WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitoring site located

  1. Site location optimization of regional air quality monitoring network in China: methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junyu; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Liu, Panwei; Zhong, Liuju; Lai, Senchao

    2011-11-01

    Regional air quality monitoring networks (RAQMN) are urgently needed in China due to increasing regional air pollution in city clusters, arising from rapid economic development in recent decades. This paper proposes a methodological framework for site location optimization in designing a RAQMN adapting to air quality management practice in China. The framework utilizes synthetic assessment concentrations developed from simulated data from a regional air quality model in order to simplify the optimal process and to reduce costs. On the basis of analyzing various constraints such as cost and budget, terrain conditions, administrative district, population density and spatial coverage, the framework takes the maximum approximate degree as an optimization objective to achieve site location optimization of a RAQMN. An expert judgment approach was incorporated into the framework to help adjust initial optimization results in order to make the network more practical and representative. A case study was used to demonstrate the application of the framework, indicating that it is feasible to conduct site optimization for a RAQMN design in China. The effects of different combinations of primary and secondary pollutants on site location optimization were investigated. It is suggested that the network design considering both primary and secondary pollutants could better represent regional pollution characteristics and more extensively reflect temporal and spatial variations of regional air quality. The work shown in this study can be used as a reference to guide site location optimization of a RAQMN design in China or other regions of the world.

  2. A stochastic method for optimal location of groundwater monitoring sites at aquifer scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, E.; Passarella, G.

    2009-04-01

    With the growth of public environmental awareness and the improvement in national and EU legislation regarding the environment, monitoring assumed great importance in the frame of all managerial activities related to territories. In particular, recently, a number of public environmental agencies have invested great resources in planning and operating improvements on existing monitoring networks within their regions. In this framework, and, at the light of the Water Framework Directive, the optimal monitoring of the qualitative and quantitative state of groundwater becomes a priority, particularly, when severe economic constraints must be imposed and the territory to be monitored is quite wide. There are a lot of reasons justifying the optimal extension of a monitoring network. In fact, a modest coverage of the monitored area often makes impossible to provide the manager with a sufficient knowledge for decision-making processes. In general, monitoring networks are characterized by a scarce number of existing wells, irregularly spread over the considered area. This is a typical case of optimization and it may be solved seeking among existing, but unused, wells, all and only those able to make the monitoring network coverage, the most uniform among any arrangement. Using existing wells as new monitoring sites, allows one to drastically reduce the needed budget. In this paper, a four step method, based on simulated annealing, has been implemented with the aim of identifying scarcely monitored zones within the groundwater system boundaries. The steps are the following: I. Define aquifer boundaries, number and location of the existing monitoring sites and number and location of candidate new monitoring sites. Any constraint about the network size, and wells' location and characteristics need also to be identified at this step; II. Carry out stochastic simulations producing a large number of possible realizations of the improved monitoring network and choose the transient

  3. Selecting optimal monitoring site locations for peak ambient particulate material concentrations using the MM5-CAMx4 numerical modelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Andrew; Titov, Mikhail; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2011-01-15

    Installation of temporary or long term monitoring sites is expensive, so it is important to rationally identify potential locations that will achieve the requirements of regional air quality management strategies. A simple, but effective, numerical approach to selecting ambient particulate matter (PM) monitoring site locations has therefore been developed using the MM5-CAMx4 air pollution dispersion modelling system. A new method, 'site efficiency,' was developed to assess the ability of any monitoring site to provide peak ambient air pollution concentrations that are representative of the urban area. 'Site efficiency' varies from 0 to 100%, with the latter representing the most representative site location for monitoring peak PM concentrations. Four heavy pollution episodes in Christchurch (New Zealand) during winter 2005, representing 4 different aerosol dispersion patterns, were used to develop and test this site assessment technique. Evaluation of the efficiency of monitoring sites was undertaken for night and morning aerosol peaks for 4 different particulate material (PM) spatial patterns. The results demonstrate that the existing long term monitoring site at Coles Place is quite well located, with a site efficiency value of 57.8%. A temporary ambient PM monitoring site (operating during winter 2006) showed a lower ability to capture night and morning peak aerosol concentrations. Evaluation of multiple site locations used during an extensive field campaign in Christchurch (New Zealand) in 2000 indicated that the maximum efficiency achieved by any site in the city would be 60-65%, while the efficiency of a virtual background site is calculated to be about 7%. This method of assessing the appropriateness of any potential monitoring site can be used to optimize monitoring site locations for any air pollution measurement programme.

  4. Geodetic monitoring (TLS of a steel transport trestle bridge located in an active mining exploitation site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoczylas Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Underground mining exploitation causes, in general, irregular vertical and horizontal shifts in the superficial layer of the rock mass. In the case of construction objects seated on this layer, a deformation of the object’s foundation can be observed. This leads to additional loads and deformations. Identification of surface geometry changes in construction objects located within the premises of underground mining exploitation areas is an important task as far as safety of mining sites is concerned. Surveys targeting shifts and deformations in engineering objects preformed with the use of classic methods are of a selective nature and do not provide the full image of the phenomenon being the subject of the observation. This paper presents possibilities of terrestrial laser scanning technology application in the monitoring of engineering objects that allows for a complete spatial documentation of an object subjected to the influence of an active mining exploitation. This paper describes an observation of a 100 m section of a steel transport trestle bridge located on the premises of hard coal mine Lubelski Węgiel “Bogdanka” S.A. carried out in 2015. Measurements were carried out using a Z+F Imager 5010C scanner at an interval of 3.5 months. Changes in the structure’s geometry were determined by comparing the point clouds recorded during the two measurement periods. The results of the analyses showed shifts in the trestle bridge towards the exploited coal wall accompanied by object deformation. The obtained results indicate the possibility of of terrestrial laser scanning application in studying the aftereffects of underground mining exploitation on surface engineering objects.

  5. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  6. Integrating smart-phone based momentary location tracking with fixed site air quality monitoring for personal exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; Meng, Ying-Ying; Pickett, Melissa; Ritz, Beate

    2015-02-15

    Epidemiological studies investigating relationships between environmental exposures from air pollution and health typically use residential addresses as a single point for exposure, while environmental exposures in transit, at work, school or other locations are largely ignored. Personal exposure monitors measure individuals' exposures over time; however, current personal monitors are intrusive and cannot be operated at a large scale over an extended period of time (e.g., for a continuous three months) and can be very costly. In addition, spatial locations typically cannot be identified when only personal monitors are used. In this paper, we piloted a study that applied momentary location tracking services supplied by smart phones to identify an individual's location in space-time for three consecutive months (April 28 to July 28, 2013) using available Wi-Fi networks. Individual exposures in space-time to the traffic-related pollutants Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) were estimated by superimposing an annual mean NOX concentration surface modeled using the Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling technique. Individual's exposures were assigned to stationary (including home, work and other stationary locations) and in-transit (including commute and other travel) locations. For the individual, whose home/work addresses were known and the commute route was fixed, it was found that 95.3% of the time, the individual could be accurately identified in space-time. The ambient concentration estimated at the home location was 21.01 ppb. When indoor/outdoor infiltration, indoor sources of air pollution and time spent outdoors were taken into consideration, the individual's cumulative exposures were 28.59 ppb and 96.49 ppb, assuming a respective indoor/outdoor ratio of 1.33 and 5.00. Integrating momentary location tracking services with fixed-site field monitoring, plus indoor-outdoor air exchange calibration, makes exposure assessment of a very large population over an extended time period

  7. Gulf Watch Alaska Nearshore Component: Monitoring Site Locations from Prince William Sound, Katmai National Park and Preserve, and Kenai Fjords National Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are part of the Gulf Watch Alaska (GWA) long term monitoring program, nearshore monitoring component. Specifically, these data describe site locations for...

  8. Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Water Quality Monitoring Site identifies locations across the state of Vermont where water quality data has been collected, including habitat, chemistry, fish and/or...

  9. NPL Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Priorities List (NPL) is a list published by EPA of Superfund sites. A site must be added to this list before remediation can begin under Superfund. The...

  10. NPL Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Priorities List (NPL) is a list published by EPA of Superfund sites. A site must be added to this list before remediation can begin under Superfund. The...

  11. VT Hospital Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This data layer contains point locations of all major community, regional, comprehensive health, and healthcare provider hospitals in the state of...

  12. Gulf Watch Alaska nearshore component: Monitoring site locations from Prince William Sound, Katmai National Park and Preserve, and Kenai Fjords National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, Heather A.; Kloecker, Kim; Bodkin, James L.; Dean, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    These data are part of the Gulf Watch Alaska (GWA) long term monitoring program, nearshore monitoring component. Specifically, these data describe site locations for rocky intertidal, mussel sampling, soft sediment bivalve sampling, and eelgrass bed sampling in the northern Gulf of Alaska within the GWA program. The dataset consists of two comma separated files exported from a Microsoft Excel workbook. The data consists of 1. rocky intertidal, mussel sampling, and soft sediment site location information, and 2. eelgrass bed locations. Sampling will be conducted in Katmai National Park and Preserve (KATM), Kenai Fjords National Park (KEFJ), Prince William Sound (PWS) and to a lesser extent on the Lake Clark National Park and Preserve (LACL). Sites from a related project that provides similar data from Kachemak Bay (KBAY) are included here.

  13. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  14. Use of CFD modeling for estimating spatial representativeness of urban air pollution monitoring sites and suitability of their locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J. L.; Martin, F.

    2015-07-01

    A methodology to estimate the spatial representativeness of air pollution monitoring sites is applied to two urban districts. This methodology is based on high resolution maps of air pollution computed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling tools. Traffic-emitted NO{sub 2} dispersion is simulated for several meteorological conditions taking into account the effect of the buildings on air flow and pollutant dispersion and using a steady state CFD-RANS approach. From these results, maps of average pollutant concentrations for January -May 2011 are computed as a combination of the simulated scenarios. Two urban districts of Madrid City were simulated. Spatial representativeness areas for 32 different sites within the same district (including the site of the operative air quality stations) have been estimated by computing the portion of the domains with average NO{sub 2} concentration differing less than a 20% of the concentration at each candidate monitoring site. New parameters such as the ratio AR between the representativeness area and the whole domain area or the representativeness index (IR) has been proposed to discuss and compare the representativeness areas. Significant differences between the spatial representativeness of the candidate sites of both studied districts have been found. The sites of the Escuelas Aguirre district have generally smaller representativeness areas than those of the Plaza de Castilla. More stations are needed to cover the Escuelas Aguirre district than for the Plaza de Castilla one. The operative air quality station of the Escuelas Aguirre district is less representative than the station of the Plaza de Castilla district. The cause of these differences seems to be the differences in urban structure of both districts prompting different ventilation. (Author)

  15. Use of CFD modeling for estimating spatial representativeness of urban air pollution monitoring sites and suitability of their locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J.L.; Martin, F.

    2015-07-01

    A methodology to estimate the spatial representativeness of air pollution monitoring sites is applied to two urban districts. This methodology is based on high resolution maps of air pollution computed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling tools. Traffic-emitted NO2 dispersion is simulated for several meteorological conditions taking into account the effect of the buildings on air flow and pollutant dispersion and using a steady state CFD-RANS approach. From these results, maps of average pollutant concentrations for January–May 2011 are computed as a combination of the simulated scenarios. Two urban districts of Madrid City were simulated. Spatial representativeness areas for 32 different sites within the same district (including the site of the operative air quality stations) have been estimated by computing the portion of the domains with average NO2 concentration differing less than a 20% of the concentration at each candidate monitoring site. New parameters such as the ratio AR between the representativeness area and the whole domain area or the representativeness index (IR) has been proposed to discuss and compare the representativeness areas. Significant differences between the spatial representativeness of the candidate sites of both studied districts have been found. The sites of the Escuelas Aguirre district have generally smaller representativeness areas than those of the Plaza de Castilla. More stations are needed to cover the Escuelas Aguirre district than for the Plaza de Castilla one. The operative air quality station of the Escuelas Aguirre district is less representative than the station of the Plaza de Castilla district. The cause of these differences seems to be the differences in urban structure of both districts prompting different ventilation. (Author)

  16. Lake Beach Monitoring Locations in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Monitored state lake beach locations in Iowa. The Watershed Monitoring & Assessment Section of the Iowa DNR takes regular water samples at these listed beaches...

  17. Iowater Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains points representing monitoring locations on streams, lakes and ponds that have been registered by IOWATER monitors. IOWATER, Iowa's volunteer...

  18. Data Center Equipment Location and Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Data center equipment location systems include hardware and software to provide information on the location, monitoring, and security of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The systems provide a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...

  19. Data Center Equipment Location and Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Data center equipment location systems include hardware and software to provide information on the location, monitoring, and security of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The systems provide a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...

  20. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2009 Stream Team Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Sites (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set shows the monitoring locations of trained Volunteer Water Quality Monitors. A monitoring site is considered to be a 300 foot section of stream channel....

  1. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2009 Stream Team Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Sites (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set shows the monitoring locations of trained Volunteer Water Quality Monitors. A monitoring site is considered to be a 300 foot section of stream channel....

  2. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  3. Biases encountered in long-term monitoring studies of invertebrates and microflora: Australian examples of protocols, personnel, tools and site location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Penelope; Florentine, Singarayer K; Hansen, Brigita D; Gell, Peter A

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring forms the basis for understanding ecological change. It relies on repeatability of methods to ensure detected changes accurately reflect the effect of environmental drivers. However, operator bias can influence the repeatability of field and laboratory work. We tested this for invertebrates and diatoms in three trials: (1) two operators swept invertebrates from heath vegetation, (2) four operators picked invertebrates from pyrethrum knockdown samples from tree trunk and (3) diatom identifications by eight operators in three laboratories. In each trial, operators were working simultaneously and their training in the field and laboratory was identical. No variation in catch efficiency was found between the two operators of differing experience using a random number of net sweeps to catch invertebrates when sequence, location and size of sweeps were random. Number of individuals and higher taxa collected by four operators from tree trunks varied significantly between operators and with their 'experience ranking'. Diatom identifications made by eight operators were clustered together according to which of three laboratories they belonged. These three tests demonstrated significant potential bias of operators in both field and laboratory. This is the first documented case demonstrating the significant influence of observer bias on results from invertebrate field-based studies. Examples of two long-term trials are also given that illustrate further operator bias. Our results suggest that long-term ecological studies using invertebrates need to be rigorously audited to ensure that operator bias is accounted for during analysis and interpretation. Further, taxonomic harmonisation remains an important step in merging field and laboratory data collected by different operators.

  4. 基于非负矩阵分解的机场噪声监测点优化布局%Optimal Locating Method for the Layout of Airport Noise Monitoring Sites Based on Non-negative Matrix Factorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永华; 唐先超

    2014-01-01

    近年来国内民航迅速发展,机场的新建、扩建和航空运输量的持续增长使得机场噪声污染事件不仅持续上升,而且噪声污染程度也日益加重,因而强化机场附近噪声污染的监测对机场建设及其环境评估十分重要。针对机场噪声污染监测问题,提出一种基于非负矩阵分解(NMF)方法对机场噪声监测点布局问题进行优化求解。该方法以大量网格点作为候选监测点,对单个飞机噪声事件候选监测点的噪声值所形成的矩阵按非负矩阵分解进行区域划分,得到噪声影响子区域。进一步以各子区域的中心点作为该区域的噪声影响代表点,以此确定机场噪声监测点数目和位置。研究结果表明所获得的解比贪心算法得到的解更优,需要的监测点更少。%With the rapid development of domestic civil aviation in recent years, noise pollution of airports is becoming a serious problem. Thus, strengthening the noise monitoring in the airport vicinity is very important for airport construction and environmental evaluation. Aiming at the monitoring of airport noise pollution, an optimization method based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is put forward to optimize the layout of the noise monitoring sites. In this method, large number of the grid nodes is employed as the candidate monitoring points, and the non-negative matrix composed of the noise values from single flight event at the candidate monitoring points is formed. Then, the non-negative matrix is factorized to obtain the effective subdivision of noise. Furthermore, the location and number of the noise monitoring sites are determined by the representative central point of the effective subdivisions. It is shown that this method needs fewer monitoring locating sites and can get better results than the greedy algorithm.

  5. Data center equipment location and monitoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    , and runs a software application program that communicates with the equipment rack controllers. The software application program of the central control computer stores IDs of the equipment rack controllers and each of its connected electronic ID tags in a database.; The software application program......A data center equipment location system includes both hardware and software to provide for location, monitoring, security and identification of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The system provides a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...... connected to each piece of equipment, each electronic ID tag connected directly by wires to a equipment rack controller on the equipment rack. The equipment rack controllers then link over a local area network to a central control computer. The central control computer provides an operator interface...

  6. Location and activity specific site-management for military locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maring, L.; Hulst, M. van; Meuken, D.

    2009-01-01

    pace is limited in the Netherlands and military activities, that may cause nuisance or environmental hazards, should therefore be considered and evaluated during the use of military locations. The last few years TNO and Deltares have worked on a research program on environmental effects due to milit

  7. GSM Base Stations Location Monitoring using Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuboye B. M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM is a digital system developed to meet the desires of the entire public. As the population of a particular area, city or country increases, the number of mobile subscribers increases too. GSM network operators have to reduce congestion on their networks in order to satisfy their subscribers, therefore, a means of monitoring the base stations' locations and the geographical area of where they are located are important factor to achieve this purpose. This work provides a simple step-by-step approach on how to monitor the location of the base stations. A review of GSM and Global Positioning System (GPS technology and their applications to the Geographic Information System (GIS are presented. The means of taken the coordinates of base stations using a GPS device is also presented. ESRI's ArcView application software was used to design the map that shows the location of the base station and thereafter was integrated into the web. It concluded with the recommendation to GSM operators in Nigeria. If the recommendations are given necessary attention, the planning and optimization of cell sites will be enhanced and thereby reduce congestion on network. As a result, the performance of Network will improve, and it will give rise to subscribers' satisfaction and increasing profit returns to the operators.

  8. HIV/AIDS testing sites and locator services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The HIV Testing Sites & Care Services Locator is a first-of-its-kind, location-based search tool that allows you to search for testing services, housing...

  9. Localização de áreas de monitoramento telemétrico em ambientes aquáticos da Amazônia Location of telemetric monitoring sites in Amazon floodplain lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bergier Tavares de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho demonstra a aplicabilidade de imagens de sensoriamento remoto e de métodos de processamento de imagens digitais para definição de locais adequados à instalação de sistemas telemétricos de monitoramento de variáveis ambientais em sistemas aquáticos, localizados em regiões de difícil acesso. A técnica consiste essencialmente da aplicação de operações Booleanas entre mapas da pluma do Rio Amazonas e de zonas inundadas do Lago de Curuai em diferentes etapas do ciclo hidrológico. A localização exata para o sistema de monitoramento telemétrico será vital para o desenvolvimento de modelos de troca de gases traço entre a planície de inundação Amazônica e a atmosfera.The present work illustrates the application of remote sensing and image processing methods to define appropriate sites for installing buoy moored telemetric systems at the surface of Amazon floodplain lakes for long-term limnologic-micrometeorologic monitoring. The technique consists essentially of Boolean operations over Amazon plume maps and historic inundation of the Curuai Lake at distinct stages of the hydrologic cycle. The precise location for the long-term monitoring is vital to the development of models concerning air-water trace gas exchange in the Amazon floodplains.

  10. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Third quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-02-04

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Table 1 lists those well series with constituents in the groundwater above Flag 2 during third quarter 1992, organized by location. Results from all laboratory analyses are used to generate this table. Specific conductance and pH data from the field also are included in this table.

  11. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  12. Site survey for optimum location of Optical Communication Experimental Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Site survey was made to determine the optimum location for an Optical Communication Experimental Facility /OCEF/ and to recommend several sites, graded according to preference. A site was desired which could perform two-way laser communication with a spacecraft and laser tracking with a minimum of interruption by weather effects.

  13. Location and characterisation of pollution sites by principal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Location and characterisation of pollution sites by principal component analysis of ... point sources are boron mineral deposits still existing in the urban area. ... at point sources, the contribution of the sewage treatment plant being negligible.

  14. Location and characterisation of pollution sites by principal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... and 2005 comprising two hydrological cycles, at seven locations along a 25 km section of the ... nation, the efficiency of the wastewater treatment facility when ..... site and date), when pondered by the inverse of the square.

  15. A GIS approach for predicting prehistoric site locations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. A.; Wescott, K. L.

    1999-08-04

    Use of geographic information system (GIS)-based predictive mapping to locate areas of high potential for prehistoric archaeological sites is becoming increasingly popular among archaeologists. Knowledge of the environmental variables influencing activities of original inhabitants is used to produce GIS layers representing the spatial distribution of those variables. The GIS layers are then analyzed to identify locations where combinations of environmental variables match patterns observed at known prehistoric sites. Presented are the results of a study to locate high-potential areas for prehistoric sites in a largely unsurveyed area of 39,000 acres in the Upper Chesapeake Bay region, including details of the analysis process. The project used environmental data from over 500 known sites in other parts of the region and the results corresponded well with known sites in the study area.

  16. Location Distribution Optimization of Photographing Sites for Indoor Panorama Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wu, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Xin, Z.; Liu, J.

    2017-09-01

    Generally, panoramas image modeling is costly and time-consuming because of photographing continuously to capture enough photos along the routes, especially in complicated indoor environment. Thus, difficulty follows for a wider applications of panoramic image modeling for business. It is indispensable to make a feasible arrangement of panorama sites locations because the locations influence the clarity, coverage and the amount of panoramic images under the condition of certain device. This paper is aim to propose a standard procedure to generate the specific location and total amount of panorama sites in indoor panoramas modeling. Firstly, establish the functional relationship between one panorama site and its objectives. Then, apply the relationship to panorama sites network. We propose the Distance Clarity function (FC and Fe) manifesting the mathematical relationship between panoramas and objectives distance or obstacle distance. The Distance Buffer function (FB) is modified from traditional buffer method to generate the coverage of panorama site. Secondly, transverse every point in possible area to locate possible panorama site, calculate the clarity and coverage synthetically. Finally select as little points as possible to satiate clarity requirement preferentially and then the coverage requirement. In the experiments, detailed parameters of camera lens are given. Still, more experiments parameters need trying out given that relationship between clarity and distance is device dependent. In short, through the function FC, Fe and FB, locations of panorama sites can be generated automatically and accurately.

  17. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The MN Department of Agriculture (MDA) is charged with periodically collecting and analyzing water samples from selected locations throughout the state to determine...

  18. Site 300 Bat Monitoring Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennan, Joe [Garcia and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States); Tortosa, Justin [Garcia and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-07-18

    From June 15 to 18, 2015, GANDA biologist Graham Neale assisted in programming and fieldtesting of the bat monitoring equipment. The equipment was deployed in the field on a meteorological (MET) tower within Site 300 on June 18, 2015.

  19. Analysis of the Monitoring Network at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    The Salmon site in southern Mississippi was the location of two underground nuclear tests and two methane-oxygen gas explosion tests conducted in the Tatum Salt Dome at a depth of 2,715 feet below ground surface. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy [DOE]) and the U.S. Department of Defense jointly conducted the tests between 1964 and 1970. The testing operations resulted in surface contamination at multiple locations on the site and contamination of shallow aquifers. No radionuclides from the nuclear tests were released to the surface or to groundwater, although radionuclide-contaminated drill cuttings were brought to the surface during re-entry drilling. Drilling operations generated the largest single volume of waste materials, including radionuclide-contaminated drill cuttings and drilling fluids. Nonradioactive wastes were also generated as part of the testing operations. Site cleanup and decommissioning began in 1971 and officially ended in 1972. DOE conducted additional site characterization between 1992 and 1999. The historical investigations have provided a reasonable understanding of current surface and shallow subsurface conditions at the site, although some additional investigation is desirable. For example, additional hydrologic data would improve confidence in assigning groundwater gradients and flow directions in the aquifers. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency monitored groundwater at the site as part of its Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program from 1972 through 2007, when DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM) assumed responsibility for site monitoring. The current monitoring network consists of 28 monitoring wells and 11 surface water locations. Multiple aquifers which underlie the site are monitored. The current analyte list includes metals, radionuclides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  20. Water treatment plant site location using rough set theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabani, M; Pirouz, M

    2015-10-01

    Currently, advanced methods have been developed to select an appropriate site for an engineering project. The ability to make a good decision in site selection can help the engineers to reduce the expensive costs, which are very important in large construction projects. In this paper, a new approach for site selection is presented. This method is based on rough set theory which is a mathematical theory presented by professor Pawlak. In this study, the results of the rough set decision-making are compared with the results of the regression method in a practical case study for the site location of a water treatment plant in Ardabil Province in the northwest of Iran, to demonstrate that the rough set theory provides a useful method for site selection. The results of practical studies indicate that using this method for site selection decision-making can reduce costs and prevent hazards that may happen due to civil engineering uncertainties.

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2014-02-01

    This plan provides a high-level summary of environmental monitoring performed by various organizations within and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, Guide DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, and in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The purpose of these orders is to 1) implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations, and 2) to establish standards and requirements for the operations of DOE and DOE contractors with respect to protection of the environment and members of the public against undue risk from radiation. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL Site, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. Detailed monitoring procedures, program plans, or other governing documents used by contractors or agencies to implement requirements are referenced in this plan. This plan covers all planned monitoring and environmental surveillance. Nonroutine activities such as special research studies and characterization of individual sites for environmental restoration are outside the scope of this plan.

  2. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford Site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  3. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites available for characterization.

  4. Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter's cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data.

  5. Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1992-10-01

    To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter`s cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data.

  6. US EPA OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator (OWL): uses linear regression to fit a plane to the elevation of the water table in monitoring wells in each round of sampling. The slope of the plane fit to the water table is used to predict the direction and gradient of ground water flow. Along with ...

  7. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2000 on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the central part of the Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in smaller plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath each of the reactor areas, and technetium-99 and uranium are present in the 200 Areas. RCRA groundwater monitoring continued during fiscal year 2000. Vadose zone monitoring, characterization, remediation, and several technical demonstrations were conducted in fiscal year 2000. Soil gas monitoring at the 618-11 burial ground provided a preliminary indication of the location of tritium in the vadose zone and in groundwater. Groundwater modeling efforts focused on 1) identifying and characterizing major uncertainties in the current conceptual model and 2) performing a transient inverse calibration of the existing site-wide model. Specific model applications were conducted in support of the Hanford Site carbon tetrachloride Innovative Treatment Remediation Technology; to support the performance assessment of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Facility; and in development of the System Assessment Capability, which is intended to predict cumulative site-wide effects from all significant Hanford Site contaminants.

  8. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  9. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1989 (July--September), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the third quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from third quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  10. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  11. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, first quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During first quarter 1989 (January--March), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the first quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from first quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  12. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  13. Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality, Ambient air monitoring sites are geographic point locations with monitoring equipment, and possibly meteorological instruments, that monitor outdoor, near ground level criteria pollutant concentrations., Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of...

  14. An iterative matching and locating technique for borehole microseismic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Meng, X.; Niu, F.; Tang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Microseismic monitoring has been proven to be an effective and valuable technology to image hydraulic fracture geometry. The success of hydraulic fracturing monitoring relies on the detection and characterization (i.e., location and focal mechanism estimation) of a maximum number of induced microseismic events. All the events are important to quantify the stimulated reservior volume (SRV) and characterize the newly created fracture network. Detecting and locating low magnitude events, however, are notoriously difficult, particularly at a high noisy production environment. Here we propose an iterative matching and locating technique (iMLT) to obtain a maximum detection of small events and the best determination of their locations from continuous data recorded by a single azimuth downhole geophone array. As the downhole array is located in one azimuth, the regular M&L using the P-wave cross-correlation only is not able to resolve the location of a matched event relative to the template event. We thus introduce the polarization direction in the matching, which significantly improve the lateral resolution of the M&L method based on numerical simulations with synthetic data. Our synthetic tests further indicate that the inclusion of S-wave cross-correlation data can help better constrain the focal depth of the matched events. We apply this method to a dataset recorded during hydraulic fracturing treatment of a pilot horizontal well within the shale play in southwest China. Our approach yields a more than fourfold increase in the number of located events, compared with the original event catalog from traditional downhole processing.

  15. Water Quality Sampling Locations Along the Shoreline of the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2009-12-14

    As environmental monitoring evolved on the Hanford Site, several different conventions were used to name or describe location information for various sampling sites along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These methods range from handwritten descriptions in field notebooks to the use of modern electronic surveying equipment, such as Global Positioning System receivers. These diverse methods resulted in inconsistent archiving of analytical results in various electronic databases and published reports because of multiple names being used for the same site and inaccurate position data. This document provides listings of sampling sites that are associated with groundwater and river water sampling. The report identifies names and locations for sites associated with sampling: (a) near-river groundwater using aquifer sampling tubes; (b) riverbank springs and springs areas; (c) pore water collected from riverbed sediment; and (d) Columbia River water. Included in the listings are historical names used for a particular site and the best available geographic coordinates for the site, as of 2009. In an effort to create more consistency in the descriptive names used for water quality sampling sites, a naming convention is proposed in this document. The convention assumes that a unique identifier is assigned to each site that is monitored and that this identifier serves electronic database management requirements. The descriptive name is assigned for the convenience of the subsequent data user. As the historical database is used more intensively, this document may be revised as a consequence of discovering potential errors and also because of a need to gain consensus on the proposed naming convention for some water quality monitoring sites.

  16. Automatised Data Quality Monitoring of the LHCb Vertex Locator

    CERN Multimedia

    Szumlak, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb Vertex Locator (VELO) is a silicon strip semiconductor detector operating at just 8mm distance to the LHC beams. Its 172,000 strips are read at a frequency of 1 MHz and processed by off-detector FPGAs followed by a PC cluster that reduces the event rate to about 10 kHz. During the second run of the LHC, which lasts from 2015 until 2018, the detector performance will undergo continued change due to radiation damage effects. This necessitates a detailed monitoring of the data quality to avoid adverse effects on the physics analysis performance. The VELO monitoring infrastructure has been re-designed compared to the first run of the LHC when it was based on manual checks. The new system is based around an automatic analysis framework, which monitors the performance of new data as well as long-term trends and flags issues whenever they arise. An unbiased subset of the detector data are processed about once per hour by monitoring algorithms. The new analysis framework then analyses the plots that are prod...

  17. Exploiting protein flexibility to predict the location of allosteric sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjkovich Alejandro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allostery is one of the most powerful and common ways of regulation of protein activity. However, for most allosteric proteins identified to date the mechanistic details of allosteric modulation are not yet well understood. Uncovering common mechanistic patterns underlying allostery would allow not only a better academic understanding of the phenomena, but it would also streamline the design of novel therapeutic solutions. This relatively unexplored therapeutic potential and the putative advantages of allosteric drugs over classical active-site inhibitors fuel the attention allosteric-drug research is receiving at present. A first step to harness the regulatory potential and versatility of allosteric sites, in the context of drug-discovery and design, would be to detect or predict their presence and location. In this article, we describe a simple computational approach, based on the effect allosteric ligands exert on protein flexibility upon binding, to predict the existence and position of allosteric sites on a given protein structure. Results By querying the literature and a recently available database of allosteric sites, we gathered 213 allosteric proteins with structural information that we further filtered into a non-redundant set of 91 proteins. We performed normal-mode analysis and observed significant changes in protein flexibility upon allosteric-ligand binding in 70% of the cases. These results agree with the current view that allosteric mechanisms are in many cases governed by changes in protein dynamics caused by ligand binding. Furthermore, we implemented an approach that achieves 65% positive predictive value in identifying allosteric sites within the set of predicted cavities of a protein (stricter parameters set, 0.22 sensitivity, by combining the current analysis on dynamics with previous results on structural conservation of allosteric sites. We also analyzed four biological examples in detail, revealing

  18. Data Quality Objectives Supporting the Environmental Soil Monitoring Program for the Idaho National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Thomas Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This document describes the process used to develop data quality objectives for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Environmental Soil Monitoring Program in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance. This document also develops and presents the logic that was used to determine the specific number of soil monitoring locations at the INL Site, at locations bordering the INL Site, and at locations in the surrounding regional area. The monitoring location logic follows the guidance from the U.S. Department of Energy for environmental surveillance of its facilities.

  19. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-06

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents.

  20. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program. Third quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-06

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents.

  1. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1990 (April through June) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1990 are listed in this report.

  2. Stategy for Locating Potential Sites for Hydrogen in Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, N. L.; Gibbs, G. V.; Rosso, K. M.

    2002-12-01

    Neutron diffraction is ideally suited for determining structural positions of hydrogen in minerals and usually the sample is deuterated in order to reduce the incoherent scattering from the hydrogen. In many cases, however, difficulties in location of hydrogen in minerals by neutron diffraction may arise because the there may be too little hydrogen in the sample to detect, the sample cannot be deuterated, there may be deterioration in the quality of diffraction data collected in pressure cells, etc. We propose a strategy that will aid in both the determination of potential docking sites of hydrogen and in the determination of the crystallographic orientation of O-H bonds. The strategy is based on determining the Laplacian of the electron density, -∇ 2ρ (r), of the mineral. As demonstrated by Bader et al. (1984), a mapping of the Laplacian of the electron density distribution yields a series of concentric shells centered at the nucleus of each atom defining where the electron density distribution, ρ, is alternately locally concentrated and locally depleted, a distribution that reflects the shell structure of the atom. The region where the distribution is positive is called the valence-shell charge concentration (VSCC) of the atom (Bader, 1990). When two atoms combine and a bond is formed, the VSCC of each atom is distorted to one degree or another with the concomitant formation of maxima and minima in the VSCC of each atom. The maxima define domains where Ÿƒ is locally concentrated and the minima define domains where ρ is locally depleted. It has been found that the number, the location and the relative sizes of the maxima provide a faithful representation of the bonded and non-bonded electron pairs of the Lewis model. The non-bonded electron pairs correspond with sites of potential electrophilic attack. Gibbs et al. (2002) has extended this approach to minerals and predicted potential sites for hydrogen in coesite. The theoretical results agree very well

  3. Automated Monitoring System for Waste Disposal Sites and Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2003-03-01

    A proposal submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program to deploy an automated monitoring system for waste disposal sites and groundwater, herein referred to as the ''Automated Monitoring System,'' was funded in fiscal year (FY) 2002. This two-year project included three parts: (1) deployment of cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers, (2) development of a data management system, and (3) development of Internet accessibility. The proposed concept was initially (in FY 2002) to deploy cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers and partially develop the data management system at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This initial effort included both Bechtel Nevada (BN) and the Desert Research Institute (DRI). The following year (FY 2003), cellular modems were to be similarly deployed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the early data management system developed at the NTS was to be brought to those locations for site-specific development and use. Also in FY 2003, additional site-specific development of the complete system was to be conducted at the NTS. To complete the project, certain data, depending on site-specific conditions or restrictions involving distribution of data, were to made available through the Internet via the DRI/Western Region Climate Center (WRCC) WEABASE platform. If the complete project had been implemented, the system schematic would have looked like the figure on the following page.

  4. Variations in Metastasis Site by Primary Location in Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Ramzi; Bordeianou, Liliana G; Sylla, Patricia; Berger, David L

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine whether sites of distant recurrence are associated with specific locations of primary disease in colon cancer. A cohort including all patients (n = 947) undergoing a segmental colonic resection for colon cancer at our center (2004-2011) comparing site-specific metastatic presentation and recurrence rates, as well as their respective multivariable American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage-adjusted hazard ratios (mHR). Right-sided colectomies (n = 557) had a lower overall metastasis rate (24.8% vs. 31.8%; P = 0.017; mHR = 1.24 [95% CI: 0.96-1.60]; P = 0.011) due to significantly lower pulmonary metastasis in follow-up (2.7% vs. 9%; P mHR = 0.32 [95% CI: 0.17-0.58]; P = 0.001) and lower overall liver metastasis rate (15.6 vs. 22.1%; P = 0.012; mHR = 0.74 [95% CI: 0.55-0.99];P = 0.050). Left colectomies (n = 127) had higher rates of liver metastasis during follow-up (9.4% vs. 4.8%; P = 0.029; mHR = 1.64 [95% CI: 0.86-3.15]; P = 0.134). Sigmoid resections (n = 238) had higher baseline rates of liver metastasis (17.1% vs. 11.3%; P = 0.015) and higher cumulative rates of lung (12.2% vs. 5.4%; P mHR = 2.26 [95% CI: 1.41-3.63]; P = 0.001) and brain metastases (2.3% vs. 0.6%; P = 0.033; mHR = 4.03 [95% CI: 1.14-14.3]; P = 0.031). Other sites of metastasis, including the (retro) peritoneum, omentum, ovary, and bone, did not yield significant differences. Important variations in site-specific rates of metastatic disease exist within major resection regions of colon cancer. These variations may be important to consider when evaluating options for adjuvant treatment and surveillance after resection of the primary disease.

  5. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2004-04-12

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2003 (October 2002 through September 2003) on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes in groundwater are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. The largest portions of these plumes are migrating from the central Hanford Site to the southeast, toward the Columbia River. Concentrations of tritium, nitrate, and some other contaminants continued to exceed drinking water standards in groundwater discharging to the river in some locations. However, contaminant concentrations in river water remained low and were far below standards. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the central part of the Hanford Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in smaller plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath all but one of the reactor areas, and technetium-99 and uranium are present in the 200 Areas. Uranium exceeds standards in the 300 Area in the south part of the Hanford Site. Minor contaminant plumes with concentrations greater than standards include carbon-14, cesium-137, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, cyanide, fluoride, plutonium, and trichloroethene. Monitoring for the ''Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act'' is conducted in 11 groundwater operable units. The purpose of this monitoring is to define and track plumes and to monitor the effectiveness of interim remedial actions. Interim groundwater remediation in the 100 Areas continued with the goal of reducing the amount of chromium (100-K, 100-D, and 100-H) and strontium-90 (100-N) reaching the Columbia River. The objective of two interim remediation systems in the 200 West Area is to prevent the spread of carbon

  6. The ESO astronomical site monitor upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Sommer, Heiko; Sarazin, Marc; Bierwirth, Thomas; Dorigo, Dario; Vera Sequeiros, Ignacio; Navarrete, Julio; Del Valle, Diego

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and prediction of astronomical observing conditions are essential for planning and optimizing observations. For this purpose, ESO, in the 90s, developed the concept of an Astronomical Site Monitor (ASM), as a facility fully integrated in the operations of the VLT observatory[1]. Identical systems were installed at Paranal and La Silla, providing comprehensive local weather information. By now, we had very good reasons for a major upgrade: • The need of introducing new features to satisfy the requirements of observing with the Adaptive Optics Facility and to benefit other Adaptive Optics systems. • Managing hardware and software obsolescence. • Making the system more maintainable and expandable by integrating off-the-shelf hardware solutions. The new ASM integrates: • A new Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) paired with a Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) to measure the vertical distribution of turbulence in the high atmosphere and its characteristic velocity. • A new SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR) telescope, for measuring the altitude and intensity of turbulent layers in the low atmosphere. • A water vapour radiometer to monitor the water vapour content of the atmosphere. • The old weather tower, which is being refurbished with new sensors. The telescopes and the devices integrated are commercial products and we have used as much as possible the control system from the vendors. The existing external interfaces, based on the VLT standards, have been maintained for full backward compatibility. All data produced by the system are directly fed in real time into a relational database. A completely new web-based display replaces the obsolete plots based on HP-UX RTAP. We analyse here the architectural and technological choices and discuss the motivations and trade-offs.

  7. New Passive Methodology for Power Cable Monitoring and Fault Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngdeug

    The utilization of power cables is increasing with the development of renewable energy and the maintenance replacement of old overhead power lines. Therefore, effective monitoring and accurate fault location for power cables are very important for the sake of a stable power supply. The recent technologies for power cable diagnosis and temperature monitoring system are described including their intrinsic limitations for cable health assessment. Power cable fault location methods are reviewed with two main categories: off-line and on-line data based methods. As a diagnostic and fault location approach, a new passive methodology is introduced. This methodology is based on analyzing the resonant frequencies of the transfer function between the input and output of the power cable system. The equivalent pi model is applied to the resonant frequency calculation for the selected underground power cable transmission system. The characteristics of the resonant frequencies are studied by analytical derivations and PSCAD simulations. It is found that the variation of load magnitudes and change of positive power factors (i.e., inductive loads) do not affect resonant frequencies significantly, but there is considerable movement of resonant frequencies under change of negative power factors (i.e., capacitive loads). Power cable fault conditions introduce new resonant frequencies in accordance with fault positions. Similar behaviors of the resonant frequencies are shown in a transformer (TR) connected power cable system with frequency shifts caused by the TR impedance. The resonant frequencies can be extracted by frequency analysis of power signals and the inherent noise in these signals plays a key role to measure the resonant frequencies. Window functions provide an effective tool for improving resonant frequency discernment. The frequency analysis is implemented on noise laden PSCAD simulation signals and it reveals identical resonant frequency characteristics with theoretical

  8. Rulison Site groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    Project Rulison, a joint AEC and Austral experiment, was conducted under the AEC`s Plowshare Program to evaluate the feasibility of using a nuclear device to stimulate natural gas production in low-permeability, gas-producing geologic formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 40-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 m below ground surface. Natural gas production testing was conducted in 1970 and 1971. This report summarizes the results of the third quarter 1996 groundwater sampling event for the Rulison Site, which is located approximately 65 kilometers northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. The sampling was performed as part of a quarterly groundwater monitoring program implemented by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to monitor the effectiveness of remediation of a drilling effluent pond located at the site. The effluent pond was used for the storage of drilling mud during drilling of the emplacement hole for a 1969 gas stimulation test.

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joanne L. Knight

    2012-08-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  10. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joanne L. Knight

    2010-10-01

    This plan describes environmental monitoring as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, “Environmental Protection Program,” and additional environmental monitoring currently performed by other organizations in and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective of DOE Order 450.1 is to implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. This plan presents a summary of the overall environmental monitoring performed in and around the INL without duplicating detailed information in the various monitoring procedures and program plans currently used to conduct monitoring.

  11. Active versus passive radon monitoring at the Yucca Mountain site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Federal Regulations have mandated that a baseline assessment for the Yucca Mountain Site be performed. This includes the detection and monitoring of specific radionuclides present at the site. These radionuclides include radon 222, a decay progeny of naturally occurring uranium. Two radon monitoring systems are utilized at the Yucca Mountain site to detect ambient levels of radon. The first is a passive time integrated system, and the second is a continuous radon monitoring (CRM) system.

  12. Continuous wavelet transform analysis and modal location analysis acoustic emission source location for nuclear piping crack growth monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd, Shukri [Nondestructive Testing Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Holford, Karen M.; Pullin, Rhys [Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, CARDIFF CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-12

    Source location is an important feature of acoustic emission (AE) damage monitoring in nuclear piping. The ability to accurately locate sources can assist in source characterisation and early warning of failure. This paper describe the development of a novelAE source location technique termed 'Wavelet Transform analysis and Modal Location (WTML)' based on Lamb wave theory and time-frequency analysis that can be used for global monitoring of plate like steel structures. Source location was performed on a steel pipe of 1500 mm long and 220 mm outer diameter with nominal thickness of 5 mm under a planar location test setup using H-N sources. The accuracy of the new technique was compared with other AE source location methods such as the time of arrival (TOA) techniqueand DeltaTlocation. Theresults of the study show that the WTML method produces more accurate location resultscompared with TOA and triple point filtering location methods. The accuracy of the WTML approach is comparable with the deltaT location method but requires no initial acoustic calibration of the structure.

  13. 14 CFR 420.29 - Launch site location review for unproven launch vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch site location review for unproven... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Criteria and Information Requirements for Obtaining a License § 420.29 Launch site location review for...

  14. 14 CFR 420.30 - Launch site location review for permitted launch vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch site location review for permitted... AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Criteria and Information Requirements for Obtaining a License § 420.30 Launch site location review...

  15. The Savannah River site`s groundwater monitoring program: second quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1997, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. A detailed explanation of the flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1997 are included in this report.

  16. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  17. Wavelets-based clustering of air quality monitoring sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Sónia; Scotto, Manuel G; Monteiro, Alexandra; Alonso, Andres M

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims at providing a variance/covariance profile of a set of 36 monitoring stations measuring ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) hourly concentrations, collected over the period 2005-2013, in Portugal mainland. The resulting individual profiles are embedded in a wavelet decomposition-based clustering algorithm in order to identify groups of stations exhibiting similar profiles. The results of the cluster analysis identify three groups of stations, namely urban, suburban/urban/rural, and a third group containing all but one rural stations. The results clearly indicate a geographical pattern among urban stations, distinguishing those located in Lisbon area from those located in Oporto/North. Furthermore, for urban stations, intra-diurnal and daily time scales exhibit the highest variance. This is due to the more relevant chemical activity occurring in high NO2 emissions areas which are responsible for high variability on daily profiles. These chemical processes also explain the reason for NO2 and O3 being highly negatively cross-correlated in suburban and urban sites as compared with rural stations. Finally, the clustering analysis also identifies sites which need revision concerning classification according to environment/influence type.

  18. Design of sampling locations for river water quality monitoring considering seasonal variation of point and diffuse pollution loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekar, Vikas; Karmakar, Subhankar; Jha, Ramakar; Ghosh, N C

    2015-06-01

    The design of a water quality monitoring network (WQMN) is a complicated decision-making process because each sampling involves high installation, operational, and maintenance costs. Therefore, data with the highest information content should be collected. The effect of seasonal variation in point and diffuse pollution loadings on river water quality may have a significant impact on the optimal selection of sampling locations, but this possible effect has never been addressed in the evaluation and design of monitoring networks. The present study proposes a systematic approach for siting an optimal number and location of river water quality sampling stations based on seasonal or monsoonal variations in both point and diffuse pollution loadings. The proposed approach conceptualizes water quality monitoring as a two-stage process; the first stage of which is to consider all potential water quality sampling sites, selected based on the existing guidelines or frameworks, and the locations of both point and diffuse pollution sources. The monitoring at all sampling sites thus identified should be continued for an adequate period of time to account for the effect of the monsoon season. In the second stage, the monitoring network is then designed separately for monsoon and non-monsoon periods by optimizing the number and locations of sampling sites, using a modified Sanders approach. The impacts of human interventions on the design of the sampling net are quantified geospatially by estimating diffuse pollution loads and verified with land use map. To demonstrate the proposed methodology, the Kali River basin in the western Uttar Pradesh state of India was selected as a study area. The final design suggests consequential pre- and post-monsoonal changes in the location and priority of water quality monitoring stations based on the seasonal variation of point and diffuse pollution loadings.

  19. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2007-03-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater monitoring for FY 2006 on DOE's Hanford Site. Results of groundwater remediation, vadose zone monitoring, and characterization are summarized. DOE monitors groundwater at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), and Washington Administrative Code (WAC).

  20. 2012 Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Site Design Values

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A design value is a statistic that describes the air quality status of a given location relative to the level of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)....

  1. U.S. EPA OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS (ROCKY GAP, MD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator (OWL): uses linear regression to fit a plane to the elevation of the water table in monitoring wells in each round of sampling. The slope of the plane fit to the water table is used to predict the direction and gradient of ground water flow. Along with ...

  2. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring: Setting, sources and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. Hartman

    2000-04-11

    Groundwater monitoring is conducted on the Hanford Site to meet the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders; and the Washington Administrative Code. Results of monitoring are published annually (e.g., PNNL-11989). To reduce the redundancy of these annual reports, background information that does not change significantly from year to year has been extracted from the annual report and published in this companion volume. This report includes a description of groundwater monitoring requirements, site hydrogeology, and waste sites that have affected groundwater quality or that require groundwater monitoring. Monitoring networks and methods for sampling, analysis, and interpretation are summarized. Vadose zone monitoring methods and statistical methods also are described. Whenever necessary, updates to information contained in this document will be published in future groundwater annual reports.

  3. A Novel Solitude Conserving Location Monitoring Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravallika. K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Observing individual locations with a capable untrusted server impose secrecy threats to the monitored individuals. In this paper we propose “A Novel Solitude Conserving Location Monitoring approach for Wireless Sensor networks”. We design two approaches to study nondescript locations in-network approaches, namely quality-aware and resource-aware approaches, that aims to enable the system to give high end quality location monitoring services for end users, while conserving personal location privacy. Both approaches are worked based on k-anonymity solitude (i.e.,an object is indistinguishable among k objects, to enable highly trusted sensor nodes to provide the collective location data of monitored objects for our system. Each collective location is in a form of a observed area X along with the number of monitored objects reside in X. The resource-aware approach objective to optimize the computational and communication value, while quality-aware approach aims to increase the reliability of the collective location data by reducing their observing areas. We use spatial histogram methodology to estimates the distribution of observing objects based on the gathered collective location data. We evaluated these two approaches through simulated experiments. The simulation results shows that these approaches gives high quality location observing services for end users and assure the location secrecy of the monitored objects.

  4. Real-time bus location monitoring using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammad Y. M.; Audah, Lukman

    2017-09-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of objects, such as a vehicles, mobile devices, and buildings that have electronic components, software, and network connectivity that enable them to collect data, run commands, and be controlled through the Internet. Controlling physical items from the Internet will increase efficiency and save time. The growing number of devices used by people increases the practicality of having IoT devices on the market. The IoT is also an opportunity to develop products that can save money and time and increase work efficiency. Initially, they need more efficiency for real-time bus location systems, especially in university campuses. This system can easily find the accurate locations of and distances between each bus stop and the estimated time to reach a new location. This system has been separated into two parts, which are the hardware and the software. The hardware parts are the Arduino Uno and the Global Positioning System (GPS), while Google Earth and GpsGate are the software parts. The GPS continuously takes input data from the satellite and stores the latitude and longitude values in the Arduino Uno. If we want to track the vehicle, we need to send the longitude and latitude as a message to the Google Earth software to convert these into maps for navigation. Once the Arduino Uno is activated, it takes the last received latitude and longitude positions' values from GpsGate and sends a message to Google Earth. Once the message has been sent to Google Earth, the current location will be shown, and navigation will be activated automatically. Then it will be broadcast using ManyCam, Google+ Hangouts, and YouTube, as well as Facebook, and appear to users. The additional features use Google Forms for determining problems faced by students, who can also take immediate action against the responsible department. Then after several successful simulations, the results will be shown in real time on a map.

  5. Intelligent Garbage Location Monitoring using Remote Server and Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sam Geo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Solid Waste Management is a serious global issue in the current world. An efficient waste management is a pre requisition for maintain a safe and green environment as there are increasing all kinds of waste disposal. In this paper a new approach is developed for a systematic development in managing solid waste. Garbage Location is identified by using the GPS device installed and the coordinates are send to the corresponding mobile with GPRS module. The prototype developed in this project can be further improved and used for commercial purpose

  6. Locating air quality monitoring station using wind impact area diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, K V; Verma, P; Devotta, S

    2008-10-01

    In this study a new methodology is suggested to approximate the impact area downwind of an air pollution source, where air quality monitoring can be carried out to capture the maximum pollutant concentration. Hourly wind speed for a given month is grouped in to different wind speed ranges and the distance of pollutant travel is approximated from the average wind speed of that wind speed range. Since change in wind direction causes the impact distance to rotate, its rotation is approximated by the SD of wind direction change. Using this approach, area or region down wind of a source is determined and plotted. The pattern of monthly change of wind is better represented by the new type of diagram as compared to the wind rose diagram.

  7. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  8. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2012-11-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. The original DQO (PNNL-19427) considered radiological emissions at the PNNL Site from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. This first revision considers PNNL Site changes subsequent to the implementation of the original DQO. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site changes would continue to meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor air emissions and estimate offsite impacts of radioactive material operations. The result is an updated program to monitor the impact to the public from the PNNL Site. The team used the emission unit operation parameters and local meteorological data as well as information from the PSF Potential-to-Emit documentation and Notices of Construction submitted to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The locations where environmental monitoring stations would most successfully characterize the maximum offsite impacts of PNNL Site emissions from the three PSF buildings with major emission units were determined from these data. Three monitoring station locations were determined during the original revision of this document. This first revision considers expanded Department of Energy operations south of the PNNL Site and relocation of the two offsite, northern monitoring stations to sites near the PNNL Site fenceline. Inclusion of the southern facilities resulted in the proposal for a fourth monitoring station in the southern region. The southern expansion added two minor emission unit facilities and one diffuse emission unit facility. Relocation of the two northern stations was possible due to the use of solar power, rather than the previous limitation of the need for access to AC power, at these more remote locations. Addendum A contains all the changes brought about by the revision 1

  9. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2005-03-01

    This document presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring for fiscal year 2004 (October 2003 through September 2004)on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington State.

  10. Ground-water monitoring sites for Carson Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the monitoring sites where water levels were collected and used to develop a spatial ground-water data base in Carson Valley, west-central...

  11. RCRA Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area C at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Duane G.; Narbutovskih, Susan M.

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the groundwater monitoring plan for Waste Management Area C located in the 200 East Area of the DOE Hanford Site. This plan is required under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA).

  12. Hybrid wireless sensor network for rescue site monitoring after earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Shuo; Tang, Chong; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Hu, Weijian; Tan, Min; Gao, Bowei

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses the design of a low-cost, low-complexity, and rapidly deployable wireless sensor network (WSN) for rescue site monitoring after earthquakes. The system structure of the hybrid WSN is described. Specifically, the proposed hybrid WSN consists of two kinds of wireless nodes, i.e., the monitor node and the sensor node. Then the mechanism and the system configuration of the wireless nodes are detailed. A transmission control protocol (TCP)-based request-response scheme is proposed to allow several monitor nodes to communicate with the monitoring center. UDP-based image transmission algorithms with fast recovery have been developed to meet the requirements of in-time delivery of on-site monitor images. In addition, the monitor node contains a ZigBee module that used to communicate with the sensor nodes, which are designed with small dimensions to monitor the environment by sensing different physical properties in narrow spaces. By building a WSN using these wireless nodes, the monitoring center can display real-time monitor images of the monitoring area and visualize all collected sensor data on geographic information systems. In the end, field experiments were performed at the Training Base of Emergency Seismic Rescue Troops of China and the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the monitor system.

  13. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Lattice site location and annealing behaviour of Ca and Sr implanted GaN

    CERN Document Server

    De Vries, Bart; Wahl, Ulrich; Correia, J G; Araújo, João Pedro; Lojkowski, W; Kolesnikov, D

    2006-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of ion-implanted Ca and Sr in thin films of single-crystalline wurtzite GaN. Using the emission channeling technique the angular distributions of $\\beta\\!^{-}$−particles emitted by the radioactive isotopes $^{45}$Ca(t$_{ 1/2}$=163.8 d) and $^{89}$Sr(t$_{ 1/2}$=50.53 d) were monitored with a position-sensitive detector following 60 keV room-temperature implantation. Our experiments give direct evidence that $\\sim$90% of Ca and > 60% of Sr atoms were occupying substitutional Ga sites with root mean square displacements of the order of 0.15–0.30 Å, i.e., larger than the expected thermal vibration amplitude of 0.074 Å. Annealing the Ca implanted samples at 1100–1350 °C in high-pressure N$_{2}$ atmosphere resulted in a better incorporation into the substitutional Ga site. The Sr implanted sample showed a small decrease in rms displacements for vacuum annealing up to 900 °C, while the substitutional fraction remained nearly constant. The annealing behavior of the rms disp...

  15. Vadose zone monitoring for hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singley, J.E.; Beaudet, B.A.; Markey, P.H.; De Berry, D.W.; Kidwell, J.R.; Malish, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The corrosion of water treatment and supply systems is a very significant concern. Not only does it affect the aesthetic quality of the water but it also has an economic impact and poses adverse health implications. Corrosion by-products containing materials such as lead and cadmium have been associated with serious risks to the health of consumers of drinking water. In addition, corrosion-related contaminants commonly include compounds such as zinc, iron, and copper, which adversely affect the aesthetic aspects of the water. This book presents a guidance manual for corrosion control with sections on how and why corrosion occurs and how best to handle it. It also reviews the various materials used in the water works industry and their corrosion characteristics, as well as monitoring and detection techniques. Emphasis is placed on assessing the conditions and water quality characteristics due to the corrosion or deterioration of each of these materials.

  16. PM mass and elemental species concentration data for I-96 monitoring sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PM2.5 (fine) and PM10-2.5 (coarse) mass concentrations for monitoring sites located 10 m, 100 m and 300 m north of Interstate I-96 in Detroit, the water-soluble and...

  17. Hanford Site Near-Facility Environmental Monitoring Data Report for Calendar Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Craig J.; Dorsey, Michael C.; Mckinney, Stephen M.; Mitchell, Ronald M.

    2006-09-28

    This Appendix contains brief discussions, specific sampling location information, and complete analytical data results for the various near-facility environmental monitoring efforts for 2005. Detailed discussions and summarized analytical results are provided in PNNL-15892, Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2005.

  18. Final monitoring plan for site restoration at Murdock, Nebraska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-02-28

    environmental impacts of carbon tetrachloride discharge to the surface waters of a tributary creek located immediately north of the town. (3) To permanently reduce carbon tetrachloride concentrations in the groundwater and surface water at Murdock and hence restore these resources for potential beneficial use. To evaluate the effectiveness of the selected remedy and its ability to achieve the objectives specified for this site, monitoring is required. This document outlines the proposed scope of a long-term program for monitoring of the removal action at Murdock. In this section the specific remedial objectives of the action are summarized, and a brief overview of the chosen remedy is provided. Section 2 summarizes the results of a baseline sampling event that documented the distribution of carbon tetrachloride contamination in selected media at the Murdock site immediately before cleanup activities began. Section 3 recommends a strategy for subsequent monitoring of the removal action at Murdock, as well as criteria for evaluating the performance of the remedial systems and the progress of the restoration effort.

  19. MNAtoolbox: A Monitored Natural Attenuation Site Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borns, David J.; Brady, Patrick V.; Brady, Warren D.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Spalding, Brian P.; Waters, Robert D.; Zhang, Pengchu

    1999-07-12

    Screening of sites for the potential application and reliance upon monitored natural attenuation (MNA) can be done using MNAtoolbox, a web-based tool for estimating extent of biodegradation, chemical transformation, and dilution. MNAtoolbox uses site-specific input data, where available (default parameters are taken from the literature), to roughly quantify the nature and extent of attenuation at a particular site. Use of MNAtoolbox provides 3 important elements of site evaluation: (1) Identifies likely attenuation pathways, (2) Clearly identifies sites where MNA is inappropriate, and (3) Evaluates data requirements for subsequent reliance on MNA as a sole or partial corrective action.

  20. Recommended Locations of Beam Loss Monitors for the ATLAS Roman Pots

    CERN Document Server

    Hall-Wilton, R J; Talanov, V

    2007-01-01

    This note suggests suitable locations to position beam loss monitors to observe losses on the ATLAS Roman Pot station located close to 240m from IP1. This monitoring is envisaged to help to avoid quenches of the super- conducting magnets downstream of the roman pots and to avert damage to either the LHC machine elements or the roman pot detectors. The results presented in this note indicate the locations where the BLMs should be installed. The recommended locations are determined using previous simulation results on BLM response to losses; therefore these results should be considered in conjunction with the previous results. A more detailed note on the topic will follow later.

  1. Recommended locations of beam-loss monitors for the ATLAS Roman pots

    CERN Document Server

    Hall-Wilton, R J; Talanov, V

    2007-01-01

    This note suggests suitable locations to position beam loss monitors to observe losses on the ATLAS Roman Pot station located close to 240m from IP1. This monitoring is envisaged to help to avoid quenches of the super- conducting magnets downstream of the roman pots and to avert damage to either the LHC machine elements or the roman pot detectors. The results presented in this note indicate the locations where the BLMs should be installed. The recommended locations are determined using previous simulation results on BLM response to losses; therefore these results should be considered in conjunction with the previous results. A more detailed note on the topic will follow later.

  2. 2015 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site was the location of a 3-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test in 1961 and a groundwater tracer test in 1963. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted the groundwater tracer test using four dissolved radionuclides--tritium, iodine-131, strontium-90, and cesium-137--as tracers. Site reclamation and remediation began after the underground testing, and was conducted in several phases at the site. The New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) issued a Conditional Certificate of Completion in September 2014, which documents that surface remediation activities have been successfully completed in accordance with the Voluntary Remediation Program. Subsurface activities have included annual sampling and monitoring of wells at and near the site since 1972. These annual monitoring activities were enhanced in 2008 to include monitoring hydraulic head and collecting samples from the onsite wells USGS-4, USGS-8, and LRL-7 using the low-flow sampling method. In 2010, the annual monitoring was focused to the monitoring wells within the site boundary. A site inspection and annual sampling were conducted on January 27-28, 2015. A second site visit was conducted on April 21, 2015, to install warning/notification signs to fulfill a requirement of the Conditional Certificate of Completion that was issued by the NMED for the surface.

  3. 2015 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site was the location of a 3-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test in 1961 and a groundwater tracer test in 1963. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted the groundwater tracer test using four dissolved radionuclides-tritium, iodine-131, strontium-90, and cesium-137-as tracers. Site reclamation and remediation began after the underground testing and was conducted in several phases at the site. The New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) issued a Conditional Certificate of Completion in September 2014, which documents that surface remediation activities have been successfully completed in accordance with the Voluntary Remediation Program. Subsurface activities have included annual sampling and monitoring of wells at and near the site since 1972. These annual monitoring activities were enhanced in 2008 to include monitoring hydraulic head and collecting samples from the onsite wells USGS-4, USGS-8, and LRL-7 using the low-flow sampling method. In 2010, the annual monitoring was focused to the monitoring wells within the site boundary. A site inspection and annual sampling were conducted on January 27-28, 2015. A second site visit was conducted on April21, 2015, to install warning/notification signs to fulfill a requirement of the Conditional Certificate of Completion that was issued by the NMED for the surface.

  4. Improved ATLAS HammerCloud Monitoring for local Site Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Boehler, Michael; The ATLAS collaboration; Hoenig, Friedrich; Legger, Federica; Sciacca, Francesco Giovanni; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Every day hundreds of tests are run on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid for the ATLAS, and CMS experiments in order to evaluate the performance and reliability of the different computing sites. All this activity is steered, controlled, and monitored by the HammerCloud testing infrastructure. Sites with failing functionality tests are auto-excluded from the ATLAS computing grid, therefore it is essential to provide a detailed and well organized web interface for the local site administrators such that they can easily spot and promptly solve site issues. Additional functionality has been developed to extract and visualize the most relevant information. The site administrators can now be pointed easily to major site issues which lead to site blacklisting as well as possible minor issues that are usually not conspicuous enough to warrant the blacklisting of a specific site, but can still cause undesired effects such as a non-negligible job failure rate. This paper summarizes the different developments and optimiz...

  5. Location Capability and Site Characterization Installing a Borehole VBB Seismometer: the OGS Experience in Ferrara (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, D.; Barnaba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 19 very sensitive broad band and 17 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS CRS data centre in Udine. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara and to the deployment of a temporary seismographic network consisting of eight portable seismological stations, to record the local earthquakes that occurred during the seismic sequence. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate seismic site responses in the area. We will introduce details of the Ferrara VBB borehole station and the OGS temporary seismographic network configuration and installation. We will then illustrate the location capability performances, and finally we will shortly describe seismic site characterization with surface/borehole comparisons in terms of seismic noise, site amplification and resonance frequencies.

  6. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Perimeter Levee Rehabilitation Location and Site Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map 1 displays the Clarence Cannon NWR perimeter levee rehabilitation location and site plan portion of Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge. Map 2 displays profiles...

  7. Location of Historical Buildings (points) at Fort Davis National Historic Site, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a point shapefile showing where historic buildings were located at Fort Davis National Historic Site. The remnants or foundations of these buildings where...

  8. Data Quality Objectives Supporting the Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program for the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundell, J. F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Magnuson, S. O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scherbinske, P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Case, M. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents the development of the data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program and follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DQO process (EPA 2006). This document also develops and presents the logic to determine the specific number of direct radiation monitoring locations around INL facilities on the desert west of Idaho Falls and in Idaho Falls, at locations bordering the INL Site, and in the surrounding regional area. The selection logic follows the guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) (2015) for environmental surveillance of DOE facilities.

  9. Sequential Optimal Monitoring Network Design using Iterative Kriging for Identification of Unknown Groundwater Pollution Sources Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, O.; Datta, B.

    2011-12-01

    Identification of unknown groundwater pollution source characteristics, in terms of location, magnitude and activity duration is important for designing an effective pollution remediation strategy. Precise source characterization also becomes very important to ascertain liability, and to recover the cost of remediation from parties responsible for the groundwater pollution. Due to the uncertainties in accurately predicting the aquifer response to source flux injection, generally encountered sparsity of concentration observation data in the field, and the non uniqueness in the aquifer response to the subjected hydraulic and chemical stresses, groundwater pollution source characterization remains a challenging task. A scientifically designed pollutant concentration monitoring network becomes imperative for accurate pollutant source characterization. The efficiency of the unknown source locations identification process is largely determined by locations of monitoring wells where the pollutant concentration is observed. The proposed method combines spatial interpolation of concentration measurements and Simulated Annealing as optimization algorithm to find the optimum locations for monitoring wells. Initially, the observed concentration data at few sparsely and arbitrarily distributed wells are used to interpolate the concentration data for the aquifer study area. The concentration information is passed to the optimization algorithm (decision model) as concentration gradient which in turn finds the optimum locations for implementing the next sequence of monitoring wells. Concentration measurement data from these designed monitoring wells and already implemented monitoring network are iteratively used as feedback information for potential groundwater pollution source locations identification. The potential applicability of the developed methodology is demonstrated for an illustrative study area.

  10. Vertical view of Apollo 16 landing site located Descartes area lunar nearside

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A vertical view of the Apollo 16 landing site located in the Descartes area lunar nearside. The overlay indicates the location of the proposed touchdown point for the Apollo 16 Lunar Module. Descartes is located west of the Sea of Nectar and southwest of the Sea of Tranquility. This photograph was taken with a 500mm lens camera from lunar orbit by the Apollo 14 crew.

  11. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  12. Library Facility Siting and Location Handbook. The Greenwood Library Management Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Christine M.

    This handbook is a guide to the complex process of library facility siting and location. It includes relevant research and professionals' siting experiences, as well as actual case studies of closures, openings, mergers, and relocations of library facilities. While the bulk of the volume provides practical information, the work also presents an…

  13. 76 FR 64943 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; ACM Smelter and Refinery Site, Located...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... AGENCY Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; ACM Smelter and Refinery Site, Located in... administrative settlement for recovery of past and projected future response costs concerning the ACM Smelter and...-5027. Comments should reference the ACM Smelter and Refinery NPL Site, the EPA Docket No....

  14. TYPES, USES, AND LOCATIONS OF REAL-TIME BIOLOGICAL MONITORING IN EUROPE AND THE US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many dffferent types of real-time biological monitoring (fish behavior and current, daphnid dynamic and toximeter, clam monitors, algae, and luminescent bacteria) have been used in several countries (Germany, Netherlands, France, England( and many locations in Europe. Only a few ...

  15. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Mid-FY 1991 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1990 through March 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations and the Environmental Sciences Division to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. Monitoring results continue to demonstrate the no LLW is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II began during this reporting period and 115 vaults had been loaded by the end of March 1991.

  16. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the first quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and the other documentation for this program and provides a record of the program's activities and rationale and an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of the analytical data and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data and related data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  17. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  18. US8,994,532 "Data Center Equipment Location and Monitoring System"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A data center equipment location system includes both hardware and software to provide for location, monitoring, security and identification of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The system provides a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...

  19. 40 CFR 141.605 - Subpart V compliance monitoring location recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... location recommendations. 141.605 Section 141.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... System Evaluations § 141.605 Subpart V compliance monitoring location recommendations. (a) Your IDSE... the criteria in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section. (b) You must select the number...

  20. Stratigraphic Profiles for Selected Hanford Site Seismometer Stations and Other Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.

    2014-02-01

    Stratigraphic profiles were constructed for eight selected Hanford Site seismometer stations, five Hanford Site facility reference locations, and seven regional three-component broadband seismometer stations. These profiles provide interpretations of the subsurface layers to support estimation of ground motions from past earthquakes, and the prediction of ground motions from future earthquakes. In most cases these profiles terminated at the top of the Wanapum Basalt, but at selected sites profiles were extended down to the top of the crystalline basement. The composite one-dimensional stratigraphic profiles were based primarily on previous interpretations from nearby boreholes, and in many cases the nearest deep borehole is located kilometers away.

  1. Omaha District Final Cultural Resource Site Monitoring Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Game , Fish, Parks and Recreation FINAL CULTURAL RESOURCES SITE MONITORING PLAN U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, OMAHA DISTRICT JUNE 2014 Page | 2...to collect routine monitoring data, which is uploaded into CR-DMS. Pathfinder Office is utilized for pre and post processing of data. Detailed...collecting. The data dictionary is created in Pathfinder office and transferred to the unit. The data dictionary is utilized to collect information

  2. Monitoring and Modeling Carbon Dynamics at a Network of Intensive Sites in the USA and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, R.; Wayson, C.; Johnson, K. D.; Pan, Y.; Angeles, G.; De Jong, B. H.; Andrade, J. L.; Dai, Z.

    2013-05-01

    The Forest Services of the USA and Mexico, supported by NASA and USAID, have begun to establish a network of intensive forest carbon monitoring sites. These sites are used for research and teaching, developing forest management practices, and forging links to the needs of communities. Several of the sites have installed eddy flux towers to basic meteorology data and daily estimates of forest carbon uptake and release, the processes that determine forest growth. Field sampling locations at each site provide estimates of forest biomass and carbon stocks, and monitor forest dynamic processes such as growth and mortality rates. Remote sensing facilitates scaling up to the surrounding landscapes. The sites support information requirements for implementing programs such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+), enabling communities to receive payments for ecosystem services such as reduced carbon emissions or improved forest management. In addition to providing benchmark data for REDD+ projects, the sites are valuable for validating state and national estimates from satellite remote sensing and the national forest inventory. Data from the sites provide parameters for forest models that support strategic management analysis, and support student training and graduate projects. The intensive monitoring sites may be a model for other countries in Latin America. Coordination among sites in the USA, Mexico and other Latin American countries can ensure harmonization of approaches and data, and share experiences and knowledge among countries with emerging opportunities for implementing REDD+ and other conservation programs.

  3. The SSC cycle: a PDCA approach to address site-specific characteristics in a continuous shallow water quality monitoring project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Eduardo J

    2008-05-01

    In any water quality-monitoring project there are several critical success factors that must be adequately addressed in order to ensure the implementation and realization of the monitoring objectives. Site selection is one of these critical success factors. The monitoring sites must be selected to comply with the monitoring and data quality objectives. In the real world, ideal monitoring setting conditions are difficult to achieve, and compromises must be made in order to locate the monitoring stations that best represent the environment to be monitored. Site-specific characteristics are all the environmental, logistical and management factors particular to the monitoring site, that could influence the fulfilment of the monitoring and data quality objectives. Therefore, during the site selection process, it is essential to properly consider and evaluate these site-specific characteristics. The SSC cycle was developed with this goal in mind, to assist the monitoring team to systematically address site-specific characteristics. The cycle is a methodology to organize the site-specific characteristics in different categories, and to ensure a comprehensive overview of these characteristics throughout the project life cycle.

  4. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Second quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document contains information concerning the groundwater monitoring program at Savannah River Plant. The EPD/EMS (environmental protection department/environmental monitoring section) is responsible for monitoring constituents in the groundwater at approximately 135 waste sites in 16 areas at SRS. This report consolidates information from field reports, laboratory analysis, and quality control. The groundwater in these areas has been contaminated with radioactive materials, organic compounds, and heavy metals.

  5. Sites for locations of nuclear reactors; Sitios para emplazamientos de reactores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, M.; Huerta, M.; Lopez, A., E-mail: miguel.balcazar@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    A restriction on sites of nuclear energy is the history of seismic activity, in its magnitude (Richter) and intensity (Mercalli). This article delimits the areas of greatest magnitude and national seismic intensity, with restrictions of ground acceleration; the supplement areas with a low magnitude of seismic activity are shown. Potential sites for the location of these sites are introduced into a geographic information system. The set of geo-referenced data contains the location of the active volcanic manifestations; the historical record of earthquake epicenters, magnitudes and intensities; major geological faults; surface hydrology and water bodies; location of population density; protected areas; contour lines; the rock type or geology. The geographic information system allows entering normative criteria and environmental restrictions that correlate with geo-referenced data described above, forms both probable and exclusion areas for the installation of nuclear sites. (Author)

  6. Hanford Site Anuran Monitoring Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, Justin W.; Johnson, Scott J.; Lindsey, Cole T.

    2014-02-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) conducts ecological monitoring on the Hanford Site to collect and track data needed to ensure compliance with an array of environmental laws, regulations, and policies governing DOE activities. Ecological monitoring data provide baseline information about the plants, animals, and habitat under DOE-RL stewardship at Hanford required for decision-making under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The Hanford Site Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP, DOE/EIS-0222-F) which is the Environmental Impact Statement for Hanford Site activities, helps ensure that DOE-RL, its contractors, and other entities conducting activities on the Hanford Site are in compliance with NEPA.

  7. Hanford Site Raptor Nest Monitoring Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John J.; Lindsey, Cole T.; Wilde, Justin W.

    2014-02-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) conducts ecological monitoring on the Hanford Site to collect and track data needed to ensure compliance with an array of environmental laws, regulations, and policies governing DOE activities. Ecological monitoring data provide baseline information about the plants, animals, and habitat under DOE-RL stewardship at Hanford required for decision-making under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The Hanford Site Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP, DOE/EIS-0222-F) which is the Environmental Impact Statement for Hanford Site activities, helps ensure that DOE-RL, its contractors, and other entities conducting activities on the Hanford Site are in compliance with NEPA.

  8. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1989 (July--September), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the third quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from third quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  9. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, first quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During first quarter 1989 (January--March), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the first quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from first quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  10. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  11. Special Nuclear Material Portal Monitoring at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAnn Long; Michael Murphy

    2008-07-01

    Prior to April 2007, acceptance and performance testing of the various Special Nuclear Material (SNM) monitoring devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed by the Radiological Health Instrumentation department. Calibration and performance testing on the PM-700 personnel portal monitor was performed, but there was no test program for the VM-250 vehicle portal monitor. The handheld SNM monitors, the TSA model 470B, were being calibrated annually, but there was no performance test program. In April of 2007, the Material Control and Accountability Manager volunteered to take over performance testing of all SNM portal monitors at NTS in order to strengthen the program and meet U.S. Department of Energy Order requirements. This paper will discuss the following activities associated with developing a performance testing program: changing the culture, learning the systems, developing and implementing procedures, troubleshooting and repair, validating the process, physical control of equipment, acquisition of new systems, and implementing the performance test program.

  12. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed site and facility designs...'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluated potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the task force presented in this report includes: site screening (Sections 3, 4, and 5), the MRS facilities which are to be sited are described; the criteria, process and outcome of the screening process is presented; and descriptions of the candidate MRS facility sites are given, and site evaluations (Sections 6 through 9) where the rational for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force.

  13. Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites in a community of tropical butterflies: taxonomic and site associations and distinctions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashish D Tiple; Sonali V Padwad; Leonardo Dapporto; Roger L H Dennis

    2010-12-01

    Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites have been studied in 72 butterfly species at Nagpur, India, and related to taxonomy, morphology, habitat and population parameters. Species can be placed in three broad classes of mate location behaviour: invariant patrolling, invariant perching, and perch-patrol, the latter associated with increasing site fidelity, territorial defence and male assemblages. Significant taxonomic differences occur, closely related species tending to share mate location behaviours. Morphological differences are found with heavier and larger butterflies displaying greater site fidelity and territorial defence, and differences occur between individuals of species which both perch and patrol. Invariant patrolling is particularly associated with tracks through vegetation, host plant-track distributions, and high female to male numbers observed on transects; invariant perching is linked more to edge features than patrolling, and to lower population counts on transects. Species which perch-patrol, defend territories and establish male assemblages are associated with more complex vegetation structures, and have encounter sites at vegetation edges, landforms and predictable resource (host plant) concentrations. Attention is drawn to the importance of distinctive mate encounter sites for the conservation of butterfly species’ habitats.

  14. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.; Borghese, J.V. [eds.] [and others

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1996 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that affected groundwater quality on the site. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone during FY 1996 comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-gas monitoring, and electrical resistivity tomography. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1995 and June 1996. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Smaller plumes of strontium-90, technetium-99, and plutonium also were present at levels above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington interim drinking water standards. Uranium concentrations greater than the proposed drinking water standard were also observed. Nitrate, fluoride, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichlomethylene were present in groundwater samples at levels above their U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or State of Washington maximum contaminant levels. The nitrate plume is the most extensive. Three-dimensional, numerical, groundwater models were applied to the Hanford Site to predict contaminant-flow paths and the impact of operational changes on site groundwater conditions. Other models were applied to assess the performance of three separate pump-and-treat systems.

  15. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2003-02-28

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2002 on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. This report is written to meet the requirements in CERCLA, RCRA, the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, and Washington State Administrative Code.

  16. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  17. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  18. Finding erotic oases: locating the sites of men's same-sex anonymous sexual encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Because anonymous sexual relations between two men are widely considered deviant many men seeking such activities look to erotic oases-natural environments appropriated for covert, often furtive sexual purposes. Previous research on erotic oases has focused on characteristics of involved men and processes of locating, negotiating with, and consummating sexual relations with others. This study draws on one major Web site listing of "cruising places" in the United States to identify common locations for erotic oases. Results show that the most common locations identified as erotic oases by users are public parks, adult bookstores, health clubs, and college campuses. Locations most likely to be listed as believed to be under law enforcement surveillance are outdoor, high traffic locations. Based on these results existing research has only begun to examine the most common locations for this highly stigmatized, deviant behavior and subculture.

  19. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Morasch, Launa F.; Webber, William D.

    2006-02-28

    This report is one of the major products and deliverables of the Groundwater Remediation and Closure Assessment Projects detailed work plan for FY 2006, and reflects the requirements of The Groundwater Performance Assessment Project Quality Assurance Plan (PNNL-15014). This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 2005 on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. The most extensive contaminant plumes in groundwater are tritium, iodine-129, and nitrate, which all had multiple sources and are very mobile in groundwater. The largest portions of these plumes are migrating from the central Hanford Site to the southeast, toward the Columbia River. Carbon tetrachloride and associated organic constituents form a relatively large plume beneath the west-central part of the Hanford Site. Hexavalent chromium is present in plumes beneath the reactor areas along the river and beneath the central part of the site. Strontium-90 exceeds standards beneath all but one of the reactor areas. Technetium-99 and uranium plumes exceeding standards are present in the 200 Areas. A uranium plume underlies the 300 Area. Minor contaminant plumes with concentrations greater than standards include carbon-14, cesium-137, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, cyanide, fluoride, plutonium, and trichloroethene. Monitoring for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 is conducted in 11 groundwater operable units. The purpose of this monitoring is to define and track plumes and to monitor the effectiveness of interim remedial actions. Interim groundwater remediation in the 100 Areas continued with the goal of reducing the amount of chromium (100-K, 100-D, and 100-H) and strontium-90 (100-N) reaching the Columbia River. The objective of two interim remediation systems in the 200 West Area is to prevent the spread of carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99/uranium plumes. Resource Conservation and

  20. Probing of the location of the allosteric site on m1 muscarinic receptors by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, H; Lazareno, S; Birdsall, N J

    1995-01-01

    In an attempt to locate the allosteric site on muscarinic receptors to which gallamine binds, 21 residues in the putative external loops and loop/transmembrane helix interfaces have been mutated to alanine. These residues are conserved in mammalian m1-m5 receptors. All mutant receptors can be expressed in COS-7 cells at high levels and appear to be functional, in that acetylcholine binding is sensitive to GTP. The gallamine binding site does not appear to involve the first, second, and most of the third extracellular loops. Tryptophan-400 and -101 inhibit gallamine binding when mutated to alanine or to phenylalanine and may form part of the allosteric site. Several mutations also affect antagonist binding. Surprisingly, tryptophan-91, a residue conserved in monoamine and peptide receptors, is important for antagonist binding. This residue, present in the middle of the first extracellular loop, may have a structural role in many G protein-coupled receptors. Antagonist binding is also affected by mutations of tryptophan-101 and tyrosine-404 to alanine or phenylalanine. In a helical wheel model, trytophan-101 and tyrosine-404, in conjunction with serine-78, aspartate-105, and tyrosine-408, form a cluster of residues that have been reported to affect antagonist binding when mutated, and they may therefore be part of the antagonist binding site. It is suggested that the allosteric site may be located close to and just extracellular to the antagonist binding site. The binding of methoctramine, an antagonist with allosteric properties, is not substantially affected by mutations at tryptophan-91, -101, and -400 and tyrosine-404, and thus these amino acids are not important for its binding. The binding of himbacine, another antagonist with allosteric properties, is affected by these mutations but in a manner different from that of gallamine or competitive antagonists. It has not been possible to determine whether methoctramine and himbacine bind exclusively to the

  1. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  2. Correlations between wind flow and population location at 67 light water nuclear power plant sites. [USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprung, J.L.; Steck, G.P.; Frazier, A.W.

    1978-10-01

    Because wind flow and population location are both likely to be influenced by topography, it has been suggested that wind distributions and population distributions ought to be correlated and that the neglect of these correlations in the calculations of the Reactor Safety Study could have resulted in significant underestimates of accident consequences. This paper presents the results of an investigation of correlations between wind roses and population locations at 67 of the 68 power plant sites included in the Reactor Safety Study.

  3. Downhole Microseismic Monitoring at a Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Site, Farnsworth Unit, Ochiltree County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, A.; Balch, R. S.; van Wijk, J.

    2015-12-01

    Farnsworth Oil Field in North Texas hosts an ongoing carbon capture, utilization, and storage project. This study is focused on passive seismic monitoring at the carbon injection site to measure, locate, and catalog any induced seismic events. A Geometrics Geode system is being utilized for continuous recording of the passive seismic downhole bore array in a monitoring well. The array consists of 3-component dual Geospace OMNI-2400 15Hz geophones with a vertical spacing of 30.5m. Downhole temperature and pressure are also monitored. Seismic data is recorded continuously and is produced at a rate of over 900GB per month, which must be archived and reviewed. A Short Term Average/Long Term Average (STA/LTA) algorithm was evaluated for its ability to search for events, including identification and quantification of any false positive events. It was determined that the algorithm was not appropriate for event detection with the background level of noise at the field site and for the recording equipment as configured. Alternatives are being investigated. The final intended outcome of the passive seismic monitoring is to mine the continuous database and develop a catalog of microseismic events/locations and to determine if there is any relationship to CO2 injection in the field. Identifying the location of any microseismic events will allow for correlation with carbon injection locations and previously characterized geological and structural features such as faults and paleoslopes. Additionally, the borehole array has recorded over 1200 active sources with three sweeps at each source location that were acquired during a nearby 3D VSP. These data were evaluated for their usability and location within an effective radius of the array and were stacked to improve signal-noise ratio and are used to calibrate a full field velocity model to enhance event location accuracy. Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591.

  4. Rapid selection of a representative monitoring location of soil water content for irrigation scheduling using surface moisture-density gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Ibrahim; Janat, Mussadak; Makhlouf, Mohsen; Hamdan, Altayeb

    2016-10-01

    Establishing a representative monitoring location of soil water content is important for agricultural water management. One of the challenges is to develop a field protocol for determining such a location with minimum costs. In this paper, we use the concept of time stability in soil water content to examine whether using a short term monitoring period is sufficient to identify a representative site of soil water content and, therefore, irrigation scheduling. Surface moisture-density gauge was used as a means for measuring soil water content. Variations of soil water content in space and time were studied using geostatistical tools. Measuring soil water content was made at 30 locations as nodes of a 6×8 m grid, six times during the growing season. A representative location for average soil water content estimation was allocated at the beginning of a season, and thereafter it was validated. Results indicated that the spatial pattern of soil water content was strongly temporally stable, explained by the relationship between soil water content and fine soil texture. Two field surveys of soil water content, conducted before and after the 1st irrigation, could be sufficient to allocate a representative location of soil water content, and for adequate irrigation scheduling of the whole field. Surface moisture-density gauge was found to be efficient for characterising time stability of soil water content under irrigated field conditions.

  5. Wildlife mitigation and monitoring report Gunnison, Colorado, site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); its purpose is to cleanup uranium mill tailings and other contaminated material at 24 UMTRA Project sites in 10 states. This report summarizes the wildlife mitigation and monitoring program under way at the Gunnison UMTRA Project, Gunnison, Colorado. Remedial action at the Gunnison site was completed in December 1995 and is described in detail in the Gunnison completion report. The impacts of this activity were analyzed in the Gunnison environmental assessment (EA). These impacts included two important game species: the pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americans) and sage grouse (Wentrocerus urophasianus). Haul truck traffic was predicted to limit antelope access to water sources north of the Tenderfoot Mountain haul road and that truck traffic along this and other haul roads could result in antelope road kills. Clearing land at the disposal cell, haul road and borrow site activities, and the associated human activities also were predicted to negatively impact (directly and indirectly) sage grouse breeding, nesting, loafing, and wintering habitat. As a result, an extensive mitigation and monitoring plan began in 1992. Most of the monitoring studies are complete and the results of these studies, written by different authors, appear in numerous reports. This report will: (1) Analyze existing impacts and compare them to predicted impacts. (2) Summarize mitigation measures. (3) Summarize all existing monitoring data in one report. (4) Analyze the effectiveness of the mitigation measures.

  6. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. First quarter, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the first quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and the other documentation for this program and provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale and an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of the analytical data and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data and related data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  7. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  8. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site – FY 2010 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Felmy, Diana

    2010-10-27

    This report summarizes the recharge data collected in FY 2010 at five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Average monthly precipitation and temperature conditions in FY 2010 were near normal and did not present an opportunity for increased recharge. The recharge monitoring data confirmed those conditions, showing normal behavior in water content, matric head, and recharge rates. Also provided in this report is a strategy for recharge estimation for the next 5 years.

  9. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs{hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report include: site evaluations (sections 10 through 12) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This in Volume 2 of a three volume document.

  10. Monitored Retrievable Storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs {hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report, all site evaluations (sections 13 through 16) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This is Volume 3 of a three volume document. References are also included in this volume.

  11. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: First quarter 1993, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department`s Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) during the first quarter of 1993. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  12. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-17

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department`s Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) during the fourth quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  13. Hanford Site groundwater monitoring for Fiscal Year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E. [eds.] [and others

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring for fiscal year (FY) 1997 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Soil-vapor extraction continued in the 200-West Area to remove carbon tetrachloride from the vadose zone. Characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone comprised primarily spectral gamma logging, soil-vapor monitoring, and analysis and characterization of sediments sampled below a vadose-zone monitoring well. Source-term analyses for strontium-90 in 100-N Area vadose-zone sediments were performed using recent groundwater-monitoring data and knowledge of strontium`s ion-exchange properties. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1996 and June 1997. Water levels near the Columbia River increased during this period because the river stage was unusually high. Groundwater chemistry was monitored to track the extent of contamination, to note trends, and to identify emerging groundwater-quality problems. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of technetium-99, uranium, strontium-90, and carbon-14 also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Plutonium and cesium-137 exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for tritium, uranium, strontium-90, and plutonium in small plumes or single wells. Nitrate is the most extensive chemical contaminant. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Cyanide concentrations were elevated in one area but were below the maximum contaminant level.

  14. Locating Sites of Negations and Denegating "Negative Essentializing": Rereading Virginia Woolf's "A Room of One's Own"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Manahari

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines how Virginia Woolf uses writing as a tool to locate sites of negations, such as women's exclusion from places of power and knowledge, and to expose negative essentializing that permeates patriarchal structure in "A Room of One's Own." Whereas scholarship on the book has explored a wide range of issues including sex,…

  15. A GENERAL SITE LOCATION STUDY FOR A REGIONAL COLLEGE FOR THE OKANAGAN AREA OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GILES, FREDERIC T.; AND OTHERS

    THE FEASIBILITY AND GENERAL SITE LOCATION OF A REGIONAL COLLEGE FOR TEN SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN THE OKANAGAN AREA OF BRITISH COLUMBIA WAS STUDIED AND ESTABLISHED. GEOGRAPHIC CENTERS OF POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, TRANSPORTATION, GENERAL ECONOMY AND SCHOOL POPULATIONS FOR GRADES 1-12 AND 13-14 WERE DETERMINED FROM THE ANALYSIS OF DEMOGRAPHIC, GEOGRAPHIC…

  16. Review of present groundwater monitoring programs at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershey, R.L.; Gillespie, D.

    1993-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is conducted to detect the presence of radionuclides produced by underground nuclear testing and to verify the quality and safety of groundwater supplies as required by the State of Nevada and federal regulations, and by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. Groundwater is monitored at water-supply wells and at other boreholes and wells not specifically designed or located for traditional groundwater monitoring objectives. Different groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS are conducted by several DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) contractors. Presently, these individual groundwater monitoring programs have not been assessed or administered under a comprehensive planning approach. Redundancy exists among the programs in both the sampling locations and the constituents analyzed. Also, sampling for certain radionuclides is conducted more frequently than required. The purpose of this report is to review the existing NTS groundwater monitoring programs and make recommendations for modifying the programs so a coordinated, streamlined, and comprehensive monitoring effort may be achieved by DOE/NV. This review will be accomplished in several steps. These include: summarizing the present knowledge of the hydrogeology of the NTS and the potential radionuclide source areas for groundwater contamination; reviewing the existing groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS; examining the rationale for monitoring and the constituents analyzed; reviewing the analytical methods used to quantify tritium activity; discussing monitoring network design criteria; and synthesizing the information presented and making recommendations based on the synthesis. This scope of work was requested by the DOE/NV Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and satisfies the 1993 (fiscal year) HRMP Groundwater Monitoring Program Review task.

  17. 2015 Advanced Site Investigation and Monitoring Report Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, William [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management (LM); Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy conducted initial groundwater characterization of the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site in the 1990s. The characterization culminated in a Site Observational Work Plan in 1998 that recommended a natural flushing compliance strategy. Results of verification monitoring indicated that natural flushing was generally progressing as expected until June 2010, when significant increases in contaminant concentrations were measured in several monitoring wells downgradient of the site after the area flooded. In response to the unexpected results following the flood, an enhanced characterization of the surficial aquifer was conducted in 2012, which included installation of 103 boreholes along nine transects with a Geoprobe, collection of 103 water samples and 65 soil samples, laboratory tests on the soil samples, and additional groundwater modeling. This advanced site investigation report summarizes additional investigation in 2015 through the use of backhoe trenching, sonic drilling, multilevel monitoring wells, direct-push drilling, and temporary well points to collect soil and groundwater samples. Additional surface water measurements were made included the installation of a stilling well and the measurement of stream elevation along the Wind River to approximate upgradient groundwater heads. Groundwater sampling included the addition of geochemical constituents and isotopes that have not been sampled in the past to better understand post-flood conditions and the possibility of additional or ongoing contaminant sources. This sampling was performed to (1) better define the contaminant plumes, (2) verify the occurrence of persistent secondary contaminant sources, (3) better understand the reason for the contaminant spikes after a 2010 flood, and (4) assess contaminant plume stagnation near the Little Wind River. This report provides data analyses and interpretations for the 2015 site investigation that addresses these issues and provides

  18. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes inspection and monitoring activities performed on and near the Salmon, Mississippi, Site in calendar year 2007. The Draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE 2007) specifies the submittal of an annual report of site activities and the results of sample analyses. This report is submitted to comply with that requirement. The Tatum Salt Dome was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) for underground nuclear testing during the cold war. The land surface above the salt dome, the Salmon Site, is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 12 miles west of Purvis (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the successor to the AEC, is responsible for long-term surveillance and maintenance of the site. The DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) was assigned this responsibility effective October 2006.

  19. Nuclear incident monitor criticality alarm instrument for the Savannah River Site: Technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, J.B.

    1996-05-21

    The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy facility. The facility stores, processes, and works with fissionable material at a number of locations. Technical standards and US Department of Energy orders, require these locations to be monitored by criticality alarm systems under certain circumstances. The Savannah River Site calls such instruments Nuclear Incident Monitors or NIMs. The Sole purpose of the Nuclear Incident Monitor is to provide an immediate evacuation signal in the case of an accidental criticality in order to minimize personnel exposure to radiation. The new unit is the third generation Nuclear Incident Monitor at the Savannah River Site. The second generation unit was developed in 1979. It was designed to eliminate vacuum-tube circuits, and was the first solid state NIM at SRS. The major design objectives of the second generation NIM were to improve reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Ten prototype units have been built and tested. This report describes the design of the new NIM and the testing that took place to verify its acceptability.

  20. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-10

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1991 EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  1. Use of space-filling curves to select sample locations in natural resource monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Lister; Charles T. Scott

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of several large area monitoring networks over the past few decades has led to increased research into ways to spatially balance sample locations across the landscape. Many of these methods are well documented and have been used in the past with great success. In this paper, we present a method using geographic information systems (GIS) and fractals...

  2. Objective classification of air quality monitoring sites over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Mathieu; Peuch, Vincent-Henri

    2012-02-01

    The observation sites that make up air quality monitoring networks can have very different characteristics (topography, climatology, distance to emission sources, etc), which are partially described in the meta-information provided with data sets. At the scale of Europe, the description of the sites depends on the institute(s) in charge of the air quality monitoring in each country, and is based on specific criteria that can be sometimes rather subjective. The purpose of this study is to build an objective, homogeneous, and pollutant-specific classification of European air quality monitoring sites, primarily for the purpose of model verification and chemical data assimilation. Most studies that tackled this issue so far were based on limited data sets, and often took into account additional external data such as population density, emission estimates, or land cover maps. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of a classification only based on the past time series of measured pollutants. The underlying idea is that the true fingerprint of a given monitoring site lies within its past observation values. On each site to be categorized, eight indicators are defined to characterize each pollutant time series (O 3, NO 2, NO, SO 2, or PM 10) of the European AirBase and the French BDQA (Base de Données de Qualité de l'Air) reference sets of validated data over the period 2002-2009. A Linear Discriminant Analysis is used to best discriminate the rural and urban sites. After projection on the Fisher axis, ten classes are finally determined on the basis of fixed thresholds, for each molecule. The method is validated by cross-validation and by direct comparison with the existing meta-data. The link between the classes obtained and the meta-data is strongest with NO, NO 2, and PM 10. Across Europe, the classification exhibits interesting large-scale features: some contrasts between different regions depend on the pollutant considered. Comparing the classes obtained

  3. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, First Quarter 1996, Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-10-22

    This report summarizes the Savanna River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by EPD/EMS during the first quarter 1996. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program. It also provides a record of the program`s activities and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  4. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. First quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  5. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program. First quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  6. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Second quarter, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-10

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1991 EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  7. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  8. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-10-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Since 1991, the flagging criteria have been based on the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards and on method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1992 are listed in this report.

  9. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Hartman; LF Morasch; WD Webber

    2000-05-10

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year 1999 on the US. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, Washington. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Measurements for site-wide maps were conducted in June in past years and are now measured in March to reflect conditions that are closer to average. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1998 and March 1999. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes in groundwater were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of carbon-14, strontium-90, technetium-99, and uranium also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Cesium-137 and plutonium exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in US Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for plutonium, strontium-90, tritium, and uranium in small plumes or single wells. Nitrate and carbon tetrachloride are the most extensive chemical contaminants. Chloroform, chromium, cis-1,2dichloroethylene, cyanide, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Metals such as aluminum, cadmium, iron, manganese, and nickel exceeded their maximum contaminant levels in filtered samples from numerous wells; however, in most cases, they are believed to represent natural components of groundwater. ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976'' groundwater monitoring continued at 25 waste management areas during fiscal year 1999: 16 under detection programs and data indicate that they are not adversely affecting groundwater; 6 under interim status groundwater quality assessment programs to assess contamination; and 2 under final status corrective-action programs. Another site, the 120-D-1 ponds

  10. Back azimuth constrained double-difference seismic location and tomography for downhole microseismic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yukuan; Zhang, Haijiang; Miao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yinsheng; Liu, Qiang

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a new seismic tomography method, back azimuth constrained double-difference (DD) seismic tomography, which is suitable for downhole microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing. The new method simultaneously locates microseismic events and determines three-dimensional (3D) Vp and Vs models for the fracturing zone using differential arrival times from pairs of events and event back azimuths in addition to absolute arrival times. Compared to the existing DD location and tomography method, our method incorporates back azimuth information to better constrain microseismic event locations in the case of poor spatial station coverage such as the linear downhole seismic array generally used for microseismic monitoring. By incorporating the relative arrival time and back azimuth information of events, the extended DD method can provide better relative event locations, and thus can better characterize the fracture distribution. In addition to microseismic locations, seismic velocity anomalies determined around the fracturing zone may also provide valuable information for fracture development. Due to the existence of fractures and fluids, the seismic velocity is expected to be lower in the fractured zone compared to the surrounding regions. Therefore the area of low seismic velocity anomaly may be used as a proxy for the stimulated reservoir volume. We have applied the new method to a downhole microseismic dataset from shale gas hydraulic fracturing. The microseismic events are more accurately relocated than the conventional grid search location method, and they are generally associated with low velocity anomalies.

  11. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee. Final report and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  12. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  13. Optimization of Multi-Project Multi-Site Location Based on MOPSOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; GONG Dun-wei; ZHOU Yong

    2006-01-01

    Multi-project multi-site location problems are multi-objective combinational optimization ones with discrete variables which are hard to solve. To do so, the case of particle swarm optimization is considered due to its useful characteristics such as easy implantation, simple parameter settings and fast convergence. First these problems are transformed into ones with continuous variables by defining an equivalent probability matrix in this paper, then multi-objective particle swarm optimization based on the minimal particle angle is used to solve them. Methods such as continuation of discrete variables, update of particles for matrix variables, normalization of particle position and evaluation of particle fitness are presented. Finally the efficiency of the proposed method is validated by comparing it with other methods on an eight-project-ten-site location problem.

  14. Locating monitoring wells in groundwater systems using embedded optimization and simulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashi-Azghadi, Seyyed Nasser; Kerachian, Reza

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, a new methodology is proposed for optimally locating monitoring wells in groundwater systems in order to identify an unknown pollution source using monitoring data. The methodology is comprised of two different single and multi-objective optimization models, a Monte Carlo analysis, MODFLOW, MT3D groundwater quantity and quality simulation models and a Probabilistic Support Vector Machine (PSVM). The single-objective optimization model, which uses the results of the Monte Carlo analysis and maximizes the reliability of contamination detection, provides the initial location of monitoring wells. The objective functions of the multi-objective optimization model are minimizing the monitoring cost, i.e. the number of monitoring wells, maximizing the reliability of contamination detection and maximizing the probability of detecting an unknown pollution source. The PSVMs are calibrated and verified using the results of the single-objective optimization model and the Monte Carlo analysis. Then, the PSVMs are linked with the multi-objective optimization model, which maximizes both the reliability of contamination detection and probability of detecting an unknown pollution source. To evaluate the efficiency and applicability of the proposed methodology, it is applied to Tehran Refinery in Iran.

  15. Addendum to Environmental Monitoring Plan, Nevada Test Site and Support Facilities; Addendum 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    This 1993 Addendum to the ``Environmental Monitoring Plan Nevada Test Site and Support Facilities -- 1991,`` Report No. DOE/NV/10630-28 (EMP) applies to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) operations on the Continental US (including Amchitka Island, Alaska) that are under the purview of the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). The primary purpose of these operations is the conduct of the nuclear weapons testing program for the DOE and the Department of Defense. Since 1951, these tests have been conducted principally at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. In accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, this 1993 Addendum to the EMP brings together, in one document, updated information and/or new sections to the description of the environmental activities conducted at the NTS by user organizations, operations support contractors, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) originally published in the EMP. The EPA conducts both the offsite environmental monitoring program around the NTS and post-operational monitoring efforts at non-NTS test locations used between 1961 and 1973 in other parts of the continental US. All of these monitoring activities are conducted under the auspices of the DOE/NV, which has the stated policy of conducting its operations in compliance with both the letter and the spirit of applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards.

  16. Locational conflict and the siting of nuclear waste disposal repositories: an international appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    F M Shelley; B D Solomon; M J Pasqualetti; G T Murauskas

    1988-01-01

    The industrialized nations of the world have begun to plan for the storage and eventual disposal of their increasing volumes of nuclear wastes. In this paper the authors inventory the progress made by these nations in planning for nuclear waste disposal. A typology based on the adoption of spent-fuel reprocessing programs and of progress toward selection of permanent disposal sites is developed, and the world's nuclear nations are located within this typology. However, those countries which h...

  17. Development of access-based metrics for site location of ground segment in LEO missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bonyan Khamseh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The classical metrics of ground segment site location do not take account of the pattern of ground segment access to the satellite. In this paper, based on the pattern of access between the ground segment and the satellite, two metrics for site location of ground segments in Low Earth Orbits (LEO missions were developed. The two developed access-based metrics are total accessibility duration and longest accessibility gap in a given period of time. It is shown that repeatability cycle is the minimum necessary time interval to study the steady behavior of the two proposed metrics. System and subsystem characteristics of the satellite represented by each of the metrics are discussed. Incorporation of the two proposed metrics, along with the classical ones, in the ground segment site location process results in financial saving in satellite development phase and reduces the minimum required level of in-orbit autonomy of the satellite. To show the effectiveness of the proposed metrics, simulation results are included for illustration.

  18. Developing a fuzzy decision support system to determine the location of a landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maria C M; Lima, Beatriz S L P; Evsukoff, Alexandre G; Vieira, Ian N

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents two case studies of municipal solid waste site location using a decision-support system based on fuzzy logic. This problem is very complex, as it requires the evaluation of different criteria, which involve environmental, social and economic data. Such data deal with a wide range of information that presents not only quantitative, but also qualitative knowledge. In order to deal with this characteristic, the developed system employs fuzzy rules due to its ability to treat linguistic variables and the human way of thinking. Conventional approaches tend to be less effective in dealing with the imprecise or vague nature of the linguistic assessment. A case study for selecting the location of a new municipal solid waste landfill for the city of Petropolis in Rio de Janeiro is presented. Testing of the proposed method was carried out using data from the municipal solid waste location for another municipality in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  19. Migration and Residential Location of Workers at Nuclear Power Plant Construction Sites Forecasting Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, S.; Manninen, D.

    1981-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the accuracy of socioeconomic impact assessments by providing an improved methodology for predicting the number of inmigrating workers and their residential location patterns at future nuclear power plant construction projects. Procedures for estimating several other variables which have important implications with respect to socioeconomic impact assessment (i.e., relocation of dependents, intention to remain in the area, type of housing selected, marital status, and average family size) were also developed. The analysis was based on worker survey data from 28 surveys which were conducted at 13 nuclear power plant construction sites. These survey data were examined to identify patterns of variation in variables of interest across sites as well as across various worker groups. In addition, considerable secondary data reflecting various regional and project characteristics were gathered for each site. These data were used to estimate the effects of factors underlying the observed variation in craft-specific migrant proportions and the residential location patterns of inmigrating workers across sites and surveys. The results of these analyses were then used as a basis for the specification of the forecasting procedures.

  20. Lattice site location of electrical dopant impurities in group-III nitrides

    CERN Document Server

    Amorim, Lígia; Temst, Kristiaan; Wahl, Ulrich

    Dopants are impurities introduced in semiconductors in small quantities to tailor the material characteristics, the effects of which depend on the exact site the dopant occupies in the crystal lattice. The lattice location of impurities is, thus, crucial for the overall understanding of the semiconductor characteristics. In general, several techniques can be used to investigate the lattice site of an impurity, the most accurate and dedicated being emission channeling. However, a characteristic of this technique is that it requires the implantation of radioactive probes, usually created and accelerated in a radioactive ion beam facility. In some cases, emission channeling might however be the only technique capable to investigate the lattice sites occupied by the impurity atoms, provided an appropriate isotope for this technique can be used. For instance, the use of other methods such as Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, perturbed angular correlations, Mössbauer spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorptio...

  1. Geophysical Monitoring at the Aquistore CO2 Storage Site, Saskatchewan, Canada (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Aquistore Project, located near Estevan, Saskatchewan, is designed to demonstrate CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. CO2 captured from the nearby Boundary Dam coal-fired power plant will be injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at ~3300 m depth, starting in November, 2013. A key element of the Aquistore research program is the further development of geophysical methods to monitor the security and subsurface distribution of the injected CO2. Toward this end, a spectrum of geophysical techniques are being tested at the Aquistore site. Various time-lapse seismic methods, including 3D surface and vertical seismic profiles (VSP) as well as crosswell seismic tomography, are designed to provide monitoring of the CO2 plume. Novel components of the seismic monitoring include use of a sparse permanent array and borehole recording using a fiber optic distributed acoustic sensor (DAS) system. Gravity and electromagnetic methods are providing complementary monitoring. Pre-injection baseline surveys have been acquired for each of these methods. In addition, continuous pre-injection monitoring has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 to establish background surface deformation patterns and local seismicity prior to the start of CO2 injection. A network of GPS stations, surface tiltmeters and InSAR reflectors has been deployed to monitor injection-related surface deformation. Passive seismic monitoring is being conducted using two orthogonal linear arrays of surface geophones.

  2. Multicriteria relocation analysis of an off-site radioactive monitoring network for a nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Ning, Shu-Kuang; Chen, Jen-Chang

    2006-08-01

    Due to increasing environmental consciousness in most countries, every utility that owns a commercial nuclear power plant has been required to have both an on-site and off-site emergency response plan since the 1980s. A radiation monitoring network, viewed as part of the emergency response plan, can provide information regarding the radiation dosage emitted from a nuclear power plant in a regular operational period and/or abnormal measurements in an emergency event. Such monitoring information might help field operators and decision-makers to provide accurate responses or make decisions to protect the public health and safety. This study aims to conduct an integrated simulation and optimization analysis looking for the relocation strategy of a long-term regular off-site monitoring network at a nuclear power plant. The planning goal is to downsize the current monitoring network but maintain its monitoring capacity as much as possible. The monitoring sensors considered in this study include the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) and air sampling system (AP) simultaneously. It is designed for detecting the radionuclide accumulative concentration, the frequency of violation, and the possible population affected by a long-term impact in the surrounding area regularly while it can also be used in an accidental release event. With the aid of the calibrated Industrial Source Complex-Plume Rise Model Enhancements (ISC-PRIME) simulation model to track down the possible radionuclide diffusion, dispersion, transport, and transformation process in the atmospheric environment, a multiobjective evaluation process can be applied to achieve the screening of monitoring stations for the nuclear power plant located at Hengchun Peninsula, South Taiwan. To account for multiple objectives, this study calculated preference weights to linearly combine objective functions leading to decision-making with exposure assessment in an optimization context. Final suggestions should be useful for

  3. Picking vs Waveform based detection and location methods for induced seismicity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoli, Francesco; Boese, Maren; Scarabello, Luca; Diehl, Tobias; Weber, Bernd; Wiemer, Stefan; Clinton, John F.

    2017-04-01

    Microseismic monitoring is a common operation in various industrial activities related to geo-resouces, such as oil and gas and mining operations or geothermal energy exploitation. In microseismic monitoring we generally deal with large datasets from dense monitoring networks that require robust automated analysis procedures. The seismic sequences being monitored are often characterized by very many events with short inter-event times that can even provide overlapped seismic signatures. In these situations, traditional approaches that identify seismic events using dense seismic networks based on detections, phase identification and event association can fail, leading to missed detections and/or reduced location resolution. In recent years, to improve the quality of automated catalogues, various waveform-based methods for the detection and location of microseismicity have been proposed. These methods exploit the coherence of the waveforms recorded at different stations and do not require any automated picking procedure. Although this family of methods have been applied to different induced seismicity datasets, an extensive comparison with sophisticated pick-based detection and location methods is still lacking. We aim here to perform a systematic comparison in term of performance using the waveform-based method LOKI and the pick-based detection and location methods (SCAUTOLOC and SCANLOC) implemented within the SeisComP3 software package. SCANLOC is a new detection and location method specifically designed for seismic monitoring at local scale. Although recent applications have proved an extensive test with induced seismicity datasets have been not yet performed. This method is based on a cluster search algorithm to associate detections to one or many potential earthquake sources. On the other hand, SCAUTOLOC is more a "conventional" method and is the basic tool for seismic event detection and location in SeisComp3. This approach was specifically designed for

  4. Monitoring shared sites: a proposal for using scaffolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Fabbri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of shared sites as a work tool, and for building and sharing knowledge in a “learning community” and/or “communities of practice” is undeniably a characteristic of the so-called knowledge society. The phenomenon concerns all individuals and contexts, and involves all professional categories starting from those operating specifically in the information and communication sectors. Teachers and all those working in the field of education can be legitimately considered part of these two categories. In this complexity of forms, the reality of social networking can be seen as extremely multi-dimensional. What emerges in particular is the problem of co-ordinationing contributions within the groups or communities. The solutions are by no means simple and give rise to a sort of antinomy between “guided” sites (groups or communities which identify specific roles of co-ordination, evaluation and decision-making and spontaneous sites (groups /communities in which all the participants engage with total equality of roles. The first are based on a top-down model and run the risk of going beyond the what might be called the “social constructionist” limits that characterise the new generation web culture, whilst the latter, in their turn, risk ending up in chaos, with useless additional areas in which contributions pile up one after the other without shared progress and unitary conclusions. The question highlighted in this article rises from this antinomic context and asks how co-ordination and monitoring can be carried out in shared sites while respecting a bottom up approach and still be able to produce sharing and evolution of knowledge. A proposal is put forward which suggests that monitoring should consist of an approach based on scaffolding.

  5. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1990 (April through June) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1990 are listed in this report.

  6. AMCO Off-Site Air Monitoring Polygons, Oakland CA, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class was developed to support the AMCO Chemical Superfund Site air monitoring process and depicts a single polygon layer, Off-Site Air Monitors,...

  7. Hanford site near-facility environmental monitoring annual report, calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, C.J.

    1997-08-05

    This document summarizes the results of the near-facility environmental monitoring results for 1996 in the 100, 200/600, and 300/400 areas of the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Surveillance activities included sampling and analyses of ambient air, surface water, groundwater, soil, sediments, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys were taken at waste disposal sites, radiologically controlled areas, and roads. These activities were conducted to assess and control the effects of nuclear facilities and waste sites on the local environment. The monitoring implements applicable portions of DOE Orders 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), 5400.5 (DOE 1990), and 5820.2A (DOE 1988b); Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247; and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). In addition, diffuse sources were monitored to determine compliance with federal, state, and/or local regulations. In general, although effects from nuclear facilities can still be observed on the Hanford Site and radiation levels were slightly elevated when compared to offsite locations, the differences are less than in previous years.

  8. Locatable-body temperature monitoring based on semi-active UHF RFID tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangwei; Mao, Luhong; Chen, Liying; Xie, Sheng

    2014-03-26

    This paper presents the use of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for the real-time remote monitoring of body temperature, while an associated program can determine the location of the body carrying the respective sensor. The RFID chip's internal integrated temperature sensor is used for both the human-body temperature detection and as a measurement device, while using radio-frequency communication to broadcast the temperature information. The adopted RFID location technology makes use of reference tags together with a nearest neighbor localization algorithm and a multiple-antenna time-division multiplexing location system. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for collecting temperature and location data for the data fusion by using RFID protocols. With a puppy as test object, temperature detection and localization experiments were carried out. The measured results show that the applied method, when using a mercury thermometer for comparison in terms of measuring the temperature of the dog, has a good consistency, with an average temperature error of 0.283 °C. When using the associated program over the area of 12.25 m2, the average location error is of 0.461 m, which verifies the feasibility of the sensor-carrier location by using the proposed program.

  9. Site Screening and Technical Guidance for Monitored Natural Attenuation at DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borns, D.J.; Brady, P.V.; Brady, W.D.; Krupka, K.M.; Spalding, B.P.; Waters, R.D.; Zhang, P.

    1999-03-01

    Site Screening and Technical Guidance for Monitored Natural Attenuation at DOE Sites briefly outlines the biological and geochemical origins of natural attenuation, the tendency for natural processes in soils to mitigate contaminant transport and availability, and the means for relying on monitored natural attenuation (MNA) for remediation of contaminated soils and groundwaters. This report contains a step-by-step guide for (1) screening contaminated soils and groundwaters on the basis of their potential for remediation by natural attenuation and (2) implementing MNA consistent with EPA OSWER Directive 9200.4-17. The screening and implementation procedures are set up as a web-based tool (http://www.sandia.gov/eesector/gs/gc/na/mnahome.html) to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) site environmental managers and their staff and contractors to adhere to EPA guidelines for implementing MNA. This document is intended to support the Decision Maker's Framework Guide and Monitoring Guide both to be issued from DOE EM-40. Further technical advances may cause some of the approach outlined in this document to change over time.

  10. Monitoring Natural World Heritage Sites: optimization of the monitoring system in Bogda with GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoguo; Du, Xishihui

    2016-07-01

    Natural World Heritage Sites (NWHSs) are invaluable treasure due to the uniqueness of each site. Proper monitoring and management can guarantee their protection from multiple threats. In this study, geographic information system (GIS)-based multi-criteria decision analysis (GIS-MCDA) was used to assess criteria layers acquired from the data available in the literature. A conceptual model for determining the priority area for monitoring in Bogda, China, was created based on outstanding universal values (OUV) and expert knowledge. Weights were assigned to each layer using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) based on group decisions, encompassing three experts: one being a heritage site expert, another a forest ranger, and the other a heritage site manager. Subsequently, evaluation layers and constraint layers were used to generate a priority map and to determine the feasibility of monitoring in Bogda. Finally, a monitoring suitability map of Bogda was obtained by referencing priority and feasibility maps.The high-priority monitoring area is located in the montane forest belt, which exhibits high biodiversity and is the main tourist area of Bogda. The northern buffer zone of Bogda comprises the concentrated feasible monitoring areas, and the area closest to roads and monitoring facilities is highly feasible for NWHS monitoring. The suitability of an area in terms of monitoring is largely determined by the monitoring priority in that particular area. The majority of planned monitoring facilities are well distributed in both suitable and less suitable areas. Analysis results indicate that the protection of Bogda will be more scientifically based due to its effective and all-around planned monitoring system proposed by the declaration text of Xinjiang Tianshan, which is the essential file submitted to World Heritage Centre to inscribe as a NWHS.

  11. A reliable facility location design model with site-dependent disruption in the imperfect information context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Lifen; Wang, Xifu; Fan, Hongqiang; Li, Xiaopeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a reliable facility location design model under imperfect information with site-dependent disruptions; i.e., each facility is subject to a unique disruption probability that varies across the space. In the imperfect information contexts, customers adopt a realistic "trial-and-error" strategy to visit facilities; i.e., they visit a number of pre-assigned facilities sequentially until they arrive at the first operational facility or give up looking for the service. This proposed model aims to balance initial facility investment and expected long-term operational cost by finding the optimal facility locations. A nonlinear integer programming model is proposed to describe this problem. We apply a linearization technique to reduce the difficulty of solving the proposed model. A number of problem instances are studied to illustrate the performance of the proposed model. The results indicate that our proposed model can reveal a number of interesting insights into the facility location design with site-dependent disruptions, including the benefit of backup facilities and system robustness against variation of the loss-of-service penalty.

  12. A new glacier monitoring site in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abermann, J.; van As, D.; Petersen, D.; Nauta, M.

    2014-12-01

    Greenland's mountain glaciers and ice caps have recently been shown to significantly contribute to current and future sea-level rise. Despite their importance in this respect they are heavily undersampled with only about 5 currently monitored glaciers out of more than 20000 distributed over complexly varying climatic regions. In 2012, Asiaq, Greenland Survey initiated therefore a glacier mass balance program at Qassinnguit glacier (64°9'N, 51°17'W), approx. 18 km East of Nuuk, Greenland's capital. The glacier is a representative example for mountain glaciers in South-West Greenland both in terms of size (ca 1 km2) and orientation (N). A dense stake network gives the basis for the determination of the surface mass balance with the glaciological method as well as flow velocity measurements and the first two complete years are presented. An automated camera is used to monitor ablation patterns and the evolution of the snow line. In early 2014, a ground-penetrating radar campaign was performed to determine the glacier volume. Ice thicknesses up to 50 m were measured with a 100 MHz antenna and the glacier was found to be largely cold-based with some minor temperate parts. In addition to direct glaciological measurements at the site, the monitoring program complements a 7 year long time series of runoff, which allows for quantifying Qassinnguit glacier's cryospheric contribution to the total catchment. In summer 2014 an on-glacier automated weather station was installed that measures parameters to determine the surface energy balance. Preliminary results will be presented and put into a larger spatial context by relating them to measurements with the same setup at an outlet glacier of the Greenland ice sheet approximately 100 km further East. Climate between these sites differs considerably with a marked negative West - East precipitation gradient.

  13. 2016 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreie, Ken [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site was the location of an underground nuclear test in 1961 and a groundwater tracer test in 1963. Residual contamination remaining in the subsurface from these events requires long-term oversight. The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the site describes the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management’s (LM’s) plan for monitoring groundwater (radiochemical sampling and hydraulic head measurements), inspecting the site, maintaining the site’s institutional controls, evaluating and reporting data, and documenting the site’s records and data management processes. Groundwater monitoring and site inspection activities are conducted annually. This report summarizes the results of these activities conducted during the October 2015 through September 2016 reporting period. The site inspection and annual sampling were conducted on January 27, 2016. At the time of the site inspection, the signs installed near the emplacement shaft, near well USGS-1, and around the perimeter of the site were observed as being in good condition, as were the roads, wellheads, and Project Gnome monument. No new groundwater extraction wells or oil and gas wells were installed during this reporting period on the site or in the sections that surround the site. One new application was received by the New Mexico Oil Conservation Division to install a salt water disposal well approximately 0.8 miles northeast of the Project Gnome monument. The proposed well has a planned completion depth of 15,500 feet below ground surface, but as of November 2016 a drill date has not been established.

  14. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J. [and others

    1999-03-24

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year (FY) 1998 on the Word Site, Washington. Soil-vapor extraction in the 200-West Area removed 777 kg of carbon tetrachloride in FY 1998, for a total of 75,490 kg removed since remediation began in 1992. Spectral gamma logging and evaluation of historical gross gamma logs near tank farms and liquid-disposal sites in the 200 Areas provided information on movement of contaminants in the vadose zone. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1997 and June 1998. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes in groundwater were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of technetium-99, uranium, strontium-90, and carbon-14 also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Plutonium and cesium-137 exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for tritium, uranium, strontium-90, and plutonium in small plumes or single wells. One well completed in the basalt-confined aquifer beneath the 200-East Area exceeded the drinking water standard for technetium-99. Nitrate is the most extensive chemical contaminant. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, cis-l, Z-dichloroethylene, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Cyanide concentrations were elevated in one area but were below the maximum contaminant level. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded its maximum contaminant level in several wells in the 300 Area for the first time since the 1980s. Metals such as aluminum, cadmium, iron, manganese, and nickel exceeded their maximum contaminant levels in filtered samples from numerous

  15. ZFNGenome: A comprehensive resource for locating zinc finger nuclease target sites in model organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytas Daniel F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs have tremendous potential as tools to facilitate genomic modifications, such as precise gene knockouts or gene replacements by homologous recombination. ZFNs can be used to advance both basic research and clinical applications, including gene therapy. Recently, the ability to engineer ZFNs that target any desired genomic DNA sequence with high fidelity has improved significantly with the introduction of rapid, robust, and publicly available techniques for ZFN design such as the Oligomerized Pool ENgineering (OPEN method. The motivation for this study is to make resources for genome modifications using OPEN-generated ZFNs more accessible to researchers by creating a user-friendly interface that identifies and provides quality scores for all potential ZFN target sites in the complete genomes of several model organisms. Description ZFNGenome is a GBrowse-based tool for identifying and visualizing potential target sites for OPEN-generated ZFNs. ZFNGenome currently includes a total of more than 11.6 million potential ZFN target sites, mapped within the fully sequenced genomes of seven model organisms; S. cerevisiae, C. reinhardtii, A. thaliana, D. melanogaster, D. rerio, C. elegans, and H. sapiens and can be visualized within the flexible GBrowse environment. Additional model organisms will be included in future updates. ZFNGenome provides information about each potential ZFN target site, including its chromosomal location and position relative to transcription initiation site(s. Users can query ZFNGenome using several different criteria (e.g., gene ID, transcript ID, target site sequence. Tracks in ZFNGenome also provide "uniqueness" and ZiFOpT (Zinc Finger OPEN Targeter "confidence" scores that estimate the likelihood that a chosen ZFN target site will function in vivo. ZFNGenome is dynamically linked to ZiFDB, allowing users access to all available information about zinc finger reagents, such as the

  16. Feasibility of real-time location systems in monitoring recovery after major abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, Robert D; Vermillion, Sarah A; Clark, Clancy J

    2017-06-07

    Early mobilization after major abdominal surgery decreases postoperative complications and length of stay, and has become a key component of enhanced recovery pathways. However, objective measures of patient movement after surgery are limited. Real-time location systems (RTLS), typically used for asset tracking, provide a novel approach to monitoring in-hospital patient activity. The current study investigates the feasibility of using RTLS to objectively track postoperative patient mobilization. The real-time location system employs a meshed network of infrared and RFID sensors and detectors that sample device locations every 3 s resulting in over 1 million data points per day. RTLS tracking was evaluated systematically in three phases: (1) sensitivity and specificity of the tracking device using simulated patient scenarios, (2) retrospective passive movement analysis of patient-linked equipment, and (3) prospective observational analysis of a patient-attached tracking device. RTLS tracking detected a simulated movement out of a room with sensitivity of 91% and specificity 100%. Specificity decreased to 75% if time out of room was less than 3 min. All RTLS-tagged patient-linked equipment was identified for 18 patients, but measurable patient movement associated with equipment was detected for only 2 patients (11%) with 1-8 out-of-room walks per day. Ten patients were prospectively monitored using RTLS badges following major abdominal surgery. Patient movement was recorded using patient diaries, direct observation, and an accelerometer. Sensitivity and specificity of RTLS patient tracking were both 100% in detecting out-of-room ambulation and correlated well with direct observation and patient-reported ambulation. Real-time location systems are a novel technology capable of objectively and accurately monitoring patient movement and provide an innovative approach to promoting early mobilization after surgery.

  17. Shale gas impacts on groundwater resources: insights from monitoring a fracking site in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montcoudiol, Nelly; Isherwood, Catherine; Gunning, Andrew; Kelly, Thomas; Younger, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Exploitation of shale gas by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is highly controversial and concerns have been raised regarding induced risks from this technique. The SHEER project, an EU Horizon 2020-funded project, is looking into developing best practice to understand, prevent and mitigate the potential short- and long-term environmental impacts and risks from shale gas exploration and exploitation. Three major potential impacts were identified: groundwater contamination, air pollution and induced seismicity. This presentation will deal with the hydrogeological aspect. As part of the SHEER project, four monitoring wells were installed at a shale gas exploration site in Northern Poland. They intercept the main drinking water aquifer located in Quaternary sediments. Baseline monitoring was carried out from mid-December 2015 to beginning of June 2016. Fracking operations occurred in two horizontal wells, in two stages, in June and July 2016. The monitoring has continued after fracking was completed, with site visits every 4-6 weeks. Collected data include measurements of groundwater level, conductivity and temperature at 15-minute intervals, frequent sampling for laboratory analyses and field measurements of groundwater physico-chemical parameters. Groundwater samples are analysed for a range of constituents including dissolved gases and isotopes. The presentation will focus on the interpretation of baseline monitoring data. The insights gained into the behaviour of the Quaternary aquifer will allow a greater perspective to be place on the initial project understanding draw from previous studies. Short-term impacts will also be discussed in comparison with the baseline monitoring results. The presentation will conclude with discussion of challenges regarding monitoring of shale gas fracking sites.

  18. Large scale helium liquefaction and considerations for site services for a plant located in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, P.; Clausen, J.J. [Linde Kryotechnik AG, Pfungen (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    The large-scale liquefaction of helium extracted from natural gas is depicted. Based on a block diagram the process chain, starting with the pipeline downstream of the natural-gas plant to the final storage of liquid helium, is explained. Information will be provided about the recent experiences during installation and start-up of a bulk helium liquefaction plant located in Skikda, Algeria, including part-load operation based on a reduced feed gas supply. The local working and ambient conditions are described, including challenging logistic problems like shipping and receiving of parts, qualified and semi-qualified subcontractors, basic provisions and tools on site, and precautions to sea water and ambient conditions. Finally, the differences in commissioning (technically and evaluation of time and work packages) to European locations and standards will be discussed. (orig.)

  19. Optimal Facility Location Model Based on Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Siting Urban Refueling Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact factors and principles of siting urban refueling stations and proposes a three-stage method. The main objective of the method is to minimize refueling vehicles’ detour time. The first stage aims at identifying the most frequently traveled road segments for siting refueling stations. The second stage focuses on adding additional refueling stations to serve vehicles whose demands are not directly satisfied by the refueling stations identified in the first stage. The last stage further adjusts and optimizes the refueling station plan generated by the first two stages. A genetic simulated annealing algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem in the second stage and the results are compared to those from the genetic algorithm. A case study is also conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and algorithm. The results indicate the proposed method can provide practical and effective solutions that help planners and government agencies make informed refueling station location decisions.

  20. Performance Measurement of Location Enabled e-Government Processes: A Use Case on Traffic Safety Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, D.; Vancauwenberghe, G.

    2016-12-01

    The European Union Location Framework (EULF), as part of the Interoperable Solutions for European Public Administrations (ISA) Programme of the EU (EC DG DIGIT), aims to enhance the interactions between governments, businesses and citizens by embedding location information into e-Government processes. The challenge remains to find scientific sound and at the same time practicable approaches to estimate or measure the impact of location enablement of e-Government processes on the performance of the processes. A method has been defined to estimate process performance in terms of variables describing the efficiency, effectiveness, as well as the quality of the output of the work processes. A series of use cases have been identified, corresponding to existing e-Government work processes in which location information could bring added value. In a first step, the processes are described by means of BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation) to better understand the process steps, the actors involved, the spatial data flows, as well as the required input and the generated output. In a second step the processes are assessed in terms of the (sub-optimal) use of location information and the potential enhancement of the process by better integrating location information and services. The process performance is measured ex ante (before using location enabled e-Government services) and ex-post (after the integration of such services) in order to estimate and measure the impact of location information. The paper describes the method for performance measurement and highlights how the method is applied to one use case, i.e. the process of traffic safety monitoring. The use case is analysed and assessed in terms of location enablement and its potential impact on process performance. The results of applying the methodology on the use case revealed that performance is highly impacted by factors such as the way location information is collected, managed and shared throughout the

  1. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS based on the Oleckno index method (OIM. Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Results: In 2010 the total rainfall in the landfill location was less than 150 mm/year. The soil type was clay loam, and the average distance from the floor of the landfill to the groundwater level was 3-9 meters. As calculated results showed that, the Oleckno index (OI score in the study area was 40. Conclusion: The new Isfahan′s sanitary solid waste landfill site had a good OI and the possibility of contamination of groundwater by leachate production based on this method also was low.

  2. Spatial patterns of serial murder: an analysis of disposal site location choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundrigan, S; Canter, D

    2001-01-01

    Although the murders committed by serial killers may not be considered rational, there is growing evidence that the locations in which they commit their crimes may be guided by an implicit, if limited rationality. The hypothesized logic of disposal site choice of serial killers led to predictions that (a) their criminal domains would be around their home base and relate to familiar travel distances, (b) they would have a size that was characteristic of each offender, (c) the distribution would be biased towards other non-criminal activities, and (d) the size of the domains would increase over time. Examination of the geographical distribution of the sites at which 126 US and 29 UK serial killers disposed of their victims' bodies supported all four hypotheses. It was found that rational choice and routine activity models of criminal behavior could explain the spatial choices of serial murderers. It was concluded that the locations at which serial killers dispose of their victims' bodies reflect the inherent logic of the choices that underlie their predatory activities.

  3. First Field Experience of On-line Partial Discharge Monitoring of MV Cable Systems with location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Wielen, P.; Steennis, F.

    2009-06-15

    A new measuring system is presented for the on-line monitoring and location of partial discharges (PDs) in medium-voltage power cables. The system uses two inductive sensors, each at one cable end. The measuring system is called PD-OL, which stands for PD detection Online with Location. A pulse injection system is used for the time synchronization of the data intake at both cable ends and for the on-line calibration. PD data is send via internet to the KEMA Control Center for interpretation and final presentation, made visible on a secured website for the network owners. This paper discusses the basics of PD-OL and a number of measurement results.

  4. Nevada Test Site 2005 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Hudson, Cathy A. Wills

    2006-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2005 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2005; Grossman, 2005; Bechtel Nevada, 2006). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2005 totaled 219.1 millimeters (mm) (8.63 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 201.4 mm (7.93 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 has percolated to the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that precipitation from the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 infiltrated past the deepest sensors at 188 centimeters (6.2 feet) and remains in the pit cover

  5. Annealing behavior and lattice site location of Er implanted InGaN

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, E; Correia, M R; Pereira, S; De Vries, B; Vantomme, A

    2003-01-01

    Single crystalline InGaN epilayers with different In content were implanted with Er$^{+}$ fluences in the range of 1 $\\times 10^{13}$ to 5 $\\times 10^{15}$ cm$^{-2}$ at room temperature. The structural changes and lattice site location were studied with emission channeling and RBS/channeling. Photoluminescence measurements were also performed to study the optical properties of the implanted samples. After implantation of 1 $\\times 10^{13}$ Er$^{+}$ cm$^{-2}$, the emission channeling results show the incorporation of a significant fraction of Er in substitutional Ga/In sites. For fluences of 1 $\\times 10^{15}$ Er$^{+}$ cm$^{-2}$ the aligned RBS spectrum along the [0001] direction reveals the displacement of the Er ions into random sites in the entire implanted region. Proximity cap annealing at 400°C and 500°C leads to some damage recovery on the samples implanted with lowest fluence accompanied by an increase of the substitutional fraction of Er. Despite the lattice disorder, a fraction of the Er ions are i...

  6. Variation in harbour seal (Phoca vitulina L.) roar calls among recoding sites relevant for passive acoustic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Puk; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Male harbor seals gather around breeding sites for competitive mating displays. Here, they produce underwater vocalizations possibly to attract females and/or scare off other males. These calls offer prospects for passive acoustic monitoring. Acoustic monitoring requires a good understanding...... of natural variation in calling behavior both temporally and among geographically separate sites. Such variation in call structure and calling patterns were studied in harbor seal vocalizations recorded at three locations in Danish and Swedish waters. There was a strong seasonality in the calls from end...

  7. Hanford Site Rare Plant Monitoring Report for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salstrom, D; Easterly, R; Lindsey, Cole T.; Nugent, John J.

    2013-03-21

    Two patches of Columbian yellowcress on the Hanford Reach were visited in both 2011 and 2012 to compare ramet counts between years: near Allerd Pumphouse (Rkm 615.4) and near White Bluffs Boat Launch (Rkm 593.3) (Figure 3). In 2012, the population near Allerd Pumphouse had 45 ramets present within a 5x3 m area. At the same population in 2011, there were 60 ramets. In 2012, the population near White Bluffs Boat Launch had 105 ramets in a 2x2 m area. At the same population in 2011, there were 100 ramets. This data shows that while annual variability does exist, ramet counts were relatively similar from 2011 to 2012. This is likely due to the similar flow regimes of 2011 and 2012, which both had above average snowpack, high flows, and extended spring flooding seasons. A total of 19.6 miles (31.5 km) of the Hanford shoreline were surveyed in 2012, with ten patches identified and approximately 1,250 ramets counted. It is not known how many individual plants this count represents due to the rhizomatous nature of the species. Two of these sites were identified previously in the WNHP database, and the remaining eight were newly identified locations. Eleven of the ramets had flowers and/or buds in the patches located during 2012, but no fruits were found

  8. Sequential optimal monitoring network design and iterative spatial estimation of pollutant concentration for identification of unknown groundwater pollution source locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Datta, Bithin

    2013-07-01

    One of the difficulties in accurate characterization of unknown groundwater pollution sources is the uncertainty regarding the number and the location of such sources. Only when the number of source locations is estimated with some degree of certainty that the characterization of the sources in terms of location, magnitude, and activity duration can be meaningful. A fairly good knowledge of source locations can substantially decrease the degree of nonuniqueness in the set of possible aquifer responses to subjected geochemical stresses. A methodology is developed to use a sequence of dedicated monitoring network design and implementation and to screen and identify the possible source locations. The proposed methodology utilizes a combination of spatial interpolation of concentration measurements and simulated annealing as optimization algorithm for optimal design of the monitoring network. These monitoring networks are to be designed and implemented sequentially. The sequential design is based on iterative pollutant concentration measurement information from the sequentially designed monitoring networks. The optimal monitoring network design utilizes concentration gradient information from the monitoring network at previous iteration to define the objective function. The capability of the feedback information based iterative methodology is shown to be effective in estimating the source locations when no such information is initially available. This unknown pollution source locations identification methodology should be very useful as a screening model for subsequent accurate estimation of the unknown pollution sources in terms of location, magnitude, and activity duration.

  9. Using Analytical and Numerical Modeling to Assess the Utility of Groundwater Monitoring Parameters at Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porse, S. L.; Hovorka, S. D.; Young, M.; Zeidouni, M.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is becoming an important bridge to commercial geologic sequestration (GS) to help reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. While CCUS at brownfield sites (i.e. mature oil and gas fields) has operational advantages over GS at greenfield sites (i.e. saline formations) such as the use of existing well infrastructure, previous site activities can add a layer of complexity that must be accounted for when developing groundwater monitoring protection networks. Extensive work has been done on developing monitoring networks at GS sites for CO2 accounting and groundwater protection. However, the development of appropriate monitoring strategies at commercial brownfield sites continues to develop. The goals of this research are to address the added monitoring complexity by adapting simple analytical and numerical models to test these approaches using two common subsurface monitoring parameters, pressure and aqueous geochemistry. The analytical pressure model solves for diffusivity in radial coordinates and the leakage rate derived from Darcy's law. The aqueous geochemical calculation computer program PHREEQC solves the advection-reaction-dispersion equation for 1-D transport and mixing of fluids .The research was conducted at a CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) field on the Gulf Coast of Texas. We modeled the performance over time of one monitoring well from the EOR field using physical and operational data including lithology and water chemistry samples, and formation pressure data. We explored through statistical analyses the probability of leakage detection using the analytical and numerical methods by varying the monitoring well location spatially and vertically with respect to a leaky fault. Preliminary results indicate that a pressure based subsurface monitoring system provides a better probability of leakage detection than geochemistry alone, but together these monitoring parameters can improve the chances of leakage detection

  10. Combining network and array waveform coherence for automatic location: examples from induced seismicity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sick, Benjamin; Joswig, Manfred

    2017-03-01

    Events from induced seismicity suffer from low signal-to-noise ratios and noise spikes due to the industrial setting. Low magnitude thresholds are needed for traffic light warning systems. Conventional automatic location methods rely on independent picking of first arrivals from seismic wave onsets at recordings of single stations. Picking is done separately and without feedback from the actual location algorithm. If the recording network is small or only few phases can be associated, single wrong associations can lead to large errors in hypocentre locations and magnitude. Event location by source scanning which was established in the last two decades can provide more robust results. This study investigates how source-scanning can be extended and improved by integrating information from seismic arrays, that is, waveform stacking and Fisher ratio. These array methods rely on the coherency of the raw filtered waveforms while traditional source scanning uses a characteristic function to obtain coherency from otherwise incoherent waveforms between distant stations. Short-term/long-term average (STA/LTA) serves as the characteristic function and single station vertical-component traces for P-phases and radial and transverse components for S-phases are used. For array stations, the STA/LTA of the stacked vertical seismogram which is furthermore weighted by the STA/LTA of the Fisher ratio, dependent on backazimuth and slowness, is utilized for P-phases. The new method is tested on two diverse data sets from induced seismicity monitoring. In the chosen examples, the extension by array-processing techniques can reduce mean hypocentre errors up to a factor of 2.9, resolve ambiguities and further restrain the location.

  11. Nevada Test Site 2001 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2001 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure. Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Due to detections of TOC and TOX in some samples collected in 2000, a plan, as approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), was executed to collect an increased number and type of samples in 2001. Results from all samples collected in 2001 were below ILs. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated unit within the Area 5 RWMS and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year.

  12. An Online Monitoring and Fault Location Methodology for Underground Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Sudarshan

    With the growing importance of underground power systems and the need for greater reliability of the power supply, cable monitoring and accurate fault location detection has become an increasingly important issue. The presence of inherent random fluctuations in power system signals can be used to extract valuable information about the condition of system equipment. One such component is the power cable, which is the primary focus of this research. This thesis investigates a unique methodology that allows online monitoring of an underground power cable. The methodology analyzes conventional power signals in the frequency domain to monitor the condition of a power cable. First, the proposed approach is analyzed theoretically with the help of mathematical computations. Frequency domain analysis techniques are then used to compute the power spectral density (PSD) of the system signals. The importance of inherent noise in the system, a key requirement of this methodology, is also explained. The behavior of resonant frequencies, which are unique to every system, are then analyzed under different system conditions with the help of mathematical expressions. Another important aspect of this methodology is its ability to accurately estimate cable fault location. The process is online and hence does not require the system to be disconnected from the grid. A single line to ground fault case is considered and the trend followed by the resonant frequencies for different fault positions is observed. The approach is initially explained using theoretical calculations followed by simulations in MATLAB/Simulink. The validity of this technique is proved by comparing the results obtained from theory and simulation to actual measurement data.

  13. Selected stratigraphic data for drill holes located in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site. Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    Stratigraphic data are presented in tabular form for 72 holes drilled in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, between 1950 and 1993. Three pairs of data presentations are included for each hole: depth to formation tops, formation thicknesses, and formation elevations are presented in both field (English) and metric units. Also included for each hole, where available, are various construction data (hole depth, hole diameter, surface location coordinates) and certain information of hydrogeologic significance (depth to water level, top of zeolitization). The event name is given for holes associated with a particular nuclear test. An extensive set of footnotes is included, which indicates data sources and provides other information. The body of the report describes the stratigraphic setting of Frenchman Flat, gives drill-hole naming conventions and database terminology, and provides other background and reference material.

  14. Selected stratigraphic data for drill holes located in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site. Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    Stratigraphic data are presented in tabular form for 72 holes drilled in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, between 1950 and 1993. Three pairs of data presentations are included for each hole: depth to formation tops, formation thicknesses, and formation elevations are presented in both field (English) and metric units. Also included for each hole, where available, are various construction data (hole depth, hole diameter, surface location coordinates) and certain information of hydrogeologic significance (depth to water level, top of zeolitization). The event name is given for holes associated with a particular nuclear test. An extensive set of footnotes is included, which indicates data sources and provides other information. The body of the report describes the stratigraphic setting of Frenchman Flat, gives drill-hole naming conventions and database terminology, and provides other background and reference material.

  15. Soil microclimate monitoring in forested and meadow sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyerova, Katerina; Safanda, Jan

    2016-04-01

    It is well known fact that forest microclimate differs from open area microclimate (Geiger 1965). Less attention is paid to soil temperatures and their long-term monitoring. To evaluate and compare these two environments from the soil microclimate point of view, Institute of Geophysics in Prague monitors soil and air temperatures in Bedřichov in the Jizerské Hory Mountains (Czech Republic). The soil temperatures are measured in three depths (20, 50 and 100 cm) in forest (700 m a. s. l.) and meadow (750 m a. s. l.). Air temperatures are measured at 2m height both in forest and meadow. Nowadays, we have more than three years long time series. The most of studies and experiments described in literature are short-term ones (in order of days or weeks). However, from short-term experiments the seasonal behaviour and trends can be hardly identified and conclusions on soil temperature reaction to climatic extremes such as heat waves, drought or freeze cannot be done with confidence. These drawbacks of the short-term experiments are discussed in literature (eg. Morecroft et al. 1998; Renaud et al. 2011). At the same, with progression of the global warming, the expected increasing frequency of climatic extremes will affect the future form of forest vegetation (Von Arx et al. 2012). The soil and air temperature series, both from the forest and meadow sites, are evaluated and interpreted with respect to long term temperature characteristics and seasonal trends. The emphasis is given on the soil temperature responses to extreme climatic situations. We examine variability between the localities and depths and spatial and temporal changes in this variability. This long-term monitoring allows us to better understand and examine the behaviour of the soil temperature in extreme weather situations. Therefore, we hope to contribute to better prediction of future reactions of this specific environments to the climate change. Literature Geiger, R., 1965. The climate near the ground

  16. Location of femoral artery puncture site and the risk of postcatheterization pseudoaneurysm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Marcin; Pawlaczyk, Katarzyna; Waliszewski, Krzysztof; Krasiński, Zbigniew; Majewski, Wacław

    2007-08-21

    Iatrogenic causes constitute increasingly frequent sources of pseudoaneurysms due to endovascular interventions. However, till now, all analyses focused on evaluating different risk factors contributing to the development of pseudoaneurysm, overlooking the issue of localization of femoral puncture. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of position of femoral artery puncture on the risk of pseudoaneurysm formation. 116 patients were evaluated for the site of catheter insertion into femoral arteries. Another group of 273 patients, suspected of vascular complications after endovascular procedures, were diagnosed with pseudoaneurysms which were analyzed for the location of arterial wall disruption. Puncture sites of groin arteries, i.e. EIA (2.7%), CFA (77.5%), SFA and DFA (19.8%), correlated with pseudoaneurysm location reaching 7.6% (EIA), 54.3% (CFA) and 38.1% (SFA, DFA). Type of procedure influenced these values. Duplex ultrasound mapping of CFA before the endovascular intervention eliminated discrepancies between the incidence of pseudoaneurysm formation and the frequency of arterial puncture in the selected vascular segments. Pseudoaneurysms formed in 4.5% of patients undergoing traditional palpation-guided vessel cannulation and in 2.6% of patients after ultrasound-guided puncture of the femoral artery. Upon further analysis, we concluded that the likelihood of the development of pseudoaneurysm depends on the artery punctured in the groin. This risk increases dramatically for external iliac artery, superficial and deep femoral arteries. A simple means of prevention of this dangerous complication of femoral artery puncture is duplex ultrasound mapping of the groin arteries.

  17. Intrasite motions and monument instabilities at Medicina ITRF co-location site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Pierguido; Abbondanza, Claudio; Legrand, Juliette; Bruyninx, Carine; Vittuari, Luca; Ray, Jim

    2013-03-01

    We process the total-station surveys performed at the ITRF co-location site Medicina (Northern Italy) over the decade (2001-2010) with the purpose of determining the extent of local intrasite motions and relating them to local geophysical processes, the geological setting and the design of the ground pillars. In addition, continuous observations acquired by two co-located GPS stations (MEDI and MSEL separated by ≈27 m) are analysed and their relative motion is cross-checked with the total-station results. The local ground control network extends over a small area (<100 × 100 m) but the results demonstrate significant anisotropic deformations with rates up to 1.6 mm a-1, primarily horizontal, a value comparable to intraplate tectonic deformations. The results derived from GPS and total-station observations are consistent and point to the presence of horizontal intrasite motions over very short distances possibly associated with varying environmental conditions in a very unfavourable local geological setting and unsuitable monument design, these latter being crucial aspects of the realization and maintenance of global permanent geodetic networks and the global terrestrial reference frame.

  18. Performance Assessment and Monitoring of a Permeable Reactive Barrier for the Remediation of a Contaminated Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Zolla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study illustrates the long-term monitoring plan carried out in order to investigate the performance of a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB at a chlorinated solvents’ site. The cleanup intervention has been undertaken at an industrial landfill located near the city of Turin (Italy and represents the first full-scale application of this technology in Italy. The monitoring plan started in November 2005 with the aim to verify the attainment of the cleanup goals and to evaluate the efficiency status of the PRB. Controls focuses not only on contaminant monitoring but also on the hydraulic and chemical conditions created by the barrier, in order to evaluate potential long term effects of secondary biogeochemical processes (e.g. mineral precipitation, microbially-mediated redox transformation, gas accumulation on PRB performance. The monitoring plan provides controls on groundwater chemistry (target contaminants and geochemical indicators and core sampling for mineralogical analysis of zero-valent iron by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The first, partial results of the monitoring activity are illustrated. Monitoring data clearly indicate that the plume is being adequately captured and treated in order to accomplish the clean-up goals with a good safety margin. However, it results that mineral precipitation and gas phase accumulation could determine, over time, a decreasing in hydraulic conductivity and porosity of the barrier, thus modifying the flow field through the reactive cell. Besides the monitoring controls, further investigations will be performed to assess the occurring microbial process and to evaluate their impact on PRB performance.

  19. Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan for the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2001-09-01

    Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (one site is in Area 3 and the other is in Area 5) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV). The current DOE Order governing management of radioactive waste is 435.1. Associated with DOE Order 435.1 is a Manual (DOE M 435.1-1) and Guidance (DOE G 435.1-1). The Manual and Guidance specify that preliminary closure and monitoring plans for a low-level waste (LLW) management facility be developed and initially submitted with the Performance Assessment (PA) and Composite Analysis (CA) for that facility. The Manual and Guidance, and the Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued for the Area 3 RWMS further specify that the preliminary closure and monitoring plans be updated within one year following issuance of a DAS. This Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) fulfills both requirements. Additional updates will be conducted every third year hereafter. This document is an integrated plan for closing and monitoring both RWMSs, and is based on guidance issued in 1999 by the DOE for developing closure plans. The plan does not follow the format suggested by the DOE guidance in order to better accommodate differences between the two RWMSs, especially in terms of operations and site characteristics. The modification reduces redundancy and provides a smoother progression of the discussion. The closure and monitoring plans were integrated because much of the information that would be included in individual plans is the same, and integration provides efficient presentation and program management. The ICMP identifies the regulatory requirements, describes the disposal sites and the physical environment where they are located, and defines the approach and schedule for both closing and monitoring the sites.

  20. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality, UPDESites-This data set represents the Utah Pollution Discharge Elimination System (UPDES) site locations where discharges to groundwater occur., Published in 2001, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of...

  1. National Priority List Site Locations in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, EPA (2006) [national_priority_list_pt_EPA_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset includes point locations for Louisiana sites on the EPA's National Priority List (NPL) as of 12/01/2006. The field "Status" provides a description of...

  2. LONG-TERM STABILITY OF THE LOCAL GROUND CONTROL NETWORK AT THE CO-LOCATION SITE OF MEDICINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, C.; Sarti, P.; Legrand, J.

    2009-12-01

    ITRF combinations rely on the availability of accurate tie vectors linking reference points of space geodetic techniques. Co-located instruments are assumed to move consistently and no local relative motion is taken into account. Instabilities may degrade the quality of the co-location itself and perturb the result of ITRF combinations. This work aims to determine the stability of the local ground control network at Medicina (Italy) with independent surveying methods. The observatory hosts a co-location between a VLBI telescope and two GPS antennas, MEDI and MSEL. It is located in the Po Plain where thick layers of clays are the prevalent soil characteristics. Hence, provision of long term stability of geodetic monuments is a challenge and monitoring their stability is an issue. MEDI and the VLBI station regularly contribute to the determination of ITRF, while MSEL is part of the EUREF network. A set of five tie vectors observations linking the VLBI and MEDI reference points was acquired between 2001 and 2007. It is our main tool for performing local deformation analysis. Additionally, the GPS time series of MEDI and MSEL were used to cross check and confirm the local instability detected by terrestrial methods. To achieve a rigorous and reliable investigation of the local stability, multi-epoch terrestrial observations were homogeneously processed according to common parameterizations in a consistent reference frame. Similarly, continuous GPS observations from MEDI and MSEL were analysed according to the new EPN reprocessing strategy in order to monitor the short baseline between MEDI and MSEL; to spotlight any change in its length. Both approaches confirm differential motions at the site which can be related to monument instabilities originated by the particularly unfavourable local geological setting and the inapt design of the monuments foundation. The monuments move non homogeneously at rates reaching up to 1.6 mm/year, this value being comparable to intra

  3. Stress Changes and Deformation Monitoring of Longwall Coal Pillars Located in Weak Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Zhang, Zhenyu; Kuang, Tiejun; Liu, Jinrong

    2016-08-01

    Coal pillar stability is strongly influenced by the site-specific geological and geotechnical conditions. Many geological structures such as faults, joints, or rock intrusions can be detrimental to mining operations. In order to evaluate the performance of coal pillars under weak roof degraded by igneous rock intrusion, stress and deformation monitoring was conducted in the affected tailgate areas of Nos. 8208 and 8210 longwalls in Tashan coal mine, Shanxi Province, China. The measurements in the 8208 longwall tailgate showed that the mining-induced stresses in 38-m-wide coal chain pillars under the overburden depth of 300-500 m started to increase at about 100 m ahead of the 8208 longwall working face and reached its peak level at approximately 50 m ahead of the longwall face. The peak stress of 9.16 MPa occurred at the depth of 8-9 m into the pillar from the tailgate side wall. In comparison, disturbance of the headgate block pillar area was negligible, indicating the difference of abutment pressure distribution between the tailgate and headgate sites where the adjacent unmined longwall block carried most of the overburden load. However, when the longwall face passed the headgate monitoring site by 360-379 m, the pillar stress increased to a peak value of 21.4 MPa at the pillar depth of 13 m from the gob side mainly due to stress redistribution in the chain pillar. In contrast to the headgate, at the tailgate side, the adjacent goaf was the dominant triggering factor for high stress concentrations in the chain pillar. Convergence measurements in the tailgate during longwall mining further indicated the evolution characteristics of coal pillar deformation, clearly showing that the gateroad deformation is mainly induced by the longwall extraction it serves. When predicting the future pillar loads from the monitored data, two stress peaks appeared across the 38-m-wide tailgate coal pillar, which are separated by the lower stress area within the pillar center. This

  4. Use of space-filling curves to select sample locations in natural resource monitoring studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Andrew J; Scott, Charles T

    2009-02-01

    The establishment of several large area monitoring networks over the past few decades has led to increased research into ways to spatially balance sample locations across the landscape. Many of these methods are well documented and have been used in the past with great success. In this paper, we present a method using geographic information systems (GIS) and fractals to create a sampling frame, superimpose a tessellation and draw a sample. We present a case study that illustrates the technique and compares results to those from other methods using data from Voyageurs National Park in Minnesota. Our method compares favorably with results from a popular plot selection method, Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified Design, and offers several additional advantages, including ease of implementation, intuitive appeal, and the ability to maintain spatial balance by adding new plots in the event of an inaccessible plot encountered in the field.

  5. Optimal Locations for Siting Wind Energy Projects: Technical Challenges, Economics, and Public Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Julian V.

    Increasing the percentage of wind power in the United States electricity generation mix would facilitate the transition towards a more sustainable, low-pollution, and environmentally-conscious electricity grid. However, this effort is not without cost. Wind power generation is time-variable and typically not synchronized with electricity demand (i.e., load). In addition, the highest-output wind resources are often located in remote locations, necessitating transmission investment between generation sites and load. Furthermore, negative public perceptions of wind projects could prevent widespread wind development, especially for projects close to densely-populated communities. The work presented in my dissertation seeks to understand where it's best to locate wind energy projects while considering these various factors. First, in Chapter 2, I examine whether energy storage technologies, such as grid-scale batteries, could help reduce the transmission upgrade costs incurred when siting wind projects in distant locations. For a case study of a hypothetical 200 MW wind project in North Dakota that delivers power to Illinois, I present an optimization model that estimates the optimal size of transmission and energy storage capacity that yields the lowest average cost of generation and transmission (/MWh). I find that for this application of storage to be economical, energy storage costs would have to be 100/kWh or lower, which is well below current costs for available technologies. I conclude that there are likely better ways to use energy storage than for accessing distant wind projects. Following from this work, in Chapter 3, I present an optimization model to estimate the economics of accessing high quality wind resources in remote areas to comply with renewable energy policy targets. I include temporal aspects of wind power (variability costs and correlation to market prices) as well as total wind power produced from different farms. I assess the goal of providing

  6. Geophysical techniques to aquifer locating and monitoring for industrial zones in North Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Nguyen; Duan, Nguyen; Thanh, Le; Hida, Noboru

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical methods were applied for hydrogeological targets in many countries including Vietnam. This paper presents results of using complex geophysical techniques as well as 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), vertical electrical sounding (VES), very low frequency (VLF), and seismic refraction for geological structure investigation for locating the aquifers and assessing the hydrogeological conditions for groundwater potential in industrial zones of North Hanoi, Vietnam. The locations of two aquifers are determined by their depth and thickness on the basis of resistivity and seismic velocity values which were proved by stratifications of three boreholes to 40-60 m of depth on the study area. There are connections from surface water to shallow aquifer by hydraulic windows, as follows from VLF data. The deeper aquifer can be considered as a potential groundwater supply, but the water level is descending in time, as shown by hydrological monitoring. However, with careful use and by reducing sources of pollution, groundwater can continue to be an important natural resource for future.

  7. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-03-02

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970`s and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D&RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program.

  8. An Experiment to Locate the Site of TeV Flaring in M87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.E.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Massaro, F.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Cheung, C.C.; /Natl. Acad. Sci. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Horns, D.; Raue, M.; /Hamburg U.; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Wagner, S.; /Heidelberg Observ.; Colin, P.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Mazin, D.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Wagner, R.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Beilicke, M.; /McDonnell Ctr. Space Sci.; LeBohec, S.; Hui, M.; /Utah U.; Mukherjee, R.; /Barnard Coll.

    2012-05-18

    We describe a Chandra X-ray target-of-opportunity project designed to isolate the site of TeV flaring in the radio galaxy M87. To date, we have triggered the Chandra observations only once (2010 April) and by the time of the first of our nine observations, the TeV flare had ended. However, we found that the X-ray intensity of the unresolved nucleus was at an elevated level for our first observation. Of the more than 60 Chandra observations we have made of the M87 jet covering nine years, the nucleus was measured at a comparably high level only three times. Two of these occasions can be associated with TeV flaring, and at the time of the third event, there were no TeV monitoring activities. From the rapidity of the intensity drop of the nucleus, we infer that the size of the emitting region is of order a few light days x the unknown beaming factor; comparable to the same sort of estimate for the TeV emitting region. We also find evidence of spectral evolution in the X-ray band which seems consistent with radiative losses affecting the non-thermal population of the emitting electrons within the unresolved nucleus.

  9. RESULTS OF TRITIUM TRACKING AND GROUNDWATER MONITORING AT THE HANFORD SITE 200 AREA STATE APPROVED LAND DISPOSAL SITE FY2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERB DB

    2008-11-19

    The Hanford Site's 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated aqueous wastes derived from Hanford Site facilities. The treated wastewater occasionally contains tritium, which cannot be removed by the ETF prior to the wastewater being discharged to the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). During the first 11 months of fiscal year 2008 (FY08) (September 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008), approximately 75.15 million L (19.85 million gal) of water were discharged to the SALDS. Groundwater monitoring for tritium and other constituents, as well as water-level measurements, is required for the SALDS by State Waste Discharge Permit Number ST-4500 (Ecology 2000). The current monitoring network consists of three proximal (compliance) monitoring wells and nine tritium-tracking wells. Quarterly sampling of the proximal wells occurred in October 2007 and in January/February 2008, April 2008, and August 2008. The nine tritium-tracking wells, including groundwater monitoring wells located upgradient and downgradient of the SALDS, were sampled in January through April 2008. Water-level measurements taken in the three proximal SALDS wells indicate that a small groundwater mound is present beneath the facility, which is a result of operational discharges. The mound increased in FY08 due to increased ETF discharges from treating groundwater from extraction wells at the 200-UP-l Operable Unit and the 241-T Tank Farm. Maximum tritium activities increased by an order of magnitude at well 699-48-77A (to 820,000 pCi/L in April 2008) but remained unchanged in the other two proximal wells. The increase was due to higher quantities of tritium in wastewaters that were treated and discharged in FY07 beginning to appear at the proximal wells. The FY08 tritium activities for the other two proximal wells were 68,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77C (October 2007) and 120,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77D (October 2007). To date, no indications of a tritium incursion from

  10. Diesel and silica monitoring at two sites following hurricane sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Alice; Zuckerman, Norman; Luo, Honghong; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Lucchini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Following Hurricane Sandy, which hit New York City and New Jersey in October 2012, industrial hygienists from the Mount Sinai and Belleview/New York University occupational medicine clinics conducted monitoring for diesel exhaust and silica in lower Manhattan and Rockaway Peninsula. Average daytime elemental carbon levels at three stations in lower Manhattan on December 4, 2012, ranged from 9 to18 μg/m(3). Sub-micron particle counts at various times on the same day were over 200,000 particles per cubic centimeter on many streets in lower Manhattan. In Rockaway Peninsula on December 12, 2012, all average daytime elemental carbon levels were below a detection limit of approximately 7 μg/m(3). The average daytime crystalline silica dust concentration was below detection at two sites on Rockaway Peninsula, and was 0.015 mg/m(3) quartz where sand was being replaced on the beach. The daily average levels of elemental carbon and airborne particulates that we measured are in the range of levels that have been found to cause respiratory effects in sensitive subpopulations like asthmatic patients after 2 hr of exposure. Control of exposure to diesel exhaust must be considered following natural disasters where diesel-powered equipment is used in cleanup and recovery. Although peak silica exposures were not likely captured in this study, but were reported by a government agency to have exceeded recommended guidelines for at least one cleanup worker, we recommend further study of silica exposures when debris removal operations or traffic create visible levels of suspended dust from soil or sand.

  11. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low Level Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    2000-11-15

    incorporate and implement conditions specified in the statement. The plan must meet the following criteria. The site-specific performance assessment and composite analysis shall be used to determine the media, locations, radionuclides, and other substances monitored. The environmental monitoring program shall be designed to include measuring and evaluating releases, migration of radionuclides, disposal unit subsidence, and changes in disposal facility and disposal site parameters that may affect long-term performance. The environmental monitoring programs shall be capable of detecting changing trends in performance to allow application of any necessary corrective action before exceeding the performance objectives stated in the order.

  12. The possibility of distance methods application for snow dump sites monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasko Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of remote sensing of the Earth for monitoring of four snow dump sites in Tomsk are described. Their compliance with permitted type of the territory use was evaluated. Earlier unknown time of the operation start was identified. The spatial-temporal variability of areas was defined. The temperature profiles of snow dump and background sites were analyzed. Use of remote sensing data allowed easy identification of snow dump sites creation time. The fact that the sites are located out of zones of permitted type of the territory use was revealed, that is violation of the law. For the first time the cartographic material was collected and showed that in the recent years their areas increased in average in 18%. The fore-cast for the nearest years was made. The article contains satellite images indicting the degradation of soil-vegetative cover of snow dumps. The reasons are contamination and overcooling of the soil in the beginning of vegetation period. The research results became the initial material for perfection of snow dumps territories management and will be applied in the work of environmental protecting service. Approaches proposed by authors may be used in solving similar problems in any region.

  13. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-07-31

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2011 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. During the last 2 weeks of March 2011, gamma spectroscopy results for air particles showed measurable activities of iodine-131 (131I), cesium-134 (134Cs), and cesium-137 (137Cs). These results are attributed to the release of fission products from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi power plant in Japan. The remaining gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below minimum detectable concentrations. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. The 86.3 millimeters (mm) (3.40 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2011 is 44% below the average of 154.1 mm (6.07 in.), and the 64.8 mm

  14. Hanford Site near-facility environmental monitoring annual report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, C.J.

    1998-07-28

    Near-facility environmental monitoring provides a means to measure the impacts of operations, waste management, and remediation activities on the environment adjacent to facilities and ensure compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulations. Specifically, near-facility environmental monitoring monitors new and existing sites, processes, and facilities for potential impacts and releases; fugitive emissions and diffuse sources associated with contaminated areas, facilities (both active and those undergoing surveillance and maintenance), and environmental restoration activities. External radiation, ambient air particulates, ground and surface water, soil, sediment, and biota (plants and animals) are sampled or monitored. Parameters include, as appropriate, radionuclides; radiation fields; chemical or physical constituents, such as nitrates; pH; and water temperature. All ambient air results were below the US Department of Energy (DOE) Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs). Groundwater concentrations at the two wells at the 107-N Facility were below both the DOE DCG and US Environmental Protection Agency Interim Drinking Water Standards for gamma emitting radionuclides. Soil and vegetation results were generally within historic ranges and mostly below the Accessible Soil Concentration limits (included in HNF-PRO-454, Inactive Waste Sites) with the exception of one soil sampling location at 1 00 N Area. External radiation fields continued an overall downward trend. Surface water disposal unit samples (water, sediment, and aquatic vegetation) showed radionuclide concentrations below their respective DCG and Accessible Soil Concentration limits. The 100 N Area Columbia river shoreline springs results were below DCGs with the exception of one Sr concentration. More than 4,600 ha (11,300 acres) of radiologically controlled areas were surveyed in 1997, approximately the same as in 1996.

  15. Massive depletion of bovine leukemia virus proviral clones located in genomic transcriptionally active sites during primary infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas A Gillet

    Full Text Available Deltaretroviruses such as human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 and bovine leukemia virus (BLV induce a persistent infection that remains generally asymptomatic but can also lead to leukemia or lymphoma. These viruses replicate by infecting new lymphocytes (i.e. the infectious cycle or via clonal expansion of the infected cells (mitotic cycle. The relative importance of these two cycles in viral replication varies during infection. The majority of infected clones are created early before the onset of an efficient immune response. Later on, the main replication route is mitotic expansion of pre-existing infected clones. Due to the paucity of available samples and for ethical reasons, only scarce data is available on early infection by HTLV-1. Therefore, we addressed this question in a comparative BLV model. We used high-throughput sequencing to map and quantify the insertion sites of the provirus in order to monitor the clonality of the BLV-infected cells population (i.e. the number of distinct clones and abundance of each clone. We found that BLV propagation shifts from cell neoinfection to clonal proliferation in about 2 months from inoculation. Initially, BLV proviral integration significantly favors transcribed regions of the genome. Negative selection then eliminates 97% of the clones detected at seroconversion and disfavors BLV-infected cells carrying a provirus located close to a promoter or a gene. Nevertheless, among the surviving proviruses, clone abundance positively correlates with proximity of the provirus to a transcribed region. Two opposite forces thus operate during primary infection and dictate the fate of long term clonal composition: (1 initial integration inside genes or promoters and (2 host negative selection disfavoring proviruses located next to transcribed regions. The result of this initial response will contribute to the proviral load set point value as clonal abundance will benefit from carrying a provirus in

  16. Final Monitoring Plan for Site Closure at Inman, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Inman, Kansas, is a rural town located in southwest McPherson County, in sections 8, 9, 16, and 17, Township 21 South, Range 4 West (Figure 1.1). There are 1,377 people in 513 households, as of the census of 2010. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), operated a grain storage facility at the southern edge of the city of Inman, Kansas, from 1954 to 1965. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In 1997, trace to low levels of carbon tetrachloride (below the maximum contamination level [MCL] of 5.0 μg/L) were detected in three private wells near the former grain storage facility at Inman, as part of a statewide USDA private well sampling program that was implemented by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) near former CCC/USDA facilities. No public water supply wells were identified within 1 mi of the town by the KDHE in 1998. Carbon tetrachloride is the contaminant of primary concern at sites associated with grain storage operations. To determine whether the former CCC/USDA facility at Inman is a potential contaminant source and its possible relationship to the carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater, the CCC/USDA agreed to conduct a multi-phase investigation at Inman. The investigation was performed by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory in accordance with the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the Farm Service Agency of the USDA.

  17. A statistical approach for site error correction in lightning location networks with DF/TOA technique and its application results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Chen, Mingli; Du, Yaping; Qiu, Zongxu

    2017-02-01

    Lightning location network (LLN) with DF/TOA (direction-finder/time-of-arrival) combined technique has been widely used in the world. However, the accuracy of the lightning data from such LLNs has still been restricted by "site error", especially for those detected only by two DF/TOA sensors. In this paper we practice a statistical approach for evaluation and correction of "site error" for DF/TOA type LLN based on its lightning data. By comparing lightning locations recorded by at least 4 sensors between DF and TOA techniques, the spatial characteristics of "site error" for each sensor in the network can be obtained. The obtained "site error" then can be used to improve the accuracy of lightning locations especially those recorded by only 2 sensors. With this approach, the "site error" patterns for 23 sensors in Yunnan LLN are obtained. The features of these site error patterns are in good consistency with those in literature. Significant differences in lightning locations before and after "site error" corrections indicate that the proposed approach works effectively.

  18. Evaluation of Terrestrial LIDAR for Monitoring Geomorphic Change at Archeological Sites in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Brown, Kristin M.; Fairley, Helen C.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of terrestrial light detection and ranging (LIDAR) for monitoring geomorphic change at archeological sites located within Grand Canyon National Park, Ariz. Traditionally, topographic change-detection studies have used total station methods for the collection of data related to key measurable features of site erosion such as the location of thalwegs and knickpoints of gullies that traverse archeological sites (for example, Pederson and others, 2003). Total station methods require survey teams to walk within and on the features of interest within the archeological sites to take accurate measurements. As a result, site impacts may develop such as trailing, damage to cryptogamic crusts, and surface compaction that can exacerbate future erosion of the sites. National Park Service (NPS) resource managers have become increasingly concerned that repeated surveys for research and monitoring purposes may have a detrimental impact on the resources that researchers are trying to study and protect. Beginning in 2006, the Sociocultural Program of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) initiated an evaluation of terrestrial LIDAR as a new monitoring tool that might enhance data quality and reduce site impacts. This evaluation was conducted as one part of an ongoing study to develop objective, replicable, quantifiable monitoring protocols for tracking the status and trend of variables affecting archeological site condition along the Colorado River corridor. The overall study consists of two elements: (1) an evaluation of the methodology through direct comparison to geomorphologic metrics already being collected by total station methods (this report) and (2) an evaluation of terrestrial LIDAR's ability to detect topographic change through the collection of temporally different datasets (a report on this portion of the study is anticipated early in 2009). The main goals of the first

  19. Nevada Test Site 2008 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2008 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities.

  20. Rescue System with Health Condition Monitoring Together with Location and Attitude Monitoring as Well as the Other Data Acquired with Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rescue system with health condition monitoring together with location and attitude monitoring as well as the other data acquired with mobile devices is proposed. Backup system for location estimation is also proposed. On behalf of GPS receivers and WiFi beacon receivers, ZigBee is used as a backup system. Attitude can be monitored with acceleration-meters equipped in the commercially available smart phones and i-phones. Also, the number of steps and calorie consumptions can be monitored with the commercially available smart phones and i-phones. By using these body attached sensors, health condition of the persons who need a help for rescue when the emergency situations can be monitored and used for rescue planning and triage. Overall system configuration is proposed together with the detailed system descriptions with some of the experimental data.

  1. Study on the method of optimal location on explosion events at near-source site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Introduction Earthquake location is one of the inverse problems in seismology. The accurate earthquake source location is the basis of studies of earthquake images, the relation analysis between seismicity and tectonics, and the important parameters of earthquakes. It is also the basic data used to study the space distribution of aftershocks after a strong earthquake. The earthquake location accuracy mainly depends on reliability of the velocity models for the earth¢s crust, the reasonable design of the seismograph network, the accuracy of arrival time, and the location method used (ZHAO, 1983; ZHU, ZHAO, 1997; LI, et al, 1999). The reliability of the velocity model directly influences loca-tion results. The reasonable seismograph network design can improve the location accuracy; otherwise it will in-troduce ill-conditioned equations and large location error. If arrival time is not accurate, for example, if the seismic phase is wrongly identified or the time service is inaccurate, large arrival time error will be produced, and the location results and real hypocenters will be discordant. Different location algorithms adopted will produce differ-ent location errors. The residual criterion chosen has influence on location results. Besides, whether the event is correctly associated also influences the location quality. In practice, it can often be seen that large location devia-tion introduced by wrong event association.

  2. Acoustic monitoring of laboratory faults: locating the origin of unstable slip events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkolis, Evangelos; Niemeijer, André; Spiers, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Over the past several decades, much work has been done on studying the frictional properties of fault gouges at earthquake nucleation velocities. In addition, post-experiment microstructural analyses have been performed in an attempt to link microphysical mechanisms to the observed mechanical data. However, all observations are necessarily post-mortem and it is thus difficult to directly link transients to microstructural characteristics. We are developing an acoustic monitoring system to be used in sliding experiments using a ring shear apparatus. The goal is to locate acoustic emission sources in sheared granular assemblages and link them to processes that act on microstructures responsible for the frictional stability of the simulated fault gouge. The results will be used to develop and constrain microphysical models that explain the relation of these processes to empirical friction laws, such as rate- and state-dependent friction. The acoustic monitoring setup is comprised of an array of 16 piezo-electric sensors installed on the top and bottom sides of an annular sample, at 45 degree intervals. Acoustic emissions associated with slip events can be recorded at sampling rates of up to 50 MHz, in triggered mode. Initial experiments on 0.1 to 0.2 mm and 0.4 to 0.5 mm diameter glass beads, at 1 to 5 MPa normal stress and 1 to 30 um/s load point velocity, have been conducted to estimate the sensitivity of the sensor array. Preliminary results reveal that the intensity of the audible signal is not necessarily proportional to the magnitude of the associated stress drop for constant loading conditions, and that acoustic emissions precede slip events by a small amount of time, in the order of a few milliseconds. Currently, our efforts are focused on developing a suitable source location algorithm with the aim to identify differences in the mode of (unstable) sliding for different types of materials. This will help to identify the micromechanical mechanisms operating

  3. 13 CFR 120.1025 - Off-site reviews and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off-site reviews and monitoring. 120.1025 Section 120.1025 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1025 Off-site reviews and monitoring. SBA may conduct...

  4. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-27

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2011 results. During 2011, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Samples were collected at UE5PW-1 on March 8, August 2, August 24, and October 19, 2011; at UE5PW-2 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011; and at UE5PW-3 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011. Static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 1, June 7, August 1, and October 17, 2011. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Initial total organic carbon and total organic halides results for samples collected in August 2011 were above previous measurements and, in some cases, above the established investigation limits. However, after field sample pumps and tubing were disinfected with Clorox solution, the results returned to normal levels. Final results from samples collected in 2011 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  5. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  6. Monitoring Radiation Damage in the Vertex Locator and Top Pair Production in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Henry; Hutchcroft, David

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton-proton collider at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN). The LHCb experiment is one of the four main experiments at the LHC. It is designed for the detection of $b\\bar{b}$ pairs produced in proton-proton collisions and to make precision measurements of $B$-mesons. The trigger level identification of $B$-mesons is provided by the Vertex Locator (VELO), which is the primary tracking detector of the experiment. Due to its proximity to the interaction point, the VELO is exposed to high levels of radiation damage. A new method of monitoring the damage is to perform current-voltage (IV) scans and to compare the results of these scans to laboratory tests on sample sensors. A method to perform the first $t\\bar{t}$ production measurement in the $\\eta>2$ range at the LHC, using a dilepton+$b$-jet channel, is also presented. A fiducial cross-section is obtained of $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{fid}}= 24.3^{+14.6}_{-9.7}\\mathrm{(stat.)}\\pm 6.9\\mathrm{(syst.)} \\pm 0.9 \\mathrm{(lum...

  7. GISMOWA: Geospatial Risk-Based Analysis Identifying Water Quality Monitoring Sites in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sille Lyster; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring water quality in drinking water distribution systems is the basis for proactive approaches to prevent or manage emerging water quality issues, and such a monitoring requires a strategic selection of relevant and representative monitoring sites. GISMOWA is a new GIS and risk......-based analysis tool to identify and prioritize pipe segments for water quality monitoring and to comply with existing monitoring and sampling guidelines. The tool was designed to integrate multiple parameters categorized as (1) hydraulic and structural weaknesses in the system, e.g., residence time; (2) external...... threats, e.g., contaminated sites; and (3) sensitive consumers, e.g., hospitals, in a GIS environment. The tool used a multicriteria decision analysis to evaluate multiple monitoring site parameters and map zones particularly suitable for water quality monitoring. GISMOWA was applied to Danish water...

  8. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-02-01

    analyzed for toxicity characteristic contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Beginning with the sample from July 31, 2013, pH and specific conductance were also measured. Leachate analysis results show no evidence of contamination. Results for toxicity characteristic contaminants are all below regulatory levels and analysis quantification limits. No quantifiable PCB levels were detected in any sample. Results for pH and specific conductance are also within expected ranges. After analysis, leachate was pumped from the collection tank and used in Cell 18 for dust control. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  9. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David [NSTec

    2015-02-19

    analyzed for toxicity characteristic contaminants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Beginning with the sample from July 31, 2013, pH and specific conductance were also measured. Leachate analysis results show no evidence of contamination. Results for toxicity characteristic contaminants are all below regulatory levels and analysis quantification limits. No quantifiable PCB levels were detected in any sample. Results for pH and specific conductance are also within expected ranges. After analysis, leachate was pumped from the collection tank and used in Cell 18 for dust control. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  10. Nevada Test Site 2001 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2001 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 150 mm (5.9 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 120 mm (4.7 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2001 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2001 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility performance assessments.

  11. Site characteristics of red spruce witness tree locations in the uplands of West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy; Michael Strager; James. Rentch

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge, both of the historical range of spruce-dominated forests and associated site conditions, is needed by land managers to help define restoration goals and potential sites for restoration. We used an existing digital database of witness trees listed in deeds from 1752 to 1899 to compare characteristics of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) sites...

  12. Development of Tools and Techniques to Survey, Assess, Stabilise, Monitor and Preserve Underwater Archaeological Sites: SASMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, D. J.

    2015-08-01

    SASMAP's purpose is to develop new technologies and best practices in order to locate, assess and manage Europe's underwater cultural heritage in a more effective way than is possible today. SASMAP has taken an holistic- and process- based approach to investigating underwater environments and the archaeological sites contained therein. End user of the results of SASMAP are severalfold; i) to benefiet the SMEs involved in the project and development of their products for the offshore industry (not just for archaeological purposes) ii) a better understanding of the marine environment and its effect on archaeological materials iii) the collation of the results from the project into guidelines that can be used by cultural resource managers to better administer and optimise developer lead underwater archaeological project within Europe in accordance with European legislation (Treaty of Valetta (1992). Summarily the project has utilised a down scaling approach to localise archaeological sites at a large scale regional level. This has involved using innovative satellite imagery to obtain seamless topography maps over coastal areas and the seabed (accurate to a depth of 6m) as well as the development of a 3D sub bottom profiler to look within the seabed. Results obtained from the downscaling approach at the study areas in the project (Greece and Denmark) have enabled geological models to be developed inorder to work towards predictive modelling of where submerged prehistoric sites may be encountered. Once sites have been located an upscaling approach has been taken to assessing an individual site and the materials on and within it in order to better understand the state of preservation and dynamic conditions of a site and how it can best be preserved through in situ preservation or excavation. This has involved the development of equipment to monitor the seabed environment (open water and in sediments), equipment for sampling sediments and assessing the state of

  13. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-03-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) in 2013 at 19 uranium mill tailings disposal sites established under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978.1 These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title I disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE operates 18 UMTRCA Title I sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.27 (10 CFR 40.27). As required under the general license, a long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for each site was prepared by DOE and accepted by NRC. The Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site, one of the 19 Title I sites, will not be included under the general license until the open, operating portion of the cell is closed. The open portion will be closed either when it is filled or in 2023. This site is inspected in accordance with an interim LTSP. Long-term surveillance and maintenance services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective actions; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder relations, and other regulatory stewardship functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific LTSPs and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up or contingency inspections, or corrective action in accordance with the LTSP. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available on the Internet at http://www.lm.doe.gov/.

  14. Database for landscape-scale carbon monitoring sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason A. Cole; Kristopher D. Johnson; Richard A. Birdsey; Yude Pan; Craig A. Wayson; Kevin McCullough; Coeli M. Hoover; David Y. Hollinger; John B. Bradford; Michael G. Ryan; Randall K. Kolka; Peter Wieshampel; Kenneth L. Clark; Nicholas S. Skowronski; John Hom; Scott V. Ollinger; Steven G. McNulty; Michael J. Gavazzi

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the database used to compile, store, and manage intensive ground-based biometric data collected at research sites in Colorado, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Wyoming, supporting research activities of the U.S. North American Carbon Program (NACP). This report also provides details of each site, the sampling design and...

  15. Dealing with incomplete and variable detectability in multi-year, multi-site monitoring of ecological populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Gitzen, Robert A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    An ecological monitoring program should be viewed as a component of a larger framework designed to advance science and/or management, rather than as a stand-alone activity. Monitoring targets (the ecological variables of interest; e.g. abundance or occurrence of a species) should be set based on the needs of that framework (Nichols and Williams 2006; e.g. Chapters 2–4). Once such monitoring targets are set, the subsequent step in monitoring design involves consideration of the field and analytical methods that will be used to measure monitoring targets with adequate accuracy and precision. Long-term monitoring programs will involve replication of measurements over time, and possibly over space; that is, one location or each of multiple locations will be monitored multiple times, producing a collection of site visits (replicates). Clearly this replication is important for addressing spatial and temporal variability in the ecological resources of interest (Chapters 7–10), but it is worth considering how this replication can further be exploited to increase the effectiveness of monitoring. In particular, defensible monitoring of the majority of animal, and to a lesser degree plant, populations and communities will generally require investigators to account for imperfect detection (Chapters 4, 18). Raw indices of population state variables, such as abundance or occupancy (sensu MacKenzie et al. 2002), are rarely defensible when detection probabilities are McKelvey and Pearson 2001, Johnson 2008), we do not attempt to resolve this debate here. Rather, we are more apt to agree with MacKenzie and Kendall (2002) that the burden of proof ought to be on the assertion that detection probabilities are constant. Furthermore, given the wide variety of field methods available for estimating detection probabilities and the inability for an investigator to know, a priori, if detection probabilities will be constant over time and space, we believe that development of monitoring

  16. Class B monitoring program handbook for southeastern sites with data based on INIT2 software (applicable to heating season)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustashaw, D. H.

    1983-07-01

    This document provides reference information on eight residences located in the southern part of the US which are being monitored under the Class B Passive Solar Monitoring Program. This handbook provides reference information on the sites and basic test conditions for the 1982-1983 winter heating season using software which is identified as INIT2. The manual is intended for use in data analysis work but is limited to this period of time because of basic differences in the control software and the related instrumentation system. This document is separated into individual sections for each site. The following information is provided for each site: (a) Site summary providing information on the structure, the passive solar features, the auxiliary heating system, and other related data; (b) Floor layouts with the sensor locations, etc.; (c) The One Time Value Log which records the results of field tests and calculations to determine the thermal characteristics, air infiltration rate, and other reference data; (d) The Analog/Digital Channel Log which provides calibration data; (e) The Status Channel Log which defines various event sensors; and (f) Program listings as used during the specified time periods during the heating season. Appendix A provides a summary of photographs which have been provided separately as part of the site documentation.

  17. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollination in California's Central Valley is limited by native bee nest site location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardiñas, Hillary S; Tom, Kathleen; Ponisio, Lauren Catherine; Rominger, Andrew; Kremen, Claire

    2016-03-01

    The delivery of ecosystem services by mobile organisms depends on the distribution of those organisms, which is, in turn, affected by resources at local and landscape scales. Pollinator-dependent crops rely on mobile animals like bees for crop production, and the spatial relationship between floral resources and nest location for these central-place foragers influences the delivery of pollination services. Current models that map pollination coverage in agricultural regions utilize landscape-level estimates of floral availability and nesting incidence inferred from expert opinion, rather than direct assessments. Foraging distance is often derived from proxies of bee body size, rather than direct measurements of foraging that account for behavioral responses to floral resource type and distribution. The lack of direct measurements of nesting incidence and foraging distances may lead to inaccurate mapping of pollination services. We examined the role of local-scale floral resource presence from hedgerow plantings on nest incidence of ground-nesting bees in field margins and within monoculture, conventionally managed sunflower fields in California's Central Valley. We tracked bee movement into fields using fluorescent powder. We then used these data to simulate the distribution of pollination services within a crop field. Contrary to expert opinion, we found that ground-nesting native bees nested both in fields and edges, though nesting rates declined with distance into field. Further, we detected no effect of field-margin floral enhancements on nesting. We found evidence of an exponential decay rate of bee movement into fields, indicating that foraging predominantly occurred in less than 1% of medium-sized bees' predicted typical foraging range. Although we found native bees nesting within agricultural fields, their restricted foraging movements likely centralize pollination near nest sites. Our data thus predict a heterogeneous distribution of pollination services

  18. Establishing an air pollution monitoring network for intra-urban population exposure assessment : a location-allocation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology; Jerrett, M.; Beckerman, B.; Arain, M.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health; Morrison, J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). School of Computer Science; Gilbert, N.L. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Air Health Effects Div; Brook, J.R. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to assess the relation between traffic-generated air pollution and health reactions ranging from childhood asthma to mortality from lung cancer. In particular, it developed a formal method of optimally locating a dense network of air pollution monitoring stations in order to derive an exposure assessment model based on the data obtained from the monitoring stations and related land use, population and biophysical information. The method for determining the locations of 100 nitrogen dioxide monitors in Toronto, Ontario focused on land use, transportation infrastructure and the distribution of at-risk populations. The exposure assessment produced reasonable estimates at the intra-urban scale. This method for locating air pollution monitors effectively maximizes sampling coverage in relation to important socio-demographic characteristics and likely pollution variability. The location-allocation approach integrates many variables into the demand surface to reconfigure a monitoring network and is especially useful for measuring traffic pollutants with fine-scale spatial variability. The method also shows great promise for improving the assessment of exposure to ambient air pollution in epidemiologic studies. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management in 2013 at six uranium mill tailings disposal sites reclaimed under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title II disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE manages six UMTRCA Title II disposal sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.28. Reclamation and site transition activities continue at other sites, and DOE ultimately expects to manage approximately 27 Title II disposal sites. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities and services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective action; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder services, and other regulatory functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSPs) and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up inspections, or corrective action. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available online at http://www.lm.doe.gov

  20. The CTBT's International Monitoring System and On-Site Inspection Capabilities: a Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, Lassina

    2017-01-01

    At its 20th anniversary the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has now gathered 183 State Signatories, of which 166 have ratified. But 8 States remain to ratify before we reach entry into force. In the meantime the CTBT verification regime has accumulated two decades worth of experience, and has achieved proven results. The regime includes a global system for monitoring the earth, the oceans and the atmosphere and an on-site inspection (OSI) capability. It uses seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide technologies to do so. More than 90% of the 337 facilities of the International Monitoring System (IMS) have been installed and are sending data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria for processing. These IMS data along with IDC processed and reviewed products are available to all States that have signed the Treaty. The monitoring system has been put to test and demonstrated its effectiveness by detecting, locating and reporting on the DPRK announced nuclear tests in 2006, 2009, 2013 and twice in 2016. In addition to detecting radioxenon consistent with the nuclear tests in 2006 and 2013 the IMS radionuclide network also added value in the response to the tragic events in Fukushima in 2011. We continue to find new civil and scientific applications of the IMS that are made available to the international community to deal with major societal issues such as sustainable development, disaster risk reduction and climate change. OSI capabilities continue to be developed and tested. The Integrated Field Exercise in Jordan in 2014 demonstrated that they have reached a high level of operational readiness. The CTBT has been a catalyst for the development of new scientific fields in particular in the noble gas monitoring technology. CTBTO seeks to continuously improve its technologies and methods through interaction with the scientific community.

  1. Using NMR, SIP, and MS measurements for monitoring subsurface biogeochemical reactions at the Rifle IFRC site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, C. L.; Keating, K.; Williams, K. H.; Robbins, M.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Grunewald, E.; Walsh, D. O.

    2013-12-01

    The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site is located on a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado (USA). Although removal of tailings and contaminated surface materials was completed in 1996, residual uranium contamination of groundwater and subsurface sediments remains. Since 2002, research at the site has primarily focused on quantifying uranium mobility associated with stimulated and natural biogeochemical processes. Uranium mobility at the Rifle IFRC site is typically quantified through direct sampling of groundwater; however, direct sampling does not provide information about the solid phase material outside of the borehole and continuous measurements are not always possible due to multiple constraints. Geophysical methods have been suggested as a minimally invasive alternative approach for long term monitoring of biogeochemical reactions associated with uranium remediation. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), spectral induced polarization (SIP), and magnetic susceptibility (MS) are considered as potential geophysical methods for monitoring the biogeochemical reactions occurring at the Rifle IFRC site. Additionally, a pilot field study using an NMR borehole-logging tool was carried out at the Rifle IFRC site. These methods are sensitive to changes in the chemical and physical subsurface properties that occur as a result of bioremediation efforts; specifically, changes in the redox state and chemical form of iron, production of iron sulfide minerals, production of the magnetic mineral magnetite, and associated changes in the pore geometry. Laboratory experiments consisted of monitoring changes in the NMR, SIP and MS response of an acetate-amended columns packed with sediments from the Rifle IFRC site over the course of two months. The MS values remained relatively stable throughout the course of the experiment suggesting negligible production of magnetic phases (e.g. magnetite, pyrrhotite) as a result of enhanced

  2. Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality - MO 2011 Facility Air Locations - Missouri Emmissions Inventory System (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set includes locations from the Missouri Emissions Inventory System (MOEIS) database. Locational data was obtained using a variety of methods including but...

  3. Demonstration of innovative monitoring technologies at the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossabi, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jenkins, R.A.; Wise, M.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1993-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development initiated an Integrated Demonstration Program at the Savannah River Site in 1989. The objective of this program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate innovative technologies that can improve present-day environmental restoration methods. The Integrated Demonstration Program at SRS is entitled ``Cleanup of Organics in Soils and Groundwater at Non-Arid Sites.`` New technologies in the areas of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation are being demonstrated and evaluated for their technical performance and cost effectiveness in comparison with baseline technologies. Present site characterization and monitoring methods are costly, time-consuming, overly invasive, and often imprecise. Better technologies are required to accurately describe the subsurface geophysical and geochemical features of a site and the nature and extent of contamination. More efficient, nonintrusive characterization and monitoring techniques are necessary for understanding and predicting subsurface transport. More reliable procedures are also needed for interpreting monitoring and characterization data. Site characterization and monitoring are key elements in preventing, identifying, and restoring contaminated sites. The remediation of a site cannot be determined without characterization data, and monitoring may be required for 30 years after site closure.

  4. Automated location detection of injection site for preclinical stereotactic neurosurgery procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Wu, Hemmings C. H.

    2017-03-01

    Currently, during stereotactic neurosurgery procedures, the manual task of locating the proper area for needle insertion or implantation of electrode/cannula/optic fiber can be time consuming. The requirement of the task is to quickly and accurately find the location for insertion. In this study we investigate an automated method to locate the entry point of region of interest. This method leverages a digital image capture system, pattern recognition, and motorized stages. Template matching of known anatomical identifiable regions is used to find regions of interest (e.g. Bregma) in rodents. For our initial study, we tackle the problem of automatically detecting the entry point.

  5. Location, location, location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, S.P.; Goeree, J.K.; Ramer, R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the canonical location-then-price duopoly game with general log- concave consumer densities. A unique pure-strategy equilibrium to the two-stage game exists if the density is not "too asymmetric" and not "too concave." These criteria are satisfied by many commonly used densities. Equilibr

  6. Coal Mines, Reclamation Sites - Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Recycling Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Reclamation Locations are clean-up projects that are working to eliminate some form of abandoned mine. The following sub-facility types...

  7. Tree Transect Starting Locations (Points) at Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — A vector point dataset representing the starting location of tree transects at Sand Creek Massacre NHS as part of a University of Colorado research study.

  8. Field validation of radon monitoring as a screening methodology for NAPL-contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, J.E.; Ortega, M.F.; Chacon, E.; Mazadiego, L.F. [Grupo de Geoquimica Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Minas, Alenza 4, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Miguel, E. de [Grupo de Geoquimica Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Minas, Alenza 4, 28003 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: eduardo.demiguel@upm.es

    2008-09-15

    Screening methodologies aim at improving knowledge about subsurface contamination processes before expensive intrusive operations, i.e. drilling and core-sampling, well installation and development, sampling of groundwater and free-phase product, are implemented. Blind field tests carried out at a hydrocarbon storage and distribution center in NE Spain suggest that Rn monitoring can be effectively used to locate the boundaries of subsurface accumulations of NAPLs. Sixty seven measurements of Rn in soil air were performed with a SARAD RTM 2100 current-ionization alpha-particle spectrometer following a 10 m square grid. Reductions of {sup 222}Rn concentration above a pool of LNAPL due to the preferential partition of Rn into the organic phase were spatially analyzed and resolved to yield the surface contour of the NAPL source zone. This surface trace of the source zone agreed well with the extent and situation inferred from measurements of free-phase thickness taken at eight monitoring wells at the site. Moreover, the good repeatability (as measured by replicate measurements at the same sampling point) and spatial resolution of the technique suggest that the boundaries of the plume can be delineated at the sub-decametre level.

  9. Monitoring the CO2 injection site: K12-B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandeweijer, V.; Meer, B. van der; Hofstee, C.; Mulders, F.; D'Hoore, D.; Graven, H.

    2011-01-01

    The K12-B gas field is located in the Dutch sector of the North Sea. The top of the reservoir lies approximately 3800 meters below sea level, and the ambient temperature of the reservoir is over 127 °C. The K12-B gas field has been producing natural gas from 1987 onwards and is currently operated by

  10. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for April through June 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Mitchell, P.J.; Dennison, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site. Results for monitoring by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) during April-June 1987 show that certain regulated hazardous materials and radionuclides exist in Hanford Site ground waters. The presence of regulated constituents in the ground water derives both from site operations and from natural sources. The major contamination problems defined by recent monitoring activities are carbon tetrachloride in the 200 West Area; cyanide in and north of the 200 East Area; hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100B, 100D, 100K, and 100H areas; chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill; uranium at the 216-U-1 and 216-U-2 cribs in the 200 West Area; tritium across the site; and nitrate across the site. The distribution of hazardous materials related to site operations is more limited than the distribution of tritium and nitrate. 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. A Structural Approach to Performance Monitoring of Waste Sites: Obtaining Actionable Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, E. D.; Versteeg, R.; Ankeny, M.; Richardson, A.

    2005-05-01

    Both government and non-government agencies are faced with the challenge of long-term monitoring of waste sites and landfills. Such monitoring should provide actionable information on how these sites are evolving, including (but not limited to) information on the success of remedial treatment methods (either active or passive), compliance with regulatory standards, and evolution of system behavior associated with these sites. Current monitoring efforts suffer from the lack of integration between data collection, data management, information extraction and information use. An alternative to such efforts is the use of a structural approach to performance monitoring developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This approach has the following characteristics (1) tight integration between monitoring objectives and data collection efforts (2) well structured storage of all relevant monitoring data (3) establishment of transparent, reproducible procedures for translation of data to information (including coupling of data to models) (4) development of a web based interface to the monitoring system, providing easy access to data and results by multiple stakeholders. We will discuss several examples of the implementation of the INL monitoring system, including an EPA superfund site and several landfill sites.

  12. Changes in Cleanup Strategies and Long-Term Monitoring Costs for DOE FUSRAP Sites-17241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Darina [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Carpenter, Cliff [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Roberts, Rebecca [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Young, Carl [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.

    2017-03-05

    LM is preparing for the transfer of 11 new FUSRAP sites within the next 10 years from USACE, many of which will have substantially greater LTSM requirements than the current Completed sites. LM is analyzing the estimates for the level of effort required to monitor the new sites in order to make more customized and accurate predictions of future life cycle costs and environmental liabilities of these sites.

  13. Improved Robustness and Efficiency for Automatic Visual Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    and space utiliza- tion perspectives. In commercial settings, retail outlets are interested in monitoring shopper traffic patterns to understand the...penalized because it has such a broad and non-discriminating covariance matrix. This is a desirable regularization property be- cause the outlined online ...to emit it. The Gaussian is then updated with this pixel value using an exponential forgetting scheme that approximates an online k-means algorithm

  14. Development and Testing of a Scanning Differential Absorption Lidar For Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, B.; Johnson, W.; Repasky, K. S.; Carlsten, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    A scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instrument for carbon sequestration site monitoring is under development and testing at Montana State University. The laser transmitter uses two tunable discrete mode laser diodes (DMLD) operating in the continuous wave (cw) mode with one locked to the on-line absorption wavelength at 1571.4067 nm and the second operating at the off-line wavelength at 1571.2585 nm. Two in-line fiber optic switches are used to switch between on-line and off-line operation. After the fiber optic switches, an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) is used to generate a pulse train used to injection seed an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) to produce eye-safe laser pulses with maximum pulse energies of 66 J and a pulse repetition frequency of 15 kHz. The DIAL receiver uses a 28 cm diameter Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope to collect that backscattered light, which is then monitored using a fiber coupled photo-multiplier tube (PMT) module operating in the photon counting mode. The PMT has a 3% quantum efficiency, a dark count rate of 90 kHz, and a maximum count rate of 1 MHz. Recently, a fiber coupled avalanche photodiode (APD) operating in the geiger mode has been incorporated into the DIAL receiver. The APD has a quantum efficiency of 10%, a dark count rate of 10 kHz, and a maximum count rate of 1 MHz and provides a much larger dynamic range than the PMT. Both the PMT and APD provide TTL logic pulses that are monitored using a multichannel scaler card used to count the return photons as a function of time of flight and are thus interchangeable. The DIAL instrument was developed at the 1.571 m wavelength to take advantage of commercial-off-the-shelf components. The instrument is operated using a custom Labview program that switches to the DMLD operating at the on-line wavelength, locks this laser to a user defined wavelength setting, and collects return signals for a user defined time. The control program switches to the DMLD operating at the off

  15. Passive seismic monitoring at the ketzin CCS site -Magnitude estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, B.F.; Steeghs, T.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    In order to allow quantification of the strength of local micro-seismic events recorded at the CCS pilot site in Ketzin in terms of local magnitude, earthquake data recorded by standardized seismometers were used. Earthquakes were selected that occurred in Poland and Czech Republic and that were det

  16. Routing Topologies of Wireless Sensor Networks for Health Monitoring of a Cultural Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Aparicio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a performance evaluation of tree and mesh routing topologies of wireless sensor networks (WSNs in a cultural heritage site. The historical site selected was San Juan Bautista church in Talamanca de Jarama (Madrid, Spain. We report the preliminary analysis required to study the effects of heating in this historical location using WSNs to monitor the temperature and humidity conditions during periods of weeks. To test which routing topology was better for this kind of application, the WSNs were first deployed on the upper floor of the CAEND institute in Arganda del Rey simulating the church deployment, but in the former scenario there was no direct line of sight between the WSN elements. Two parameters were selected to evaluate the performance of the routing topologies of WSNs: the percentage of received messages and the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. To analyze in more detail which topology gave the best performance, other communication parameters were also measured. The tree topology used was the collection tree protocol and the mesh topology was the XMESH provided by MEMSIC (Andover, MA, USA. For the scenarios presented in this paper, it can be concluded that the tree topology lost fewer messages than the mesh topology.

  17. Routing Topologies of Wireless Sensor Networks for Health Monitoring of a Cultural Heritage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Sofía; Martínez-Garrido, María I.; Ranz, Javier; Fort, Rafael; Izquierdo, Miguel Ángel G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a performance evaluation of tree and mesh routing topologies of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a cultural heritage site. The historical site selected was San Juan Bautista church in Talamanca de Jarama (Madrid, Spain). We report the preliminary analysis required to study the effects of heating in this historical location using WSNs to monitor the temperature and humidity conditions during periods of weeks. To test which routing topology was better for this kind of application, the WSNs were first deployed on the upper floor of the CAEND institute in Arganda del Rey simulating the church deployment, but in the former scenario there was no direct line of sight between the WSN elements. Two parameters were selected to evaluate the performance of the routing topologies of WSNs: the percentage of received messages and the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. To analyze in more detail which topology gave the best performance, other communication parameters were also measured. The tree topology used was the collection tree protocol and the mesh topology was the XMESH provided by MEMSIC (Andover, MA, USA). For the scenarios presented in this paper, it can be concluded that the tree topology lost fewer messages than the mesh topology. PMID:27775571

  18. Routing Topologies of Wireless Sensor Networks for Health Monitoring of a Cultural Heritage Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Sofía; Martínez-Garrido, María I; Ranz, Javier; Fort, Rafael; Izquierdo, Miguel Ángel G

    2016-10-19

    This paper provides a performance evaluation of tree and mesh routing topologies of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a cultural heritage site. The historical site selected was San Juan Bautista church in Talamanca de Jarama (Madrid, Spain). We report the preliminary analysis required to study the effects of heating in this historical location using WSNs to monitor the temperature and humidity conditions during periods of weeks. To test which routing topology was better for this kind of application, the WSNs were first deployed on the upper floor of the CAEND institute in Arganda del Rey simulating the church deployment, but in the former scenario there was no direct line of sight between the WSN elements. Two parameters were selected to evaluate the performance of the routing topologies of WSNs: the percentage of received messages and the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. To analyze in more detail which topology gave the best performance, other communication parameters were also measured. The tree topology used was the collection tree protocol and the mesh topology was the XMESH provided by MEMSIC (Andover, MA, USA). For the scenarios presented in this paper, it can be concluded that the tree topology lost fewer messages than the mesh topology.

  19. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Gnome-Coach (Gnome) Site in New Mexico (Figure 1). Groundwater monitoring consisted of collecting hydraulic head data and groundwater samples from the wells on site. Historically, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had conducted these annual activities under the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP). LM took over the sampling and data collection activities in 2008 but continues to use the EPA Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, to analyze the water samples. This report summarizes groundwater monitoring and site investigation activities that were conducted at the site during calendar year 2010.

  20. Vegetation of Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites on National Wildlife Refuges in the South Atlantic Geography

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Assessment of vegetation structure and composition at each of the Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring sites on South Atlantic Geography National Wildlife Refuges....

  1. Integrating Real-time Bridge Scouring Monitoring System with Mobile Location-Based Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Bin Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Typhoons and torrential rains not only erode river beds and coasts and damage river-crossing structures, but also affect the geomorphology and topography of rivers and coasts. Additionally, typhoons and torrential rains cause debris flows and flooding in metropolitan areas and threaten the safety of people’s lives and properties. Disaster prevention and reduction of damage caused by typhoons and torrential rains have always been a crucial task of government agencies. Bridges in Taiwan are generally old and have insufficient shock resistance; some bridge foundations are also severely eroded and exposed. Because of global climate changes in recent years, rainfall has become comparatively heavy and rapid. Furthermore, the soil in mountain areas has softened because of factors such as earthquakes or human developments. Debris rushes down with rain every time a torrential rain strikes, significantly impacting the safety of bridges downstream. Although government bridge management units have made budget plans to progressively renovate dangerous old bridges, these bridges are still being use for traffic and transportation. These dangerous old bridges pose a serious threat to the safety of people when an earthquake, typhoon, or flood occurs. During typhoons and floods, increased water levels and changes of the scouring depths have dramatic effects on the safety of bridges. The bridge maintenance unit currently uses the water level and water flow conditions as references when determining whether to close a bridge; however, this is not a good permanent solution. A bridge scour monitoring and warning system that is stable, reliable, and operates normally under flood attacks is required for on-site installation and verification. In recent years, the applied technologies of smart phones have expanded beyond entertainment and communication. Mobile communications are used to transmit relevant information to bridge maintenance and management units and road

  2. Instrumentation of urban hydrology monitoring sites in Southeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, Jack

    1979-01-01

    An instrumentation system developed and built in laboratories of the U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va., has been used since 1974 to collect synchronized rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data from urban basins. A number of field modifications were made to adapt the system to local hydrologic conditions and for collection of data on about 350 rainstorms at four sites in south Florida. The instrumentation system measures rainfall at three sites, records two pressure or water-level readings for flow computations, and collects and refrigerates up to 24 water samples and rainfall-quality samples. Rainfall and runoff data are recorded every 36 seconds on a six-channel analog recorder so that all variables are time-synchronous. Flow in the storm sewer is computed from pressure measurements in a U-shaped venturi-type constriction or, when the constriction is not used, from water levels. (Kosco-USGS)

  3. Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1, Section 1000 Addendum: Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G.T.

    1994-10-01

    This document -- the Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan (SRS EM Plan) -- has been prepared according to guidance contained in the DOE 5400 Series orders, in 10 CFR 834, and in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and environmental Surveillance [DOE, 1991]. The SRS EM Plan`s purpose is to define the criteria, regulations, and guideline requirements with which SRS will comply. These criteria and requirements are applicable to environmental monitoring activities performed in support of the SRS Environmental Monitoring Program (SRS EM Program), WSRC-3Q1-2, Volume 1, Section 1100. They are not applicable to monitoring activities utilized exclusively for process monitoring/control. The environmental monitoring program requirements documented in the SRS EM Plan incorporate all applicable should requirements of DOE/EH-0173T and expand upon them to include nonradiological environmental monitoring program requirements.

  4. Tables of co-located geothermal-resource sites and BLM Wilderness Study Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.

    1982-11-01

    Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.

  5. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report Supporting Radiological Air Surveillance Monitoring for the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Thomas Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report documents the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site ambient air surveillance program. The development of the DQOs was based on the seven-step process recommended “for systematic planning to generate performance and acceptance criteria for collecting environmental data” (EPA 2006). The process helped to determine the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to meet current regulatory requirements and to follow U.S. Department of Energy guidance for environmental surveillance air monitoring design. It also considered the current air monitoring program that has existed at INL Site since the 1950s. The development of the DQOs involved the application of the atmospheric dispersion model CALPUFF to identify likely contamination dispersion patterns at and around the INL Site using site-specific meteorological data. Model simulations were used to quantitatively assess the probable frequency of detection of airborne radionuclides released by INL Site facilities using existing and proposed air monitors.

  6. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

  7. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

  8. The impact of an efficient collection sites location on the zoning phase in municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Gianpaolo; Manni, Andrea; Manni, Emanuele; Toraldo, Massimiliano

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study two decisional problems arising when planning the collection of solid waste, namely the location of collection sites (together with bin allocation) and the zoning of the service territory, and we assess the potential impact that an efficient location has on the subsequent zoning phase. We first propose both an exact and a heuristic approach to locate the unsorted waste collection bins in a residential town, and to decide the capacities and characteristics of the bins to be located at each collection site. A peculiar aspect we consider is that of taking into account the compatibility between the different types of bins when allocating them to collection areas. Moreover, we propose a fast and effective heuristic approach to identify homogeneous zones that can be served by a single collection vehicle. Computational results on data related to a real-life instance show that an efficient location is fundamental in achieving consistent monetary savings, as well as a reduced environmental impact. These reductions are the result of one vehicle less needed to perform the waste collection operations, and an overall traveled distance reduced by about 25% on the average.

  9. Error Sources in Deforestation Detection Using BFAST Monitor on Landsat Time Series Across Three Tropical Sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, Michael; Verbesselt, Jan; Avitabile, Valerio; Souza, Carlos; Herold, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Accurate tropic deforestation monitoring using time series requires methods which can capture gradual to abrupt changes and can account for site-specific properties of the environment and the available data. The generic time series algorithm BFAST Monitor was tested using Landsat time series at thre

  10. A simple protocol using underwater epoxy to install annual temperature monitoring sites in rivers and streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Isaak; Dona L. Horan; Sherry P. Wollrab

    2013-01-01

    Thermal regimes in rivers and streams are fundamental determinants of biological processes and are often monitored for regulatory compliance. Here, we describe a simple technique for establishing annual monitoring sites that uses underwater epoxy to attach miniature sensors to large rocks and cement bridge supports, which then serve as protective anchors. More than 500...

  11. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program: 1990 sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-02-07

    This schedule provides a final record of the 1990 sampling schedule for the SRS groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Section (EPD/EMS). It includes all the wells monitored by EPD/EMS at SRS during 1990 and identifies the constituents sampled, the sampling frequency, and the reasons for sampling. Sampling requests are incorporated into the schedule throughout the year. Drafts of the schedule are produced and revised quarterly.

  12. Characterization and monitoring of contaminated sites by multi-geophysical approach (IP, ERT and GPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Valeria; Capozzoli, Luigi; Votta, Mario; Rizzo, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    The contamination of soils and groundwater by hydrocarbons, due to blow out, leakage from tank or pipe and oil spill, is a heavy environmental problem because infiltrated oil can persist in the ground for a long time leading to important changes on soils and physical and biogeochemical properties, which impact on ecosystems and shallow aquifers. The existing methods used for the characterization of hydrocarbon contaminated sites are invasive, time consuming and expensive. Therefore, in the last years, there was a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods for environmental monitoring (Börner et al., 1993; Vanhala, 1997; Atekwana et al., 2000; Chambers et al., 2004; Song et al., 2005; French et al., 2009). The goal of this work is to characterize underground contaminant distributions and monitoring a remediation activity using a multi-geophysical approach (cross-hole IP and ERT, GPR). The experiments consist in geophysical measurements both in surface and boreholes, to monitor a simulated hydrocarbon leachate into a ~1 m3 box. The tank is filled with quartz-rich sand (k = 1.16 x 10-12 m2) and it is equipped with six boreholes and 72 stainless steel ring electrodes, at 5 cm spacing, for cross-hole electrical resistivity and time-domain IP measurements. 25 additional stainless steel electrodes were installed at the surface of the tank. Two measurement phases were realized: first, we monitored electrical resistivity, IP, and dielectric conductivity of the uncontaminated soil; the second experimental phase consists in the geophysical monitoring of a crude oil controlled spill. Results showed significant changes in the responses of geoelectrical measurements in presence of a crude oil contamination. Instead IP results give a phase angle distribution related to the presence of hydrocarbon in the system but not so clear in the location of plume. Therefore, to clearly delineate the areas interested by contamination, we estimate the imaginary component of electrical

  13. Long-term monitoring of soil microbiological activities in two forest sites in South tyrol in the italian alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margesin, Rosa; Minerbi, Stefano; Schinner, Franz

    2014-09-17

    We monitored microbiological properties in two forest sites over a period of 17 years (1993-2010) within the International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Ecosystems (ICP IM). The two study sites were located in South Tyrol in the Italian Alps at altitudes of 1,737 m a.s.l. (subalpine site IT01) and 570 m a.s.l. (submontane site IT02). Soil samples were collected in the late spring and autumn of 1993, 2000, and 2010, and were characterized by measuring respiration, key enzyme activities involved in the C, N, P, and S cycles and litter degradation, and the abundance of viable bacterial and fungal populations. Over the study period, an increase in mean annual air temperatures at both sites (+0.6°C and +0.8°C at IT01 and IT02, respectively) was calculated from trendlines. Significantly lower mean annual air temperatures, higher temperature fluctuations, and higher annual precipitation rates were observed at site IT01 than at site IT02. Subalpine site IT01 was characterized by significantly lower microbial activity (respiration, enzymes) and abundance than those at submontane site IT02. The year of sampling had a significant effect on all the parameters investigated, except for nitrification. Fungal abundance decreased consistently over the study period, while no consistent trend was noted among the other parameters investigated. Season only affected a few of the measured microbiological parameters: respiration and bacterial numbers were significantly higher in the spring than in the autumn, while the opposite was noted for xylanase and phosphatase activities. Soil fungi contributed essentially to xylanase and protease activities, while soil bacteria were mainly involved in degradation processes that required the activity of sulfatase.

  14. Design of cold chain logistics remote monitoring system based on ZigBee and GPS location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xiaoping; Shao, Heling

    2017-03-01

    This paper designed a remote monitoring system based on Bee Zig wireless sensor network and GPS positioning, according to the characteristics of cold chain logistics. The system consisted of the ZigBee network, gateway and monitoring center. ZigBee network temperature acquisition modules and GPS positioning acquisition module were responsible for data collection, and then send the data to the host computer through the GPRS network and Internet to realize remote monitoring of vehicle with functions of login permissions, temperature display, latitude and longitude display, historical data, real-time alarm and so on. Experiments showed that the system is stable, reliable and effective to realize the real-time remote monitoring of the vehicle in the process of cold chain transport.

  15. Location selection criteria for a second data center or off-site storage of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Mitchell; Witman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    As organizations develop secondary data centers, it is critical that they be placed in locations that serve the organization yet do not have a shared risk with the primary data center. The organization needs to consider factors or guidelines which mitigate potential issues that could affect both the primary and secondary data center. It is impossible to eliminate all risk to a single data center but an organization needs to ensure that at least one data center remains operable. The article will propose that data centers be located 50 km or approximately 30 miles apart. The proposal is supported by evaluating earthquake intensity maps that will show that earthquakes damage drops to relatively safe levels after the 30 miles from the epicenter. The article will show that other environmental factors such as power, floods, fire, transportation, fire, and soil are also mitigated by a 30-mile separation guideline.

  16. A long-term monitoring of resistivity variation at the Wushangting mud volcano site in Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P.; Chen, L.

    2007-12-01

    We used a two-dimensional (2D) time-lapse electrical resistivity method in monitoring the activities of mud volcanoes. The mud volcano is a geomorphic feature formed by gases and fluid gushing through fault fissures at the mudstone area. The extensively eruption of fluid in mud volcanoes in the Yanchao area of southwestern Taiwan reveals the activities of the active Chishan Fault. However, there are no direct evidence showing the relationships between erupted gas volumes and fault activities. Through the time-lapse resistivity monitoring in the area, we hope to provide useful information to evaluate the fault activities. Our in-field monitoring site is located at the Wushangting Preservation Zone, which are on the Chishan Fault line in Yanchao. The measuring period is from July 2006 to May 2007, measuring frequency is once a week in the first month and is decreased to about once a month in the following months. The average resistivity at the research site is between 3.36 to 9.43 Ohm-m. During the period, the major changes of resistivity are located between the surface and a depth of 3-m. On December 26th, 2006, three earthquakes occurred as high as 6.7, 6.4, 5.2 at the Richter scale outside the sea of PingTung county, about 100 km southwest from the monitoring site. After the earthquakes, the resistivity is found to be raised up 2 to 5 Ohm-m between the surface and a depth of 3-m. There are a lot of reasons that may cause the changes of resistivity, for example, the temperature, the humidity, the earthquake activities and its subsequent influence, i.e., gas or fluid emission from the subsurface. After examine the weather records during the monitoring period, we suggest that the decrease of resitivity in the monitoring site is most likely to be the subsequent influence of the earthquake activities. Currently, we are continuing the resistivity monitoring surveys and hope to provide more data in order to be compared with the previous observation records.

  17. Passive seismic monitoring in two carbon sequestration sites, a data driven approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Brouwer, J.H.; Meekes, J.A.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Passive seismic imaging during CO2 injection in geological formations gains more and more interest as part of an integrated monitoring approach. For two EU CO2 storage project sites, RECOPOL - Enhanced Coal-Bed Methane pilot site in Kaniów (Poland) and CO2SINK- CO2 injection in a saline aquifer in K

  18. Scientific Opportunities for Monitoring at Environmental Remediation Sites (SOMERS): Integrated Systems-Based Approaches to Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elizabeth L.; Truex, Michael J.; Peterson, Mark; Freshley, Mark D.; Pierce, Eric M.; McCord, John; Young, Michael H.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Miller, Rick; Miracle, Ann L.; Kaback, Dawn; Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Rossabi, Joe; Lee, Michelle H.; Bush, Richard P.; Beam , Paul; Chamberlain, G. M.; Marble, Justin; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Gerdes, Kurt D.; Collazo, Yvette

    2012-05-15

    Through an inter-disciplinary effort, DOE is addressing a need to advance monitoring approaches from sole reliance on cost- and labor-intensive point-source monitoring to integrated systems-based approaches such as flux-based approaches and the use of early indicator parameters. Key objectives include identifying current scientific, technical and implementation opportunities and challenges, prioritizing science and technology strategies to meet current needs within the DOE complex for the most challenging environments, and developing an integrated and risk-informed monitoring framework.

  19. Status of the flora and fauna on the Nevada Test Site, 1994: Results of continuing Basic Environmental Monitoring January through December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.B. [comp.

    1995-09-01

    This is the final progress report of a Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada operations Office (NV), program to monitor the ecology of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The eight-year Basic Environmental Compliance and Monitoring Program (BECAMP) included meeting goals of understanding the spatial and temporal changes of plants and animals on the NTS, and determining the effects of DOE operations on those plants and animals. Determination of the changes was addressed through monitoring the most common plant and animal species at undisturbed (baseline) plots located in the major NTS valleys and mesas. One plot in Yucca Flat, the site of most nuclear weapons tests, was monitored annually, while other baseline plots were censused on a three- or four-year cycle. Effects of DOE operations were examined at sites of major disturbances, related to both DOE operations and natural disturbance mechanisms, censused on a three-year cycle. This report concentrates on work completed in 1994.

  20. Microseismicity monitoring at the Decatur, IL, CO2 sequestration demonstration site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaven, J. Ole; Hickman, Stephen H.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Greenberg, Sallie

    2016-04-01

    Industrial-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) will require the injection of large volumes of CO2 into extensive undisturbed brine aquifers. Large-volume injection has the potential to induce earthquake activity (Zoback and Gorelick, 2012). To assess the seismic hazard posed by one such operation, the USGS has been monitoring seismic activity at a CCS demonstration site in Decatur, IL, where supercritical CO2 is injected into the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a basal brine formation, at a depth of about 2 km, several 10s of meters above granitic basement. During the first phase of injection, supercritical CO2 was injected at a rate of about 1000 metric tons/day from November 2011 until November 2014. The USGS monitored microseismicity using a seismic network that consists of 16 stations (4 in 500 ft boreholes). The USGS data set contains 179 locatable events and shows that the microseismicity occurs in the Mt Simon sandstone injection interval and, to a lesser degree, in the pre-Mt Simon and the Precambrian basement. Microseismicity occurs in distinct clusters at varying distances from the injection well and distance from the well does not increase systematically with time. Double difference relocations of these events reveal that these clusters tend to form linear features in both the Mt. Simon and the basement, suggesting that the microseismicity involves reactivation of preexisting fractures and faults. This finding is corroborated by composite focal mechanisms for individual clusters that are consistent with the regional horizontal principal stress orientations and right-lateral slip across the reactivated faults and fractures. Despite the injection of nearly one million tons of CO2 the largest microearthquake magnitudes barely exceeded 1 and, thus, none of these events could be felt at the surface. During the second phase, injection down a second borehole will be at a rate of about 3000 metric tons/day starting in early 2016 and continue for three years. To augment

  1. PERFORMACE OF MULTI-PROBE CORROSION MONITORING SYSTEMS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAROTHERS KD; BOOMER KD; ANDA VS; DAHL MM; EDGEMON GL

    2010-01-14

    Between 2007 and 2009, several different multi-probe corrosion monitoring systems were designed and installed in high-level nuclear waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in WaShington State. The probe systems are being monitored to ensure waste tanks operate in regions that minimize localized corrosion (i.e., pitting) and stress corrosion cracking. The corrosion monitoring systems have been installed in wastes with different chemistry types. An ongoing effort during the same time period has generated non-radioactive simulants that are tested in the laboratory to establish baseline corrosion monitoring system performance and characterize data to allow interpretation of readings from the multiple corrosion monitoring systems. Data collection from these monitoring systems has reached the point where the results allow comparison with the laboratory testing. This paper presents analytical results from the corrosion monitoring system development program.

  2. Monitoring and validating active site redox states in protein crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonyuk, Svetlana V; Hough, Michael A

    2011-06-01

    High resolution protein crystallography using synchrotron radiation is one of the most powerful tools in modern biology. Improvements in resolution have arisen from the use of X-ray beamlines with higher brightness and flux and the development of advanced detectors. However, it is increasingly recognised that the benefits brought by these advances have an associated cost, namely deleterious effects of X-ray radiation on the sample (radiation damage). In particular, X-ray induced reduction and damage to redox centres has been shown to occur much more rapidly than other radiation damage effects, such as loss of resolution or damage to disulphide bridges. Selection of an appropriate combination of in-situ single crystal spectroscopies during crystallographic experiments, such as UV-visible absorption and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAFS), allows for effective monitoring of redox states in protein crystals in parallel with structure determination. Such approaches are also essential in cases where catalytic intermediate species are generated by exposure to the X-ray beam. In this article, we provide a number of examples in which multiple single crystal spectroscopies have been key to understanding the redox status of Fe and Cu centres in crystal structures. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Structure and Function in the Crystalline State.

  3. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Shoemaker, B.A. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  4. Real-Time Safety Risk Assessment Based on a Real-Time Location System for Hydropower Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanchen Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern for workers’ safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM, the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns.

  5. Real-time safety risk assessment based on a real-time location system for hydropower construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hanchen; Lin, Peng; Fan, Qixiang; Qiang, Maoshan

    2014-01-01

    The concern for workers' safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA) to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM), the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS) and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns.

  6. Large-scale control site selection for population monitoring: an example assessing Sage-grouse trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; O'Donnell, Michael; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2015-01-01

    Human impacts on wildlife populations are widespread and prolific and understanding wildlife responses to human impacts is a fundamental component of wildlife management. The first step to understanding wildlife responses is the documentation of changes in wildlife population parameters, such as population size. Meaningful assessment of population changes in potentially impacted sites requires the establishment of monitoring at similar, nonimpacted, control sites. However, it is often difficult to identify appropriate control sites in wildlife populations. We demonstrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) data across large spatial scales to select biologically relevant control sites for population monitoring. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hearafter, sage-grouse) are negatively affected by energy development, and monitoring of sage-grouse population within energy development areas is necessary to detect population-level responses. Weused population data (1995–2012) from an energy development area in Wyoming, USA, the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), and GIS data to identify control sites that were not impacted by energy development for population monitoring. Control sites were surrounded by similar habitat and were within similar climate areas to the ARPA. We developed nonlinear trend models for both the ARPA and control sites and compared long-term trends from the 2 areas. We found little difference between the ARPA and control sites trends over time. This research demonstrated an approach for control site selection across large landscapes and can be used as a template for similar impact-monitoring studies. It is important to note that identification of changes in population parameters between control and treatment sites is only the first step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie those changes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. 317/319 phytoremediation site monitoring report - 2004 growing season.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, M. C.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Bogner, J.; Energy Systems

    2009-02-21

    In 1999, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed and installed a series of engineered plantings consisting of a vegetative cover system and approximately 800 hybrid poplars and willows rooting at various predetermined depths. The plants were installed using various methods including Applied Natural Science's TreeWell{reg_sign} system. The goal of the installation was to protect downgradient surface and groundwater by hydraulic control of the contaminated plume by intercepting the contaminated groundwater with the tree roots, removing moisture from the upgradient soil area, reducing water infiltration, preventing soil erosion, degrading and/or transpiring the residual volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and removing tritium from the subsoil and groundwater. This report presents the results of the monitoring activities conducted by Argonne's Energy Systems Division (ES) in the growing season of 2004. Monitoring of the planted trees began soon after the trees were installed in 1999 and has been conducted every summer since then. As the trees grew and consolidated their growth into the contaminated soil and groundwater, their exposure to the contaminants was progressively shown through tissue sampling. Since the inception of the project, significant progress was made in the refinement and testing of the analytical method (for which no official method is available), the determination of the optimal tissue for sampling, and of the variability of the concentrations within a specific tree. An understanding has also been developed on background concentrations of VOCs, and how to discriminate between VOCs that are associated with plant tissue because of aerial or of soil/groundwater uptake pathways. Also, during the 2003 sampling campaign, core samples from tree trunks were collected for the first time (the trees were large enough to stand the procedure). Data collected from the French Drain area last year supported the hypothesis that a correlation was present

  8. Towards a risk map of malaria for Sri Lanka: the importance of house location relative to vector breeding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H

    2003-01-01

    collections. RESULTS: People living within 750 m of the local stream, which was the established vector-breeding site, were at much higher risk for malaria than people living further away (odds ratio adjusted for confounding by other variables 5.93, 95% CI: 3.50-8.91). Houses close to the stream also had more......BACKGROUND: In Sri Lanka, the major malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies breeds in pools formed in streams and river beds and it is likely that people living close to such breeding sites are at higher risk of malaria than people living further away. This study was done to quantify the importance...... of house location relative to vector breeding sites for the occurrence of malaria in order to assess the usefulness of this parameter in future malaria risk maps. Such risk maps could be important tools for planning efficient malaria control measures. METHODS: In a group of seven villages in north central...

  9. High DNA melting temperature predicts transcription start site location in human and mouse.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, David G

    2009-12-01

    The accurate computational prediction of transcription start sites (TSS) in vertebrate genomes is a difficult problem. The physicochemical properties of DNA can be computed in various ways and a many combinations of DNA features have been tested in the past for use as predictors of transcription. We looked in detail at melting temperature, which measures the temperature, at which two strands of DNA separate, considering the cooperative nature of this process. We find that peaks in melting temperature correspond closely to experimentally determined transcription start sites in human and mouse chromosomes. Using melting temperature alone, and with simple thresholding, we can predict TSS with accuracy that is competitive with the most accurate state-of-the-art TSS prediction methods. Accuracy is measured using both experimentally and manually determined TSS. The method works especially well with CpG island containing promoters, but also works when CpG islands are absent. This result is clear evidence of the important role of the physical properties of DNA in the process of transcription. It also points to the importance for TSS prediction methods to include melting temperature as prior information.

  10. The role of mosquito olfaction in oviposition site location and in the avoidance of unsuitable hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, J A; Woodcock, C M

    1996-01-01

    Developments in the exploitation of mosquito olfaction are traced, in collaborative studies with various groups, from the first identification of a mosquito pheromone through to a discussion of non-host avoidance. The characterization of the oviposition pheromone for mosquitoes in the genus Culex, e.g. Culex quinquefasciatus, as a novel chiral lactone ester provided the impetus for a number of sophisticated asymmetric syntheses and economical large-scale routes to racemic products. The latter have provided material for successful field trials in three continents. During the course of this field work, we obtained evidence that semiochemicals originating directly from the oviposition site are essential for activity of the oviposition pheromone. Recent studies are elucidating the nature of these agents and their geographical variability. Initially, we used synthetic oviposition pheromone to attract mosquitoes to sites treated with a biorational larvicide. However, recyclable biological control agents offer better prospects for resource-poor regions. A biotechnological approach to pheromone production has been devised involving the generation of inexpensive starting materials by the cultivation of a higher plant. New studies on dipterous pests feeding on farm animals indicate a semiochemically based mechanism by which unsuitable individuals within the host species are avoided. There appears to be an analogous process in which mosquitoes avoid certain potential human hosts, thereby raising prospects for the development of novel, rationally identified repellents once the semiochemical/olfactory interactions have been fully elucidated.

  11. Rocketdyne division environmental monitoring annual report, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, De Soto, and Canoga Sites, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1991-06-20

    This annual report discuses environmental monitoring at three manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Southern California area by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL.), the De Soto site, and the Canoga site. These sites have been used for manufacturing, R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto and Canoga sites are essentially light industry with some laboratory-scale R&D and have little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2,668 acres), warranted comprehensive monitoring to assure protection of the environment. The purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring primarily for the regulatory agencies involved in controlling operations with nuclear and radioactive materials, i.e., the U.S. DOE, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the California State Department of Health Services (DHS), Radiologic Health Branch (RHB). For that reason, information concentrates on Area IV at SSFL as this is the site of the former nuclear operations. While the major realm of interest is radiological, this report also includes some discussion of nonradiological monitoring at SSFL

  12. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Site Optimization for Poyang Lake, the Largest Freshwater Lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a coupled method to optimize the surface water quality monitoring sites for a huge freshwater lake based on field investigations, mathematical analysis, and numerical simulation tests. Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, was selected as the research area. Based on the field investigated water quality data in the 5 years from 2008 to 2012, the water quality inter-annual variation coefficients at all the present sites and the water quality correlation coefficients between adjacent sites were calculated and analyzed to present an optimization scheme. A 2-D unsteady water quality model was established to get the corresponding water quality data at the optimized monitoring sites, which were needed for the rationality test on the optimized monitoring network. We found that: (1 the water quality of Piaoshan (No. 10 fluctuated most distinguishably and the inter-annual variation coefficient of NH3-N and TP could reach 99.77% and 73.92%, respectively. The four studied indexes were all closely related at Piaoshan (No. 10 and Tangyin (No. 11, and the correlation coefficients of COD and NH3-N could reach 0.91 and 0.94 separately. (2 It was suggested that the present site No. 10 be removed to avoid repeatability, and it was suggested that the three sites of Changling, Huzhong, and Nanjiang be added to improve the representativeness of the monitoring sites. (3 According to the rationality analysis, the 21 optimized water quality monitoring sites could scientifically replace the primary network, and the new monitoring network could better reflect the water quality of the whole lake.

  13. Chromosomal location of 18S and 5S rDNA sites in Triportheus fish species (Characiformes, Characidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The location of 18S and 5S rDNA sites was determined in eight species and populations of the fish genus Triportheus by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The males and females of all species had 2n = 52 chromosomes and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. A single 18S rDNA site that was roughly equivalent to an Ag-NOR was detected on the short arms of a submetacentric pair in nearly all species, and up to two additional sites were also observed in some species. In addition, another 18S rDNA cluster was identified in a distal region on the long arms of the W chromosome; this finding corroborated previous evidence that this cluster would be a shared feature amongst Triportheus species. In T. angulatus, a heterozygotic paracentric inversion involving the short arms of one homolog of a metacentric pair was associated with NORs. The 5S rDNA sites were located on the short arms of a single submetacentric chromosomal pair, close to the centromeres, except in T. auritus, which had up to ten 5S rDNA sites. The 18S and 5S rDNA sites were co-localized and adjacent on the short arms of a chromosomal pair in two populations of T. nematurus. Although all Triportheus species have a similar karyotypic macrostructure, the results of this work show that in some species ribosomal genes may serve as species-specific markers when used in conjunction with other putatively synapomorphic features. PMID:21637644

  14. Where Is the Site of the "Oxygen Burst" Located During Light Induction in Dark-Adapted Leaves? A Study Using Photoacoustic Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Yong FAN; Rong-Fu GAO

    2005-01-01

    The "oxygen burst" phenomenon that appeared during the light-induction period of intact leaves could be monitored using a photoacoustic technique high time resolution. The relationship between oxygen bursts and dark-adapted time, far-red light pretreatment, photothermal signal, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence kinetics were investigated in the present study. Using extraneous inhibitors or cofactors of electron transport, a modified vacuum-infiltration method was undertaken to locate directly the site at which oxygen bursts of intact leaves occurred. We found that the photothermal signal showed little evidence of oscillation during the light-induction period. The oxygen burst was resolved into two components if darkadapted time lasted longer than 20 min. Methyl viologen (MV) or far-red light could not eliminate the first component, whereas formate-Na (pH 7.0, 20 μmol/L) eliminated the first component but had no effect on the second one. Furthermore, the photochemical quenching, the electron transport rate of Chl a fluorescence,and the first component of the oxygen bursts approached lowest values simultaneously. This evidence indicates that the site at which the first component of oxygen bursts occurred was located between photosystem (PS)Ⅰ and PSⅡ (i.e. the PQ pool). The formate-Na experiment also showed a linkage between the first component and the S state of oxygen evolution at the donor side of PSⅡ. Furthermore, elimination of the second component by far-red light and absorption of the second component by MV indicated that the site at which the second component of oxygen bursts may be located at the acceptor side of PSⅡ.

  15. Hanford Site Near-Facility Environmental Monitoring Data Report for Calendar Year 2007- Appendix 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Craig J.; Dorsey, Michael; Mckinney, Stephen M.; Wilde, Justin W.; Duncan, Joanne P.

    2008-10-13

    Near-facility environmental monitoring is defined as monitoring near facilities that have the potential to discharge or have discharged, stored, or disposed of radioactive or hazardous materials. Monitoring locations are associated with nuclear facilities such as the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), Canister Storage Building (CSB), and the K Basins; inactive nuclear facilities such as N Reactor and the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility; and waste storage or disposal facilities such as burial grounds, cribs, ditches, ponds, tank farms, and trenches. Much of the monitoring consists of collecting and analyzing environmental samples and methodically surveying areas near facilities. The program is also designed to evaluate acquired analytical data, determine the effectiveness of facility effluent monitoring and controls, assess the adequacy of containment at waste disposal units, and detect and monitor unusual conditions.

  16. Hanford Site Near-Facility Environmental Monitoring Data Report for Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Craig J.; Dorsey, Michael C.; Mckinney, Stephen M.; Wilde, Justin W.; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-09-15

    Near-facility environmental monitoring is defined as monitoring near facilities that have the potential to discharge or have discharged, stored, or disposed of radioactive or hazardous materials. Monitoring locations are associated with nuclear facilities such as the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Canister Storage Building, and the K Basins; inactive nuclear facilities such as N Reactor and the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility; and waste storage or disposal facilities such as burial grounds, cribs, ditches, ponds, tank farms, and trenches. Much of the monitoring consists of collecting and analyzing environmental samples and methodically surveying areas near facilities. The program is also designed to evaluate acquired analytical data, determine the effectiveness of facility effluent monitoring and controls, assess the adequacy of containment at waste disposal units, and detect and monitor unusual conditions.

  17. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The geotechnical properties of the soils in and around Boston, Massachusetts, have been extensively studied. This is partly due to the importance of the Boston Blue Clay and the extent of landfill in the Boston area. Although New England is not a region that is typically associated with seismic hazards, there have been several historical earthquakes that have caused significant ground shaking (for example, see Street and Lacroix, 1979; Ebel, 1996; Ebel, 2006). The possibility of strong ground shaking, along with heightened vulnerability from unreinforced masonry buildings, motivates further investigation of seismic hazards throughout New England. Important studies that are pertinent to seismic hazards in New England include source-parameter studies (Somerville and others, 1987; Boore and others, 2010), wave-propagation studies (Frankel, 1991; Viegas and others, 2010), empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) for computing ground-motion intensity (Tavakoli and Pezeshk, 2005; Atkinson and Boore, 2006), site-response studies (Hayles and others, 2001; Ebel and Kim, 2006), and liquefaction studies (Brankman and Baise, 2008). The shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles collected for this report are pertinent to the GMPE, site response, and liquefaction aspects of seismic hazards in the greater Boston area. Besides the application of these data for the Boston region, the data may be applicable throughout New England, through correlations with geologic units (similar to Ebel and Kim, 2006) or correlations with topographic slope (Wald and Allen, 2007), because few VS measurements are available in stable tectonic regions.Ebel and Hart (2001) used felt earthquake reports to infer amplification patterns throughout the greater Boston region and noted spatial correspondence with the dominant period and amplification factors obtained from ambient noise (horizontal-to-vertical ratios) by Kummer (1998). Britton (2003) compiled geotechnical borings in the area and produced a

  18. The effectiveness of ground-penetrating radar surveys in the location of unmarked burial sites in modern cemeteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Sabine; Illich, Bernhard; Berger, Jochen; Graw, Matthias

    2009-07-01

    Ground-penetration radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that is commonly used in archaeological and forensic investigations, including the determination of the exact location of graves. Whilst the method is rapid and does not involve disturbance of the graves, the interpretation of GPR profiles is nevertheless difficult and often leads to incorrect results. Incorrect identifications could hinder criminal investigations and complicate burials in cemeteries that have no information on the location of previously existing graves. In order to increase the number of unmarked graves that are identified, the GPR results need to be verified by comparing them with the soil and vegetation properties of the sites examined. We used a modern cemetery to assess the results obtained with GPR which we then compared with previously obtained tachymetric data and with an excavation of the graves where doubt existed. Certain soil conditions tended to make the application of GPR difficult on occasions, but a rough estimation of the location of the graves was always possible. The two different methods, GPR survey and tachymetry, both proved suitable for correctly determining the exact location of the majority of graves. The present study thus shows that GPR is a reliable method for determining the exact location of unmarked graves in modern cemeteries. However, the method did not allow statements to be made on the stage of decay of the bodies. Such information would assist in deciding what should be done with graves where ineffective degradation creates a problem for reusing graves following the standard resting time of 25 years.

  19. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2013 results. Beginning with this report, analysis results for leachate collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included.

  20. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David B

    2014-02-13

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2013 results. Beginning with this report, analysis results for leachate collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included.

  1. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Risk assessment of soil-based exposures to plutonium at experimental sites located on the Nevada Test Site and adjoining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Bogen, K.T.; Straume, T.

    1993-06-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a series of tests was conducted at or near the Nevada Test Site to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of {sup 239,240}Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Access to the sites is strictly controlled; therefore, it does not constitute a threat to human health at the present time. However, because the residual {sup 239} Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), the sites could indeed represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, we defined three basic exposure scenarios that could bring individuals in contact with {sup 239,240}Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision located at a test site, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility. Our screening analyses indicated that doses to organs are dominated by the intemal deposition of Pu via the inhalation pathway, and thus our risk assessment focused on those factors that affect inhalation exposures and associated doses, including inhalation rates, activity patterns, tenure at a residence or occupation, indoor/outdoor air relationships, and resuspension outdoors. Cancer risks were calculated as a function of lifetime cumulative doses to the key target organs (i.e., bone surface, liver, and lungs) and risk factors for those organs. Uncertainties in the predicted cancer risks were analyzed using Monte-Carlo simulations of the probability distributions used to represent assessment parameters. The principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung.

  3. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING DATA FROM THE AREA 5 PILOT WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA; U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-09-01

    Three exploratory boreholes were drilled and completed to the uppermost alluvial aquifer in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, in 1992. The boreholes and associated investigations were part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program developed to meet data needs associated with regulatory requirements applicable to the disposal of low-level, mixed, and high-specific-activity waste at this site. This series of boreholes was specifically designed to characterize the hydrogeology of the thick vadose zone and to help define the water quality and hydraulic properties of the uppermost aquifer. Wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 are located in a triangular array near the southeast, northeast, and northwest corners, respectively, of the approximately 2.6-square-kilometer Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site to give reasonable spatial coverage for sampling and characterization, and to help define the nearly horizontal water table. Two of the wells, UE5PW-1 and UE5PW-2, penetrated only unconsolidated alluvial materials. The third well, located closer to the margin of the basin, penetrated both alluvium and underlying ash-flow and bedded tuff units. The watertable was encountered at the elevation of approximately 734 meters. The results of laboratory testing of core and drill cuttings samples indicate that the mineralogical, material, and hydrologic properties of the alluvium are very similar within and between boreholes. Additional tests on the same core and drill cuttings samples indicate that hydrologic conditions within the alluvium are also similar between pilot wells. Both core and drill cuttings samples are dry (less than 10 percent water content by weight) throughout the entire unsaturated section of alluvium, and water content increases slightly with depth in each borehole. Water potential measurements on core samples show a large positive potential gradient (water tends to move upward, rather than downward) to a depth of approximately 30

  4. Installation of the Monitoring Site at the Los Alamos Canyon Low-Head Weir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.J.Stone; D.L.Newell

    2002-08-01

    , is 156 ft long and bottoms at a depth of 106 ft bgs. The shallow perched water seen at LAWS-01 (at 80 ft) was not encountered. A scalloped PVC shield was installed to keep the hole open while permitting flexible liners to contact the borehole wall. It was initially instrumented with a color-reactive liner to locate water-producing fractures. That was later replaced by an absorbent liner to collect water from the vadose zone. The third hole (LAWS-03), drilled at an angle of 34{sup o} from horizontal, initially had a length of 136 ft and bottomed at a depth of 76 ft bgs. However, the PVC shield rotated during installation such that scallops were at the top and rock debris repeatedly fell in, preventing liner insertion. While pulling the scalloped PVC to replace it with a perforated PVC shield that did not require orientation, the scalloped PVC broke and only 85 ft was recovered. The hole was blocked at that position and could not be drilled out with the equipment available. Thus, LAWS-03 was completed at a length of 85 ft and a depth of 40 ft bgs. An absorbent liner was installed at the outset in preparation for the 2002 summer monsoon season. The entire monitoring site is enclosed inside a locked, 8-ft-high chainlink fence for security. The liners used in the angled boreholes carry electrical wire pairs to detect soil-moisture changes. Surface-water data are provided by stream gages above and below the weir site. Depth of ponding behind the weir is provided by a gage installed just behind the structure.

  5. ATLAS off-Grid sites (Tier 3) monitoring. From local fabric monitoring to global overview of the VO computing activities

    CERN Document Server

    PETROSYAN, A; The ATLAS collaboration; BELOV, S; ANDREEVA, J; KADOCHNIKOV, I

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing activities have so far concentrated in the "central" part of the experiment computing system, namely the first 3 tiers (the CERN Tier0, 10 Tier1 centers and over 60 Tier2 sites). Many ATLAS Institutes and National Communities have deployed (or intend to) deploy Tier-3 facilities. Tier-3 centers consist of non-pledged resources, which are usually dedicated to data analysis tasks by the geographically close or local scientific groups, and which usually comprise a range of architectures without Grid middleware. Therefore a substantial part of the ATLAS monitoring tools which make use of Grid middleware, cannot be used for a large fraction of Tier3 sites. The presentation will describe the T3mon project, which aims to develop a software suite for monitoring the Tier3 sites, both from the perspective of the local site administrator and that of the ATLAS VO, thereby enabling the global view of the contribution from Tier3 sites to the ATLAS computing activities. Special attention in p...

  6. 2011 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-02-01

    Gnome-Coach was the site of a 3-kiloton underground nuclear test in 1961. Surface and subsurface contamination resulted from the underground nuclear testing, post-test drilling, and groundwater tracer test performed at the site. The State of New Mexico is currently proceeding with a conditional certificate of completion for the surface. As for the subsurface, monitoring activities that include hydraulic head monitoring and groundwater sampling of the wells onsite are conducted as part of the annual site inspection. These activities were conducted on January 19, 2011. The site roads, monitoring well heads, and the monument at surface ground zero were observed as being in good condition at the time of the site inspection. An evaluation of the hydraulic head data obtained from the site indicates that water levels in wells USGS-4 and USGS-8 appear to respond to the on/off cycling of the dedicated pump in well USGS-1 and that water levels in wells LRL-7 and DD-1 increased during this annual monitoring period. Analytical results obtained from the sampling indicate that concentrations of tritium, strontium-90, and cesium-137 were consistent with concentrations from historical sampling events.

  7. Application of an Artificial Intelligence Method for Velocity Calibration and Events Location in Microseismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Chen, X.

    2013-12-01

    Good quality hydraulic fracture maps are heavily dependent upon the best possible velocity structure. Particle Swarm Optimization inversion scheme, an artificial intelligence technique for velocity calibration and events location could serve as a viable option, able to produce high quality data. Using perforation data to recalibrate the 1D isotropic velocity model derived from dipole sonic logs (or even without them), we are able to get the initial velocity model used for consequential events location. Velocity parameters can be inverted, as well as the thickness of the layer, through an iterative procedure. Performing inversion without integrating available data is unlikely to produce reliable results; especially if there are only one perforation shot and a single poor-layer-covered array along with low signal/noise ratio signal. The inversion method was validated via simulations and compared to the Fast Simulated Annealing approach and the Conjugate Gradient method. Further velocity model refinement can be accomplished while calculating events location during the iterative procedure minimizing the residuals from both sides. This artificial intelligence technique also displays promising application to the joint inversion of large-scale seismic activities data.

  8. Monitoring of manufacturing processes in the automotive industry using indoor location system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, LM; Belu, N.; Rachieru, N.; Mazăre, AG; Anghel, D.-C.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a method for locating the operators, equipment and parts using radio communications systems. Specifically there will be radio transceiver arranged in a network of active and passive radio receivers placed on personnel, equipment or parts. Based on a radio triangulation method, it is determined the location of the all resources and parts involved in manufacturing process. The transceivers communicate with each other via “routers” - also components of the network. Such a structure may extend over large distances even in indoor spaces where there are obstacles (walls between rooms). The location is done by determining the power of transmission signal for at least three end points. The receiver position is then transmitted over the network through routers, to a central server where all positions of the resources are centralized. Our solution is a non-invasive and low cost method for determining resource position in the factory. The system can be used for both resource planning production for current process more efficient and for further analysis of the movement of resources during previous processes with possible adjustments to the workspace and re-planning of resources for future processes.

  9. Location of the coenzyme binding site in the porcine mitochondrial NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu Chu; Colman, Roberta F

    2005-08-26

    The structure of crystalline porcine mitochondrial NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) has been determined in complex with Mn2+-isocitrate. Based on structural alignment between this porcine enzyme and seven determined crystal structures of complexes of NADP with bacterial IDHs, Arg83, Thr311, and Asn328 were chosen as targets for site-directed mutagenesis of porcine IDH. The circular dichroism spectra of purified wild-type and mutant enzymes are similar. The mutant enzymes exhibit little change in Km for isocitrate or Mn2+, showing that these residues are not involved in substrate binding. In contrast, the Arg83 mutants, Asn328 mutants, and T311A exhibit 3-20-fold increase in the Km(NADP). We propose that Arg83 enhances NADP affinity by hydrogen bonding with the 3'-OH of the nicotinamide ribose, whereas Asn328 hydrogen bonds with N1 of adenine. The pH dependence of Vmax for Arg83 and Asn328 mutants is similar to that of wild-type enzyme, but for all the Thr311 mutants, pK(es) is increased from 5.2 in the wild type to approximately 6.0. We have previously attributed the pH dependence of Vmax to the deprotonation of the metal-bound hydroxyl of isocitrate in the enzyme-substrate complex, prior to the transfer of a hydride from isocitrate to NADP's nicotinamide moiety. Thr311 interacts with the nicotinamide ribose and is the closest of the target amino acids to the nicotinamide ring. Distortion of the nicotinamide by Thr311 mutation will likely be transmitted to Mn2+-isocitrate resulting in an altered pK(es). Because porcine and human mitochondrial NADP-IDH have 95% sequence identity, these results should be applicable to the human enzyme.

  10. Robust real-time unusual event detection using multiple fixed-location monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Amit; Rivlin, Ehud; Shimshoni, Ilan; Reinitz, Daviv

    2008-03-01

    We present a novel algorithm for detection of certain types of unusual events. The algorithm is based on multiple local monitors which collect low-level statistics. Each local monitor produces an alert if its current measurement is unusual, and these alerts are integrated to a final decision regarding the existence of an unusual event. Our algorithm satisfies a set of requirements that are critical for successful deployment of any large-scale surveillance system. In particular it requires a minimal setup (taking only a few minutes) and is fully automatic afterwards. Since it is not based on objects' tracks, it is robust and works well in crowded scenes where tracking-based algorithms are likely to fail. The algorithm is effective as soon as sufficient low-level observations representing the routine activity have been collected, which usually happens after a few minutes. Our algorithm runs in realtime. It was tested on a variety of real-life crowded scenes. A ground-truth was extracted for these scenes, with respect to which detection and false-alarm rates are reported.

  11. Soil data for a vegetation gradient located at Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research Site, interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manies, Kristen L.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Xu, Xiaomei; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-07-28

    Boreal soils play an important role in the global carbon cycle owing to the large amount of carbon stored within this northern region. To understand how carbon and nitrogen storage varied among different ecosystems, a vegetation gradient was established in the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site, located in interior Alaska. The ecosystems represented are a black spruce (Picea mariana)–feather moss (for example, Hylocomium sp.) forest ecosystem, a shrub-dominated ecosystem, a tussock-grass-dominated ecosystem, a sedge-dominated ecosystem, and a rich fen ecosystem. Here, we report the physical, chemical, and descriptive properties for the soil cores collected at these sites. These data have been used to calculate carbon and nitrogen accumulation rates on a long-term (decadal and century) basis (Manies and others, in press).

  12. Differences between nipher and slter shielded rain gages at two Colorado deposition monitoring sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, David S.; Denning, A. Scott

    1990-01-01

    In the last decade the United States and Canada have made significant progress in establishing spatial ad temporal estimates of atmospheric deposition throughout North America. Fundamental to the wet-deposition portion of these estimates is the accurate and precise measurement of precipitation amount. Goodison and others (I-3) have reported on a new type of shielded snow gage known as the Canadian MSC Nipher shielded snow gage. Because this shielded snow gage has been shown to be superior to other precipitation gages for the estimation of snowfall amount, its design was adapted to the Universal Belfort precipitation gage (4), the dominant precipitation gage used at deposition monitoring sites in the United States. Favorable results taken from monitoring sites using this modified Nipher shielded snow gage (3-6) have prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Electric Power Research Institute to adopt the Nipher shielded Belfort gage as a standard piece of equipment in the Acid MODES and Operational Evaluation Network (OEN) monitoring programs and to propose that is be included as a standard snow gage in other North American deposition monitoring programs. This communication details preliminary results from two of nine NADP/NTN deposition monitoring sites selected by the Environmental Protection Agency to compare Nipher shielded Belfort precipitation gage volumes to volumes obtained from the standard Belfort gage used in the NADP/NTN monitoring program.

  13. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L. A.; Adams, S. M.; Ashwood, T. L.; Blaylock, B. G.; Greeley, M. S.; Loar, J. M.; Peterson, M. J.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Shoemaker, B. A. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Hinzman, R. L. [Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  14. 2002 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-06-01

    Environmental, subsidence, and meteorological monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)(refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater,meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorological data indicate that 2002 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 26 mm (1.0 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 38 mm (1.5 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2002 rainfall infiltrated less than 30 cm (1 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. Special investigations conducted in 2002 included: a comparison between waste cover water contents measured by neutron probe and coring; and a comparison of four methods for measuring radon concentrations in air. All 2002 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility Performance Assessments (PAs).

  15. Criteria to assess and select sites for long-term avian monitoring in an urbanizing landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Lorne P; Milne, Robert J

    2004-06-01

    A methodology was developed to prioritize the suitability of sites for long-term monitoring of avian populations, including vulnerable species, both to enhance assessment of changes in ecological resources and to facilitate land-use planning at the regional scale. This paper argues that a successful monitoring program begins with a site prioritization procedure that integrates scores based on spatial controls with ecological and socio-economic indicators, particularly those dependent on community involvement. The evaluation strategy in this study combines 1) spatial controls such as land ownership and accessibility, with 2) biological and habitat indicators such as vulnerable species and habitat connectivity, and 3) community and agency variables such as volunteer commitment and agency priorities. In total, a set of ten indicators was identified. This strategy was applied to predominantly agricultural landscapes, which are experiencing increasing human pressures, in three sub-watersheds of the Credit River, Southern Ontario. Specifically, bird populations were recorded during the breeding seasons of 2000-2002 in nine land units or habitat types including marsh, deciduous forest, and grasslands as mapped by Credit Valley Conservation (CVC) following Ecological Land Classification (ELC) guidelines. CVC selected sites for long-term monitoring in 2002 and the relationships between the scored (or ranked) sites and the selected long-term monitoring sites are discussed.

  16. On the location of the H+-extruding steps in site 2 of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, A; Galiazzo, F; Lehninger, A L

    1980-11-25

    The location of the H+-translocating reactions within energy-conserving Site 2 of the mitochondrial electron transport chain was evaluated from two sets of data. In the first, the H+/2e- ejection ratios and Ca2+/2e- uptake ratios were compared for electron flow from succinate dehydrogenase, whose active site is on the matrix side of the inner membrane and from glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, whose active site is on the cytosolic side. In intact rat liver mitochondria both substrates yielded H+/2e- ejection ratios close to 4.0 and Ca2+/2e- uptake ratios close to 1.0 during antimycin-sensitive reduction of ferricyanide. With rat liver mitoplasts and ferricytochrome c as electron acceptor, both substrates again gave the same stoichiometric ratios. The second approach involved determination of the sidedness of H+ formation during electron flow from succinate to ferricyanide via bypass of the antimycin block of the cytochrome b.c1 complex provided by N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), under conditions in which the TMPD-TMPD+ couple does not act as a membrane-penetrating protonophore. Electron flow in this system was inhibited by 2-then-oyltrifluoroacetone, indicating that TMPD probably accepts electrons from ubiquinol. The 2 H+ formed in this system were not delivered into the matrix but appeared directly in the medium in the absence of a protonophore. To accommodate the available evidence on Site 2 substrates, it is concluded that the substrate hydrogens are first transferred to ubiquinone, 2 H+ per 2e then appear in the medium by protolytic dehydrogenation of a species of ubiquinol or ubiquinol-protein having the appropriate sidedness (designated Site 2A), and the other 2 H+ are translocated from the matrix to the medium on passage of 2e- through the cytochrome b x c1 complex (designated Site 2B).

  17. Kirschenmann Road multi-well monitoring site, Cuyama Valley, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, R.R.; Hanson, R.T.; Sweetkind, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Water Agency Division of the Santa Barbara County Department of Public Works, is evaluating the geohydrology and water availability of the Cuyama Valley, California (fig. 1). As part of this evaluation, the USGS installed the Cuyama Valley Kirschenmann Road multiple-well monitoring site (CVKR) in the South-Main subregion of the Cuyama Valley (fig. 1). The CVKR well site is designed to allow for the collection of depth-specific water-level and water-quality data. Data collected at this site provides information about the geology, hydrology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the local aquifer system, thus, enhancing the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Cuyama Valley. This report presents the construction information and initial geohydrologic data collected from the CVKR monitoring site, along with a brief comparison to selected supply and irrigation wells from the major subregions of the Cuyama Valley (fig. 1).

  18. Hanford Site Black-Tailed Jackrabbit Monitoring Report for Fiscal Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, Cole T.; Nugent, John J.; Wilde, Justin W.; Johnson, Scott J.

    2014-02-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) conducts ecological monitoring on the Hanford Site to collect and track data needed to ensure compliance with an array of environmental laws, regulations, and policies governing DOE activities. Ecological monitoring data provide baseline information about the plants, animals, and habitat under DOE-RL stewardship at Hanford required for decision-making under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The Hanford Site Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP, DOE/EIS-0222-F) which is the Environmental Impact Statement for Hanford Site activities, helps ensure that DOE-RL, its contractors, and other entities conducting activities on the Hanford Site are in compliance with NEPA.

  19. Waterborne Release Monitoring and Surveillance Programs at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-03-26

    This report documents the liquid release environmental compliance programs currently in place at the Savannah river Site (SRS). Included are descriptions of stream monitoring programs, which measure chemical parameters and radionuclides in site streams and the Savannah river and test representative biological communities within the streams for chemical and radiological uptake. This report also explains the field sampling and analytical capabilities that are available at SRS during both normal and emergency conditions.

  20. Report on the Watershed Monitoring Program at the Paducah Site January-December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-03-01

    Watershed Monitoring of Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks has been conducted since 1987. The monitoring was conducted by the University of Kentucky between 1987 and 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of monitoring are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for DOE protect and maintain the use of Little Bayour and Big Bayou creeks for frowth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota. The watershed (biological) monitoring discussed in this report was conducted under DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. Future monitoring will be conducted as required by the Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit issued to the Department of Energy (DOE) in March 1998. A draft Watershed Monitoring Program plan was approved by the Kentucky Division of Water and will be finalized in 1999. The DOE permit also requires toxicity monitoring of one continuous outfall and of three intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The Watershed Monitoring Program for the Paducah Site during calendar year 1998 consisted of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of fish communities. This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from january 1998 to December 1998, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  1. Getting the Biggest Bang for Your Buck: Wildlife Monitoring on Shrublands of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B. [NSTec; Greger, Paul D. [NSTec

    2011-08-30

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) covers 3,561 km2 and extends over portions of both the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts. The resulting diverse and complex flora and fauna exhibit elements of both deserts. There are 20 vegetation associations, composed primarily of shrubs, nested within 10 vegetation alliances. Of the more than 1,200 invertebrate and 339 vertebrate species found in these shrubland habitats, 267 are considered sensitive or protected/regulated by federal or state laws. Wildlife and wildlife habitat monitoring ensures NTS activities comply with all federal and state laws enacted for the protection of these valuable biological resources and provides ecological information that can be used to predict and evaluate the potential impacts of proposed projects and current activities on these resources. This paper describes the monitoring approach used at this large site. Monitoring strategies include conducting preactivity surveys, proactively monitoring sensitive species, monitoring long-term population trends, and collaborating with other agencies and biologists. Ways to make monitoring more efficient and examples of successful monitoring and collaborations are discussed.

  2. Increased fluoroquinolone resistance with time in Escherichia coli from >17,000 patients at a large county hospital as a function of culture site, age, sex, and location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Lauren Becnel; Atmar, Robert L; Randall, Graham L; Hamill, Richard J; Steffen, David; Zechiedrich, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli infections are common and often treated with fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolone resistance is of worldwide importance and is monitored by national and international surveillance networks. In this study, we analyzed the effects of time, culture site, and patient age, sex, and location on fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli clinical isolates. Methods To understand how patient factors and time influenced fluoroquinolone resistance and to determine how well data from surveillance networks predict trends at Ben Taub General Hospital in Houston, TX, we used Perl to parse and MySQL to house data from antibiograms (n ≅ 21,000) for E. coli isolated between 1999 to 2004 using Chi Square, Bonferroni, and Multiple Linear Regression methods. Results Fluoroquinolone resistance (i) increased with time; (ii) exceeded national averages by 2- to 4-fold; (iii) was higher in males than females, largely because of urinary isolates from male outpatients; (iv) increased with patient age; (v) was 3% in pediatric patients; (vi) was higher in hospitalized patients than outpatients; (vii) was higher in sputum samples, particularly from inpatients, than all other culture sites, including blood and urine, regardless of patient location; and (viii) was lowest in genital isolates than all other culture sites. Additionally, the data suggest that, with regard to susceptibility or resistance by the Dade Behring MicroScan system, a single fluoroquinolone suffices as a "surrogate marker" for all of the fluoroquinolone tested. Conclusion Large surveillance programs often did not predict E. coli fluoroquinolone resistance trends at a large, urban hospital with a largely indigent, ethnically diverse patient population or its affiliated community clinics. PMID:18197977

  3. Increased fluoroquinolone resistance with time in Escherichia coli from >17,000 patients at a large county hospital as a function of culture site, age, sex, and location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamill Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli infections are common and often treated with fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolone resistance is of worldwide importance and is monitored by national and international surveillance networks. In this study, we analyzed the effects of time, culture site, and patient age, sex, and location on fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli clinical isolates. Methods To understand how patient factors and time influenced fluoroquinolone resistance and to determine how well data from surveillance networks predict trends at Ben Taub General Hospital in Houston, TX, we used Perl to parse and MySQL to house data from antibiograms (n ≅ 21,000 for E. coli isolated between 1999 to 2004 using Chi Square, Bonferroni, and Multiple Linear Regression methods. Results Fluoroquinolone resistance (i increased with time; (ii exceeded national averages by 2- to 4-fold; (iii was higher in males than females, largely because of urinary isolates from male outpatients; (iv increased with patient age; (v was 3% in pediatric patients; (vi was higher in hospitalized patients than outpatients; (vii was higher in sputum samples, particularly from inpatients, than all other culture sites, including blood and urine, regardless of patient location; and (viii was lowest in genital isolates than all other culture sites. Additionally, the data suggest that, with regard to susceptibility or resistance by the Dade Behring MicroScan system, a single fluoroquinolone suffices as a "surrogate marker" for all of the fluoroquinolone tested. Conclusion Large surveillance programs often did not predict E. coli fluoroquinolone resistance trends at a large, urban hospital with a largely indigent, ethnically diverse patient population or its affiliated community clinics.

  4. Strategic Location and Territorial Integrity: The Role of Subsidiary Sites in the Classic Maya Kingdoms of the Upper Usumacinta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Anaya Hernández

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Usumacinta region was the scene of an intense interaction between the different kingdoms of the Classic Maya Period. This interaction took the form of political and marriage alliances as well as warfare and is well attested in the inscribed monuments of the region, especially towards the Late Classic Period (c. AD 600-900. Through this interaction the Maya rulers would not only assert their claim to power but also ensure the boundaries of their kingdoms, with an eye to accruing a vaster domain. The definition of the political organisation and territorial extent of the Maya Lowland kingdoms is an issue that has attracted the attention of various scholars (Adams 1981; Adams and Jones 1981; Ball and Taschek 1991; Flannery 1972; Freidel 1981; Hammond 1974; 1981; Inomata and Aoyama 1996; Mathews 1988; 1991; Sanders 1981. Like these scholars, I have presented a model aimed at estimating the territorial extent of the kingdoms of the Upper Usumacinta region, taking into account the physical characteristics of the terrain (Anaya Hernández 2001. In this article I approach this issue again, focusing this time on the importance that the subsidiary centres located at strategic locations across the landscape had for the maintenance of the territorial integrity of the kingdoms of Pomoná and Piedras Negras. The political importance of these sites is reflected in the efforts that the kings of these polities went through to warrant the loyalty of the rulers of these secondary centres, as can be attested by the presence of a sculptured stela at the site of Panhalé, in the vicinity of Pomoná, and an inscribed wooden box found within the Redención del Campesino Valley that makes reference to a Piedras Negras ruler. To address this issue I took advantage of the capabilities that GIS offers to model movement across the physical setting in order to define the potential boundaries between the aforementioned kingdoms in the light of the available

  5. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-09-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent site is located in the southeastern portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 27, 2002. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 1997). A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report (DOE/NV, 1999), samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 (DOE/NV, 2000) and 2001 (DOE/NV, 2001) revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, data results from 2000 and later were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2002 consisted of the following: (1) Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2). (2) Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay [CEA] and Standard Nutrient Panel [SNP]). (3) Site inspection to evaluate the condition of the fencing and signs. (4) Preparation and submittal of the Post-Closure Monitoring Report.

  6. Multi-technique comparison of atmospheric parameters at the DORIS co-location sites during CONT14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinkelmann, Robert; Willis, Pascal; Deng, Zhiguo; Dick, Galina; Nilsson, Tobias; Soja, Benedikt; Zus, Florian; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2016-12-01

    The atmospheric parameters, zenith delays and gradients, obtained by the DORIS, GPS, VLBI, and numerical weather models, ECMWF and NCEP, are compared at five DORIS co-located sites during the 15 days of the CONT14 campaign from 2014-05-06 until 2014-05-20. Further examined are two different solutions of GPS, VLBI and NCEP: for GPS, a network solution comparable to the TIGA reprocessing analysis strategy and a precise point positioning solution, for VLBI, a least squares and a Kalman filtered and smoothed solution, and for NCEP two spatial resolutions, 0.5° and 1.0°, are tested. The different positions of the antenna reference points at co-location sites affect the atmospheric parameters and have to be considered prior to the comparison. We assess and discuss these differences, tropospheric ties, by comparing ray-traced atmospheric parameters obtained at the positions of the various antenna reference points. While ray-traced ZHD and ZWD at the co-located antennas significantly differ, the ray-traced gradients show only very small differences. Weather events can introduce larger disagreement between atmospheric parameters obtained at co-location sites. The various weather model solutions in general agree very well in providing tropospheric ties. The atmospheric parameters are compared using statistical methods, such as the mean difference and standard deviations with repect to a weighted mean value. While GPS and VLBI atmospheric parameters agree very well in general, the DORIS observations are in several cases not dense enough to achieve a comparable level of agreement. The estimated zenith delays from DORIS, however, are competitive with the other space geodetic techniques. If the DORIS observation geometry is insufficient for the estimation of an atmospheric gradient, less than three satellites observed during the definition interval, the DORIS atmospheric parameters degrade and show small quasi-periodic variations that correlate with the number of observations

  7. Air quality monitoring of the post-operative recovery room and locations surrounding operating theaters in a medical center in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chin-Sheng; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    To prevent surgical site infection (SSI), the airborne microbial concentration in operating theaters must be reduced. The air quality in operating theaters and nearby areas is also important to healthcare workers. Therefore, this study assessed air quality in the post-operative recovery room, locations surrounding the operating theater area, and operating theaters in a medical center. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), and carbon dioxide (CO2), suspended particulate matter (PM), and bacterial concentrations were monitored weekly over one year. Measurement results reveal clear differences in air quality in different operating theater areas. The post-operative recovery room had significantly higher CO2 and bacterial concentrations than other locations. Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. bacteria often existed in the operating theater area. Furthermore, Acinetobacter spp. was the main pathogen in the post-operative recovery room (18%) and traumatic surgery room (8%). The mixed effect models reveal a strong correlation between number of people in a space and high CO2 concentration after adjusting for sampling locations. In conclusion, air quality in the post-operative recovery room and operating theaters warrants attention, and merits long-term surveillance to protect both surgical patients and healthcare workers.

  8. Air quality monitoring of the post-operative recovery room and locations surrounding operating theaters in a medical center in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Sheng Tang

    Full Text Available To prevent surgical site infection (SSI, the airborne microbial concentration in operating theaters must be reduced. The air quality in operating theaters and nearby areas is also important to healthcare workers. Therefore, this study assessed air quality in the post-operative recovery room, locations surrounding the operating theater area, and operating theaters in a medical center. Temperature, relative humidity (RH, and carbon dioxide (CO2, suspended particulate matter (PM, and bacterial concentrations were monitored weekly over one year. Measurement results reveal clear differences in air quality in different operating theater areas. The post-operative recovery room had significantly higher CO2 and bacterial concentrations than other locations. Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. bacteria often existed in the operating theater area. Furthermore, Acinetobacter spp. was the main pathogen in the post-operative recovery room (18% and traumatic surgery room (8%. The mixed effect models reveal a strong correlation between number of people in a space and high CO2 concentration after adjusting for sampling locations. In conclusion, air quality in the post-operative recovery room and operating theaters warrants attention, and merits long-term surveillance to protect both surgical patients and healthcare workers.

  9. Air Quality Monitoring of the Post-Operative Recovery Room and Locations Surrounding Operating Theaters in a Medical Center in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chin-Sheng; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    To prevent surgical site infection (SSI), the airborne microbial concentration in operating theaters must be reduced. The air quality in operating theaters and nearby areas is also important to healthcare workers. Therefore, this study assessed air quality in the post-operative recovery room, locations surrounding the operating theater area, and operating theaters in a medical center. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), and carbon dioxide (CO2), suspended particulate matter (PM), and bacterial concentrations were monitored weekly over one year. Measurement results reveal clear differences in air quality in different operating theater areas. The post-operative recovery room had significantly higher CO2 and bacterial concentrations than other locations. Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. bacteria often existed in the operating theater area. Furthermore, Acinetobacter spp. was the main pathogen in the post-operative recovery room (18%) and traumatic surgery room (8%). The mixed effect models reveal a strong correlation between number of people in a space and high CO2 concentration after adjusting for sampling locations. In conclusion, air quality in the post-operative recovery room and operating theaters warrants attention, and merits long-term surveillance to protect both surgical patients and healthcare workers. PMID:23573296

  10. Results of geophysical monitoring over a "leaking" natural analogue site in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, R.J.; Baradello, L.; Girard, J.F.; Kirby, G.; Lombardi, S.; Williamson, P.; Zaja, A.

    2009-01-01

    CO2 storage in the subsurface is becoming more and more attractive as a means to reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and hence minimize human-induced global warming. The ability to monitor and verify these CO2 storage reservoirs is a key element for further implementation of other storage sites.

  11. Environmental monitoring at the Barnwell low level radioactive waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragan, F.A. [South Carolina Dept. of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Barnwell site has undergone an evolution to achieve the technology which is utilized today. A historical background will be presented along with an overview of present day operations. This paper will emphasize the environmental monitoring program: the types of samples taken, the methods of compiling and analyzing data, modeling, and resulting actions.

  12. Results of geophysical monitoring over a "leaking" natural analogue site in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, R.J.; Baradello, L.; Girard, J.F.; Kirby, G.; Lombardi, S.; Williamson, P.; Zaja, A.

    2009-01-01

    CO2 storage in the subsurface is becoming more and more attractive as a means to reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and hence minimize human-induced global warming. The ability to monitor and verify these CO2 storage reservoirs is a key element for further implementation of other storage sites.

  13. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  14. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for January through June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between January and June 1988 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, and monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. In addition, several new analytical initiatives were undertaken during this period. These include cyanide speciation in the BY Cribs plume, inductively coupled argon plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) measurements on a broad selection of samples from the 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas, and high sensitivity gas chromatography measurements performed at the Solid Waste Landfill-Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Pathogen Treatment Guidance and Monitoring Approaches fro On-Site Non-Potable Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-site non-potable water reuse is increasingly used to augment water supplies, but traditional fecal indicator approaches for defining and monitoring exposure risks are limited when applied to these decentralized options. This session emphasizes risk-based modeling to define pat...

  16. Nevada Test Site, 2006 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Hudson

    2007-06-30

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2006 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2006; Warren and Grossman, 2007; National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2006 totaled 98.6 millimeters (mm) (3.9 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 80.7 mm (3.2 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 remains at the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that evaporation continues to slowly remove soil moisture that came from the heavy precipitation in the fall of 2004 and the spring of

  17. The monitoring results of electromagnetic radiation of 110-kV high-voltage lines in one urban location in Chongqing P.R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Fu, Ting-Ting; Ding, Li; Han, Ling-Li; Li, Jian-Chao

    2012-03-01

    To understand electromagnetic radiation field strength and its influencing factors of certain 110-kV high-voltage lines in one urban area of Chongqing by measuring 110-kV high-voltage line's electromagnetic radiation level. According to the methodology as determined by the National Hygienic Standards, we selected certain adjacent residential buildings, high-voltage lines along a specific street and selected different distances around its vertical projection point as monitoring points. The levels of electromagnetic radiations were measured respectively. In this investigation within the frequency of 5-1,000 Hz both the electric field strength and magnetic field strength of each monitoring sites were lower than the public exposure standards as determined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. However, the electrical field strength on the roof adjacent to the high-voltage lines was significantly higher than that as measured on the other floors in the same buildings (p electromagnetic radiation measurements of different monitoring points, under the same high-voltage lines, showed the location which is nearer the high-voltage line maintain a consistently higher level of radiation than the more distant locations (p Electromagnetic radiation generated by high-voltage lines decreases proportionally to the distance from the lines. The buildings can to some extent shield (or absorb) the electric fields generated by high-voltage lines nearby. The electromagnetic radiation intensity near high-voltage lines may be mitigated or intensified by the manner in which the high-voltage lines are set up, and it merits attention for the potential impact on human health.

  18. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Survey Design for Monitoring Carbon Capture and Storage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J. M.; Cevatoglu, M.; Connelly, D.; Wright, I. C.; McPhail, S.; Shitashima, K.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of sub-seabed Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) sites will require systems that are flexible, independent, and have long-endurance. In this presentation we will discuss the utility of autonomous underwater vehicles equipped with different sensor packages in monitoring storage sites. We will present data collected using Autosub AUV, as part of the ECO2 project, from the Sleipner area of the North Sea. The Autosub AUV was equipped with sidescan sonar, an EM2000 multibeam systems, a Chirp sub-bottom profiler, and a variety of chemical sensors. Our presentation will focus on survey design, and the simultaneous use of multiple sensor packages in environmental monitoring on the continental shelf.

  19. Using Maximum Entropy Modeling for Optimal Selection of Sampling Sites for Monitoring Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Evangelista

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring programs must efficiently describe state shifts. We propose using maximum entropy modeling to select dissimilar sampling sites to capture environmental variability at low cost, and demonstrate a specific application: sample site selection for the Central Plains domain (453,490 km2 of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON. We relied on four environmental factors: mean annual temperature and precipitation, elevation, and vegetation type. A “sample site” was defined as a 20 km × 20 km area (equal to NEON’s airborne observation platform [AOP] footprint, within which each 1 km2 cell was evaluated for each environmental factor. After each model run, the most environmentally dissimilar site was selected from all potential sample sites. The iterative selection of eight sites captured approximately 80% of the environmental envelope of the domain, an improvement over stratified random sampling and simple random designs for sample site selection. This approach can be widely used for cost-efficient selection of survey and monitoring sites.

  20. Using maximum entropy modeling for optimal selection of sampling sites for monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Kumar, Sunil; Barnett, David T.; Evangelista, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental monitoring programs must efficiently describe state shifts. We propose using maximum entropy modeling to select dissimilar sampling sites to capture environmental variability at low cost, and demonstrate a specific application: sample site selection for the Central Plains domain (453,490 km2) of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). We relied on four environmental factors: mean annual temperature and precipitation, elevation, and vegetation type. A “sample site” was defined as a 20 km × 20 km area (equal to NEON’s airborne observation platform [AOP] footprint), within which each 1 km2 cell was evaluated for each environmental factor. After each model run, the most environmentally dissimilar site was selected from all potential sample sites. The iterative selection of eight sites captured approximately 80% of the environmental envelope of the domain, an improvement over stratified random sampling and simple random designs for sample site selection. This approach can be widely used for cost-efficient selection of survey and monitoring sites.

  1. Human Arsenic Poisoning Issues in Central-East Indian Locations: Biomarkers and Biochemical Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhurima Pandey

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically observable symptoms, the blood and urine arsenic level, and the arsenic intake through drinking water. An intensive study on the urinary arsenic levels was carried out in which the urine levels of arsenic and the urine sufficiency tests were performed. A composite picture of body burden of arsenic has been obtained by carrying out a complete biochemical analysis of a maximum affected family. This confirms pronounced chronic exposure of the arsenic to these people. A combined correlation study on the arsenic levels measured in whole blood, urine, hair, nails and age present a remarkable outcome. Accordingly, the arsenic levels in blood are negatively correlated with the urine arsenic levels, which indicate either the inadequacy of the renal system in cleaning the blood arsenic or a continuous recirculation of the accumulated arsenic. This is an important conclusion about arsenical metabolism in humans. The study also raises the issues of the prospects of complete elimination of the accumulated arsenic and the reversibility of the health effects. Based on the work in Kourikasa village we report that there are very remote chances of complete purging of arsenic and thus reversibility of the health effects owing to various factors. The paper also discusses the various issues concerning the chronic arsenic poisoning management in the affected locations.

  2. Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site Ecological Monitoring Program 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-31

    The Ecological Monitoring Program (ECMP) was established at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) in September 1992. At that time, EcMP staff developed a Program Plan that was peer-reviewed by scientists from western universities before submittal to DOE RFFO in January 1993. The intent of the program is to measure several quantitative variables at different ecological scales in order to characterize the Rocky Flats ecosystem. This information is necessary to document ecological conditions at the Site in impacted and nonimpacted areas to determine if Site practices have had ecological impacts, either positive or negative. This information can be used by managers interested in future use scenarios and CERCLA activities. Others interested in impact analysis may also find the information useful. In addition, these measurements are entered into a database which will serve as a long-term information repository that will document long-term trends and potential future changes to the Site, both natural and anthropogenic.

  3. Integrated risk and recovery monitoring of ecosystem restorations on contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J; Glomb, Stephen J; Harper, David D; Hoelzle, Timothy B; McIntosh, Lisa M; Mulligan, David R

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restorations of contaminated sites balance the human and ecological risks of residual contamination with the benefits of ecological recovery and the return of lost ecological function and ecosystem services. Risk and recovery are interrelated dynamic conditions, changing as remediation and restoration activities progress through implementation into long-term management and ecosystem maturation. Monitoring restoration progress provides data critical to minimizing residual contaminant risk and uncertainty, while measuring ecological advancement toward recovery goals. Effective monitoring plans are designed concurrently with restoration plan development and implementation and are focused on assessing the effectiveness of activities performed in support of restoration goals for the site. Physical, chemical, and biotic measures characterize progress toward desired structural and functional ecosystem components of the goals. Structural metrics, linked to ecosystem functions and services, inform restoration practitioners of work plan modifications or more substantial adaptive management actions necessary to maintain desired recovery. Monitoring frequency, duration, and scale depend on specific attributes and goals of the restoration project. Often tied to restoration milestones, critical assessment of monitoring metrics ensures attainment of risk minimization and ecosystem recovery. Finally, interpretation and communication of monitoring findings inform and engage regulators, other stakeholders, the scientific community, and the public. Because restoration activities will likely cease before full ecosystem recovery, monitoring endpoints should demonstrate risk reduction and a successional trajectory toward the condition established in the restoration goals. A detailed assessment of the completed project's achievements, as well as unrealized objectives, attained through project monitoring, will determine if contaminant risk has been minimized, if injured

  4. Integrated risk and recovery monitoring of ecosystem restorations on contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J.; Glomb, Stephen J.; Harper, David; Hoelzle, Timothy B.; McIntosh, Lisa M.; Mulligan, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological restorations of contaminated sites balance the human and ecological risks of residual contamination with the benefits of ecological recovery and the return of lost ecological function and ecosystem services. Risk and recovery are interrelated dynamic conditions, changing as remediation and restoration activities progress through implementation into long-term management and ecosystem maturation. Monitoring restoration progress provides data critical to minimizing residual contaminant risk and uncertainty, while measuring ecological advancement toward recovery goals. Effective monitoring plans are designed concurrently with restoration plan development and implementation and are focused on assessing the effectiveness of activities performed in support of restoration goals for the site. Physical, chemical, and biotic measures characterize progress toward desired structural and functional ecosystem components of the goals. Structural metrics, linked to ecosystem functions and services, inform restoration practitioners of work plan modifications or more substantial adaptive management actions necessary to maintain desired recovery. Monitoring frequency, duration, and scale depend on specific attributes and goals of the restoration project. Often tied to restoration milestones, critical assessment of monitoring metrics ensures attainment of risk minimization and ecosystem recovery. Finally, interpretation and communication of monitoring findings inform and engage regulators, other stakeholders, the scientific community, and the public. Because restoration activities will likely cease before full ecosystem recovery, monitoring endpoints should demonstrate risk reduction and a successional trajectory toward the condition established in the restoration goals. A detailed assessment of the completed project's achievements, as well as unrealized objectives, attained through project monitoring, will determine if contaminant risk has been minimized, if injured

  5. Edaphic factors trigger diverse AM fungal communities associated to exotic camellias in closely located Lake Maggiore (Italy) sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Roberto; Berruti, Andrea; Lumini, Erica; Della Beffa, Maria Teresa; Scariot, Valentina; Bianciotto, Valeria

    2015-05-01

    Camellia japonica L. is an acidophilic ornamental shrub of high economic value that has its center of origin in Japan and has been introduced in several European environmental niches. This exotic species forms arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM), known for their ability to positively affect plant growth. However, AM fungal communities associated to C. japonica in the field have never been characterized. For the first time, the AM fungal community naturally selected by C. japonica was screened in three sites located on the shores of Lake Maggiore (Italy), where specimens of this plant were introduced in the nineteenth century. Mycorrhizal levels were assessed, and the AM fungal communities associated to roots and soil were molecularly characterized based on the small subunit (SSU) rDNA region. The frequency of mycorrhizal roots was high in all sampled root systems (>90 %). Overall, 39 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs; 22 Glomerales, 9 Paraglomerales, 7 Archaeosporales, and 1 Diversisporales) were found in the root and soil samples. OTU richness did not significantly differ between the root and the soil niche (5.7 ± 0.6 and 8.0 ± 1.1 average OTUs per sample, respectively) and the three sites analyzed (7.5 ± 0.7, 5.2 ± 1.0, and 7.8 ± 1.5 average OTUs per sample in the three sites, respectively). The AM fungal community composition significantly differed between root-colonizing and soil-dwelling communities and among the three sites under study. Data show a major involvement of edaphic factors, such as available N sources, P, Mg, and K content in soil and soil compaction, in the structuring of the AM fungal communities.

  6. Implementation and Analysis of a Wireless Sensor Network-Based Pet Location Monitoring System for Domestic Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Erik; Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Santesteban, Daniel; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The flexibility of new age wireless networks and the variety of sensors to measure a high number of variables, lead to new scenarios where anything can be monitored by small electronic devices, thereby implementing Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). Thanks to ZigBee, RFID or WiFi networks the precise location of humans or animals as well as some biological parameters can be known in real-time. However, since wireless sensors must be attached to biological tissues and they are highly dispersive, propagation of electromagnetic waves must be studied to deploy an efficient and well-working network. The main goal of this work is to study the influence of wireless channel limitations in the operation of a specific pet monitoring system, validated at physical channel as well as at functional level. In this sense, radio wave propagation produced by ZigBee devices operating at the ISM 2.4 GHz band is studied through an in-house developed 3D Ray Launching simulation tool, in order to analyze coverage/capacity relations for the optimal system selection as well as deployment strategy in terms of number of transceivers and location. Furthermore, a simplified dog model is developed for simulation code, considering not only its morphology but also its dielectric properties. Relevant wireless channel information such as power distribution, power delay profile and delay spread graphs are obtained providing an extensive wireless channel analysis. A functional dog monitoring system is presented, operating over the implemented ZigBee network and providing real time information to Android based devices. The proposed system can be scaled in order to consider different types of domestic pets as well as new user based functionalities. PMID:27589751

  7. Implementation and Analysis of a Wireless Sensor Network-Based Pet Location Monitoring System for Domestic Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Aguirre

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The flexibility of new age wireless networks and the variety of sensors to measure a high number of variables, lead to new scenarios where anything can be monitored by small electronic devices, thereby implementing Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. Thanks to ZigBee, RFID or WiFi networks the precise location of humans or animals as well as some biological parameters can be known in real-time. However, since wireless sensors must be attached to biological tissues and they are highly dispersive, propagation of electromagnetic waves must be studied to deploy an efficient and well-working network. The main goal of this work is to study the influence of wireless channel limitations in the operation of a specific pet monitoring system, validated at physical channel as well as at functional level. In this sense, radio wave propagation produced by ZigBee devices operating at the ISM 2.4 GHz band is studied through an in-house developed 3D Ray Launching simulation tool, in order to analyze coverage/capacity relations for the optimal system selection as well as deployment strategy in terms of number of transceivers and location. Furthermore, a simplified dog model is developed for simulation code, considering not only its morphology but also its dielectric properties. Relevant wireless channel information such as power distribution, power delay profile and delay spread graphs are obtained providing an extensive wireless channel analysis. A functional dog monitoring system is presented, operating over the implemented ZigBee network and providing real time information to Android based devices. The proposed system can be scaled in order to consider different types of domestic pets as well as new user based functionalities.

  8. Implementation and Analysis of a Wireless Sensor Network-Based Pet Location Monitoring System for Domestic Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Erik; Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Santesteban, Daniel; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-08-30

    The flexibility of new age wireless networks and the variety of sensors to measure a high number of variables, lead to new scenarios where anything can be monitored by small electronic devices, thereby implementing Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). Thanks to ZigBee, RFID or WiFi networks the precise location of humans or animals as well as some biological parameters can be known in real-time. However, since wireless sensors must be attached to biological tissues and they are highly dispersive, propagation of electromagnetic waves must be studied to deploy an efficient and well-working network. The main goal of this work is to study the influence of wireless channel limitations in the operation of a specific pet monitoring system, validated at physical channel as well as at functional level. In this sense, radio wave propagation produced by ZigBee devices operating at the ISM 2.4 GHz band is studied through an in-house developed 3D Ray Launching simulation tool, in order to analyze coverage/capacity relations for the optimal system selection as well as deployment strategy in terms of number of transceivers and location. Furthermore, a simplified dog model is developed for simulation code, considering not only its morphology but also its dielectric properties. Relevant wireless channel information such as power distribution, power delay profile and delay spread graphs are obtained providing an extensive wireless channel analysis. A functional dog monitoring system is presented, operating over the implemented ZigBee network and providing real time information to Android based devices. The proposed system can be scaled in order to consider different types of domestic pets as well as new user based functionalities.

  9. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Looney, Brian B.; Seaman, John; Kmetz, Thomas

    2013-01-10

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  10. Groundwater monitoring program plan and conceptual site model for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center in Iraq.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John Robin; Cochran, John Russell

    2013-07-01

    The Radiation Protection Center of the Iraqi Ministry of Environment is developing a groundwater monitoring program (GMP) for the Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center located near Baghdad, Iraq. The Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center was established in about 1960 and is currently being cleaned-up and decommissioned by Iraqs Ministry of Science and Technology. This Groundwater Monitoring Program Plan (GMPP) and Conceptual Site Model (CSM) support the Radiation Protection Center by providing: A CSM describing the hydrogeologic regime and contaminant issues, recommendations for future groundwater characterization activities, and descriptions of the organizational elements of a groundwater monitoring program. The Conceptual Site Model identifies a number of potential sources of groundwater contamination at Al-Tuwaitha. The model also identifies two water-bearing zones (a shallow groundwater zone and a regional aquifer). The depth to the shallow groundwater zone varies from approximately 7 to 10 meters (m) across the facility. The shallow groundwater zone is composed of a layer of silty sand and fine sand that does not extend laterally across the entire facility. An approximately 4-m thick layer of clay underlies the shallow groundwater zone. The depth to the regional aquifer varies from approximately 14 to 17 m across the facility. The regional aquifer is composed of interfingering layers of silty sand, fine-grained sand, and medium-grained sand. Based on the limited analyses described in this report, there is no severe contamination of the groundwater at Al-Tuwaitha with radioactive constituents. However, significant data gaps exist and this plan recommends the installation of additional groundwater monitoring wells and conducting additional types of radiological and chemical analyses.

  11. Automated Web-based Monitoring of a Pump and Treat System at the Hanford Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, W.; Versteeg, R.; Richardson, A.; Ankeny, M.; Gilmore, T.; Morse, J.; Thompson, M.

    2006-05-01

    Automated and autonomous monitoring of environmental conditions can be used to improve operational efficiency, verify remedial action decisions, and promote confidence in the monitoring process by making data and associated derived information readily accessible to regulators and stakeholders. Ultimately autonomous monitoring systems can reduce overall costs associated with regulatory compliance of performance and long- term monitoring. As part of a joint decision between DOE and the WA Department of Ecology to put on "cold standby" a pump and treat system that has been operating on the Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington State since 1995, a web site was developed to display the automated water level network around the pump and treat system. The automated water level network consists of nineteen wells with water level transducers and temperature and conductivity probes for selected wells. Data from this network will be used to evaluate the impacts of the pump-and-treat system and the response of the aquifer to shutdown of the system. The website will provide access to data from the automated network along with additional information pertaining to the shutdown of the pump and treat system to the various stakeholders in a convenient and timely fashion. This will allow the various stakeholders to observe the impacts of the shutdown as the aquifer responds. There are future plans to expand this web-based data reporting platform to other environmental data that pertains to the various remedial actions planned at the Hanford site. The benefits of the web site application for monitoring and stewardship are: consistency of data processing and analyses with automated and on demand data and information delivery. The system and data access is password controlled and access to various data or fields can be restricted to specified users. An important feature is that the stakeholders have access to the data in near-real time providing a checks-and-balance system

  12. Landscape and bio- geochemical strategy for monitoring transformation and reclamation of the soil mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Sites of active or abandoned mining represent areas of considerable technogenic impact and need scientifically ground organization of their monitoring and reclamation. The strategy of monitoring and reclamation depends on the scale and character of the physical, chemical and biological consequences of the disturbances. The geochemical studies for monitoring and rehabilitation of the career-dump complexes should methodically account of formation of the particular new landforms and the changes in circulation of the remobilized elements of the soil cover. However, the general strategy should account of both the initial and transformed landscape geochemical structure of the area with due regard to the natural and new content of chemical elements in the environmental components. For example the tailings and waste rocks present new geochemical fields with specifically different concentration of chemical elements that cause formation of new geochemical barriers and landscapes. The way of colonization of the newly formed landscapes depends upon the new geochemical features of the technogenic environment and the adaptive ability of local and intrusive flora. The newly formed biogeochemical anomalies need organization of permanent monitoring not only within the anomaly itself but also of its impact zones. Spatial landscape geochemical monitoring combined with bio-geochemical criteria of threshold concentrations seems to be a helpful tool for decision making on reclamation and operation of the soil mining sites to provide a long-term ecologically sustainable development of the impact zone as a whole.

  13. Ground deformation monitoring using RADARSAT-2 DInSAR-MSBAS at the Aquistore CO2 storage site in Saskatchewan (Canada)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Czarnogorska; Samsonov, S.; White, D.

    2014-01-01

    The research objectives of the Aquistore CO2 storage project are to design, adapt, and test non-seismic monitoring methods for measurement, and verification of CO2 storage, and to integrate data to determine subsurface fluid distributions, pressure changes and associated surface deformation. Aquistore site is located near Estevan in Southern Saskatchewan on the South flank of the Souris River and west of the Boundary Dam Power Station and the historical part of Estevan coal mine in s...

  14. Geographic information system-based healthcare waste management planning for treatment site location and optimal transportation routeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Soulalay, Vongdeuane; Chettiyappan, Visvanathan

    2012-06-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), a growth of healthcare centres, and the environmental hazards and public health risks typically accompanying them, increased the need for healthcare waste (HCW) management planning. An effective planning of an HCW management system including components such as the treatment plant siting and an optimized routeing system for collection and transportation of waste is deemed important. National government offices at developing countries often lack the proper tools and methodologies because of the high costs usually associated with them. However, this study attempts to demonstrate the use of an inexpensive GIS modelling tool for healthcare waste management in the country. Two areas were designed for this study on HCW management, including: (a) locating centralized treatment plants and designing optimum travel routes for waste collection from nearby healthcare facilities; and (b) utilizing existing hospital incinerators and designing optimum routes for collecting waste from nearby healthcare facilities. Spatial analysis paved the way to understand the spatial distribution of healthcare wastes and to identify hotspots of higher waste generating locations. Optimal route models were designed for collecting and transporting HCW to treatment plants, which also highlights constraints in collecting and transporting waste for treatment and disposal. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool for the efficient management of hospital wastes by government healthcare waste management authorities and hospitals.

  15. Assessing truck driver exposure at the World Trade Center disaster site: personal and area monitoring for particulate matter and volatile organic compounds during October 2001 and April 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyh, Alison S; Chillrud, Steven; Williams, D'Ann L; Herbstman, Julie; Symons, J Morel; Rees, Katherine; Ross, James; Kim, Sung Roul; Lim, Ho-Jin; Turpin, Barbara; Breysse, Patrick

    2005-03-01

    The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City on September 11, 2001, created a 16-acre debris field composed of pulverized and burning material significantly impacting air quality. Site cleanup began almost immediately. Cleanup workers were potentially exposed to airborne contaminants, including particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and asbestos, at elevated concentrations. This article presents the results of the exposure assessment of one important group of WTC workers, truck drivers, as well as area monitoring that was conducted directly on site during October 2001 and April 2002. In cooperation with a local labor union, 54 drivers (October) and 15 drivers (April) were recruited on site to wear two monitors during their 12-hour work shifts. In addition, drivers were administered a questionnaire asking for information ranging from "first day at the site" to respirator use. Area monitoring was conducted at four perimeter locations during October and three perimeter locations during April. During both months, monitoring was also conducted at one location in the middle of the rubble. Contaminants monitored for included total dust (TD), PM10, PM2.5, and volatile organic compounds. Particle samples were analyzed for mass, as well as elemental and organic carbon content. During October, the median personal exposure to TD was 346 microg/m3. The maximum area concentration, 1742 microg/m3, was found in middle of the debris. The maximum TD concentration found at the perimeter was 392 microg/m3 implying a strong concentration gradient from the middle of debris outward. PM2.5/PM10 ratios ranged from 23% to 100% suggesting significant fire activity during some of the sampled shifts. During April, the median personal exposure to TD was 144 microg/m3, and the highest area concentration, 195 microg/m3, was found at the perimeter. During both months, volatile organic compounds concentrations were low.

  16. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Discharge Area Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. T. Urbon

    2001-08-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning site is located in the southeast portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site (Figure 1). This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 23, 2001. Because of questionable representativeness and precision of the results, the site was resampled on June 12, 2001. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the December 1997 Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1997). If after six years the rate of degradation appears to be so slow that the greatest concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) present at the site would not decay within 30 years of the site closure, the site will be reevaluated with consideration to enriching the impacted soil at the site to enhance the degradation process. A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report, samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in TPH concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, the data results from 2000 were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2001 consisted of the following: Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2); Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay

  17. [Sop proteins can cause transcriptional silencing of genes located close to the centromere sites of linear plasmid N15].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardanov, A V; Lane, D; Ravin, N V

    2010-01-01

    Stable inheritance of bacterial chromosomes and low copy number plasmids is ensured by accurate partitioning of replicated molecules between the daughter cells at division. Partitioning of the prophage of the temperate bacteriophage N15, which exists as a linear plasmid molecule with covalently closed ends, depends on the sop locus, comprising genes sopA and sopB, as well as four centromere sites located in different regions of the N15 genome essential for replication and the control of lysogeny. We found that binding of SopB to the centromere can silence centromere-proximal promoters, presumably due to subsequent polymerizing of SopB along the DNA. Close to the IR4 centromere site we identified a promoter, P59, able to drive expression of phage late genes encoding the structural proteins of virion. We found that following binding to IR4 the N15 Sop proteins can cause repression of this promoter. The repression depends on SopB and became stronger in the presence of SopA. Sop-dependent silencing of centromere-proximal promoters control gene expression in phage N15, particularly preventing undesired expression of late genes in the N15 prophage. Thus, the phage N15 sop system not only ensures plasmid partitioning but is also involved in the genetic network controlling prophage replication and the maintenance of lysogeny.

  18. Innovative Methods for Integrating Knowledge for Long-Term Monitoring of Contaminated Groundwater Sites: Understanding Microorganism Communities and their Associated Hydrochemical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, P. J.; Rizzo, D. M.; Druschel, G.; O'Grady, P.; Stevens, L.

    2005-12-01

    This interdisciplinary study integrates hydrochemical and genome-based data to estimate the redox processes occurring at long-term monitoring sites. Groundwater samples have been collected from a well-characterized landfill-leachate contaminated aquifer in northeastern New York. Primers from the 16S rDNA gene were used to amplify Bacteria and Archaea in groundwater taken from monitoring wells located in clean, fringe, and contaminated locations within the aquifer. PCR-amplified rDNA were digested with restriction enzymes to evaluate terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) community profiles. The rDNA was cloned, sequenced, and partial sequences were matched against known organisms using the NCBI Blast database. Phylogenetic trees and bootstrapping were used to identify classifications of organisms and compare the communities from clean, fringe, and contaminated locations. We used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models to incorporate microbial data with hydrochemical information for improving our understanding of subsurface processes.

  19. Analysis of passive-sampler monitored atmospheric ammonia at 74 sites across southern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Yao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Weekly/biweekly concentrations of atmospheric NH3 were collected using passive samplers at 74 sites across southern Ontario, Canada during the period from June 2006 to March 2007 with tens of sites running as early as March 2006. The annual average of NH3 (AAN at all the sites across southwestern Ontario was over 1 µg m–3, a value that was recently proposed as the new critical level for protecting vegetation. High ANN values (3.6–6.1 µg m–3 were observed at eight sites located inside the intensive livestock production zones. The AAN values at the sites across southeastern Ontario were generally less than 1 µg m–3 and the values were less than 0.4 µg m–3 at non-agricultural sites. Regional transport from the southwest region to the southeast region was identified to be the main contributor to the observed NH3 at the southeastern non-agricultural sites. However, different transport mechanisms were proposed in different seasons. The transport of NH3 produced through bi-directional air-surface exchange along air mass trajectories was believed to be the main mechanism in the hot seasons while the transport of NH4NO3 produced at source locations followed by its evaporation at receptor sites was thought to be dominant in the cold seasons. A sharp increase in NH3 concentration was surprisingly observed at 20 out of the 74 sites during the coldest two weeks when ambient temperature was lower than −7 °C, and cannot be explained by known sources or with existing knowledge. Recently developed NH3 emission inventory for southern Ontario was also evaluated with the measurement data and emissions within two small zones were identified to be potentially underestimated.

  20. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring and Inspection Report Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    Gnome-Coach was the site of a 3-kiloton underground nuclear test conducted in 1961. Surface and subsurface contamination resulted from the underground nuclear testing, post-test drilling, and a groundwater tracer test performed at the site. Surface reclamation and remediation began after the underground testing. A Completion Report was prepared, and the State of New Mexico is currently proceeding with a conditional certificate of completion for the surface. Subsurface corrective action activities began in 1972 and have generally consisted of annual sampling and monitoring of wells near the site. In 2008, the annual site inspections were refined to include hydraulic head monitoring and collection of samples from groundwater monitoring wells onsite using the low-flow sampling method. These activities were conducted during this monitoring period on January 18, 2012. Analytical results from this sampling event indicate that concentrations of tritium, strontium-90, and cesium-137 were generally consistent with concentrations from historical sampling events. The exceptions are the decreases in concentrations of strontium-90 in samples from wells USGS-4 and USGS-8, which were more than 2.5 times lower than last year's results. Well USGS-1 provides water for livestock belonging to area ranchers, and a dedicated submersible pump cycles on and off to maintain a constant volume in a nearby water tank. Water levels in wells USGS-4 and USGS-8 respond to the on/off cycling of the water supply pumping from well USGS-1. Well LRL-7 was not sampled in January, and water levels were still increasing when the transducer data were downloaded in September. A seismic reflection survey was also conducted this year. The survey acquired approximately 13.9 miles of seismic reflection data along 7 profiles on and near the site. These activities were conducted from February 23 through March 10, 2012. The site roads, monitoring well heads, and the monument at surface ground zero were in

  1. Atmospheric measurements of CDDs, CDFs and coplanar PCBs in rural and remote locations of the United States in the year 2001 from the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleverly, D. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (United States); Winters, D. [Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, WA, DC (United States); Ferrario, J.; Dupuy, A.; Byrne, C. [Environmental Chemistry Lab., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Stennis Space Center, MS (United States); Riggs, K.; Hartford, P.; Joseph, D.; Wisbith, T. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to address three primary objectives: (1) to determine the atmospheric levels and occurrences of dioxin-like compounds in rural and agricultural areas where livestock, poultry and animal feed crops are grown; (2) to provide measurements of atmospheric levels of dioxin-like compounds in remote areas of the U.S.; and (3) to provide information regarding the long-range and transboundary transport of dioxin-like compounds in air over the United States. Figure 1 shows the locations of NDAMN sites. Previously EPA has reported on the preliminary results of monitoring at 9 rural locations from June1998 through December 19991, and calendar year 2000. The year 1999 measurement at the 9 rural stations indicated an annual mean TEQ{sub DF}-WHO{sub 98} air concentration of about 11.3 fg m{sup -3}. In the year 2000, the mean of 18 rural stations and 8 remote areas were 14.6 fg m{sup -3} and 2.0 fg m{sup -3}, respectively. Since this reporting, NDAMN has been extended to include additional stations. We are reporting the air monitoring results of NDAMN for calendar year 2001 at both rural and remote sites in the U.S. The rural sites are indicated as circles and remote sites are indicted as squares on Figure 1.

  2. Nevada Test Site 2009 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Radioactive Waste

    2010-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2009 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NTS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 87.6 millimeters (mm) (3.45 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2009 is 43 percent below the average of 152.4 mm (6.00 in.), and the 62.7 mm (2.47 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2009 is 49 percent below the average of 122.5 mm (4.82 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation

  3. Nevada Test Site 2007 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2007 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a; 2008; Warren and Grossman, 2008). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are at background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. A single gamma spectroscopy measurement for cesium was slightly above the minimum detectable concentration, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 136.8 millimeters (mm) (5.39 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2007 is 13 percent below the average of 158.1 mm (6.22 in.), and the 123.8 mm (4.87 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2007 is 6 percent below the average of 130.7 mm (5.15 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05U continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward movement percolation of precipitation more effectively

  4. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2010 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2010a; 2010b; 2011). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 246.9 millimeters (mm) (9.72 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2010 is 56 percent above the average of 158.7 mm (6.25 in.), and the 190.4 mm (7.50 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2010 is 50 percent above the average of 126.7 mm (4.99 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than

  5. Carbon species in PM10 particle fraction at different monitoring sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Ranka; Jakovljević, Ivana; Šega, Krešimir; Čačković, Mirjana; Bešlić, Ivan; Davila, Silvije; Pehnec, Gordana

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the levels of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mass concentrations in PM10 particles (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) between seasons (winter and summer) and at different monitoring sites (urban background and rural industrial). Daily samples of airborne particles were collected on pre-fired quartz fibre filters. PM10 mass concentrations were determined gravimetrically. Samples were analysed for OC and EC with the thermal/optical transmittance method (TOT) and for PAHs by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector. Measurements showed seasonal and spatial variations of mass concentrations for carbon species and for all of the measured PAHs (Flu, Pyr, Chry, BaA, BbF, BaP, BkF, BghiP and IP) in PM10 at the urban site and rural monitoring site described here. Diagnostic PAH ratios (Flu/(Flu + Pyr), BaA/(BaA + Cry), IP/(IP + BghiP), BaP/BghiP, IP/BghiP and BaP/(BaP + Chry)) make it possible to assess the sources of pollution, and these showed that diesel vehicles accounted for most pollution at the rural-industrial (RI) site in the summer, whereas coal and wood combustion were the causes of winter pollution. This difference between winter and summer PAH ratios were more expressed at the RI site than at the UB site because at the UB site the predominant heating fuel was gas. The OC/EC ratio yielded the same conclusion. Factor analysis showed that EC and OC originated from traffic at both sites, PAHs with 5 or more benzene rings originated from wood pellets industry or biomass burning, while Pyr and Flu originated from diesel combustion or as a consequence of different atmospheric behaviour - evaporation and participation in oxidation and photo oxidation processes.

  6. Tire Processing Facilities, Location of motor vehicle inspection sites within Louisiana, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tire Processing Facilities dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2005. It is described as 'Location of motor vehicle inspection sites within...

  7. Architectural Issues of a Location-Aware System Applied in Fruit Fly E-Monitoring and Spraying Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tsiligiridis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we describe an e-monitoring location-aware system, based on a real-time Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN, integrated with a semi-automatic trapping and insect counting, based on existing traps, able to acquire and transmit data to a remote server, and a Decision Support System (DSS that will perform the final optimization of the control treatments. In spite the tremendous technological advances in recent years, WSNs cannot meet all the requirements of ubiquitous intelligent environment mainly because scalar data such as temperature, air humidity, air pressure, etc., are not able to detect all environmental events, like insect detection. For this reasons the efforts are concentrated on the design issues of a WMSN platform, able to collect and integrate multimedia data from the field. Further, a flexible architecture needs to be adopted for integration of a WMSN to the cloud for multimedia sensor data collection and sharing using Web services.

  8. Cost-Effective, Ultra-Sensitive Groundwater Monitoring for Site Remediation and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    research stage, the IS2 is similar in 12 price to other practices and can be expected to improve in cost-effectiveness if brought to market . 13 1.0...M., & Puls, R. W. (1993). Passive sampling of groundwater monitoring wells without purging: multilevel well chemistry and tracer disappearance...sgrp/GWRep10/start.htm. USEPA. (2004). Cleaning Up the Nation’s Waste Sites: Markets and Technology Trends. Washington, DC. Verreydt, G., Bronders

  9. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site - FY09 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Waichler, Scott R.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2009-09-28

    Recharge provides the primary driving force for transporting contaminants from the vadose zone to underlying aquifer systems. Quantification of recharge rates is important for assessing contaminant transport and fate and for evaluating remediation alternatives. This report describes the status of soil water balance and recharge monitoring performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at the Hanford Site for Fiscal Year 2009. Previously reported data for Fiscal Years 2004 - 2008 are updated with data collected in Fiscal Year 2009 and summarized.

  10. Data Report for Monitoring at Six West Virginia Marcellus Shale Development Sites using NETL’s Mobile Air Monitoring Laboratory (July–November 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekney, Natalie J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Reeder, Matthew [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United Stat; Veloski, Garret A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Diehl, J. Rodney [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2016-06-16

    The West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection’s Office of Oil and Gas was directed according to the Natural Gas Horizontal Well Control Act of December 14, 2011 (West Virginia Code §22-6A) to conduct studies of horizontal well drilling activities related to air quality. The planned study, “Noise, Light, Dust, Volatile Organic Compounds Related to Well Location Restrictions,” required determination of the effectiveness of a 625 ft minimum set-back from the center of the pad of a horizontal well drilling site to the nearest occupied dwelling. An investigation was conducted at seven drilling sites by West Virginia University (WVU) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to collect data on dust, hydrocarbon compounds and on noise, radiation, and light levels. NETL’s role in this study was to collect measurements of ambient pollutant concentrations at six of the seven selected sites using NETL’s Mobile Air Monitoring Laboratory. The trailer-based laboratory was situated a distance of 492–1,312 ft from each well pad, on which activities included well pad construction, vertical drilling, horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and flaring, with the objective of evaluating the air quality impact of each activity for 1–4 weeks per site. Measured pollutants included volatile organic compounds (VOCs), coarse and fine particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively), ozone, methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon isotopes of CH4 and CO2, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2).

  11. Water Quality and Sedimentation Data of the Coastal Intensive Site Network (CISNet) Long Term Monitoring Sites in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii from 1998 to 2001 (NODC Accession 0001473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A long term project to monitor water quality and sediment processes in Kaneohe Bay was initiated in November 1998 and continued through July 2001. Four primary sites...

  12. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-10-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Since 1991, the flagging criteria have been based on the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards and on method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1992 are listed in this report.

  13. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  14. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, D. B.

    2014-08-19

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2013 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2013; 2014a; 2014b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are close to detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 105.8 millimeters (mm) (4.17 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2013 is 30% below the average of 150.3 mm (5.92 in.), and the 117.5 mm (4.63 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2013 is 5% below the average of 123.6 mm (4.86 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  15. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David B.

    2013-09-10

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2012 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2012; 2013a; 2013b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 133.9 millimeters (mm) (5.27 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2012 is 12% below the average of 153.0 mm (6.02 in.), and the 137.6 mm (5.42 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2012 is 11% below the average of 122.4 mm (4.82 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  16. A Strategy and Case Study Example for Designing and Implementing Environmental Long-Term Monitoring at Legacy Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl D. Mattson; Roelof J. Versteeg; Mark Ankeny; Gail Heath; Alex Richardson

    2004-04-01

    Environmental monitoring objectives of site owners, regulators, consultants, and scientists typically share the common elements of (1) cost management, (2) risk management, and (3) information management (Figure 1). Many site owners focus on minimizing monitoring costs while regulators typically focus on risk and regulatory compliance. Scientists and consultants typically provide information management in the form of spreadsheets with extracted information provided in reports to other users. This common piecemeal approach upon individual focus on elements of the monitoring objectives, rather than the common objective of minimizing cost and risk using site information, results in missed opportunities for cost savings, environmental protection, and improved understanding of site performance.

  17. A Wireless Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Tensile Force on Sutured Wound Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouin, Andrew; Pacella, Nina; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Ong, Keat Ghee

    2016-08-01

    A new wireless sensor was designed, fabricated, and applied for in situ monitoring of tensile force at a wound site. The sensor was comprised of a thin strip of magnetoelastic material with its two ends connected to suture threads for securing the sensor across a wound repair site. Since the sensor was remotely interrogated by applying an ac magnetic field and capturing the resulting magnetic field, it did not require direct wire connections to an external device or internal battery for long-term use. Due to its magnetoelastic property, the application of a tensile force changed the magnetic permeability of the sensor, altering the amplitude of the measured magnetic field. This study presents two sensor designs: one for high and one for low-force ranges. A sensor was fabricated by directly adhering the magnetoelastic strip to the suture. This sensor showed good sensitivity at low force, but its response saturated at about 1.5 N. To monitor high tensile force, the magnetoelastic strip was attached to a metal strip for load sharing. The suture thread was attached to the both ends of the metal strip so only a fraction of the applied force was directed to the sensor, allowing it to exhibit good sensitivity even at 44.5 N. The sensor was applied to two ex vivo models: a sutured section of porcine skin and a whitetail deer Achilles tendon. The results demonstrate the potential for in vivo force monitoring at a wound repair site.

  18. Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS Services and Sites in WLCG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Perez, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Gutsche, O.; Sciabà, A.; Flix, J.; Kreuzer, P.; Fajardo, E.; Boccali, T.; Klute, M.; Gomes, D.; Kaselis, R.; Du, R.; Magini, N.; Butenas, I.; Wang, W.

    2012-12-01

    The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS; the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is exploited to ensure the 24/7 monitoring, alarming and troubleshooting of the CMS computing sites and services. We review the deployment of the monitoring and alarming procedures, and report on the experience gained throughout the first two years of LHC operation. We describe the efficiency of the communication tools employed, the coherent monitoring framework, the proactive alarming systems and the proficient troubleshooting procedures that helped the CMS Computing facilities and infrastructure to operate at high reliability levels.

  19. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site 216-B-3 Pond RCRA Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Smith, Ronald M.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-11-28

    The 216-B-3 Pond was a series of ponds for disposal of liquid effluent from past Hanford production facilities. In 1990, groundwater monitoring at B Pond was elevated from "detection" to assessment status because total organic halides and total organic carbon were found to exceed critical means in two wells. Groundwater quality assessment, which ended in 1996, failed to find any specific hazardous waste contaminant that could have accounted for the isolated occurrences of elevated total organic halides and total organic carbon. Hence, the facility was subsequently returned to detection-level monitoring in 1998. Exhaustive groundwater analyses during the assessment period indicated that only two contaminants, tritium and nitrate, could be positively attributed to the B Pond System, with two others (arsenic and I-129) possibly originating from B Pond. Chemical and radiological analyses of soil at the main pond and 216-B-3-3 ditch has not revealed significant contamination. Based on the observed, minor contamination in groundwater and in the soil column, three parameters were selected for site-specific, semiannual monitoring; gross alpha, gross beta, and specific conductance. Total organic halides and total organic carbon are included as constituents because of regulatory requirements. Nitrate, tritium, arsenic, and iodine-129 will be monitored under the aegis of Hanford site-wide monitoring. Although the B Pond System is not scheduled to advance from RCRA interim status to final status until the year 2003, a contingency plan for an improved monitoring strategy, which will partially emulate final status requirements, will be contemplated before the official change to final status. This modification will allow a more sensible and effective screening of groundwater for the facility.

  20. Mapping an aggregate extraction site off the Eastern English Channel: A methodology in support of monitoring and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Boyd, Siân E.; Vanstaen, Koen; Coggan, Roger A.; Limpenny, David S.

    2010-04-01

    Each year approximately 23-28 million tonnes of sand and gravel are removed from offshore sediments around England and Wales. This study was located in a licensed marine aggregate extraction site off Shoreham in the Eastern English Channel (EEC thereafter). Results from the multibeam survey showed the presence of dredged pits created by suction hopper dredging and elongated furrows created by trailer suction hopper dredging in the area where sand and gravel had been excavated. Electronic Monitoring System (EMS) contained the dredging intensity recorded annually at the site; this information was combined with particle size data providing interpreted maps, which informed the status of the sediments at the site. The aim of the current study was to explore the presence of marine habitats over a smaller area known as the 'Shoreham Box' in the EEC. Results showed some differences in the community composition produced by the two methods of extraction. There was also indication of enhanced number of species in the area dredged by suction hopper method. Notably, slipper limpets were also observed inhabiting dredged pits and creating permanent habitats in areas cratered by the dredging activity. This study has generated ecological information on the status of species and habitats inhabiting the dredged and undredged area. Management considerations are also discussed to ensure that sound aggregate extraction practices are in place to minimised the effects of aggregate dredging over licensed areas.

  1. Final work plan : targeted groundwater sampling and monitoring well installation for potential site reclassification at Barnes, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2006-07-11

    This ''Work Plan'' outlines the scope of work for a targeted groundwater sampling investigation and monitoring well installation at Barnes, Kansas. This activity is being conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), in accordance with the intergovernmental agreement between the KDHE and the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Data resulting from the proposed work will be used to determine the hydraulic gradient near the former CCC/USDA facility, delineate the downgradient carbon tetrachloride plume, and determine additional monitoring requirements at Barnes. The overall goal is to establish criteria for monitoring leading to potential site reclassification. The proposed work will be performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Farm Service Agency of the USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance with environmental site characterization and remediation at former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities. Argonne issued a ''Master Work Plan'' (Argonne 2002) to provide general guidance for all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas. The ''Master Work Plan'', approved by the KDHE, contains the materials common to investigations at all locations in Kansas. This document must be consulted for the complete details of plans for this work associated with the former CCC/USDA facility at Barnes.

  2. Integrated SAR Technologies for Monitoring the Stability of Mine Sites: Application Using Terrasar-X and RADARSAT-2 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheault, M.; Bouroubi, Y.; Sarago, V.; Nguyen-Xuan, P. T.; Bugnet, P.; Gosselin, C.; Benoit, M.

    2015-04-01

    The last three decades have seen significant mining development in the northern regions of Canada, where the freeze and thaw cycle of permafrost and corresponding surface subsidence and heave represent a significant challenge at all mining stages, from the design of infrastructures to the monitoring of restored areas. Over the past ten years, SAR interferometry has been widely used to monitor ground surface deformation. With this technique, changes in phase between two SAR acquisitions are used to detect centimetre to millimetre surface displacements over a large area with high spatial resolution. This paper presents the results of a project that aims to develop a SAR solution to provide useful information for environmental monitoring and assessing the stability of mining sites. RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X images acquired during the summer of 2014 were used to measure the displacements of ground surface, infrastructures and stockpiles caused by seasonal changes in permafrost extent. The study area is an open-pit mine located in Nunavut, northern Canada, in the continuous permafrost zone. Results shown that surface displacements calculated from RADARSAT-2 and TerraSAR-X are very similar and in agreement with scientific and terrain knowledge. Significant displacements were observed in loose soil areas while none was detected in bedrock and rock outcrop areas. The areas most affected by active layer changes showed surface subsidence during the thaw settlement period. Thus, InSAR can be used as a tool to guide the siting and design of new infrastructure as well as highlighting risks in areas of unstable terrain.

  3. Cost Effective, Ultra Sensitive Groundwater Monitoring for Site Remediation and Management: Standard Operating Procedures with QA/QC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    GUIDANCE DOCUMENT Cost-Effective, Ultra-Sensitive Groundwater Monitoring for Site Remediation and Management: Standard Operating Procedures... Groundwater Monitoring for Site Remediation and Management 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Halden, R.U., Roll, I.B. 5d...DEPLOYMENT WORK As with any groundwater sampling method, the decision to apply the IS2 technology is based on the site characteristics and the type

  4. DETECTING AND QUANTIFYING REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION DURING MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER CBRP SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K; JACK D. ISTOK, J; JENNIFER A. FIELD, J; ERIC RAES, E; Margaret Millings, M; AARON D. PEACOCK, A; Brian02 Looney, B

    2007-01-02

    Various attenuation mechanisms control the destruction, stabilization, and/or removal of contaminants from contaminated subsurface systems. Measuring the rates of the controlling attenuation mechanisms is a key to employing mass balance as a means to evaluate and monitor the expansion, stability and subsequent shrinkage of a contaminant plume. A team of researchers investigated the use of push-pull tests for measuring reductive dechlorination rates in situ at sites with low chlorinated solvent concentrations (<1 ppm). The field research also examined the synergistic use of a suite of geochemical and microbial assays. Previous push-pull tests applied to environmental remediation objectives focused on general hydrological characterization or on designing bioremediation systems by examining the response of the subsurface to stimulation. In this research, the push-pull technique was tested to determine its ''low-range'' sensitivity and uncertainty. Can these tests quantify relatively low attenuation rates representative of natural attenuation? The results of this research indicate that push-pull testing will be useful for measurement of in situ reductive dechlorination rates for chlorinated solvents at ''Monitored Natural Attenuation'' (MNA) sites. Further, using principal component analysis and other techniques, the research confirmed the usefulness of multiple lines of evidence in site characterization and in upscaling measurements made in individual wells--especially for sites where there is a geochemical gradient or varying geochemical regimes within the contaminant plume.

  5. Seismicity Characterization and Monitoring at WESTCARB's Proposed Montezuma Hills Geologic Sequestration Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, T.M.; Haught, R.; Peterson, J.E.; Boyle, K.; Beyer, J.H.; Hutchings, L.R.

    2010-09-15

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), in collaboration with Shell Oil Co. performed site characterization for a potential small-scale pilot test of geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). The site area, know as Montezuma Hills, is near the town of Rio Vista in northern California. During the process of injection at a CO2 storage site, there is a potential for seismic events due to slippage upon pre-existing discontinuities or due to creation of new fractures. Observations from many injection projects have shown that the energy from these events can be used for monitoring of processes in the reservoir. Typically, the events are of relatively high frequency and very low amplitude. However, there are also well documented (non-CO2-related) cases in which subsurface injection operations have resulted in ground motion felt by near-by communities. Because of the active tectonics in California (in particular the San Andreas Fault system), and the potential for public concern, WESTCARB developed and followed an induced seismicity protocol (Myer and Daley, 2010). This protocol called for assessing the natural seismicity in the area and deploying a monitoring array if necessary. In this report, we present the results of the natural seismicity assessment and the results of an initial temporary deployment of two seismometers at the Montezuma Hills site. Following the temporary array deployment, the project was suspended and the array removed in August of 2010.

  6. 2001 environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, West Mifflin Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    The 2001 results for the Bettis-Pittsburgh radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs are presented. The results demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that releases to the environment during 2001 were in accordance with applicable Federal, State, County, and local regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrates that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the U.S. Department of Energy. A risk assessment of potentially exposed populations to chemical residues in the environment at the Site demonstrates that any potential risk posed by these residues is much less than the risks encountered in normal everyday life.

  7. 1999 environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Pittsburgh Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The 1999 results for the Bettis-Pittsburgh radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs are presented. The results demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that releases to the environment during 1999 were in accordance with applicable Federal, State, County, and local regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrates that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the US Department of Energy. A risk assessment of potentially exposed populations to chemical residues in the environment at the Site demonstrates that these residues do not pose any significant risk to human health or the environment.

  8. 2003 Environmental Monitoring Report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory Pittsburgh Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-12-31

    The 2003 results for the Bettis-Pittsburgh radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs are presented. The results demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that releases to the environment during 2003 were in accordance with applicable Federal, State, County, and local regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates that current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrates that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the U.S. Department of Energy. A risk assessment of potentially exposed populations to chemical residues in the environment at the Site demonstrates that any potential risk posed by these residues in much less than the risks encountered in normal everyday life.

  9. Nevada National Security Site 2015 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Hudson, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2016-08-20

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data include direct radiation exposure, as well as radiation from the air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2015 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports developed by National Security Technologies, LLC. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show that tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. During 2015, precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS was 0.9% above average, and precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS was 25% above average. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation as measured from the bare-soil weighing lysimeter. The 1.8 inches of precipitation in September reached the lowest sensors at 180 cm on the Cell 5S and 5N covers, however the

  10. Anaerobic co-digestion plants for the revaluation of agricultural waste: Sustainable location sites from a GIS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamar, Cristina Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Aguayo, Mauricio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish sustainably feasible areas for the implementation of anaerobic co-digestion plants for agricultural wastes (cattle/swine slurries and cereal crop wastes). The methodology was based on the use of geographic information systems (GIS), the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and map algebra generated from hedges related to environmental, social and economic constraints. The GIS model obtained was applied to a region of Chile (Bío Bío Region) as a case study showing the energy potential (205 MW-h) of agricultural wastes (swine/cattle manures and cereal crop wastes) and thereby assessing its energy contribution (3.5%) at country level (Chile). From this model, it was possible to spatially identify the influence of each factor (environmental, economic and social) when defining suitable areas for the siting of anaerobic co-digestion plants. In conclusion, GIS-based models establish appropriate areas for the location of anaerobic co-digestion plants in the revaluation of agricultural waste from the production of energy through biogas production.

  11. Cystatin D locates in the nucleus at sites of active transcription and modulates gene and protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Mayorga, Gemma; Alvarez-Díaz, Silvia; Valle, Noelia; De Las Rivas, Javier; Mendes, Marta; Barderas, Rodrigo; Canals, Francesc; Tapia, Olga; Casal, J Ignacio; Lafarga, Miguel; Muñoz, Alberto

    2015-10-30

    Cystatin D is an inhibitor of lysosomal and secreted cysteine proteases. Strikingly, cystatin D has been found to inhibit proliferation, migration, and invasion of colon carcinoma cells indicating tumor suppressor activity that is unrelated to protease inhibition. Here, we demonstrate that a proportion of cystatin D locates within the cell nucleus at specific transcriptionally active chromatin sites. Consistently, transcriptomic analysis show that cystatin D alters gene expression, including that of genes encoding transcription factors such as RUNX1, RUNX2, and MEF2C in HCT116 cells. In concordance with transcriptomic data, quantitative proteomic analysis identified 292 proteins differentially expressed in cystatin D-expressing cells involved in cell adhesion, cytoskeleton, and RNA synthesis and processing. Furthermore, using cytokine arrays we found that cystatin D reduces the secretion of several protumor cytokines such as fibroblast growth factor-4, CX3CL1/fractalkine, neurotrophin 4 oncostatin-M, pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL18, and transforming growth factor B3. These results support an unanticipated role of cystatin D in the cell nucleus, controlling the transcription of specific genes involved in crucial cellular functions, which may mediate its protective action in colon cancer.

  12. Groundwater monitoring program evaluation For A/M Area, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Bollinger, J.S.

    1996-12-01

    This investigation was undertaken with the primary purpose of assessing the groundwater monitoring program within the A/M Area to identify ways in which the monitoring program could be improved. The task was difficult due to the large number of wells located within the A/M Area and the huge database of analytical data. It was recognized early in this investigation that one of the key tasks was to develop a way to gain access to the groundwater databases so that recommendations could be made. To achieve this, geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to extract pertinent groundwater quality information from the Geochemical Information Management System (GIMS) groundwater database and display the extracted information spatially. GIS technology was also used to determine the location of well screen and annular material zones within the A/M Area hydrostratigraphy and to identify wells that may breach confining units. Recommendations developed from this study address: (1) wells that may not be providing reliable data but continue to be routinely sampled (2) wells that may be inappropriately located but continue to be routinely sampled and (3) further work that should be undertaken, including well development, evaluation of wells that may be breaching confining units, and development of an automated link to GIMS using GIS so that GIMS data can easily be accessed and displayed geographically.

  13. Foliar nutrients in Italian forests: results from the 1995-2009 monitoring network sites CONECOFOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Cinti B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Foliar nutrients in Italian forests: results from the 1995-2009 monitoring network sites CONECOFOR. In 1995, the Italian Forest Service (CFS established the National Network for Forest Ecosystem Monitoring (CONECOFOR with the aim to study the ecological interactions among structural and functional components of forest stands. In the 31 permanent plots of the CONECOFOR Network, surveys are carried out including vegetation, trees crown condition, chemistry of leaves and soils, tree growth, atmospheric deposition, climate, microclimate, ozone and biodiversity. These surveys are carried out by CFS in collaboration with several scientific institutions. In such context, IBAF/CNR is specifically involved in the investigation of foliage chemical content. The foliar nutritional status was analyzed in 25 sites, taking as a reference the values published by the ICP-Forests and those published in the literature. The study involved 7 forest species (Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. ilex, Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus and Picea abies investigating the concentrations of the major macronutrients as nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, magnesium (Mg, sulfur (S and calcium (Ca and the N/P ratio. In beech, N, S and K were found in quite high concentrations, though without showing imbalances due to concentration excesses. Ca and Mg are present in very high concentrations, highlighting the possibility of imbalances, especially in relation to the other nutrients. For these two nutrients, spruce shows substantially balanced conditions as also for N/P ratio. For deciduous Oaks nutrients arewithin the parameters of normality, with the exception of Ca. This has been observed in 4 out of the 6 studied sites, with potential indication of nutritional imbalances related to Calcium. Nutrient concentrations in Holm oak are within the average of published data, except for Ca and Mg of site TOS-1, the former being slightly low, the latter being unusually high

  14. Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites - WASTE_DISPOSAL_STORAGE_HANDLING_IDEM_IN: Waste Site Locations for Disposal, Storage and Handling of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — WASTE_DISPOSAL_STORAGE_HANDLING_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains waste site locations for the disposal, storage, and handling of solid and hazardous waste...

  15. Land Use and Land Cover - CEMETERY_SITES_IDNR_IN: Cemetery Site Locations in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, 1:5,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — IDNR documentation states - “This dataset contains locations of cemetery sites in Indiana, regardless of age, number of graves, or size of the cemetery. Is it not...

  16. Annual report for RCRA groundwater monitoring projects at Hanford Site facilities for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the annual hydrogeologic evaluation of 20 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 groundwater monitoring projects and 1 nonhazardous waste facility at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Most of the projects no longer receive dangerous waste; a few projects continue to receive dangerous waste constituents for treatment, storage, or disposal. The 20 RCRA projects comprise 30 waste management units. Ten of the units are monitored under groundwater quality assessment status because of elevated levels of indicator parameters. The impact of those units on groundwater quality, if any, is being investigated. If dangerous waste or waste constituents have entered groundwater, their concentration, distribution, and rate of migration are evaluated. Groundwater is monitored at the other 20 units to detect contamination, should it occur. This report provides an interpretation of groundwater data collected at the waste management units between October 1992 and September 1993. Recent groundwater quality is also described for the 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas and for the entire Hanford Site. Widespread contaminants include nitrate, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, and other radionuclides.

  17. Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. LIDAR-based coastal landscape reconstruction and harbour location: The Viking-age royal burial site of Borre (Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganits, Erich; Doneus, Michael; Gansum, Terje

    2013-04-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) has found wide application in archaeological research for the detection and documentation of archaeological and palaeo-environmental features. In this study we demonstrate the analysis of an LIDAR derived 1x1 m digital elevation model (DTM) combined with geoarchaeological research of the coastal Viking-age burial site in Borre, Olso Fjord (Norway). Borre is an exceptional burial site in Scandinavia, containing burial mounds up to 40 m in diameter and 6 m height, mentioned in Nordic Sagas, especially in the skaldic poem Ynglingatal, as the burial place of one or two kings of the Ynglinga dynasty. Archaeological findings and radiocarbon ages indicate that the Borre burial ground had been in use broadly between 600-1000 AD. Despite the reasonable expectation that a coastal site connected with the Viking kings of Vestfold, with hall buildings and ship graves demands a harbour, up to now no harbour has not been found with traditional archaeological surveys. Since the area of Borre is affected by a continuous land uplift related to glacial rebound of Scandinavia, any former harbour site is expected to be exposed to the land surface today. The present day vertical crustal uplift is calculated around 2.5 mm/yr in the area of Borre. Burial mounds and surrounding borrow pits as well as geomorphological features of the uplifted coast of Borre have been analysed by the 1x1 m LIDAR-DTM, using hillshade, slope and local relief model for visualisation. Altogether, 41 burial mounds and further 6 potential mounds are visible in the high-resolution DTM. A succession of more than 14 beach ridges, cross-cut by the burial mounds, is visible from the present shore line up to 18 m asl. They are more or less parallel and similar in size, except between at ca. 4-6 m asl, where the most prominent ridge is located, which probably has been enforced artificially. Using published shoreline displacement curves from nearby areas, the shore-line at

  19. Monitoring of the radiological environmental impact of the AREVA site of Tricastin; Suivi de l'impact radiologique environnemental des activites du site AREVA du Tricastin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercat, C.; Brun, F.; Florens, P.; Petit, J. [AREVA NC Pierrelatte, Direction surete environnement du site du Tricastin, 26 (France); Garnier, F. [EURODIF Production, Direction qualite securite surete environnement, 26 (France); Devin, P. [AREVA NC Pierrelatte, Direction surete, sante, securite, environnement, 26 (France)

    2010-06-15

    Set up at the beginning of the site's operations, in 1962, the monitoring of the radiological environmental impact of the AREVA site of Tricastin has evolved over time to meet more specifically the multiple objectives of environmental monitoring: to prove the respect of the commitments required by the authorities, to be able to detect a dysfunction in the observed levels, to enable the assessment of impacts of industrial activities, to ensure the balance between environmental quality and the use made by the local population and to inform the public of the radiological state of the environment. Thousands of data were acquired on the radioactivity of all environmental compartments as well as on the functioning of local ecosystems. Today, the Network of Environmental Monitoring of AREVA Tricastin goes beyond the requirements of routine monitoring to provide innovative solutions for monitoring the radioactivity (especially for uranium) in the environment. (author)

  20. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    multiple overlapping images. The usefulness of UAV-based investigations has been given by its integrability with other methods of remote sensing including geophysics, optical and SAR satellite remote sensing. The presentation deals with the methodological approaches and the results in three historical sites for different applications such as: 1) archaeological site discovery, 2) the study and observation of archaeological looting and 3) the 3d reconstruction of building and sites. In the case 1) UAV has been used for the creation of orthophotos and digital elevantion models (DEMs) as well as the identification of archaeological marks and microrelief, as proxy indicators of the presence of archaeological buried remains. The obtained information have been compared and integrated with those provided by georadar and geomagnetic prospections. The investigated site is a medieval settlement, including a benedectine monastery, dated to 12-15th century. It is San Pietro a Cellaria, located in the territory of Calvello, in Basilicata (Southern Italy). The multisensor integrated approach allowed to identify several features referable to buried structures of the monastery (Leucci et al. 2015; Roubis et al. 2015). In the case 2) UAVs have been used for the identification and analysis of traces of grave robbers, in the territory of Anzi (Basilicata). Since the end of the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century, hundreds of tombs of the Archaic, Lucan and Roman age have been destroyed and stolen. The case 3) is related to the ceremonial centre of Pachacamac in Peru, which was investigated for several years by the international mission ITACA (Italian scientific mission for heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics) of IBAM/IMAA CNR of Potenza (Italy) (Lasaponara et al. 2016b). For more than 2,000 years, Pachacamac was one of the main centers of religious cult keeping this role unchanged in different historical periods and for different cultures such as Chavin, Lima, Huari

  1. Airports and Airfields, Airstrip locations within Sedgwick County. Primary attributes include site number, location ID, facility type, effective date, air strip name, city name, latitude, longitude, and elevation., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Airports and Airfields dataset current as of 2008. Airstrip locations within Sedgwick County. Primary attributes include site number, location ID, facility type,...

  2. Long Term Remote Monitoring of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, C.; Gudavalli, R.; Lagos, L.; Tansel, B.; Varona, J.; Allen, M.

    2004-10-06

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile self powered remote monitoring system enhanced for field deployment at Savannah River Site (SRS). The system used a localized power source with solar recharging and has wireless data collection, analysis, transmission, and data management capabilities. The prototype was equipped with a Hydrolab's DataSonde 4a multi-sensor array package managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, with an adequate pumping capacity of water samples for sampling and analysis of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater wells at SRS. This paper focuses on a study and technology development efforts conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) to automate the sampling of contaminated wells with a multi-sensor array package developed using COTS (Commercial Off The shelf) parts. Bladder pumps will pump water from different wells to the sensors array, water quality TCE indicator parameters are measured (i.e. pH, redox, ORP, DO, NO3 -, Cl-). In order to increase user access and data management, the system was designed to be accessible over the Internet. Remote users can take sample readings and collect data remotely over a web. Results obtained at Florida International University in-house testing and at a field deployment at the Savannah River Site indicate that this long term monitoring technique can be a feasible solution for the sampling of TCE indicator parameters at remote contaminated sites.

  3. Equipartition gamma-ray blazars and the location of the gamma-ray emission site in 3C 279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermer, Charles D. [Code 7653, Space Science Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Cerruti, Matteo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lott, Benoit [Centre d' Études Nucléaires Bordeaux Gradignan, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Boisson, Catherine; Zech, Andreas, E-mail: charles.dermer@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: matteo.cerruti@cfa.harvard.edu [Laboratoire Univers et THeories (LUTH), Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France)

    2014-02-20

    Blazar spectral models generally have numerous unconstrained parameters, leading to ambiguous values for physical properties like Doppler factor δ{sub D} or fluid magnetic field B'. To help remedy this problem, a few modifications of the standard leptonic blazar jet scenario are considered. First, a log-parabola function for the electron distribution is used. Second, analytic expressions relating energy loss and kinematics to blazar luminosity and variability, written in terms of equipartition parameters, imply δ{sub D}, B', and the peak electron Lorentz factor γ{sub pk}{sup ′}. The external radiation field in a blazar is approximated by Lyα radiation from the broad-line region (BLR) and ≈0.1 eV infrared radiation from a dusty torus. When used to model 3C 279 spectral energy distributions from 2008 and 2009 reported by Hayashida et al., we derive δ{sub D} ∼ 20-30, B' ∼ few G, and total (IR + BLR) external radiation field energy densities u ∼ 10{sup –2}-10{sup –3} erg cm{sup –3}, implying an origin of the γ-ray emission site in 3C 279 at the outer edges of the BLR. This is consistent with the γ-ray emission site being located at a distance R ≲ Γ{sup 2} ct {sub var} ∼ 0.1(Γ/30){sup 2}(t {sub var}/10{sup 4} s) pc from the black hole powering 3C 279's jets, where t {sub var} is the variability timescale of the radiation in the source frame, and at farther distances for narrow-jet and magnetic-reconnection models. Excess ≳ 5 GeV γ-ray emission observed with Fermi LAT from 3C 279 challenges the model, opening the possibility of a second leptonic component or a hadronic origin of the emission. For low hadronic content, absolute jet powers of ≈10% of the Eddington luminosity are calculated.

  4. Time prediction of an onset of shallow landslides based on the monitoring of the groundwater level and the surface displacement at different locations on a sandy model slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Katsuo

    2016-04-01

    Location of monitoring of the deformation and the groundwater level in a slope is important for time-prediction of an onset of shallow landslides based on the monitoring. The analysis of the monitored data of the surface displacement and the groundwater level at different locations in sandy model slope under artificial rainfall was conducted in this study. The monitored data showed that the surface displacement increased with the increase of the groundwater level significantly. Then the analysis of the monitored data revealed that the relation between the surface displacement and the groundwater level can be modified as hyperbolic curve. The surface displacement grew larger and maximum groundwater level was smaller at farther location from the toe of the slope. Time-prediction of an onset of a landslide based on the monitored data at different location on the slope was proposed as following procedures. (1) To make a regression equation for the relation between the surface displacement and the groundwater level based on the monitored data at any time before the failure, (2) To make a regression equation for the relation between the time and the groundwater level based on the same data with (1), and (3) To incorporate the equation for the relation between the time and the groundwater level into that between the surface displacement and the groundwater level to derive the time - the surface displacement relation. (4) To derive the time - the inverse of the surface displacement velocity from the equation for the time - the surface displacement relation. The equation for the time - the surface displacement and the equation for the time - the inverse of the surface displacement velocity could simulate the actual phenomena of the slope well based on the monitored data at any location on the model slope.

  5. Criteria for temperature monitoring in ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, K.D.; Dukelow, G.T.

    1994-09-01

    This report is relevant to the twenty underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that have been identified as potentially containing a significant amount of ferrocyanide compounds. Tanks believed to contain > 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide have been classified as Watch List tanks. This report addresses temperature monitoring criteria for the Ferrocyanide Watch List tanks. These criteria must comply with governing regulations to ensure that safe continued storage of the tank wastes is not jeopardized. Temperature monitoring is defined in this report as the routine as the routine continuous measurement of a waste tank temperature with an output that is tied to an actively interrogated information collection system that includes an automated warning of temperature increases beyond the established limits.

  6. Monitoring and Evaluation of Environmental Flow Prescriptions for Five Demonstration Sites of the Sustainable Rivers Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy has been working with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) through the Sustainable Rivers Project (SRP) to modify operations of dams to achieve ecological objectives in addition to meeting the authorized purposes of the dams. Modifications to dam operations are specified in terms of environmental flow prescriptions that quantify the magnitude, duration, frequency, and seasonal timing of releases to achieve specific ecological outcomes. Outcomes of environmental flow prescriptions implemented from 2002 to 2008 have been monitored and evaluated at demonstration sites in five rivers: Green River, Kentucky; Savannah River, Georgia/South Carolina; Bill Williams River, Arizona; Big Cypress Creek, Texas; and Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon. Monitoring and evaluation have been accomplished through collaborative partnerships of federal and state agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations.

  7. Lessons from five years of vegetation monitoring on the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.B.

    1992-10-01

    In 1987 the US Department of Energy funded a formal, extensive monitoring program for the flora and fauna on the Nevada Test Site. The goal was to understand and record changes with time In the distribution and abundance of the plants and animals. The need to detect changes, rather than do a one-time characterization, required careful selection of parameters and the use of permanent plots to distinguish spatial from temporal variability. Repeated measurements of the same plots revealed errors and imprecision which required changes in training and data collection techniques. Interpretation of trends after several years suggested it will be important to monitor not only changes, but causes of change, such as soil moisture and herbivory. Finally, the requirement for records to be available over long periods of time poses problems of archiving and publication. This report consists of viewgraphs presenting the findings of the study.

  8. Cross-calibration of DIMM monitors at Oukaimden observatory and Marrakesh site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hach, Youssef; Abahamid, Abdelouahed; Sabil, Mohammed; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Habib, Abdelfatah; Elazhari, Youssef

    2010-12-01

    Over the past years, several differential image motion monitors (DIMM) have been built almost everywhere. The DIMM instrument is made up of simple material such as telescope, mask, camera ..., and it is widely used in seeing measurement campaigns. In order to carry out a prospecting campaign, for the European Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) project, in the Moroccan High Atlas, we have built a new DIMM instrument in our laboratory. To characterize this instrument, we have carried out a cross-calibration between DIMM monitors using different configurations. In this paper we will present the results of those various experiments respectively at Oukaimden site and at the “École Normal Supérieure” (ENS) in the city of Marrakech.

  9. Long Term Multilevel Monitoring of the Mass Discharge of Chloroethenes Following Ethanol Flushing at Former Sages Drycleaning Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G. H.; Annable, M. D.; Jawitz, J. W.; Cho, J.; Sillan, R. K.

    2006-12-01

    The Sages former drycleaning site in Jacksonville, FL, was the test ground for a pilot scale in-situ alcohol flushing test in 1998. A network of multilevel sampling wells (MLS) was installed in the source area and downgradient to collect aqueous samples before, during, and for six years after the pilot test. The depth level sampling of MLS allowed three dimensional spatial analyses. Multilevel samples were able to estimate the initial and post-remedial PCE architecture at the site. Site characterization determined that hydraulic conductivity decreased with depth. Accordingly, remedial fluids encountered difficulty flushing the deep, low flow zones. Furthermore, once ethanol penetrated the lower depths, it was challenging to recover it in the time frame of this test. The remedial performance was evaluated through comparison of pre and post-remedial groundwater samples and partitioning interwell tracer tests. The ethanol flushing test was effective at removing significant levels of subsurface PCE and favorably reduced the contaminant flux at most MLS locations. One of the benefits of using ethanol as the remedial fluid was the fostering of microbial reductive dechlorination of residual PCE. From long term transect monitoring, the mass discharge of the source zone and downgradient control plane were determined. Once the higher concentrations of unrecovered ethanol were carried away by natural gradient flow, microbial activity and chloroethene flux spiked until four years after the 1998 event. Soon thereafter, dechlorination declined as the ethanol concentrations decreased. While residual PCE dissolution was microbially enhanced, significant levels remained in the source zone at the end of this study. Therefore, a second full scale ethanol flushing took place at the conclusion of this work in 2004. The combination of enhanced solubililization and residual source biotreatment was effective at removing significant PCE mass, reducing PCE flux, and fostering bioremediation

  10. Brominated flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls in human breast milk from several locations in India: potential contaminant sources in a municipal dumping site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Isobe, Tomohiko; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the status of contamination of organohalogen compounds (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardant (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in human milk samples from several locations in India. The levels of OCs were significantly higher in the milk of mothers living in and near municipal dumping site than other locations indicating that the open dumping sites for municipal wastes act as potential sources of these contaminants in India. The PCB concentrations observed in this study tended to decrease compared to those in the matched locations reported previously, probably due to the restriction of technical PCB usage in India. PBDE levels in human milk were two to three folds lower than those of PCBs in all the sampling locations investigated. Congener profiles of PCBs and PBDEs were different between samples from the dumping site mothers and general populations in other areas suggesting the presence of region-specific sources and pathways. HBCDs were detected in human milk from only two sites, with much lower concentrations and detection frequencies compared to PCBs and PBDEs. When hazard quotients (HQs) of PCBs and PBDEs were estimated for infant health risk, the HQs in some milk samples from the dumping site exceeded the threshold value (HQ>1) of PCBs, indicating the potential risk for infants in the specific site.

  11. Active layer monitoring at CALM-S site near J.G.Mendel Station, James Ross Island, eastern Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbáček, Filip; Kňažková, Michaela; Nývlt, Daniel; Láska, Kamil; Mueller, Carsten W; Ondruch, Jakub

    2017-12-01

    The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring - South (CALM-S) site was established in February 2014 on James Ross Island as the first CALM-S site in the eastern Antarctic Peninsula region. The site, located near Johann Gregor Mendel Station, is labelled CALM-S JGM. The grid area is gently sloped (<3°) and has an elevation of between 8 and 11ma.s.l. The lithology of the site consists of the muddy sediments of Holocene marine terrace and clayey-sandy Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, which significantly affect the texture, moisture content, and physical parameters of the ground within the grid. Our objective was to study seasonal and interannual variability of the active layer depth and thermal regime at the CALM-S site, and at two ground temperature measurement profiles, AWS-JGM and AWS-CALM, located in the grid. The mean air temperature in the period March 2013 to February 2016 reached -7.2°C. The mean ground temperature decreased with depth from -5.3°C to -5.4°C at 5cm, to -5.5°C to -5.9°C at 200cm. Active layer thickness was significantly higher at AWS-CALM and ranged between 86cm (2014/15) and 87cm (2015/16), while at AWS-JGM it reached only 51cm (2013/14) to 65cm (2015/16). The mean probed active layer depth increased from 66.4cm in 2013/14 to 78.0cm in 2014/15. Large differences were observed when comparing the minimum (51cm to 59cm) and maximum (100cm to 113cm) probed depths. The distribution of the active layer depth and differences in the thermal regime of the uppermost layer of permafrost at CALM-S JGM clearly show the effect of different lithological properties on the two lithologically distinct parts of the grid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing landslide potential on coastal bluffs near Mukilteo, Washington—Geologic site characterization for hydrologic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Smith, Joel B.; Benjamin Stark,; York Lewis,; Abigail Michel,; Baum, Rex L.

    2016-07-01

    During the summer 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey collected geologic and geotechnical data for two sites on coastal bluffs along the eastern shore of Puget Sound, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey also installed hydrologic instrumentation at the sites and collected specimens for laboratory testing. The two sites are located on City of Mukilteo open-space land and are about 0.6 kilometers apart. The bluffs at each site are approximately 42 meters high, and rise steeply from the shoreline with 32–35° slopes. The more northerly of the two sites occupies an active landslide and is mostly unvegetated. The other site is forested, and although stable during the preparation of this report, shows evidence of historical and potential landslide activity. The slopes of the bluffs at both sites are mantled by a thin, nonuniform colluvium underlain by clay-rich glacial deposits and tills of the Whidbey Formation or Double Bluff Drift. Till consisting of sand, gravel, and cobbles caps the bluffs and rests on finer grained glacial deposits of sand, silt, and clay. These types of different glacial deposits are dense, vertically fractured, and generally have low permeability, but field observations indicate that locally the deposits are sufficiently permeable to allow lateral flow of water along fractures and subhorizontal boundaries between deposits of different texture. Laboratory tests indicate that many of the deposits are highly plastic, with low hydraulic conductivity, and moderate shear strength. Steep slopes combined with the strength and hydraulic characteristics of the deposits leave the bluffs prone to slope instability, particularly during the wet season when infiltrating rainfall changes moisture content, pore-water pressure, and effective stress within the hillslope. The instrumentation was designed to primarily observe rainfall variability and hydrologic changes in the subsurface that can affect stability of the bluffs, and also to compare the hydrologic

  13. Multi-site Observations of the March 2016 Total Solar Eclipse: Calibration of Images to Simulate Continuous Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosh, Robert; Penn, Matthew J.; McKay, Myles; Baer, Robert; Garrison, David; Gelderman, Richard; Hare, Honor; Isberner, Fred; Jensen, Logan; Kovac, Sarah; Mitchell, Adriana; Pierce, Michael; Thompson, Patricia; Ursache, Andrei; Varsik, John R.; Walter, Donald K.; Watson, Zachary; Young, David; Citizen Cate Team

    2017-01-01

    During the total solar eclipse of March 9, 2016, five teams of astronomers participating in the Citizen Continental America Telescopic Eclipse (CATE) experiment, traveled to different locations in Indonesia to observe the eclipse. Data was acquired to continuously monitor the progression of features in the inner solar corona: a region of the solar atmosphere where time evolution is not well understood. Image data from the eclipse consisted of sets of 7 exposure times 0.4, 1.3, 4, 13, 40, 130, and 400 milliseconds which are used to create a high dynamic range composite image. Eclipse data from these sites were then processed and calibrated using sets of dark and flat images. Further data processing included the compilation of exposures into high dynamic range images and were subsequently spatially filtered. Using these processing techniques, data from each site was aligned and compiled as frames in videos of the eclipse, each consisting of over 140 frames with the goal of being combined. Lessons learned from the data obtained in the observations of the 2016 total solar eclipse are being used to improve the procedure which will be used in the CATE experiment during the North American 2017 total solar eclipse.

  14. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, year 1 report. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site located 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. During the study period, the daily discharge averaged 529,000 barrels of 216 0/00 brine, representing a loading of 18,000 metric tons of salt per day. The objective of this study are: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. This report describes the methodology and significant results of the first year's monitoring effort of the West Hackberry brine disposal site. The investigative tasks, presented as separate sections, are: Physical Oceanography, Estuarine Hydrology and Hydrography, Analysis of Discharge Plume, Water and Sediment Quality, Special Pollutant Surveys, Benthos, Nekton, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Data Management.

  15. Vector monitoring at Belgian outbreak sites during the bluetongue epidemic of 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deken, G; Madder, M; Deblauwe, I; De Clercq, K; Fassotte, C; Losson, B; Haubruge, E; De Deken, R

    2008-10-15

    In response to the first bluetongue outbreak in Belgium a monitoring programme was started at the end of August 2006 to identify possible vectors transmitting the disease. Black light traps were deployed at 36 outbreak sites and captured 1959 Culicoides specimens belonging to 16 different species. Eighty four percent of the biting midges captured belonged to the C. obsoletus complex, among them C. obsoletus s.s., C. dewulfi and C. scoticus, three suspected bluetongue vectors. The Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre detected viral RNA in pools of individuals belonging to this complex. Culicoides pulicaris, a potential bluetongue vector in Italy, should yet not be excluded as a possible vector in Belgium as this species was frequently found around outbreak sites, notwithstanding this species is not easily captured with the trapping techniques used during this survey.

  16. New sites of Australasian microtektites in the central Indian Ocean: Implications for the location and size of source crater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Mahale, V.P.; Kodagali, V.N.

    of 61 sites. This area was chosen because, on the basis of various lines of evidence, several investigators suggested impact craters for the strewn field within this broad area. The 41 site data set defines an impact site at about 12 degrees N and 106...

  17. A Fiber-Optic Borehole Seismic Vector Sensor System for Geothermal Site Characterization and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson, Bjorn N.P. [Paulsson, Inc.; Thornburg, Jon A [Paulsson, Inc.; He, Ruiqing [Paulsson, Inc.

    2015-04-21

    Seismic techniques are the dominant geophysical techniques for the characterization of subsurface structures and stratigraphy. The seismic techniques also dominate the monitoring and mapping of reservoir injection and production processes. Borehole seismology, of all the seismic techniques, despite its current shortcomings, has been shown to provide the highest resolution characterization and most precise monitoring results because it generates higher signal to noise ratio and higher frequency data than surface seismic techniques. The operational environments for borehole seismic instruments are however much more demanding than for surface seismic instruments making both the instruments and the installation much more expensive. The current state-of-the-art borehole seismic instruments have not been robust enough for long term monitoring compounding the problems with expensive instruments and installations. Furthermore, they have also not been able to record the large bandwidth data available in boreholes or having the sensitivity allowing them to record small high frequency micro seismic events with high vector fidelity. To reliably achieve high resolution characterization and long term monitoring of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) sites a new generation of borehole seismic instruments must therefore be developed and deployed. To address the critical site characterization and monitoring needs for EGS programs, US Department of Energy (DOE) funded Paulsson, Inc. in 2010 to develop a fiber optic based ultra-large bandwidth clamped borehole seismic vector array capable of deploying up to one thousand 3C sensor pods suitable for deployment into ultra-high temperature and high pressure boreholes. Tests of the fiber optic seismic vector sensors developed on the DOE funding have shown that the new borehole seismic sensor technology is capable of generating outstanding high vector fidelity data with extremely large bandwidth: 0.01 – 6,000 Hz. Field tests have shown

  18. 2016 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data include direct radiation exposure, as well as radiation from the air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2016 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports, developed by National Security Technologies, LLC Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show that tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. During 2016, precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS was 8% below average, and precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS was 8% above average. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation as measured from the bare-soil weighing lysimeter. Vadose zone monitoring on Area 5 and Area 3 RWMS cell covers shows no evidence of precipitation percolating through the covers

  19. Evaluation of Acquisition Strategies for Image-Based Construction Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttas, S.; Braun, A.; Borrmann, A.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Construction site monitoring is an essential task for keeping track of the ongoing construction work and providing up-to-date information for a Building Information Model (BIM). The BIM contains the as-planned states (geometry, schedule, costs, ...) of a construction project. For updating, the as-built state has to be acquired repeatedly and compared to the as-planned state. In the approach presented here, a 3D representation of the as-built state is calculated from photogrammetric images using multi-view stereo reconstruction. On construction sites one has to cope with several difficulties like security aspects, limited accessibility, occlusions or construction activity. Different acquisition strategies and techniques, namely (i) terrestrial acquisition with a hand-held camera, (ii) aerial acquisition using a Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and (iii) acquisition using a fixed stereo camera pair at the boom of the crane, are tested on three test sites. They are assessed considering the special needs for the monitoring tasks and limitations on construction sites. The three scenarios are evaluated based on the ability of automation, the required effort for acquisition, the necessary equipment and its maintaining, disturbance of the construction works, and on the accuracy and completeness of the resulting point clouds. Based on the experiences during the test cases the following conclusions can be drawn: Terrestrial acquisition has the lowest requirements on the device setup but lacks on automation and coverage. The crane camera shows the lowest flexibility but the highest grade of automation. The UAV approach can provide the best coverage by combining nadir and oblique views, but can be limited by obstacles and security aspects. The accuracy of the point clouds is evaluated based on plane fitting of selected building parts. The RMS errors of the fitted parts range from 1 to a few cm for the UAV and the hand-held scenario. First results show that the crane camera

  20. Site-specific Protocol for Monitoring Marsh Birds : Don Edwards San Francisco Bay and San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This site-specific survey protocol provides standardized methods for monitoring marsh birds and was designed for use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) on...

  1. 2016 Vegetation Photographs of the Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites on National Wildlife Refuges in the South Atlantic Geography

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One representative photo taken from each coastal wetland elevation monitoring site. Photos were taken from one corner of the plot and oriented within the plot. In...

  2. Baseline Vegetation Photographs of the Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites on National Wildlife Refuges in the South Atlantic Geography

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One representative photo taken from each coastal wetland elevation monitoring site. Photos were taken from one corner of the plot and oriented within the plot. In...

  3. Vegetation Plot Data of the Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites on National Wildlife Refuges in the South Atlantic Geography.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Plot level raw datasets--including Cover, Woody Stem, Plot/Environmental, and Soil--from vegetation sampling on Coastal Wetland Elevation Monitoring Sites within the...

  4. Ecological Monitoring at Long-Term Study Sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Initial Projects in 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We established two longterm ecological monitoring sites in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in 1996 and three more will be established between 1997 and 1999. The...

  5. Results of the Aquatic Monitoring Program in streams at the Rocky Flats Site : Golden, Colorado 2001-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aquatic monitoring program was initiated in the summer 200 I at the Rocky Flats EnvironmentalTechnology Site (Rocky Flats) in Golden, Colorado, and was conducted...

  6. Geoelectrical monitoring of landslides: results from the sites of Laakirchen (Austria) and Rosano (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiani, Carlotta; Amabile, Anna Sara; Jochum, Birgit; Ottowitz, David; Supper, Robert

    2017-04-01

    One of the main precursors for landslide activation/reactivation is intense and prolonged precipitation, with consequent pore water pressure rise due to infiltration of rainfall that seeps into the ground. Monitoring hydrological parameters such as precipitation, water content and pore pressure, in combination with displacement analysis for early warning purposes, is necessary to understand the triggering processes. Since the reduction over time of electrical resistivity corresponds to an increase of water content, electrical resistivity monitoring can help to interpret the modifications of slope saturation conditions after heavy rainfalls. In this study, we present the results of the ERT monitoring data from two landslide areas, Laakirchen (47.961692N, 13.809897E) and Rosano (44.662453N, 9.104703E). During March 2010, a shallow rotational landslide was triggered by snow melting and intense rainfall in Laakirchen, in the vicinity of a newly constructed house. Laakirchen landslide was monitored by geophysical/geotechnical measurements from September 2011 to June 2013. In December 2004, Rosano landslide reactivation affected rural buildings: slope deformations caused mainly damages to properties, infrastructures and lifelines. Rosano landslide has been defined as a composite landslide, with a general dynamic behavior that can be regarded as a slow earthflow. The installation of the monitoring system took place in July 2012 and the data acquisition lasted until April 2015. These sites are part of the geoelectrical monitoring network set up by the Geological Survey of Austria for testing the self-developed GEOMON4D geoelectrical system, in combination with complementary geotechnical monitoring sensors (rain gauge, automatic inclinometer, water pressure and water content sensors) to support the interpretation of the electrical response of the near surface (R. Supper et al., 2014). The measurements were funded by the TEMPEL project (Austrian Science Fund, TRP 175-N21

  7. PSP SAR interferometry monitoring of ground and structure deformations in the archeological site of Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Mario; Francioni, Elena; Paglia, Luca; Minati, Federico; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; De Nigris, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The "Major Project Pompeii" (MPP) is a great collective commitment of different institututions and people to set about solving the serious problem of conservation of the largest archeological sites in the world. The ancient city of Pompeii with its 66 hectares, 44 of which are excaveted, is divided into 9 regiones (district), subdivided in 118 insulae (blocks) and almost 1500 domus (houses), and is Unesco site since 1996. The Italian Ministry for Heritage and Cultural Activities and Tourism (MiBACT) and Finmeccanica Group have sealed an agreement whereby the Finmeccanica Group will donate innovative technologies and services for monitoring and protecting the archaeological site of Pompeii. Moreover, the Italian Institute for Environment Protection and Research (ISPRA) - Geological Survey of Italy, was also involved to support the ground based analysis and interpretation of the measurements provided by the industrial team, in order to promote an interdisciplinary approach. In this work, we will focus on ground deformation measurements obtained by satellite SAR interferometry and on their interpretation. The satellite monitoring service is based on the processing of COSMO-SkyMed Himage data by the e-Geos proprietary Persistent Scatterer Pair (PSP) SAR interferometry technology. The PSP technique is a proven SAR interferometry method characterized by the fact of exploiting in the processing only the relative properties between close points (pairs) in order to overcome atmospheric artifacts (which are one of the main problems of SAR interferometry). Validations analyses showed that this technique applied to COSMO-SkyMed Himage data is able to retrieve very dense (except of course on vegetated or cultivated areas) millimetric deformation measurements with sub-metric localization. By means of the COSMO-SkyMed PSP SAR interferometry processing, a historical analysis of the ground and structure deformations occurred over the entire archaeological site of Pompeii in the

  8. Identification and characterization of a cluster of transcription start sites located in the E6 ORF of human papillomavirus type 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstierne, Maiken W; Vinther, Jeppe; Hansen, Christina N

    2003-01-01

    -transformed cells. In contrast to malignant HPV types, non-malignant HPV types have separate promoters driving the expression of E6 and E7. Experiments have shown that the translation of E7 is more efficient from monocistronic than bicistronic transcripts encoding both E6 and E7. Here, identification...... is consistent with the finding of multiple transcription start sites. Furthermore, it is shown that proteins from HeLa and SiHa nuclear cell extracts bind to the two regions at nt 291-314 and 388-411, and that these two regions influence transcription activity in a cell type-dependent manner....... of a cluster of transcription start sites located in the E6 ORF of HPV-16 is presented. Transcripts from this region contain the E7 ORF as the first reading frame. The cluster consists of multiple transcription start sites located around nt 441. Additional transcription start sites were identified in a cluster...

  9. How to Get the Biggest Bang for Your Buck: Wildlife Monitoring on Shrublands of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derek Hall, Paul D. Greger

    2008-03-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) covers 1,375 square miles and extends over portions of both the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts. The resulting diverse and complex flora and fauna exhibit elements of both deserts. There are 20 vegetation associations, composed primarily of shrubs, nested within 10 vegetation alliances. Of the more than 1,200 invertebrates and 339 vertebrates found in these shrubland habitats, 267 are considered sensitive or protected/regulated by federal or state laws. Wildlife and wildlife habitat monitoring ensures NTS activities comply with all federal and state laws enacted for the protection of these valuable biological resources. This paper describes the monitoring approach used at this large site. Monitoring techniques include conducting preactivity surveys, repeated sampling of permanent plots, proactively monitoring sensitive species, and collaborating with other agencies and biologists. Ways to make monitoring more efficient and examples of successful monitoring and collaborations are discussed.

  10. Annual report for RCRA groundwater monitoring projects at Hanford Site facilities for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the annual hydrogeologic evaluation of 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Although most of the facilities no longer receive dangerous waste, a few facilities continue to receive dangerous waste constituents for treatment, storage, or disposal. The 19 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act facilities comprise 29 waste management units. Nine of the units are monitored under groundwater quality assessment status because of elevated levels of contamination indicator parameters. The impact of those units on groundwater quality, if any, is being investigated. If dangerous waste or waste constituents have entered groundwater, their concentration profiles, rate, and extent of migration are evaluated. Groundwater is monitored at the other 20 units to detect leakage, should it occur. This report provides an interpretation of groundwater data collected at the waste management units between October 1994 and September 1995. Groundwater quality is described for the entire Hanford Site. Widespread contaminants include nitrate, chromium, carbon tetrachloride, tritium, and other radionuclides.

  11. Evaluation of an Alternative Statistical Method for Analysis of RCRA Groundwater Monitoring Data at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Charissa J.

    2004-06-24

    Statistical methods are required in groundwater monitoring programs to determine if a RCRA-regulated unit affects groundwater quality beneath a site. This report presents the results of the statistical analysis of groundwater monitoring data acquired at B Pond and the 300 Area process trenches during a 2-year trial test period.

  12. Targeted survey of Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry flocks located in wintering site for migratory birds from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Fernanda S; Rodenbusch, Carla R; Okino, Cíntia H; Hein, Héber E; Costa, Eduardo F; Machado, Gustavo; Canal, Cláudio W; Brentano, Liana; Corbellini, Luís G

    2014-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a fast-spreading, highly contagious infectious disease in several bird species. Commercial poultry farms in Brazil were considered free of virulent NDV. Data on NDV infection levels in backyard poultry flocks and the epidemiology of the disease are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a NDV survey in backyard poultry from households flocks located around one of the main wintering sites for migratory wild birds in Brazil, and to identify potential risk factors associated with NDV. Backyard poultry may be sentinels and a source of infection for commercial poultry, since they may have as much contact with these birds as with migratory wild birds. Data were collected from 48 randomly selected households using an epidemiological questionnaire. Serum samples from poultry were tested for NDV antibodies using an ELISA, and tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected for NDV molecular detection. The risk factors were assessed using a multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. The ELISA showed that 33.8% of the serum samples were positive for anti-NDV antibodies and in 42 households (87.5%) at least one NDV-positive bird was found. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were negative for NDV by real time RT-PCR, possible because within this region there might flow a low pathogenicity NDV strain, which can induce seroconversion with innaparent clinical findings. The prevalence ratio (PR) increased when farmers used their own replacement poultry to restock their flock (PR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.11-2.42). Furthermore, the increasing distance of the household flock from the "Laguna do Peixe" estuary was associated with decreasing NDV seropositivity (PR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.90-0.99). This is the first study in Brazil evaluating the presence of NDV and the associated risk factors in households with backyard poultry flocks. The great number of farms with seropositive birds indicates that the virus circulates in backyard flocks, and this breeding

  13. Automated system for monitoring groundwater levels at an experimental low-level waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J.D.; Bogle, M.A.

    1984-06-01

    One of the major problems with disposing of low-level solid wastes in the eastern United States is the potential for water-waste interactions and leachate migration. To monitor groundwater fluctuations and the frequency with which groundwater comes into contact with a group of experimental trenches, work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Engineered Test Facility (ETF) has employed a network of water level recorders that feed information from 15 on-site wells to a centralized data recording system. The purpose of this report is to describe the monitoring system being used and to document the computer programs that have been developed to process the data. Included in this report are data based on more than 2 years of water level information for ETF wells 1 through 12 and more than 6 months of data from all 15 wells. The data thus reflect both long-term trends as well as a large number of short-term responses to individual storm events. The system was designed to meet the specific needs of the ETF, but the hardware and computer routines have generic application to a variety of groundwater monitoring situations. 5 references.

  14. Selection of Sampling Pumps Used for Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2001-11-05

    The variable frequency drive centrifugal submersible pump, Redi-Flo2a made by Grundfosa, was selected for universal application for Hanford Site groundwater monitoring. Specifications for the selected pump and five other pumps were evaluated against current and future Hanford groundwater monitoring performance requirements, and the Redi-Flo2 was selected as the most versatile and applicable for the range of monitoring conditions. The Redi-Flo2 pump distinguished itself from the other pumps considered because of its wide range in output flow rate and its comparatively moderate maintenance and low capital costs. The Redi-Flo2 pump is able to purge a well at a high flow rate and then supply water for sampling at a low flow rate. Groundwater sampling using a low-volume-purging technique (e.g., low flow, minimal purge, no purge, or micropurgea) is planned in the future, eliminating the need for the pump to supply a high-output flow rate. Under those conditions, the Well Wizard bladder pump, manufactured by QED Environmental Systems, Inc., may be the preferred pump because of the lower capital cost.

  15. Structural monitoring via microwave tomography-enhanced GPR: the Montagnole test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Di Napoli, Rosario; Soldovieri, Francesco; Bavusi, Massimo; Loperte, Antonio; Dumoulin, Jean

    2012-08-01

    Structural integrity assessment and monitoring of infrastructures are key factors to prevent and manage crisis events (natural disasters, terrorist attacks and so on) and ensure urban safety. This necessity motivates huge interest towards design, optimization and integration of non-invasive remote and in situ diagnostic techniques. In this framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a well-assessed instrumentation, which allows one to attain information on the inner status of man-made structures while avoiding invasive tests. However, despite its potential, a more widespread use of GPR is actually affected by the difficulties in providing highly informative and easily interpretable images as an outcome of the overall diagnostics procedure. This drawback can be mitigated thanks to the use of microwave tomography (MT) as a data processing tool able to enhance the achievable reconstruction capabilities, and several proofs of its effectiveness have been already shown. In this paper, the potential of the MT approach is investigated in the framework of structural monitoring by an experiment carried out in the Montagnole test site in the French Alps, where the progressive damage of a one-scale concrete beam has been monitored thanks to the integration of several electromagnetic sensing techniques. In this framework, the capability of the MT-enhanced GPR strategy is examined with respect to the possibility of providing information about the damage of the rebar grid of the beam.

  16. Design of Hanford Site 4th Generation Multi Function Corrosion Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-08-30

    This document describes the design of the fourth-generation corrosion monitoring system scheduled to be installed in DST 241-AN-104 early in fiscal year 2001. A fourth-generation multi-function corrosion monitoring system has been designed for installation into a DST in the 241-AN farm at the Hanford Site in FY 2001. Improvements and upgrades from the third-generation system (installed in 241-AN-105) that have been incorporated into the fourth-generation system include: Addition of a built-in water lance to assist installation of probe into tanks with a hard crust layer at the surface of the waste; and Improvement of the electrode mounting apparatus used to attach the corrosion monitoring electrodes to the stainless steel probe body (new design simplifies probe assembly/wiring). These new features improve on the third-generation design and yield a system that is easier to fabricate and install, provides for a better understanding of the relationship between corrosion and other tank operating parameters, and optimizes the use of the riser that houses the probe in the tank.

  17. Development of a 1 x N Fiber Optic Sensor Array for Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repasky, Kevin [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2014-02-01

    A fiber sensor array for sub-surface CO2 concentrations measurements was developed for monitoring geologic carbon sequestration sites. The fiber sensor array uses a single temperature tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser operating with a nominal wavelength of 2.004 μm. Light from this DFB laser is direct to one of the 4 probes via an in-line 1 x 4 fiber optic switch. Each of the 4 probes are buried and allow the sub-surface CO2 to enter the probe through Millipore filters that allow the soil gas to enter the probe but keeps out the soil and water. Light from the DFB laser interacts with the CO2 before it is directed back through the in-line fiber optic switch. The DFB laser is tuned across two CO2} absorption features where a transmission measurement is made allowing the CO2 concentration to be retrieved. The fiber optic switch then directs the light to the next probe where this process is repeated allowing sub-surface CO2 concentration measurements at each of the probes to be made as a function of time. The fiber sensor array was deployed for fifty-eight days beginning June 19, 2012 at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) field site where sub-surface CO2 concentrations were monitored. Background measurements indicate the fiber sensor array can monitor background levels as low as 1,000 parts per million (ppm). A thirty four day sub-surface release of 0.15 tones CO2/day began on July 10, 2012. The elevated subsurface CO2 concentration was easily detected by each of the four probes with values ranging to over 60,000 ppm, a factor of greater than 6 higher than background measurements. The fiber sensor array was also deploy at the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) site in north-central Montana between July 9th and August 7th, 2013 where background measurements were made in a remote sequestration site with minimal infrastructure. The project

  18. Radiation and environmental monitoring at the nuclear legacy sites in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandala, N.; Kiselev, S.; Titov, A.; Seregin, V.; Akhromeev, S.; Aladova, R.; Isaev, D. [SRC Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center (Russian Federation); Sneve, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    In 1960's, in the Northwest and Far East regions of Russia the technical bases of the Navy Fleet were built to maintain nuclear submarines by performing reloading of nuclear fuel, receiving and storing radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In 2000, SevRAO enterprise in the northwest of Russia and DalRAO enterprise in the Far East were set up for the purposes of environmental remediation of the nuclear legacy sites. Regulatory supervision for radiation protection and safety at the nuclear legacy sites in Russian Far east and Northwest regions is one of regulatory functions of the Federal medical biological agency (FMBA of Russia). Improvement of the normative and regulatory basis has significant impact on effectiveness and efficiency of industrial projects aimed at reduction of nuclear and radiation hazard risk at the sites for the SNF and RW temporary storage (STS).To get unbiased comprehensive information on the current radiation conditions at the STSs and provide the effective response to changing radiation situation, the environmental radiation monitoring of the SevRAO and DalRAO facilities has been carried out during 2005-2013. The nature and peculiarity of the STS area radioactive contamination on the Kola Peninsula and in the Far East are the following: 1) high levels of radioactive contamination on the industrial site; 2) non-uniformity of the contamination distribution; 3) spread of contamination in the area of health protection zone. The following environmental components are contaminated: soil, vegetation, bottom sediments and seaweeds at the offshore sea waters. The dominant radionuclides are cesium-137 and strontium-90. At the facilities under inspection for the purpose of the dynamic control of the radiation situation the radio-ecological monitoring system was arranged. It presupposes regular radiometry inspections in-situ, their analysis and assessment of the radiation situation forecast in the course of the STS remediation main

  19. Radiological and Environmental Monitoring at the Clean Slate I and III Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, With Emphasis on the Implications for Off-site Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vic [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]) implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in the dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero (GZ). Three tests—Clean Slate I, II, and III—were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat. The fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. The Desert Research Institute (DRI) installed two monitoring stations in 2008, Station 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Center (ROC) and Station 401 at Clean Slate III. Station 402 was installed at Clean Slate I in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The monitoring activity was implemented to determine if radionuclide contamination in the soil at the Clean Slate sites was being transported beyond the contamination area boundaries. Some of the data collected also permits comparison of radiological exposure at the TTR monitoring stations to conditions observed at Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations around the NTTR. Annual average gross alpha values from the TTR monitoring stations are higher than values from the surrounding CEMP stations. Annual average gross beta values from the TTR monitoring stations are generally lower than values observed for the surrounding CEMP stations. This may be due to use of sample filters with larger pore space because when glass-fiber filters began to be used at TTR Station 400, gross beta values increased. Gamma spectroscopy typically identified only naturally

  20. POSTCLOSURE GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION AND MONITORING AT THE SANITARY LANDFILL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TRANSITIONING TO MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J; Walt Kubilius, W; Thomas Kmetz, T; D Noffsinger, D; Karen M Adams, K

    2006-11-17

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for hazardous waste facilities include 30 years of post-closure monitoring. The use of an objective-based monitoring strategy allows for a significant reduction in the amount of groundwater monitoring required, as the groundwater remediation transitions from an active biosparging system to monitored natural attenuation. The lifecycle of groundwater activities at the landfill has progressed from detection monitoring and plume characterization, to active groundwater remediation, and now to monitored natural attenuation and postclosure monitoring. Thus, the objectives of the groundwater monitoring have changed accordingly. Characterization monitoring evaluated what biogeochemical natural attenuation processes were occurring and determined that elevated levels of radium were naturally occurring. Process monitoring of the biosparging system required comprehensive sampling network up- and down-gradient of the horizontal wells to verify its effectiveness. Currently, the scope of monitoring and reporting can be significantly reduced as the objective is to demonstrate that the alternate concentration limits (ACL) are being met at the point of compliance wells and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) is being met at the surface water point of exposure. The proposed reduction is estimated to save about $2M over the course of the remaining 25 years of postclosure monitoring.

  1. Monitoring performance for hydraulic fracturing using synthetic microseismic catalogue at the Wysin site (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel López Comino, José; Cesca, Simone; Kriegerowski, Marius; Heimann, Sebastian; Dahm, Torsten; Mirek, Janusz; Lasocky, Stanislaw

    2017-04-01

    Previous analysis to assess the monitoring performance of a dedicated seismic network are always useful to determine its capability of detecting, locating and characterizing target seismicity. This work focuses on a hydrofracking experiment in Poland, which is monitored in the framework of the SHEER (SHale gas Exploration and Exploitation induced Risks) EU project. The seismic installation is located near Wysin (Poland), in the central-western part of the Peribaltic synclise at Pomerania. The network setup includes a distributed network of six broadband stations, three shallow borehole stations and three small-scale arrays. We assess the monitoring performance prior operations, using synthetic seismograms. Realistic full waveform are generated and combined with real noise before fracking operations, to produce either event based or continuous synthetic waveforms. Background seismicity is modelled by double couple (DC) focal mechanisms. Non-DC sources resemble induced tensile fractures opening in the direction of the minimal compressive stress and closing in the same direction after the injection. Microseismic sources are combined with a realistic crustal model, distribution of hypocenters, magnitudes and source durations. The network detection performance is then assessed in terms of Magnitude of Completeness (Mc) through two different techniques: i) using an amplitude threshold approach, taking into account a station dependent noise level and different values of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and ii) through the application of an automatic detection algorithm to the continuous synthetic dataset. In the first case, we compare the maximal amplitude of noise free synthetic waveforms with the different noise levels. Imposing the simultaneous detection at e.g. 4 stations for a robust detection, the Mc is assessed and can be adjusted by empirical relationships for different SNR values. We find that different source mechanisms have different detection threshold. The

  2. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DB Barnett

    2000-05-17

    Seven years of groundwater monitoring at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) have shown that the uppermost aquifer beneath the facility is unaffected by TEDF effluent. Effluent discharges have been well below permitted and expected volumes. Groundwater mounding from TEDF operations predicted by various models has not been observed, and waterlevels in TEDF wells have continued declining with the dissipation of the nearby B Pond System groundwater mound. Analytical results for constituents with enforcement limits indicate that concentrations of all these are below Practical Quantitation Limits, and some have produced no detections. Likewise, other constituents on the permit-required list have produced results that are mostly below sitewide background. Comprehensive geochemical analyses of groundwater from TEDF wells has shown that most constituents are below background levels as calculated by two Hanford Site-wide studies. Additionally, major ion proportions and anomalously low tritium activities suggest that groundwater in the aquifer beneath the TEDF has been sequestered from influences of adjoining portions of the aquifer and any discharge activities. This inference is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations which indicate an extremely slow rate of groundwater movement beneath the TEDF. Detailed evaluation of TEDF-area hydrogeology and groundwater geochemistry indicate that additional points of compliance for groundwater monitoring would be ineffective for this facility, and would produce ambiguous results. Therefore, the current groundwater monitoring well network is retained for continued monitoring. A quarterly frequency of sampling and analysis is continued for all three TEDF wells. The constituents list is refined to include only those parameters key to discerning subtle changes in groundwater chemistry, those useful in detecting general groundwater quality changes from upgradient sources, or those retained for comparison with end

  3. Monitoring Concept for CO2 Storage at the Pilot Site Ketzin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipki, Mario; Liebscher, Axel; Lüth, Stefan; Ivanova, Alexandra; Möller, Fabian; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia; Rippe, Dennis; Zimmer, Martin; Szizybalski, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ has injected more than 67 kt of CO2 at the Pilot Site in Ketzin, 25 km west of Berlin. The CO2 was stored in porous sandstones of the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation at a depth of 630 to 650 m. In more than a decade, GFZ has developed and tested an extraordinary multi-monitoring concept for onshore CO2 storages which mainly comprises the following methods: Time-lapse 3D seismic surveying is the most commonly used method for imaging and monitoring a CO2-plume in the deep underground before, during and after the injection phase. Such campaigns require high logistical and financial efforts and can be realised only to a limited extent. At Ketzin, for instance, 3D-seismic repeat surveys were acquired using several thousand surface acquisition points and lasting over two or three months. Alternative approaches include permanently buried seismic receivers. Geoelectric measurements in Ketzin are mainly applied by using a permanent downhole electrode installation (Vertical Electrical Resistivity Array = VERA) which has been implemented in three wells behind the well casings. Measurements between 590 m to 735 m are constantly carried out covering the vertical thickness of the entire CO2 storage horizon. Valuable results were achieved by a combination of inhole, crosshole and surface downhole measurements which has been carried out with appropriate acquisition geometries. For focused areas around monitoring wells, geoelectric methods may support and supplement information from seismic surveys. Borehole monitoring of pressure and temperature are generally indispensable for every underground gas storage type. In Ketzin, a remote monitoring system for all wells has been installed that constantly provides the operators with values for date, time, downhole and wellhead pressure, depth, and temperature. Moreover, all wellheads are checked weekly during onsite inspections. Samples for chemical analysis are

  4. Are Business-Oriented Social Networking Web Sites Useful Resources for Locating Passive Jobseekers? Results of a Recent Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKay, Sam

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that members of business-oriented social networking Web sites are passive jobseekers has never been validated. The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy of this assumption. The study concludes that this claim is questionable and that the majority of members registered at one major site, and possibly others, are currently…

  5. Mitigation and Monitoring Plan for impacted wetlands at the Gunnison UMTRA Project site, Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Gunnison, Colorado, abandoned uranium mill site is one site being cleaned up by the DOE under UMTRCA authority. This site`s contaminated material is being transported to a disposal site on US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land east of Gunnison. Remedial action activities have temporarily disturbed 0.8 acre (ac) (0.3 hectares [ha]) of wetlands and permanently eliminated 4.3 ac (1.7 ha). As required by the Clean Water Act, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) prepared a Section 404 Permit that addresses the loss of wetlands as a result of remedial action at the Gunnison UMTRA Project site. The 404 permit includes this report as an attachment and it describes the wetland mitigation and monitoring plan. The DOE formulated this plan in consultation with the BLM and the USACE. This report represents a revised version of the mitigation and monitoring plan (DOE, 1992b).

  6. Influence of object location in cone beam computed tomography (NewTom 5G and 3D Accuitomo 170) on gray value measurements at an implant site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsa, A.; Ibrahim, N.; Hassan, B.; van der Stelt, P.; Wismeijer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the gray value variation at an implant site with different object location within the selected field of view (FOV) in two cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners. Methods A 1-cm-thick section from the edentulous region of a dry human mandible

  7. rs2735383, located at a microRNA binding site in the 3'UTR of NBS1, is not associated with breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jingjing; Lončar, Ivona; Collée, J Margriet

    2016-01-01

    NBS1, also known as NBN, plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability. Interestingly, rs2735383 G > C, located in a microRNA binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of NBS1, was shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to lung and colorectal cancer. However, the r...

  8. Influence of object location in cone beam computed tomography (NewTom 5G and 3D Accuitomo 170) on gray value measurements at an implant site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsa, A.; Ibrahim, N.; Hassan, B.; van der Stelt, P.; Wismeijer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the gray value variation at an implant site with different object location within the selected field of view (FOV) in two cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners. Methods A 1-cm-thick section from the edentulous region of a dry human mandible w

  9. Influence of object location in cone beam computed tomography (NewTom 5G and 3D Accuitomo 170) on gray value measurements at an implant site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsa, A.; Ibrahim, N.; Hassan, B.; van der Stelt, P.; Wismeijer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the gray value variation at an implant site with different object location within the selected field of view (FOV) in two cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners. Methods A 1-cm-thick section from the edentulous region of a dry human mandible w

  10. Application of Frequency of Detection Methods in Design and Optimization of the INL Site Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, Arthur S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sondrup, A. Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report presents an evaluation of a hypothetical INL Site monitoring network and the existing INL air monitoring network using frequency of detection methods. The hypothetical network was designed to address the requirement in 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H (2006) that “emissions of radionuclides to ambient air from U.S. DOE facilities shall not exceed those amounts that would cause any member of the public to receive in any year an effective dose equivalent exceeding 10 mrem/year.” To meet the requirement for monitoring only, “radionuclide releases that would result in an effective dose of 10% of the standard shall be readily detectable and distinguishable from background.” Thus, the hypothetical network consists of air samplers placed at residence locations that surround INL and at other locations where onsite livestock grazing takes place. Two exposure scenarios were used in this evaluation: a resident scenario and a shepherd/rancher scenario. The resident was assumed to be continuously present at their residence while the shepherd/rancher was assumed to be present 24-hours at a fixed location on the grazing allotment. Important radionuclides were identified from annual INL radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants reports. Important radionuclides were defined as those that potentially contribute 1% or greater to the annual total dose at the radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants maximally exposed individual location and include H-3, Am-241, Pu-238, Pu 239, Cs-137, Sr-90, and I-131. For this evaluation, the network performance objective was set at achieving a frequency of detection greater than or equal to 95%. Results indicated that the hypothetical network for the resident scenario met all performance objectives for H-3 and I-131 and most performance objectives for Cs-137 and Sr-90. However, all actinides failed to meet the performance objectives for most sources. The shepherd/rancher scenario showed

  11. The Salcher landslide observatory: a new long-term monitoring site in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Ekrem; Engels, Alexander; Glade, Thomas; Schweigl, Joachim; Bertagnoli, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Landslides pose a significant hazard in the federal district of Lower Austria. The Geological Survey of Lower Austria is responsible for detailed site investigations as well as the planning and installation of protective measures. The most landslide prone area in Lower Austria is within the Rhenodanubian Flyschzone whose materials consist of alterations of fine grained layers (clayey shales, silty shales, marls) and sandstones. It exhibits over 6200 landslides within an area of approx. 1300 km². For areas susceptible to landsliding, protection works are not feasible or simply too costly. Therefore, monitoring systems have been installed in the past, most of them, however, are not operated automatically and require field visits for data readouts. Thus, it is difficult to establish any relation between initiating and controlling factors to gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying process mechanism that is essential for any early warning applications. In this presentation, we present the design and first results of an automated landslide monitoring system in Gresten (Lower Austria). The deep-seated, slow moving Salcher landslide extends over approx. 8000 m² and is situated adjacent to residential buildings and infrastructure. This monitoring setup is designed to run for at least a decade to account for investigations of long term sliding dynamics and pattern. Historically the Salcher landslide has shown shorter phases with accelerated movements followed by longer phases with barely any movements. Those periods of inactivity commonly exceed regular project durations, thus it is important to cover longer periods. Such slope dynamics can be investigated throughout many parts in the world, thus this monitoring might allow to understand better also landslides with infrequent movement patterns. The monitoring setup consists of surface as well as subsurface installations. All installations are connected to permanent power supply, are taking the respective

  12. C2-C6 background hydrocarbon concentrations monitored at a roof top and green park site, in Dublin City centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, R T; Broderick, B M

    2007-09-01

    A 5 week monitoring campaign was carried out in Dublin City centre, to establish which site gave a more accurate background city centre estimation: a roof-top or green field site. This background represented a conservative estimate of HC exposure in Dublin City centre, useful for quantifying health effects related to this form of pollution and also for establishing a local background relative to the four surrounding main roads when the wind direction is travelling towards each road with the background receptor upwind. Over the entire monitoring campaign, the lowest concentrations and relative standard deviations were observed at the green field site, regardless of time of day or meteorological effects.

  13. NIMBY, CLAMP, and the location of new nuclear-related facilities: U.S. national and 11 site-specific surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael R

    2009-09-01

    Public and political opposition have made finding locations for new nuclear power plants, waste management, and nuclear research and development facilities a challenge for the U.S. government and the nuclear industry. U.S. government-owned properties that already have nuclear-related activities and commercial nuclear power generating stations are logical locations. Several studies and utility applications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggest that concentrating locations at major plants (CLAMP) has become an implicit siting policy. We surveyed 2,101 people who lived within 50 miles of 11 existing major nuclear sites and 600 who lived elsewhere in the United States. Thirty-four percent favored CLAMP for new nuclear power plants, 52% for waste management facilities, and 50% for new nuclear laboratories. College educated, relatively affluent male whites were the strongest CLAMP supporters. They disproportionately trusted those responsible for the facilities and were not worried about existing nuclear facilities or other local environmental issues. Notably, they were concerned about continuing coal use. Not surprisingly, CLAMP proponents tended to be familiar with their existing local nuclear site. In short, likely CLAMP sites have a large and politically powerful core group to support a CLAMP policy. The challenge to proponents of nuclear technologies will be to sustain this support and expand the base among those who clearly are less connected and receptive to new nearby sites.

  14. First results of geodetic deformation monitoring after commencement of CO2 injection at the Aquistore underground CO2 storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craymer, M.; White, D.; Piraszewski, M.; Zhao, Y.; Henton, J.; Silliker, J.; Samsonov, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquistore is a demonstration project for the underground storage of CO2 at a depth of ~3350 m near Estevan, Saskatchewan, Canada. An objective of the project is to design, adapt, and test non-seismic monitoring methods that have not been systematically utilized to date for monitoring CO2 storage projects, and to integrate the data from these various monitoring tools to obtain quantitative estimates of the change in subsurface fluid distributions, pressure changes and associated surface deformation. Monitoring methods being applied include satellite-, surface- and wellbore-based monitoring systems and comprise natural- and controlled-source electromagnetic methods, gravity monitoring, continuous GPS, synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), tiltmeter array analysis, and chemical tracer studies. Here we focus on the GPS, InSAR and gravity monitoring. Five monitoring sites were installed in 2012 and another six in 2013, each including GPS and InSAR corner reflector monuments (some collocated on the same monument). The continuous GPS data from these stations have been processed on a daily basis in both baseline processing mode using the Bernese GPS Software and precise point positioning mode using CSRS-PPP. Gravity measurements at each site have also been performed in fall 2013, spring 2014 and fall 2015, and at two sites in fall 2014. InSAR measurements of deformation have been obtained for a 5 m footprint at each site as well as at the corner reflector point sources. Here we present the first results of this geodetic deformation monitoring after commencement of CO2 injection on April 14, 2015. The time series of these sites are examined, compared and analyzed with respect to monument stability, seasonal signals, longer term trends, and any changes in motion and mass since CO2 injection.

  15. Recording, monitoring and managing the conservation of historic sites: a new application for BGS·SIGMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Emily; Smith, Nichola; Lawrie, Ken

    2017-04-01

    planning tool for scheduling works, specifying materials, identifying the skills needed for repairs, and allocating resources more effectively and efficiently. Physical alterations and changes in the overall condition of a single site, or a group of sites can be monitored accurately over time by repeating the original survey (e.g. every 5 years). Other datasets can be linked to the database and other geospatially referenced datasets can be superimposed in GIS, adding considerably to the scope and utility of the system. The system can be applied to any geospatially referenced object in a wide range of situations thus providing many potential applications in conservation, archaeology and other related fields.

  16. Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS services and sites in WLCG

    CERN Document Server

    Molina-Perez, Jorge Amando

    2012-01-01

    The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS; the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator on duty at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is explo...

  17. The Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost Database: metadata statistics and prospective analysis on future permafrost temperature and active layer depth monitoring site distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biskaborn, B. K.; Lanckman, J.-P.; Lantuit, H.; Elger, K.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Cable, W. L.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2015-03-01

    The Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) provides the first dynamic database associated with the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) and the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) programs, which extensively collect permafrost temperature and active layer thickness data from Arctic, Antarctic and Mountain permafrost regions. The purpose of the database is to establish an "early warning system" for the consequences of climate change in permafrost regions and to provide standardized thermal permafrost data to global models. In this paper we perform statistical analysis of the GTN-P metadata aiming to identify the spatial gaps in the GTN-P site distribution in relation to climate-effective environmental parameters. We describe the concept and structure of the Data Management System in regard to user operability, data transfer and data policy. We outline data sources and data processing including quality control strategies. Assessment of the metadata and data quality reveals 63% metadata completeness at active layer sites and 50% metadata completeness for boreholes. Voronoi Tessellation Analysis on the spatial sample distribution of boreholes and active layer measurement sites quantifies the distribution inhomogeneity and provides potential locations of additional permafrost research sites to improve the representativeness of thermal monitoring across areas underlain by permafrost. The depth distribution of the boreholes reveals that 73% are shallower than 25 m and 27% are deeper, reaching a maximum of 1 km depth. Comparison of the GTN-P site distribution with permafrost zones, soil organic carbon contents and vegetation types exhibits different local to regional monitoring situations on maps. Preferential slope orientation at the sites most likely causes a bias in the temperature monitoring and should be taken into account when using the data for global models. The distribution of GTN-P sites within zones of projected temperature change show a high

  18. The Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost Database: metadata statistics and prospective analysis on future permafrost temperature and active layer depth monitoring site distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Biskaborn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P provides the first dynamic database associated with the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP and the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM programs, which extensively collect permafrost temperature and active layer thickness data from Arctic, Antarctic and Mountain permafrost regions. The purpose of the database is to establish an "early warning system" for the consequences of climate change in permafrost regions and to provide standardized thermal permafrost data to global models. In this paper we perform statistical analysis of the GTN-P metadata aiming to identify the spatial gaps in the GTN-P site distribution in relation to climate-effective environmental parameters. We describe the concept and structure of the Data Management System in regard to user operability, data transfer and data policy. We outline data sources and data processing including quality control strategies. Assessment of the metadata and data quality reveals 63% metadata completeness at active layer sites and 50% metadata completeness for boreholes. Voronoi Tessellation Analysis on the spatial sample distribution of boreholes and active layer measurement sites quantifies the distribution inhomogeneity and provides potential locations of additional permafrost research sites to improve the representativeness of thermal monitoring across areas underlain by permafrost. The depth distribution of the boreholes reveals that 73% are shallower than 25 m and 27% are deeper, reaching a maximum of 1 km depth. Comparison of the GTN-P site distribution with permafrost zones, soil organic carbon contents and vegetation types exhibits different local to regional monitoring situations on maps. Preferential slope orientation at the sites most likely causes a bias in the temperature monitoring and should be taken into account when using the data for global models. The distribution of GTN-P sites within zones of projected temperature change

  19. Geophysical Monitoring of Cr(VI) Bioreduction at the Hanford 100H Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, S.; Peterson, J.; Chen, J.; Williams, K. H.; Conrad, M.; Faybishenko, B.; Long, P.; Willett, A.; Hazen, T.

    2005-12-01

    The efficacy of in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater using injected chemical or biological amendments depends on the ability to effectively distribute the amendments within the contaminated aquifer and to understand the role of heterogeneity on remediation processes. In this study, we investigate the use of geophysical data for providing such information in association with a Cr(VI) bioreduction experiment at the Hanford 100H Site in Southeastern Washington State. Seismic and radar tomographic data were initially used with borehole flowmeter data in a principle components analysis to estimate hydrogeological zonation at the site. Subsequently, pumping was initiated to create a steady state flowfield between an injection and monitoring well, and a slow-release polylactate amendment (HRCTM , Regenesis, Ltd) was injected into a sandy formation to reduce Cr(VI) into insoluble Cr(III) complexes. Laboratory analyses were performed to assess the expected geophysical responses to the injectate, as well as to the formation of gasses and precipitates that often form during such biostimulation procedures. Field-scale, time-lapse tomographic data as well as wellbore geochemical data were collected during and after the cessation of pumping. These datasets were jointly used to assess the spatio-temporal changes in the subsurface system associated with the biostimulation, such as the distribution of an amendment 'plume' and a reaction halo. In agreement with the laboratory experiments, the field-scale geophysical data were useful for detecting chemical transformations associated with the biostimulation. The study also indicated that heterogeneity plays a role in controlling both the amendment distribution and the biostimulation processes. This study suggests that high resolution, field-scale, cross-borehole geophysical techniques hold significant potential for monitoring biostimulation efficacy and for investigating the role of heterogeneity on remediation processes.

  20. PSP SAR interferometry monitoring of ground and structure deformations applied to archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Mario; Francioni, Elena; Trillo, Francesco; Minati, Federico; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological sites and cultural heritage are considered as critical assets for the society, representing not only the history of region or a culture, but also contributing to create a common identity of people living in a certain region. In this view, it is becoming more and more urgent to preserve them from climate changes effect and in general from their degradation. These structures are usually just as precious as fragile: remote sensing technology can be useful to monitor these treasures. In this work, we will focus on ground deformation measurements obtained by satellite SAR interferometry and on the methodology adopted and implemented in order to use the results operatively for conservation policies in a Italian archaeological site. The analysis is based on the processing of COSMO-SkyMed Himage data by the e-GEOS proprietary Persistent Scatterer Pair (PSP) SAR interferometry technology. The PSP technique is a proven SAR interferometry technology characterized by the fact of exploiting in the processing only the relative properties between close points (pairs) in order to overcome atmospheric artefacts (which are one of the main problems of SAR interferometry). Validations analyses [Costantini et al. 2015] settled that this technique applied to COSMO-SkyMed Himage data is able to retrieve very dense (except of course on vegetated or cultivated areas) millimetric deformation measurements with sub-metric localization. Considering the limitations of all the interferometric techniques, in particular the fact that the measurement are along the line of sight (LOS) and the geometric distortions, in order to obtain the maximum information from interferometric analysis, both ascending and descending geometry have been used. The ascending analysis allows selecting measurements points over the top and, approximately, South-West part of the structures, while the descending one over the top and the South-East part of the structures. The interferometric techniques needs

  1. The Contribution of Earth Observation Technologies to Monitoring Strategies of Cultural Landscapes and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, B.

    2017-08-01

    Coupling of Climate change effects with management and protection of cultural and natural heritage has been brought to the attention of policy makers since several years. On the worldwide level, UNESCO has identified several phenomena as the major geo-hazards possibly induced by climate change and their possible hazardous impact to natural and cultural heritage: Hurricane, storms; Sea-level rise; Erosion; Flooding; Rainfall increase; Drought; Desertification and Rise in temperature. The same document further referrers to satellite Remote Sensing (EO) as one of the valuable tools, useful for development of "professional monitoring strategies". More recently, other studies have highlighted on the impact of climate change effects on tourism, an economic sector related to build environment and traditionally linked to heritage. The results suggest that, in case of emergency the concrete threat could be given by the hazardous event itself; in case of ordinary administration, however, the threat seems to be a "hazardous attitude" towards cultural assets that could lead to inadequate maintenance and thus to a risk of an improper management of cultural heritage sites. This paper aims to illustrate potential benefits that advancements of Earth Observation technologies can bring to the domain of monitoring landscape heritage and to the management strategies, including practices of preventive maintenance. The attempt here is to raise awareness on the importance of integrating satellite remote sensing imagery and the deriving products with other geospatial information (even geo-referenced historic maps) for a more complete insight on the environmental dynamics of landscapes.

  2. Low Cost Open-Path Instrument for Monitoring Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide at Sequestration Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard

    2008-09-30

    In the past 48 months of the project, we have accomplished all objectives outlined in the proposal. In the first year, we demonstrated the technology for remote sensing on a bench top scale. The core electronics are designed and fabricated. We achieved results that will safely deliver the specifications outlined in the proposal. In the 2nd year, 2 major technical tasks outlined in the Statement of Objectives, i.e. Build a field test ready prototype of a long-range CO2 monitor, and characterize its performance in the short term and demonstrate that the monitor characteristics meet the goals set in the initial proposal, have been accomplished. We also conducted simulation work that defines the different deployment strategies for our sensors at sequestration sites. In the 3rd year, Specifications and Testing protocols have been developed for the CO2 monitor. 1% accuracy had been demonstrated in short period tests ({approx}1 hour). Unattended system operation and stability over a period of a week has been demonstrated with and without EDFA (laser power amplifier). The sensitivity of the instrument to CO2 leaks has been demonstrated. In the 4th no-cost extension year, we further field tested the system and the experience we accumulated give us a clear picture of what else are needed for final field deployment. These results have shown all the objectives of the project have been fulfilled. In July 2008, along with our commercial partner we won the DOE STTR phase I award to commercialize the instrument developed in this project - a testimony to the achievement of this research.

  3. Monitoring beryllium during site cleanup and closure using a real-time analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; French, P.D. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Beryllium metal has a number of unique properties that have been exploited for use in commercial and government applications. Airborne beryllium particles can represent a significant human health hazard if deposited in the lungs. These particles can cause immunologically-mediated chronic granulomatous lung disease (chronic beryllium disease). Traditional methods of monitoring airborne beryllium involve collecting samples of air within the work area using a filter. The filter then undergoes chemical analysis to determine the amount of beryllium collected during the sampling period. These methods are time-consuming and results are known only after a potential exposure has occurred. The need for monitoring exposures in real time has prompted government and commercial companies to develop instrumentation that will allow for the real time assessment of short-term exposures so that adequate protection for workers in contaminated environments can be provided. Such an analyzer provides a tool that will allow government and commercial sites to be cleaned up in a more safe and effective manner since exposure assessments can be made instantaneously. This paper describes the development and initial testing of an analyzer for monitoring airborne beryllium using a technique known as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Energy from a focused, pulsed laser is used to vaporize a sample and create an intense plasma. The light emitted from the plasma is analyzed to determine the quantity of beryllium in the sampled air. A commercial prototype analyzer has been fabricated and tested in a program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, and ADA Technologies, Inc. Design features of the analyzer