没有明显变化趋势;10 a 间研究区大部分草地生长季延长,也有一部分地区的生长季出现缩短趋势。研究提取结果与已有的相关研究结果较为一致,可为农牧交错带生态环境评价和保护提供一定的参考。%Vegetation phenology dynamics reflect the response of biosphere to global climate change and terrestrial hydrological cycle mechanism changes. It is connected well to ecosystem primary productivity of terrestrial and carbon cycle. As the best indicator in monitoring the influence of climate on vegetation, plant phenology has become the key point of global change research. The transition zone between cropping area and nomadic area is sensitive to climate change, thus the changes of vegetation phenology in this area has become an essential issue. Based on the Savitzky-Golay filtering and dynamic threshold method, the spatial-temporal pattern of vegetation phenology in farming-pastoral zone in Northern China was analyzed using SPOT-VGT NDVI data from 2001 to 2010. The results showed that vegetation phenology in the study area generally started from mid-April to

  12. OWL 2 learn profile: an ontology sublanguage for the learning domain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heiyanthuduwage, Sudath R; Schwitter, Rolf; Orgun, Mehmet A

    2016-01-01

    .... These ontologies include different OWL/OWL 2 (Web Ontology Language) constructors. However, it is not clear which OWL 2 constructors are the most appropriate ones for designing ontologies for the learning domain...

  13. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; Zimmerman, Patrick L.; Khatri, Reshma

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  14. Vestibular functions and sleep in space experiments. [using rhesus and owl monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perachio, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    Physical indices of sleep were continuously monitored in an owl monkey living in a chamber continuously rotating at a constant angular velocity. The electrophysiological data obtained from chronically implanted electrodes was analyzed to determine the chronic effects of vestibular stimulation on sleep and wakefulness cycles. The interaction of linear and angular acceleration on the vestibulo-ocular reflex was investigated in three rhesus monkeys at various angular accelerations.

  15. Comparison of the Diet of Two Desert-living Owls, the Long-eared Owl ( Asio otus and Little Owl ( Athene noctua from Southern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M. Scott

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The diet of two sympatric owl species, the long-eared owl ( Asio otus and the little owl ( Athene noctua was investigated in an arid area of southern Mongolia using pellet analysis. In total 334 pellets of long-eared owl and 52 pellets of little owl were analysed, revealing the presence of five small mammal species (Dipodidae, three Muridae and one Soricidae, small birds and invertebrate fragments. Accumulative composition plots indicated a batch size of 35 - 60 pellets was sufficient to reveal representative diet composition. Small mammals comprised the largest component of the diet of long- eared owls with four species recorded, Phodopus was the most frequently occurring (85 %, followed by Meriones (33 %. Bird and invertebrate remains were also found in long-eared owl pellets but comprised less than 2 %. In contrast, invertebrates were the highest occurring component of the diet of little owls (35 %, with small mammals occurring in only 40 % of pellets. Meriones was the most frequently recorded small mammal in little owl pellets (23 % and contributed the greatest in terms of overall rodent biomass. There was a highly statistically significant difference in the diet of the two species (÷ 2 = 2043, d.f. = 4, P < 0.001. Levin’s measure of niche breadth was greater for little owls (0.71 than long-eared owls (0.51, but overall the two species had low niche overlap using Levin’s index (0.22. These results are discussed in relation to previous findings of these two species.

  16. Monitoring and intelligent control of electrode wear based on a measured electrode displacement curve in resistance spot welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. S.; Wang, H.; Chen, G. L.; Zhang, X. Q.

    2007-03-01

    Advanced high strength steels are being increasingly used in the automotive industry to reduce weight and improve fuel economy. However, due to increased physical properties and chemistry of high strength steels, it is difficult to directly substitute these materials into production processes currently designed for mild steels. New process parameters and process-related issues must be developed and understood for high strength steels. Among all issues, endurance of the electrode cap is the most important. In this paper, electrode wear characteristics of hot-dipped galvanized dual-phase (DP600) steels and the effect on weld quality are firstly analysed. An electrode displacement curve which can monitor electrode wear was measured by a developing experimental system using a servo gun. A neuro-fuzzy inference system based on the electrode displacement curve is developed for minimizing the effect of a worn electrode on weld quality by adaptively adjusting input variables based on the measured electrode displacement curve when electrode wear occurs. A modified current curve is implemented to reduce the effects of electrode wear on weld quality using a developed neuro-fuzzy system.

  17. 基于OWL-S扩展UDDI的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦方俊; 陈维斌

    2007-01-01

    在对OWL-S与WSDL研究的基础上,利用OWL-S对Web服务建模,并结合WSDL(Web Service Definition Language)详细描述服务接口。基于OWL-S扩展标准UDDI(Universal Description,Discovery and Integration),利用OWL-S的语义描述能力弥补UDDI在Web服务功能描述方面的不足,使得扩展后的UDDI具备基于功能内容语义的服务匹配能力。

  18. Detecting Burrowing Owl Bloodmeals in Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christine B; Eisen, Rebecca J; Belthoff, James R

    2016-03-01

    Pulex irritans L. is a cosmopolitan flea species that infests a wide variety of hosts. In North America it generally parasitizes large wild mammals, but in the Pacific Northwest an association has emerged between P. irritans and the western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea). While investigators have recognized this association for decades, it has not been clear if P. irritans feeds on burrowing owls, or if the owls serve exclusively as phoretic hosts. Here we describe using a real-time assay that was originally developed to identify bloodmeals in Ugandan cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis Bouché) to detect burrowing owl DNA in P. irritans collected from burrowing owls in southern Idaho. Of 50 fleas tested, 12 had no detectable vertebrate bloodmeal. The remaining 38 (76%) contained burrowing owl DNA. The assay did not detect vertebrate DNA in unfed fleas exposed to owl or mouse pelts and is therefore unlikely to detect DNA in fleas from vertebrates that have served exclusively as phoretic hosts. We conclude that P. irritans feeds on burrowing owls. We discuss the potential implications of this finding for burrowing owl conservation and enzootic plague dynamics.

  19. Translating the Foundational Model of Anatomy into OWL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Natalya F; Rubin, Daniel L

    2008-01-01

    The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) represents the result of manual and disciplined modeling of the structural organization of the human body. It is a tremendous resource in bioinformatics that facilitates sharing of information among applications that use anatomy knowledge. The FMA was developed in Protégé and the Protégé frames language is the canonical representation language for the FMA. We present a translation of the original Protégé frame representation of the FMA into OWL. Our effort is complementary to the earlier efforts to represent FMA in OWL and is focused on two main goals: (1) representing only the information that is explicitly present in the frames representation of the FMA or that can be directly inferred from the semantics of Protégé frames; (2) representing all the information that is present in the frames representation of the FMA, thus producing an OWL representation for the complete FMA. Our complete representation of the FMA in OWL consists of two components: an OWL DL component that contains the FMA constructs that are compatible with OWL DL; and an OWL Full component that imports the OWL DL component and adds the FMA constructs that OWL DL does not allow.

  20. Does petroleum development affect burrowing owl nocturnal space-use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scobie, Corey; Wellicome, Troy; Bayne, Erin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta (Canada)], email: cscobie@ualberta.ca, email: tiw@ualberta.ca, email: bayne@ualberta.ca

    2011-07-01

    Decline all over Canada in the population of burrowing owls, a federally listed endangered species, has raised concerns about the possible influence of petroleum infrastructure development on owl nocturnal space-use while foraging. Roads, wells, pipelines and sound-producing facilities related to petroleum development change the landscape and can influence the owls' mortality risk. For 3 years, 27 breeding adult male burrowing owls with nests close to different petroleum infrastructures were captured and fitted with a miniature GPS datalogger in order to track their nocturnal foraging. Data from these GPS devices were fed into a geographical information system and showed that pipelines and wells did not alter the foraging habits of the owls. Dirt and gravel roads, with little traffic, were preferentially selected by the owls, conceivably because of higher owl mortality risk along paved roads. Sound-producing facilities did not change owls' foraging behaviour, implying that sound may not affect their nocturnal space-use. Traffic data and sound power measurements will be used in further studies in an effort to better understand burrowing owls' nocturnal foraging habits.

  1. Use of Artificial Burrows by Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) at the HAMMER Facility on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Amanda K.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Duberstein, Corey A.

    2005-09-30

    In 2003 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) constructed an Emergency Vehicle Operations Course (EVOC) at the Hazardous Material Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center (HAMMER) in the southern portion of the Hanford Site. Preliminary surveys during 2001 identified an active burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) burrow and three burrowing owls within the proposed development area. Burrowing owls were classified as a federal species of concern, a Washington State ?candidate? species, a Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife priority species, and a Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan Level III resource. Therefore, the mitigation action plan for the project included the installation of twenty artificial burrows around EVOC in the spring of 2003. The mitigation plan established a success criterion of five percent annual use of the burrows by owls. In July 2005, a field survey of the EVOC burrow complex was conducted to determine use and demography at each site. Burrow locations were mapped and signs of activity (feces, owl tracks, castings, feathers) were recorded. Out of the twenty burrows, twelve were found to be active. Of the eight inactive burrows three appeared to have been active earlier in the 2005 breeding season. A total of nineteen owls were counted but demography could not be determined. It appears that the EVOC mitigation exceeded burrow use goals during 2005. Continued site monitoring and maintenance, according to mitigation plan guidelines should be conducted as prescribed.

  2. LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination on a dried blood spot of multiple analytes relevant for treatment monitoring in patients with tyrosinemia type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Marca, Giancarlo; Malvagia, Sabrina; Materazzi, Serena; Della Bona, Maria Luisa; Boenzi, Sara; Martinelli, Diego; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2012-01-17

    Tyrosinemia type 1 is caused by deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase. The enzymatic defect impairs the conversion of fumarylacetoacetate to fumarate, causing accumulation of succinylacetone which induces severe liver and kidney dysfunction along with mutagenic changes and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment is based on nitisinone (NTBC), an enzymatic inhibitor which suppresses succinylacetone production. NTBC, which has dramatically changed the disease course improving liver and kidney functions and reducing risk of liver cancer, causes a side effect of the increase of tyrosine levels. Treatment is therefore based on the combination of NTBC with a protein-restricted diet to prevent the potential toxicity of excessive tyrosine accumulation. Long-term therapy requires a careful monitoring in blood of NTBC levels along with other disease biomarkers, which include succinylacetone, and a selected panel of circulating aminoacids. We have developed a straightforward and fast MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of NTBC, succinylacetone, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine on a dried blood spot requiring a 2 min run. A single assay suitable for quantitative evaluation of all biochemical markers is of great advance over conventional methods, especially in pediatric patients, since it reduces laboratory costs and blood sampling, is less invasive and particularly suitable for pediatric patients, and allows easier storage and shipping.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Therapeutic Drugs in Dried Blood Spot Samples by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry: An Avenue to Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manicke, Nicholas Edward; Abu-Rabie, Paul; Spooner, Neil; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R. Graham

    2011-09-01

    A method is presented for the direct quantitative analysis of therapeutic drugs from dried blood spot samples by mass spectrometry. The method, paper spray mass spectrometry, generates gas phase ions directly from the blood card paper used to store dried blood samples without the need for complex sample preparation and separation; the entire time for preparation and analysis of blood samples is around 30 s. Limits of detection were investigated for a chemically diverse set of some 15 therapeutic drugs; hydrophobic and weakly basic drugs, such as sunitinib, citalopram, and verapamil, were found to be routinely detectable at approximately 1 ng/mL. Samples were prepared by addition of the drug to whole blood. Drug concentrations were measured quantitatively over several orders of magnitude, with accuracies within 10% of the expected value and relative standard deviation (RSD) of around 10% by prespotting an internal standard solution onto the paper prior to application of the blood sample. We have demonstrated that paper spray mass spectrometry can be used to quantitatively measure drug concentrations over the entire therapeutic range for a wide variety of drugs. The high quality analytical data obtained indicate that the technique may be a viable option for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  4. Personalized monitoring of therapeutic salicylic acid in dried blood spots using a three-layer setup and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenhaar, Markus; Küllmer, Kai; Fernandes, Nuno Miguel de Barros; Hüllen, Volker; Hopf, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry is an emerging technology for direct therapeutic drug monitoring in dried blood spots (DBS). Current DBS methods require manual application of small molecules as internal standards for absolute drug quantification. With industrial standardization in mind, we superseded the manual addition of standard and built a three-layer setup for robust quantification of salicylic acid directly from DBS. We combined a dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate weave facilitating sample spreading with a cellulose layer for addition of isotope-labeled salicylic acid as internal standard and a filter paper for analysis of the standard-containing sample by DESI-MS. Using this setup, we developed a quantification method for salicylic acid from whole blood with a validated linear curve range from 10 to 2000 mg/L, a relative standard deviation (RSD%) ≤14%, and determination coefficients of 0.997. The limit of detection (LOD) was 8 mg/L and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 10 mg/L. Recovery rates in method verification by LC-MS/MS were 97 to 101% for blinded samples. Most importantly, a study in healthy volunteers after administration of a single dose of Aspirin provides evidence to suggest that the three-layer setup may enable individual pharmacokinetic and endpoint testing following blood collection by finger pricking by patients at home. Taken together, our data suggests that DBS-based quantification of drugs by DESI-MS on pre-manufactured three-layer cartridges may be a promising approach for future near-patient therapeutic drug monitoring.

  5. Live trapping of hawks and owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R.E.; Cope, J.B.; Robbins, C.S.

    1945-01-01

    1. Hawks of six species (80 individuals) and owls of five species (37 individuals) were trapped for banding from November 1, 1943, to. May 26,1944. 2. In general, pole traps proved better than hand-operated traps or automatic traps using live bait. 3. Verbail pole traps proved very efficient, and were much more humane than padded steel traps because they rarely injured a captured bird. 4: Unbaited Verbail traps took a variety of raptors, in rough proportion to their local abundance, although slightly more of beneficial species were caught than of harmful types. 5. Hawks and owls were retrapped more readily in Verbail traps than in other types tried. 6. The number of song birds caught in Verbail traps was negligible. 7. Crows and vultures were not taken in Verbail traps, but possibly could be caught with bait.

  6. Post-fledging behaviour of juveniles in the Little Owl (Athene noctua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dorthe; Thorup, Kasper; Sunde, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Before dispersal, social and spatial behaviour in owls has only been briefly studied. We used radio tracking to monitor age-influenced social and spatial behaviour in 10 juvenile Little Owls (Athene noctua) from nests in Northern Jutland, Denmark. On average, the post-fledging dependency period...... lasted 35 days (n = 6). Juveniles stayed on the natal territory 45 days (n = 5) from independence to dispersal.Half of the juveniles had dispersed by mid-September, and the other half remained on the natal territory until at leastmid-October. The home range size (minimum convex polygons) was 0.56 ± 0...... consistent with the notion that food provided by the parents decreased as juvenile foraging skills increased....

  7. An Overview of OWL, a Language for Knowledge Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolovits, Peter; And Others

    This is a description of the motivation and overall organization of the OWL language for knowledge representation. OWL consists of a linguistic memory system (LMS), a memory of concepts in terms of which all English phrases and all knowledge of an application domain are represented; a theory of English grammar which tells how to map English…

  8. Judging Amy: Automated legal assessment using OWL 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, S.; Hoekstra, R.; Breuker, J.; Wortel, L.; El-Ali, A.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most salient tasks in law is legal assessment, and concerns the problem of determining whether some case is allowed or disallowed given an appropriate body of legal norms. In this paper we describe a system and Protégé 4 plugin, called OWL Judge, that uses standard OWL 2 DL reasoning for

  9. Long-eared owls nesting in Badlands National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah D. Paulson; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1985-01-01

    Long-eared Owls nest at high densities locally over the Great Plains where suitable habitat is limited (Bent 1938), yet , according to Whitney et al. (1978), this species is rare to uncommon in South Dakota. Especially west of the Missouri River, few nesting records have been reported. This paper reports the occurrence of Long-eared Owls in the Badlands National Park...

  10. Species boundaries in non-tropical Northern Hemisphere Owls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    A survey is presented of the status of species boundaries in nontropical Northern Hemisphere owls in order to investigate the reality of the biological and geographical species concept applied to these owls in current handbooks. At the same time the practicability of evolutionary systematics as oppo

  11. Protozoal hepatitis in a western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian

    2017-01-01

    A western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) found dead in southern California had many light-colored lesions visible grossly on its liver, and histopathology revealed extensive necrosis throughout the hepatic parenchyma. Single-celled organisms were seen in clear spaces within the areas of necrosis. The owl was diagnosed with protozoal hepatitis.

  12. Species boundaries in non-tropical Northern Hemisphere Owls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    A survey is presented of the status of species boundaries in nontropical Northern Hemisphere owls in order to investigate the reality of the biological and geographical species concept applied to these owls in current handbooks. At the same time the practicability of evolutionary systematics as

  13. Habitat fragmentation and the Burrowing Owls (Speotyto cunicularia) in Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Warnock; Paul C. James

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between landscape (125,664 ha circular plots) fragmentation patterns and the spatial distribution of Burrowing Owls (Speotyto cunicularia) was investigated in the heavily fragmented grasslands of Saskatchewan. Data were collected from 152 Burrowing Owl sites and 250 random sites located on 1990 LANDSAT-TM satellite images and 1:250,...

  14. OWL 2 Web Ontology Language: structural specification and functional-style syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motik, B.; Patel-Schneider, P.F.; Parsia, B.; Bock, C.; Fokoue, A.; Haase, P.; Hoekstra, R.; Horrocks, I.; Ruttenberg, A.; Sattler, U.; Smith, M.

    2008-01-01

    The OWL 2 Web Ontology Language, informally OWL 2, is an ontology language for the Semantic Web with formally defined meaning. OWL 2 ontologies provide classes, properties, individuals, and data values and are stored as Semantic Web documents. OWL 2 ontologies can be used along with information writ

  15. OWL 2 Web Ontology Language: structural specification and functional-style syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motik, B.; Patel-Schneider, P.F.; Parsia, B.; Bock, C.; Fokoue, A.; Haase, P.; Hoekstra, R.; Horrocks, I.; Ruttenberg, A.; Sattler, U.; Smith, M.

    2008-01-01

    The OWL 2 Web Ontology Language, informally OWL 2, is an ontology language for the Semantic Web with formally defined meaning. OWL 2 ontologies provide classes, properties, individuals, and data values and are stored as Semantic Web documents. OWL 2 ontologies can be used along with information

  16. Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora from 1993 to 2014 with Landsat TM and SPOT 6 Satellite Data in Yueqing Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Chen, Jiadai; Jing, Changwei; Ye, Guanqiong; Wu, Jiaping; Huang, Zhixing; Zhou, Chaosheng

    2015-01-01

    The exotic plant Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Yueqing Bay more than 20 years ago for tidal land reclamation and as a defense against typhoons, but it has rapidly expanded and caused enormous ecological consequences. Mapping the spread and distribution of S. alterniflora is the first step toward understanding the factors that determine the population expansion patterns. Remote sensing is a promising tool to monitor the expansion of S. alterniflora. Twelve Landsat TM images and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used to delineate the invasion of S. alterniflora from 1993 to 2009, and SPOT 6 images and Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) were used to map the distribution of S. alterniflora in 2014. In situ data and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images were used as supplementary data. S. alterniflora spread rapidly in Yueqing Bay over the past 21 years. Between 1993 and 2009, the area of S. alterniflora increased by 608 times (from 4 to 2432 ha). The rapid expansion of S. alterniflora covered almost all of the bare mudflats around the mangrove forests and the cultivated mudflats. However, from 2009 to 2014, the rate of expansion of S. alterniflora began to slow down in Yueqing Bay, and the total area of S. alterniflora in Yantian decreased by 275 ha. These phenomena can be explained by the landscape changes and ecological niches. Through the expansion of S. alterniflora, it was found that the ecological significance and environmental impact of S. alterniflora was different in different regions in Yueqing Bay. The conservation plans for Yueqing Bay should consider both the positive and negative effects of S. alterniflora, and the governmental policy should be based on the different circumstances of the regions.

  17. Mongolian spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mongolian spots (MS are birthmarks that are present at birth and their most common location is sacrococcygeal or lumbar area. Lesions may be single or multiple and usually involve < 5% total body surface area. They are macular and round, oval or irregular in shape. The color varies from blue to greenish, gray, black or a combination of any of the above. The size varies from few to more than 20 centimetres. Pigmentation is most intense at the age of one year and gradually fades thereafter. It is rarely seen after the age of 6 years. Aberrant MS over occiput, temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although regarded as benign, recent data suggest that MS may be associated with inborn errors of metabolism and neurocristopathies. Mongolian spots usually resolve by early childhood and hence no treatment is generally needed if they are located in the sacral area. However, sometimes it may be required for extrasacral lesions for cosmesis.

  18. Distribution of the Chuckwalla, Western Burrowing Owl, and Six Bat Species on the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Willis

    1997-05-01

    Field Surveys were conducted in 1996 to determine the current distribution of several animal species of concern on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). They included the chuckwall (Sauromalus obesus), western burrowing owl (Speotyto cunicularia), and six species of bats. Nineteen chuckwallas and 118 scat locations were found during the chuckwalla field study. Eighteen western burrowing owls were found at 12 sighting locations during the 1996 field study. Of the eleven bat species of concern which might occur on the NTS, five, and possibly six, were captured during this survey. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, takes certain management actions to protect and conserve the chuckwalla, western burrowing owl, and bats on the NTS. These actions are described and include: (1) conducting surveys at sites of proposed land-disturbing activities (2) altering projects whenever possible to avoid or minimize impacts to these species (3) maintaining a geospatial database of known habitat for species of concern (4) sharing sighting and trap location data gathered on the NTS with other local land and resource managers, and (5) conducting periodic field surveys to monitor these species distribution and relative abundance on the NTS.

  19. Monitoring Forsmark - Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin [Dept of Biology, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002 - 2012. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2012 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from 2012 generally follow patterns recorded in earlier years. 2012 was in general a better bird year compared to 2010 and 2011 and most species (82%) showed increasing or stable numbers from 2011 to 2012. Only two species (18%) decreased in numbers between the last two years. All in all, six species (55 %, black-throated diver, honey buzzard, black grouse, ural owl, wryneck and red-backed shrike) show no significant trends since the start of the bird monitoring (2002/2003/2004 depending on species). During this period three species (27 %, white-tailed eagle, osprey and lesser spotted woodpecker) have increased in numbers while just two (18 %, capercaillie and hazelhen) have decreased. A new pair of black-throated divers was discovered in 2012 and seven resident pairs were registered. Breeding success was very good, the second best during the study period. Population development follows the national pattern, but breeding success seems to be better in Forsmark than in the country as a whole. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, and breeding success for ospreys was good. No signs of successful breedings of honey buzzards were recorded, but this may mean little as no detailed monitoring of breeding success is made for this species. The white-tailed eagles had their best breeding year since the start of the SKB bird monitoring, meaning that during the last two years local breeding success has been back at the level recorded before the site investigations started. The three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) again showed somewhat varying patterns between the last two years as well as in the long run. The black grouse increased

  20. Realizing Semantic Web Services Description with OWL-S Ontology%应用OWL-S实现Web服务的语义描述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 张晓林

    2005-01-01

    OWL-S顶级本体结构入手,详细介绍了应用OWL-S实现服务概貌、服务过程模型以及服务绑定等语义描述的方法,并通过一个网上售书的电子商务实例具体说明.

  1. Application of the SPOT-5 Satellite Remote-sensing Data in Monitoring the Coalmine Subsidence Area%SPOT-5卫星遥感数据在煤矿塌陷区监测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎来福; 王秀丽

    2008-01-01

    采煤造成的塌陷区日趋严重,并兼有扩大趋势,常规方法难以适应其发展.SPOT-5图像具有很高的分辫率,通过已知塌陷区资料,以鸡西矿区为例利用ERDAS和MAPGIS处理图像并建立塌陷区地物解译标志体系,据此提取塌陷区范围信息,为该地区治理提供依据.

  2. Vision-independent adjustment of unit tuning to sound localization cues in response to monaural occlusion in developing owl optic tectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, E I; Mogdans, J

    1992-09-01

    Neurons in the developing optic tectum adjust their tuning to auditory localization cues in response to chronic monaural occlusion so that auditory spatial fields align with visual receptive fields (VRFs). We tested whether this adaptive adjustment of auditory tuning requires visual instruction. Both eyelids were sutured closed at the same time that one ear was occluded in two barn owls that were 1 month old. After 70 and 100 d, respectively, the tuning of units to interaural level difference (ILD) and to interaural time difference (ITD) was measured. These data were compared with equivalent data from 15 normal owls. Unit tuning to ITD was shifted from normal in both of the monaurally occluded owls. In one owl, ILD tuning was also clearly shifted. In the other owl, the map of ILD was flipped upside down and adaptive adjustments in ILD tuning could not be assessed. Instead, adjustments in ILD tuning were observed following removal of the earplug with the eyelids kept closed. Unit tuning was monitored at several sites in the tectum for 1 month after earplug removal using chronically implanted electrodes. Then, ILD tuning was resampled across the entire tectum. Both measures indicated shifts in ILD tuning in response to removal of the earplug in the second blind owl. In both animals, the magnitude of the shifts in ILD tuning and ITD tuning was smaller than has been observed previously in monaurally occluded but sighted owls. The results demonstrate that the brain can make adaptive adjustments in ILD and ITD tuning in response to early monaural occlusion even without the guiding influence of vision.

  3. XQOWL: An Extension of XQuery for OWL Querying and Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Almendros-Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main aims of the so-called Web of Data is to be able to handle heterogeneous resources where data can be expressed in either XML or RDF. The design of programming languages able to handle both XML and RDF data is a key target in this context. In this paper we present a framework called XQOWL that makes possible to handle XML and RDF/OWL data with XQuery. XQOWL can be considered as an extension of the XQuery language that connects XQuery with SPARQL and OWL reasoners. XQOWL embeds SPARQL queries (via Jena SPARQL engine in XQuery and enables to make calls to OWL reasoners (HermiT, Pellet and FaCT++ from XQuery. It permits to combine queries against XML and RDF/OWL resources as well as to reason with RDF/OWL data. Therefore input data can be either XML or RDF/OWL and output data can be formatted in XML (also using RDF/OWL XML serialization.

  4. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called “Zombies”. In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  5. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called "Zombies". In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  6. Mapping relational database into OWL Structure with data semantic preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Gherabi, Noreddine; Bahaj, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a solution for migrating an RDB into Web semantic. The solution takes an existing RDB as input, and extracts its metadata representation (MTRDB). Based on the MTRDB, a Canonical Data Model (CDM) is generated. Finally, the structure of the classification scheme in the CDM model is converted into OWL ontology and the recordsets of database are stored in owl document. A prototype has been implemented, which migrates a RDB into OWL structure, for demonstrate the practical applicability of our approach by showing how the results of reasoning of this technique can help improve the Web systems.

  7. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a ... New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases ...

  8. OWL 2 learn profile: an ontology sublanguage for the learning domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiyanthuduwage, Sudath R; Schwitter, Rolf; Orgun, Mehmet A

    2016-01-01

    Many experimental ontologies have been developed for the learning domain for use at different institutions. These ontologies include different OWL/OWL 2 (Web Ontology Language) constructors. However, it is not clear which OWL 2 constructors are the most appropriate ones for designing ontologies for the learning domain. It is possible that the constructors used in these learning domain ontologies match one of the three standard OWL 2 profiles (sublanguages). To investigate whether this is the case, we have analysed a corpus of 14 ontologies designed for the learning domain. We have also compared the constructors used in these ontologies with those of the OWL 2 RL profile, one of the OWL 2 standard profiles. The results of our analysis suggest that the OWL 2 constructors used in these ontologies do not exactly match the standard OWL 2 RL profile, but form a subset of that profile which we call OWL 2 Learn.

  9. Are 'hot spots' hot spots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, Gillian R.

    2012-07-01

    The term 'hot spot' emerged in the 1960s from speculations that Hawaii might have its origins in an unusually hot source region in the mantle. It subsequently became widely used to refer to volcanic regions considered to be anomalous in the then-new plate tectonic paradigm. It carried with it the implication that volcanism (a) is emplaced by a single, spatially restricted, mongenetic melt-delivery system, assumed to be a mantle plume, and (b) that the source is unusually hot. This model has tended to be assumed a priori to be correct. Nevertheless, there are many geological ways of testing it, and a great deal of work has recently been done to do so. Two fundamental problems challenge this work. First is the difficulty of deciding a 'normal' mantle temperature against which to compare estimates. This is usually taken to be the source temperature of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs). However, Earth's surface conduction layer is ˜200 km thick, and such a norm is not appropriate if the lavas under investigation formed deeper than the 40-50 km source depth of MORB. Second, methods for estimating temperature suffer from ambiguity of interpretation with composition and partial melt, controversy regarding how they should be applied, lack of repeatability between studies using the same data, and insufficient precision to detect the 200-300 °C temperature variations postulated. Available methods include multiple seismological and petrological approaches, modelling bathymetry and topography, and measuring heat flow. Investigations have been carried out in many areas postulated to represent either (hot) plume heads or (hotter) tails. These include sections of the mid-ocean spreading ridge postulated to include ridge-centred plumes, the North Atlantic Igneous Province, Iceland, Hawaii, oceanic plateaus, and high-standing continental areas such as the Hoggar swell. Most volcanic regions that may reasonably be considered anomalous in the simple plate-tectonic paradigm have been

  10. Towards OWL-based Knowledge Representation in Petrology

    CERN Document Server

    Shkotin, Alex; Kudryavtsev, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our work on development of OWL-driven systems for formal representation and reasoning about terminological knowledge and facts in petrology. The long-term aim of our project is to provide solid foundations for a large-scale integration of various kinds of knowledge, including basic terms, rock classification algorithms, findings and reports. We describe three steps we have taken towards that goal here. First, we develop a semi-automated procedure for transforming a database of igneous rock samples to texts in a controlled natural language (CNL), and then a collection of OWL ontologies. Second, we create an OWL ontology of important petrology terms currently described in natural language thesauri. We describe a prototype of a tool for collecting definitions from domain experts. Third, we present an approach to formalization of current industrial standards for classification of rock samples, which requires linear equations in OWL 2. In conclusion, we discuss a range of opportunities arising ...

  11. Semantically-Rigorous Systems Engineering Modeling Using Sysml and OWL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J. Steven; Rouquette, Nicolas F.

    2012-01-01

    The Systems Modeling Language (SysML) has found wide acceptance as a standard graphical notation for the domain of systems engineering. SysML subsets and extends the Unified Modeling Language (UML) to define conventions for expressing structural, behavioral, and analytical elements, and relationships among them. SysML-enabled modeling tools are available from multiple providers, and have been used for diverse projects in military aerospace, scientific exploration, and civil engineering. The Web Ontology Language (OWL) has found wide acceptance as a standard notation for knowledge representation. OWL-enabled modeling tools are available from multiple providers, as well as auxiliary assets such as reasoners and application programming interface libraries, etc. OWL has been applied to diverse projects in a wide array of fields. While the emphasis in SysML is on notation, SysML inherits (from UML) a semantic foundation that provides for limited reasoning and analysis. UML's partial formalization (FUML), however, does not cover the full semantics of SysML, which is a substantial impediment to developing high confidence in the soundness of any conclusions drawn therefrom. OWL, by contrast, was developed from the beginning on formal logical principles, and consequently provides strong support for verification of consistency and satisfiability, extraction of entailments, conjunctive query answering, etc. This emphasis on formal logic is counterbalanced by the absence of any graphical notation conventions in the OWL standards. Consequently, OWL has had only limited adoption in systems engineering. The complementary strengths and weaknesses of SysML and OWL motivate an interest in combining them in such a way that we can benefit from the attractive graphical notation of SysML and the formal reasoning of OWL. This paper describes an approach to achieving that combination.

  12. Insect-foraging in captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovich, Christy K; Rivera, Jeanette; Evans, Sian

    2010-08-01

    Whereas the diets of diurnal primate species vary greatly, almost all nocturnal primate species consume insects. Insect-foraging has been described in nocturnal prosimians but has not been investigated in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.). We studied 35 captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) in order to describe their foraging behavior and to determine if there were any age or sex differences in their ability to capture insect prey. Because owl monkeys cooperate in parental care and in food-sharing, we expected social interactions involving insect prey. We found that owl monkeys most often snatched flying insects from the air and immobilized crawling insects against a substrate using their hands. Immatures and adult female owl monkeys attempted to capture prey significantly more often than did adult males; however, there was no difference in the proportion of attempts that resulted in capture. Social interactions involving prey appeared similar to those with provisioned food, but possessors of prey resisted begging attempts more so than did possessors of other food. Owl monkeys attempted to capture prey often (mean = 9.5 +/- 5.8 attempts/h), and we speculate that the protein and lipid content of captured prey is important for meeting the metabolic demands for growth and reproduction.

  13. Communication of male quality in owl hoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, Loïc A; Reby, David; Bavoux, Christian; Burneleau, Guy; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2007-04-01

    The evolution of communication through intrasexual selection is expected to lead signalers to transmit honest information on their fighting ability. Here we studied the information encoded in the acoustic structure of the territorial calls of a nocturnal raptor. During territorial contests, male scops owls give hoots composed of a downward frequency shift followed by a stable plateau. We found that the frequency of the hoot was negatively correlated with the body weight of the vocalizer. We shifted the frequency contour of natural hoots in order to create resynthesized calls corresponding to individuals of varying body weight and used these stimuli in playback experiments simulating an intrusion into the territory of established breeders. Territory owners responded less intensely when they heard hoots simulating heavier intruders, and males with heavier apparent weight tended to give hoots with a lower plateau in response to playbacks simulating heavier intruders.

  14. Ecotoxicological suitability of floodplain habitats in The Netherlands for the little owl (Athene noctua vidalli)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, N.W. van den; Groen, N.M.; Jonge, J. de; Bosveld, A.T.C

    2003-03-01

    PCBs pose a risk to little owls from floodplain habitats. - This study describes the actual risks of exposure to contaminants, which little owls (Athene noctua vidalli) face in Dutch river floodplains. The results indicate that PCBs pose a risk: not only are levels in little owls from floodplains higher than levels found in little owls from a reference site but the PCB patterns in owls from the floodplains also indicate induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes by dioxin like compounds, possibly PCBs. Of the heavy metals, only cadmium is thought to pose a risk in certain conditions, for example, when little owls are feeding only on earthworms over a prolonged period of time. The results do not indicate any effects on the occurrence of prey items of the little owl like for instance earthworm, beetles and shrews. Hence, it is not expected that little owls will be affected by diminishing prey availability due to contamination.

  15. Julia Butler Hansen NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Nocturnal Owl Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nocturnal owl surveys are part of a larger effort on the Julia Butler Hansen Refuge (JBH) to track long-term changes in wildlife occurrence. Six owl species are on...

  16. Spatial and temporal diversity of the diet of the tawny owl (Strix aluco)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ján Obuch

    2011-01-01

      Spatial and temporal diversity of the diet of the tawny owl ([Strix aluco]) The author compared diet of eight owl species in Slovakia, out of which four species prey in the non-forest environment...

  17. Long-term data set of small mammals from owl pellets in the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Nora; Galicia, David; Ariño, Arturo H; Escala, Carmen

    2016-09-27

    We describe the pellet sampling data set from the Vertebrate Collection of the Museum of Zoology of the University of Navarra. This data set compiles all information about small mammals obtained from the analysis of owl pellets. The collection consists on skulls, mandibles, and some skeletons of 36 species of more than 72,000 georeferenced specimens. These specimens come from the Iberian Peninsula although most samples were collected in Navarra, a highly diverse transitional area of 10,000 kilometre square sitting across three biogeographical regions. The collection spans more than forty years and is still growing as a result of the establishment of a barn owl pellet monitoring network in 2015. The program will provide critical information about the evolution of the small mammals' community in this transition zone as it changes over time.

  18. [Occurrence of parasites in indigenous birds of prey and owls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierz, M; Göbel, T; Schuster, R

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper a general overview on parasites in birds of prey and owls is given. This part is followed by a study investigating the prevalences and species of parasites in free-ranging birds of prey and owls in Berlin and Brandenburg State, Germany. Over a one year period, 84 birds of prey and owls of the following species were examined for the presence of endo- and ectoparasites: Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) (n = 32), Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) (n = 20), Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) (n = 9), Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) (n = 8), Black Kite (Milvus migrans) (n = 4), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) (n = 3), Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) (n = 1), White-tailed-Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) (n = 1), Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) (n = 4), Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) (n = 1) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba) (n = 1). In 97.6% of the cases, ectoparasites (feather mites and hippoboscid flies) were found. Especially eyasses (93.3%) were positive for hippoboscid flies. Trichomonas was detected in 28.6% of all birds of prey and owls examined. A prevalence of 100% was established in the Sparrow Hawks as well as Peregrine Falcons. Leucozytozoon sp. and Hemoproteus sp. as blood parasites were found in 26.9% of the birds in total. Common Buzzards showed the highest prevalence (44.8%). 58.3% of birds examined were positive for endoparasites. Flukes were found in 16.7%, tapeworms in 14.3%, round-worms in 48.8% and acanthocephales in 2.4% of the cases. Interestingly, Tylodelphis clavata (in a Common Buzzard) and Hovorkonema variegatum (in a Goshawk) were found for the first time in raptors. The results of this study underline the importance of a parasitological examination in the process of raptor rehabilitation.

  19. An Overlooked Cost for the Velvety Plumage of Owls: Entanglement in Adhesive Vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Airam; Siverio, Felipe; Barone, Rubén; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Negro, Juan J.

    2009-01-01

    We used data collected during 1995– 2007 at the only Wildlife Rehabilitation Center on Tenerife Island (Canary Islands) to quantify entangle- ment mortality of owls. At least 66 of 1,206 Long- eared (Asio otus) and 5 of 231 Barn (Tyto alba) owls admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation Center were en- tangled in burr bristlegrass (Setaria adhaerens). Twelve (18.2%) of the 66 Long-eared Owls died as a result of entanglement while one of five Barn Owls ...

  20. 75 FR 63800 - Information Collection; Commercial Use of the Woodsy Owl Symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Commercial Use of the Woodsy Owl Symbol AGENCY: Forest Service... currently approved information collection, Commercial Use of the Woodsy Owl Symbol. DATES: Comments must be...: Commercial Use of the Woodsy Owl Symbol. OMB Number: 0596-0087. Expiration Date of Approval: 04/30/2011....

  1. Habitat selection by owls in a seasonal semi-deciduous forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Menq

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper tested the hypothesis that the structural components of vegetation have impact over the distribution of owl species in a fragment of a semi-deciduous seasonal forest. This paper also determined which vegetation variables contributed to the spatial distribution of owl species. It was developed in the Perobas Biological Reserve (PBR between September and December 2011. To conduct the owl census, a playback technique was applied at hearing points distributed to cover different vegetation types in the study area. A total of 56 individual owls of six species were recorded: Tropical Screech-Owl (Megascops choliba, Black-capped Screech-Owl (Megascops atricapilla, Tawny-browed Owl (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum, Mottled Owl (Strix virgata and Stygian Owl (Asio stygius. The results suggest that the variables of vegetation structure have impact on the occurrence of owls. The canopy height, the presence of hollow trees, fallen trees and glades are the most important structural components influencing owl distribution in the sampled area.

  2. Ecotoxicological suitability of floodplain habitats in the Netherlands for the little owl (Athene noctua vidalli)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Groen, N.M.; Jonge, de J.; Bosveld, A.T.C.

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the actual risks of exposure to contaminants, which little owls (Athene noctua vidalli) face in Dutch river floodplains. The results indicate that PCBs pose a risk: not only are levels in little owls from floodplains higher than levels found in little owls from a reference site

  3. A spatial analysis of the Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) population in Santa Clara County, California, using a geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice Taylor Buchanan

    1997-01-01

    A small population of Burrowing Owls (Speotyto cunicularia) is found in the San Francisco Bay Area, particularly in Santa Clara County. These owls utilize habitat that is dispersed throughout this heavily urbanized region. In an effort to establish a conservation plan for Burrowing Owls in Santa Clara County, a spatial analysis of owl distribution...

  4. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  5. Otoacoustic interrelationships of the barn owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergevin, Christopher; Manley, Geoffrey A.; Köppl, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Significant debate still exists about the biophysical mechanisms at work in otoacoustic emission (OAE) generation and how such may differ between mammals and non-mammals given gross morphological differences (e.g., existence of basilar membrane traveling waves, degree of tectorial membrane coupling). To further elucidate general principles at work, we examined the barn owl for interrelationships between spontaneous emissions (SOAEs) and those evoked using a single tone (SFOAEs). First, most ears exhibited SOAEs as a stable periodic `rippling' whose peak-to-peak spacing was relatively constant (˜0.4 kHz). Some ears showed substantially larger narrowband peaks, although their statistical distributions were highly noisy. Second, significant interactions between a low-level tone and SOAE activity were observed via an interference pattern as the tone frequency was swept. Using a suppression paradigm to extract SFOAEs as the residual, the magnitude exhibited a stable pattern of peaks and valleys unique to each ear. Third, SFOAE phase exhibited significant accumulation as frequency was swept, with a phase-gradient delay of approximately 2 ms that was constant across frequency. The amount of SFOAE phase accumulation between adjacent SOAE peaks tended to cluster about an integral number of cycles, as previously observed for humans. Taken together, our data suggest that the principles underlying how active hair cells work together (e.g., entrainment, phase coherence) are shared between widely different inner ear morphologies, leading to the generation of OAEs with similar properties.

  6. Mucocele in a spectacled owl (Pusilatrix perspicillata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh; Brandão, João; Sabater, Mikel; Stidworthy, Mark F; Forbes, Neil A

    2014-03-01

    A 6-year-old breeding female spectacled owl (Pusilatrix perspicillata) was presented for a soft, fluid-filled, spherical mass under the neck that had been increasing in size over the previous 3 days. Results of a fine-needle aspirate of the mass showed clear, pale-yellow fluid with a total protein of 12.6 g/L. Cytologic examination revealed erythrocytes, moderate numbers of heterophils, and numerous foamy mononuclear cells against a mucoid background. Macroscopically, the mass appeared to be attached firmly to the esophagus. The mass was excised surgically and submitted for histopathologic examination. The lesion comprised a circumscribed, fibrous-encapsulated multilocular cyst, lined by plump, goblet-type, cuboidal epithelial cells lying in abundant mucinous matrix. Findings were consistent with a mucocele of the esophageal mucosal gland. Excision was considered curative based on follow-up 6 months after initial presentation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this condition in Strigiformes and indicates that mucocele should be included in the differential diagnosis of cervical masses in birds.

  7. Monitoring Biomass and N Accumulation at Jointing Stage in Winter Wheat Based on SPOT-5 Images%基于SPOT-5影像的冬小麦拔节期生物量及氮积累量监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王备战; 冯晓; 温暖; 郑涛; 杨武德

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The monitoring equations to determine the above-ground biomass weight and N accumulation of winter wheat at jointing stage were established based on SPOT-5 images to provide reference for prediction of productivity and nitrogen regulation in mass production of wheat. [Method] Using SPOT-5 images and test data, the relationships were analyzed between spectral parameter and above-ground biomass weight, N accumulation of winter wheat at jointing stage, then the monitoring equations were established. [Result] The correlation between reflectance of green, red, near-infrared band and above-ground biomass weight, N accumulation reached 0.01 significant level. Reflectance of near-infrared band showed the most sensitive response for above-ground biomass weight, and reflectance of red band showed the most sensitive response to above-ground N accumulation. The exponential function model based on NDVI inversed plant above-ground biomass weight was the best, and R2 was 0.696** and that of RMSE was 258.92 kg·hm-2. The exponential function model based on the reflectance ratio of near-infrared band to red band inversed plant above-ground N accumulation was the best, and R2 was 0.717** and that of RMSE was 19.24 kg·hm-2. Based on the monitoring models, the thematic maps were produced to monitor above-ground biomass and N accumulation at jointing stage. [Conclusion] Using SPOT-5 images can achieve high precision in growth monitoring of winter wheat at jointing stage and it has a wide application prospect.%[目的]建立基于SPOT-5遥感信息的冬小麦拔节期地上部生物量和氮积累量的遥感监测模型,为利用SPOT-5影像进行大面积小麦生产力预测和氮素调控提供依据.[方法]分析冬小麦拔节期地上部生物量和氮积累量与同期SPOT-5光谱参数之间的定量关系,筛选出适宜的光谱参数,建立并评价冬小麦拔节期地上部生物量和氮积累量的遥感监测模型.[结果]绿光、红光和近红外波

  8. Nocturnal raptors (owls: contributions to study of its popularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lindelia Rincón Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research characterizes the nocturnal birds of prey on the campus of Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC; in English, Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia, in addition to the contribution to the study of its popularity, with students in fifth grade from two educational institutions, one, of the urban context, and other, of the rural context. The study involved the implementation of the didactic component to promote recognition of their biological significance in elementary school students. Among the findings two species of nocturnal birds of prey were identified: common currucutú owl (Tropical Screech Owl, Megascops choliba and the barn owl (Tyto alba, with a relative abundance of 12 individuals and 10 individuals, respectively. It also includes changes in perception from students regarding beliefs and superstitions about such species, which favors the recognition of the biological role in the ecosystem and the need for its conservation.

  9. Tutorial on Modeling VAT Rules Using OWL-DL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ib; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Larsen, Ken Friis

    This paper reports on work in progress. We present a methodology for constructing an OWL-DL model of a subset of Danish VAT rules. It is our intention that domain experts without training in formal modeling or computer science should be able to create and maintain the model using our methodology....... In an ERP setting such a model could reduce the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and increase the quality of the system. We have selected OWL-DL because we believe that description logic is suited for modeling VAT rules due to the decidability of important inference problems that are key to the way we plan...... to use the model and because OWL-DL is relatively intuitive to use....

  10. Morphometry of auricular feathers of barn owls (Tyto alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, U R; Wagner, H

    2002-02-01

    In all owl species, the facial plumage forms a parabolic dish, the facial ruff, which is most conspicuous in the the barn owl (Tyto alba). The center of the ruff is formed by auricular feathers. Such feathers are also found on the preaural flaps which cover the ear openings, and in the region of the beak. In this study, we compare the different types of auricular feathers of the barn owl with contour feathers from the neck. Auricular feathers are characterised by an open vane structure and fewer barbs as compared to contour feathers. Auricular feathers also have fewer distal and proximal barbules than contour feathers. The open vane of the auricular feather results from an acute angle between the barb and the basis of the barbules, and from the extension of the pennula parallel to the barbs. These reductions are differently expressed in the three different types of auricular feathers investigated here and correspond with their function (protecting the ruff from dust).

  11. Morphological Variations of Leading-Edge Serrations in Owls (Strigiformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weger

    Full Text Available Owls have developed serrations, comb-like structures, along the leading edge of their wings. Serrations were investigated from a morphological and a mechanical point of view, but were not yet quantitatively compared for different species. Such a comparative investigation of serrations from species of different sizes and activity patterns may provide new information about the function of the serrations.Serrations on complete wings and on tenth primary remiges of seven owl species were investigated. Small, middle-sized, and large owl species were investigated as well as species being more active during the day and owls being more active during the night. Serrations occurred at the outer parts of the wings, predominantly at tenth primary remiges, but also on further wing feathers in most species. Serration tips were oriented away from the feather rachis so that they faced into the air stream during flight. The serrations of nocturnal owl species were higher developed as demonstrated by a larger inclination angle (the angle between the base of the barb and the rachis, a larger tip displacement angle (the angle between the tip of the serration and the base of the serration and a longer length. Putting the measured data into a clustering algorithm yielded dendrograms that suggested a strong influence of activity pattern, but only a weak influence of size on the development of the serrations.Serrations are supposed to be involved in noise reduction during flight and also depend on the aerodynamic properties that in turn depend on body size. Since especially nocturnal owls have to rely on hearing during prey capture, the more pronounced serrations of nocturnal species lend further support to the notion that serrations have an important function in noise reduction. The differences in shape of the serrations investigated indicate that a silent flight requires well-developed serrations.

  12. Gongylonema sp. infection in the scops owl (Otus scops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperón, Fernando; Martín, María Paz; Lopes, Francisca; Orejas, Patricia; Carrero, Laura; Muñoz, María Jesús; Alonso, Raúl

    2013-12-01

    Since 1997, it has been observed that fledging scops owls often develop necrotic plaques in their oral cavities, which in severe cases can even affect bone tissue. This condition has been defined as a necrotic oropharyngeal disease based on gross lesions. In 2011 alone, thirty-five cases were identified at the Brinzal Owl Rescue Centre (Madrid, Spain), of which four were chosen to perform a complete diagnostic study. Histopathology was carried out in three cases and cytology in one case. Using morphological traits cytology identified two larvae as third-stage larvae of a Spiruridae nematode. Histology detected parasite sections in the mucosal epithelium of the mouth of one owl. In addition, four samples of mucosal lesions were subjected to a PCR amplification of the nematode ribosomal RNA gene using a pair of universal primers, three of which were positive. Of available sequences, the sequence obtained showed the closest affinity to that of Gongylonema pulchrum (97.8-98.0%). Clinical treatment was based on supportive therapy, the daily removal of caseous material from the oral cavity and the administration of fenbendazol (50mg/kg PO for 5 days). Approximately 60% of the affected scops owls that arrived at the rescue centre in 2011 were cured and released back into the wild. Clinical, pathological and molecular findings are consistent with Gongylonema sp. infection. Since no evidence of the presence of adult parasites was found, we suggest that these scops owls should be considered as accidental hosts. This is the first description of severe Gongylonema infection in fledgling scops owls, a disease can lead to starvation and death if proper treatment is not provided.

  13. Socialization of adult owl monkeys (Aotus sp.) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence E; Coke, C S; Weed, J L

    2017-01-01

    Social housing has often been recommended as one-way to address the psychological well-being of captive non-human primates. Published reports have examined methods to socialize compatible animals by forming pairs or groups. Successful socialization rates vary depending on the species, gender, and environment. This study presents a retrospective look at pairing attempts in two species of owl monkeys, Aotus nancymaae and A. azarae, which live in monogamous pairs in the wild. The results of 477 pairing attempt conducted with captive, laboratory housed owl monkeys and 61 hr of behavioral observations are reported here. The greatest success pairing these owl monkeys occurred with opposite sex pairs, with an 82% success rate. Opposite sex pairs were more successful when females were older than males. Female-female pairs were more successful than male-male (MM) pairs (62% vs 40%). Successful pairs stayed together between 3 and 7 years before the animals were separated due to social incompatibility. Vigilance, eating, and sleeping during introductions significantly predicted success, as did the performance of the same behavior in both animals. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to give captive owl monkeys a social alternative even if species appropriate social partners (i.e., opposite sex partners) are not available. The focus of this report is a description of one potential way to enhance the welfare of a specific new world primate, the owl monkey, under laboratory conditions. More important is how the species typical social structure of owl monkeys in nature affects the captive management of this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22521, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. In Vivo Monitoring on Growth and Spread of Gray Leaf Spot Disease in Capsicum annuum Leaf Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar Ravichandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated the application of optical coherence tomography (OCT in diagnosis of growth and spread of the gray leaf spot disease in Capsicum annuum leaf caused by the fungus Stemphylium lycopersici. Using 2D cross-sectional and 3D volumetric images of OCT, in vivo study of layer differences between fungus infected leaves and healthy leaves was observed with distinctive features. We observed that the internal layers of the disease-affected parts of the leaf seem to merge forming a single thick layer. The obtained OCT results verify the noninvasive diagnosis ability of fungal growth and spread in Capsicum annuum leaves and the applicability of this methodology for other plant diseases.

  15. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A

    1985-11-01

    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains.

  16. Circulating testosterone and feather-gene expression of receptors and metabolic enzymes in relation to melanin-based colouration in the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béziers, Paul; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Simon, Céline; Roulin, Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge of how and why secondary sexual characters are associated with sex hormones is important to understand their signalling function. Such a link can occur if i) testosterone participates in the elaboration of sex-traits, ii) the display of an ornament triggers behavioural response in conspecifics that induce a rise in testosterone, or iii) genes implicated in the elaboration of a sex-trait pleiotropically regulate testosterone physiology. To evaluate the origin of the co-variation between melanism and testosterone, we measured this hormone and the expression of enzymes involved in its metabolism in feathers of barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings at the time of melanogenesis and in adults outside the period of melanogenesis. Male nestlings displaying smaller black feather spots had higher levels of circulating testosterone, potentially suggesting that testosterone could block the production of eumelanin pigments, or that genes involved in the production of small spots pleiotropically regulate testosterone production. In contrast, the enzyme 5α-reductase, that metabolizes testosterone to DHT, was more expressed in feathers of reddish-brown than light-reddish nestlings. This is consistent with the hypothesis that testosterone might be involved in the expression of reddish-brown pheomelanic pigments. In breeding adults, male barn owls displaying smaller black spots had higher levels of circulating testosterone, whereas in females the opposite result was detected during the rearing period, but not during incubation. The observed sex- and age-specific co-variations between black spottiness and testosterone in nestling and adult barn owls may not result from testosterone-dependent melanogenesis, but from melanogenic genes pleiotropically regulating testosterone, or from colour-specific life history strategies that influence testosterone levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relations as patterns: bridging the gap between OBO and OWL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoehndorf Robert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most biomedical ontologies are represented in the OBO Flatfile Format, which is an easy-to-use graph-based ontology language. The semantics of the OBO Flatfile Format 1.2 enforces a strict predetermined interpretation of relationship statements between classes. It does not allow flexible specifications that provide better approximations of the intuitive understanding of the considered relations. If relations cannot be accurately expressed then ontologies built upon them may contain false assertions and hence lead to false inferences. Ontologies in the OBO Foundry must formalize the semantics of relations according to the OBO Relationship Ontology (RO. Therefore, being able to accurately express the intended meaning of relations is of crucial importance. Since the Web Ontology Language (OWL is an expressive language with a formal semantics, it is suitable to de ne the meaning of relations accurately. Results We developed a method to provide definition patterns for relations between classes using OWL and describe a novel implementation of the RO based on this method. We implemented our extension in software that converts ontologies in the OBO Flatfile Format to OWL, and also provide a prototype to extract relational patterns from OWL ontologies using automated reasoning. The conversion software is freely available at http://bioonto.de/obo2owl, and can be accessed via a web interface. Conclusions Explicitly defining relations permits their use in reasoning software and leads to a more flexible and powerful way of representing biomedical ontologies. Using the extended langua0067e and semantics avoids several mistakes commonly made in formalizing biomedical ontologies, and can be used to automatically detect inconsistencies. The use of our method enables the use of graph-based ontologies in OWL, and makes complex OWL ontologies accessible in a graph-based form. Thereby, our method provides the means to gradually move the

  18. Several required OWL features for indigenous knowledge management systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Alberts, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ontologies with ontoparts. In Simperl, E., et al., eds.: Proc. of ESWC?12. LNCS, Springer (2012) 13. Keet, C.M.: Rough subsumption reasoning with rOWL. In: Proceeding of the SAICSIT Annual Research Conference 2011 (SAICSIT?11), ACM Conference Pro.... Wolstencroft, K., Stevens, R., Haarslev, V.: Applying OWL reasoning to genomic data. In Baker, C., Cheung, H., eds.: Semantic Web: revolutionizing knowledge discovery in the life sciences. Springer: New York (2007) 225{248 21. Chen, H., Mao, Y., Zheng, X...

  19. Pre–release training of juvenile little owls Athene noctua to avoid predation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti–predator training of juvenile little owls was tested in a sample of recovered owls raised in captivity in Brinzal Owl Rescue Center (Madrid, Spain. Mortality caused by predators has been described previously in released individuals. Nine little owls were conditioned during their development to a naturalized goshawk and a large live rat, whose presence was paired to the owl’s alarm call. All nine owls and seven non–trained individuals were then released during the late summer and autumn and radio–tracked for six weeks to test their survival. In total 71.4% of the trained owls survived while only the 33.3% of the untrained group were alive at the end of week six. The only cause of death that was detected was predation. Antipredator training, therefore, seems to be beneficial in maximizing survival after the release of juvenile little owls.

  20. Tracking movements of Athene owls: the application of North American experiences to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holroyd, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Migration and dispersal are important ecological and evolutionary processes and understanding them is a requirement for species conservation efforts. Burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia, the North American equivalent of little owl, A. noctua, is migratory in the northern parts of its range. In Canada their populations have declined dramatically and are classified as endangered. Movements of burrowing owls have been studied using banding (ringing, VHF telemetry, stable isotopes, genetics (DNA, geolocators and satellite transmitters. Geolocators and satellite transmitters provide the most reliable information about migrations but to operate successfully they are both dependent upon exposure to sunlight, which can be limited for nocturnal owls. Ringing encounters and winter influxes of little owls into Spain, including the Balearic Islands, indicate that some migration movement may be occurring. A stable isotope study could determine if wintering owls in southern Europe includes owls originating in northern Europe.

  1. Ecotoxicological suitability of floodplain habitats in The Netherlands for the little owl (Athene noctua vidalli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Brink, N W; Groen, N M; De Jonge, J; Bosveld, A T C

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the actual risks of exposure to contaminants, which little owls (Athene noctua vidalli) face in Dutch river floodplains. The results indicate that PCBs pose a risk: not only are levels in little owls from floodplains higher than levels found in little owls from a reference site but the PCB patterns in owls from the floodplains also indicate induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes by dioxin like compounds, possibly PCBs. Of the heavy metals, only cadmium is thought to pose a risk in certain conditions, for example, when little owls are feeding only on earthworms over a prolonged period of time. The results do not indicate any effects on the occurrence of prey items of the little owl like for instance earthworm, beetles and shrews. Hence, it is not expected that little owls will be affected by diminishing prey availability due to contamination.

  2. Aber-OWL: a framework for ontology-based data access in biology

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2015-01-28

    Background: Many ontologies have been developed in biology and these ontologies increasingly contain large volumes of formalized knowledge commonly expressed in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Computational access to the knowledge contained within these ontologies relies on the use of automated reasoning. Results: We have developed the Aber-OWL infrastructure that provides reasoning services for bio-ontologies. Aber-OWL consists of an ontology repository, a set of web services and web interfaces that enable ontology-based semantic access to biological data and literature. Aber-OWL is freely available at http://aber-owl.net. Conclusions: Aber-OWL provides a framework for automatically accessing information that is annotated with ontologies or contains terms used to label classes in ontologies. When using Aber-OWL, access to ontologies and data annotated with them is not merely based on class names or identifiers but rather on the knowledge the ontologies contain and the inferences that can be drawn from it.

  3. Orbit Determination of KOMPSAT-1 and Cryosat-2 Satellites Using Optical Wide-field Patrol Network (OWL-Net) Data with Batch Least Squares Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunji; Park, Sang-Young; Shin, Bumjoon; Cho, Sungki; Choi, Eun-Jung; Jo, Junghyun; Park, Jang-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    The optical wide-field patrol network (OWL-Net) is a Korean optical surveillance system that tracks and monitors domestic satellites. In this study, a batch least squares algorithm was developed for optical measurements and verified by Monte Carlo simulation and covariance analysis. Potential error sources of OWL-Net, such as noise, bias, and clock errors, were analyzed. There is a linear relation between the estimation accuracy and the noise level, and the accuracy significantly depends on the declination bias. In addition, the time-tagging error significantly degrades the observation accuracy, while the time-synchronization offset corresponds to the orbital motion. The Cartesian state vector and measurement bias were determined using the OWL-Net tracking data of the KOMPSAT-1 and Cryosat-2 satellites. The comparison with known orbital information based on two-line elements (TLE) and the consolidated prediction format (CPF) shows that the orbit determination accuracy is similar to that of TLE. Furthermore, the precision and accuracy of OWL-Net observation data were determined to be tens of arcsec and sub-degree level, respectively.

  4. Strong Correlation Between Concentrations of Tenofovir (TFV) Emtricitabine (FTC) in Hair and TFV Diphosphate and FTC Triphosphate in Dried Blood Spots in the iPrEx Open Label Extension: Implications for Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Adherence Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Monica; Glidden, David V; Liu, Albert; Anderson, Peter L; Horng, Howard; Defechereux, Patricia; Guanira, Juan V; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Grant, Robert M

    2015-11-01

    Self-reported adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has limitations, raising interest in pharmacologic monitoring. Drug concentrations in hair and dried blood spots (DBS) are used to assess long-term-exposure; hair shipment/storage occurs at room temperature. The iPrEx Open Label Extension collected DBS routinely, with opt-in hair collection; concentrations were measured with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In 806 hair-DBS pairs, tenofovir (TFV) hair levels and TFV diphosphate (DP) in DBS were strongly correlated (Spearman coefficient r = 0.734; P hair TFV/DBS emtricitabine (FTC) triphosphate (TP) (r = 0.781; P hair FTC/DBS TFV-DP (r = 0.74; P hair FTC/DBS FTC-TP (r = 0.587; P Hair TFV/FTC concentrations correlate strongly with DBS levels, which are predictive of PrEP outcomes.

  5. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschenberger, G; Manley, G A

    1997-08-01

    Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAE) were studied in a bird, the barn owl. They were found in 79% of the ears investigated, and each emitting ear generated on average 1.9 emissions. Their peak sound-pressure levels lay between -5.8 and 10.3 dB, and their centre frequencies between 2.3 and 10.5 kHz. The SOAE originated primarily in the upper quarter of the animal's hearing range, and derived from a specialized area previously described as being within an auditory fovea. Indeed, 93% of the emissions had centre frequencies above 7.5 kHz. The median of the frequency distances between neighbouring SOAE was 406 Hz (0.058 oct). The 3 dB bandwidth of the emissions depended on their amplitude above the noise: for SOAE whose level exceeded 10 dB above the noise floor, the 3 dB bandwidths ranged between 4.5 and 11.4 Hz. SOAE frequencies were temperature sensitive. Raising the temperature shifted the emissions to higher frequencies, and vice versa (the frequency shifted on average 0.039 oct/degrees C). External tones could suppress the level of SOAE, an effect that was highly tuned. For SOAE with frequencies between 2.5 and 10.5 kHz, the Q(10dB) values of 2 dB iso-suppression tuning curves (STC) varied from 1.07 to 10.40. The best thresholds of 2 dB STC were generally below 15 dB SPL.

  6. California spotted owl, songbird, and small mammal responses to landscape fuel treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Stephens; Seth W. Bigelow; Ryan D. Burnett; Brandon M. Collins; Claire. V. Gallagher; John Keane; Douglas A. Kelt; Malcolm P. North; Lance J. Roberts; Peter A. Stine; Dirk H. Van Vuren

    2014-01-01

    A principal challenge of federal forest management has been maintaining and improving habitat for sensitive species in forests adapted to frequent, low- to moderate-intensity fire regimes that have become increasingly vulnerable to uncharacteristically severe wildfires. To enhance forest resilience, a coordinated landscape fuel network was installed in the northern...

  7. Spotting the owl: surreptitious cytomegalovirus disease in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkan, Joshua L; Woo, Sook-Bin; Pavlakis, Martha; Johnson, Scott R; Chirieac, Lucian R; Chimienti, Sonia N; Mandelbrot, Didier A

    2008-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a known cause of ulcerative oral lesions among HIV-infected patients, but such ulcers have not been previously reported in recipients of solid organ transplants. We describe a case of a renal transplant recipient who developed severe CMV-associated oral lesions despite prophylaxis with valganciclovir, and in the absence of detectable CMV viremia. The diagnosis was made only after multiple biopsies of the lesions. The patient recovered upon reducing immunosuppression. Potential pitfalls in making a prompt diagnosis are reviewed. The differential diagnosis of a large oral ulceration in a transplant recipient is broad, but should include CMV infection.

  8. Sex-linked inheritance, genetic correlations and sexual dimorphism in three melanin-based colour traits in the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, A; Jensen, H

    2015-03-01

    Theory states that genes on the sex chromosomes have stronger effects on sexual dimorphism than genes on the autosomes. Although empirical data are not necessarily consistent with this theory, this situation may prevail because the relative role of sex-linked and autosomally inherited genes on sexual dimorphism has rarely been evaluated. We estimated the quantitative genetics of three sexually dimorphic melanin-based traits in the barn owl (Tyto alba), in which females are on average darker reddish pheomelanic and display more and larger black eumelanic feather spots than males. The plumage traits with higher sex-linked inheritance showed lower heritability and genetic correlations, but contrary to prediction, these traits showed less pronounced sexual dimorphism. Strong offspring sexual dimorphism primarily resulted from daughters not expressing malelike melanin-based traits and from sons expressing femalelike traits to similar degrees as their sisters. We conclude that in the barn owl, polymorphism at autosomal genes rather than at sex-linked genes generate variation in sexual dimorphism in melanin-based traits.

  9. Variation in working effort in Danish Little Owls Athene noctua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsegård-Rasmussen, Miriam H.; Sunde, Peter; Thorup, K.

    2009-01-01

    with extinction. The study is based on 143 one-hour surveys of breeding and 274 surveys of non-breeding Little Owls (27 territorial individuals on 14 territories). Working effort is calculated as the total linear distance between all observed consecutive telemetry fixes during one-hour surveys (Minimum Flight...

  10. The "Owl Trail"--A Sensory Awareness Rope Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Robert B.

    1978-01-01

    Constructed and experienced by students engaged in an outdoor education class at East Stroudsburg State College in Pennsylvania, the "Owl Trail" is a self guided rope trail (600 yards in length) employing such devices as sensory corrals, bridges, and "go to" ropes (ropes attached to the main rope which provide side trip…

  11. Night Owl: Maryland's After-Hours Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Deborah C.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses "Night Owl," a Maryland public library's after hours telephone reference service. Issues include project start-up, user profiles, types of questions, volume, after hours reference accessibility, security, costs, service limits, publicity, staffing, and employee turnover. Similar services in other states are cited. (Contains six…

  12. Use of OWL in the legal domain (statement of interest)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Clark, K; Patel-Schneider, P.F

    2008-01-01

    The Leibniz Center for Law at the University of Amsterdam is involved in several research projects that deal with the integration of knowledge representation with legal texts. For many of these projects, the use of ontologies in OWL DL plays an important, if not a central role. In this statement of

  13. Reproductive working effort in Danish little owl (Athene noctua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsegård-Rasmussen, M.; Sunde, P.; Thorup, K.

    Reduced reproductive success, caused by energy constraints during breeding, is suspected to be one of the reasons for an ongoing decline in the Danish population of little owls (Athene noctua). To measure any food stress during the breeding period, working effort was defined as the minimum flight...

  14. tOWL: a temporal Web Ontology Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milea, Viorel; Frasincar, Flavius; Kaymak, Uzay

    2012-02-01

    Through its interoperability and reasoning capabilities, the Semantic Web opens a realm of possibilities for developing intelligent systems on the Web. The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is the most expressive standard language for modeling ontologies, the cornerstone of the Semantic Web. However, up until now, no standard way of expressing time and time-dependent information in OWL has been provided. In this paper, we present a temporal extension of the very expressive fragment SHIN(D) of the OWL Description Logic language, resulting in the temporal OWL language. Through a layered approach, we introduce three extensions: 1) concrete domains, which allow the representation of restrictions using concrete domain binary predicates; 2) temporal representation , which introduces time points, relations between time points, intervals, and Allen's 13 interval relations into the language; and 3) timeslices/fluents, which implement a perdurantist view on individuals and allow for the representation of complex temporal aspects, such as process state transitions. We illustrate the expressiveness of the newly introduced language by using an example from the financial domain.

  15. Corticosterone and Dispersal in Western Screech-Owls (Otus kennicottii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Belthoff; Alfred M., Jr. Dufty

    1997-01-01

    Belthoff and Dufty (in press) posed a model for dispersal in screech-owls and similar nonmigratory birds. The model is based on interactions among hormonal changes, body condition, and locomotor activity patterns. It predicts that corticosterone increases in blood plasma prior to dispersal under endogenous and exogenous influences, and this increase mediates the...

  16. Owls see in stereo much like humans do

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, R.F. van der

    2011-01-01

    While 3D experiences through binocular disparity sensitivity have acquired special status in the understanding of human stereo vision, much remains to be learned about how binocularity is put to use in animals. The owl provides an exceptional model to study stereo vision as it displays one of the hi

  17. Diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littles, C.J.; Williford, D.; Skoruppa, M.K.; Woodin, M.C.; Hickman, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Winter diets of the western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are little known. We determined the diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas by analyzing the contents of 182 pellets collected over four winters (1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2003-2004) in three habitat types (agricultural, mainland grassland, and barrier island). Remains of a total of 7476 prey items were recovered, 98% of which were arthropods. Gryllidae (crickets) formed the largest component (50%) of the prey, followed by lepidopteran larvae (13%), beetles (8%), spiders (7%), and earwigs (6%). Although vertebrates, primarily small mammals and birds, represented only 2% of prey items by number, they represented most (71%) of the biomass. Northern pygmy mice (Baiomys taylori) and fulvous harvest mice (Reithrodontomys fulveccens) were the two most frequently consumed vertebrate species. In all habitats, arthropods, especially orthopterans, were the primary prey item by number, whereas vertebrates, primarily small mammals, were the most important by biomass. Greater consumption of arthropods by Burrowing Owls in agricultural areas may be a factor contributing to owl use of these highly altered environments. ?? 2007 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  18. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  19. Therapeutic drug monitoring of carbamazepine and its metabolite in children from dried blood spots using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokry, Engy; Villanelli, Fabio; Malvagia, Sabrina; Rosati, Anna; Forni, Giulia; Funghini, Silvia; Ombrone, Daniela; Della Bona, Maria; Guerrini, Renzo; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2015-05-10

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line drug for the treatment of different forms of epilepsy and the first choice drug for trigeminal neuralgia. CBZ is metabolized in the liver by oxidation into carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZE), its major metabolite which is equipotent and known to contribute to the pharmacological activity of CBZ. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a reliable, selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of CBZ and its active metabolite in dried blood spots (DBS). The extraction process was carried out from DBS using methanol-water-formic acid (80:20:0.1, v/v/v). Chromatographic elution was achieved by using a linear gradient with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water-0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.50mL/min. The method was linear over the range 1-40mg/L and 0.25-20mg/L for CBZ and CBZE, respectively. The limit of quantification was 0.75mg/L and 0.25mg/L for CBZ and CBZE. Intra-day and inter-day assay precisions were found to be lower than 5.13%, 6.46% and 11.76%, 4.72% with mean percentage accuracies of 102.1%, 97.5% and 99.2%, 97.8% for CBZ and CBZE. We successfully applied the method for determining DBS finger-prick samples in paediatric patients and confirmed the results with concentrations measured in matched plasma samples. This novel approach allows quantification of CBZ and its metabolite from only one 3.2mm DBS disc by LC-MS/MS thus combining advantages of DBS technique and LC-MS/MS in clinical practice.

  20. Barn Owl (Tyto alba) and Long-Eared Owl (Asio otus) mortality along motorways in Bourgogne-Champagne: report and suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugues Baudvin

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find where and why two species of owls were killed by traffic along motorways. Three different factors have an important influence on the mortality of the two owl species: the biotops crossed by motorways, the road elevation and the presence of small rodents, the Common Vole (Microtus arvalis) being most numerous. In...

  1. The influence of broadcast tape-recorded calls on captures of fall migrant Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) and Long-eared Owls (Asio otus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Evans

    1997-01-01

    Nocturnal netting operations have been conducted at the Hawk Ridge Nature Reserve since 1972. From 1988 to 1992 a recording of human whistles simulating the calls of fall migrant Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) was broadcast on a random, on or off, half-night basis. Mist net captures of Saw-whet Owls increased about fourfold during the...

  2. Toxicokinetics and coagulopathy threshold of the rodenticide diphacinone in eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, K.E.; Lazarus, Rebecca; Goldade, D.A.; Johnston, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, new regulations on second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides will likely be offset by expanded use of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. In the present study, eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio) were fed 10 µg diphacinone/g wet weight food for 7 d, and recovery was monitored over a 21-d postexposure period. By day 3 of exposure, diphacinone (DPN) was detected in liver (1.63 µg/g wet wt) and kidney (5.83 µg/g) and coagulopathy was apparent. By day 7, prothrombin time (PT) and Russell's viper venom time (RVVT) were prolonged, and some individuals were anemic. Upon termination of exposure, coagulopathy and anemia were resolved within 4 d, and residues decreased to hemostasis occurs rapidly

  3. The Harry Potter effect: The rise in trade of owls as pets in Java and Bali, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Nijman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of species of wild-caught birds are offered for sale in the bird markets of Java and Bali, Indonesia, to meet the demand for the largely-domestic pet and songbird trade. In the past, owls were offered only in very small numbers in these bird markets but since the release of the Harry Potter series in Indonesia in the early 2000s their popularity as pets has increased. Whereas in the past owls were collective known as Burung Hantu (“Ghost birds”, in the bird markets they are now commonly referred to as Burung Harry Potter (“Harry Potter birds”. We made a retrospective quantitative assessment of the abundance of owls in the bird markets (1979–2010 and conducted 109 surveys in 20 bird markets in 2012–2016 to quantify owls in trade. In the 1980s, 1990s and early 2000s owls were rarely recorded in Indonesia's bird markets, typically one or two and up to five per survey, and frequently no owls were recorded at all. The trade was largely confined to small scops owls. In the late 2000s more species were offered for sale, including barn and bay owls, and larger owl species such as wood-owls, eagle-owls and fish-owls; typically 10 + owls were observed per survey. In recent years, the number of owl species increased even more, and on average we recorded 17 owls per survey, yielding a total of 1810 owls, and in >90% of the surveys owls were present. In the larger bird markets in Jakarta and Bandung typically 30 to 60 owls are on offer of up to 8 species at a time. The number of owls as a proportion of all birds in the markets increased from 0.43% post 2008, suggesting a delayed Harry Potter effect. Over this period, common species have become cheaper and less common ones have become more expensive. The owls are largely, if not exclusively, wild-caught and are sold into the domestic pet market. The release of Harry Potter films and novels in Indonesia coincided with the rise of the Internet and social media and, with some delay, the

  4. A Process for the Representation of openEHR ADL Archetypes in OWL Ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, Alex Mateus; Peres, Leticia Mara; Didonet Del Fabro, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    ADL is a formal language to express archetypes, independent of standards or domain. However, its specification is not precise enough in relation to the specialization and semantic of archetypes, presenting difficulties in implementation and a few available tools. Archetypes may be implemented using other languages such as XML or OWL, increasing integration with Semantic Web tools. Exchanging and transforming data can be better implemented with semantics oriented models, for example using OWL which is a language to define and instantiate Web ontologies defined by W3C. OWL permits defining significant, detailed, precise and consistent distinctions among classes, properties and relations by the user, ensuring the consistency of knowledge than using ADL techniques. This paper presents a process of an openEHR ADL archetypes representation in OWL ontologies. This process consists of ADL archetypes conversion in OWL ontologies and validation of OWL resultant ontologies using the mutation test.

  5. Genetic consequences of population decline in the Danish population of the little owl (Athene noctua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Pellegrino, Irene; Cucco, Maroc

    2012-01-01

    Background: Danish populations of the little owl (Athene noctua) have experienced dramaticdeclines in size over the past century. Before 1960 the little owl population was abundantin Denmark (estimated N>2000), but between 1960 and 1980 the population declinedrapidly, and since 1980 the little owl...... population has survived only in small and fragmentedareas. Question: Is the decline in population size associated with reduced genetic variation in theseDanish populations of the little owl? Are the populations genetically fragmented?Field site: Samples were collected from birds in Denmark (from 57457″N...

  6. QuantEYE: The Quantum Optics Instrument for OWL

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, D; Fosbury, R A E; Naletto, G; Nilsson, R; Occhipinti, T; Tamburini, F; Uthas, H; Zampieri, L

    2005-01-01

    QuantEYE is designed to be the highest time-resolution instrument on ESO:s planned Overwhelmingly Large Telescope, devised to explore astrophysical variability on microsecond and nanosecond scales, down to the quantum-optical limit. Expected phenomena include instabilities of photon-gas bubbles in accretion flows, p-mode oscillations in neutron stars, and quantum-optical photon bunching in time. Precise timescales are both variable and unknown, and studies must be of photon-stream statistics, e.g., their power spectra or autocorrelations. Such functions increase with the square of the intensity, implying an enormously increased sensitivity at the largest telescopes. QuantEYE covers the optical, and its design involves an array of photon-counting avalanche-diode detectors, each viewing one segment of the OWL entrance pupil. QuantEYE will work already with a partially filled OWL main mirror, and also without [full] adaptive optics.

  7. Automatic Generation of OWL Ontology from XML Data Source

    CERN Document Server

    Yahia, Nora; Ahmed, AbdelWahab

    2012-01-01

    The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) can be used as data exchange format in different domains. It allows different parties to exchange data by providing common understanding of the basic concepts in the domain. XML covers the syntactic level, but lacks support for reasoning. Ontology can provide a semantic representation of domain knowledge which supports efficient reasoning and expressive power. One of the most popular ontology languages is the Web Ontology Language (OWL). It can represent domain knowledge using classes, properties, axioms and instances for the use in a distributed environment such as the World Wide Web. This paper presents a new method for automatic generation of OWL ontology from XML data sources.

  8. The electroretinogram of the little owl (Athene noctua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciatti, V; Fontanesi, G; Bagnoli, P

    1989-01-01

    Electroretinographic responses (ERGs) have been recorded from the cornea of the little owl (Athene noctua) in response to single light flashes and to alternating sinusoidal gratings (pattern) at different levels of light adaptation. Both flash- and pattern-evoked ERGs show scotopic as well as photopic components. The pattern evoked ERG is spatially tuned with tuning functions which shift towards lower frequencies by reducing the mean luminance. The retinal acuity is about 6 c/deg at 2.3 log cd/m2 and decreases progressively by reducing the mean luminance. No pattern ERG can be recorded beyond -6.7 log cd/m2 at any spatial frequency. The pattern ERG amplitude decreases progressively by reducing the contrast. The extrapolated contrast threshold is about 1%. Acuity and contrast sensitivity ERG values are in the range of those obtained by operant techniques in other species with duplex retinae such as owls and cats.

  9. Voice and daytime calling of Scops Owls (Otus scops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkola Anita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scops Owl (Otus scops is one of the least studied owls in Europe and its loud and monotonous calls are not well documented. This paper summarises published alarm-like calls and presents data on daytime calling recorded in Lesencetomaj, Hungary between 9th and 17th September 2012. Calls were similar to the sound of an alarm on a reversing truck. The bird was most active around midday (11–13 hrs and in the afternoons between 15–17 hrs. No calling occurred before 09.00 or after 19.15 o’clock. Weather affected the intensity of calls and particularly high autumn temperatures are suggested as a possible reason for this unusual activity.

  10. Airborne ocean water lidar (OWL) real time processor (RTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryszko, M.

    1995-03-01

    The Hyperflo Real Time Processor (RTP) was developed by Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation as a part of the Naval Air Warfare Center's Ocean Water Lidar (OWL) system. The RTP was used for real time support of open ocean field tests at Barbers Point, Hawaii, in March 1993 (EMERALD I field test), and Jacksonville, Florida, in July 1994 (EMERALD I field test). This report describes the system configuration, and accomplishments associated with the preparation and execution of these exercises. This document is intended to supplement the overall test reports and provide insight into the development and use of the PTP. A secondary objective is to provide basic information on the capabilities, versatility and expandability of the Hyperflo RTP for possible future projects. It is assumed herein that the reader has knowledge of the OWL system, field test operations, general lidar processing methods, and basic computer architecture.

  11. Prey composition and habitat use of the small and declining Danish population of Little Owl (Athene noctua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, N.; Svenne, S.; Sunde, P.

    The population of little owl in Denmark has declined severely during the last 30 years. Many possible causes have been proposed, but the exact cause of this trend is still unknown. Therefore acquirering knowledge about the owls is important....

  12. Mutual Mortality of Great Horned Owl and Southern Black Racer: a Potential Risk of Raptors Preying on Snakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roger W. Perry; Raymond E. Brown; D. Craig Rudolph

    2001-01-01

    .... There are previous reports of intense physical struggle between Great Horned Owls (and other raptors) and large constrictors but this is the first documented report of mutual mortality between a Great Horned Owl and a snake.

  13. Monitoring Forsmark. Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin (Dept. of Animal Ecology, Lund Univ. (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    during the early parts of the season prevented capercaillie and hazelhen monitoring of any larger areas. Despite a probably lower numbers of capercaillies present in the whole area the species was still present within the candidate area also in this year. Black grouse and hazelhen decreased both in the candidate area and in the remaining parts of the regional model area. The ural owls had an average season, although the number of resident pairs decreased from seven to six. The pair living closest to the candidate area could not be found in 2010, but all other pairs were present in their normal territories. Four pairs produced eight large young, which is a little bit over the average for the whole period. Both wryneck and lesser spotted woodpecker numbers decreased between 2009 and 2010. While numbers of occupied wryneck territories were still at a high level, the number of occupied woodpecker territories was the lowest recorded since 2006. Red-backed shrikes decreased slightly in numbers, and most markedly so within the candidate area

  14. Dyscoria Associated with Herpesvirus Infection in Owl Monkeys (Aotus nancymae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Montoya, Enrique J; Weller, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Dyscoria was noted in a female owl monkey and 2 of her offspring. The third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two male monkeys paired with the female died, 1 of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all 3 animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring w...

  15. Physical Structure of Planetary Nebulae. I. The Owl Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, M A; Manchado, A; Kwitter, K B

    2003-01-01

    The Owl Nebula is a triple-shell planetary nebula with the outermost shell being a faint bow-shaped halo. We have obtained deep narrow-band images and high-dispersion echelle spectra in the H-alpha, [O III], and [N II] emission lines to determine the physical structure of each shell in the nebula. These spatio-kinematic data allow us to rule out hydrodynamic models that can reproduce only the nebular morphology. Our analysis shows that the inner shell of the main nebula is slightly elongated with a bipolar cavity along its major axis, the outer nebula is a filled envelope co-expanding with the inner shell at 40 km/s, and the halo has been braked by the interstellar medium as the Owl Nebula moves through it. To explain the morphology and kinematics of the Owl Nebula, we suggest the following scenario for its formation and evolution. The early mass loss at the TP-AGB phase forms the halo, and the superwind at the end of the AGB phase forms the main nebula. The subsequent fast stellar wind compressed the superwi...

  16. The Structure and Noise Reduction Capacity of Owl Down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Justin; Clark, Ian; Alexander, Nathan; Devenport, William; Daly, Conor; Peake, Nigel; Glegg, Stewart

    2014-11-01

    Many species of owl rely on specialized plumage to reduce their self-noise levels and enable hunting in acoustic stealth. In contrast to the leading-edge comb and compliant trailing-edge fringe attributes of owls, the aeroacoustic impact of the fluffy down material on the upper wing surface remains largely speculative as a means to eliminate aerodynamic noise across a broad range of frequencies. Photographic analysis of the owl down reveals a unique forest-like structure, whereby the down fibers rise straight up from the wing surface and then bend into the flow direction to form a porous canopy, with an open area fraction of approximately 70%. Experimental measurements demonstrate that the canopy feature reduces dramatically the turbulent pressure levels on the wing surface by up to 30dB, which affects the roughness noise characteristic of the down in a manner consistent with the theory of flows over and through vegetation. Mathematical models developed for the turbulence noise generation by the down fibers and for the mixing-layer instability above the porous canopy furnish a theoretical basis to understand the influence of the down geometric structure on its self-noise signature and noise suppression characteristics.

  17. Features of owl wings that promote silent flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Hermann; Weger, Matthias; Klaas, Michael; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2017-02-06

    Owls are an order of birds of prey that are known for the development of a silent flight. We review here the morphological adaptations of owls leading to silent flight and discuss also aerodynamic properties of owl wings. We start with early observations (until 2005), and then turn to recent advances. The large wings of these birds, resulting in low wing loading and a low aspect ratio, contribute to noise reduction by allowing slow flight. The serrations on the leading edge of the wing and the velvet-like surface have an effect on noise reduction and also lead to an improvement of aerodynamic performance. The fringes at the inner feather vanes reduce noise by gliding into the grooves at the lower wing surface that are formed by barb shafts. The fringed trailing edge of the wing has been shown to reduce trailing edge noise. These adaptations to silent flight have been an inspiration for biologists and engineers for the development of devices with reduced noise production. Today several biomimetic applications such as a serrated pantograph or a fringed ventilator are available. Finally, we discuss unresolved questions and possible future directions.

  18. Determining the Specific Status of Korean Collared Scops Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jee Hong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The collared scops owl that occurs in Korea is a protected species but its exact specific status has been questioned. To resolve the species status, a molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted using two fragments of mitochondrial DNA, cytochrome b (cyt b, 891 bp and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2, 627 bp genes. Phylogenetic trees of cyt b revealed that all Korean specimens formed a monophyletic group with Japanese scops owl Otus semitorques with very low sequence divergence (d=0.008. We obtained a similar ND2 tree as well (d=0.003; however, the genetic distance between Korean individuals and O. lempiji from GenBank (AJ004026-7, EU348987, and EU601036 was very high and sufficient enough to separate them as species (cyt b, d=0.118; ND2, d=0.113. We also found that Korean species showed high differentiation from O. bakkamoena (AJ004018-20 and EU601034; cyt b, d=0.106; ND2, d=0.113 and O. lettia (EU601109 and EU601033, cyt b, d=0.110; ND2, d=0.117 as well. Therefore, we suggest that the Korean collared scops owl should be designated as Otus semitorques.

  19. Semantics of OWL-S process model based on temporal description logic%基于时序描述逻辑的Web服务本体语言过程模型语义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 刘士仪; 年福忠

    2013-01-01

    Concerning the problem that Ontology Web Language for Services ( OWL-S) process model lacks capacity for dynamic interaction and timing characteristics, a formalization method based on temporal description logic for process model was proposed. It described the atomic processes and composite processes of the OWL-S process model, and then the dynamic semantic of OWL-S process model was obtained. Finally, the formal modeling of OWL-S process model was realized. The experimental results show that the proposed method is feasible, and it provides the foundation for the analysis and validation.%针对Web服务本体语言(OWL-S)过程模型存在动态交互和时序特征表达能力不足的问题,提出一种基于时序描述逻辑的过程模型形式化方法.通过对OWL-S过程模型的原子过程和组合过程语义进行形式化的描述,得到了OWL-S的过程模型的动态语义,最终实现了对OWL-S过程模型的形式化建模.实例结果验证了所提方法的可行性,为进一步的分析和验证提供了基础.

  20. Strong Correlation Between Concentrations of Tenofovir (TFV) Emtricitabine (FTC) in Hair and TFV Diphosphate and FTC Triphosphate in Dried Blood Spots in the iPrEx Open Label Extension: Implications for Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Adherence Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Monica; Glidden, David V.; Liu, Albert; Anderson, Peter L.; Horng, Howard; Defechereux, Patricia; Guanira, Juan V.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Grant, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has limitations, raising interest in pharmacologic monitoring. Drug concentrations in hair and dried blood spots (DBS) are used to assess long-term-exposure; hair shipment/storage occurs at room temperature. The iPrEx Open Label Extension collected DBS routinely, with opt-in hair collection; concentrations were measured with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In 806 hair-DBS pairs, tenofovir (TFV) hair levels and TFV diphosphate (DP) in DBS were strongly correlated (Spearman coefficient r = 0.734; P < .001), as were hair TFV/DBS emtricitabine (FTC) triphosphate (TP) (r = 0.781; P < .001); hair FTC/DBS TFV-DP (r = 0.74; P < .001); hair FTC/DBS FTC-TP (r = 0.587; P < .001). Drug detectability was generally concordant by matrix. Hair TFV/FTC concentrations correlate strongly with DBS levels, which are predictive of PrEP outcomes. PMID:25895984

  1. Spotted Seal Distribution Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains GIS layers that depict the known spatial distributions (i.e., ranges) and reported breeding areas of spotted seals (Phoca largha). It was...

  2. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  3. Tawny owl (Strix aluco) and Hume's Tawny owl (Strix butleri) are distinct species: evidence from nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, P; Wink, M

    1994-01-01

    The cytochrome b gene of the Tawny Owl (Strix aluco), Hume's Tawny Owl (Strix butleri) and the African wood owl (Strix woodfordii) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partially sequenced (300 base pairs). Sequences differ substantially (9 to 12% nucleotide substitutions) between these taxa indicating that they represent distinct species, which is also implicated from morphological and biogeographic differences. Using cytochrome b sequences of S. aluco, S. butleri, S. woodfordii, Athene noctua and Tyto alba phylogenetic relationship were reconstructed using the "maximum parsimony" principal (PAUP 3.1.1) and the neighbour-joining method (MEGA).

  4. OWL (On-Lie Webstories for Learning): A Unique Web-based Literacy Resource for Primary/Elementary Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliebo, Moira; Durnford, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes Online Webstories for Learning (OWL), a Web-based resource for elementary school literacy education that was initially developed for use in the United Kingdom. Discusses the importance of including narrative, how OWL is being adapted for use in other countries, and off-line class activities suggested as part of OWL. (Contains 8…

  5. Obesity May Make Rheumatoid Arthritis Tough to Spot, Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164558.html Obesity May Make Rheumatoid Arthritis Tough to Spot, Track ... monitor rheumatoid arthritis may be thrown off by obesity in women, a new study suggests. "Physicians might ...

  6. A Semantic Learning Object (SLOWeb-Editor based on Web Ontology Language (OWL using a New OWL2XSLO Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhair Rimale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, we see a strong demand for real-time information, with a rapid growth of m-learning. We also see that there are many educational resources on the Internet. Learning objects (LOs are designed as a means of reusing these resources. Most of these LOs are built for e-learning systems based on desktop computers, which prevents their use on mobile devices. A LO is an area that is open to research and has a lot of potential in the creation, adaptation and production of learning content. There are standards that describe LOs in general as IEEE LOM, SCORM. Semantic web and its associated technologies are increasingly used in electronic document editing while separating the content from the presentation. Creating a LO with the semantic web is complex and raises difficulties because of the editing tools that require general knowledge of XML syntax and related technologies. In this paper, the authors propose a new OWL2XSLO approach based on ontologies (OWL allowing the generation of XML-Schemas LOs. They then derive a semantic LO web editor based on OWL2XSLO approach for the generation of a content type enabling the editing of interactive LOs with XML technology and which can then be integrated into LMS and adapted to the mobile display.

  7. Research and in situ conservation of owl monkeys enhances environmental law enforcement at the Colombian-Peruvian border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Angela M; Peck, Mika R

    2014-07-01

    This study reports on impacts of illegal trade in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae, A. vociferans) for the biomedical research market in the Colombian-Peruvian Amazonian border. Through freedom of information requests and interviews with hunters we found that 912 owl monkeys, including A. nancymaae captured in Peru, were trapped over a 3-month period in 2012 to supply a malaria research facility based in Leticia, Colombia, which had trapping permits for the use of only 800 A. vociferans annually yet experimentation took place using A. nancymaae. High levels of extraction in Peru have had population-level impacts with significantly lower densities of Aotus spp. (3-24 individuals/km(2)) compared to Colombian sites with low hunting pressure (26-44 individuals/km(2)). Post-experimental release of this species in Colombian territory has created a new distribution whose status and impacts on resident populations of A. vociferans remain unknown. The trapping method has also had environmental impact, with loss of over 65,000 trees (including sleeping sites), annually. As Aotus species are registered under the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II, international trade requires official permission and evidence that extraction does not impact wild populations. However, no official records exist and CITES legislation has failed, due principally to a lack of appropriate monitoring by national authorities responsible for compliance. Of further concern is that we had previously documented and reported the illegal trade to the appropriate governmental authorities yet still no action was taken-as demonstrated by the continuing trade in 2013. Enforcement eventually occurred when a non-governmental organization initiated legal action against organizations responsible. A successful second instance ruling by the Colombian State's Council in 2013 revoked trapping permits. Using the trade in owl monkeys as a case study we consider

  8. Bilateral phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in a great horned owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Renee T; Murphy, Christopher J; Stuhr, Charles M; Diehl, Kathryn A

    2007-02-15

    A great horned owl of estimated age feeding behavior, and the owl was eventually released into the wild. In raptors with substantial visual compromise, euthanasia or placement in a teaching facility is a typical outcome because release of such a bird is unacceptable. Successful intraocular lens implantation for visual rehabilitation and successful release into the wild are achievable.

  9. Predators control post-fledging mortality in tawny owls, Strix aluco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter

    2005-01-01

    , pathogens) for individual survival as well as population productivity is largely unknown in most terrestrial birds. Survival and behaviour of 131 radio-tagged tawny owls (Strix aluco) during the post-fledging dependency period were studied for each of three years with high food abundance and three years...... to be an important selective agent for early breeding in the tawny owl....

  10. Bias in little owl population estimates using playback techniques during surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuberogoitia, I.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To test the efficiency of playback methods to survey little owl (Athene noctua populations we carried out two studies: (1 we recorded the replies of radio–tagged little owls to calls in a small area; (2 we recorded call broadcasts to estimate the effectiveness of the method to detect the presence of little owl. In the first study, we detected an average of 8.12 owls in the 30′ survey period, a number that is close to the real population; we also detected significant little owl movements from the initial location (before the playback to the next locations during the survey period. However, we only detected an average of 2.25 and 5.37 little owls in the first 5′ and 10′, respectively, of the survey time. In the second study, we detected 137 little owl territories in 105 positive sample units. The occupation rate was 0.35, the estimated occupancy was 0.393, and the probability of detection was 0.439. The estimated cumulative probability of detection suggests that a minimum of four sampling times would be needed in an extensive survey to detect 95% of the areas occupied by little owls.

  11. Spatial behaviour of little owls (Athene noctua) in a decreasing farmland population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, P.; Thorup, K.; Jacobsen, L. B.

    We describe basic spatial behaviour and social organisation in the small and declining Danish population of little owls. The behaviour was mainly studied using radio tracking during 2005-2007 of 14 pairs of little owls, representing a total of 29 individuals....

  12. Summer Professional Development in Chemistry for Inservice Teachers Using OWL Quick Prep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Cynthia B.; Pamplin, Kim L.; Blake, Robert E.; Mason, Diana S.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary teachers participating in summer professional development chemistry workshops in Texas used an online chemistry tutoring program, OWL Quick Prep (Day et al. in OWL: Online Web-based Learning, Brooks-Cole Cengage Learning, Florence, KY, 1997) as a part of the inservice training. Self-reported demographic data were used to identify factors…

  13. Towards Self-managed Pervasive Middleware using OWL/SWRL ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2008-01-01

    Self-management for pervasive middleware is important to realize the Ambient Intelligence vision. In this paper, we present an OWL/SWRL context ontologies based self-management approach for pervasive middleware where OWL ontology is used as means for context modeling. The context ontologies are i...

  14. Estimation of food consumption from pellets cast by captive Ural Owls (Strix uralensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki Higuchi; Manabu T. Abe

    1997-01-01

    There is considerable data in the literature on the diet of the Ural Owl (Strix uralensis) based on pellet analysis. Though it is possible to identify prey items by this method, the volume of food consumption is still unknown. The population of Ural Owls in Japan is declining due to the reduction of old-growth forest and the concurrent loss of...

  15. Sex and age composition of Great Gray Owls (Strix nebulosa), winter 1995/1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Nero; Herbert W. R. Copland

    1997-01-01

    In winter 1995/1996, a nearly continent-wide movement of Great Gray Owls (Strix nebulosa) occurred. A sample of 126 owls examined during this period, mainly from northeast of Winnipeg, included a large number from the 1994 hatch-year. If our assumptions regarding molt are correct, 51 birds were from this age class. An inhibited molt condition found...

  16. "Not in the Middle Ages"?: Alan Garner's "The Owl Service" and the Literature of Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Discusses connecting with the Middle Ages in adolescent fiction. Discusses how, in "The Owl Service," Garner addresses a relationship between adolescence in the late twentieth century and an aspect of the past--specifically the Middle Ages. Considers how "The Owl Service" is a story energized by myth, concerning the…

  17. Spot Weight Adaptation for Moving Target in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eMorel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study describes a real-time spot weight adaptation method in spot-scanning proton therapy for moving target or moving patient, so that the resultant dose distribution closely matches the planned dose distribution. Materials and Methods: The method proposed in this study adapts the weight (MU of the delivering pencil beam to that of the target spot it will actually hit during patient/target motion. The target spot a certain delivering pencil beam may hit relies on patient monitoring and/or motion modeling using four-dimensional (4D CT. After the adapted delivery, the required total weight (MU for this target spot is then subtracted from the planned value. With continuous patient motion and continuous spot scanning, the planned doses to all target spots will eventually be all fulfilled. In a proof-of-principle test, a lung case was presented with realistic temporal and motion parameters; the resultant dose distribution using spot weight adaptation was compared to that without using this method. The impact of the real-time patient/target position tracking or prediction was also investigated.Results: For moderate motion (i.e., mean amplitude 0.5 cm, D95% to the planning target volume (PTV was only 81.5% of the prescription (RX dose; with spot weight adaptation PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. For large motion amplitude (i.e., 1.5 cm, without spot weight adaptation PTV D95% is only 42.9% of RX; with spot weight adaptation, PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. Larger errors in patient/target position tracking or prediction led to worse final target coverage; an error of 3mm or smaller in patient/target position tracking is preferred. Conclusion: The proposed spot weight adaptation method was able to deliver the planned dose distribution and maintain target coverage when patient motion was involved. The successful implementation of this method would rely on accurate monitoring or prediction of patient/target motion.

  18. Reasoning in the OWL 2 Full Ontology Language using First-Order Automated Theorem Proving

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Michael

    2011-01-01

    OWL 2 has been standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) as a family of ontology languages for the Semantic Web. The most expressive of these languages is OWL 2 Full, but to date no reasoner has been implemented for this language. Consistency and entailment checking are known to be undecidable for OWL 2 Full. We have translated a large fragment of the OWL 2 Full semantics into first-order logic, and used automated theorem proving systems to do reasoning based on this theory. The results are promising, and indicate that this approach can be applied in practice for effective OWL reasoning, beyond the capabilities of current Semantic Web reasoners. This is an extended version of a paper with the same title that has been published at CADE 2011, LNAI 6803, pp. 446-460. The extended version provides appendices with additional resources that were used in the reported evaluation.

  19. Prey selection of Tawny owls (Strix aluco) on Yellow necked mouse and Bank Vole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsom, H. M.; Sunde, P.; Overskaug, K.

    As predators owls may have a strong impact on mortality of their favourite prey, and may therefore act as important selective agents on their prey species. Little is known, however, about whether owls choose prey randomly or if some prey items suffer a higher risk of predation due to certain life...... history traits. The aim of this master thesis study was to investigate any prey selection of tawny owls on two prey species, yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Our hypotheses were that the level of exposure might differ between prey items of different sex......, age, and size, causing some individuals to suffer a higher risk of predation from tawny owls than others.The results suggest that males suffer a higher risk of predation from tawny owls than females, and that the different age groups may also experience different risk of predation. It also suggests...

  20. Semantic Web Services with Web Ontology Language (OWL-S) - Specification of Agent-Services for DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    needed. In addition, it will be important to conduct empirical evaluation of the applicability and benefits of OWL-S in developing and managing service...Sycara, and T. Nishimura, "Towards a Semantic Web Ecommerce ," in Proceedings of 6th Conference on Business Information Systems (BIS2003), Colorado...IEEE Computer Society . Also appears in IEEE Distributed Systems Online, Vol. 3(5), 2002. 24. Terry R. Payne, Rahul Singh, and Katia Sycara. "RCal

  1. Note: Resistance spot welding using a microgripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, G.; Podrzaj, P.; Hashimoto, H.

    2013-10-01

    Interest in thin-film nanostructures as building blocks for nanoelectronics and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) is increasing. Resistance spot welding (RSW) on a nano or micro scale can play a significant role; similar to that of its macro counterpart for forming connections in device assembly processes. This Note presents a novel micron scale RSW technique using a microgripper as mobile spot welding electrodes to assemble ultra-thin film nanostructures. As an example, assembly of three-dimensional helical nanobelt (HNB) based device was successfully demonstrated using the proposed system. The spot-welding process was fully monitored by the built-in capacitive micro force sensor of the microgripper. Experiments show that RSW, using the microgripper, provides a stable electrical contact with sufficient mechanical strength for the construction of devices such as HNB based devices demonstrated here.

  2. Bats as the main prey of wintering long-eared owl (Asio otus) in Beijing: Integrating biodiversity protection and urban management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Long; Zhou, Xuwei; Shi, Yang; Guo, Yumin; Bao, Weidong

    2015-03-01

    The loss of biodiversity from urbanized areas is a major environmental problem challenging policy-makers throughout the world. Solutions to this problem are urgently required in China. We carried out a case study of wintering long-eared owls (Asio otus) and their main prey to illustrate the negative effects of urbanization combined with ineffective conservation of biodiversity in Beijing. Field monitoring of owl numbers at two roosting sites from 2004 to 2012 showed that the owl population had fallen rapidly in metropolitan Beijing. Analysis of pellet contents identified only seven individuals of two species of shrew. The majority of mammalian prey comprised four bat and seven rodent species, making up 29.3% and 29.5% of the prey items, respectively. Prey composition varied significantly among years at the two sample sites. At the urban site the consumption of bats and rodents declined gradually over time, while predation on birds increased. In contrast, at the suburban site the prey composition showed an overall decrease in the number of bats, a sharp increase and a subsequent decrease in bird prey, and the number of rodent prey fell to a low point. Rapid development of real estate and inadequate greenfield management in city parks resulted in negative effects on the bird and small mammal habitat of urban areas in Beijing. We suggest that measures to conserve biodiversity should be integrated into future urban planning to maintain China's rich biodiversity while also achieving sustainable economic development.

  3. Genetic divergence analysis of the Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and the Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile using COI sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colihueque, Nelson; Gantz, Alberto; Rau, Jaime Ricardo; Parraguez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper new mitochondrial COI sequences of Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile are reported and compared with sequences from other parts of the World. The intraspecific genetic divergence (mean p-distance) was 4.6 to 5.5% for the Common Barn Owl in comparison with specimens from northern Europe and Australasia and 3.1% for the Short-eared Owl with respect to samples from north America, northern Europe and northern Asia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three distinctive groups for the Common Barn Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) plus Central and North America, (ii) northern Europe and (iii) Australasia, and two distinctive groups for the Short-eared Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) and (ii) north America plus northern Europe and northern Asia. The level of genetic divergence observed in both species exceeds the upper limit of intraspecific comparisons reported previously for Strigiformes. Therefore, this suggests that further research is needed to assess the taxonomic status, particularly for the Chilean populations that, to date, have been identified as belonging to these species through traditional taxonomy.

  4. Genetic divergence analysis of the Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and the Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile using COI sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colihueque, Nelson; Gantz, Alberto; Rau, Jaime Ricardo; Parraguez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper new mitochondrial COI sequences of Common Barn Owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) and Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (Pontoppidan, 1763) from southern Chile are reported and compared with sequences from other parts of the World. The intraspecific genetic divergence (mean p-distance) was 4.6 to 5.5% for the Common Barn Owl in comparison with specimens from northern Europe and Australasia and 3.1% for the Short-eared Owl with respect to samples from north America, northern Europe and northern Asia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three distinctive groups for the Common Barn Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) plus Central and North America, (ii) northern Europe and (iii) Australasia, and two distinctive groups for the Short-eared Owl: (i) South America (Chile and Argentina) and (ii) north America plus northern Europe and northern Asia. The level of genetic divergence observed in both species exceeds the upper limit of intraspecific comparisons reported previously for Strigiformes. Therefore, this suggests that further research is needed to assess the taxonomic status, particularly for the Chilean populations that, to date, have been identified as belonging to these species through traditional taxonomy. PMID:26668551

  5. Selective predation of tawny owls (Strix aluco) on yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Forsom, Heidi Malene; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

    2012-01-01

    Differential predation on certain classes of individuals within prey populations might make owls strong selective agents on their prey. We investigated selective predation of tawny owls (Strix aluco) on yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis, A.f.) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus, M.g.) for two...... years by comparing prey from owl nests with live-trapped individuals. The owls killed significantly more male M.g. (73%) than females, but not more than expected from traps (57%). For A.f., owls selected adults in favour of subadults, and for adults, individuals with longer femurs. Adult males of A.......f. killed by owls had significantly heavier testes in relation their size than the trapped males. Prey selection did not correlate with size-adjusted body or spleen mass. Owl-killed A.f. had higher prevalences of the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides sp. than trapped individuals, but hosted similar...

  6. Selective Predation of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) on Yellow-Necked Mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Forsom, Heidi Malene; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

    2012-01-01

    Differential predation on certain classes of individuals within prey populations might make owls strong selective agents on their prey. We investigated selective predation of tawny owls (Strix aluco) on yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis, A.f.) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus, M.g.) for two...... years by comparing prey from owl nests with live-trapped individuals. The owls killed significantly more male M.g. (73%) than females, but not more than expected from traps (57%). For A.f., owls selected adults in favour of subadults, and for adults, individuals with longer femurs. Adult males of A.......f. killed by owls had significantly heavier testes in relation their size than the trapped males. Prey selection did not correlate with size-adjusted body or spleen mass. Owl-killed A.f. had higher prevalences of the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides sp. than trapped individuals, but hosted similar...

  7. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  8. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  9. Integrating Sustainable Hunting in Biodiversity Protection in Central Africa: Hot Spots, Weak Spots, and Strong Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  10. Representing chemicals using OWL, description graphs and rules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hastings, J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OWL, Description Graphs and Rules Janna Hastings1;2;3?, Michel Dumontier4, Duncan Hull1, Matthew Horridge5, Christoph Steinbeck1, Ulrike Sattler5, Robert Stevens5, Tertia H orne2, and Katarina Britz2;3 1 European Bioinformatics Institute, UK 2.... Steinbeck C., Hoppe C., Kuhn S., Floris M., Guha R., Willighagen E.L. (2006) Recent Developments of the Chemistry Development Kit (CDK) - An Open-Source Java Library for Chemo- and Bioinformatics. Curr. Pharm. Des. 2006; 12(17):2111- 2120. 14. de Matos...

  11. Neural map of interaural phase difference in the owl's brainstem.

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, W. E.; Konishi, M

    1986-01-01

    Neurons of the barn owl's (Tyto alba) nucleus laminaris, the first site of binaural convergence, respond in a phase-locked fashion to a tone delivered to either ear. It may take longer to elicit phase-locked spikes from one ear than from the other. This disparity in delay differs from neuron to neuron and is independent of tonal frequency. In binaural stimulation, neurons respond best when sound in one ear leads that in the other by an amount equal to their delay disparities but opposite in s...

  12. OWL应用接口的比较分析%Comparative Analysis of APIs for OWL Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊振辉; 于娟

    2015-01-01

    The paper comparatively analyzes three types of APIs for OWL, including Jena API、Protégé API and OWL API, from aspects of characteristics, platforms which they base on, languages which they can process and OWL ontology models. It focuses on commonly-used functions of OWL API and obtains related conclusions: (1) Jena API cannot achieve all functions of OWL because it bases on RDF triple;(2) OWL API is specifically designed for OWL and it supports structural specification of OWL2 which is the latest edition of OWL;(3) current APIs for OWL ontology mostly base on Java platform, whereas APIs base on other platforms (e.g. .net plat-form) have not appeared.%比较分析了Jena API、Protégé API、OWL API这三种OWL应用接口(API)的特点、所基于的平台、可处理的语言以及描述OWL本体的模型,重点介绍了OWL API的常用基本功能,得出了相关结论:(1)Jena API基于RDF三元组的特点使其不能实现OWL语言的全部功能;(2)OWL API针对OWL语言设计,且支持最新的OWL2语言的结构规范;(3)目前这些API都是基于Java平台的,对于其它平台(如.net平台),尚未见有成熟的API出现。

  13. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    Having constantly increasing amounts of data, the analysis of it is often entrusted for a MapReduce framework. The execution of an analytical workload can be cheapened by adopting cloud computing resources, and in particular by using spot instances (cheap, fluctuating price instances) offered by ...

  14. Arc spot grouping: An entanglement of arc spot cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Shin, E-mail: kajita.shin@nagoya-u.jp [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hwangbo, Dogyun; Ohno, Noriyasu [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Tsventoukh, Mikhail M. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Barengolts, Sergey A. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-21

    In recent experiments, clear transitions in velocity and trail width of an arc spot initiated on nanostructured tungsten were observed on the boundary of the thick and thin nanostructured layer regions. The velocity of arc spot was significantly decreased on the thick nanostructured region. It was suggested that the grouping decreased the velocity of arc spot. In this study, we try to explain the phenomena using a simple random walk model that has properties of directionality and self-avoidance. And grouping feature was added by installing an attractive force between spot cells with dealing with multi-spots. It was revealed that an entanglement of arc spot cells decreased the spot velocity, and spot cells tend to stamp at the same location many times.

  15. A new owl species of the genus Otus (aves: strigidae) from Lombok, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, George; King, Ben F; Verbelen, Philippe; Trainor, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    The avifauna of Indonesia is one of the richest in the world but the taxonomic status of many species remains poorly documented. The sole species of scops owl known from Lombok has long been assigned to the widespread Moluccan Scops Owl Otus magicus on the basis of superficial similarities in morphology. Field work in 2003 has shown that the territorial song of the scops owls inhabiting the foothills of Gunung Rinjani differs dramatically from that of O. magicus and is more similar to those of Rufescent Scops Owl O. rufescens and Singapore Scops Owl O. cnephaeus. Detailed comparisons of sound recordings and museum specimens with those of other scops owls in Wallacea and the Indo-Malayan region have confirmed the distinctiveness of the Lombok population. We describe Otus jolandae as a new species, the Rinjani Scops Owl. It is locally common at elevations from 25-1350 m. and occurs within Gunung Rinjani National Park. The new species is known from seven specimens collected by Alfred Everett in 1896. Otus jolandae represents the first endemic bird species from Lombok.

  16. A new owl species of the genus Otus (aves: strigidae from Lombok, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Sangster

    Full Text Available The avifauna of Indonesia is one of the richest in the world but the taxonomic status of many species remains poorly documented. The sole species of scops owl known from Lombok has long been assigned to the widespread Moluccan Scops Owl Otus magicus on the basis of superficial similarities in morphology. Field work in 2003 has shown that the territorial song of the scops owls inhabiting the foothills of Gunung Rinjani differs dramatically from that of O. magicus and is more similar to those of Rufescent Scops Owl O. rufescens and Singapore Scops Owl O. cnephaeus. Detailed comparisons of sound recordings and museum specimens with those of other scops owls in Wallacea and the Indo-Malayan region have confirmed the distinctiveness of the Lombok population. We describe Otus jolandae as a new species, the Rinjani Scops Owl. It is locally common at elevations from 25-1350 m. and occurs within Gunung Rinjani National Park. The new species is known from seven specimens collected by Alfred Everett in 1896. Otus jolandae represents the first endemic bird species from Lombok.

  17. TV spots' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-bakly, S

    1994-09-01

    The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center of the State Information Service was established in 1979 for the purpose of providing information to the people on the population issue. The Ministry of Information has accorded the State Information Service free TV and radio air time for family planning dramas and spots. In the early years information campaigns were organized to make people aware of the population problem by slogans, songs, and cartoons. Around 1984 misconceptions about family planning and contraceptives were attacked through a number of TV and radio spots. A few years later 21 spots on specific contraceptive methods were broadcast which were aired for three years over 3000 times. They were extremely successful. The impact of these TV spots was one of the major reasons why the contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 30% in 1984 to 38% in 1988 and 47% in 1992. Spots were also broadcast about the social implications of large families. The TV soap opera "And The Nile Flows On", with the family planning message interwoven into it, was very well received by the target audience. A program entitled "Wedding of the Month" features couples who know family planning well. The most successful radio program is a 15-20 minute long quiz show for residents of the villages where the Select Villages Project is being implemented. The State Information Service has 60 local information centers in the 26 governorates of Egypt that make plans for the family planning campaign. In 1992 the Minya Initiative, a family planning project was implemented in the Minya Governorate. As a result, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 22% to 30% over 18 months. A new project, the Select Village Project, was developed in 1993 that replicates the Minya Initiative on the village level in other governorates. This new project that was implemented in sixteen governorates.

  18. Exploiting Semantic Web Technologies to Develop OWL-Based Clinical Practice Guideline Execution Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Borna; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2016-01-01

    Computerizing paper-based CPG and then executing them can provide evidence-informed decision support to physicians at the point of care. Semantic web technologies especially web ontology language (OWL) ontologies have been profusely used to represent computerized CPG. Using semantic web reasoning capabilities to execute OWL-based computerized CPG unties them from a specific custom-built CPG execution engine and increases their shareability as any OWL reasoner and triple store can be utilized for CPG execution. However, existing semantic web reasoning-based CPG execution engines suffer from lack of ability to execute CPG with high levels of expressivity, high cognitive load of computerization of paper-based CPG and updating their computerized versions. In order to address these limitations, we have developed three CPG execution engines based on OWL 1 DL, OWL 2 DL and OWL 2 DL + semantic web rule language (SWRL). OWL 1 DL serves as the base execution engine capable of executing a wide range of CPG constructs, however for executing highly complex CPG the OWL 2 DL and OWL 2 DL + SWRL offer additional executional capabilities. We evaluated the technical performance and medical correctness of our execution engines using a range of CPG. Technical evaluations show the efficiency of our CPG execution engines in terms of CPU time and validity of the generated recommendation in comparison to existing CPG execution engines. Medical evaluations by domain experts show the validity of the CPG-mediated therapy plans in terms of relevance, safety, and ordering for a wide range of patient scenarios.

  19. 基于ORM的OWL2本体可视化表达%Visualization Expression of OWL 2 Ontology Based on Object Role Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文林; 刘大昕

    2011-01-01

    In order to address the problem that it is difficult to read and understand ontology expressed by OWL 2 for domain experts who have no related knowledge, this paper proposes complete mapping rules to represent OWL 2 axioms with Object Role Modeling(ORM). Based on semantic equivalent translation of models and extension of model constructions, OWL 2 primitives, class expressions, class axioms, object and data property axioms, and key axioms can be visualized by ORM directly. However, the built-in data types, class equivalent axioms, and transitivity axioms can be only visualized by expanded ORM.%无相关技术背景的领域专家较难直接阅读和理解OWL 2本体.为此,提出一种使用对象角色建模(ORM)可视化表达OWL 2本体的方法,并介绍一系列相应规则.通过语义等价的模型变换和扩展构造原语,使用ORM可视化表达OWL 2的构造原语、类表达式、类公理、对象特性公理、数据特性公理和键公理.实验结果表明,内置数据类型、类等价公理和对象特性的传递性公理需要对ORM进行扩展才能表达,其余OWL2类和公理均可语义无损地转换为ORM模型.

  20. OWL reasoning framework over big biological knowledge network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huajun; Chen, Xi; Gu, Peiqin; Wu, Zhaohui; Yu, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, huge amounts of data are generated in the domain of biology. Embedded with domain knowledge from different disciplines, the isolated biological resources are implicitly connected. Thus it has shaped a big network of versatile biological knowledge. Faced with such massive, disparate, and interlinked biological data, providing an efficient way to model, integrate, and analyze the big biological network becomes a challenge. In this paper, we present a general OWL (web ontology language) reasoning framework to study the implicit relationships among biological entities. A comprehensive biological ontology across traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine (WM) is used to create a conceptual model for the biological network. Then corresponding biological data is integrated into a biological knowledge network as the data model. Based on the conceptual model and data model, a scalable OWL reasoning method is utilized to infer the potential associations between biological entities from the biological network. In our experiment, we focus on the association discovery between TCM and WM. The derived associations are quite useful for biologists to promote the development of novel drugs and TCM modernization. The experimental results show that the system achieves high efficiency, accuracy, scalability, and effectivity.

  1. OWL Reasoning Framework over Big Biological Knowledge Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, huge amounts of data are generated in the domain of biology. Embedded with domain knowledge from different disciplines, the isolated biological resources are implicitly connected. Thus it has shaped a big network of versatile biological knowledge. Faced with such massive, disparate, and interlinked biological data, providing an efficient way to model, integrate, and analyze the big biological network becomes a challenge. In this paper, we present a general OWL (web ontology language reasoning framework to study the implicit relationships among biological entities. A comprehensive biological ontology across traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and western medicine (WM is used to create a conceptual model for the biological network. Then corresponding biological data is integrated into a biological knowledge network as the data model. Based on the conceptual model and data model, a scalable OWL reasoning method is utilized to infer the potential associations between biological entities from the biological network. In our experiment, we focus on the association discovery between TCM and WM. The derived associations are quite useful for biologists to promote the development of novel drugs and TCM modernization. The experimental results show that the system achieves high efficiency, accuracy, scalability, and effectivity.

  2. Daudzlietotāju režīms OWL redaktorā

    OpenAIRE

    Putniņš, Jānis

    2010-01-01

    Darbs „Daudzlietotāju atbalsts OWL redaktorā” apraksta kā var strādāt ar OWL redaktoru TDA platformā daudzlietotāju režīmā. Tas nozīmē iespēju vairākiem lietotājiem vienlaikus apstrādāt kādu UML/OWL diagrammu ar SVN repozitorija starpniecību. Modulis realizēts Lua valodā.

  3. Live blind snakes (Leptotyphlops dulcis) in eastern screech owl (Otus asio) nests: a novel commensalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, F R; Baldridge, R S

    1987-03-01

    Eastern screech owls bring live blind snakes to their nestlings, whereas all other prey are delivered dead. Some of the snakes are eaten but most live in nest debris, where they eat soft-bodied insect larvae from the decomposer community in fecal matter, pellets, and uneaten prey. Consumption of larvae may reduce larval parasitism on owl nestlings or larval competition with nestlings for food stored in the nest, because nestlings with live-in blind snakes grow faster and experience lower mortality than same-season broods lacking snakes. We propose a commensalistic association in which the screech owl benefits reproductively and the live-in blind snake is not affected.

  4. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  5. Great Red Spot (GRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

  6. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  7. A cephalic influence on gastric motility upon seeing food in domestic turkeys (Melagris gallopavo), great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, G E; Evanson, O A; Redig, P T

    1976-11-01

    Strain gage transducers were permanently implanted on the muscular stomachs of 13 turkeys, 3 great-horned owls and 2 red-tailed hawks to monitor gastric motility before, during and after eating. Following fasting, the sight of food resulted in significant increases in gastric contractile activity in all three species. Gastric motility further increased when the birds were allowed to eat. In raptors, however, a brief interruption in gastric motility occurred immediately after eating. This is apparently analogous to receptive relaxation which occurs in the stomach of mammals.

  8. Provisioning Behavior of Male and Female Eastern Screech-Owls During the Post-Brooding Period

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Courter, Jason R; Ritchison, Gary; McClain, W. Russell

    2017-01-01

    .... Further information could improve our understanding of the feeding ecology of owls and of mechanisms that govern natural and sexual selection, particularly as they relate to the evolution of reversed sexual dimorphism...

  9. Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge and the Owl Moutain Partnership riparian/meadow management demonstration project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) and the Owl Mountain Partnership (OMP) are implementing a 5-year riparian/meadow management demonstration project. The...

  10. Rodents new to the diet of the western burrowing owl(athene CUNICULARIA HYPUGAEA )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiluford, D.L.; Woodin, M.C.; Skoruppa, M.K.; Hickman, G.C.

    2009-01-01

    The northern pygmy mouse (Baiomys taylori), fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), and Merriam's pocket mouse (Pemgnathus merriami) are new to the diet of the western burrowing owl (Athene cuniculana hypugaed). All three species were identified from remains in regurgitated pellets collected from roost sites of burrowing owls in southern Texas over a period of 4 winters. Together, northern pygmy mice and fulvous harvest mice represented 58% of mammals identified in 182 pellets regurgitated by western burrowing owls. Merriam's pocket mouse accounted for only 4% of identified mammalian prey. Frequency of occurrence in pellets was 16% for northern pygmv mice, 11% for fulvous harvest mice, and 3% for Merriam's pocket mice. The primary reason for absence of these species in previous studies of foods of western burrowing owls is that most were conducted in latitudes north of these southern-distributed species of mammals.

  11. Improvement of directionality and sound-localization by internal ear coupling in barn owls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hermann; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kettler, Lutz

    Mark Konishi was one of the first to quantify sound-localization capabilities in barn owls. He showed that frequencies between 3 and 10 kHz underlie precise sound localization in these birds, and that they derive spatial information from processing interaural time and interaural level differences....... However, despite intensive research during the last 40 years it is still unclear whether and how internal ear coupling contributes to sound localization in the barn owl. Here we investigated ear directionality in anesthetized birds with the help of laser vibrometry. Care was taken that anesthesia...... time difference in the low-frequency range, barn owls hesitate to approach prey or turn their heads when only low-frequency auditory information is present in a stimulus they receive. Thus, the barn-owl's sound localization system seems to be adapted to work best in frequency ranges where interaural...

  12. A new species of masked-owl (Aves: Strigiformes: Tytonidae) from Seram, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Poulsen, Michael Køie; Haryoko, Tri; Reeve, Andrew Hart; Fabre, Pierre-Henri

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of masked-owl from the lower montane forest of Seram, one of the largest islands in the Moluccas of eastern Indonesia, for which we propose the name Tyto almae (Seram Masked-Owl), sp. nov. Molecular (mitochondrial cyt-b) differences show that Tyto sororcula of Buru and Tanimbar is closely related to T novaehollandiae of Australia and New Guinea (-1% uncorrected pairwise distance), and that Tyto almae of Seram differs by -3% (uncorrected pairwise distance) from both of them. These differences are further corroborated by morphology and colouration. Although a photograph from Seram published in 1987 had already established the presence of a Tyto owl on the island, ours represents the first specimen of this species. The bird was mist-netted in wet, mossy lower montane forest at an elevation of 1,350 m. No further observations of the owl were made during four weeks of fieldwork in Seram.

  13. Survey for Owls of the Nulhegan Basin and West Mountain Wildlife Management Area 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines a study done to document the distribution and relative abundance of nocturnal owls on the 48,000 acres comprising the Nulhegan Basin Division of...

  14. Experimental food supplementation affects the physical development, behaviour and survival of Little Owl Athene noctua nestlings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perrig, Marco; Grüebler, Martin U; Keil, Herbert; Naef‐Daenzer, Beat; Rutz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    ...‐fostering and food supplementation experiment, we estimated the effect of variation in food supply during growth on nestling survival and fledgling phenotypic traits of Little Owls Athene noctua...

  15. Northern Saw-whet Owl Banding Project 1997 Erie National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the results of an effort on Erie National Wildlife Refuge to net and band Northern Saw-whet Owls in October and November, 1997. The project...

  16. Genetic consequences of population decline in the Danish population of the little owl (Athene noctua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Pellegrino, Irene; Cucco, Maroc

    2012-01-01

    Background: Danish populations of the little owl (Athene noctua) have experienced dramaticdeclines in size over the past century. Before 1960 the little owl population was abundantin Denmark (estimated N>2000), but between 1960 and 1980 the population declinedrapidly, and since 1980 the little owl...... population has survived only in small and fragmentedareas. Question: Is the decline in population size associated with reduced genetic variation in theseDanish populations of the little owl? Are the populations genetically fragmented?Field site: Samples were collected from birds in Denmark (from 57457″N...... relatively little genetic variability, with more recent onesshowing even less. In addition, pairwise FST values showed evidence for genetic substructuringwith small but significant genetic differences between the extant population and the extinct owlpopulations on the Danish isle of Funen. The modest loss...

  17. Behavioral sleep in captive owl monkey (Aotus azarae) and squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Kantha, Sachi; Suzuki, Juri; Hirai, Yuriko; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that activity-behavioral sleep parameters differ between nocturnallyactive owl monkeys and diurnally-active squirrel monkeys which are sympatric and of Bolivian origin. The total sleep time (TST) and sleep episode length (SEL) of 7 adult owl monkey siblings and 4 adult squirrel monkeys were quantitated by actigraphy for 7 days under captive conditions. The higher TST/24 h values and longer SEL/12 h quiescent phase quantitated for owl monkeys in comparison to that of squirrel monkeys clearly indicate that the behavioral sleep is markedly different between these two groups, though they are sympatric in wild. Significant differences noted in the sleep architecture between squirrel monkeys and owl monkeys can be attributed to the influences in the selected sleep niche, threat perception from predators, and disturbances from natural elements (especially rain) in the natural habitat.

  18. Relative Size of Auditory Pathways in Symmetrically and Asymmetrically Eared Owls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Wylie, Douglas R

    2011-01-01

    .... One of the most unique anatomical features of the owl auditory system is the evolution of vertically asymmetrical ears in some species, which improves their ability to localize the elevational...

  19. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Burrowing Owl

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of burrowing owl, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for...

  20. Exposure affects the risk of an owl being mobbed - experimental evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Christiansen, Peter; Nielsen, Elsemarie K.

    2006-01-01

    Mobbing is a widespread anti-predator strategy in birds, and predators are generally expected to avoid mobbing. For example, observational studies suggest that the cryptic roosting behaviour of nocturnal predators, such as many owls, may be a strategy to limit mobbing. In this paper, we present...... the results of the first experimental study investigating to what degree roost exposure influences the risk of being mobbed, and the intensity of a mobbing incidence once initiated. To determine these factors, we used an experimental setup with taxidermic mounts of tawny owls Strix aluco in Grib Skov forest......, Denmark. The risk of an owl being mobbed during a 50 min morning survey period increased with the exposure of its roosting position, from 24% when hidden to 85% when openly exposed. The corresponding increase in the afternoon was from 6% to 36%. This suggests that an owl may minimize the mobbing rate...

  1. Status assessment and conservation plan for the western burrowing owl in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) is a grassland specialist distributed throughout w. North America, primarily in open areas with short...

  2. Ontology integration based on OWL%基于OWL的本体集成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠平; 赵海亮; 张志惠

    2008-01-01

    提出一种新的本体集成方法.分析了本体集成的原因,阐述了本体集成时应遵循的4条基本原则,并给出了集成的分类,提出了一种基于OWL DL图闭包的本体集成方法.该方法将OWL DL本体抽象为RDFS图模型,根据给定的OWL DL推理规则生成OWL DL本体的图闭包,在此基础上进行本体集成,同时提出了几种计算实体相似度的方法,将本方法与COMA++和FCA-merge进行实验对比,本方法在准确率和召回率上占优势.

  3. Influence of vegetation on the nocturnal foraging behaviors and vertebrate prey capture by endangered Burrowing Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Marsh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Restrictions in technology have limited past habitat selection studies for many species to the home-range level, as a finer-scale understanding was often not possible. Consequently, these studies may not identify the true mechanism driving habitat selection patterns, which may influence how such results are applied in conservation. We used GPS dataloggers with digital video recorders to identify foraging modes and locations in which endangered Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia captured prey. We measured the coarse and fine-scale characteristics of vegetation at locations in which owls searched for, versus where they caught, vertebrate prey. Most prey items were caught using hover-hunting. Burrowing Owls searched for, and caught, vertebrate prey in all cover types, but were more likely to kill prey in areas with sparse and less dense vegetative cover. Management strategies designed to increase Burrowing Owl foraging success in the Canadian prairies should try to ensure a mosaic of vegetation heights across cover types.

  4. Compounding effects on nest-site dispersal of Barn Owls Tyto alba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huffeldt, Nicholas Per; Aggerholm, Iben Næs; Brandtberg, Nathia Hass

    2012-01-01

    Capsule Recovery distances of Barn Owls ringed as pulli are conditional on ringing date but not on population density. Aims To test whether ring recovery distances (proxy for natal dispersal distances) were conditional on population density and reproductive timing. Methods We used ringing data...... from 0 to 100 days after ringing, being stable thereafter, and was also impacted by brood size. Owls ringed very early or late in the breeding season were more likely to be recovered

  5. Clinical pathological findings in an owl (Athene noctua) with microfilaraemia in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedin, M; Petterino, C; Gallo, E; Selleri, P; Morgante, M

    2007-04-01

    We report the first case of microfilaria infection in a free-flying owl Athene noctua in Italy. A macroparasite, about 10.1-mm long, was observed in the right chamber of the heart. On microscopic examination microfilariae were seen in liver, kidney, myocardium and lungs, although no cellular reaction was present in association with the parasites in any of these tissues. Because of the low pathogenicity of this parasite, infection with microfilaria may be not harmful in wild owls.

  6. Importance of agricultural landscapes to nesting burrowing owls in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restani, M.; Davies, J.M.; Newton, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are the principle factors causing declines of grassland birds. Declines in burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations have been extensive and have been linked to habitat loss, primarily the decline of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. Development of habitat use models is a research priority and will aid conservation of owls inhabiting human-altered landscapes. From 2001 to 2004 we located 160 burrowing owl nests on prairie dog colonies on the Little Missouri National Grassland in North Dakota. We used multiple linear regression and Akaike's Information Criterion to estimate the relationship between cover type characteristics surrounding prairie dog colonies and (1) number of owl pairs per colony and (2) reproductive success. Models were developed for two spatial scales, within 600 m and 2,000 m radii of nests for cropland, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum), grassland, and prairie dog colonies. We also included number of patches as a metric of landscape fragmentation. Annually, fewer than 30% of prairie dog colonies were occupied by owls. None of the models at the 600 m scale explained variation in number of owl pairs or reproductive success. However, models at the 2,000 m scale did explain number of owl pairs and reproductive success. Models included cropland, crested wheatgrass, and prairie dog colonies. Grasslands were not included in any of the models and had low importance values, although percentage grassland surrounding colonies was high. Management that protects prairie dog colonies bordering cropland and crested wheatgrass should be implemented to maintain nesting habitat of burrowing owls. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  7. Sex-biased dispersal of young Western Screech-owls (Otus kennicottii) in southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethan Ellsworth; James R. Belthoff

    1997-01-01

    We examined dispersal distance of young Western Screech-owls (Otus kennicottii) from nest sites to overwintering sites in relation to two hypotheses for sex-biased dispersal. Overall, young Screech-owls (N = 31) dispersed an average of 10.6 ± 1.8 km to overwintering sites, and females (14.7 ± 2.5 km; N = 13) dispersed farther than...

  8. Relative size of auditory pathways in symmetrically and asymmetrically eared owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Wylie, Douglas R

    2011-01-01

    Owls are highly efficient predators with a specialized auditory system designed to aid in the localization of prey. One of the most unique anatomical features of the owl auditory system is the evolution of vertically asymmetrical ears in some species, which improves their ability to localize the elevational component of a sound stimulus. In the asymmetrically eared barn owl, interaural time differences (ITD) are used to localize sounds in azimuth, whereas interaural level differences (ILD) are used to localize sounds in elevation. These two features are processed independently in two separate neural pathways that converge in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus to form an auditory map of space. Here, we present a comparison of the relative volume of 11 auditory nuclei in both the ITD and the ILD pathways of 8 species of symmetrically and asymmetrically eared owls in order to investigate evolutionary changes in the auditory pathways in relation to ear asymmetry. Overall, our results indicate that asymmetrically eared owls have much larger auditory nuclei than owls with symmetrical ears. In asymmetrically eared owls we found that both the ITD and ILD pathways are equally enlarged, and other auditory nuclei, not directly involved in binaural comparisons, are also enlarged. We suggest that the hypertrophy of auditory nuclei in asymmetrically eared owls likely reflects both an improved ability to precisely locate sounds in space and an expansion of the hearing range. Additionally, our results suggest that the hypertrophy of nuclei that compute space may have preceded that of the expansion of the hearing range and evolutionary changes in the size of the auditory system occurred independently of phylogeny. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Cadmium, chromium and lead contamination of Athene noctua, the little owl, of Bologna and Parma, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaroni, A; Amorena, M; Naso, B; Castellani, G; Lucisano, A; Stracciari, G L

    2003-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine cadmium, chromium and lead concentrations in liver and brain of 52 little owls (Athene noctua) from two provinces of Emilia Romagna region, with the aim of furnishing indirect information concerning contamination of their habitat, also considering possible environmental dispersion of the metals. Metal analysis was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with graphite furnace. Variance analysis with sampling area, gender and age shows that no statistical difference was found for gender, while a significant difference (P<0.05) was found for cadmium and lead, but not for chromium, when sampling areas and age were of concern. For all metals highest mean concentrations were found in liver (170 ppb for cadmium, 297 ppb for chromium and 312 ppb for lead). These levels can be considered as indicative of chronic exposure to low and "background" amounts of pollutants and they are of no toxicological concern, as they are always well below the toxic thresholds defined for each metal. The present study can be considered as a starting point for further analyses, aimed to the definition of any possible subtle effect (e.g. effects on enzymes activity) and of any possible correlation between levels of pollutants and appearance of possible adverse effects. It also furnished useful data for diagnostic cases and potentially for monitoring local contamination.

  10. The barn owl wing: an inspiration for silent flight in the aviation industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Thomas; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Wagner, Hermann

    2011-04-01

    Barn owls are specialists in prey detection using acoustic information. The flight apparatus of this bird of prey is most efficiently adapted to the hunting behavior by reducing flight noise. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms owls make use of could help minimize the noise disturbances in airport or wind power plant neighborhood. Here, we characterize wings of barn owls in terms of an airfoil as a role model for studying silent flight. This characterization includes surface and edge specialization (serrations, fringes) evolved by the owl. Furthermore, we point towards possible adaptations of either noise suppression or air flow control that might be an inspiration for the construction of modern aircraft. Three-dimensional imaging techniques such as surface digitizing, computed tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to investigate the wings and feathers in high spatial resolution. We show that wings of barn owls are huge in relation to their body mass resulting in a very low wing loading which in turn enables a slow flight and an increased maneuverability. Profiles of the wing are highly cambered and anteriorly thickened, especially at the proximal wing, leading to high lift production during flight. However, wind tunnel experiments showed that the air flow tends to separate at such wing configurations, especially at low-speed flight. Barn owls compensated this problem by evolving surface and edge modifications that stabilize the air flow. A quantitative three-dimensionally characterization of some of these structures is presented.

  11. Alarm calls modulate the spatial structure of a breeding owl community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo, Deseada; Avilés, Jesús M; Rodríguez, Juan

    2012-06-07

    Animals should continuously assess the threat of predation. Alarm calls inform on predation risk and are often used as cues to shape behavioural responses in birds and mammals. Hitherto, however, the ecological consequences of alarm calls in terms of organization of animal communities have been neglected. Here, we show experimentally that calls of a resident nocturnal raptor, the little owl Athene noctua, triggered a response in terms of breeding habitat selection and investment in current reproduction in conspecifics and heterospecifics. Little owls preferred to settle in territories where calls of conspecifics, irrespective of their type (i.e. alarm versus contact calls), were broadcasted, indicating that either conspecific attraction exists or calls are interpreted as foreign calls, eliciting settlement as a mode of defence against competitors. Also, we found that little owls seemed to invest more in current reproduction in safe territories as revealed by conspecific calls. Innovatively, we reported that a second owl species, the migratory scops owl Otus scops, preferred to breed in safe territories as indicated by little owls' calls. These results evidence that the emission of alarm calls may have, apart from well-known behavioural effects, ecological consequences in natural communities by inducing species-specific biases in breeding habitat selection. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected informative role of avian alarm calls which may modulate the spatial structure of species within communities.

  12. The screech owl: Its life history and population ecology in northern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCamp, Laurel F.; Henny, Charles J.

    1975-01-01

    The screech owl (Otus asio) is native to North America and breeds throughout the United States and in portions of Canada and Mexico. It is a small owl, 20 cm (8 in) in length from the tip of the bill to the tip of the tail, with a wing span of 56 cm (22 in); it has yellow eyes and prominent ear tufts (see Frontispiece). Although the species is common throughout much of North America, it has not been studied intensively, particularly over a long period. The published literature is concerned mostly with food habits, color phase, taxonomy, and miscellaneous observations. Breeding biology and population dynamics have received little attention. This report presents the basic life history and population information about screech owls in northern Ohio over a 30-yr period. The owls studied were nesting in boxes (Fig. 1) established for wood ducks (Aix sponsa) along rivers, creeks, and marshes in a four-county area (Ottawa, Sandusky, Wood, and Lucas Counties) near Lake Erie (Fig. 2). No special trapping techniques were required as the screech owls readily used these nesting boxes and could be easily captured while in them. More than 3,000 owls were captured and banded; 500 were recaptured after the initial banding, some 10 or 15 times. This process provided a large quanity of basic information for this report.

  13. Muscular Arrangement and Muscle Attachment Sites in the Cervical Region of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Owls have the largest head rotation capability amongst vertebrates. Anatomical knowledge of the cervical region is needed to understand the mechanics of these extreme head movements. While data on the morphology of the cervical vertebrae of the barn owl have been provided, this study is aimed to provide an extensive description of the muscle arrangement and the attachment sites of the muscles on the owl's head-neck region. The major cervical muscles were identified by gross dissection of cada...

  14. Hearing in the crepuscular owl butterfly (Caligo eurilochus, Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Kathleen M; Mongrain, Jennifer K; Windmill, James F C; Robert, Daniel; Yack, Jayne E

    2014-10-01

    Tympanal organs are widespread in Nymphalidae butterflies, with a great deal of variability in the morphology of these ears. How this variation reflects differences in hearing physiology is not currently understood. This study provides the first examination of hearing organs in the crepuscular owl butterfly, Caligo eurilochus. We examined the tuning and sensitivity of the C. eurilochus hearing organ, called Vogel's organ, using laser Doppler vibrometry and extracellular neurophysiology. We show that the C. eurilochus ear responds to sound and is most sensitive to frequencies between 1 and 4 kHz, as confirmed by both the vibration of the tympanal membrane and the physiological response of the associated nerve branches. In comparison to the hearing of its diurnally active relative, Morpho peleides, C. eurilochus has a narrower frequency range with higher auditory thresholds. Hypotheses explaining the function of hearing in this crepuscular butterfly are discussed.

  15. Data Reduction Algorithm for Optical Wide Field Patrol (OWL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Park, Y.; Yim, H.; Jo, J.; Moon, H.; Bae, Y.; Lim, Y.; Choi, J.; Choi, Y.; Park, J.; Son, J.

    2014-09-01

    OWL (Optical Wide-field Patrol) has a detector system which has the chopper which consists of 4 blades in front of the CCD camera to acquire efficiently the position and time information of moving objects such as artificial satellites. Using this system, it is possible to get more position data by splitting the streaks of the moving object into many pieces with fast rotating blades during tracking. At the same time, the time data of the rotating chopper can be acquired by the time tagger connected to the photo diode. In order to derive the orbits of the targets, we need a sequential data reduction procedure including the calculation of WCS (World Coordinate System) solution to transform the positions into equatorial coordinate systems, and the combination of the time data from the time tagger and the position data. We present such a data reduction procedure and the preliminary results after applying this procedure to the observation images.

  16. Traffic noise reduces foraging efficiency in wild owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senzaki, Masayuki; Yamaura, Yuichi; Francis, Clinton D.; Nakamura, Futoshi

    2016-08-01

    Anthropogenic noise has been increasing globally. Laboratory experiments suggest that noise disrupts foraging behavior across a range of species, but to reveal the full impacts of noise, we must examine the impacts of noise on foraging behavior among species in the wild. Owls are widespread nocturnal top predators and use prey rustling sounds for localizing prey when hunting. We conducted field experiments to examine the effect of traffic noise on owls’ ability to detect prey. Results suggest that foraging efficiency declines with increasing traffic noise levels due to acoustic masking and/or distraction and aversion to traffic noise. Moreover, we estimate that effects of traffic noise on owls’ ability to detect prey reach >120 m from a road, which is larger than the distance estimated from captive studies with bats. Our study provides the first evidence that noise reduces foraging efficiency in wild animals, and highlights the possible pervasive impacts of noise.

  17. Dyscoria associated with herpesvirus infection in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Montoya, Enrique J.; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-08-16

    Abstract Dyscoria was observed in a female owl monkey and her two offspring. A third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two males paired with the female died, one of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all three animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring were positive for Herpesvirus simplex antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The clinical history, gross and microscopic lesions, and serology results suggests a herpesviral etiology, possibly, H. simplex or H. saimiri-1. This report underscores the risks associated with introducing animals into breeding or research colonies that were previously kept as pets or those from unknown origin that could carry asymptomatic pathogenic Herpesvirus infections. In addition, herpesviral infection should be considered among the differential diagnoses if dyscoria is observed in nonhuman primates.

  18. Dyscoria associated with herpesvirus infection in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Montoya, Enrique J; Weller, Richard E

    2008-07-01

    "Dyscoria was noted in a female owl monkey and 2 of her offspring. The third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two male monkeys paired with the female died, 1 of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all 3 animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring were positive for Herpesvirus simplex antibodies by ELISA. The clinical history, gross and microscopic lesions, and serology results suggests a herpesviral etiology, possibly H. simplex or H. saimiri 1. This report underscores the risks associated with introducing into breeding or research colonies animals that previously were kept as pets or those from unknown origin that could carry asymptomatic pathogenic Herpesvirus infections. In addition, herpesviral infection should be considered among the differential diagnoses if dyscoria is noted in nonhuman primates."

  19. OWL-based reasoning methods for validating archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2013-04-01

    Some modern Electronic Healthcare Record (EHR) architectures and standards are based on the dual model-based architecture, which defines two conceptual levels: reference model and archetype model. Such architectures represent EHR domain knowledge by means of archetypes, which are considered by many researchers to play a fundamental role for the achievement of semantic interoperability in healthcare. Consequently, formal methods for validating archetypes are necessary. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in exploring how semantic web technologies in general, and ontologies in particular, can facilitate the representation and management of archetypes, including binding to terminologies, but no solution based on such technologies has been provided to date to validate archetypes. Our approach represents archetypes by means of OWL ontologies. This permits to combine the two levels of the dual model-based architecture in one modeling framework which can also integrate terminologies available in OWL format. The validation method consists of reasoning on those ontologies to find modeling errors in archetypes: incorrect restrictions over the reference model, non-conformant archetype specializations and inconsistent terminological bindings. The archetypes available in the repositories supported by the openEHR Foundation and the NHS Connecting for Health Program, which are the two largest publicly available ones, have been analyzed with our validation method. For such purpose, we have implemented a software tool called Archeck. Our results show that around 1/5 of archetype specializations contain modeling errors, the most common mistakes being related to coded terms and terminological bindings. The analysis of each repository reveals that different patterns of errors are found in both repositories. This result reinforces the need for making serious efforts in improving archetype design processes.

  20. Turbulent spots in hypervelocity flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Joseph S.; Leyva, Ivett A.; Shepherd, Joseph E.

    2017-04-01

    The turbulent spot propagation process in boundary layer flows of air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and air/carbon dioxide mixtures in thermochemical nonequilibrium at high enthalpy is investigated. Experiments are performed in a hypervelocity reflected shock tunnel with a 5-degree half-angle axisymmetric cone instrumented with flush-mounted fast-response coaxial thermocouples. Time-resolved and spatially demarcated heat transfer traces are used to track the propagation of turbulent bursts within the mean flow, and convection rates at approximately 91, 74, and 63% of the boundary layer edge velocity, respectively, are observed for the leading edge, peak, and trailing edge of the spots. A simple model constructed with these spot propagation parameters is used to infer spot generation rates from observed transition onset to completion distance. Spot generation rates in air and nitrogen are estimated to be approximately twice the spot generation rates in air/carbon dioxide mixtures.

  1. Spotting effect in microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Huard Tristan

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray data must be normalized because they suffer from multiple biases. We have identified a source of spatial experimental variability that significantly affects data obtained with Cy3/Cy5 spotted glass arrays. It yields a periodic pattern altering both signal (Cy3/Cy5 ratio and intensity across the array. Results Using the variogram, a geostatistical tool, we characterized the observed variability, called here the spotting effect because it most probably arises during steps in the array printing procedure. Conclusions The spotting effect is not appropriately corrected by current normalization methods, even by those addressing spatial variability. Importantly, the spotting effect may alter differential and clustering analysis.

  2. mtDNA diversity in Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarai azarai) of the Argentinean Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Paul L; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Baiduc, Caitlin A; Gagneux, Pascal; Evans, Sian; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-10-01

    Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) inhabit much of South America yet represent an enigmatic evolutionary branch among primates. While morphological, cytogenetic, and immunological evidence suggest that owl monkey populations have undergone isolation and diversification since their emergence in the New World, problems with adjacent species ranges, and sample provenance have complicated efforts to characterize genetic variation within the genus. As a result, the phylogeographic history of owl monkey species and subspecies remains unclear, and the extent of genetic diversity at the population level is unknown. To explore these issues, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) variation in a population of wild Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarai azarai) living in the Gran Chaco region of Argentina. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome from one individual (16,585 base pairs (bp)) and analyzed 1,099 bp of the hypervariable control region (CR) and 696 bp of the cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene in 117 others. In addition, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome (16,472 bp) of one Nancy Ma's owl monkey (A. nancymaae). Based on the whole mtDNA and COII data, we observed an ancient phylogeographic discontinuity among Aotus species living north, south, and west of the Amazon River that began more than eight million years ago. Our population analyses identified three major CR lineages and detected a high level of haplotypic diversity within A. a. azarai. These data point to a recent expansion of Azara's owl monkeys into the Argentinean Chaco. Overall, we provide a detailed view of owl monkey mtDNA variation at genus, species, and population levels.

  3. Analysis on the epidemiological situation of soil-transmitted nematodiasis at monitoring spots from 2006 to 2010%2006-2010年全国土源性线虫病监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧炜; 张雪强; 陈颖丹

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解全国土源性线虫病流行动态及影响因素,掌握流行规律,预测流行趋势,并为制订防治对策和评价防治效果提供科学依据. 方法 2006-2010年,在22个土源性线虫病国家监测点开展人群感染情况、土壤人蛔虫卵污染情况和相关自然社会因素监测,收集整理各类数据,对感染率和感染度等指标进行统计学分析. 结果 2006-2010年人群年度土源性线虫感染率依次为20.88%、18.93%、16.59%、13.30%和11.25%,2010年感染率较2006年下降了46.12%(x2=1047.98,P<0.01),5~10岁组儿童的年度土源性线虫感染率依次为34.71%、29.22%、27.02%、21.19%和16.33%,一直维持在较高水平.2010年蛔虫、鞭虫、钩虫以及3~12周岁儿童蛲虫感染率较2006年有不同程度下降,分别下降了53.93%、35.88%、45.83%和34.30%.2006-2010年,土壤人蛔虫卵检出率依次为37.10%、29.55%、25.93%、31.25%和24.42%,年间差异无统计学意义(x2=10.43,P>0.01). 结论 2006-2010年,监测点人群土源性线虫感染率呈逐年下降趋势,土源性线虫的高感染地区依然存在,儿童和青壮年依然是高感染人群.%Objective To understand the epidemiological situation,regularity and influencing factor of soil-transmitted nematodiasis nation wide,so as to provide the scientific evidence for making strategy and evaluating the effect of prevention of the diseases.Methods Three aspects of content were taken for monitoring in 22 national monitoring spots from 2006 to 2010,including situation of soil-transmitted nematode infection of people,contaminative situation of Ascaris eggs in soil and related natural and social factors.Then,data were collected for further statistical analysis on infection rate and infectiosity.Results The infection rate of soiltransmitted nematodes from 2006 to 2010 were 20.88%,18.93%,16.59%,13.30% and 11.25% respectively,which decreased by 46.12% in 2010

  4. The SPOT satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, J.-P.

    1981-03-01

    The background, objectives and data products of the French SPOT remote sensing satellite system are presented. The system, which was developed starting in 1978 with the subsequent participation of Sweden and Belgium, is based on a standard multimission platform with associated ground control station and a mission-specific payload, which includes two High-Resolution Visible range instruments allowing the acquisition of stereoscopic views from different orbits. Mission objectives include the definition of future remote sensing systems, the compilation of a cartographic and resources data base, the study of species discrimination and production forecasting based on frequent access and off-nadir viewing, the compilation of a stereoscopic data base, and platform and instrument qualification, for possible applications in cartography, geology and agriculture. Standard data products will be available at three levels of preprocessing: radiometric correction only, precision processing for vertical viewing, and cartographic quality processing.

  5. Spatial selectivity and binaural responses in the inferior colliculus of the great horned owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volman, S F; Konishi, M

    1989-09-01

    In this study we have investigated the processing of auditory cues for sound localization in the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). Previous studies have shown that the barn owl, whose ears are asymmetrically oriented in the vertical plane, has a 2-dimensional, topographic representation of auditory space in the external division of the inferior colliculus (ICx). As in the barn owl, the great horned owl's ICx is anatomically distinct and projects to the optic tectum. Neurons in ICx respond over only a small range of azimuths (mean = 32 degrees), and azimuth is topographically mapped. In contrast to the barn owl, the great horned owl has bilaterally symmetrical ears and its receptive fields are not restricted in elevation. The binaural cues available for sound localization were measured both with cochlear microphonic recordings and with a microphone attached to a probe tube in the auditory canal. Interaural time disparity (ITD) varied monotonically with azimuth. Interaural intensity differences (IID) also changed with azimuth, but the largest IIDs were less than 15 dB, and the variation was not monotonic. Neither ITD nor IID varied systematically with changes in the vertical position of a sound source. We used dichotic stimulation to determine the sensitivity of ICx neurons to these binaural cues. Best ITD of ICx units was topographically mapped and strongly correlated with receptive-field azimuth. The width of ITD tuning curves, measured at 50% of the maximum response, averaged 72 microseconds. All ICx neurons responded only to binaural stimulation and had nonmonotonic IID tuning curves. Best IID was weakly, but significantly, correlated with best ITD (r = 0.39, p less than 0.05). The IID tuning curves, however, were broad (mean 50% width = 24 dB), and 67% of the units had best IIDs within 5 dB of 0 dB IID. ITD tuning was sensitive to variations in IID in the direction opposite to that expected for time-intensity trading, but the magnitude of this effect was only

  6. Justifications Shape Ethical Blind Spots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-01-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous se

  7. Divide and conquer spot noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, W.C. de; Liere, R. van

    1997-01-01

    The design and implementation of an interactive spot noise algorithm is presented. Spot noise is a technique which utilizes texture for the visualization of flow fields. Various design tradeoffs are discussed that allow an optimal implementation on a range of high end graphical workstations. Two app

  8. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  9. Automating generation of textual class definitions from OWL to English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert; Malone, James; Williams, Sandra; Power, Richard; Third, Allan

    2011-05-17

    Text definitions for entities within bio-ontologies are a cornerstone of the effort to gain a consensus in understanding and usage of those ontologies. Writing these definitions is, however, a considerable effort and there is often a lag between specification of the main part of an ontology (logical descriptions and definitions of entities) and the development of the text-based definitions. The goal of natural language generation (NLG) from ontologies is to take the logical description of entities and generate fluent natural language. The application described here uses NLG to automatically provide text-based definitions from an ontology that has logical descriptions of its entities, so avoiding the bottleneck of authoring these definitions by hand. To produce the descriptions, the program collects all the axioms relating to a given entity, groups them according to common structure, realises each group through an English sentence, and assembles the resulting sentences into a paragraph, to form as 'coherent' a text as possible without human intervention. Sentence generation is accomplished using a generic grammar based on logical patterns in OWL, together with a lexicon for realising atomic entities. We have tested our output for the Experimental Factor Ontology (EFO) using a simple survey strategy to explore the fluency of the generated text and how well it conveys the underlying axiomatisation. Two rounds of survey and improvement show that overall the generated English definitions are found to convey the intended meaning of the axiomatisation in a satisfactory manner. The surveys also suggested that one form of generated English will not be universally liked; that intrusion of too much 'formal ontology' was not liked; and that too much explicit exposure of OWL semantics was also not liked. Our prototype tools can generate reasonable paragraphs of English text that can act as definitions. The definitions were found acceptable by our survey and, as a result, the

  10. Owls may use faeces and prey feathers to signal current reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Penteriani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animals communicate by marking focal elements of their home range with different kinds of materials. Visual signaling has been demonstrated to play a previously unrecognized role in the intraspecific communication of eagle owls (Bubo bubo, in both territorial and parent-offspring contexts. Visual signals may play a role in a variety of circumstances in this crepuscular and nocturnal species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that a large amount of extremely visible white faeces and prey feathers appear during the breeding season on posts and plucking sites in proximity to the nest, potentially representing a way for eagle owls to mark their territory. We present descriptive and experimental evidence showing that faeces and prey remains could act as previously unrecognized visual signals in a nocturnal avian predator. This novel signaling behavior could indicate the owls' current reproductive status to potential intruders, such as other territorial owls or non-breeding floaters. Faeces and prey feather markings may also advertise an owl's reproductive status or function in mate-mate communication. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We speculate that faeces marks and plucking may represent an overlooked but widespread method for communicating current reproduction to conspecifics. Such marking behavior may be common in birds, and we may now be exploring other questions and mechanisms in territoriality.

  11. Expert2OWL: A Methodology for Pattern-Based Ontology Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahar, Kais; Xu, Jie; Herre, Heinrich

    2017-01-01

    The formalization of expert knowledge enables a broad spectrum of applications employing ontologies as underlying technology. These include eLearning, Semantic Web and expert systems. However, the manual construction of such ontologies is time-consuming and thus expensive. Moreover, experts are often unfamiliar with the syntax and semantics of formal ontology languages such as OWL and usually have no experience in developing formal ontologies. To overcome these barriers, we developed a new method and tool, called Expert2OWL that provides efficient features to support the construction of OWL ontologies using GFO (General Formal Ontology) as a top-level ontology. This method allows a close and effective collaboration between ontologists and domain experts. Essentially, this tool integrates Excel spreadsheets as part of a pattern-based ontology development and refinement process. Expert2OWL enables us to expedite the development process and modularize the resulting ontologies. We applied this method in the field of Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) and used Expert2OWL to automatically generate an accurate Chinese Herbology ontology (CHO). The expressivity of CHO was tested and evaluated using ontology query languages SPARQL and DL. CHO shows promising results and can generate answers to important scientific questions such as which Chinese herbal formulas contain which substances, which substances treat which diseases, and which ones are the most frequently used in CHM.

  12. Developmental changes in serum androgen levels of Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Corinne P.; Hahn, D. Caldwell

    2010-01-01

    We studied androgen production during development in nestling Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops asio) and hypothesized that gender and hatch order might influence serum levels of testosterone and androstenedione. Testosterone levels were highest immediately after hatching and declined significantly in the 4 weeks leading to fledging. The average level of testosterone for 1-7 day-old owls was 3.99 - 0.68 ng/ml. At 22-28 days of age, the average testosterone level for nestling owls was 0.83 - 0.18 ng/ml. Testosterone levels did not differ between males or females. The average testosterone level for male nestlings was 2.23 - 0.29 ng/ml and 2.39 - 0.56 ng/ml for female nestlings. The average level of androstenedione for nestling owls was 1.92 - 0.11 ng/ml and levels remained constant throughout development. Levels were significantly higher in males than females. The average androstenedione level was 1.77 - 0.16 ng/ml for male nestlings and 1.05 - 0.24 ng/ml for female nestlings. Hatching order did not affect levels of either androgen. Our results provide a foundation for future studies of androgen production by nestling owls.

  13. The diet of Indian Eagle Owl Bubo bengalensis and its agronomic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available If the importance of wildlife in agricultural pest control through predation can be conveyed, it can play an important role in the conservation of wildlife. However, such a strategy needs to be backed with convincing data. We studied the habitat preference, diet and reproductive behavior of the Indian Eagle Owl (IEO Bubo bengalensis in order to understand its role in agricultural pest control. The Owls preferred landscapes with a higher percentage of agriculture and fed on rodents, birds, reptiles, arachnids, insects and other prey species. Despite being a generalist feeder, its diet was dominated by agricultural pests, which contributed 88% of the total prey biomass. Out of the 13 rodent prey species, which comprised a major part of the diet, seven were identified as major agricultural pests and were 98% of the total rodent biomass in the diet of the IEO. The dependence of the IEO on rodent pests was further reflected by positive correlation between rodent biomass consumed and the breeding success of the owl. The IEO, therefore, plays a positive role in the biological control of crop pests. However, owls spent a longer duration of time in agricultural habitats, where they also had higher productivity. Thus IEO may be subjected to anthropogenic activities, human contact and interference. Since this owl is still hunted due to superstitious beliefs, scientific evidence elucidating the importance of the IEO in agricultural pest control can be used for its conservation by educating the farming community.

  14. Survey on birds of prey and owls Falconiformes and Strigiformes) on Java sea islands: correction and additions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.

    2005-01-01

    ): In Southeast Asia the short-eared owl Asio flammeus is a northern migrant and is normally not recorded south of Singapore and, rarely, northern Borneo. The occurrence of short-eared owl in the Kangean archipelago, Java Sea, has been noted in several publications, including a recent one in this jo

  15. Survey on birds of prey and owls Falconiformes and Strigiformes) on Java sea islands: correction and additions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.

    2005-01-01

    ): In Southeast Asia the short-eared owl Asio flammeus is a northern migrant and is normally not recorded south of Singapore and, rarely, northern Borneo. The occurrence of short-eared owl in the Kangean archipelago, Java Sea, has been noted in several publications, including a recent one in this

  16. Helminth communities of owls (strigiformes) indicate strong biological and ecological differences from birds of prey (accipitriformes and falconiformes) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Kinsella, John M; Di Prisco, Francesca; Troisi, Sabatino; D'Alessio, Nicola; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Aznar, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    We compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from Calabria (Italy) and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. Two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. The latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from Galicia (Spain). A total of 19 helminth taxa were found in owls from Calabria. Statistical comparison showed only marginal differences between scops owls (Otus scops) and little owls (Athene noctua) and tawny owls (Strix aluco). It would indicate that all owl species are exposed to a common pool of 'owl generalist' helminth taxa, with quantitative differences being determined by differences in diet within a range of prey relatively narrow. In contrast, birds of prey from the same region exhibited strong differences because they feed on different and wider spectra of prey. In Calabria, owls can be separated as a whole from birds of prey with regard to the structure of their helminth communities while in Galicia helminths of owls represent a subset of those of birds of prey. This difference is related to the occurrence in Calabria, but not Galicia, of a pool of 'owl specialist' species. The wide geographical occurrence of these taxa suggest that local conditions may determine fundamental differences in the composition of local communities. Finally, in both Calabria and Galicia, helminth communities from owls were species-poor compared to those from sympatric birds of prey. However, birds of prey appear to share a greater pool of specific helmith taxa derived from cospeciation processes, and a greater potential exchange of parasites between them than with owls because of phylogenetic closeness.

  17. Helminth communities of owls (strigiformes indicate strong biological and ecological differences from birds of prey (accipitriformes and falconiformes in southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Santoro

    Full Text Available We compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from Calabria (Italy and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. Two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. The latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from Galicia (Spain. A total of 19 helminth taxa were found in owls from Calabria. Statistical comparison showed only marginal differences between scops owls (Otus scops and little owls (Athene noctua and tawny owls (Strix aluco. It would indicate that all owl species are exposed to a common pool of 'owl generalist' helminth taxa, with quantitative differences being determined by differences in diet within a range of prey relatively narrow. In contrast, birds of prey from the same region exhibited strong differences because they feed on different and wider spectra of prey. In Calabria, owls can be separated as a whole from birds of prey with regard to the structure of their helminth communities while in Galicia helminths of owls represent a subset of those of birds of prey. This difference is related to the occurrence in Calabria, but not Galicia, of a pool of 'owl specialist' species. The wide geographical occurrence of these taxa suggest that local conditions may determine fundamental differences in the composition of local communities. Finally, in both Calabria and Galicia, helminth communities from owls were species-poor compared to those from sympatric birds of prey. However, birds of prey appear to share a greater pool of specific helmith taxa derived from cospeciation processes, and a greater potential exchange of parasites between them than with owls because of phylogenetic closeness.

  18. Presumptive keratoglobus in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Rachael K; Moresco, Anneke; Woods, Sarah J; Reilly, Christopher M; Hawkins, Michelle G; Murphy, Christopher J; Hollingsworth, Steven R; Hacker, Dennis; Freeman, Kate S

    2016-07-31

    A juvenile to young adult, male, great horned owl (Bubo virginianus,GHOW) was presented to the wildlife rehabilitation hospital at Lindsay Wildlife Museum (WRHLWM) due to trauma to the right patagium from barbed wire entanglement. On presentation, both corneas were irregular, dry, and no movement of the third eyelid was noted. A severe corneal enlargement/globoid appearance was the predominant ophthalmic feature. The fundus was normal in both eyes (OU). Over the course of several days, both corneas developed edema combined with further dessication at the ocular surface associated with diffuse dorsal fluorescein stain uptake. Repeated ophthalmic examinations found normal intraocular pressures and an inability to move the third eyelid over the enlarged corneas. The bird was deemed nonreleasable due to severe wing damage and poor prognosis associated with eye abnormalities and was humanely euthanized. Postmortem CT, enucleation, and histopathology were performed to evaluate the ocular anatomical abnormality and confirm the suspected diagnosis of keratoglobus. This GHOW represents the first reported case of presumptive keratoglobus in a raptor.

  19. Identification, classification and evolution of Owl Monkeys (Aotus, Illiger 1811

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Albert N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owl monkeys, belonging to the genus Aotus, have been extensively used as animal models in biomedical research but few reports have focused on the taxonomy and phylogeography of this genus. Moreover, the morphological similarity of several Aotus species has led to frequent misidentifications, mainly at the boundaries of their distribution. In this study, sequence data from five mitochondrial regions and the nuclear, Y-linked, SRY gene were used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstructions using well characterized specimens of Aotus nancymaae, A. vociferans, A. lemurinus, A. griseimembra, A. trivirgatus, A. nigriceps, A. azarae boliviensis and A. infulatus. Results The complete MT-CO1, MT-TS1, MT-TD, MT-CO2, MT-CYB regions were sequenced in 18 Aotus specimens. ML and Bayesian topologies of concatenated data and separate regions allowed for the proposition of a tentative Aotus phylogeny, indicating that Aotus diverged some 4.62 Million years before present (MYBP. Similar analyses with included GenBank specimens were useful for assessing species identification of deposited data. Conclusions Alternative phylogenetic reconstructions, when compared with karyotypic and biogeographic data, led to the proposition of evolutionary scenarios questioning the conventional diversification of this genus in monophyletic groups with grey and red necks. Moreover, genetic distance estimates and haplotypic differences were useful for species validations.

  20. Low frequency eardrum directionality in the barn owl induced by sound transmission through the interaural canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettler, Lutz; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2016-01-01

    The middle ears of birds are typically connected by interaural cavities that form a cranial canal. Eardrums coupled in this manner may function as pressure difference receivers rather than pressure receivers. Hereby, the eardrum vibrations become inherently directional. The barn owl also has...... a large interaural canal, but its role in barn owl hearing and specifically in sound localization has been controversial so far. We discuss here existing data and the role of the interaural canal in this species and add a new dataset obtained by laser Doppler vibrometry in a free-field setting....... Significant sound transmission across the interaural canal occurred at low frequencies. The sound transmission induces considerable eardrum directionality in a narrow band from 1.5 to 3.5 kHz. This is below the frequency range used by the barn owl for locating prey, but may conceivably be used for locating...

  1. Low frequency eardrum directionality in the barn owl induced by sound transmission through the interaural canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Lutz; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wagner, Hermann

    2016-10-01

    The middle ears of birds are typically connected by interaural cavities that form a cranial canal. Eardrums coupled in this manner may function as pressure difference receivers rather than pressure receivers. Hereby, the eardrum vibrations become inherently directional. The barn owl also has a large interaural canal, but its role in barn owl hearing and specifically in sound localization has been controversial so far. We discuss here existing data and the role of the interaural canal in this species and add a new dataset obtained by laser Doppler vibrometry in a free-field setting. Significant sound transmission across the interaural canal occurred at low frequencies. The sound transmission induces considerable eardrum directionality in a narrow band from 1.5 to 3.5 kHz. This is below the frequency range used by the barn owl for locating prey, but may conceivably be used for locating conspecific callers.

  2. Using AberOWL for fast and scalable reasoning over BioPortal ontologies

    KAUST Repository

    Slater, Luke

    2016-08-08

    Background: Reasoning over biomedical ontologies using their OWL semantics has traditionally been a challenging task due to the high theoretical complexity of OWL-based automated reasoning. As a consequence, ontology repositories, as well as most other tools utilizing ontologies, either provide access to ontologies without use of automated reasoning, or limit the number of ontologies for which automated reasoning-based access is provided. Methods: We apply the AberOWL infrastructure to provide automated reasoning-based access to all accessible and consistent ontologies in BioPortal (368 ontologies). We perform an extensive performance evaluation to determine query times, both for queries of different complexity and for queries that are performed in parallel over the ontologies. Results and conclusions: We demonstrate that, with the exception of a few ontologies, even complex and parallel queries can now be answered in milliseconds, therefore allowing automated reasoning to be used on a large scale, to run in parallel, and with rapid response times.

  3. Linked-OWL: A new approach for dynamic linked data service workflow composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussien Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The shift from Web of Document into Web of Data based on Linked Data principles defined by Tim Berners-Lee posed a big challenge to build and develop applications to work in Web of Data environment. There are several attempts to build service and application models for Linked Data Cloud. In this paper, we propose a new service model for linked data "Linked-OWL" which is based on RESTful services and OWL-S and copes with linked data principles. This new model shifts the service concept from functions into linked data things and opens the road for Linked Oriented Architecture (LOA and Web of Services as part and on top of Web of Data. This model also provides high level of dynamic service composition capabilities for more accurate dynamic composition and execution of complex business processes in Web of Data environment.

  4. Spatial, temporal, and density-dependent components of habitat quality for a desert owl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D Flesch

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in resources is a fundamental driver of habitat quality but the realized value of resources at any point in space may depend on the effects of conspecifics and stochastic factors, such as weather, which vary through time. We evaluated the relative and combined effects of habitat resources, weather, and conspecifics on habitat quality for ferruginous pygmy-owls (Glaucidium brasilianum in the Sonoran Desert of northwest Mexico by monitoring reproductive output and conspecific abundance over 10 years in and around 107 territory patches. Variation in reproductive output was much greater across space than time, and although habitat resources explained a much greater proportion of that variation (0.70 than weather (0.17 or conspecifics (0.13, evidence for interactions among each of these components of the environment was strong. Relative to habitat that was persistently low in quality, high-quality habitat buffered the negative effects of conspecifics and amplified the benefits of favorable weather, but did not buffer the disadvantages of harsh weather. Moreover, the positive effects of favorable weather at low conspecific densities were offset by intraspecific competition at high densities. Although realized habitat quality declined with increasing conspecific density suggesting interference mechanisms associated with an Ideal Free Distribution, broad spatial heterogeneity in habitat quality persisted. Factors linked to food resources had positive effects on reproductive output but only where nest cavities were sufficiently abundant to mitigate the negative effects of heterospecific enemies. Annual precipitation and brooding-season temperature had strong multiplicative effects on reproductive output, which declined at increasing rates as drought and temperature increased, reflecting conditions predicted to become more frequent with climate change. Because the collective environment influences habitat quality in complex ways

  5. Effects of a Fipronil Spot-Treatment on field colonies of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This field study investigated the colony effect of a Fipronil spot-treatment applied to active infestations of Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Spot-treatments were applied to a single active independent monitor from each of four colonies in which multiple independent m...

  6. Haemosporidian infections in the Tengmalm's Owl (Aegolius funereus) and potential insect vectors of their transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synek, Petr; Popelková, Alena; Koubínová, Darina; Šťastný, Karel; Langrová, Iva; Votýpka, Jan; Munclinger, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary bird species are suitable model hosts for identifying potential vectors of avian blood parasites. We studied haemosporidian infections in the Tengmalm's Owl (Aegolius funereus) in the Ore Mountains of the Czech Republic using molecular detection methods. Sex of owl nestlings was scored using molecular sexing based on fragment analysis of PCR-amplified CHD1 introns. Observed infection prevalences in nestlings and adult owls were 51 and 86 %, respectively. Five parasite lineages were detected. Most of the infections comprised the Leucocytozoon AEFUN02 and STOCC06 lineages that probably refer to distinct Leucocytozoon species. Other lineages were detected only sporadically. Mixed infections were found in 49 % of samples. The main factor affecting the probability of infection was host age. No effect of individual sex on infection probability was evidenced. The youngest infected nestling was 12 days old. High parasite prevalence in the Tengmalm's Owl nestlings suggests that insect vectors must enter nest boxes to transmit parasites before fledging. Hence, we placed sticky insect traps into modified nest boxes, collected potential insect vectors, and examined them for the presence of haemosporidian parasites using molecular detection. We trapped 201 insects which were determined as biting midges from the Culicoides genus and two black fly species, Simulium (Nevermannia) vernum and Simulium (Eusimulium) angustipes. Six haemosporidian lineages were detected in the potential insect vectors, among which the Leucocytozoon lineage BT2 was common to the Tengmalm's Owl and the trapped insects. However, we have not detected the most frequently encountered Tengmalm's Owl Leucocytozoon lineages AEFUN02 and STOCC06 in insects.

  7. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.

    2017-08-01

    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  8. Parasitic helminths in the digestive tract of six species of owls (Strigiformes) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, David; Molina, Rafael; Castellà, Joaquim; Kinsella, John M

    2004-03-01

    A survey was carried out in Catalonia, Spain to determine the prevalence of parasitic helminths infesting the digestive tract of nocturnal raptors (Strigiformes). One hundred birds belonging to six owl species were examined. The number of birds examined ranged between three and 30. The overall level of infestation was 65% and the most frequent helminths present were nematodes, followed by trematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans. Strigiformes showing the highest levels of infestation were little owls (Athene noctua), 86.7% of which were infested. Helminths with the highest prevalence were Synhimantus spp., intestinal capillarids, Brachylaima spp., cestodes and Centrorhynchus aluconis.

  9. Coulomb explosion of "hot spot"

    CERN Document Server

    Oreshkin, V I; Chaikovsky, S A; Artyomov, A P

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed and estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.

  10. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. A. Wills

    2001-12-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 2001. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance, (3) ecosystem mapping and data management, (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring, and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive species were conducted for 23 NTS projects. Eleven sites were in desert tortoise habitat. These projects have the potential to disturb a total of 588 acres, where 568 acres of disturbance would be off-road driving. No tortoises were found in or displaced from project areas, and no tortoise s were accidentally injured or killed at project areas. One tortoise was crushed by a vehicle on a paved road. A topical report describing the classification of habitat types on the NTS was completed and distributed. The report is the culmination of three years of field vegetation mapping and the analysis of vegetation data from over 1,500 ecological landform units. Compilation of historical wildlife data was initiated. A long-term monitoring plan for important plant species that occur on the NTS was completed. Site-wide monitoring was conducted for the western burrowing owl, bat species of concern, wild horses, and raptor nests. Sixty-nine of 77 known owl burrows were monitored. As in previous years, some owls were present year round on the NTS. An overall decrease in active owl burrows was observed within all three ecoregions (Mojave Desert, Transition, Great Basin Desert) from October through January. An increase in active owl burrows was observed from mid March to early

  11. Directional hearing in the barn owl (Tyto alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, R B; Guppy, A

    1988-05-01

    The acoustical properties of the external ear of the barn owl (Tyto alba) were studied by measuring sound pressure in the ear canal and outer ear cavity. Under normal conditions, pressure amplification by the external ear reaches about 20 dB between 3-9 kHz but decreases sharply above 10 kHz. The acoustic gain curve of the outer ear cavity alone is close to that of a finite-length exponential horn between 1.2-13 kHz with maximum gain reaching 20 dB between 5-9 kHz. Pressure gain by the facial ruff produces a maximum of 12 dB between 5-8 kHz and decreases rapidly above 9 kHz. The directional sensitivity of the external ear was obtained from pressure measurements in the ear canal. Directivity of the major lobe is explained, to a first approximation, by the sound diffraction properties of a circular aperture. Aperture size is based on the average radius (30 mm) of the open face of the ruff. Above 5 kHz, the external ear becomes highly directional and there is a 26 degree disparity in elevation between the acoustic axis of the left and right ear. In azimuth, directivity patterns are relocated closer to the midline as frequency increases and the acoustic axis moves at a rate of 20 degree/octave between 2-13 kHz. Movement of the axis can be explained, to a first approximation, by the acoustical diffraction properties of an obliquely truncated horn, due to the asymmetrical shape of the outer ear cavity. The directional sensitivity of the barn owl ear was studied by recording cochlear microphonic (CM) potentials from the round window membrane. Between 3-9 kHz, CM directivity patterns are clearly different to the directivity patterns of the external ear; CM directionality is abruptly lost above 10 kHz. Above 5 kHz, CM directivity patterns are characterized by an elongated major lobe containing the CM axis, forming a tilted band of high amplitude but low directionality (CM axial plane), closely bordered by minima or nulls. The highest directionality is found in the CM

  12. Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Neher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds secondarily. Burrowing owls selected burrow sites lower on slopes and on smaller, shallower slopes than represented by the average 10 × 10 m2 grid cell among 187,908 grid cells sampled from 2,281,169 grid cells comprising a digital elevation model (DEM of the study area. Fuzzy logic and discriminant function analysis produced likelihood surfaces encompassing most burrowing owl burrows within a fraction of the study area, and the former corresponded with burrowing owl fatalities and the latter with other raptor fatalities. Our ratings of wind turbine hazard were more predictive of burrowing owl fatalities, but would be more difficult to implement. Careful repowering to modern wind turbines would most reduce fatalities of burrowing owls and other birds while adding about 1,000 GWh annually toward California’s 33% Renewable Portfolio Standard.

  13. A legal case OWL ontology with an instantiation of Popov v. Hayashi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyner, A.; Hoekstra, R.

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides an OWL ontology for legal cases with an instantiation of the legal case Popov v. Hayashi. The ontology makes explicit the conceptual knowledge of the legal case domain, supports reasoning about the domain, and can be used to annotate the text of cases, which in turn can be used to

  14. Visual pop-out in barn owls: Human-like behavior in the avian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Julius; Beissel, Christian; Rohn, Friederike; Adato, Yair; Wagner, Hermann; Ben-Shahar, Ohad

    2015-01-01

    Visual pop-out is a phenomenon by which the latency to detect a target in a scene is independent of the number of other elements, the distractors. Pop-out is an effective visual-search guidance that occurs typically when the target is distinct in one feature from the distractors, thus facilitating fast detection of predators or prey. However, apart from studies on primates, pop-out has been examined in few species and demonstrated thus far in rats, archer fish, and pigeons only. To fill this gap, here we study pop-out in barn owls. These birds are a unique model system for such exploration because their lack of eye movements dictates visual behavior dominated by head movements. Head saccades and interspersed fixation periods can therefore be tracked and analyzed with a head-mounted wireless microcamera--the OwlCam. Using this methodology we confronted two owls with scenes containing search arrays of one target among varying numbers (15-63) of similar looking distractors. We tested targets distinct either by orientation (Experiment 1) or luminance contrast (Experiment 2). Search time and the number of saccades until the target was fixated remained largely independent of the number of distractors in both experiments. This suggests that barn owls can exhibit pop-out during visual search, thus expanding the group of species and brain structures that can cope with this fundamental visual behavior. The utility of our automatic analysis method is further discussed for other species and scientific questions.

  15. Harnessing the Power of Language: First Graders' Literature Engagement with "Owl Moon."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    Offers guidelines for using literature in the primary classroom. Shares the experiences of first graders with the book "Owl Moon." Notes that it is important to retain the essence of the story--to demonstrate for young readers how readers connect with books. (MG)

  16. A legal case OWL ontology with an instantiation of Popov v. Hayashi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyner, A.; Hoekstra, R.

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides an OWL ontology for legal cases with an instantiation of the legal case Popov v. Hayashi. The ontology makes explicit the conceptual knowledge of the legal case domain, supports reasoning about the domain, and can be used to annotate the text of cases, which in turn can be used to

  17. OntoQuery: easy-to-use web-based OWL querying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudose, Ilinca; Hastings, Janna; Muthukrishnan, Venkatesh; Owen, Gareth; Turner, Steve; Dekker, Adriano; Kale, Namrata; Ennis, Marcus; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2013-11-15

    The Web Ontology Language (OWL) provides a sophisticated language for building complex domain ontologies and is widely used in bio-ontologies such as the Gene Ontology. The Protégé-OWL ontology editing tool provides a query facility that allows composition and execution of queries with the human-readable Manchester OWL syntax, with syntax checking and entity label lookup. No equivalent query facility such as the Protégé Description Logics (DL) query yet exists in web form. However, many users interact with bio-ontologies such as chemical entities of biological interest and the Gene Ontology using their online Web sites, within which DL-based querying functionality is not available. To address this gap, we introduce the OntoQuery web-based query utility.  The source code for this implementation together with instructions for installation is available at http://github.com/IlincaTudose/OntoQuery. OntoQuery software is fully compatible with all OWL-based ontologies and is available for download (CC-0 license). The ChEBI installation, ChEBI OntoQuery, is available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/tools/ontoquery. hastings@ebi.ac.uk.

  18. Requirements for UML and OWL Integration Tool for User Data Consistency Modeling and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Oleshchuk, V. A.

    2003-01-01

    . In this paper we analyze requirements for a tool that support integration of UML models and ontologies written in languages like the W3C Web Ontology Language (OWL). The tool can be used in the following way: after loading two legacy models into the tool, the tool user connects them by inserting modeling...

  19. The "Night Owl" Learning Style of Art Students: Creativity and Daily Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sy-Chyi; Chern, Jin-Yuan

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the deep-rooted "night owl" image of art practitioners and calls for attention on a consideration of the time for learning in art. It has been recognised that the human body has its own internal timings and knowing the "time" pattern is important for better productivity in conducting creativity-related activities. This study…

  20. An Owl in the Woods. ArtsEdge Curricula, Lessons and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rose

    Introducing children to well written and beautifully illustrated books will help build basic skills while providing for the aesthetic need for beauty and pleasure. This lesson is designed as an integrated literature and visual arts lesson, revolving around the story book, "Owl Moon," written by Jane Yolen and illustrated by John…

  1. Secinātāja pieslēgšana OWL redaktoram

    OpenAIRE

    Kols, Kristaps

    2010-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbs „Secinātāja pieslēgšana OWL redaktoram” tika izstrādāts ar mērķi izveidot moduli, kas semantisko secinātāju pieslēgtu OWL redaktoram. Šis uzdevums sastāv no vairākiem soļiem. Pirmkārt, OWL redaktorā izstrādātās ontoloģijas no grafiskās formas ir jāpārvērš uz tekstuālo formu. Otrkārt, iegūtais rezultāts kā parametrs ir jāpadod secinātājam. Treškārt, secinātāja atgrieztais rezultāts ir jāparāda redaktora lietotājam. Semantiskā secinātāja pieslēgšana OWL redaktoram dotu l...

  2. The Meta-Ontology Model of the Fishdisease Diagnostic Knowledge Based on Owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongchang; Gao, Wen; Hu, Liang; Fu, Zetian

    For improving available and reusable of knowledge in fish disease diagnosis (FDD) domain and facilitating knowledge acquisition, an ontology model of FDD knowledge was developed based on owl according to FDD knowledge model. It includes terminology of terms in FDD knowledge and hierarchies of their class.

  3. An XPath-based OWL storage model for effective ontology management in Semantic Web environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhyung KIM; Dongwon JEONG; Doo-kwon BAIK

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the Web, the volume of information on the Web is increasing exponentially. However,information on the current Web is only understandable to humans, and this makes precise information retrieval difficult. To solve this problem, the Semantic Web was proposed. We must use ontology languages that can assign data the semantics for realizing the Semantic Web. One of the representative ontology languages is the Web ontology language OWL, adopted as a recommendation by the World-Wide Web Consortium (W3C). OWL includes hierarchical structural information between classes or properties. Therefore, an efficient OWL storage model that considers a hierarchical structure for effective information retrieval on the Semantic Web is required. In this paper we suggest an XPath-based OWL storage (XPOS) model, which includes hierarchical information between classes or properties in XPath form, and enables intuitive and effective information retrieval. Also, we show the comparative evaluation results for the performance of the XPOS model, Sesame, and the XML file system-based storage (XFSS) model, in terms of query processing and ontology updating.

  4. Simulated Performance of the Orbiting Wide-angle Light Collectors (OWL) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizmanic, J. F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Orbiting Wide-angle Light collectors (OWL) experiment is in NASA's mid-term strategic plan and will stereoscopically image, from equatorial orbit, the air fluorescence signal generated by airshowers induced by the ultrahigh energy (E greater than few x 10(exp 19) eV) component of the cosmic radiation. The use of a space-based platform enables an extremely large event acceptance aperture and thus will allow a high statistics measurement of these rare events. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations are required to quantify the physics potential of the mission as well as optimize the instrumental parameters. This paper reports on the results of the GSFC Monte Carlo simulation for two different, OWL instrument baseline designs. These results indicate that, assuming a continuation of the cosmic ray spectrum (theta approximately E(exp -2.75), OWL could have an event rate of 4000 events/year with E greater than or equal to 10(exp 20) eV. Preliminary results, based upon these Monte Carlo simulations, indicate that events can be accurately reconstructed in the detector focal plane arrays for the OWL instrument baseline designs under consideration.

  5. The Reliability of the OWLS Written Expression Scale with ESL Kindergarten Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gina L.; Ogle, Keira C.; Keilty, Megan

    2011-01-01

    A reliability analysis was conducted on the Written Expression Scale from the Oral and Written Language Scales, (OWLS, Carrow-Woolfolk, 1996), with 68 ESL and 56 non-ESL kindergarten students. Interrater and internal consistency estimates for the Written Expression Scale were examined separately for each language group. Despite lower oral English…

  6. Sexual size dimorphism in the critically endangered Seychelles Scops Owl Otus insularis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Currie, D.; Mateman, A.C.; Lessells, C.M.; Fanchette, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Seychelles Scops Owl Otus insularis is a critically endangered species restricted to the forests of Mahé in the Republic of Seychelles, Western Indian Ocean. This study presents the first biometric data collected from live individuals and investigates the occurence of sexual size dimorphism.

  7. Practical querying of temporal data via OWL 2 QL and SQL: 2011

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop a practical approach to querying temporal data stored in temporal SQL:2011 databases through the semantic layer of OWL 2 QL ontologies. An interval-based temporal query language (TQL), which we propose for this task, is defined via...

  8. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) and the Forum: A Tool for Writers in Distance Education Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terryberry, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates how to integrate static web pages with the dynamic forum for an effective learning experience on the online writing lab (OWL). Explains why asynchronous feedback provides effective, individualized writing instruction to students with various learning styles and how collaborative learning is fostered through threaded discussion groups.…

  9. Some Guides to Discovery About Elm Trees, Owls, Cockroaches, Earthworms, Cement and Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    The introduction emphasizes the need for environmental and conservation education, and advocates an inquiry approach. Outdoor resources available to every school are listed. Detailed suggestions are made for investigating cement and concrete, cockroaches, earthworms, elm trees, and owls. In each case general background information and a list of…

  10. Analysis of I Heard the Owl Call My Name from an Intercultural View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈潇晗; 张培丽

    2016-01-01

    Absence of intercultural concepts may lead to misunderstanding in daily life and even in literature analysis. Therefore, a thorough comprehension of intercultural analysis in I Heard the Owl Call My Name, a book representing cultural diversities between Indian society and American society, will be beneficial in its literature appreciation.

  11. A telemetry study of the social organization of a tawny owl (Strix aluco) population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Bølstad, Mikkel S.

    2004-01-01

    The spatial dispersion and social interactions were studied in 11 neighbouring pairs of radio-tagged tawny owls Strix aluco in a deciduous wood in Denmark from 1998-2001. The numbers and shapes of territories were stable throughout the survey and similar to a mapping made 40 years earlier. The ho...

  12. The tissue microarray OWL schema: An open-source tool for sharing tissue microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseok P Kang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue microarrays (TMAs are enormously useful tools for translational research, but incompatibilities in database systems between various researchers and institutions prevent the efficient sharing of data that could help realize their full potential. Resource Description Framework (RDF provides a flexible method to represent knowledge in triples, which take the form Subject- Predicate-Object. All data resources are described using Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs, which are global in scope. We present an OWL (Web Ontology Language schema that expands upon the TMA data exchange specification to address this issue and assist in data sharing and integration. Methods: A minimal OWL schema was designed containing only concepts specific to TMA experiments. More general data elements were incorporated from predefined ontologies such as the NCI thesaurus. URIs were assigned using the Linked Data format. Results: We present examples of files utilizing the schema and conversion of XML data (similar to the TMA DES to OWL. Conclusion: By utilizing predefined ontologies and global unique identifiers, this OWL schema provides a solution to the limitations of XML, which represents concepts defined in a localized setting. This will help increase the utilization of tissue resources, facilitating collaborative translational research efforts.

  13. Who are the bosses? Group influence on the behavior of voles following owl attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Michal; Bodek, Sivan; Eilam, David

    2014-10-01

    Individual members of a group must conform to the group norms, as they may otherwise become isolated from the group or the group may split. On the other hand, social groups usually comprise various social ranks and display a differential division of labor and consequently different behaviors. The present study was aimed at examining how the above factors are manifested in social voles that had experienced owl attack. Here, we reconfirm the findings of past studies: that grouped voles converge to display similar behavior after owl attack. In addition, we found that high-mass voles were more active in the open sectors of the experimental set-ups both before and after the owl attack, whereas low-mass voles dichotomized to those that increased and those that decreased their activity in the open following owl attack. Taking body mass as a proxy for social rank, it is suggested that as a consequence of their larger size and of their experience and physical strength, high-mass voles both presented an exemplary model for the low-mass voles and, accordingly, assumed leadership and stabilized their group's behavior. We also suggest a hypothetical model for the propagation of behavior in hierarchical groups.

  14. Are red-tailed hawks and great horned owls diurnal-nocturnal dietary counterparts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, C.D.; Kochert, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Great Homed Owls (Bubo virginianus)are common in North America where they occupy a wide range of habitats, often sympatrically. The two species are similar in size and have been portrayed as ecological counterparts, eating the same prey by day and night. We tested the trophic similarity of the two species by comparing published dietary data from across the United States. Both species ate primarily mammals and birds, and mean proportions of those two prey types did not differ significantly between diets of the two raptors. Red-tailed Hawks ate significantly more reptiles, and Great Homed Owls significantly more invertebrates. Dietary diversity was not significantly different at the level of prey taxonomic class, and diet overlap between the two species averaged 91%. At the prey species level, dietary overlap averaged only 50%, and at that level Red-tailed Hawk dietary diversity was significantly greater than that of Great Horned Owls. Mean prey mass of Red-tailed Hawks was significantly greater than that of Great Homed Owls. Populations of the two species in the western United States differed trophically more than did eastern populations. We conclude that, although the two species are generalist predators, they take largely different prey species in the same localities resulting in distinctive trophic characteristics.

  15. The Ecology of the Ural Owl at South-Western Border of Its Distribution (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Vrezec

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia the Ural Owl (Strix uralensis is on its south-western limit of distribution and belongs to the southern subspecies Strix uralensis macroura. Dark coloured owls are characteristic for this subspecies and represent between 5 to 15% of the population. Slovenian breeding population size is estimated at 400 to 700 pairs. The densities of territories ranges between 0.9 to 13.4 territories per 10 km2, and the highest are reached in mountain forests of southern Dinaric region. In the forests with dominant deciduous trees, e.g. Beech (Fagus sylvatica and Pedinculate Oak (Quercus robur, the breeding densities are significantly higher than in the forests with higher proportion of coniferous trees, e.g. Norway Spruce (Picea abies. The species does not select specific altitude and throughout Slovenia it occurs between 150 and 1600 m a.s.l.  The most of the nest found at natural nest-sites were in tree holes or semi-holes (56% and at the tree stumps (20%. Nest boxes were occupied less frequently in Slovenia with occupancy rate of 29%. At least in mountain regions breeding begins quite late, between 15 March to 21 June. Average clutch size is 3.3 ± 1.0 eggs per nest. About 80% of all nests are successful raising at least one young. The diet shifts significantly between breeding and non-breeding period due to the seasonality in prey availability. According to the biomass the most important prey in breeding period are mice (Muridae, voles (Arvicollidae and mole (Talpa europaea, but in the non-breeding period voles and dormice (Gliridae predominate. Large Fat Dormouse (Glis glis seems to have very important role in the post-breeding period, but not in the breeding period due to its dormancy. As a large forest-dwelling predator the Ural Owl shapes the raptor community in the forest by excluding mezopredator species, as Tawny Owl (Strix aluco, what allows smaller raptors, e.g. Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus to expend their ranges to lower elevations

  16. Moonstruck primates: owl monkeys (Aotus) need moonlight for nocturnal activity in their natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; de la Iglesia, Horacio; Erkert, Hans G

    2010-09-03

    Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans), nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. azarai) of the subtropics have switched their activity pattern from strict nocturnality to one that also includes regular diurnal activity. Harsher climate, food availability, and the lack of predators or diurnal competitors, have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns. However, the observational nature of most field studies has limited an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this switch in activity patterns. The goal of our study was to evaluate the hypothesis that masking, namely the stimulatory and/or inhibitory/disinhibitory effects of environmental factors on synchronized circadian locomotor activity, is a key determinant of the unusual activity pattern of Azara's owl monkeys. We use continuous long-term (6-18 months) 5-min-binned activity records obtained with actimeter collars fitted to wild owl monkeys (n =  10 individuals) to show that this different pattern results from strong masking of activity by the inhibiting and enhancing effects of ambient luminance and temperature. Conclusive evidence for the direct masking effect of light is provided by data showing that locomotor activity was almost completely inhibited when moonlight was shadowed during three lunar eclipses. Temperature also negatively masked locomotor activity, and this masking was manifested even under optimal light conditions. Our results highlight the importance of the masking of circadian rhythmicity as a determinant of nocturnality in wild owl monkeys and suggest that the stimulatory effects of dim light in nocturnal primates may have been selected as an adaptive response to moonlight. Furthermore

  17. Moonstruck primates: owl monkeys (Aotus need moonlight for nocturnal activity in their natural environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández-Duque

    Full Text Available Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans, nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. azarai of the subtropics have switched their activity pattern from strict nocturnality to one that also includes regular diurnal activity. Harsher climate, food availability, and the lack of predators or diurnal competitors, have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns. However, the observational nature of most field studies has limited an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this switch in activity patterns. The goal of our study was to evaluate the hypothesis that masking, namely the stimulatory and/or inhibitory/disinhibitory effects of environmental factors on synchronized circadian locomotor activity, is a key determinant of the unusual activity pattern of Azara's owl monkeys. We use continuous long-term (6-18 months 5-min-binned activity records obtained with actimeter collars fitted to wild owl monkeys (n =  10 individuals to show that this different pattern results from strong masking of activity by the inhibiting and enhancing effects of ambient luminance and temperature. Conclusive evidence for the direct masking effect of light is provided by data showing that locomotor activity was almost completely inhibited when moonlight was shadowed during three lunar eclipses. Temperature also negatively masked locomotor activity, and this masking was manifested even under optimal light conditions. Our results highlight the importance of the masking of circadian rhythmicity as a determinant of nocturnality in wild owl monkeys and suggest that the stimulatory effects of dim light in nocturnal primates may have been selected as an adaptive response to

  18. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  19. Event review: 1st Annual Outdoors Without Limits (OWL knap-in, Comer, Georgia, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In June of 2014, Outdoors Without Limits (OWL, a national non-profit organization that promotes awareness and teamwork between disabled and non-disabled individuals, sponsored their first knap-in and primitive skills gathering.

  20. Hematocrit and plasma chemistry values in adult collared scops owls (Otus lettia) and crested serpent eagles (Spilornis cheela hoya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Fang-Tse; Lin, Pei-I; Chang, Geng-Ruei; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Hsu, Tien-Huan

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we report hematocrit and plasma chemistry values for adult captive collared scops owls (Otus lettia) and crested serpent eagles (Spilornis cheela hoya). In particular, we address the gender-specific differences within these values. We measured hematocrit (HCT) and plasma chemistry values for uric acid (UA), plasma urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), glucose (GLU), cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TBIL), creatine (CRE), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), amylase (AMY), calcium (CA), ionic phosphorous (IP) and sodium (NA), potassium (K) and chloride ions (CL) in 37 adult captive collared scops owls and 39 adult captive crested serpent eagles. Significant differences between the sexes were found for UA, GLU and CPK in the collared scope owls. UA and GLU concentrations were significantly higher (Pscops owls and crested serpent eagles, making them a potentially useful complementary diagnostic tool for veterinary care of individuals for both species in captivity.

  1. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  2. Morphometric characterisation of wing feathers of the barn owl Tyto alba pratincola and the pigeon Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaas Michael

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owls are known for their silent flight. Even though there is some information available on the mechanisms that lead to a reduction of noise emission, neither the morphological basis, nor the biological mechanisms of the owl's silent flight are known. Therefore, we have initiated a systematic analysis of wing morphology in both a specialist, the barn owl, and a generalist, the pigeon. This report presents a comparison between the feathers of the barn owl and the pigeon and emphasise the specific characteristics of the owl's feathers on macroscopic and microscopic level. An understanding of the features and mechanisms underlying this silent flight might eventually be employed for aerodynamic purposes and lead to a new wing design in modern aircrafts. Results A variety of different feathers (six remiges and six coverts, taken from several specimen in either species, were investigated. Quantitative analysis of digital images and scanning electron microscopy were used for a morphometric characterisation. Although both species have comparable body weights, barn owl feathers were in general larger than pigeon feathers. For both species, the depth and the area of the outer vanes of the remiges were typically smaller than those of the inner vanes. This difference was more pronounced in the barn owl than in the pigeon. Owl feathers also had lesser radiates, longer pennula, and were more translucent than pigeon feathers. The two species achieved smooth edges and regular surfaces of the vanes by different construction principles: while the angles of attachment to the rachis and the length of the barbs was nearly constant for the barn owl, these parameters varied in the pigeon. We also present a quantitative description of several characteristic features of barn owl feathers, e.g., the serrations at the leading edge of the wing, the fringes at the edges of each feather, and the velvet-like dorsal surface. Conclusion The quantitative

  3. Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Neher; K. Shawn Smallwood; Bell, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA) generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds second...

  4. Possible mechanisms for sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides in eastern screech-owls and American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Thiele, L.A.; Garland, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a single dietary exposure to fenthion and carbofuran on the survival, feeding behavior and brain ChE activity of eastern screech-owls, Otus asio and American kestrels, Falco sparverius, were evaluated. Birds were exposed to fenthion (23.6189.0 ppm) or carbofuran (31.7253.6 ppm) via meatballs. Carbofuran-exposed owls ate either = 80% of the meatball whereas all kestrels ate depression in determining the sensitivity of an animal may be species-specific.

  5. Hearing impairment induces frequency-specific adjustments in auditory spatial tuning in the optic tectum of young owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, J I; Knudsen, E I

    1999-11-01

    Bimodal, auditory-visual neurons in the optic tectum of the barn owl are sharply tuned for sound source location. The auditory receptive fields (RFs) of these neurons are restricted in space primarily as a consequence of their tuning for interaural time differences and interaural level differences across broad ranges of frequencies. In this study, we examined the extent to which frequency-specific features of early auditory experience shape the auditory spatial tuning of these neurons. We manipulated auditory experience by implanting in one ear canal an acoustic filtering device that altered the timing and level of sound reaching the eardrum in a frequency-dependent fashion. We assessed the auditory spatial tuning at individual tectal sites in normal owls and in owls raised with the filtering device. At each site, we measured a family of auditory RFs using broadband sound and narrowband sounds with different center frequencies both with and without the device in place. In normal owls, the narrowband RFs for a given site all included a common region of space that corresponded with the broadband RF and aligned with the site's visual RF. Acute insertion of the filtering device in normal owls shifted the locations of the narrowband RFs away from the visual RF, the magnitude and direction of the shifts depending on the frequency of the stimulus. In contrast, in owls that were raised wearing the device, narrowband and broadband RFs were aligned with visual RFs so long as the device was in the ear but not after it was removed, indicating that auditory spatial tuning had been adaptively altered by experience with the device. The frequency tuning of tectal neurons in device-reared owls was also altered from normal. The results demonstrate that experience during development adaptively modifies the representation of auditory space in the barn owl's optic tectum in a frequency-dependent manner.

  6. Bird predation by tawny owls ( Strix aluco L.) and its effect on the reproductive performance of tits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasvári, Lajos; Hegyi, Zoltán

    1998-11-01

    The density of great tit Parus major L. and blue tit Parus caeruleus L. was artificially increased by placing nest-box colonies for these species in the vicinity of the nests of breeding tawny owls during 1993-1997. Bird prey composition in the owl nests, the proportion of parents disappearing from the breeding tit populations and the reproductive performance of the widowed parents were analysed. The frequency of predation on tits by tawny owls was greater in areas where tit density had been artificially increased. Owls preyed more on tits during the feeding period of owlets than during the incubation period and more in years when snow covered the ground during the incubation period than when it did not. Mortality due to predation was male biased and more females lost their mates in populations breeding near tawny owl nests. Reproductive performance of the widowed parents was lower and their body weights were lighter at the end of the nestling period than those found in birds rearing youngs with their mates. Predation by owls increased the between-year turnover in the breeding tit population: widowed parents did not return to the nesting site for the next breeding season.

  7. The puzzling MILAGRO hot spots

    CERN Document Server

    Drury, Luke

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the reported detection by the MILAGRO experiment of localised hot spots in the cosmic ray arrival distribution and the difficulty of interpreting these observations. A model based on secondary neutron production in the heliotail is shown to fail. An alternative model based on loss-cone leakage through a magnetic trap from a local source region is proposed.

  8. Representation of spatial and spectro-temporal cues in the midbrain and forebrain of North American barn owls (Tyto furcata pratincola)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The barn owl is a crepuscular and nocturnal bird of prey that relies mainly on its acoustic system for the identification and localization of potential prey. The barn owl is able to localize even faint sounds in a natural environment precisely. Like mammals, barn owls use the interaural time difference (ITD) for the localization of the azimuthal sound source position. In the barn owl’s auditory system, ITD is processed in two separate pathways, the midbrain and forebrain pathways, which are b...

  9. Wordt het veiliger in de dode hoek? : een plan voor monitoring van de dodehoekproblematiek.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Is the blind spot getting safer? : a proposal for monitoring the blind spot issue. Blind spot crashes are crashes in which a truck that turns off to the right crashes into a vulnerable road user who goes straight on. The casualties are often cyclists. In the period 2007-2010, blind spot crashes invo

  10. Wordt het veiliger in de dode hoek? : een plan voor monitoring van de dodehoekproblematiek.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Is the blind spot getting safer? : a proposal for monitoring the blind spot issue. Blind spot crashes are crashes in which a truck that turns off to the right crashes into a vulnerable road user who goes straight on. The casualties are often cyclists. In the period 2007-2010, blind spot crashes invo

  11. SPOT- 4 North American Data Buy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS has contracted with SPOT Image Corporation to acquire and provide Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite data for calendar years 2010 and...

  12. SPOT 5 North American Data Buy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS has contracted with SPOT Image Corporation to acquire and provide Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite data for calendar years 2010 and...

  13. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics ...

  14. SPOT- 5 North American Data Buy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS has contracted with SPOT Image Corporation to acquire and provide Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite data for calendar years 2010 and...

  15. SPOT 4 North American Data Buy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS has contracted with SPOT Image Corporation to acquire and provide Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite data for calendar years 2010 and...

  16. On estimation and identifiability issues of sex-linked inheritance with a case study of pigmentation in Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Camilla T; Holand, Anna M; Jensen, Henrik; Steinsland, Ingelin; Roulin, Alexandre

    2014-05-01

    Genetic evaluation using animal models or pedigree-based models generally assume only autosomal inheritance. Bayesian animal models provide a flexible framework for genetic evaluation, and we show how the model readily can accommodate situations where the trait of interest is influenced by both autosomal and sex-linked inheritance. This allows for simultaneous calculation of autosomal and sex-chromosomal additive genetic effects. Inferences were performed using integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA), a nonsampling-based Bayesian inference methodology. We provide a detailed description of how to calculate the inverse of the X- or Z-chromosomal additive genetic relationship matrix, needed for inference. The case study of eumelanic spot diameter in a Swiss barn owl (Tyto alba) population shows that this trait is substantially influenced by variation in genes on the Z-chromosome ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]). Further, a simulation study for this study system shows that the animal model accounting for both autosomal and sex-chromosome-linked inheritance is identifiable, that is, the two effects can be distinguished, and provides accurate inference on the variance components.

  17. Improvements on analytic modelling of stellar spots

    CERN Document Server

    Montalto, M; Oshagh, M; Boisse, I; Bruno, G; Santos, N C

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present the solution of the stellar spot problem using the Kelvin-Stokes theorem. Our result is applicable for any given location and dimension of the spots on the stellar surface. We present explicitely the result up to the second degree in the limb darkening law. This technique can be used to calculate very efficiently mutual photometric effects produced by eclipsing bodies occulting stellar spots and to construct complex spot shapes.

  18. Growth and immunity conferred by a Plasmodium falciparum temperature sensitive mutant in Panamanian owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inselburg, J; Rossan, R N; Escajadillo, A

    1989-05-01

    We have compared the growth of the wild type Plasmodium falciparum strain Honduras 1 and a previously isolated temperature sensitive mutant of it, AP1-16, in Panamanian owl monkeys. We examined serially infected splenectomized and normal animals that were initially infected with cultured parasites that had been grown in a mixture of owl monkey and human erythrocytes. Initial infections in splenectomized monkeys were marked by multiple recrudescences. The mutant grew less well than the wild type in the splenectomized monkeys, as determined by lower peak and total parasitemias. In the splenectomized monkeys tested by rechallenge with the wild type parasite, the mutant stimulated a comparable degree of protection. That protection was manifested in 2 ways. There was a marked reduction in the level of the primary parasitemia in the rechallenged monkeys and an absence of recrudescent parasitemias after the primary parasitemia. The potential value of generating and studying temperature sensitive P. falciparum strains that show attenuated growth is considered.

  19. Bionic Design of Wind Turbine Blade Based on Long-Eared Owl's Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a bionic design for the airfoil of wind turbines inspired by the morphology of Long-eared Owl's wings. Glauert Model was adopted to design the standard blade and the bionic blade, respectively. Numerical analysis method was utilized to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils as well as the blades. Results show that the bionic airfoil inspired by the airfoil at the 50% aspect ratio of the Long-eared Owl's wing gives rise to a superior lift coefficient and stalling performance and thus can be beneficial to improving the performance of the wind turbine blade. Also, the efficiency of the bionic blade in wind turbine blades tests increases by 12% or above (up to 44%) compared to that of the standard blade. The reason lies in the bigger pressure difference between the upper and lower surface which can provide stronger lift. PMID:28243053

  20. A Pilot Study on Modeling of Diagnostic Criteria Using OWL and SWRL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Na; Jiang, Guoqian; Pathak, Jyotishiman; Chute, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe our efforts in a pilot study on modeling diagnostic criteria using a Semantic Web-based approach. We reused the basic framework of the ICD-11 content model and refined it into an operational model in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). The refinement is based on a bottom-up analysis method, in which we analyzed data elements (including value sets) in a collection (n=20) of randomly selected diagnostic criteria. We also performed a case study to formalize rule logic in the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome using the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL). The results demonstrated that it is feasible to use OWL and SWRL to formalize the diagnostic criteria knowledge, and to execute the rules through reasoning.

  1. A chronic disease dietary consultation system using OWL-based ontologies and semantic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yu-Liang; Chen, Tsang-Yao; Tsai, Wan-Ting

    2015-02-01

    Chronic diseases patients often require constant dietary control that involves complicated interaction among factors such as the illness stage, the patient's physical condition, the patient's activity level, the amount of food intake, and key nutrient restrictions. This study aims to integrate multiple knowledge sources for problem solving modeling and knowledge-based system (KBS) development. A chronic kidney disease dietary consultation system is constructed by using Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) to demonstrate how a KBS approach can achieve sound problem solving modeling and effective knowledge inference. For system evaluation, information from 84 case patients is used to evaluate the performance of the system in recommending appropriate food serving amounts from different food groups for balanced key nutrient ingestion. The results show that, excluding interference factors, the OWL-based KBS can achieve accurate problem solving reasoning while maintaining knowledge base shareability and extensibility.

  2. On Directly Mapping Relational Databases to RDF and OWL (Extended Version)

    CERN Document Server

    Sequeda, Juan F; Miranker, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    Mapping relational databases to RDF is a fundamental problem for the development of the Semantic Web. We present a solution, inspired by draft methods defined by the W3C where relational databases are directly mapped to RDF and OWL. Given a relational database schema and its integrity constraints, this direct mapping produces an OWL ontology, which, provides the basis for generating RDF instances. The semantics of this mapping is defined using Datalog. Two fundamental properties are information preservation and query preservation. We prove that our mapping satisfies both conditions, even for relational databases that contain null values. We also consider two desirable properties: monotonicity and semantics preservation. We prove that our mapping is monotone and also prove that no monotone mapping, including ours, is semantic preserving. We realize that monotonicity is an obstacle for semantic preservation and thus present a non-monotone direct mapping that is semantics preserving.

  3. Heavy metal contamination in little owl (Athene noctua) and common buzzard (Buteo buteo) from northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Alessandra; Ghidini, Sergio; Campanini, Giorgio; Spaggiari, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    In this study, two raptor species, the common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and the little owl (Athene noctua), were investigated for lead and cadmium concentrations, using liver, kidneys, pectoral muscle, sternum bone, and feathers. All the collected birds died at the Centro Recupero Rapaci of Lega Italiana Protezione Uccelli in Sala Baganza (Parma, Italy). They arrived alive at the Centro between November 1998 and November 1999 but died or were put to death as a consequence of injuries or other ailments. The results of the investigation do not show an excessive exposure to cadmium, whereas some interesting data have emerged in the case of lead. The concentration of the latter in the liver and in the bone of two little owls seem to suggest the possibility of chronic exposure. The high values found in one common buzzard, on the other hand, suggest an acute exposure and, probably, a case of lead shot ingestion.

  4. Bionic Design of Wind Turbine Blade Based on Long-Eared Owl's Airfoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Weijun; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Jiyue; Li, Ming; Ma, Yi; Cong, Qian

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a bionic design for the airfoil of wind turbines inspired by the morphology of Long-eared Owl's wings. Glauert Model was adopted to design the standard blade and the bionic blade, respectively. Numerical analysis method was utilized to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils as well as the blades. Results show that the bionic airfoil inspired by the airfoil at the 50% aspect ratio of the Long-eared Owl's wing gives rise to a superior lift coefficient and stalling performance and thus can be beneficial to improving the performance of the wind turbine blade. Also, the efficiency of the bionic blade in wind turbine blades tests increases by 12% or above (up to 44%) compared to that of the standard blade. The reason lies in the bigger pressure difference between the upper and lower surface which can provide stronger lift.

  5. Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the Oriental scops owl (Otus scops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2009-05-01

    The dorsal lingual surface of an adult owl (Otus scops) was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of the adult owl was about 1 cm long. Three parts were distinguished in the dorsal surface of the tongue: the apex, the body and the root of the tongue. The conical region between the lingual apex and lingual root was very wide area. The conical papillae of the lingual body were inclined toward the posterior of the tongue. At low magnification of scanning electron microscopy, the desquamated cells were observed in the entire dorsal surface of the lingual apex. The connective tissue cores of the epithelium of the lingual apex showed the rod-shaped protrusions. The border between the lingual apex and body was clear and the small conical papillae were observed in the lingual body. The small and large conical papillae were observed on the lingual body. The many openings of the lingual glands existed in the lingual body and lingual root.

  6. Monaural occlusion alters sound localization during a sensitive period in the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, E I; Esterly, S D; Knudsen, P F

    1984-04-01

    Sound localization was disrupted in young barn owls by chronically plugging one ear. Owls that were younger than 8 weeks of age at the time of ear plugging recovered normal localization accuracy while plugged, whereas those that were older than 8 weeks at the time of ear plugging did not. The end of the sensitive period for the adjustment of sound localization accuracy coincides with the maturation of the head and ears, suggesting that the exposure of the auditory system to stable, adult-like acoustic cues could play a role in bringing the sensitive period to a close. The results demonstrate that, early in development, associations between auditory cues and locations in space can be altered by experience.

  7. Improvement of directionality and sound-localization by internal ear coupling in barn owls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hermann; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kettler, Lutz

    . However, despite intensive research during the last 40 years it is still unclear whether and how internal ear coupling contributes to sound localization in the barn owl. Here we investigated ear directionality in anesthetized birds with the help of laser vibrometry. Care was taken that anesthesia......Mark Konishi was one of the first to quantify sound-localization capabilities in barn owls. He showed that frequencies between 3 and 10 kHz underlie precise sound localization in these birds, and that they derive spatial information from processing interaural time and interaural level differences...... and the stapedius reflex did not influence the results. When analyzed in narrow frequency bands, the data demonstrated a certain amount of internal ear coupling in the low-frequnecy range (

  8. Chromosome mapping of the owl monkey CSF1R and IL5 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, N S; Lin, K C

    1992-08-01

    We mapped the owl monkey colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) locus to the proximal region of chromosome 3q of karyotype VI(K-VI) and karyotype V(K-V) and the interleukin 5 (IL5) locus to the mid-region of chromosome 3q(K-VI) and 19q(K-IV) using a combination of Southern hybridization of somatic cells and in situ chromosomal hybridization methodologies. The findings support the proposed evolution of owl monkey chromosome 3(K-VI) from a fusion of two smaller structures, the homologs of chromosomes 6 and 19 (K-IV). The data also indicate genomic conservation of the HSA 5q23-q35 segment in the higher primates.

  9. "To Thine Own Self Be True": Existentialism in Hamlet and The Blind Owl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Farahmandfar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at exploring the key concepts of Existential thought in two masterpieces of the world literature, namely, William Shakespeare’s Hamlet and Sadeq Hedayat’s The Blind Owl (Buf-e Kur. Freedom, free will, authenticity, self-realization, self-becoming, and awareness of death are among the main concerns of both writers. Shakespeare depicts authenticity in the character of Hamlet, and it is in contrast to him that the reader finds many instances of inauthenticity. The Danish prince has no tolerance whatsoever for inauthentic or self-deceiving. The same thing is visible in The Blind Owl in which the narrator-protagonist feels himself above all the low, petty desires of mankind. All in all, both characters’ main challenge is to live authentically. Keywords: Existential philosophy, authenticity, angst, death, being, existence, self-realization

  10. Occurence of owls (Birds: Strigiformes in the RPPN Bugerkopf reserve in Blumenau, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Fink

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The order Strigiformes is a poorly known group in Brazil, especially in Santa Catarina, and basic surveys of owls in the Atlantic Forests are scarce. The aim of this study was to inventory the owls of RPPN Bugerkopf, a private reserve in Blumenau, Santa Catarina. The study was conducted between February 2005 and May 2006. Fieldwork was carried out during monthly visits, for two to three nights when there was a crescent or full moon, between the hours of 18:00 and 23:00. In a total of 69 study hours, the following species were observed: Tyto alba, Megascops choliba, Megascops sanctaecatarinae, Glaucidium minutissimum, Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana and Asio stygius. The species most frequently detected was G. minutissimum, while M. choliba and P. koeniswaldiana were recorded the least.

  11. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever KidsHealth > For Parents > Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Print A A A What's in ... en español La rickettsiosis maculosa About RMSF Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial infection that's ...

  12. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random...

  13. Burrowing Owl and Other Migratory Bird Mitigation for a Runway Construction Project at Edwards AFB

    OpenAIRE

    Hoehn, Amber L.; Hagan, Mark; Bratton, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) scheduled the construction of a runway in the spring of 2007. The runway would be in an area that contained migratory birds and their habitat. The construction project would be near Edwards AFB main runway and had the potential not only to impact species protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), including the burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), but also to increase bird and wildlife–aircraft strike hazards in the active flightline areas. To discourage ...

  14. Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) perform self- and social anointing in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Jay P; Tapanes, Elizabeth; Evans, Sian

    2014-01-01

    Several species of primates, including owl monkeys (Aotus spp.), anoint by rubbing their fur with odiferous substances. Previous research has shown that capuchin monkeys (Cebus and Sapajus) anoint socially by rubbing their bodies together in groups of two or more while anointing. Owl monkeys housed at the DuMond Conservancy have been observed to anoint over the last 10 years, and we report detailed new information on the anointing behavior of this population, including descriptions of social anointing which occurs frequently. We first investigated the occurrence of self-anointing in 35 Aotus spp. presented with millipedes. Detailed descriptions regarding body regions anointed were obtained for all anointers (n = 28). The median duration for a self-anointing bout was 3.6 min (range from approx. 2 s to 14.15 min). While the latency and length of anointing bouts showed considerable interindividual differences, no statistically significant differences were found between sexes, wild- or captive-born owl monkeys or across age groups. However, we found the lower back and tail were anointed at a rate significantly greater than other body parts, but there were no differences in these patterns across sex or wild- or captive-born owl monkeys. More recently, social anointing was investigated in 26 Aotus spp. presented with millipedes, of which half were observed to anoint socially. The average duration for all social anointing bouts was 72.88 s, with a median duration of 30 s (range 5-322 s). A detailed ethogram was also generated that included behaviors that were performed while anointing, including facial expressions and vocalizations. The intraindividual variability for 8 monkeys used in both investigations is discussed. These findings extend our knowledge of anointing and confirm the existence of social anointing in another genus with a unique biology (nocturnal and socially monogamous) distinct from capuchins.

  15. Pattern of maternal circulating CRH in laboratory-housed squirrel and owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, M L; Williams, L E; Gibson, S V; Schulkin, J; Helfers, J; Zorrilla, E P

    2010-11-01

    The anthropoid primate placenta appears to be unique in producing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Placental CRH is involved in an endocrine circuit key to the production of estrogens during pregnancy. CRH induces cortisol production by the maternal and fetal adrenal glands, leading to further placental CRH production. CRH also stimulates the fetal adrenal glands to produce dehydroepiandrostendione sulfate (DHEAS), which the placenta converts into estrogens. There are at least two patterns of maternal circulating CRH across gestation among anthropoids. Monkeys examined to date (Papio and Callithrix) have an early-to-mid gestational peak of circulating CRH, followed by a steady decline to a plateau level, with a possible rise near parturition. In contrast, humans and great apes have an exponential rise in circulating CRH peaking at parturition. To further document and compare patterns of maternal circulating CRH in anthropoid primates, we collected monthly blood samples from 14 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) and ten owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) during pregnancy. CRH immunoreactivity was measured from extracted plasma by using solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Both squirrel and owl monkeys displayed a mid-gestational peak in circulating CRH: days 45-65 of the 152-day gestation for squirrel monkeys (mean±SEM CRH=2,694±276 pg/ml) and days 60-80 of the 133-day gestation for owl monkeys (9,871±974 pg/ml). In squirrel monkeys, circulating CRH declined to 36% of mean peak value by 2 weeks before parturition and then appeared to increase; the best model for circulating CRH over gestation in squirrel monkeys was a cubic function, similar to previous results for baboons and marmosets. In owl monkeys, circulating CRH appeared to reach plateau with no subsequent significant decline approaching parturition, although a cubic function was the best fit. This study provides additional evidence for a mid-gestational peak of maternal circulating CRH in ancestral

  16. Coding of sound pressure level in the barn owl's auditory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppl, C; Yates, G

    1999-11-01

    Rate-intensity functions, i.e., the relation between discharge rate and sound pressure level, were recorded from single auditory nerve fibers in the barn owl. Differences in sound pressure level between the owl's two ears are known to be an important cue in sound localization. One objective was therefore to quantify the discharge rates of auditory nerve fibers, as a basis for higher-order processing of sound pressure level. The second aim was to investigate the rate-intensity functions for cues to the underlying cochlear mechanisms, using a model developed in mammals. Rate-intensity functions at the most sensitive frequency mostly showed a well-defined breakpoint between an initial steep segment and a progressively flattening segment. This shape has, in mammals, been convincingly traced to a compressive nonlinearity in the cochlear mechanics, which in turn is a reflection of the cochlear amplifier enhancing low-level stimuli. The similarity of the rate-intensity functions of the barn owl is thus further evidence for a similar mechanism in birds. An interesting difference from mammalian data was that this compressive nonlinearity was not shared among fibers of similar characteristic frequency, suggesting a different mechanism with a more locally differentiated operation than in mammals. In all fibers, the steepest change in discharge rate with rising sound pressure level occurred within 10-20 dB of their respective thresholds. Because the range of neural thresholds at any one characteristic frequency is small in the owl, auditory nerve fibers were collectively most sensitive for changes in sound pressure level within approximately 30 dB of the best thresholds. Fibers most sensitive to high frequencies (>6-7 kHz) showed a smaller increase of rate above spontaneous discharge rate than did lower-frequency fibers.

  17. Maps of ITD in the Nucleus Laminaris of the Barn Owl

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Catherine; Shah, Sahil; Ashida, Go; McColgan, Thomas; Wagner, Hermann; Kuokkanen, Paula; Kempter, Richard; Köppl, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Axons from the nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and their targets in nucleus laminaris (NL) form the circuit responsible for encoding interaural time differences. In barn owls, NL receives bilateral inputs from NM such that axons from the ipsilateral NM enter NL dorsally, while contralateral axons enter from the ventral side. These afferents and their synapses on NL neurons generate a tone-induced local field potential, or neurophonic, that varies systematically with position in NL. From dorsal t...

  18. Tolerance to Sound Intensity of Binaural Coincidence Detection in the Nucleus Laminaris of the Owl

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Jose Luis; Viete, Svenja; Albeck, Yehuda; Konishi, Masakazu

    1996-01-01

    Neurons of the owl's nucleus laminaris serve as coincidence detectors for measurement of interaural time difference. The discharge rate of nucleus laminaris neurons for both monaural and binaural stimulation increased with sound intensity until they reached an asymptote. Intense sounds affected neither the ratio between binaural and monaural responses nor the interaural time difference for which nucleus laminaris neurons were selective. Theoretical analysis showed that high afferent discharge...

  19. Validation of the openEHR archetype library by using OWL reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2011-01-01

    Electronic Health Record architectures based on the dual model architecture use archetypes for representing clinical knowledge. Therefore, ensuring their correctness and consistency is a fundamental research goal. In this work, we explore how an approach based on OWL technologies can be used for such purpose. This method has been applied to the openEHR archetype repository, which is the largest available one nowadays. The results of this validation are also reported in this study.

  20. Record of the Buff-fronted Owl (Aegolius harrisii) in the Pampa Biome, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marluci Müller Rebelato; Guilherme Garcez Cunha; Renata Figueira Machado; Paulo Afonso Hartmann

    2011-01-01

    We present the second record of the Buff-fronted Owl (Aegolius harrisii) in the Pampa Biome, South Brazil. On 17 January 2010 an adult male was found dead at the roadside along the BR-290, São Gabriel municipality, center-east of Rio Grande do Sul state. The specimen probably collided with a car when using the area for foraging. The record reported here agrees with the suggestion that A. harrisii can use disturbed and open areas.

  1. Record of the Buff-fronted Owl (Aegolius harrisii in the Pampa Biome, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluci Müller Rebelato

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the second record of the Buff-fronted Owl (Aegolius harrisii in the Pampa Biome, South Brazil. On 17 January 2010 an adult male was found dead at the roadside along the BR-290, São Gabriel municipality, center-east of Rio Grande do Sul state. The specimen probably collided with a car when using the area for foraging. The record reported here agrees with the suggestion that A. harrisii can use disturbed and open areas.

  2. Breeding biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorraine A. Andrusiak; K. M. Cheng

    1997-01-01

    Breeding of the Barn Owl was studied from 1990-1992 in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, the northern limit of the species' North American range. Over 3 years, mean clutch size was 6.5 ± 3.5, mean brood size at time of banding was 3.3 ± 2.0, and mean number of nestlings fledged was 2.6 ± 2.1. Clutch size ranged from 2 to 18 eggs....

  3. Distribution of the characteristics of barbs and barbules on barn owl wing feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, Matthias; Wagner, Hermann

    2017-03-03

    Owls are known for the development of a silent flight. One conspicuous specialization of owl wings that has been implied in noise reduction and that has been demonstrated to change the aerodynamic behavior of the wing is a soft dorsal wing surface. The soft surface is a result of changes in the shape of feather barbs and barbules in owls compared with other bird species. We hypothesized that as the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing change along its chordwise and spanwise direction, so may the shape of the barbs and barbules. Therefore, we examined in detail the shapes of the barbs and barbules in chordwise and spanwise directions. The results showed changes in the shapes of barbs and barbules at the anterior and distal parts of the wing, but not at more posterior parts. The increased density of hook radiates at the distalmost wing position could serve to stiffen that vane part that is subject to the highest forces. The change of pennulum length in the anterior part of the wing and the uniformity further back could mean that a soft surface may be especially important in regions where flow separation may occur.

  4. Factors Affecting Growth of Tengmalm's Owl (Aegolius funereus) Nestlings: Prey Abundance, Sex and Hatching Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárybnická, Markéta; Riegert, Jan; Brejšková, Lucie; Šindelář, Jiří; Kouba, Marek; Hanel, Jan; Popelková, Alena; Menclová, Petra; Tomášek, Václav; Šťastný, Karel

    2015-01-01

    In altricial birds, energy supply during growth is a major predictor of the physical condition and survival prospects of fledglings. A number of experimental studies have shown that nestling body mass and wing length can vary with particular extrinsic factors, but between-year observational data on this topic are scarce. Based on a seven-year observational study in a central European Tengmalm's owl population we examine the effect of year, brood size, hatching order, and sex on nestling body mass and wing length, as well as the effect of prey abundance on parameters of growth curve. We found that nestling body mass varied among years, and parameters of growth curve, i.e. growth rate and inflection point in particular, increased with increasing abundance of the owl's main prey (Apodemus mice, Microtus voles), and pooled prey abundance (Apodemus mice, Microtus voles, and Sorex shrews). Furthermore, nestling body mass varied with hatching order and between sexes being larger for females and for the first-hatched brood mates. Brood size had no effect on nestling body mass. Simultaneously, we found no effect of year, brood size, hatching order, or sex on the wing length of nestlings. Our findings suggest that in this temperate owl population, nestling body mass is more sensitive to prey abundance than is wing length. The latter is probably more limited by the physiology of the species.

  5. Evolutionary conservation of Kv3.1 in the barn owl Tyto alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Lars; Schlüter, Tina; Wagner, Hermann; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2013-01-01

    For prey capture in the dark, the barn owl Tyto alba has evolved into an auditory specialist with an exquisite capability of sound localization. Adaptations include asymmetrical ears, enlarged auditory processing centers, the utilization of minute interaural time differences, and phase locking along the entire hearing range up to 10 kHz. Adaptations on the molecular level have not yet been investigated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that divergence in the amino acid sequence of the voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv3.1 contributes to the accuracy and high firing rates of auditory neurons in the barn owl. We therefore cloned both splice variants of Kcnc1, the gene encoding Kv3.1. Both splice variants, Kcnc1a and Kcnc1b, encode amino acids identical to those of the chicken, an auditory generalist. Expression analyses confirmed neural-restricted expression of the channel. In summary, our data reveal strong evolutionary conservation of Kcnc1 in the barn owl and point to other genes involved in auditory specializations of this animal. The data also demonstrate the feasibility to address neuroethological questions in organisms with no reference genome by molecular approaches. This will open new avenues for neuroethologists working in these organisms.

  6. Minimum Number of Observation Points for LEO Satellite Orbit Estimation by OWL Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Maru; Jo, Jung Hyun; Cho, Sungki; Choi, Jin; Kim, Chun-Hwey; Park, Jang-Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Choi, Young-Jun; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Bae, Young-Ho; Park, Sun-Youp; Kim, Ji-Hye; Roh, Dong-Goo; Jang, Hyun-Jung; Park, Young-Sik; Jeong, Min-Ji

    2015-12-01

    By using the Optical Wide-field Patrol (OWL) network developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) we generated the right ascension and declination angle data from optical observation of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. We performed an analysis to verify the optimum number of observations needed per arc for successful estimation of orbit. The currently functioning OWL observatories are located in Daejeon (South Korea), Songino (Mongolia), and Oukaïmeden (Morocco). The Daejeon Observatory is functioning as a test bed. In this study, the observed targets were Gravity Probe B, COSMOS 1455, COSMOS 1726, COSMOS 2428, SEASAT 1, ATV-5, and CryoSat-2 (all in LEO). These satellites were observed from the test bed and the Songino Observatory of the OWL network during 21 nights in 2014 and 2015. After we estimated the orbit from systematically selected sets of observation points (20, 50, 100, and 150) for each pass, we compared the difference between the orbit estimates for each case, and the Two Line Element set (TLE) from the Joint Space Operation Center (JSpOC). Then, we determined the average of the difference and selected the optimal observation points by comparing the average values.

  7. Nest site characteristics and nesting success of the Western Burrowing Owl in the eastern Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshore, Kathleen M.; Crowe, Dorothy E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated nest site selection at two spatial scales (microsite, territory) and reproductive success of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) at three spatial scales (microsite, territory, landscape) in the eastern Mojave Desert. We used binary logistic regression within an information-theoretic approach to assess factors influencing nest site choice and nesting success. Microsite-scale variables favored by owls included burrows excavated by desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), burrows with a large mound of excavated soil at the entrance, and a greater number of satellite burrows within 5 m of the nest burrow. At the territory scale, owls preferred patches with greater cover of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) within 50 m of the nest burrow. An interaction between the presence or absence of a calcic soil horizon layer over the top of the burrow (microsite) and the number of burrows within 50 m (territory) influenced nest site choice. Nesting success was influenced by a greater number of burrows within 5 m of the nest burrow. Total cool season precipitation was a predictor of nesting success at the landscape scale. Conservation strategies can rely on management of habitat for favored and productive nesting sites for this declining species.

  8. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum) in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrona-Rivera, Alicia E; Enríquez, Paula L; García-Feria, Luis M; Orellana, Sergio Alvarado; von Osten, Jaime Rendón

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were quantified in samples of feathers (n = 17) and blood (n = 15) of the ferruginous pygmy owl (Glaucidium brasilianum). The individuals were captured near the Protected Natural Area Cerro Sonsonate, Chiapas, Mexico, between February and June 2014. In both tissues, pesticides belonging to seven organochlorine chemical families were detected. However, the organochlorine pesticide concentrations differed between feathers and blood. The highest concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes were found in feathers (0.63 ± 0.89 μg/g), whereas the highest concentrations of ΣDrines were found in blood (0.31 ± 0.47 μg/mL). By using the summed concentrations for each of the seven families of pesticides found in feathers, we did not find any significant correlation between the pesticides and pectoral muscle or body weight (p > 0.15). The ΣDDT group was the only pesticide family that showed a positive correlation with owl body weight (r = 0.60, p = 0.05); the concentrations of these pesticides were also high in feather and blood tissues (r = 0.87, p = 0.02). Our results confirm that ferruginous pygmy owls in the study area are exposed to these pesticides.

  9. Wulst efferents in the little owl Athene noctua: an investigation of projections to the optic tectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, G; Porciatti, V; Fontanesi, G; Bagnoli, P

    1992-01-01

    The efferent projections from the Wulst were studied in the little owl, Athene noctua, using anterograde migration of wheat-germ-agglutinin conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP). Wulst projections were distributed to telencephalic, diencephalic and mesencephalic targets in a general pattern similar to that previously described in other avian species. Our results on the organization of the Wulst-optic tectum pathway in the little owl reveal well defined and laminarly arranged terminal projections into the superficial tectal layers, with a distribution suggestive of topographical relationships between neurons of origin in the Wulst and termination fields in the optic tectum. In contrast to lateral-eyed birds, the little owl possesses conspicuous contralateral projections to the optic tectum. Ipsilateral and contralateral efferents are restricted to different tectal regions, i.e. ipsilateral projections to the caudo-dorsal and contralateral projections to the rostro-ventral optic tectum. In addition, the anterior and posterior Wulst differentially contribute to the ipsilateral and contralateral projections to the optic tectum. This differential organization of Wulst efferents, as well as the presence of substantial contralateral projections, might be related to the high degree of binocular overlap typical of frontal-eyed birds. At a functional level, electric potentials recorded in the optic tectum and evoked by visual stimulation showed that information from one eye can reach the ipsilateral optic tectum. After Wulst ablation, the amplitude of these potentials was significantly reduced, indicating that Wulst efferents may influence visually-evoked activity in the optic tectum.

  10. Head-related transfer functions of the barn owl: measurement and neural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, C H; Hartung, K; Takahashi, T T

    1998-04-01

    Sounds arriving at the eardrum are filtered by the external ear and associated structures in a frequency and direction specific manner. When convolved with the appropriate filters and presented to human listeners through headphones, broadband noises can be precisely localized to the corresponding position outside of the head (reviewed in Blauert, 1997). Such a 'virtual auditory space' can be a potentially powerful tool for neurophysiological and behavioral work in other species as well. We are developing a virtual auditory space for the barn owl, Tyto alba, a highly successful auditory predator that has become a well-established model for hearing research. We recorded catalogues of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) from the frontal hemisphere of 12 barn owls and compared virtual and free sound fields acoustically and by their evoked neuronal responses. The inner ca. 1 cm of the ear canal was found to contribute little to the directionality of the HRTFs. HRTFs were recorded by inserting probetube microphones to within about 1 or 2 mm of the eardrum. We recorded HRTFs at frequencies between 2 and 11 kHz, which includes the frequencies most useful to the owl for sound localization (3-9 kHz; Konishi, 1973). Spectra of virtual sounds were within +/- 1 dB of amplitude and +/- 10 degrees of phase of the spectra of free field sounds measured near to the eardrum. The spatial pattern of responses obtained from neurons in the inferior colliculus were almost indistinguishable in response to virtual and to free field stimulation.

  11. The owl of Minerva from dusk till dawn, or, two shades of gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolar Mladen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper takes as its starting point the figure of the owl as the emblem of philosophy, it looks at its history and takes up its most significant philosophical use, the notorious passage where Hegel uses the owl as the indication of philosophy’s necessary belatedness. This is the passage which is usually taken as the point of indictment of Hegel’s position and the role he ascribed to philosophy. Hegel’s adage ‘What is rational is actual, and what is actual is rational’ is scrutinized in its various aspects, particularly in view of its other version, ‘what is rational must happen’. The tension between the ‘is’ and the ‘ought’ is perhaps the clue to understanding this adage, where Hegel doesn’t opt for the one or the other, but aims at the paradoxical intersection of the two. Hegel’s adage is put in contrast with Marx’s Thesis Eleven. The paper considers the concepts of the rational, the actual, the belatedness/retroaction, the grayness and finally the owl (and the part that bestiary plays in philosophy, thus trying to circumscribe the task that should be assigned to philosophy.

  12. On-line evaluating on quality of mild steel joints in resistance spot welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed to realize quality evaluation on every weld-spot in resistance spot welding based on information processing of artificial intelligent. Firstly, the signals of welding current and welding voltage, as information source, were synchronously collected. Input power and dynamic resistance were selected as monitoring waveforms. Eight characteristic parameters relating to weld quality were extracted from the monitoring waveforms. Secondly, tensile-shear strength of the spot-welded joint was employed as evaluating target of weld quality. Through correlation analysis between every two parameters of characteristic vector, five characteristic parameters were reasonably selected to found a mapping model of weld quality estimation. At last, the model was realized by means of the algorithms of Radial Basic Function neural network and sample matrixes. The results showed validations by a satisfaction in evaluating weld quality of mild steel joint on-line in spot welding process.

  13. Adsorption of proteins at physiological concentrations on pegylated surfaces and the compatibilizing role of adsorbed albumin with respect to other proteins according to optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Laurent; Modena, Enrico; Vert, Michel

    2013-01-01

    In literature, contacts between pegylated compounds and blood proteins are generally discussed in terms of excluded volume-related repulsions although adsorption and compatibility have been reported for some of these proteins occasionally. The major problem to investigate the behavior of blood in contact with pegylated surfaces is the complexity of the medium and especially the presence of albumin in large excess. In a model approach, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) was used to monitor the fate of albumin, fibrinogen, and γ-globulins at physiological concentrations in pH = 7.4 isotonic HEPES buffer after contact with SiTiO2 chips coated with diblock poly(DL-lactic acid)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)s and triblock poly(DL-lactic acid)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(DL-lactic acid) copolymers. Corresponding homopolymers were used as controls. The three protein systems were investigated separately, as a mixture and when added successively according to different orders of addition. OWLS gave access to the mass and the thickness of adhering protein layers that resist washing with HEPES buffer. Protein depositions were detected regardless of the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) segments on surfaces. Adsorption depended on the protein, on the surface and also on the presence of the other proteins. Unexpectedly any surface coated with a layer of adsorbed albumin prevented deposition of other proteins, including albumin itself. This outstanding finding suggests that it was the presence of albumin adsorbed on a surface, pegylated or not, that made that surface compatible with other proteins. As a consequence, dipping a device to be in contact with the blood of a patient in a solution of albumin could be a very simple means to avoid further protein deposition and maybe platelets adhesion after in vivo implantation.

  14. Coral bleaching and ocean ''hot spots''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T.J. (Global Coral Reef Alliance, Chappaqua, NY (United States)); Hayes, R.L. (Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States). College of Medicine)

    1994-05-01

    Global sea-surface temperature maps show that mass coral-reef bleaching episodes between 1983 and 1991 followed positive anomalies more than 1 deg C above long-term monthly averages (''hot spots'') during the preceding warm season. Irregular formation, movement, and disappearance of hot spots make their detailed long-term prediction impossible, but they can be tracked in real time from satellite data. Monitoring of ocean hot spots and of coral bleaching is needed if the Framework Convention of Climate Change is to meet its goal of protecting the most temperature sensitive ecosystems. 47 refs, 3 figs

  15. Assessment of toxicity and potential risk of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone using Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Eisenreich, Karen M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Volker, Steven F.; Campton, Christopher M.; Eisemann, John D.; Johnston, John J.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, new regulatory restrictions have been placed on the use of some second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. This action may be offset by expanded use of first-generation compounds (e.g., diphacinone; DPN). Single-day acute oral exposure of adult Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio) to DPN evoked overt signs of intoxication, coagulopathy, histopathological lesions (e.g., hemorrhage, hepatocellular vacuolation), and/ or lethality at doses as low as 130 mg/kg body weight, although there was no dose-response relation. However, this single-day exposure protocol does not mimic the multiple-day field exposures required to cause mortality in rodent pest species and non-target birds and mammals. In 7-day feeding trials, similar toxic effects were observed in owls fed diets containing 2.15, 9.55 or 22.6 ppm DPN, but at a small fraction (<5%) of the acute oral dose. In the dietary trial, the average lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level for prolonged clotting time was 1.68 mg DPN/kg owl/week (0.24 mg/kg owl/day; 0.049 mg/owl/day) and the lowest lethal dose was 5.75 mg DPN/kg owl/week (0.82 mg/kg owl/day). In this feeding trial, DPN concentration in liver ranged from 0.473 to 2.21 μg/g wet weight, and was directly related to the daily and cumulative dose consumed by each owl. A probabilistic risk assessment indicated that daily exposure to as little as 3-5 g of liver from DPN-poisoned rodents for 7 days could result in prolonged clotting time in the endangered Hawaiian shorteared owl (Asio flammeus sandwichensis) and Hawaiian hawk (Buteo solitarius), and daily exposure to greater quantities (9-13 g of liver) could result in low-level mortality. These findings can assist natural resource managers in weighing the costs and benefits of anticoagulant rodenticide use in pest control and eradication programs.

  16. Characterizing seasonal variability of storm events based on very high frequency monitoring of hydrological and chemical variables: comparing patterns in hot spots and hot moments for nutrient and sediment export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovet, Ophelie; Thelusma, Gilbert; Humbert, Guillaume; Dupas, Rémi; Faucheux, Mikael; Gilliet, Nicolas; Hamon, Yannick; Jaffrezic, Anne; Grimaldi, Catherine; Gruau, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Storm events are critical hot moments of emission for several dissolved and particulate chemical species at major stake for water quality (e.g. dissolved organic carbon DOC, suspended sediments, phosphorus). During such events, the solutes or particles are exported from heterogeneous sources through various pathways to stream leading to specific integrated signals at the outlet characterized by very short dynamics. This is merely true in headwater catchments where the total duration of such events ranges over 10h to 3 days, with very quick variations in stream flow and concentrations at the outlet occurring in a few hours. Thus for investigating properly event processes, high frequency monitoring of flow and water quality is required. We analysed 103 storm events in a 5 km2 agricultural headwater catchment, part of the AgrHys Observatory, on the basis of a 3-year-long data set which combined meterological (Rainfall), hydrological (flow and piezometry), and water quality (turbidity, conductivity, DOC and NO3 concentrations) data recorded at very high frequencies (from 1 to 20 min) thanks to dedicated sensors. We proposed a range of quantitative storm descriptors for characterizing input (rainfall), antecedent and initial conditions (groundwater levels and saturated area), and stream response in terms of level and dynamics of flow (Q), groundwater levels, and concentrations (C) but also the C-Q relationships. Three intra annual periods have been previously defined for base flow dynamic according to shallow groundwater table variations so that they correspond to different connectivity status in the catchment. The seasonal and inter-annual variability of the storm events have been analysed using the descriptors and based on these predefined periods. Results show that the hydrological flowpaths and the consequent storm chemistry were controlled by the hydrological base flow regime rather than by the rain input characteristics. This highlights that the exports of NO3

  17. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  18. Representing Human Expertise by the OWL Web Ontology Language to Support Knowledge Engineering in Decision Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzan, Asia; Wang, Hai; Buckingham, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) often base their knowledge and advice on human expertise. Knowledge representation needs to be in a format that can be easily understood by human users as well as supporting ongoing knowledge engineering, including evolution and consistency of knowledge. This paper reports on the development of an ontology specification for managing knowledge engineering in a CDSS for assessing and managing risks associated with mental-health problems. The Galatean Risk and Safety Tool, GRiST, represents mental-health expertise in the form of a psychological model of classification. The hierarchical structure was directly represented in the machine using an XML document. Functionality of the model and knowledge management were controlled using attributes in the XML nodes, with an accompanying paper manual for specifying how end-user tools should behave when interfacing with the XML. This paper explains the advantages of using the web-ontology language, OWL, as the specification, details some of the issues and problems encountered in translating the psychological model to OWL, and shows how OWL benefits knowledge engineering. The conclusions are that OWL can have an important role in managing complex knowledge domains for systems based on human expertise without impeding the end-users' understanding of the knowledge base. The generic classification model underpinning GRiST makes it applicable to many decision domains and the accompanying OWL specification facilitates its implementation.

  19. The impact of uropygial gland secretions on mechanically induced wearing of barn owl and pigeon body feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Benjamin; Müsse, Annika; Wagner, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Bird feathers are remarkable structures light but yet durable providing insulation and the ability of flight. Owls are highly specialized birds of prey, widely known for their ability to y silently which is enabled by (micro-) structural specializations of the feathers. The barn owl replaces feathers less frequently in comparison to other same sized birds like pigeons, indicating a much better resistance against material fatigue of these delicate microstructures. We used axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) of water drop contact angles as a non-destructive method of characterizing wearing processes in feathers. We hypothesized that feathers become more wettable when worn. We also investigated the impact of ethanol treatment in order to remove fatty residues of the uropygial gland secretions, barn owls and pigeons use for preening, on ageing processes. Ethanol treatment resulted in a slight, but significant increase of water repellency in barn owl but not in pigeon flight feathers. Our preliminary data also suggest that the uropygial gland secretions decelerate the wearing process of the feather keratin. We observed this effect in both species, however, it was more distinct for barn owl uropygial gland secretions. The results of this study, obtained by contact angle measurements used as a non-destructive evaluation method of material fatigue, yield insights into the material fatigue of feathers and the decelerating effect of uropygial gland secretions on wear on the other hand.

  20. Response properties of neurons in the core of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Hermann; Mazer, James A; von Campenhausen, Mark

    2002-04-01

    The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) is particularly important for the processing of interaural time differences (ITDs). In the barn owl, neuronal best frequencies in a subnucleus of the ICC, the ICCcore, span the animal's entire hearing range (approximately equal to 200-10 000 Hz). This means that low-frequency ITD-sensitive ICCcore neurons in the owl can be directly compared to ITD-sensitive mammalian ICC neurons with similar best frequencies as well as to the high-frequency ITD-sensitive neurons usually studied in owls. This report represents a first attempt to systematically describe important physiological properties of ICCcore neurons in the barn owl, with particular attention to the low-frequency region (owl's physiological ITD range. ITD tuning widths were inversely correlated with neuronal best frequency. None of the ICCcore neurons studied were sensitive to interaural level differences. Monaural inputs to ICCcore cells were typically binaurally balanced, i.e. they exhibited similar response thresholds, dynamic ranges, slopes and saturation levels, for both left and right ear monaural stimulation.